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Sample records for normal colonic mucosa

  1. Validation of methylation biomarkers that distinguish normal colon mucosa from cancer patients from normal colon mucosa of patients without cancer

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    Cesaroni, Matteo; Powell, Jasmine; Sapienza, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    We have validated differences in DNA methylation levels of candidate genes previously reported to discriminate between normal colon mucosa of colon cancer patients and normal colon mucosa of individuals without cancer. Here, we report that CpG sites in 16 of the 30 candidate genes selected show significant differences in mean methylation level in normal colon mucosa of 24 cancer patients and 24 controls. A support vector machine trained on these data and data for an additional 66 CpGs yielded an 18-gene signature, composed of 10 of the validated candidate genes plus eight additional candidates. This model exhibited 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity in a 40-sample training set and classified all eight samples in the test set correctly. Moreover, we found a moderate-strong correlation (Pearson coefficients r=0.253-0.722) between methylation levels in colon mucosa and methylation levels in peripheral blood for seven of the 18 genes in the support vector model. These seven genes, alone, classified 44 of the 48 patients in the validation set correctly and five CpGs selected from only two of the seven genes classified 41 of the 48 patients in the discovery set correctly. These results suggest that methylation biomarkers may be developed that will, at minimum, serve as useful objective and quantitative diagnostic complements to colonoscopy as a cancer-screening tool. These data also suggest that it may be possible to monitor biomarker methylation levels in tissues collected much less invasively than by colonoscopy. PMID:24806665

  2. Validation of methylation biomarkers that distinguish normal colon mucosa of cancer patients from normal colon mucosa of patients without cancer.

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    Cesaroni, Matteo; Powell, Jasmine; Sapienza, Carmen

    2014-07-01

    We have validated differences in DNA methylation levels of candidate genes previously reported to discriminate between normal colon mucosa of patients with colon cancer and normal colon mucosa of individuals without cancer. Here, we report that CpG sites in 16 of the 30 candidate genes selected show significant differences in mean methylation level in normal colon mucosa of 24 patients with cancer and 24 controls. A support vector machine trained on these data and data for an additional 66 CpGs yielded an 18-gene signature, composed of ten of the validated candidate genes plus eight additional candidates. This model exhibited 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity in a 40-sample training set and classified all eight samples in the test set correctly. Moreover, we found a moderate-strong correlation (Pearson coefficients r = 0.253-0.722) between methylation levels in colon mucosa and methylation levels in peripheral blood for seven of the 18 genes in the support vector model. These seven genes, alone, classified 44 of the 48 patients in the validation set correctly and five CpGs selected from only two of the seven genes classified 41 of the 48 patients in the discovery set correctly. These results suggest that methylation biomarkers may be developed that will, at minimum, serve as useful objective and quantitative diagnostic complements to colonoscopy as a cancer-screening tool. These data also suggest that it may be possible to monitor biomarker methylation levels in tissues collected much less invasively than by colonoscopy. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Mlh1 deficiency in normal mouse colon mucosa associates with chromosomally unstable colon cancer

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    Pussila, Marjaana; Törönen, Petri; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Katayama, Shintaro; Krjutškov, Kaarel; Holm, Liisa; Kere, Juha; Peltomäki, Päivi; Mäkinen, Markus J; Linden, Jere; Nyström, Minna

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) genome is unstable and different types of instabilities, such as chromosomal instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability (MSI) are thought to reflect distinct cancer initiating mechanisms. Although 85% of sporadic CRC reveal CIN, 15% reveal mismatch repair (MMR) malfunction and MSI, the hallmarks of Lynch syndrome with inherited heterozygous germline mutations in MMR genes. Our study was designed to comprehensively follow genome-wide expression changes and their implications during colon tumorigenesis. We conducted a long-term feeding experiment in the mouse to address expression changes arising in histologically normal colonic mucosa as putative cancer preceding events, and the effect of inherited predisposition (Mlh1+/−) and Western-style diet (WD) on those. During the 21-month experiment, carcinomas developed mainly in WD-fed mice and were evenly distributed between genotypes. Unexpectedly, the heterozygote (B6.129-Mlh1tm1Rak) mice did not show MSI in their CRCs. Instead, both wildtype and heterozygote CRC mice showed a distinct mRNA expression profile and shortage of several chromosomal segregation gene-specific transcripts (Mlh1, Bub1, Mis18a, Tpx2, Rad9a, Pms2, Cenpe, Ncapd3, Odf2 and Dclre1b) in their colon mucosa, as well as an increased mitotic activity and abundant numbers of unbalanced/atypical mitoses in tumours. Our genome-wide expression profiling experiment demonstrates that cancer preceding changes are already seen in histologically normal colon mucosa and that decreased expressions of Mlh1 and other chromosomal segregation genes may form a field-defect in mucosa, which trigger MMR-proficient, chromosomally unstable CRC. PMID:29701748

  4. Colonic cell proliferation in normal mucosa of patients with colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becciolini, A.; Balzi, M.; Faraoni, P.; Tisti, E.; Thyrion, G.Z.; Giache, V.; Bandettini, L.; Potten, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    Cell kinetics parameters have been analysed in colonic mucosa at different distances from a tumour in patients with colon carcinoma. Total cell number (TCN), 3 H thymidine labelling index (TLI), mitotic index (MI), Goblet cell index (GCI) and the distribution of labelled cells along the crypt column (cell position frequency plot) were determined in well-aligned crypts. Total cell number, GCI and the labelled cell position frequency plots were similar in different samples from the same individual. A negative linear correlation between TCN and TLI was observed. The analysis of the cell position plots showed two patterns (1) with a high concentration in the bottom fifth of the crypt and (2) with frequent labelled cells at high positions. Whereas a negative correlation between overall TLI and the percent contribution to the TLI of the lowermost fifth was seen, the correlation was positive for the next 3 fifths and labelling was absent in the last part of the crypt. (orig.)

  5. Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk.

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    Roy, Hemant K; Gomes, Andrew; Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Goldberg, Michael J; Rogers, Jeremy; Ruderman, Sarah; Young, Kim L; Kromine, Alex; Brand, Randall E; Jameel, Mohammed; Vakil, Parmede; Hasabou, Nahla; Backman, Vadim

    2008-10-01

    We previously used a novel biomedical optics technology, 4-dimensional elastically scattered light fingerprinting, to show that in experimental colon carcinogenesis the predysplastic epithelial microvascular blood content is increased markedly. To assess the potential clinical translatability of this putative field effect marker, we characterized the early increase in blood supply (EIBS) in human beings in vivo. We developed a novel, endoscopically compatible, polarization-gated, spectroscopic probe that was capable of measuring oxygenated and deoxygenated (Dhb) hemoglobin specifically in the mucosal microcirculation through polarization gating. Microvascular blood content was measured in 222 patients from the endoscopically normal cecum, midtransverse colon, and rectum. If a polyp was present, readings were taken from the polyp tissue along with the normal mucosa 10-cm and 30-cm proximal and distal to the lesion. Tissue phantom studies showed that the probe had outstanding accuracy for hemoglobin determination (r(2) = 0.99). Augmentation of microvasculature blood content was most pronounced within the most superficial ( approximately 100 microm) layer and dissipated in deeper layers (ie, submucosa). EIBS was detectable within 30 cm from the lesion and the magnitude mirrored adenoma proximity. This occurred for both oxygenated hemoglobin and DHb, with the effect size being slightly greater for DHb. EIBS correlated with adenoma size and was not engendered by nonneoplastic (hyperplastic) polyps. We show, herein, that in vivo microvascular blood content can be measured and provides an accurate marker of field carcinogenesis. This technological/biological advance has numerous potential applications in colorectal cancer screening such as improved polyp detection and risk stratification.

  6. Exposure to meat-derived carcinogens and bulky DNA adduct levels in normal-appearing colon mucosa.

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    Ho, Vikki; Brunetti, Vanessa; Peacock, Sarah; Massey, Thomas E; Godschalk, Roger W L; van Schooten, Frederik J; Ashbury, Janet E; Vanner, Stephen J; King, Will D

    2017-09-01

    Meat consumption is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. This research investigated the relationship between meat-derived carcinogen exposure and bulky DNA adduct levels, a biomarker of DNA damage, in colon mucosa. Least squares regression was used to examine the relationship between meat-derived carcinogen exposure (PhIP and meat mutagenicity) and bulky DNA adduct levels in normal-appearing colon tissue measured using 32 P-postlabelling among 202 patients undergoing a screening colonoscopy. Gene-diet interactions between carcinogen exposure and genetic factors relevant to biotransformation and DNA repair were also examined. Genotyping was conducting using the MassARRAY ® iPLEX ® Gold SNP Genotyping assay. PhIP and higher meat mutagenicity exposures were not associated with levels of bulky DNA adducts in colon mucosa. The XPC polymorphism (rs2228001) was found to associate with bulky DNA adduct levels, whereby genotypes conferring lower DNA repair activity were associated with higher DNA adduct levels than the normal activity genotype. Among individuals with genotypes associated with lower DNA repair (XPD, rs13181 and rs1799179) or detoxification activity (GSTP1, rs1695), higher PhIP or meat mutagenicity exposures were associated with higher DNA adduct levels. Significant interactions between the XPC polymorphism (rs2228000) and both dietary PhIP and meat mutagenicity on DNA adduct levels was observed, but associations were inconsistent with the a priori hypothesized direction of effect. Exposure to meat-derived carcinogens may be associated with increased DNA damage occurring directly in the colon among genetically susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Transporter function and cyclic AMP turnover in normal colonic mucosa from patients with and without colorectal neoplasia

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    Kleberg, Karen; Jensen, Gerda Majgaard; Christensen, Dan Ploug

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of colorectal neoplasia is still unresolved but has been associated with alterations in epithelial clearance of xenobiotics and metabolic waste products. The aim of this study was to functionally characterize the transport of cyclic nucleotides in colonic biopsies from patients...

  8. Transporter function and cyclic AMP turnover in normal colonic mucosa from patients with and without colorectal neoplasia

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    Kleberg Karen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of colorectal neoplasia is still unresolved but has been associated with alterations in epithelial clearance of xenobiotics and metabolic waste products. The aim of this study was to functionally characterize the transport of cyclic nucleotides in colonic biopsies from patients with and without colorectal neoplasia. Methods Cyclic nucleotides were used as model substrates shared by some OATP- and ABC-transporters, which in part are responsible for clearance of metabolites and xenobiotics from the colonic epithelium. On colonic biopsies from patients with and without colorectal neoplasia, molecular transport was electrophysiologically registered in Ussing-chamber set-ups, mRNA level of selected transporters was quantified by rt-PCR, and subcellular location of transporters was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Of four cyclic nucleotides, dibuturyl-cAMP induced the largest short circuit current in both patient groups. The induced short circuit current was significantly lower in neoplasia-patients (p = 0.024. The observed altered transport of dibuturyl-cAMP in neoplasia-patients could not be directly translated to an observed increased mRNA expression of OATP4A1 and OATP2B1 in neoplasia patients. All other examined transporters were expressed to similar extents in both patient groups. Conclusions OATP1C1, OATP4A1, OATP4C1 seem to be involved in the excretory system of human colon. ABCC4 is likely to be involved from an endoplasmic-Golgi complex and basolateral location in goblet cells. ABCC5 might be directly involved in the turnover of intracellular cAMP at the basolateral membrane of columnar epithelial cells, while OATP2B1 is indirectly related to the excretory system. Colorectal neoplasia is associated with lower transport or sensitivity to cyclic nucleotides and increased expression of OATP2B1 and OATP4A1 transporters, known to transport PGE2.

  9. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase in the colonic mucosa of children with inflammatory bowel disease

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    Molnár, Kriszta; Vannay, Ádám; Szebeni, Beáta; Bánki, Nóra Fanni; Sziksz, Erna; Cseh, Áron; Győrffy, Hajnalka; Lakatos, Péter László; Papp, Mária; Arató, András; Veres, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate intestinal alkaline phosphatase (iAP) in the intestinal mucosa of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: Colonic biopsy samples were taken from 15 newly diagnosed IBD patients and from 10 healthy controls. In IBD patients, specimens were obtained both from inflamed and non-inflamed areas. The iAP mRNA and protein expression was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis, respectively. Tissue localization of iAP and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 was investigated by immunofluorescent staining. RESULTS: The iAP protein level in the inflamed mucosa of children with Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) was significantly decreased when compared with controls (both P < 0.05). Similarly, we found a significantly decreased level of iAP protein in the inflamed mucosa in CD compared with non-inflamed mucosa in CD (P < 0.05). In addition, the iAP protein level in inflamed colonic mucosa in patients with UC was decreased compared with non-inflamed mucosa in patients with CD (P < 0.05). iAP protein levels in the non-inflamed mucosa of patients with CD were similar to controls. iAP mRNA expression in inflamed colonic mucosa of children with CD and UC was not significantly different from that in non-inflamed colonic mucosa with CD. Expression of iAP mRNA in patients with non-inflamed mucosa and in controls were similar. Co-localization of iAP with TLR4 showed intense staining with a dotted-like pattern. iAP was present in the inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa of patients with CD, UC, and in control biopsy specimens, irrespective of whether it was present in the terminal ileum or in the colon. However, the fluorescent signal of TLR4 was more pronounced in the colon compared with the terminal ileum in all groups studied. CONCLUSION: Lower than normal iAP protein levels in inflamed mucosa of IBD patients may indicate a role for iAP in inflammatory lesions in IBD. Based on our results

  10. Effects of Ginger Supplementation on Cell Cycle Biomarkers in the Normal-Appearing Colonic Mucosa of Patients at Increased Risk for Colorectal Cancer: Results from a Pilot, Randomized, Controlled Trial

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    Citronberg, Jessica; Bostick, Roberd; Ahearn, Thomas; Turgeon, D. Kim; Ruffin, Mack T.; Djuric, Zora; Sen, Ananda; Brenner, Dean E.; Zick, Suzanna M.

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the effects of ginger on apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation in the normal-appearing colonic mucosa, we randomized 20 people at increased risk for colorectal cancer to 2.0 g of ginger or placebo daily for 28 days in a pilot trial. Overall expression and distributions of Bax, Bcl-2, p21, hTERT and MIB-1 (Ki-67) in colorectal crypts in rectal mucosa biopsies were measured using automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis. Relative to placebo, Bax expression in the ginger group decreased 15.6% (p = 0.78) in the whole crypts, 6.6% (p = 0.95) in the upper 40% (differentiation zone) of crypts, and 21.7% (p = 0.67) in the lower 60% (proliferative zone) of crypts; however, there was a 19% increase (p = 0.14) in Bax expression in the upper 40% relative to the whole crypt. While p21 and Bcl-2 expression remained relatively unchanged, hTERT expression in the whole crypts decreased by 41.2% (p = 0.05); the estimated treatment effect on hTERT expression was larger in the upper 40% of crypts (−47.9%; p = 0.04). In the ginger group, MIB-1 expression decreased in the whole crypts, upper 40% of crypts, and lower 60% of crypts by 16.9% (p = 0.39), 46.8% (p = 0.39), and 15.3% (p = 0.41), respectively. These pilot study results suggest that ginger may reduce proliferation in the normal-appearing colorectal epithelium and increase apoptosis and differentiation relative to proliferation—especially in the differentiation zone of the crypts, and support a larger study to further investigate these results. PMID:23303903

  11. A dose-surviving fraction curve for mouse colonic mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, S.L.; Thames, H.D. Jr.; Withers, H.R.; Mason, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A dose-surviving fraction curve representing the response of the mouse colonic mucosa to single doses of 137 Cs gamma radiation was obtained from the results of a multifraction in vivo colony assay. Construction of the curve required an estimated of the average number of clonogens initially present per colonic crypt. The estimated clonogen count (88) was determined by a statistical method based on the use of doses per fraction common to different fractionation protocols. Parameters for the LQ and TC models of cell survival were obtained by weighted least-squares fits to the data. A comparison of the survival characteristics of cells from the mouse colonic and jejunal crypts suggested that the epithelium of the colon is less radiosensitive than that of the jejunum. (author)

  12. Abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in the colon mucosa in diverticular disease.

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    Linninge, Caroline; Roth, Bodil; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Molin, Göran; Toth, Ervin; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2018-02-15

    To compare gut bacterial diversity and amount of Enterobacteriaceae in colonic mucosa between patients with and without diverticular disease (DD). Patients in a stable clinical condition with planned elective colonoscopy were included. Blood samples and colon mucosa biopsies were collected at the colonoscopy. Study questionnaires including questions about gastrointestinal symptoms were completed by the patients and physicians. DNA from mucosa samples was isolated and the amount of Enterobacteriaceae was estimated using PCR assay. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism was applied to assess microbial diversity. Diversity was estimated by calculations of richness (number of terminal restriction fragments) and Shannon-Wiener and Simpson's indices. A total of 51 patients were included, 16 patients with DD [68 (62-76) years] and 35 controls [62 (40-74) years] without any diverticula. Patients with DD had significantly higher levels of Enterobacteriaceae than those without DD ( P = 0.043), and there was an inverse relationship between the amount of Enterobacteriaceae and the Simpson's index (rs = -0.361, P = 0.033) and the Shannon-Wiener index (rs = -0.299, P = 0.081). The Simpson's index ( P = 0.383), Shannon-Wiener index ( P = 0.401) or number of restrictions fragments ( P = 0.776) did not differ between DD and controls. The majority of patients experienced gastrointestinal symptoms, and 22 patients (43.1%) fulfilled the criteria for irritable bowel syndrome, with no difference between the groups ( P = 0.212). Demography, socioeconomic status, lifestyle habits, inflammatory biomarkers, or symptoms were not related to the amount of Enterobacteriaceae or bacterial diversity. Patients with DD had higher amount of Enterobacteriaceae in the colon mucosa compared to patients without diverticula.

  13. Distribution of some elements in human colon mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drashkovich, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of Co, Zn, Fe, Cr and Sb were determined in human colon mucosa as a function of pathalogical alterations during development of colitis Chronica, Colitis Ulcerosa, Adenoma Tubulare and Adenocarcinoma. The sample (0.00023-0.00087 kg in weight) from 80 patients were taken during rectosigmoidoscopy by teflon coated forceps and were deep frozen (T=244 deg. K) and liophilysed. A thermal neutron fluxes 0.54-1.85x10 17 n/m 2 .s for 3 days and 4096-channel analyser with a Ge(Li) detector

  14. Avaliação do dano oxidativo ao DNA de células normais e neoplásicas da mucosa cólica de doentes com câncer colorretal Evaluation of DNA oxidative damage in normal and neoplastic cells of colonic mucosa in patients with colorectal cancer

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    Marcelo Lima Ribeiro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O estresse oxidativo ao DNA de células da mucosa cólica decorrente de radicais livres de oxigênio presentes na luz intestinal, induz mutações de genes relacionados ao controle do ciclo celular, representando um dos fenômenos iniciais da carcinogênese colorretal. A quantificação do dano oxidativo ao DNA em portadores de câncer colorretal foi pouco estudada até o momento. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi mensurar os níveis de dano oxidativo ao DNA de células isoladas da mucosa cólica de doentes com câncer colorretal comparando o tecido normal e o neoplásico e correlacionando-os a variáveis anatomopatológicas. MÉTODO: Estudou-se 32 enfermos (19 mulheres com média de idade de 60,6 ± 15,5 anos, portadores de adenocarcinoma colorretal operados consecutivamente, entre 2005 e 2006. A avaliação do dano oxidativo ao DNA foi realizada pela da versão alcalina do ensaio cometa (eletroforese e gel de célula única, a partir de fragmentos de tecido cólico normal e neoplásico obtidos imediatamente após a extirpação do espécime cirúrgico. Avaliou-se a extensão das rupturas das hélices do DNA com método de intensificação de imagem, em 200 células escolhidas aleatoriamente (100 de cada amostra de tecido com o programa Komet 5.5. A mensuração da cauda obtida de cada célula (Tail Moment representava, quantitativamente, a extensão do dano oxidativo ao DNA. A análise estatística das variáveis consideradas foi realizada pelos testes t de Student, qui-quadrado e Kruskal-Wallis, adotando-se nível de significância de 5% (pOxidative stress on mucosal cells of the colon, resulting from the action of free radicals present in the intestinal lumen, represents one of the initial phenomena in colorectal carcinogenesis, because it may induce gene mutations relating to cell cycle control. Quantification of the oxidative damage to the DNA in colorectal cancer patients has been little studied so far. OBJECTIVE: To measure the

  15. Educating Normal Breast Mucosa to Prevent Breast Cancer

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    2016-12-01

    immune system to maintain epithelial integrity. In this study our goal was to study the immune subsets associated with breast mucosa and develop the...into the mammary gland. Specific Aim 3: Determine an optimal oral vaccine approach able to minimize hyperplasia . 5 287 288 289 290 291 292...colonization, but also regulating homeostasis of the epithelial layer. As a part of the mucosal immune system, the mammary gland may have characteristic

  16. Subepithelial myofibroblasts are novel nonprofessional APCs in the human colonic mucosa.

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    Saada, Jamal I; Pinchuk, Irina V; Barrera, Carlos A; Adegboyega, Patrick A; Suarez, Giovanni; Mifflin, Randy C; Di Mari, John F; Reyes, Victor E; Powell, Don W

    2006-11-01

    The human gastrointestinal mucosa is exposed to a diverse normal microflora and dietary Ags and is a common site of entry for pathogens. The mucosal immune system must respond to these diverse signals with either the initiation of immunity or tolerance. APCs are important accessory cells that modulate T cell responses which initiate and maintain adaptive immunity. The ability of APCs to communicate with CD4+ T cells is largely dependent on the expression of class II MHC molecules by the APCs. Using immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, and flow cytometry, we demonstrate that alpha-smooth muscle actin(+), CD90+ subepithelial myofibroblasts (stromal cells) constitutively express class II MHC molecules in normal colonic mucosa and that they are distinct from professional APCs such as macrophages and dendritic cells. Primary isolates of human colonic myofibroblasts (CMFs) cultured in vitro were able to stimulate allogeneic CD4+ T cell proliferation. This process was dependent on class II MHC and CD80/86 costimulatory molecule expression by the myofibroblasts. We also demonstrate that CMFs, engineered to express a specific DR4 allele, can process and present human serum albumin to a human serum albumin-specific and DR4 allele-restricted T cell hybridoma. These studies characterize a novel cell phenotype which, due to its strategic location and class II MHC expression, may be involved in capture of Ags that cross the epithelial barrier and present them to lamina propria CD4+ T cells. Thus, human CMFs may be important in regulating local immunity in the colon.

  17. Effects of carprofen on the integrity and barrier function of canine colonic mucosa.

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    Briere, Catherine A; Hosgood, Giselle; Morgan, Timothy W; Hedlund, Cheryl S; Hicks, Merrin; McConnico, Rebecca S

    2008-02-01

    To measure effects of carprofen on conductance and permeability to mannitol and histologic appearance in canine colonic mucosa. Colonic mucosa from 13 mature mixed-breed dogs. Procedures-Sections of mucosa from the transverse colon and proximal and distal portions of the descending colon were obtained immediately after dogs were euthanized. Sections were mounted in Ussing chambers. Carprofen (400 microg/mL) was added to the bathing solution for treated sections. Conductance was calculated at 15-minute intervals for 240 minutes. Flux of mannitol was calculated for three 1-hour periods. Histologic examination of sections was performed after experiments concluded. Conductance was graphed against time for each chamber, and area under each curve was calculated. Conductance X time, flux of mannitol, and frequency distribution of histologic findings were analyzed for an effect of region and carprofen. Carprofen significantly increased mean conductance X time, compared with values for control (untreated) sections for all regions of colon. Carprofen significantly increased mean flux of mannitol from period 1 to period 2 and from period 2 to period 3 for all regions of colon. Carprofen caused a significant proportion of sections to have severe sloughing of cells and erosions involving >or= 10% of the epithelium, compared with control sections. Carprofen increased in vitro conductance and permeability to mannitol in canine colonic mucosa. Carprofen resulted in sloughing of cells and erosion of the colonic mucosa. These findings suggested that carprofen can compromise the integrity and barrier function of the colonic mucosa of dogs.

  18. Transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6 in normal and neoplastic human gastrointestinal mucosa

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    Mäki Markku

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human gastrointestinal mucosa regenerates vigorously throughout life, but the factors controlling cell fate in mature mucosa are poorly understood. GATA transcription factors direct cell proliferation and differentiation in many organs, and are implicated in tumorigenesis. GATA-4 and GATA-6 are considered crucial for the formation of murine gastrointestinal mucosa, but their role in human gastrointestinal tract remains unexplored. We studied in detail the expression patterns of these two GATA factors and a GATA-6 down-stream target, Indian hedgehog (Ihh, in normal human gastrointestinal mucosa. Since these factors are considered important for proliferation and differentiation, we also explored the possible alterations in their expression in gastrointestinal neoplasias. The expression of the carcinogenesis-related protein Indian hedgehog was also investigated in comparison to GATA factors. Methods Samples of normal and neoplastic gastrointestinal tract from children and adults were subjected to RNA in situ hybridization with 33P labelled probes and immunohistochemistry, using an avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase system. The pathological tissues examined included samples of chronic and atrophic gastritis as well as adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the colon and rectum. Results GATA-4 was abundant in the differentiated epithelial cells of the proximal parts of the gastrointestinal tract but was absent from the distal parts. In contrast, GATA-6 was expressed throughout the gastrointestinal epithelium, and in the distal gut its expression was most intense at the bottom of the crypts, i.e. cells with proliferative capacity. Both factors were also present in Barrett's esophagus and metaplasia of the stomach. GATA-6 expression was reduced in colon carcinoma. Ihh expression overlapped with that of GATA-6 especially in benign gastrointestinal neoplasias. Conclusion The results suggest differential but overlapping functions for GATA-4 and

  19. Cancer-Predicting Gene Expression Changes in Colonic Mucosa of Western Diet Fed Mlh1 +/- Mice

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    Dermadi Bebek, Denis; Valo, Satu; Reyhani, Nima; Ollila, Saara; Päivärinta, Essi; Peltomäki, Päivi; Mutanen, Marja; Nyström, Minna

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the Western world and interactions between genetic and environmental factors, including diet, are suggested to play a critical role in its etiology. We conducted a long-term feeding experiment in the mouse to address gene expression and methylation changes arising in histologically normal colonic mucosa as putative cancer-predisposing events available for early detection. The expression of 94 growth-regulatory genes previously linked to human CRC was studied at two time points (5 weeks and 12 months of age) in the heterozygote Mlh1 +/- mice, an animal model for human Lynch syndrome (LS), and wild type Mlh1 +/+ littermates, fed by either Western-style (WD) or AIN-93G control diet. In mice fed with WD, proximal colon mucosa, the predominant site of cancer formation in LS, exhibited a significant expression decrease in tumor suppressor genes, Dkk1, Hoxd1, Slc5a8, and Socs1, the latter two only in the Mlh1 +/- mice. Reduced mRNA expression was accompanied by increased promoter methylation of the respective genes. The strongest expression decrease (7.3 fold) together with a significant increase in its promoter methylation was seen in Dkk1, an antagonist of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Furthermore, the inactivation of Dkk1 seems to predispose to neoplasias in the proximal colon. This and the fact that Mlh1 which showed only modest methylation was still expressed in both Mlh1 +/- and Mlh1 +/+ mice indicate that the expression decreases and the inactivation of Dkk1 in particular is a prominent early marker for colon oncogenesis. PMID:24204690

  20. Cancer-predicting gene expression changes in colonic mucosa of Western diet fed Mlh1+/- mice.

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    Marjaana Pussila

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the Western world and interactions between genetic and environmental factors, including diet, are suggested to play a critical role in its etiology. We conducted a long-term feeding experiment in the mouse to address gene expression and methylation changes arising in histologically normal colonic mucosa as putative cancer-predisposing events available for early detection. The expression of 94 growth-regulatory genes previously linked to human CRC was studied at two time points (5 weeks and 12 months of age in the heterozygote Mlh1(+/- mice, an animal model for human Lynch syndrome (LS, and wild type Mlh1(+/+ littermates, fed by either Western-style (WD or AIN-93G control diet. In mice fed with WD, proximal colon mucosa, the predominant site of cancer formation in LS, exhibited a significant expression decrease in tumor suppressor genes, Dkk1, Hoxd1, Slc5a8, and Socs1, the latter two only in the Mlh1(+/- mice. Reduced mRNA expression was accompanied by increased promoter methylation of the respective genes. The strongest expression decrease (7.3 fold together with a significant increase in its promoter methylation was seen in Dkk1, an antagonist of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Furthermore, the inactivation of Dkk1 seems to predispose to neoplasias in the proximal colon. This and the fact that Mlh1 which showed only modest methylation was still expressed in both Mlh1(+/- and Mlh1(+/+ mice indicate that the expression decreases and the inactivation of Dkk1 in particular is a prominent early marker for colon oncogenesis.

  1. Gut microbial colonization orchestrates TLR2 expression, signaling and epithelial proliferation in the small intestinal mucosa.

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    Nives Hörmann

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is an environmental factor that determines renewal of the intestinal epithelium and remodeling of the intestinal mucosa. At present, it is not resolved if components of the gut microbiota can augment innate immune sensing in the intestinal epithelium via the up-regulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs. Here, we report that colonization of germ-free (GF Swiss Webster mice with a complex gut microbiota augments expression of TLR2. The microbiota-dependent up-regulation of components of the TLR2 signaling complex could be reversed by a 7 day broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. TLR2 downstream signaling via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2 and protein-kinase B (AKT induced by bacterial TLR2 agonists resulted in increased proliferation of the small intestinal epithelial cell line MODE-K. Mice that were colonized from birth with a normal gut microbiota (conventionally-raised; CONV-R showed signs of increased small intestinal renewal and apoptosis compared with GF controls as indicated by elevated mRNA levels of the proliferation markers Ki67 and Cyclin D1, elevated transcripts of the apoptosis marker Caspase-3 and increased numbers of TUNEL-positive cells per intestinal villus structure. In accordance, TLR2-deficient mice showed reduced proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Our findings suggest that a tuned proliferation response of epithelial cells following microbial colonization could aid to protect the host from its microbial colonizers and increase intestinal surface area.

  2. Carprofen-induced oxidative stress in mitochondria of the colonic mucosa of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Lynne A; McConnico, Rebecca S; Morgan, Timothy W; Hartmann, Erica; Davidson, Jacqueline R; Hosgood, Giselle

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the conductance and mannitol permeability of canine colonic mucosa in response to carprofen or 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) with or without tempol pretreatment. Ten colonic mucosa sections per dog were mounted in Ussing chambers. Treatments were done in duplicate. Mucosa was exposed to carprofen (200 μg/mL) or DNP (0.25 mM), both with and without tempol (1 mM) pretreatment. Conductance was calculated every 15 min for 240 min. Mannitol flux was calculated over 3 consecutive 60-minute periods. Histology or electron microscopy was done after exposure. Conductance over time, mannitol flux, frequency of histologic categories, and electron microscopic changes were analyzed for treatment effects. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) conductance over time for carprofen or DNP-treated colons was not significantly different from control regardless of tempol pretreatment. Period 3 mannitol fluxes for carprofen and DNP-treated colon were not significantly different, but were greater than control. Period 3 mannitol flux for tempol + carprofen was significantly less than tempol + DNP-treated colon. Sloughing of cells and erosions were seen in the mucosa of carprofen-treated colon. Mitochondrial damage was seen more often in carprofen-treated than DNP-treated or control colon. Tempol pretreatment resulted in more ruptured mitochondria in the carprofen-treated colon; however, other mitochondrial changes were not significantly affected by tempol pretreatment in either carprofen or DNP treated colon. Treatment with carprofen or DNP increased the mannitol flux, but pretreatment with tempol mitigated the carprofen effect. It is apparent that structural mitochondrial damage occurs in the canine colonic mucosa after carprofen and DNP exposure.

  3. Telomere shortening in the colonic mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinouchi, Y; Hiwatashi, N; Chida, M; Nagashima, F; Takagi, S; Maekawa, H; Toyota, T

    1998-06-01

    Telomere length in human somatic cells gradually decreases with the number of cell divisions and is regarded as a marker of somatic cell turnover. Mucosal cells of the affected colon show rapid turnover in individuals with active ulcerative colitis (UC). Telomere length was determined by Southern blot analysis of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) from the colonic mucosa of 17 patients with UC in remission, two of whom showed dysplasia, and 17 control subjects without colitis. For each individual, mean TRF length was compared between rectal mucosa and unaffected cecal mucosa. The mean TRF length of the rectal mucosa was significantly less than that of cecal mucosa in UC patients (7.87 +/- 0.36kb versus 8.77 +/- 0.21 kb; P = 0.0015, Wilcoxon signed rank test), whereas no significant difference was detected in the control subjects. The extent of telomere shortening was 10.6 +/- 3.35% in UC patients, compared with 0.8 +/- 0.64% in noncolitis controls (P = 0.0024, Mann-Whitney U-test). Four UC patients, two of whom had dysplasia, showed telomere shortening of more than 20% in the rectal mucosa. These observations suggest that telomere shortening in the colonic mucosa of individuals with UC may represent the history of mucosal inflammation during disease of long duration, and that it may contribute to aneuploidy in UC.

  4. Results of a phase I pilot clinical trial examining the effect of plant-derived resveratrol and grape powder on Wnt pathway target gene expression in colonic mucosa and colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Anthony V; Martinez, Micaela; Stamos, Michael J; Moyer, Mary P; Planutis, Kestutis; Hope, Christopher; Holcombe, Randall F

    2009-01-01

    Resveratrol exhibits colon cancer prevention activity in animal models; it is purported to have this activity in humans and inhibit a key signaling pathway involved in colon cancer initiation, the Wnt pathway, in vitro. A phase I pilot study in patients with colon cancer was performed to evaluate the effects of a low dose of plant-derived resveratrol formulation and resveratrol-containing freeze-dried grape powder (GP) on Wnt signaling in the colon. Eight patients were enrolled and normal colonic mucosa and colon cancer tissue were evaluated by Wnt pathway-specific microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) pre- and post-exposure to resveratrol/GP. Based on the expression of a panel of Wnt target genes, resveratrol/GP did not inhibit the Wnt pathway in colon cancer but had significant (p < 0.03) activity in inhibiting Wnt target gene expression in normal colonic mucosa. The greatest effect on Wnt target gene expression was seen following ingestion of 80 g of GP per day (p < 0.001). These results were confirmed with qRT-PCR of cyclinD1 and axinII. The inhibitory effect of GP on Wnt signal throughput was confirmed in vitro with a normal colonic mucosa-derived cell line. These data suggest that GP, which contains low dosages of resveratrol in combination with other bioactive components, can inhibit the Wnt pathway in vivo and that this effect is confined to the normal colonic mucosa. Further study of dietary supplementation with resveratrol-containing foods such as whole grapes or GP as a potential colon cancer preventive strategy is warranted. NCT00256334

  5. Gene methylation profiles of normal mucosa, and benign and malignant colorectal tumors identify early onset markers

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    Vatn Morten

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple epigenetic and genetic changes have been reported in colorectal tumors, but few of these have clinical impact. This study aims to pinpoint epigenetic markers that can discriminate between non-malignant and malignant tissue from the large bowel, i.e. markers with diagnostic potential. The methylation status of eleven genes (ADAMTS1, CDKN2A, CRABP1, HOXA9, MAL, MGMT, MLH1, NR3C1, PTEN, RUNX3, and SCGB3A1 was determined in 154 tissue samples including normal mucosa, adenomas, and carcinomas of the colorectum. The gene-specific and widespread methylation status among the carcinomas was related to patient gender and age, and microsatellite instability status. Possible CIMP tumors were identified by comparing the methylation profile with microsatellite instability (MSI, BRAF-, KRAS-, and TP53 mutation status. Results The mean number of methylated genes per sample was 0.4 in normal colon mucosa from tumor-free individuals, 1.2 in mucosa from cancerous bowels, 2.2 in adenomas, and 3.9 in carcinomas. Widespread methylation was found in both adenomas and carcinomas. The promoters of ADAMTS1, MAL, and MGMT were frequently methylated in benign samples as well as in malignant tumors, independent of microsatellite instability. In contrast, normal mucosa samples taken from bowels without tumor were rarely methylated for the same genes. Hypermethylated CRABP1, MLH1, NR3C1, RUNX3, and SCGB3A1 were shown to be identifiers of carcinomas with microsatellite instability. In agreement with the CIMP concept, MSI and mutated BRAF were associated with samples harboring hypermethylation of several target genes. Conclusion Methylated ADAMTS1, MGMT, and MAL are suitable as markers for early tumor detection.

  6. Molecular genotyping of anisakis larvae in Middle Eastern Japan and endoscopic evidence for preferential penetration of normal over atrophic mucosa.

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    Toshio Arai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused primarily by Anisakis spp. larvae in Asia and in Western countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype of Anisakis larvae endoscopically removed from Middle Eastern Japanese patients and to determine whether mucosal atrophy affects the risk of penetration in gastric anisakiasis. METHODS: In this study, 57 larvae collected from 44 patients with anisakiasis (42 gastric and 2 colonic anisakiasis were analyzed retrospectively. Genotyping was confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis of ITS regions and by sequencing the mitochondrial small subunit (SSU region. In the cases of gastric anisakiasis, correlation analyses were conducted between the frequency of larval penetration in normal/atrophic area and the manifestation of clinical symptoms. RESULTS: Nearly all larvae were A. simplex seusu stricto (s.s. (99%, and one larva displayed a hybrid genotype. The A. simplex larvae penetrated normal mucosa more frequently than atrophic area (p = 0.005. Finally, patients with normal mucosa infection were more likely to exhibit clinical symptoms than those with atrophic mucosa infection (odds ratio, 6.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-31.8. CONCLUSIONS: In Japan, A. simplex s.s. is the main etiological agent of human anisakiasis and tends to penetrate normal gastric mucosa. Careful endoscopic examination of normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the greater curvature of the stomach will improve the detection of Anisakis larvae.

  7. Molecular Genotyping of Anisakis Larvae in Middle Eastern Japan and Endoscopic Evidence for Preferential Penetration of Normal over Atrophic Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Toshio; Akao, Nobuaki; Seki, Takenori; Kumagai, Takashi; Ishikawa, Hirofumi; Ohta, Nobuo; Hirata, Nobuto; Nakaji, So; Yamauchi, Kenji; Hirai, Mitsuru; Shiratori, Toshiyasu; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Eiji; Naito, Mikio; Saitoh, Shin-ichi; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Shibata, Nobumitsu; Shimo, Masamune; Tokiwa, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused primarily by Anisakis spp. larvae in Asia and in Western countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype of Anisakis larvae endoscopically removed from Middle Eastern Japanese patients and to determine whether mucosal atrophy affects the risk of penetration in gastric anisakiasis. Methods In this study, 57 larvae collected from 44 patients with anisakiasis (42 gastric and 2 colonic anisakiasis) were analyzed retrospectively. Genotyping was confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of ITS regions and by sequencing the mitochondrial small subunit (SSU) region. In the cases of gastric anisakiasis, correlation analyses were conducted between the frequency of larval penetration in normal/atrophic area and the manifestation of clinical symptoms. Results Nearly all larvae were A. simplex seusu stricto (s.s.) (99%), and one larva displayed a hybrid genotype. The A. simplex larvae penetrated normal mucosa more frequently than atrophic area (p = 0.005). Finally, patients with normal mucosa infection were more likely to exhibit clinical symptoms than those with atrophic mucosa infection (odds ratio, 6.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.52–31.8). Conclusions In Japan, A. simplex s.s. is the main etiological agent of human anisakiasis and tends to penetrate normal gastric mucosa. Careful endoscopic examination of normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the greater curvature of the stomach will improve the detection of Anisakis larvae. PMID:24586583

  8. Transcriptional Analyses of Barrett's Metaplasia and Normal Upper GI Mucosae

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    Michael T. Barrett

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA has increased dramatically in the US and Western Europe. It has been shown that EAs evolve from premalignant Barrett's esophagus (BE tissue by a process of clonal expansion and evolution. However, the molecular phenotype of the premalignant metaplasia, and its relationship to those of the normal upper gastrointestinal (GI mucosae, including gastric, duodenal, and squamous epithelium of the esophagus, has not been systematically characterized. Therefore, we used oligonucleotide-based microarrays to characterize gene expression profiles in each of these tissues. The similarity of BE to each of the normal tissues was compared using a series of computational approaches. Our analyses included esophageal squamous epithelium, which is present at the same anatomic site and exposed to similar conditions as Barrett's epithelium, duodenum that shares morphologic similarity to Barrett's epithelium, and adjacent gastric epithelium. There was a clear distinction among the expression profiles of gastric, duodenal, and squamous epithelium whereas the BE profiles showed considerable overlap with normal tissues. Furthermore, we identified clusters of genes that are specific to each of the tissues, to the Barrett's metaplastic epithelia, and a cluster of genes that was distinct between squamous and nonsquamous epithelia.

  9. In vivo genotoxic effects of dietary heme iron on rat colon mucosa and ex vivo effects on colon cells monitored by an optimized alkaline comet assay.

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    Océane, C Martin

    2015-04-01

    In conclusion, our results offer a suitable protocol to evaluate genotoxicity on in vivo cryopreserved colon mucosa and on in vitro murine colonic cells, with a middle throughput capacity. This protocol confirms the increase of genotoxicity in rat colon mucosa after an heme-iron diet. Moreover, this protocol enables the demonstration that aldehydes from heme-induced lipoperoxidation are responsible for this increase of genotoxicity.

  10. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in the Study of Colonic Mucosa in IBD Patients: A Review

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    Francesca Salvatori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is one of several novel methods that provide real-time, high-resolution imaging at a micronscale via endoscopes. CLE and related technologies are often termed “virtual biopsy” as they simulate the images seen in traditional histology. Recently, the use of CLE was reported in the study of colonic mucosa in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and in particular in patients affected by ulcerative colitis. CLE has the potential to have an important role in management of IBD patients as it can be used to assess the grading of colitis and in detection of microscopic colitis in endoscopically silent segments. Moreover, CLE can be used in surveillance programs especially in high-risk patients. This report aims to evaluate the current data on the application of confocal endomicroscopy in clinical gastroenterology and particularly in the study of colonic mucosa in UC patients.

  11. The relationship of Candida colonization of the oral and vaginal mucosae of mothers and oral mucosae of their newborns at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rusan, Rund M; Darwazeh, Azmi M G; Lataifeh, Isam M

    2017-04-01

    Vaginal Candida colonization is common during pregnancy. Vaginal Candida may transmit vertically to the mouth of newborns during labor. The aim of this study was to assess and compare oral Candida colonization between vaginally born newborns and cesarean-born newborns and to investigate the association of the mother's vaginal and oral Candida colonization and the newborn's oral colonization at the time of delivery. Culture swabs were collected from the oral and vaginal mucosae of 100 pregnant women and from the oral mucosa of their 100 full-term newborns. Fifty (50%) of the mothers gave birth vaginally and the other 50 (50%) by cesarean section. The prevalence of oral and vaginal Candida in pregnant mothers was 49% and 40%, respectively. Oral Candida colonization in newborns was 7%. Oral Candida was isolated from 5 of 50 (10%) in the vaginally born group and from 2 of 50 (4%) in the cesarean-born group (P = .44). In vaginally born group, oral Candida was isolated from 5 of 20 (25%) in those born to mothers with vaginal colonization of Candida, and 0 of 30 (0.0%) in mothers without vaginal colonization of Candida (P = .007). The mother's vaginal Candida may constitute an important source of oral Candida in the newborns, particularly in those delivered vaginally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cancer associated epigenetic transitions identified by genome-wide histone methylation binding profiles in human colorectal cancer samples and paired normal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enroth, Stefan; Rada-Iglesisas, Alvaro; Andersson, Robin; Wallerman, Ola; Wanders, Alkwin; Påhlman, Lars; Komorowski, Jan; Wadelius, Claes

    2011-01-01

    Despite their well-established functional roles, histone modifications have received less attention than DNA methylation in the cancer field. In order to evaluate their importance in colorectal cancer (CRC), we generated the first genome-wide histone modification profiles in paired normal colon mucosa and tumor samples. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) was used to identify promoters enriched for histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in paired normal colon mucosa and tumor samples from two CRC patients and for the CRC cell line HT29. By comparing histone modification patterns in normal mucosa and tumors, we found that alterations predicted to have major functional consequences were quite rare. Furthermore, when normal or tumor tissue samples were compared to HT29, high similarities were observed for H3K4me3. However, the differences found for H3K27me3, which is important in determining cellular identity, indicates that cell lines do not represent optimal tissue models. Finally, using public expression data, we uncovered previously unknown changes in CRC expression patterns. Genes positive for H3K4me3 in normal and/or tumor samples, which are typically already active in normal mucosa, became hyperactivated in tumors, while genes with H3K27me3 in normal and/or tumor samples and which are expressed at low levels in normal mucosa, became hypersilenced in tumors. Genome wide histone modification profiles can be used to find epigenetic aberrations in genes associated with cancer. This strategy gives further insights into the epigenetic contribution to the oncogenic process and may identify new biomarkers

  13. Uropathogenic E. coli Exploit CEA to Promote Colonization of the Urogenital Tract Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenzner, Petra; Kengmo Tchoupa, Arnaud; Klauser, Benedikt; Brunner, Thomas; Putze, Johannes; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Hauck, Christof R.

    2016-01-01

    Attachment to the host mucosa is a key step in bacterial pathogenesis. On the apical surface of epithelial cells, members of the human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family are abundant glycoproteins involved in cell-cell adhesion and modulation of cell signaling. Interestingly, several gram-negative bacterial pathogens target these receptors by specialized adhesins. The prototype of a CEACAM-binding pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, utilizes colony opacity associated (Opa) proteins to engage CEA, as well as the CEA-related cell adhesion molecules CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 on human epithelial cells. By heterologous expression of neisserial Opa proteins in non-pathogenic E. coli we find that the Opa protein-CEA interaction is sufficient to alter gene expression, to increase integrin activity and to promote matrix adhesion of infected cervical carcinoma cells and immortalized vaginal epithelial cells in vitro. These CEA-triggered events translate in suppression of exfoliation and improved colonization of the urogenital tract by Opa protein-expressing E. coli in CEA-transgenic compared to wildtype mice. Interestingly, uropathogenic E. coli expressing an unrelated CEACAM-binding protein of the Afa/Dr adhesin family recapitulate the in vitro and in vivo phenotype. In contrast, an isogenic strain lacking the CEACAM-binding adhesin shows reduced colonization and does not suppress epithelial exfoliation. These results demonstrate that engagement of human CEACAMs by distinct bacterial adhesins is sufficient to blunt exfoliation and to promote host infection. Our findings provide novel insight into mucosal colonization by a common UPEC pathotype and help to explain why human CEACAMs are a preferred epithelial target structure for diverse gram-negative bacteria to establish a foothold on the human mucosa. PMID:27171273

  14. Food restriction beginning at lactation interferes with the cellular dynamics of the mucosa and colonic myenteric innervation in adult rats

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    JOÃO PAULO F. SCHOFFEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of food restriction (FR on the morphoquantitative aspects of the wall and myenteric neurons of the proximal colon in adult rats were analysed. FR was imposed by duplication of the experimental brood size in relation to the control brood during lactation. The FR group received a 50% reduction of food from weaning until 90 days of age. Samples of the colon underwent histological processing to morphometrically analyze the crypts, muscularis mucosae, tunica mucosa, and muscularis externa. We determined the number of goblet cells and serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells, and morphoquantitatively studied the myenteric neuronal population. FR caused hypertrophy in the tunica mucosa, increase in crypt depth and in the muscular layer of the mucosa, a decrease in the thickness of the tunica muscularis and in the number of goblet cells and an increase in serotoninergic cells. A higher neuronal density in the ganglia and a reduction of the cell profile area were observed in the FR group. FR imposed since lactation led to hypertrophy of the tunica mucosa, a reduction of neutral mucin production, atrophy of the tunica muscularis, and an increase in the survival neuronal in adult rats, attributable to an increase in the number of serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells in mucosa.

  15. VISUAL ASSESSMENT OF THE MUCOSA OF THE COLON IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME IN THE DYNAMICS OF TREATMENT

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    A. E. Shklyaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. The difficulty of its diagnosis related to the lack of specific markers of the disease. This article describes the visual changes of the mucosa of the colon in irritable bowel syndrome in the dynamics of medical and physiotherapy treatment. Materials and methods. Examined and treated 100 patients with endoscopically confirmed diagnosis of IBS. Of which 50 people were receiving pharmacotherapy and 50 –sinusoidal modulated currents — phoresis natural brine. Given the morphological evaluation of the mucosa of the intestine in the dynamics of treatment. Results. In IBS morpho-endoscopically detected dyskinetic disorders, minimal signs of nonspecific inflammation of the mucosa of the colon and primary degenerative manifestations. These changes are reversible and can be used to assess the quality of treatment. The high efficiency of SMC-phoresis natural brine in IBS.

  16. Bidirectional GPR119 agonism requires peptide YY and glucose for activity in mouse and human colon mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tough, Iain R; Forbes, Sarah; Herzog, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    motility in wild-type (WT), GPR119-/- and PYY-/- mice.The water-soluble GPR119 agonist, AR440006 (that cannot traverse epithelial tight-junctions) elicited responses when added apically or basolaterally in mouse and human colonic mucosas. In both species, GPR119 responses were PYY, Y1 receptor...

  17. Overexpression of GRß in colonic mucosal cell line partly reflects altered gene expression in colonic mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zsolt; Acs, Bence; Butz, Henriett; Feldman, Karolina; Marta, Alexa; Szabo, Peter M; Baghy, Kornelia; Pazmany, Tamas; Racz, Karoly; Liko, Istvan; Patocs, Attila

    2016-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) plays a crucial role in inflammatory responses. GR has several isoforms, of which the most deeply studied are the GRα and GRß. Recently it has been suggested that in addition to its negative dominant effect on GRα, the GRß may have a GRα-independent transcriptional activity. The GRß isoform was found to be frequently overexpressed in various autoimmune diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we wished to test whether the gene expression profile found in a GRß overexpressing intestinal cell line (Caco-2GRß) might mimic the gene expression alterations found in patients with IBD. Whole genome microarray analysis was performed in both normal and GRß overexpressing Caco-2 cell lines with and without dexamethasone treatment. IBD-related genes were identified from a meta-analysis of 245 microarrays available in online microarray deposits performed on intestinal mucosa samples from patients with IBD and healthy individuals. The differentially expressed genes were further studied using in silico pathway analysis. Overexpression of GRß altered a large proportion of genes that were not regulated by dexamethasone suggesting that GRß may have a GRα-independent role in the regulation of gene expression. About 10% of genes differentially expressed in colonic mucosa samples from IBD patients compared to normal subjects were also detected in Caco-2 GRß intestinal cell line. Common genes are involved in cell adhesion and cell proliferation. Overexpression of GRß in intestinal cells may affect appropriate mucosal repair and intact barrier function. The proposed novel role of GRß in intestinal epithelium warrants further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Histamine and chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan released by cultured human colonic mucosa: indication for possible presence of E mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliakim, R.; Gilead, L.; Ligumsky, M; Okon, E.; Rachmilewitz, D.; Razin, E.

    1986-01-01

    An association between the release of histamine and chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan (PG) was demonstrates in human colonic mucosa (HCM). Colonic biopsy samples incorporated [ 35 S]sulfate into PG, which was partially released into the culture medium during the incubation period. Ascending thin-layer chromatography of the released 35 S-labeled PG after its digestion by chondroitin ABC lyase (chondroitinase, EC 4.2.2.4) followed by autoradiography yielded three products that migrated in the position of monosulfated disaccharides of N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate and N-acetylgalactosoamine 6-sulfate and of an oversulfated disaccharide possessing N-acetylgalatosamine 4,6-disulfate. Cultured colonic mucosa released 23.6 +/- 3.7ng of histamine per mg of wet tissue without any special trigger. Comparison by linear regression analysis of the release of histamine and chondroitin [ 35 S]sulfate E PG revealed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.7. Histological examination of the colonic biopsies revealed the presence of many mast cells in various degrees of degranulation in the mucosa and submucosa. The above correlation, the observation that most of the mast cells showed various degrees of degranulation, and the lack of heparin synthesis as opposed to the synthesis and immunological release of chondroitin sulfate E strongly suggest that the E mast cell exists in the human colon

  19. Symptoms and signs in individuals with serology positive for celiac disease but normal mucosa

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    Brandt Lena

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody serology is an important tool in the investigation of celiac disease (CD, but does not always correlate with mucosal appearance in the small intestine. Patients with positive CD serology but normal mucosa (Marsh 0 are at increased risk of future CD. In this study we describe a model for identifying and characterizing individuals with normal mucosa but positive CD serology. Such individuals are sometimes referred to as having latent CD. Methods The records of ten Swedish pathology departments were used to identify individuals with biopsies indicating normal duodenal/jejunal mucosa. Using the national personal identification number, these data were linked with CD serology data (antigliadin, antiendomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies; and we thereby identified 3,736 individuals with normal mucosa but positive CD serology. Two independent reviewers then manually reviewed their biopsy reports to estimate comorbidity. We also randomly selected 112 individuals for validation through patient chart review. Results The majority of the 3,736 individuals were females (62%. Children (0–15 years made up 21.4%. The median number of biopsy specimen was 3. Our review of biopsy reports found that other gastrointestinal comorbidity was rare (inflammatory bowel disease: 0.4%; helicobacter pylori infection: 0.2%. Some 22% individuals selected for patient chart review had a relative with CD. The most common symptoms among these individuals were diarrhea (46% and abdominal pain (45%, while 26% had anemia. Although 27% of the individuals selected for validation had been informed about gluten-free diet, only 13% were adhering to a gluten-free diet at the end of follow-up. Conclusion Individuals with positive CD serology but normal mucosa often have CD-like symptoms and a family history of CD.

  20. Reduced Pms2 expression in non-neoplastic flat mucosa from patients with colon cancer correlates with reduced apoptosis competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Harris; Prasad, Anil; Holubec, Hana; Bernstein, Carol; Payne, Claire M; Ramsey, Lois; Dvorakova, Katerina; Wilson, Megan; Warneke, James A; Garewal, Harinder

    2006-06-01

    Pms2 protein is a component of the DNA mismatch repair complex responsible both for post-replication correction of DNA nucleotide mispairs and for early steps in apoptosis. Germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes give rise to hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer, which accounts for about 4% of colon cancers. However, little is known about the expression of mismatch repair proteins in relation to sporadic colon cancer, which accounts for the great majority of colon cancers. Multiple samples were taken from the non-neoplastic flat mucosa of colon resections from patients with no colonic neoplasia, a tubulovillous adenoma, or an adenocarcinoma. Expression of Pms2 was assessed using semiquantitative immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis was assessed in polychrome-stained epoxy sections using morphologic criteria. Samples from patients without colonic neoplasia had moderate to strong staining for Pms2 in cell nuclei at the base of crypts, while samples from 2 of the 3 colons with a tubulovillous adenoma, and from 6 of the 10 colons with adenocarcinomas, showed reduced Pms2 expression. Samples from patients with an adenocarcinoma that had reduced Pms2 expression also exhibited reduced apoptosis capability in nearby tissue samples, evidenced when this paired tissue was stressed ex vivo with bile acid. Reduced Pms2 expression in the colonic mucosa may be an early step in progression to colon cancer. This reduction may cause decreased mismatch repair, increased genetic instability, and/or reduced apoptotic capability. Immunohistochemical determination of reduced Pms2 expression, upon further testing, may prove to be a promising early biomarker of risk of progression to malignancy.

  1. Programmed Cell Death, Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen and p53 Expression in Mouse Colon Mucosa during Diet-Induced Tumorigenesis

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    Mauro Risio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Western‐style diets (WDs trigger and sustain the early phases of tumorigenesis in mouse colon, and when continued throughout the life span lead to the development of dysplastic crypts. In order to evaluate the roles both of cell proliferation and programmed cell death (PCD in WD‐induced tumorigenesis, immunohistochemical detection of proliferating nuclear antigen (PCNA, in situ end labeling (TUNEL of DNA breaks, and p53 protein were carried out in mouse colonic mucosa during prolonged feeding of two WDs. PCNA Labeling Index of colonic crypts was significantly higher in WD‐treated animals than in controls only at the beginning of the nutritional study, the gap rapidly bridged by increased cell proliferation spontaneously occurring in the colonic mucosa during aging. A transient early homeostatic activation of PCD at the base of the crypt also was observed in WD groups. No changes in PCD were seen in the upper third of the crypt or in surface epithelium throughout the study, indicating that PCD in that colonic crypt segment produces a constant flux of cell loss, uninfluenced by homeostatic fluctuations. A major finding was an irreversible, progressive, age‐related decline of PCD at the crypt base in both control and treated animals that occurred during the second half of the rodents  life span. p53 protein was not immunohistochemically detected, suggesting that neither overexpression of wild‐type nor mutated forms of the protein are involved in the above mentioned changes.

  2. Comparative evaluation of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma with hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and EMR1 immunohistochemical staining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargahi, Neda; Razavi, Sayyed Mohammad; Deyhimi, Parviz; Homayouni, Solmaz

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant lesion of the oral cavity, and it involves various molecular mechanisms. The development of oral squamous cell carcinoma is influenced by the host immune cells, such as eosinophils. The present study was conducted to compare the presence of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa, and oral squamous cell carcinoma by -hematoxylin- eosin staining, Congo red staining, and epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) module containing a mucin-like hormone receptor1 (EMR1) immunohistochemical marker. In this cross-sectional study, 60 paraffinized samples were selected, consisting of 20 normal mucosae, 20 dysplastic mucosae, and 20 squamous cell carcinoma samples. After confirmation of the diagnosis, the mean number of eosinophils was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and immunohystochemical staining techniques. The data were analyzed by SPSS-10 software using the Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests. The results showed that the number of eosinophils in dysplastic mucosa was significantly higher than the number in normal mucosa, and the number of eosinophils in squamous cell carcinoma was significantly higher than the number in dysplastic mucosa in all staining techniques (p<0.001). Moreover, the comparison of staining techniques showed a significantly higher number of eosinophils in EMR1immunohistochemicalmarker than were observed when Congo red and hematoxylin - eosin (H&E) staining techniques were used (p<0.001). It can be argued that eosinophil contributes to the identification of lesions that have a higher potential of malignant transformation. Moreover, eosinophil can be suggested as an indicator in the differentiation of oral lesions in cases with borderline diagnosis and in targeted molecular therapy.

  3. TP53 mutations in clinically normal mucosa adjacent to oral carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thode, Christenze; Bilde, Anders; von Buchwald, Christian

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The tumour-suppressor protein p53 often accumulates in histologically normal epithelium adjacent to oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). We investigated whether this was associated with mutations in TP53, the gene for p53, and might implicate impending malignancy. METHODS: Specimens...... products were separated by denatured gradient gel electrophoresis. Fragments with a deviant DGEE pattern were sequenced. RESULTS: TP53 mutations were found in six of 18 tumours. Fourteen specimens contained histologically normal mucosa adjacent to the tumour; 13 of these showed small clusters of p53...

  4. Effect of complex polyphenols and tannins from red wine on DNA oxidative damage of rat colon mucosa in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, L; Testa, G; De Filippo, C; Cheynier, V; Clifford, M N; Dolara, P

    2000-10-01

    Dietary polyphenols have been reported to have a variety of biological actions, including anti-carcinogenic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study we have evaluated the effect of an oral treatment with complex polyphenols and tannins from red wine and tea on DNA oxidative damage in the rat colon mucosa. Isolated colonocytes were prepared from the colon mucosa of rats treated for ten days with either wine complex polyphenols (57.2 mg/kg/d) or thearubigin (40 mg/kg/d) by oral gavage. Colonocyte oxidative DNA damage was analysed at the single cell level using a modification of the comet assay technique. The results show that wine complex polyphenols and tannins induce a significant decrease (-62% for pyrimidine and -57% for purine oxidation) in basal DNA oxidative damage in colon mucosal cells without affecting the basal level of single-strand breaks. On the other hand, tea polyphenols, namely a crude extract of thearubigin, did not affect either strand breaks or pyrimidine oxidation in colon mucosal cells. Our experiments are the first demonstration that dietary polyphenols can modulate in vivo oxidative damage in the gastrointestinal tract of rodents. These data support the hypothesis that dietary polyphenols might have both a protective and a therapeutic potential in oxidative damage-related pathologies.

  5. Concurrent colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and adenoma diagnosed after a positive fecal occult blood test: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Chiang; Chen, Jinn-Shiun; Deng, Po; Wang, Chih-Wei; Huang, Chiung-Huei; Tang, Reiping; Chiang, Jy-Ming; Yeh, Chien-Yuh; Hsieh, Pao-Shiu; Tsai, Wen-Sy; Chiang, Sum-Fu

    2016-01-27

    Colonic lymphoma is an uncommon presentation of extranodal lymphoma. Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is a different entity from gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and very rare. The presentation and management of colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue are highly variable in the literature. We report the case of a 59-year-old Taiwanese man who underwent a colonoscopy after a positive test for fecal occult blood. His past history included hypertension and hyperthyroidism. The colonoscopy revealed an adenomatous polyp and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. We successfully performed a polypectomy and endoscopic mucosal resection. The lymphoma was staged according to the Ann Arbor system modified by Musshoff as E-I. Our patient showed no lymphoma recurrence over a 3-year follow-up. Endoscopic mucosal resection for colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma without disseminated disease may be feasible. We successfully used colonoscopic treatment without adjuvant therapy to treat early-stage pathogen-free colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

  6. PLZF Expression during Colorectal Cancer Development and in Normal Colorectal Mucosa according to Body Size, as Marker of Colorectal Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mariani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF is a protein involved in various signaling, growth regulatory, and differentiation pathways, including development/function of some T cells. Here, we aimed at the detection of PLZF during colorectal carcinogenesis, using immunofluorescence, and at the evaluation of the colocalization of PLZF with CD2 and CD56 positive cells (T, γδ, NK, and NKT cells, using confocal-microscopy, along colorectal carcinogenesis, since its earliest stages, that is, dysplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF. Furthermore, we analyzed PLZF in the normal colonic mucosa (NM according to anthropometric parameters of the subject. NM exhibited strong CD56 fluorescent staining. This infiltration was lost in both ACF and colorectal carcinoma (CRC, while PLZF presence increased from NM to ACF and CRC. Strong association was found between CD56+ colonic mucosa cell infiltration and body mass index. Interestingly, an increased stromal PLZF-reactivity was present in NM of obese subjects. This study shows that overexpression of PLZF and exclusion of NK cells in dysplastic microenvironment are very early events in the stepwise sequence leading to CRC and that lower levels of CD56+ cells in NM, together with increased levels of PLZF+ cells, can be a reflection of colon cancer risk due to obesity.

  7. Tissue sulfomucin and sialomucin content in colon mucosa without intestinal transit subjected to intervention with Curcuma longa (curcumin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Antonio José Tiburcio; Pereira, José Aires; Pansani, Adrieli Heloísa Campardo; Magro, Daniela Oliveira; Coy, Cláudio Saddy Rodrigues; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2017-03-01

    To measure the tissue sulfomucin and sialomucin content of the colon mucosa without fecal flow, subjected to intervention with curcumin, and the influence of the concentration used and the intervention time. Thirty-six rats were subjected to proximal right colostomy and distal mucous fistula. They were divided into two groups according to whether sacrifice was performed two or four weeks after the intervention. Each group was divided into three subgroups according to the enema applied daily: saline alone; curcumin at 50 mg/kg/day or curcumin at 200 mg/kg/day. Acid mucins were diagnosed using the Alcian blue technique. The mucin content was quantified by means of computer-assisted image analysis. The significance level of 5% was used throughout (p curcumin, both after two weeks (p Curcumin enemas increase the quantity of acid mucins in the intestinal flow in the excluded colon, with dose and time dependency.

  8. Saccharomyces boulardii Protease Inhibits the Effects of Clostridium difficile Toxins A and B in Human Colonic Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Riegler, Martin F.; Valenick, Leyla; LaMont, J. Thomas; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    1999-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii is a nonpathogenic yeast used in the treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhea and colitis. We have reported that S. boulardii inhibits C. difficile toxin A enteritis in rats by releasing a 54-kDa protease which digests the toxin A molecule and its brush border membrane (BBM) receptor (I. Castagliuolo, J. T. LaMont, S. T. Nikulasson, and C. Pothoulakis, Infect. Immun. 64:5225–5232, 1996). The aim of this study was to further evaluate the role of S. boulardii protease in preventing C. difficile toxin A enteritis in rat ileum and determine whether it protects human colonic mucosa from C. difficile toxins. A polyclonal rabbit antiserum raised against purified S. boulardii serine protease inhibited by 73% the proteolytic activity present in S. boulardii conditioned medium in vitro. The anti-protease immunoglobulin G (IgG) prevented the action of S. boulardii on toxin A-induced intestinal secretion and mucosal permeability to [3H]mannitol in rat ileal loops, while control rabbit IgG had no effect. The anti-protease IgG also prevented the effects of S. boulardii protease on digestion of toxins A and B and on binding of [3H]toxin A and [3H]toxin B to purified human colonic BBM. Purified S. boulardii protease reversed toxin A- and toxin B-induced inhibition of protein synthesis in human colonic (HT-29) cells. Furthermore, toxin A- and B-induced drops in transepithelial resistance in human colonic mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers were reversed by 60 and 68%, respectively, by preexposing the toxins to S. boulardii protease. We conclude that the protective effects of S. boulardii on C. difficile-induced inflammatory diarrhea in humans are due, at least in part, to proteolytic digestion of toxin A and B molecules by a secreted protease. PMID:9864230

  9. Colonic involvement in celiac disease and possible implications of the sigmoid mucosa organ culture in its diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picarelli, Antonio; Di Tola, Marco; Borghini, Raffaele; Isonne, Claudia; Saponara, Annarita; Marino, Mariacatia; Casale, Rossella; Tiberti, Antonio; Pica, Roberta; Donato, Giuseppe; Frieri, Giuseppe; Corazziari, Enrico

    2013-10-01

    Celiac disease (CD), a systemic autoimmune disorder that typically involves duodenal mucosa, can also affect other intestinal areas. Duodenal and oral mucosa organ culture has already been demonstrated as a reliable procedure to identify CD. The present study investigated gluten-dependent immunological activation of colonic mucosa in CD patients. We took advantage of the numerous colonoscopies performed for various clinical conditions or only for defensive medicine. Forty-four patients with gastrointestinal symptoms or in need of colorectal cancer screening were divided into patients with serum anti-endomysium (EMA) and anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) antibody positive results (Group A), patients with serum antibody negative results (Group B), and patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Group C). The autoantibodies EMA and anti-tTG were evaluated in supernatants of cultured sigmoid and duodenal biopsies from patients on a gluten-containing diet. In Group A, EMA and anti-tTG resulted positive in all duodenal culture supernatants. In sigmoid culture supernatants, EMA and anti-tTG were detected in 12/16 (75 %) and 13/16 (81.3 %) patients, respectively. In Group B, none of the 17 patients showed EMA and anti-tTG positive results in both duodenal and sigmoid cultures. In Group C, all 11 patients presented EMA negative results in sigmoid cultures. Only in one patient, anti-tTG were detectable in the sigmoid culture supernatant, as expected in cases of IBD. Data confirm that the gluten-dependent immunological activation affects more intestinal tracts with different degrees of involvement, suggesting that the organ culture of colonic biopsies could represent a new tool to opportunistically detect CD.

  10. Colon of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, C.G.; Rosengren, J.-E.; Fork, F.-T.

    1979-01-01

    The anatomy and radiologic appearance of the colon in rats are described on the basis of 300 animals treated with carcinogenic agents and 40 normal rats. The macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the mucosa varies in the different parts of the colon. Lymphoid plaques are normal structures. The results justify a new anatomic nomenclature. (Auth.)

  11. Muc2 Protects against Lethal Infectious Colitis by Disassociating Pathogenic and Commensal Bacteria from the Colonic Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Kirk S. B.; Kissoon-Singh, Vanessa; Gibson, Deanna L.; Ma, Caixia; Montero, Marinieve; Sham, Ho Pan; Ryz, Natasha; Huang, Tina; Velcich, Anna; Finlay, B. Brett; Chadee, Kris; Vallance, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of attaching and effacing (A/E) Escherichia coli infections, the mechanisms by which the host defends against these microbes are unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the role of goblet cell-derived Muc2, the major intestinal secretory mucin and primary component of the mucus layer, in host protection against A/E pathogens. To assess the role of Muc2 during A/E bacterial infections, we inoculated Muc2 deficient (Muc2−/−) mice with Citrobacter rodentium, a murine A/E pathogen related to diarrheagenic A/E E. coli. Unlike wildtype (WT) mice, infected Muc2−/− mice exhibited rapid weight loss and suffered up to 90% mortality. Stool plating demonstrated 10–100 fold greater C. rodentium burdens in Muc2−/− vs. WT mice, most of which were found to be loosely adherent to the colonic mucosa. Histology of Muc2−/− mice revealed ulceration in the colon amid focal bacterial microcolonies. Metabolic labeling of secreted mucins in the large intestine demonstrated that mucin secretion was markedly increased in WT mice during infection compared to uninfected controls, suggesting that the host uses increased mucin release to flush pathogens from the mucosal surface. Muc2 also impacted host-commensal interactions during infection, as FISH analysis revealed C. rodentium microcolonies contained numerous commensal microbes, which was not observed in WT mice. Orally administered FITC-Dextran and FISH staining showed significantly worsened intestinal barrier disruption in Muc2−/− vs. WT mice, with overt pathogen and commensal translocation into the Muc2−/− colonic mucosa. Interestingly, commensal depletion enhanced C. rodentium colonization of Muc2−/− mice, although colonic pathology was not significantly altered. In conclusion, Muc2 production is critical for host protection during A/E bacterial infections, by limiting overall pathogen and commensal numbers associated with the colonic

  12. Global DNA hypomethylation (LINE-1) in the normal colon and lifestyle characteristics and dietary and genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Jane C; Grau, Maria V; Wallace, Kristin; Levine, A Joan; Shen, Lanlan; Hamdan, Randala; Chen, Xinli; Bresalier, Robert S; McKeown-Eyssen, Gail; Haile, Robert W; Baron, John A; Issa, Jean-Pierre J

    2009-04-01

    Global loss of methylated cytosines in DNA, thought to predispose to chromosomal instability and aneuploidy, has been associated with an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia. Little is known about the relationships between global hypomethylation and lifestyle, demographics, dietary measures, and genetic factors. Our data were collected as part of a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of aspirin and folic acid for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. At a surveillance colonoscopy approximately 3 years after the qualifying exam, we obtained two biopsies of the normal-appearing mucosa from the right colon and two biopsies from the left colon. Specimens were assayed for global hypomethylation using a pyrosequencing assay for LINE-1 (long interspersed nucleotide elements) repeats. The analysis included data from 388 subjects. There was relatively little variability in LINE methylation overall. Mean LINE-1 methylation levels in normal mucosa from the right bowel were significantly lower than those on the left side (P dietary intake, or circulating levels of B vitamins, homocysteine, or selected genotypes. Race, dietary folic acid, and plasma B(6) showed associations with global methylation that differed between the right and the left bowel. The effect of folic acid on risk of adenomas did not differ according to extent of LINE-1 methylation, and we found no association between LINE-1 methylation and risk of adenomas. LINE-1 methylation is not influenced by folic acid supplementation but differs by colon subsite.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the bifidobacterial microbiota in the colonic mucosa of patients with colorectal cancer, diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the bifidobacterial microbiota of the colonic mucosa in patients with colon cancer,inflammatory bowel disease or diverticulitis.METHODS: A sample of the distal colonic mucosa was taken during surgery from a total of 34 patients,twenty-one with diagnosed colorectal cancer, nine with diverticulitis and four with inflammatory bowel disease, requiring surgery for their condition. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the resected mucosal samples and bifidobacterial mucosa-associated microbiota was qualitatively and quantitatively determined by means of qualitative and quantitative PCR.RESULTS: Bifidobacteria were found in 100% of the samples from patients with diverticulitis or IBD and a 76% of those suffering colon cancer. The species B. longum and B. bifidum were the most widely found, followed by B. animalis, B. catenulatum and B.adolescentis. B. breve, B. dentium and B. angulatum were not detected in any sample. A significantly higher occurrence of B. longum was observed in patients with diverticulitis than in those with colon cancer or IBD (100%, 62% and 75%, respectively, P < 0.05).Similar results were obtained for B. animalis (56%, 0%and 25%, P < 0.05), while B. adolescentis was only found in the mucosa from patients with colon cancer (5 out of 21, 24%). At the quantitative level, patients with colon cancer or IBD showed lower counts of total Bifidobacterium (4.94 and 5.91 vs 6.96 log Cells/sample,respectively, P < 0.05) and of the species B.longum (4.05 and 4.79 vs 6.76, P < 0.05) than those with diverticulitis.CONCLUSION: Aberrancies in mucosa associated microbiota are present in different intestinal diseases.This may indicate a role of the microbiota in the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  14. EcPV2 DNA in equine genital squamous cell carcinomas and normal genital mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Lies; Willemsen, Anouk; Vanderstraeten, Eva; Bracho, Maria A; De Baere, Cindy; Bravo, Ignacio G; Martens, Ann

    2012-07-06

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common genital malignant tumor in horses. Similar to humans, papillomaviruses (PVs) have been proposed as etiological agents and recently Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) has been identified in a subset of genital SCCs. The goals of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of EcPV2 DNA in tissue samples from equine genital SCCs, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and penile papillomas, using EcPV2-specific PCR, (2) to examine the prevalence of latent EcPV2 infection in healthy genital mucosa and (3) to determine genetic variability within EcPV2 and to disentangle phylogenetic relationships of EcPV2 among PVs. EcPV2 DNA was detected in all but one penile SCC (15/16), in all PIN lesions (8/8) and penile papillomas (4/4). Additionally, EcPV2 DNA was demonstrated in one of two metastasized lymph nodes, one contact metastasis in the mouth, two vaginal and one anal lesion. In healthy horses, EcPV2 DNA was detected in 10% (4/39) of penile swabs but in none of vulvovaginal swabs (0/20). This study confirms the presence of EcPV2 DNA in equine genital SCCs and shows its involvement in anal lesions, a lymph node and contact metastases. Latent EcPV2 presence was also shown in normal male genital mucosa. We found that different EcPV2 variants cocirculate among horses and that EcPV2 is related to the Delta+Zeta PVs and is only a very distant relative of high-risk human PVs causing genital cancer. Thus, similar viral tropism and similar malignant outcome of the infection do not imply close evolutionary relationship. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. State of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the colon mucosa of chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.А. Gaidar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The diagnosis of IgG4-associated sclerosing disease, IgG4-associatied condition, is based on a comprehensive evaluation of characteristic clinical, radiographic, serologic, histological and immunohistochemical features. The histopathological is the main examination in the diagnosis of IgG4-associatied diseases. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the state of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the mucosa of the colon in patients with established morphological and endoscopic diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CD. Materials and methods. The study used biopsies material from 14 patients treated at the Institute of Gastroenterology, in the department intestine diseases, with established morphological and endoscope diagnosis of UC (8 and CD (6 in the acute stage. All patients had no evidence of autoimmune pancreatitis type I and II. Biopsy were fixed in 10.0% neutral formalin, dehydrated in alcohols of increasing concentration and embedded in paraffin for histological studies. Histological sections of 3–5 µm were colored with hematoxylin and eosin. There were used monoclonal IgG4 antibodies for immunohistochemical studies (Abcam, USA. Results. Our results show that with ulcerative colitis in 37.5 % of cases IgG4-positive plasma cells in the colon mucosa have not been identified. In 25 % of cases, sporadic IgG4-positive plasma cells were identified. In 37.5 % of cases, the groups of IgG4-positive plasma cells not exceeding 5 cells in one group were found. In Crohn’s disease, groups of IgG4-positive plasma cells were observed in all cases, in addition it should be noted that the group included 10 or more cells. Conclusions. It is shown that in UC, IgG4-positive plasma cells may be absent, solitary or gathered in small groups to 5 cells, and in CD, the groups consisting of 10 or more cells are observed.

  16. Dietary selenomethionine increases exon-specific DNA methylation of the p53 gene in rat liver and colon mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Yan, Lin; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Uthus, Eric O

    2011-08-01

    The regulation of site-specific DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes has been considered as a leading mechanism by which certain nutrients exert their anticancer property. This study was to investigate whether selenium (Se) affects the methylation of globe genomic DNA and the exon-specific p53 gene. Three groups of rats (n = 6-7/group) were fed the AIN-93G basal diet supplemented with 0 [Se deficient (D)], 0.15 [Se adequate (A)], or 4 mg [Se supranutritional (S)] (Se as l-selenomethionine)/kg diet for 104 d, respectively. Rats fed the A or S diet had greater plasma and liver glutathione peroxidase activity, liver thioredoxin reductase activity, and plasma homocysteine concentration than those fed the D diet. However, compared with the A diet, rats fed the S diet did not further increase these Se-dependent enzyme activities or homocysteine concentration. In contrast, Se concentrations in kidney, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and plasma were increased in a Se-dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, rats fed the S diet had significantly less global liver genomic DNA methylation than those fed the D diet. However, the S diet significantly increased the methylation of the p53 gene (exons 5-8) but not the β-actin gene (exons 2-3) DNA in liver and colon mucosa compared with those fed the D diet. Taken together, long-term Se consumption not only affects selenoprotein enzyme activities, homocysteine, tissue Se concentrations, and global genomic DNA methylation but also increases exon-specific DNA methylation of the p53 gene in a Se-dose-dependent manner in rat liver and colon mucosa.

  17. Myeloperoxidase-positive cell infiltration of normal colorectal mucosa is related to body fatness and is predictive of adenoma occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, F; Boarino, V; Bertani, A; Merighi, A; Pedroni, M; Rossi, G; Mancini, S; Sena, P; Benatti, P; Roncucci, L

    2017-06-01

    Body fatness is a risk factor for colorectal cancer, and promotes an inflammatory environment. Indeed, inflammation in normal colorectal mucosa may be a factor linking body fatness to colorectal carcinogenesis. In this study, we evaluated myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive cells infiltration of normal colorectal mucosa as a marker of cancer-promoting inflammation in overweight and obese subjects. One hundred and three subjects with normal colonoscopy entered the study. Waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured, and MPO-positive cells on histological sections of biopsies of normal colorectal mucosa were counted under a light microscope. The occurrence of adenomas was then evaluated on follow-up colonoscopies. Mean MPO-positive cell count (±s.e.m.) was higher in subject with a WC equal or above the obesity cutoff values according to gender (2.63±0.20 vs 2.06±0.18, P=0.03), and in subjects with BMI equal or above 25 kg m - 2 (2.54±0.18 vs 1.97±0.20, P=0.03). A Cox proportional hazard model showed that mean MPO-positive cell count in normal colorectal mucosa was the only factor independently related to occurrence of adenomas in follow-up colonoscopies. Though preliminary, these results show that MPO-positive cell infiltration in normal colorectal mucosa is related with body fatness, as evaluated by WC and BMI, and it may be considered a useful and simple marker to estimate adenoma occurrence risk.

  18. NH4+ secretion in the avian colon. An actively regulated barrier to ammonium permeation of the colon mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtug, K.; Laverty, G.; Arnason, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were designed to characterize an active, electrogenic transport of NH(4)(+) ions across the colonic epithelium of the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus). Colonic segments were isolated and stripped of underlying muscle. The mucosal epithelia were mounted in Ussing chambers and voltage......-clamped to measure the short-circuit currents (I(SC)) associated with transport. Bilateral addition of NH(4)(+) caused a dose-dependent outward current (negative I(SC)), with a Km of 34+/-8 mM and a maximal current response of 311+/-47 microA cm(-2) (12+/-2 microEq cm(-2) h(-1)). A similar effect was seen...... with unilateral addition of NH(4)(+) to the serosal (s) side, but not with mucosal (m) addition. Pre-treatment with 10(-4) M amiloride exposed a net outward (negative) I(SC), and serosal NH(4)(+) addition further increased this outward current with a Km of 53+/-24 mM. Decreasing the bath pH from 7.3 to 6.0 did...

  19. High-risk human papilloma virus in archival tissues of oral pathosis and normal oral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Dhanapal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral cancer ranks third among all cancers in the Indian population. Human papilloma virus (HPV plays a significant role in oral carcinogenesis. Population-based subtype variations are present in the HPV prevalence. This study gives an emphasis on the parameters to be considered in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues for polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based research work. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study on archival paraffin-embedded tissue samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, epithelial dysplasia, and normal oral mucosa surrounding impacted tooth was amplified by PCR for the E6 gene of HPV type 16 and E1 gene of HPV type 18. Results: HPV 18 was positive in three OSCC cases. There was no statistically significant association of the positivity of HPV with the age, gender or habit. The HPV positive patients had a tobacco habit and were of a younger age group. Conclusion: The presence of HPV in carcinomatous tissue highlights the possible role of HPV in carcinogenesis and archival paraffin embedded tissue specimen can be used for this analysis. Recent studies on genomic analyses have highlighted that the HPV positive tumors are a separate subgroup based on genomic sequencing. The results of a larger retrospective study will help further in our understanding of the role of HPV in carcinogenesis, this study could form the baseline for such follow-up studies.

  20. High-risk human papilloma virus in archival tissues of oral pathosis and normal oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapal, Raghu; Ranganathan, K; Kondaiah, Paturu; Devi, R Uma; Joshua, Elizabeth; Saraswathi, T R

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer ranks third among all cancers in the Indian population. Human papilloma virus (HPV) plays a significant role in oral carcinogenesis. Population-based subtype variations are present in the HPV prevalence. This study gives an emphasis on the parameters to be considered in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based research work. Cross-sectional study on archival paraffin-embedded tissue samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), epithelial dysplasia, and normal oral mucosa surrounding impacted tooth was amplified by PCR for the E6 gene of HPV type 16 and E1 gene of HPV type 18. HPV 18 was positive in three OSCC cases. There was no statistically significant association of the positivity of HPV with the age, gender or habit. The HPV positive patients had a tobacco habit and were of a younger age group. The presence of HPV in carcinomatous tissue highlights the possible role of HPV in carcinogenesis and archival paraffin embedded tissue specimen can be used for this analysis. Recent studies on genomic analyses have highlighted that the HPV positive tumors are a separate subgroup based on genomic sequencing. The results of a larger retrospective study will help further in our understanding of the role of HPV in carcinogenesis, this study could form the baseline for such follow-up studies.

  1. Function and importance of p63 in normal oral mucosa and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurfjell, Niklas; Coates, Philip J; Boldrup, Linda

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is the 6th most common malignancy worldwide with a 5-year survival that has not improved over the last 20-25 years. Factors of prognostic significance for this tumour type include the presence of regional lymph node metastasis...... and amplification of chromosome 3q21-29, where the p63 gene is located. This gene encodes 6 proteins and is crucial for formation of the oral mucosa, teeth, salivary glands and skin. Each of the 6 different p63 proteins has different characteristics and functions, where some resemble the tumour suppressor protein p......53, whilst others have functions that oppose p53. METHODS: To understand the function and importance of p63 in oral mucosa and tumour development we have studied protein as well as mRNA expression in normal oral mucosa and tumours. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: Expression of p63 proteins differs between...

  2. Effects of warm ischemic time on gene expression profiling in colorectal cancer tissues and normal mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Musella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide gene expression analyses of tumors are a powerful tool to identify gene signatures associated with biologically and clinically relevant characteristics and for several tumor types are under clinical validation by prospective trials. However, handling and processing of clinical specimens may significantly affect the molecular data obtained from their analysis. We studied the effects of tissue handling time on gene expression in human normal and tumor colon tissues undergoing routine surgical procedures. METHODS: RNA extracted from specimens of 15 patients at four time points (for a total of 180 samples after surgery was analyzed for gene expression on high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. A mixed-effects model was used to identify probes with different expression means across the four different time points. The p-values of the model were adjusted with the Bonferroni method. RESULTS: Thirty-two probe sets associated with tissue handling time in the tumor specimens, and thirty-one in the normal tissues, were identified. Most genes exhibited moderate changes in expression over the time points analyzed; however four of them were oncogenes, and two confirmed the effect of tissue handling by independent validation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a critical time point for tissue handling in colon seems to be 60 minutes at room temperature. Although the number of time-dependent genes we identified was low, the three genes that already showed changes at this time point in tumor samples were all oncogenes, hence recommending standardization of tissue-handling protocols and effort to reduce the time from specimen removal to snap freezing accounting for warm ischemia in this tumor type.

  3. Pilot clinical study of the effects of ginger root extract on eicosanoids in colonic mucosa of subjects at increased risk for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Suzanna M; Turgeon, D Kim; Ren, Jianwei; Ruffin, Mack T; Wright, Benjamin D; Sen, Ananda; Djuric, Zora; Brenner, Dean E

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a significant cause of mortality. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX) and thus prostaglandin E2, are promising CRC preventives, but have significant toxicities. Ginger has been shown to inhibit COX, to decrease the incidence and multiplicity of adenomas, and decrease PGE2 concentrations in subjects at normal risk for CRC. This study was conducted to determine the effects of 2.0 g/d of ginger given orally on the levels of PGE2, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids, and 5-, 12-, & 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, in the colonic mucosa of subjects at increased risk for CRC. We randomized 20 subjects to 2.0 g/d ginger or placebo for 28 d. At baseline and Day 28, a flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to obtain colon biopsies. A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method was used to determine eicosanoid levels in the biopsies, and levels were expressed per amount of protein or free arachidonic acid (AA). There was a significant decrease in AA between baseline and Day 28 (P = 0.05) and significant increase in LTB4 (P = 0.04) when normalized to protein, in subjects treated with ginger versus placebo. No other changes in eicosanoids were observed. There was no difference between the groups in total adverse events (AE; P = 0.06). Ginger lacks the ability to decrease eicosanoid levels in people at increased risk for CRC. Ginger did appear to be both tolerable and safe; and could have chemopreventive effects through other mechanisms. Further investigation should focus on other markers of CRC risk in those at increased CRC risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Acetylcholine-related proteins in non-neoplastic appearing colonic mucosa from patients with colorectal neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Morten Matthiesen Bach; Jensen, Thorbjørn Søren Rønn; Mahmood, Badar

    2017-01-01

    induced rapid biphasic changes in SCC. An initial decreasing phase was observed in the minority of CRN patients versus the majority of controls (25% vs 69%, respectively, P = 0.031). For the second increasing phase of SCC, data indicated ACh-activation of two receptors. For both parts of the biphasic...... colon in patients with and without CRN. Messenger-RNA (mRNA) levels of 17 ACh-related proteins were quantified by rt-qPCR. Functional responses to ACh, measured as electrogenic transepithelial short circuit current (SCC), were recorded using the Ussing chamber technique. Finally, cellular localization...

  5. Expression of core clock genes in colorectal tumour cells compared with normal mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnes, S; Donatsky, A M; Gögenur, I

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Experimental studies have shown that some circadian core clock genes may act as tumour suppressors and have an important role in the response to oncological treatment. This study investigated the evidence regarding modified expression of core clock genes in colorectal cancer and its...... expression of colorectal cancer cells compared with healthy mucosa cells from specimens analysed by real-time or quantitative real-time polymer chain reaction. The expression of the core clock genes Period, Cryptochrome, Bmal1 and Clock in colorectal tumours were compared with healthy mucosa and correlated...... with clinicopathological features and survival. RESULTS: Seventy-four articles were identified and 11 studies were included. Overall, gene expression of Period was significantly decreased in colorectal cancer cells compared with healthy mucosa cells. This tendency was also seen in the gene expression of Clock. Other core...

  6. A High Grain Diet Dynamically Shifted the Composition of Mucosa-Associated Microbiota and Induced Mucosal Injuries in the Colon of Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the dynamic shifts in mucosa-associated microbiota composition and mucosal morphology in the colon of sheep fed a high grain (HG diet. A total of 20 male sheep were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 5 for each. The sheep in first group received hay diet. The animals in other 3 groups were fed an HG diet for 7 (HG7, 14 (HG14, or 28 (HG28 days, respectively. Colonic digesta samples were collected to determine the pH and the concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA and lactate. The colonic mucosa was sampled to characterize the bacterial communities using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and to determine mRNA expression levels of cytokines and tight junction protein genes using quantitative real-time PCR. As time advanced, results revealed that colonic pH linearly decreased (P = 0.007, and the concentrations of total VFA linearly increased (P < 0.001. Microbial analysis showed that an HG diet linearly reduced (P < 0.050 the diversity and richness of the colonic microbiota. The principal coordinate analysis results showed that the colonic mucosa-associated bacterial communities of the four groups significantly shifted with number of days fed an HG diet. At the genus level, HG feeding significantly increased the relative abundance of some taxa including Prevotella, Coprococcus, Roseburia, and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, and decreased the proportion of Treponema, and the percentage of these taxa was not affected by days fed an HG diet. The microscopic examination showed that HG feeding caused the mucosal epithelial injury. The RT-PCR results showed that the mRNA expression of claudin-1 (P = 0.038, IL-1β (P = 0.045, IL-6 (P = 0.050, and TNF-α (P = 0.020 increased linearly with number of days fed an HG diet. The correlation analysis revealed significant correlation between the colonic mucosal mRNA expression of cytokines and mucosal bacterial composition. Generally, HG feeding increased colonic fermentation and altered colonic

  7. Transient and Prolonged Response of Chicken Cecum Mucosa to Colonization with Different Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volf, Jiri; Polansky, Ondrej; Varmuzova, Karolina; Gerzova, Lenka; Sekelova, Zuzana; Faldynova, Marcela; Babak, Vladimir; Medvecky, Matej; Smith, Adrian L.; Kaspers, Bernd; Velge, Philippe; Rychlik, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    In this study we determined protein and gene expression in the caeca of newly hatched chickens inoculated with cecal contents sourced from hens of different ages. Over 250 proteins exhibited modified expression levels in response to microbiota inoculation. The most significant inductions were observed for ISG12-2, OASL, ES1, LYG2, DMBT1-L, CDD, ANGPTL6, B2M, CUZD1, IgM and Ig lambda chain. Of these, ISG12-2, ES1 and both immunoglobulins were expressed at lower levels in germ-free chickens compared to conventional chickens. In contrast, CELA2A, BRT-2, ALDH1A1, ADH1C, AKR1B1L, HEXB, ALDH2, ALDOB, CALB1 and TTR were expressed at lower levels following inoculation of microbiota. When chicks were given microbiota preparations from different age donors, the recipients mounted differential responses to the inoculation which also differed from the response profile in naturally colonised birds. For example, B2M, CUZD1 and CELA2A responded differently to the inoculation with microbiota of 4- or 40-week-old hens. The increased or decreased gene expression could be recorded 6 weeks after the inoculation of newly hatched chickens. To characterise the proteins that may directly interact with the microbiota we characterised chicken proteins that co-purified with the microbiota and identified a range of host proteins including CDD, ANGPTL6, DMBT1-L, MEP1A and Ig lambda. We propose that induction of ISG12-2 results in reduced apoptosis of host cells exposed to the colonizing commensal microbiota and that CDD, ANGPTL6, DMBT1-L, MEP1A and Ig lambda reduce contact of luminal microbiota with the gut epithelium thereby reducing the inflammatory response. PMID:27685470

  8. A frequência do HPV na mucosa oral normal de indivíduos sadios por meio da PCR The frequency of human papillomavirus findings in normal oral mucosa of healthy people by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Esquenazi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Os papilomavírus humanos (HPV são DNA vírus pertencentes à família papilomaviridae com grupos de baixo e alto risco que infectam a pele e a mucosa podendo induzir a formação de tumores epiteliais benignos e malignos. Na mucosa oral, estes vírus têm sido associados a papilomas orais, hiperplasias epiteliais focais, leucoplasias e neoplasias orais. OBJETIVO: Estudar a frequência do HPV em mucosa oral de indivíduos normais. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Trabalho prospectivo em coorte transversal. Participaram desse estudo 100 indivíduos voluntários, faixa etária de 20 a 31 anos, estudantes universitários, sem história, queixas ou lesões visíveis ao exame físico de cavidade oral e orofaringe. Foram submetidos a questionário com perguntas referentes à epidemiologia da infecção pelo HPV. Foi colhido material de mucosa oral por raspado com escova e analisado pelo PCR. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram ausência de HPV em todas as amostras. CONCLUSÃO: Parece ter havido participação do alto nível socioeconômico com alimentação rica em carotenoides e vitamina C, baixo consumo tabágico e etílico e comportamento heterossexual predominantemente monogâmico com uso regular de preservativos.The human papillomavirus (HPV is a DNA virus, which belongs to papillomaviridae family, being of low and high risk, which infect the skin and mucous membranes and can induce benign and malign tumor formation. In the oral mucosa they have been associated with oral papilloma, focal epithelial hyperplasia, leucoplakia and oral neoplasia. AIM: to study the frequency of HPV finding in oral mucosa of normal people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study, cross-sectional cohort. One hundred volunteers, young adults, healthy, aged between 20 and 31 years, university students with no history, no complains, without oral or oropharyngeal lesions. They were submitted to a questionnaire with questions regarding HPV infection epidemiology. The samples were

  9. Histochemical and radioautographic studies of normal human fetal colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lev, R.; Orlic, D.; New York Medical Coll., N.Y.

    1974-01-01

    Twenty fetal and infant colons ranging from 10 weeks in utero to 20 months postpartum, and 12 adult human colons were examined using histochemical techniques in conjunction with in vitro radioautography using Na 2 35 SO 4 as a sulfomucin precursor. Only the sulfated components of mucus in fetal goblet cells was found to differ significantly from adult colonic mucins. In the fetus sulfomucin staining was much weaker than in the adult, and was more intense in the left colon which is the reverse of the adult pattern. Sulfomucin was concentrated in the crypts throughout the fetal colon whereas in the adult right colon it predominated in the surface cells. As in the adult, saponification liberated carboxyl groups, possibly belonging to sialic acid, and vicinal hydroxyl groups from fetal mucins suggesting that this procedure hydrolyses an ester linkage between these 2 reactive groups. During the middle trimester of fetal life the colon possesses villi whose constituent cells display alkaline phosphatase in their surface coat. These and other morphological and histochemical similarities to fetal small intestine suggest that the fetal colon may have a limited capacity to absorb materials contained within swallowed amniotic fluid during this period. (orig.) [de

  10. A comparative study on the mast cells count in oral squamous cell carcinoma and normal oral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Dastpak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is one of the 10 most common malignant tumors and SCC accounts 94% of all oral malignancies. Mast cells are regarded as complex and multifunctional cells, playing a significant role in immunopathology . The aim of this study is to evaluate the number of mast cells in tissue sections of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in comparison with normal mucosa. Materials & Methods: Sixty paraffin-embedded specimens were obtained from the archives of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology,dental school of Babol university of medical science (15 high grade,15 low grade and 30 Iritation Fibroma. Classification of OSCC cases was according to the BRODER`S malignancy grading system. Hematoxylin and Eosin-stained slides were re-evaluated before entering the samples in our study. Toluidine blue(1% staining was used to identify Mast cells in samples . We used SPSS software version 18 and one way ANOVA test for analyzing data. Results: The highest mast cell count was seen in normal tissue and it was higher in low grade OSCC in comparison with high grade, but the differences between groups weren’t statistically significant. The Mean count of mast cell between OSCC and normal oral mucosa was statistically significant different(p=0.019.We didn’t observe any statistically significant difference between Mast cell counts of control group and low grade OSCC . The same result was seen between high garde and low grade OSCC . The Mean mast cell count difference between male and female groups weren’t statistically significant. The Mean mast cell count difference between high grade OSCC and control group was significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to the results, the average amount of mast cells decreased in OSCC in comparison with normal oral mucosa . It does not seem that mast cells play an important role in tumor progression, although further study is needed. 

  11. Cell surface glycopeptides from human intestinal epithelial cell lines derived from normal colon and colon adenocarcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youakim, A.; Herscovics, A.

    1985-01-01

    The cell surface glycopeptides from an epithelial cell line (CCL 239) derived from normal human colon were compared with those from three cell lines (HCT-8R, HCT-15, and CaCo-2) derived independently from human colonic adenocarcinomas. Cells were incubated with D-[2- 3 H]mannose or L-[5,6- 3 H]fucose for 24 h and treated with trypsin to release cell surface components which were then digested exhaustively with Pronase and fractionated on Bio-Gel P-6 before and after treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. The most noticeable difference between the labeled glycopeptides from the tumor and CCL 239 cells was the presence in the former of an endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H-resistant high molecular weight glycopeptide fraction which was eluted in the void volume of Bio-Gel P-6. This fraction was obtained with both labeled mannose and fucose as precursors. However, acid hydrolysis of this fraction obtained after incubation with [2- 3 H]mannose revealed that as much as 60-90% of the radioactivity was recovered as fucose. Analysis of the total glycopeptides (cell surface and cell pellet) obtained after incubation with [2- 3 H]mannose showed that from 40-45% of the radioactivity in the tumor cells and less than 10% of the radioactivity in the CCL 239 cells was recovered as fucose. After incubation of the HCT-8R cells with D-[1,6- 3 H]glucosamine and L-[1- 14 C]fucose, strong acid hydrolysis of the labeled glycopeptide fraction excluded from Bio-Gel P-6 produced 3 H-labeled N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine

  12. Immunoregulatory actions of epithelial cell PPAR gamma at the colonic mucosa of mice with experimental inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Saroj K; Guri, Amir J; Climent, Montse; Vives, Cristina; Carbo, Adria; Horne, William T; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2010-04-20

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are nuclear receptors highly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and immune cells within the gut mucosa and are implicated in modulating inflammation and immune responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of targeted deletion of PPAR gamma in IEC on progression of experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the first phase, PPAR gamma flfl; Villin Cre- (VC-) and PPAR gamma flfl; Villin Cre+ (VC+) mice in a mixed FVB/C57BL/6 background were challenged with 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 0, 2, or 7 days. VC+ mice express a transgenic recombinase under the control of the Villin-Cre promoter that causes an IEC-specific deletion of PPAR gamma. In the second phase, we generated VC- and VC+ mice in a C57BL/6 background that were challenged with 2.5% DSS. Mice were scored on disease severity both clinically and histopathologically. Flow cytometry was used to phenotypically characterize lymphocyte and macrophage populations in blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Global gene expression analysis was profiled using Affymetrix microarrays. The IEC-specific deficiency of PPAR gamma in mice with a mixed background worsened colonic inflammatory lesions, but had no effect on disease activity (DAI) or weight loss. In contrast, the IEC-specific PPAR gamma null mice in C57BL/6 background exhibited more severe inflammatory lesions, DAI and weight loss in comparison to their littermates expressing PPAR gamma in IEC. Global gene expression profiling revealed significantly down-regulated expression of lysosomal pathway genes and flow cytometry results demonstrated suppressed production of IL-10 by CD4+ T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of IEC-specific PPAR gamma null mice. Our results demonstrate that adequate expression of PPAR gamma in IEC is required for the regulation of mucosal immune responses and prevention of experimental IBD, possibly by modulation of

  13. Tissue content of sulfomucins and sialomucins in the colonic mucosa, without fecal stream, undergoing daily intervention with sucralfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonassa, Christiny Emmanuelle Gabriel; Pereira, José Aires; Campos, Fábio Guilherme Caserta Maryssael de; Rodrigues, Murilo Rocha; Sato, Daniela Tiemi; Chaim, Felipe David Mendonça; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2015-05-01

    To measure the content of acidic mucin, sialomucin, and sulfomucins in the colonic mucosa without fecal stream submit to intervention with sucralfate (SCF). Thirty-six rats were submitted to a right colostomy and a distal mucous fistula and divided into two groups according to sacrifice to be performed two or four weeks. Each group was divided into three subgroups according daily application of enemas containing saline, SCF at 1.0 g/kg/day or 2.0 g/kg/day. Colitis was diagnosed by histological analysis. Acid mucins were determined with the Alcian-Blue and sulfomucin and sialomucin by high iron diamine-alcian blue (HID-AB) techniques. The mucins were quantified by computer-assisted image analysis. Mann-Whitney and ANOVA tests were used to analyze the results establishing the level of significance of 5% for both (p<0.05). SCF enemas decreased the inflammation score and was related to the concentration used and time of the intervention. SCF at both concentrations increased the content of acid mucin, which was related to the concentration used and to the improvement in the inflammatory score. There was an increase in the content of sulfomucins and sialomucins in SCF groups. SCF increased sulfomucins from 2 weeks of intervention, which was not related to the dose or time of application. The increase in sialomucin content was related to the time and dose used in the intervention. Sucralfate increased the content of acidic mucins, primarily at the expense of sialomucin, which was affected by the dose and time of intervention.

  14. ToF-SIMS and principal component analysis of lipids and amino acids from inflamed and dysplastic human colonic mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbini, Marco; Petito, Valentina; de Notaristefani, Francesco; Scaldaferri, Franco; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Tortora, Luca

    2017-10-01

    Here, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and multivariate analysis were combined to study the role of ulcerative colitis (UC), a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in the colon cancer progression. ToF-SIMS was used to obtain mass spectra and chemical maps from the mucosal surface of human normal (NC), inflamed (IC), and dysplastic (DC) colon tissues. Chemical mapping with a lateral resolution of ≈ 1 μm allowed to evaluate zonation of fatty acids and amino acids as well as the morphological condition of the intestinal glands. High mass resolution ToF-SIMS spectra showed chemical differences in lipid and amino acid composition as a function of pathological state. In positive ion mode, mono- (MAG), di- (DAG), and triacylglycerol (TAG) signals were detected in NC tissues, while in IC and DC tissues, the only cholesterol was present as lipid class representative. Signals from fatty acids, collected in negative ion mode, were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). PCA showed a strict correlation between IC and DC samples, due to an increase of stearic, arachidonic, and linoleic acid. In the same way, differences in the amino acid composition were highlighted through multivariate analysis. PCA revealed that glutamic acid, leucine/isoleucine, and valine fragments are related to IC tissues. On the other hand, tyrosine, methionine, and tryptophan peaks contributed highly to the separation of DC tissues. Finally, a classification of NC, IC, and DC patients was also achieved through hierarchical cluster analysis of amino acid fragments. In this case, human colonic inflammation showed a stronger relationship with normal than dysplastic condition. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. The inflammatory and normal transcriptome of mouse bladder detrusor and mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyer David W

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An organ such as the bladder consists of complex, interacting set of tissues and cells. Inflammation has been implicated in every major disease of the bladder, including cancer, interstitial cystitis, and infection. However, scanty is the information about individual detrusor and urothelium transcriptomes in response to inflammation. Here, we used suppression subtractive hybridizations (SSH to determine bladder tissue- and disease-specific genes and transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs. Unique TREs and genes were assembled into putative networks. Results It was found that the control bladder mucosa presented regulatory elements driving genes such as myosin light chain phosphatase and calponin 1 that influence the smooth muscle phenotype. In the control detrusor network the Pax-3 TRE was significantly over-represented. During development, the Pax-3 transcription factor (TF maintains progenitor cells in an undifferentiated state whereas, during inflammation, Pax-3 was suppressed and genes involved in neuronal development (synapsin I were up-regulated. Therefore, during inflammation, an increased maturation of neural progenitor cells in the muscle may underlie detrusor instability. NF-κB was specifically over-represented in the inflamed mucosa regulatory network. When the inflamed detrusor was compared to control, two major pathways were found, one encoding synapsin I, a neuron-specific phosphoprotein, and the other an important apoptotic protein, siva. In response to LPS-induced inflammation, the liver X receptor was over-represented in both mucosa and detrusor regulatory networks confirming a role for this nuclear receptor in LPS-induced gene expression. Conclusion A new approach for understanding bladder muscle-urothelium interaction was developed by assembling SSH, real time PCR, and TRE analysis results into regulatory networks. Interestingly, some of the TREs and their downstream transcripts originally involved in

  16. Toll-like receptor mRNA expression is selectively increased in the colonic mucosa of two animal models relevant to irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan P McKernan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is largely viewed as a stress-related disorder caused by aberrant brain-gut-immune communication and altered gastrointestinal (GI homeostasis. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that stress modulates innate immune responses; however, very little is known on the immunological effects of stress on the GI tract. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are critical pattern recognition molecules of the innate immune system. Activation of TLRs by bacterial and viral molecules leads to activation of NF-kB and an increase in inflammatory cytokine expression. It was our hypothesis that innate immune receptor expression may be changed in the gastrointestinal tract of animals with stress-induced IBS-like symptoms.In this study, our objective was to evaluate the TLR expression profile in the colonic mucosa of two rat strains that display colonic visceral hypersensitivity; the stress-sensitive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rat and the maternally separated (MS rat. Quantitative PCR of TLR2-10 mRNA in both the proximal and distal colonic mucosae was carried out in adulthood. Significant increases are seen in the mRNA levels of TLR3, 4 & 5 in both the distal and proximal colonic mucosa of MS rats compared with controls. No significant differences were noted for TLR 2, 7, 9 & 10 while TLR 6 could not be detected in any samples in both rat strains. The WKY strain have increased levels of mRNA expression of TLR3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9 & 10 in both the distal and proximal colonic mucosa compared to the control Sprague-Dawley strain. No significant differences in expression were found for TLR2 while as before TLR6 could not be detected in all samples in both strains.These data suggest that both early life stress (MS and a genetic predisposition (WKY to stress affect the expression of key sentinels of the innate immune system which may have direct relevance for the molecular pathophysiology of IBS.

  17. Histomorphometric analysis of nuclear and cellular volumetric alterations in oral lichen planus, lichenoid lesions and normal oral mucosa using image analysis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesiah, Sowmya S; Kale, Alka D; Hallikeremath, Seema R; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S

    2013-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that clinically and histologically resembles lichenoid lesions, although the latter has a different etiology. Though criteria have been suggested for differentiating oral lichen planus from lichenoid lesions, confusion still prevails. To study the cellular and nuclear volumetric features in the epithelium of normal mucosa, lichen planus, and lichenoid lesions to determine variations if any. A retrospective study was done on 25 histologically diagnosed cases each of oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions, and normal oral mucosa. Cellular and nuclear morphometric measurements were assessed on hematoxylin and eosin sections using image analysis software. Analysis of variance test (ANOVA) and Tukey's post-hoc test. The basal cells of oral lichen planus showed a significant increase in the mean nuclear and cellular areas, and in nuclear volume; there was a significant decrease in the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio as compared to normal mucosa. The suprabasal cells showed a significant increase in nuclear and cellular areas, nuclear diameter, and nuclear and cellular volumes as compared to normal mucosa. The basal cells of oral lichenoid lesions showed significant difference in the mean cellular area and the mean nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio as compared to normal mucosa, whereas the suprabasal cells differed significantly from normal mucosa in the mean nuclear area and the nuclear and cellular volumes. Morphometry can differentiate lesions of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions from normal oral mucosa. Thus, morphometry may serve to discriminate between normal and premalignant lichen planus and lichenoid lesions. These lesions might have a high risk for malignant transformation and may behave in a similar manner with respect to malignant transformation.

  18. Repair genes expression profile of MLH1, MSH2 and ATM in the normal oral mucosa of chronic smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Mônica Ghislaine Oliveira; Carta, Celina Faig Lima; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Issa, Jaqueline Scholz; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic smoking on the expression profile of the repair genes MLH1, MSH2 and ATM in the normal oral mucosa of chronic smokers and never smokers. The sample consisted of thirty exfoliative cytology smears per group obtained from Smokers and Never Smokers. Total RNA was extracted and expression of the MLH1, MSH2 and ATM genes were evaluated by quantitative real-time and immunocytochemistry. The gene and protein expression data were correlated to the clinical data. Gene expression was analyzed statistically using the Student t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient, with pMLH1, MSH2 and ATM genes were downregulated in the smoking group compared to the control with significant values for MLH1 (p=0.006), MSH2 (p=0.0001) and ATM (p=0.0001). Immunocytochemical staining for anti-MLH1, anti-MSH2 and anti-ATM was negative in Never Smokers; in Smokers it was rarely positive. No significant correlation was observed among the expression of MLH1, MSH2, ATM and age, number of cigarettes consumed per day, time of smoking during life, smoking history or levels of CO in expired air. The expression of genes and proteins related to DNA repair mechanism MLH1, MSH2 and ATM in the normal oral mucosa of chronic smokers was reduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunoregulatory actions of epithelial cell PPAR gamma at the colonic mucosa of mice with experimental inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj K Mohapatra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are nuclear receptors highly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC and immune cells within the gut mucosa and are implicated in modulating inflammation and immune responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of targeted deletion of PPAR gamma in IEC on progression of experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the first phase, PPAR gamma flfl; Villin Cre- (VC- and PPAR gamma flfl; Villin Cre+ (VC+ mice in a mixed FVB/C57BL/6 background were challenged with 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS in drinking water for 0, 2, or 7 days. VC+ mice express a transgenic recombinase under the control of the Villin-Cre promoter that causes an IEC-specific deletion of PPAR gamma. In the second phase, we generated VC- and VC+ mice in a C57BL/6 background that were challenged with 2.5% DSS. Mice were scored on disease severity both clinically and histopathologically. Flow cytometry was used to phenotypically characterize lymphocyte and macrophage populations in blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Global gene expression analysis was profiled using Affymetrix microarrays. The IEC-specific deficiency of PPAR gamma in mice with a mixed background worsened colonic inflammatory lesions, but had no effect on disease activity (DAI or weight loss. In contrast, the IEC-specific PPAR gamma null mice in C57BL/6 background exhibited more severe inflammatory lesions, DAI and weight loss in comparison to their littermates expressing PPAR gamma in IEC. Global gene expression profiling revealed significantly down-regulated expression of lysosomal pathway genes and flow cytometry results demonstrated suppressed production of IL-10 by CD4+ T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN of IEC-specific PPAR gamma null mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that adequate expression of PPAR gamma in IEC is required for the regulation of mucosal

  20. Immunoregulatory Actions of Epithelial Cell PPAR γ at the Colonic Mucosa of Mice with Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Saroj K.; Guri, Amir J.; Climent, Montse; Vives, Cristina; Carbo, Adria; Horne, William T.; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are nuclear receptors highly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and immune cells within the gut mucosa and are implicated in modulating inflammation and immune responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of targeted deletion of PPAR γ in IEC on progression of experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methodology/Principal Findings In the first phase, PPAR γ flfl; Villin Cre- (VC-) and PPAR γ flfl; Villin Cre+ (VC+) mice in a mixed FVB/C57BL/6 background were challenged with 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 0, 2, or 7 days. VC+ mice express a transgenic recombinase under the control of the Villin-Cre promoter that causes an IEC-specific deletion of PPAR γ. In the second phase, we generated VC- and VC+ mice in a C57BL/6 background that were challenged with 2.5% DSS. Mice were scored on disease severity both clinically and histopathologically. Flow cytometry was used to phenotypically characterize lymphocyte and macrophage populations in blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Global gene expression analysis was profiled using Affymetrix microarrays. The IEC-specific deficiency of PPAR γ in mice with a mixed background worsened colonic inflammatory lesions, but had no effect on disease activity (DAI) or weight loss. In contrast, the IEC-specific PPAR γ null mice in C57BL/6 background exhibited more severe inflammatory lesions, DAI and weight loss in comparison to their littermates expressing PPAR γ in IEC. Global gene expression profiling revealed significantly down-regulated expression of lysosomal pathway genes and flow cytometry results demonstrated suppressed production of IL-10 by CD4+ T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of IEC-specific PPAR γ null mice. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that adequate expression of PPAR γ in IEC is required for the regulation of mucosal immune responses and prevention of

  1. Stress Softening Behavior in the Mucosa-Submucosa and Muscle Layers in Normal and Diabetic Rat Esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Hongbo; Liao, Donghua; Zhao, Jingbo

    2015-01-01

    Background & aims: Stress softening is a feature of mechanical preconditioning in soft tissue. Previously, we demonstrated that esophageal stress softening is reversible by muscle activation with KCl. Since the esophagus consists of muscle and mucosa-submucosa layers, the aim was to study...... the stress softening behavior in these layers in normal and diabetic rat esophagus and how diabetes affect the reversibility of esophageal stress softening.Methods: Ten Wistar rats were injected with STZ and the average blood glucose level reached 25 mmol/L after 8 weeks. Ten rats were used as the normal......M KCl was added for maximum contraction for 3min. KCl was washed out to permit relaxation and contractions were eliminated by immersion into Ca2+-free solution. After 1h rest, the tubes were exposed to five repeated ramp distensions conformed to the aforesaid two series. Stress-strain curves were used...

  2. Patterns of DNA methylation in the normal colon vary by anatomical location, gender, and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaz, Andrew M; Wong, Chao-Jen; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Luo, Yanxin; Schoen, Robert E; Grady, William M

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in DNA methylation have been proposed to create a field cancerization state in the colon, where molecular alterations that predispose cells to transformation occur in histologically normal tissue. However, our understanding of the role of DNA methylation in field cancerization is limited by an incomplete characterization of the methylation state of the normal colon. In order to determine the colon’s normal methylation state, we extracted DNA from normal colon biopsies from the rectum, sigmoid, transverse, and ascending colon and assessed the methylation status of the DNA by pyrosequencing candidate loci as well as with HumanMethylation450 arrays. We found that methylation levels of repetitive elements LINE-1 and SAT-α showed minimal variability throughout the colon in contrast to other loci. Promoter methylation of EVL was highest in the rectum and progressively lower in the proximal segments, whereas ESR1 methylation was higher in older individuals. Genome-wide methylation analysis of normal DNA revealed 8388, 82, and 93 differentially methylated loci that distinguished right from left colon, males from females, and older vs. younger individuals, respectively. Although variability in methylation between biopsies and among different colon segments was minimal for repetitive elements, analyses of specific cancer-related genes as well as a genome-wide methylation analysis demonstrated differential methylation based on colon location, individual age, and gender. These studies advance our knowledge regarding the variation of DNA methylation in the normal colon, a prerequisite for future studies aimed at understanding methylation differences indicative of a colon field effect. PMID:24413027

  3. Assessing colonic anatomy normal values based on air contrast enemas in children younger than 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, Ilan J. N.; Yacob, Desale; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Saps, Miguel; Benninga, Marc A.; Cooper, Jennifer N.; Minneci, Peter C.; Deans, Katherine J.; Bates, D. Gregory; Thompson, Benjamin P.

    2017-01-01

    Contrast enemas with barium or water-soluble contrast agents are sometimes performed in children with severe intractable constipation to identify anatomical abnormalities. However there are no clear definitions for normal colonic size or abnormalities such as colonic dilation or sigmoid redundancy

  4. Normal Function of the Colon and Anorectal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is Constipation Introduction: What is Constipation? Normal Function Common Questions & Mistaken Beliefs Signs & Symptoms Symptoms Overview ... What is Constipation Introduction: What is Constipation? Normal Function Common Questions & Mistaken Beliefs Signs & Symptoms Symptoms Overview ...

  5. Epigenetic alterations of the SERPINE1 gene in oral squamous cell carcinomas and normal oral mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shan; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    , 17 of 20 patients with oral carcinoma were found to have between 2.5- and 50-fold increased tumor PAI-1 mRNA level, as compared with the matched tumor-adjacent normal tissues. The PAI-1 mRNA level in connective tissues from 15 healthy volunteers was similar to the level in tumor-adjacent normal...... tissues, but the level in epithelium was 5- to 10-fold lower. Analyzing DNA methylation of 25 CpG sites within 960 bp around the transcription initiation site of the SERPINE1 gene by bisulfite sequencing, we did the surprising observation that both tumors and tumor-adjacent normal tissue had a significant...... level of methylation, whereas there was very little methylation in tissue from healthy volunteers, suggesting that tumor-adjacent normal tissue already contains transformation-associated epigenetic changes. However, there was no general inverse correlation between PAI-1 mRNA levels and SERPINE1 gene...

  6. Differential cellular localization of Epstein-Barr virus and human cytomegalovirus in the colonic mucosa of patients with active or quiescent inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Racca, Francesca; Scudeller, Luigia; Piralla, Antonio; Formagnana, Pietro; Pozzi, Lodovica; Betti, Elena; Vanoli, Alessandro; Riboni, Roberta; Kruzliak, Peter; Baldanti, Fausto; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2016-02-01

    The role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still uncertain. We prospectively investigated the presence of EBV and HCMV infection in both epithelial and immune cells of colonic mucosa of IBD patients, both refractory and responders to standard therapies, in comparison with patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome who were considered as controls, by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, in an attempt to assess viral localization, DNA load, life cycle phase and possible correlation with disease activity indexes. We obtained clear evidence of the presence of high DNA loads of both viruses in either enterocytes or immune cells of refractory IBD patients, whereas we observed low levels in the responder group and an absence of detectable copies in all cell populations of controls. Remarkably, the values of EBV and HCMV DNA in inflamed mucosa were invariably higher than in non-inflamed areas in both IBD groups, and the EBV DNA loads in the cell populations of diseased mucosa of refractory IBD patients positively correlated with the severity of mucosal damage and clinical indexes of activity. Moreover, EBV infection resulted the most prevalent either alone or in combination with HCMV, while immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization did not allow us to distinguish between the different phases of viral life cycle. Finally, as regards treatment, these novel findings could pave the way for the use of new antiviral molecules in the treatment of this condition.

  7. Raman spectroscopy of normal oral buccal mucosa tissues: study on intact and incised biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C. Murali

    2011-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of among the top 10 malignancies. Optical spectroscopy, including Raman, is being actively pursued as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant, and malignant oral ex vivo tissues. Spectral features showed predominance of lipids and proteins in normal and cancer conditions, respectively, which were attributed to membrane lipids and surface proteins. In view of recent developments in deep tissue Raman spectroscopy, we have recorded Raman spectra from superior and inferior surfaces of 10 normal oral tissues on intact, as well as incised, biopsies after separation of epithelium from connective tissue. Spectral variations and similarities among different groups were explored by unsupervised (principal component analysis) and supervised (linear discriminant analysis, factorial discriminant analysis) methodologies. Clusters of spectra from superior and inferior surfaces of intact tissues show a high overlap; whereas spectra from separated epithelium and connective tissue sections yielded clear clusters, though they also overlap on clusters of intact tissues. Spectra of all four groups of normal tissues gave exclusive clusters when tested against malignant spectra. Thus, this study demonstrates that spectra recorded from the superior surface of an intact tissue may have contributions from deeper layers but has no bearing from the classification of a malignant tissues point of view.

  8. Epithelial and Mesenchymal Cells in the Bovine Colonic Mucosa Differ in Their Responsiveness to Escherichia coli Shiga Toxin 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cells in the depth of the crypts in the bovine colon express CD77 molecules that potentially act as receptors for Shiga toxins (Stx). The implication of this finding for the intestinal colonization 25 of cattle with human pathogenic Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) remains undefined. We used f...

  9. Interactions between bacteria and the gut mucosa: Do enteric neurotransmitters acting on the mucosal epithelium influence intestinal colonization or infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intestinal epithelium is a critical barrier between the internal and external milieux of the mammalian host. Epithelial interactions between these two host environments have been shown to be modulated by several different, cross-communicating cell types residing in the gut mucosa. These include ...

  10. Multi-modal approach using Raman spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography for the discrimination of colonic adenocarcinoma from normal colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Praveen C.; Praveen, Bavishna B.; Bellini, Nicola; Riches, Andrew; Dholakia, Kishan; Herrington, C. Simon

    2013-01-01

    We report a multimodal optical approach using both Raman spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in tandem to discriminate between colonic adenocarcinoma and normal colon. Although both of these non-invasive techniques are capable of discriminating between normal and tumour tissues, they are unable individually to provide both the high specificity and high sensitivity required for disease diagnosis. We combine the chemical information derived from Raman spectroscopy with the texture parameters extracted from OCT images. The sensitivity obtained using Raman spectroscopy and OCT individually was 89% and 78% respectively and the specificity was 77% and 74% respectively. Combining the information derived using the two techniques increased both sensitivity and specificity to 94% demonstrating that combining complementary optical information enhances diagnostic accuracy. These data demonstrate that multimodal optical analysis has the potential to achieve accurate non-invasive cancer diagnosis. PMID:24156073

  11. Effect of mucoprotective plant-derived therapies on damage to colonic mucosa caused by carprofen and robenacoxib administered to healthy dogs for 21 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szweda, Magdalena; Szarek, Józef; Dublan, Krystyna; Męcik-Kronenberg, Tomasz; Kiełbowicz, Zdzisław; Bigoszewski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may cause gastrointestinal damage in dogs. To determine the extent to which lansoprazole, liquorice extract, and a herbal solution exhibit protective effects on colonic mucosa when administered to dogs concurrently with the NSAIDs carprofen or robenacoxib. Thirty-five healthy beagle dogs (15 male and 20 female) aged 13-14 weeks and weighing 4.3-5.5 kg at the beginning of the experiment were included. Endoscopy and biopsy of the caudal gastrointestinal tract were performed pretreatment and on the last day of a 21-day treatment period with (1) oral carprofen; (2) carprofen and the proton-pump inhibitor lansoprazole; (3) carprofen, liquorice extract, and a herbal solution that contained extracts of thyme, icelandic lichen, hyssop, and saponariae root; (4) robenacoxib; (5) robenacoxib and lansoprazole; (6) robenacoxib, liquorice extract, and herbal solution; or (7) an empty gelatin capsule. Statistical analyses were performed with the Kruskal-Wallis, Cochran's Q, and chi-squared test with p carprofen and robenacoxib tested damaged the colonic mucosa with most severe microscopic lesions following administration of robenacoxib with lansoprazole. The risk of histopathological lesions in the colon increased most rapidly in robenacoxib with lansoprazole (absolute risk increase -0.85) similar to robenacoxib only (-0.75), whereas the best result was recorded following the plant remedies together with carprofen (-0.15) and the plant remedies together with robenacoxib (-0.2). Concurrent administration of liquorice extract and an herbal solution with robenacoxib was associated with decreased severity of the NSAID-induced mucosal lesions.

  12. Epigenetic alterations of the SERPINE1 gene in oral squamous cell carcinomas and normal oral mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shan; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    cells in oral carcinomas by immunohistochemistry, we found that PAI-1 was expressed in 18 of the 20 patients, mainly by cancer cells. Two showed PAI-1 positive stromal cells surrounding the tumor areas and five showed PAI-1 positive cells in tumor-adjacent normal epithelium. By real-time RT-PCR analysis......A high level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 or SERPINE1) in tumor extracts is a marker of a poor prognosis in human cancers, including oral carcinomas. However, the mechanisms responsible for the upregulation of PAI-1 in cancers remain unclear. Investigating specific PAI-1 expressing...

  13. HIV enteropathy: HAART reduces HIV-induced stem cell hyperproliferation and crypt hypertrophy to normal in jejunal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Philip A; Kapembwa, Moses S; Belmonte, Liliana; Tudor, Gregory; Kotler, Donald P; Potten, Christopher S; Booth, Catherine; Cahn, Pedro; Griffin, George E

    2014-01-01

    To analyse the structural and kinetic response of small intestinal crypt epithelial cells including stem cells to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Crypt size and proliferative activity of transit and stem cells in jejunal mucosa were quantified using morphometric techniques. Crypt length was measured by counting the number of enterocytes along one side of a number of crypts in each biopsy specimen and the mean crypt length was calculated. Proliferating crypt cells were identified with MIB-1 monoclonal antibody, and the percentage of crypt cells in proliferation was calculated at each cell position along the length of the crypt (proliferation index). Data were obtained from 9 HIV-positive test patients co-infected with microsporidia, 34 HIV-positive patients receiving HAART and 13 control cases. Crypt length was significantly greater in test patients than in controls, but crypt length in patients receiving HAART was normal. The proliferation index was greater in test subjects than in controls in stem and transit cell compartments, and was decreased in patients treated with HAART only in the stem cell region of the crypt. Villous atrophy in HIV enteropathy is attributed to crypt hypertrophy and encroachment of crypt cells onto villi. HAART restores normal crypt structure by inhibition of HIV-driven stem cell hyperproliferation at the crypt bases.

  14. Si Shen Wan Regulates Phospholipase Cγ-1 and PI3K/Akt Signal in Colonic Mucosa from Rats with Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan-yong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the feasible pathway of Si Shen Wan (SSW in inhibiting apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs by observing activation of phospholipase Cγ-1 (PLC-γ1 and PI3K/Akt signal in colonic mucosa from rats with colitis. Experimental colitis was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS in the Sprague-Dawley rats. After SSW was administrated for 7 days after TNBS infusion, western blot showed an increment in levels of PI3K, p-Akt, and IL-23 and a decrement in levels of PLC-γ1 and HSP70 in colonic mucosal injury induced by TNBS. Meanwhile, assessments by ELISA revealed an increment in concentrations of IL-2, IL-6, and IL-17 and a reduction in level of TGF-β after TNBS challenge. Impressively, treatment with SSW for 7 days significantly attenuated the expressions of PI3K and p-Akt and the secretion of IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-23 and promoted the activation of PLC-γ1, HSP70, and TGF-β. Our previous studies had demonstrated that SSW restored colonic mucosal ulcers by inhibiting apoptosis of IECs. The present study demonstrated that the effect of SSW on inhibiting apoptosis of IECs was realized probably by activation of PLC-γ1 and suppression of PI3K/Akt signal pathway.

  15. Leopard Skin-Like Colonic Mucosa: A Novel Endoscopic Finding of Chronic Granulomatous Disease-Associated Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Naho; Arai, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Natsuko; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Kawai, Toshinao; Yamamoto, Shojiro; Shimizu, Hirotaka; Nunoi, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Tang, Julian; Onodera, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disorder in which phagocytes are unable to eradicate pathogens because of a deficit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. Among CGD patients, ∼ 30% to 50% develop severe gastrointestinal tract symptoms. Although characteristic histologic findings of CGD-associated colitis have been reported, information on endoscopic features remained vague. A total of 8 male patients with CGD (ages 2-23 years) from 2 Japanese institutions underwent colonoscopy for the evaluation of their fever, diarrhea, bloody stool, and abdominal pain. The endoscopic and histologic findings were retrospectively reviewed. The endoscopic findings of CGD-associated colitis appeared varied. Notably, brownish dots over a yellowish edematous mucosa were observed in 3 of the 8 patients. Prominent pigment-laden macrophages were noted histologically on the mucosa. Although nonspecific endoscopic findings of CGD-associated colitis have been reported before, our observation of brownish dots spread across a yellowish edematous mucosa, termed "leopard sign," could be a unique feature of this condition.

  16. FoxP3+CD4+CD25+ T cells with regulatory properties can be cultured from colonic mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, J; Agnholt, J; Hoffmann, H J; Rømer, J L; Hvas, C L; Dahlerup, J F

    2005-01-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance and ensure a balanced immune response competent of fighting pathogens and at the same time recognizing commensals as harmless. This feature is lost in Crohn's disease (CD). The forkhead/winged helix transcription factor FoxP3 is a master gene for Treg function and defects in the FoxP3 gene lead to a clinical picture similar to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Murine colitis can be cured by adoptive transfer of Tregs and ex vivo-generated gut-specific Tregs represent an attractive option for therapy in CD. Thus, defective Tregs could contribute to the development of CD. We cultured biopsies of colonic mucosa in the presence of high concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-4 to overcome the anergic nature of naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ Tregs in the mucosa. We investigated the expression of FoxP3 and regulatory potential of gut-derived CD4+CD25+ T cells cultured from patients with CD and healthy individuals. The FoxP3 expression was analysed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the suppressive effect of FoxP3+CD4+CD25+ T cells on proliferation and cytokine production of autologous CD4+ T cells was assessed by flow cytometry. Cultured gut-derived T cells with CD4+CD25+ phenotype expressed FoxP3 and were able as the freshly isolated Tregs from peripheral blood to suppress proliferation and cytokine production of autologous CD4+ T cells. Thus, we demonstrate that FoxP3+CD4+CD25+ T cells with regulatory properties can be propagated in vitro from inflamed mucosa of CD patients, which may be of interest in adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:16045746

  17. Stromal laminin chain distribution in normal, hyperplastic and malignant oral mucosa: relation to myofibroblast occurrence and vessel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Marcus; Wolheim, Anke; Richter, Petra; Umbreit, Claudia; Dahse, Regine; Driemel, Oliver; Hyckel, Peter; Virtanen, Ismo; Kosmehl, Hartwig; Berndt, Alexander

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of stromal laminin chain expression to malignant potential, tumour stroma reorganization and vessel formation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is not fully understood. Therefore, the expression of the laminin chains alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5 and gamma2 in the stromal compartment/vascular structures in OSCC was analysed. Frozen tissue of OSCC (9x G1, 24x G2, 8x G3) and normal (2x)/hyperplastic (11x) oral mucosa was subjected to laminin chain and alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA) immunohistochemistry. Results were correlated to tumour grade. The relation of laminin chain positive vessels to total vessel number was assessed by immunofluorescence double labelling with CD31. Stromal laminin alpha2 chain significantly decreases and alpha3, alpha4, alpha5 and gamma2 chains and also ASMA significantly increase with rising grade. The amount of stromal alpha3, alpha4 and gamma2 chains significantly increased with rising ASMA positivity. There is a significant decrease in alpha3 chain positive vessels with neoplastic transformation. Mediated by myofibroblasts, OSCC development is associated with a stromal up-regulation of laminin isoforms possibly contributing to a migration promoting microenvironment. A vascular basement membrane reorganization concerning alpha3 and gamma2 chain laminins during tumour angioneogenesis is suggested.

  18. Synuclein gamma predicts poor clinical outcome in colon cancer with normal levels of carcinoembryonic antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Xiaofang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synuclein gamma (SNCG, initially identified as a breast cancer specific gene, is aberrantly expressed in many different malignant tumors but rarely expressed in matched nonneoplastic adjacent tissues. In this study, we investigated the prognostic potential of SNCG in colon cancer particularly in the patients with normal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels. Methods SNCG levels were assessed immunohistochemically in cancer tissues from 229 colon adenocarcinoma patients with a mean follow-up of 44 months. Correlations between SNCG levels and clinicopathologic features, preoperative serum CEA level, and clinical outcome were analyzed statistically using SPSS. Results SNCG levels in colon adenocarcinoma were closely associated with intravascular embolus and tumor recurrence but independent of preoperative serum CEA levels. SNCG expression was an independent prognostic factor of a shorter disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS (P P = 0.001, P = 0.001, 0.002 for 97 patients with normal preoperative serum CEA level. Conclusions Our results suggest for the first time that SNCG is a new independent predicator for poor prognosis in patients with colon adenocarcinoma, including those with normal CEA levels. Combination of CEA with SNCG improves prognostic evaluation for patients with colon adenocarcinoma.

  19. Interactions between bacteria and the intestinal mucosa: Do enteric neurotransmitters acting on epithelium cells influence mucosal colonization or infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms governing the ability of bacteria to adhere to and colonize human and animal hosts in health and disease are still incompletely understood. Throughout the extensive mucosal surfaces of the body that are in contact with the external environment, epithelial cells represent the first po...

  20. Liver X receptor ligand cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells and not in normal colon epithelial cells depends on LXRβ subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtaut, Flavie; Derangère, Valentin; Chevriaux, Angélique; Ladoire, Sylvain; Cotte, Alexia K; Arnould, Laurent; Boidot, Romain; Rialland, Mickaël; Ghiringhelli, François; Rébé, Cédric

    2015-09-29

    Increasing evidence indicates that Liver X Receptors (LXRs) have some anticancer properties. We recently demonstrated that LXR ligands induce colon cancer cell pyroptosis through an LXRβ-dependent pathway. In the present study, we showed that human colon cancer cell lines presented differential cytoplasmic localizations of LXRβ. This localization correlated with caspase-1 activation and cell death induction under treatment with LXR ligand. The association of LXRβ with the truncated form of RXRα (t-RXRα) was responsible for the sequestration of LXRβ in the cytoplasm in colon cancer cells. Moreover t-RXRα was not expressed in normal colon epithelial cells. These cells presented a predominantly nuclear localization of LXRβ and were resistant to LXR ligand cytotoxicity. Our results showed that predominant cytoplasmic localization of LXRβ, which occurs in colon cancer cells but not in normal colon epithelial cells, allowed LXR ligand-induced pyroptosis. This study strengthens the hypothesis that LXRβ could be a promising target in cancer therapy.

  1. Normal Bone Mineral Density Associates with Duodenal Mucosa Healing in Adult Patients with Celiac Disease on a Gluten-Free Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Larussa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Impairment of bone mineral density (BMD is frequent in celiac disease (CD patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD. The normalization of intestinal mucosa is still difficult to predict. We aim to investigate the relationship between BMD and duodenal mucosa healing (DMH in CD patients on a GFD. Sixty-four consecutive CD patients on a GFD were recruited. After a median period of a 6-year GFD (range 2–33 years, patients underwent repeat duodenal biopsy and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan. Twenty-four patients (38% displayed normal and 40 (62% low BMD, 47 (73% DMH, and 17 (27% duodenal mucosa lesions. All patients but one with normal BMD (23 of 24, 96% showed DMH, while, among those with low BMD, 24 (60% did and 16 (40% did not. At multivariate analysis, being older (odds ratio (OR 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.03–1.18 and having diagnosis at an older age (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03–1.16 were associated with low BMD; in turn, having normal BMD was the only variable independently associated with DMH (OR 17.5, 95% CI 1.6–192. In older CD patients and with late onset disease, BMD recovery is not guaranteed, despite a GFD. A normal DXA scan identified CD patients with DMH; thus, it is a potential tool in planning endoscopic resampling.

  2. Normal Bone Mineral Density Associates with Duodenal Mucosa Healing in Adult Patients with Celiac Disease on a Gluten-Free Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larussa, Tiziana; Suraci, Evelina; Imeneo, Maria; Marasco, Raffaella; Luzza, Francesco

    2017-01-31

    Impairment of bone mineral density (BMD) is frequent in celiac disease (CD) patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD). The normalization of intestinal mucosa is still difficult to predict. We aim to investigate the relationship between BMD and duodenal mucosa healing (DMH) in CD patients on a GFD. Sixty-four consecutive CD patients on a GFD were recruited. After a median period of a 6-year GFD (range 2-33 years), patients underwent repeat duodenal biopsy and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Twenty-four patients (38%) displayed normal and 40 (62%) low BMD, 47 (73%) DMH, and 17 (27%) duodenal mucosa lesions. All patients but one with normal BMD (23 of 24, 96%) showed DMH, while, among those with low BMD, 24 (60%) did and 16 (40%) did not. At multivariate analysis, being older (odds ratio (OR) 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.18) and having diagnosis at an older age (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16) were associated with low BMD; in turn, having normal BMD was the only variable independently associated with DMH (OR 17.5, 95% CI 1.6-192). In older CD patients and with late onset disease, BMD recovery is not guaranteed, despite a GFD. A normal DXA scan identified CD patients with DMH; thus, it is a potential tool in planning endoscopic resampling.

  3. Ex vivo characterization of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples by Mueller matrix polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Ahmad, Manzoor; Khan, Karim; Ashraf, Sumara; Ahmad, Shakil; Ikram, Masroor

    2015-05-01

    Mueller matrix polarimetry along with polar decomposition algorithm was employed for the characterization of ex vivo normal and adenocarcinoma human colon tissues by polarized light in the visible spectral range (425-725 nm). Six derived polarization metrics [total diattenuation (DT ), retardance (RT ), depolarization(ΔT ), linear diattenuation (DL), retardance (δ), and depolarization (ΔL)] were compared for normal and adenocarcinoma colon tissue samples. The results show that all six polarimetric properties for adenocarcinoma samples were significantly higher as compared to the normal samples for all wavelengths. The Wilcoxon rank sum test illustrated that total retardance is a good candidate for the discrimination of normal and adenocarcinoma colon samples. Support vector machine classification for normal and adenocarcinoma based on the four polarization properties spectra (ΔT , ΔL, RT ,and δ) yielded 100% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, while both DTa nd DL showed 66.6%, 33.3%, and 83.3% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, respectively. The combination of polarization analysis and given classification methods provides a framework to distinguish the normal and cancerous tissues.

  4. Assessing colonic anatomy normal values based on air contrast enemas in children younger than 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppen, Ilan J N; Yacob, Desale; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Saps, Miguel; Benninga, Marc A; Cooper, Jennifer N; Minneci, Peter C; Deans, Katherine J; Bates, D Gregory; Thompson, Benjamin P

    2017-03-01

    Contrast enemas with barium or water-soluble contrast agents are sometimes performed in children with severe intractable constipation to identify anatomical abnormalities. However there are no clear definitions for normal colonic size or abnormalities such as colonic dilation or sigmoid redundancy in children. To describe characteristics of colonic anatomy on air contrast enemas in children without constipation to provide normal values for colonic size ratios in children. We performed a retrospective chart review of children aged 0-5 years who had undergone air contrast enemas for intussusception. The primary outcome measures were the ratios of the diameters and lengths of predetermined colonic segments (lengths of rectosigmoid and descending colon; diameters of rectum, sigmoid, descending colon, transverse colon and ascending colon) in relation to the L2 vertebral body width. We included 119 children (median age 2.0 years, range 0-5 years, 68% boys). Colonic segment length ratios did not change significantly with age, although the differences for the rectosigmoid/L2 ratio were borderline significant (P = 0.05). The ratios that involved the rectal and ascending colon diameters increased significantly with age, while diameter ratios involving the other colonic segments did not. Differences by gender and race were not significant. These data can be used for reference purposes in young children undergoing contrast studies of the colon.

  5. Scaffold-Free Coculture Spheroids of Human Colonic Adenocarcinoma Cells and Normal Colonic Fibroblasts Promote Tumorigenicity in Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-il Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to form a scaffold-free coculture spheroid model of colonic adenocarcinoma cells (CACs and normal colonic fibroblasts (NCFs and to use the spheroids to investigate the role of NCFs in the tumorigenicity of CACs in nude mice. We analysed three-dimensional (3D scaffold-free coculture spheroids of CACs and NCFs. CAC Matrigel invasion assays and tumorigenicity assays in nude mice were performed to examine the effect of NCFs on CAC invasive behaviour and tumorigenicity in 3D spheroids. We investigated the expression pattern of fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP-α by immunohistochemical staining. CAC monocultures did not form densely-packed 3D spheroids, whereas cocultured CACs and NCFs formed 3D spheroids. The 3D coculture spheroids seeded on a Matrigel extracellular matrix showed higher CAC invasiveness compared to CACs alone or CACs and NCFs in suspension. 3D spheroids injected into nude mice generated more and faster-growing tumors compared to CACs alone or mixed suspensions consisting of CACs and NCFs. FAP-α was expressed in NCFs-CACs cocultures and xenograft tumors, whereas monocultures of NCFs or CACs were negative for FAP-α expression. Our findings provide evidence that the interaction between CACs and NCFs is essential for the tumorigenicity of cancer cells as well as for tumor propagation.

  6. Right dorsal colon ultrasonography in normal adult ponies and miniature horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Agnieszka; Baron, Monika; Cylna, Marta; Borowicz, Hieronim

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the normal location, wall thickness and motility of the right dorsal colon in adult ponies and miniature horses. The abdominal ultrasonography examination was performed in a study group consisting of 23 ponies and miniature horses and in a control group comprising ten Thoroughbred horses. The procedure was performed in unsedated standing animals. The location and the thickness of the right dorsal colonic wall was examined on the right side of the abdomen between the 10th and the 14th intercostal space. The contractility was recorded in the 12th intercostal space. A comparative analysis between the study group and control group was carried out using the Student’s t-test. Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient was used to calculate the correlation between the thickness of the colonic wall as well as the number of peristaltic movements and age, wither height and body mass of the animals. The right dorsal colon was identified in all the horses in the 12th intercostal space. In all the intercostal spaces the mean ± standard deviation (SD) wall thickness of the right dorsal colon was 0.27 ± 0.03 cm in the horses from the study group and 0.37 ± 0.03 cm in the control horses. The mean number of peristaltic contractions was 4.05 ± 1.07 per minute in the animals from the study group and 1.7 ± 0.46 contractions per minute in the control group. The values of the ultrasonographic wall thickness and peristaltic motility in small breed horses in the present study were different from the values obtained for large breed horses. The study also found that the right dorsal colon in small breed horses is physiologically located in the 12th intercostal space. This suggests that different reference values should be used in small horse breeds when performing an ultrasound examination. PMID:29065146

  7. Comparison of the circadian variation in cell proliferation in normal and neoplastic colonic epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M F; Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1985-09-15

    Circadian variations in cell proliferation in normal tissues have been recognised for many years but comparable phenomena in neoplastic tissues appear not to have been reported. Adenomas and carcinomas were induced in mouse colon by injection of dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and cell proliferation in these tumors was measured stathmokinetically. In normal intestine cell proliferation is fastest at night whereas in both adenomas and carcinomas it was found to be slower at night than in the middle of the day. Chemical sympathectomy was found to abolish the circadian variation in tumor cell proliferation.

  8. Prostaglandin synthesis and catabolism in the gastric mucosa: studies in normal rabbits and rabbits immunized with prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redfern, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Antral and fundic mucosal homogenates obtained from prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits converted 14C-arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin F2 alpha, and prostaglandin D2. Percentage conversion of 14C-arachidonic acid to these prostaglandin products was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits compared with control rabbits (thyroglobulin-immunized and unimmunized rabbits combined). Synthesis of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin E2 and 13,14-dihydro 15-keto prostaglandin E2 from endogenous arachidonic acid after vortex mixing fundic mucosal homogenates was similar in prostaglandin E2 immunized rabbits and control rabbits. Both in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and controls, 3H-prostaglandin E2 was catabolized extensively by the fundic mucosa, whereas 3H-6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, 3H-prostaglandin F2 alpha, and 3H-prostaglandin D2 were not catabolized to any appreciable extent. The rate of catabolism of PGs was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and control rabbits, with the exception of prostaglandin F2 alpha which was catabolized slightly more rapidly in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits. These results indicate that development of gastric ulcers in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits is not associated with an alteration in the capacity of the gastric mucosa to synthesize or catabolize prostaglandins

  9. PKH26 staining defines distinct subsets of normal human colon epithelial cells at different maturation stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pastò

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Colon crypts are characterized by a hierarchy of cells distributed along the crypt axis. Aim of this paper was to develop an in vitro system for separation of epithelial cell subsets in different maturation stages from normal human colon. METHODOLOGY AND MAJOR FINDINGS: Dissociated colonic epithelial cells were stained with PKH26, which allows identification of distinct populations based on their proliferation rate, and cultured in vitro in the absence of serum. The cytofluorimetric expression of CK20, Msi-1 and Lgr5 was studied. The mRNA levels of several stemness-associated genes were also compared in cultured cell populations and in three colon crypt populations isolated by microdissection. A PKH(pos population survived in culture and formed spheroids; this population included subsets with slow (PKH(high and rapid (PKH(low replicative rates. Molecular analysis revealed higher mRNA levels of both Msi-1 and Lgr-5 in PKH(high cells; by cytofluorimetric analysis, Msi-1(+/Lgr5(+ cells were only found within PKH(high cells, whereas Msi-1(+/Lgr5(- cells were also observed in the PKH(low population. As judged by qRT-PCR analysis, the expression of several stemness-associated markers (Bmi-1, EphB2, EpCAM, ALDH1 was highly enriched in Msi-1(+/Lgr5(+ cells. While CK20 expression was mainly found in PKH(low and PKH(neg cells, a small PKH(high subset co-expressed both CK20 and Msi-1, but not Lgr5; cells with these properties also expressed Mucin, and could be identified in vivo in colon crypts. These results mirrored those found in cells isolated from different crypt portions by microdissection, and based on proliferation rates and marker expression they allowed to define several subsets at different maturation stages: PKH(high/Lgr5(+/Msi-1(+/CK20(-, PKH(high/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(+/CK20(+, PKH(low/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(+/Ck20(-, and PKH(low/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(-/CK20(+ cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show the possibility of deriving in vitro, without any

  10. Quantification of Crypt and Stem Cell Evolution in the Normal and Neoplastic Human Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Marie Baker

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human intestinal stem cell and crypt dynamics remain poorly characterized because transgenic lineage-tracing methods are impractical in humans. Here, we have circumvented this problem by quantitatively using somatic mtDNA mutations to trace clonal lineages. By analyzing clonal imprints on the walls of colonic crypts, we show that human intestinal stem cells conform to one-dimensional neutral drift dynamics with a “functional” stem cell number of five to six in both normal patients and individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis (germline APC−/+. Furthermore, we show that, in adenomatous crypts (APC−/−, there is a proportionate increase in both functional stem cell number and the loss/replacement rate. Finally, by analyzing fields of mtDNA mutant crypts, we show that a normal colon crypt divides around once every 30–40 years, and the division rate is increased in adenomas by at least an order of magnitude. These data provide in vivo quantification of human intestinal stem cell and crypt dynamics.

  11. Fatty acid and lipidomic data in normal and tumor colon tissues of rats fed diets with and without fish oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Djuric

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Data is provided to show the detailed fatty acid and lipidomic composition of normal and tumor rat colon tissues. Rats were fed either a Western fat diet or a fish oil diet, and half the rats from each diet group were treated with chemical carcinogens that induce colon cancer (azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate. The data show total fatty acid profiles of sera and of all the colon tissues, namely normal tissue from control rats and both normal and tumor tissues from carcinogen-treated rats, as obtained by gas chromatography with mass spectral detection. Data from lipidomic analyses of a representative subset of the colon tissue samples is also shown in heat maps generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. These data display the utility lipidomic analyses to enhance the interpretation of dietary feeding studies aimed at cancer prevention and support the findings published in the companion paper (Effects of fish oil supplementation on prostaglandins in normal and tumor colon tissue: modulation by the lipogenic phenotype of colon tumors, Djuric et al., 2017 [1].

  12. Low prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus in normal oral mucosa by hybrid capture 2 Baixa prevalência de papilomavírus humano de alto risco na mucosa oral normal através de Captura Híbrida 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Refugio González-Losa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available High risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV are recognized as a necessary factor to development cervical cancer. During the last decade many studies have found HR-HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and normal oral mucosa, however the association between HR-HPV and OSCC is still uncertain. The aim of the study was to determine DNA HR-HPV in normal oral cavity of healthy adults. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 77 patients with normal oral cavity were collected at the Dentistry school, Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida, Yucatan, México. HR-HPV was detected by hybrid capture 2. One sample out of 77(1.2% was positive for HR-PVH. It was from a man of 50 years old. HR-HPV is present in low rate among healthy oral mucosa. Hybrid capture 2 could be a good methodology for large epidemiology studies.Papilomavírus humano de alto risco (HR-HPV é um fator reconhecido como necessário para o desenvolvimento de câncer cervical. Na última década vários estudos encontraram HR-HPV em OSCC (oral squamous cell carcinoma e em mucosa oral normal, mas a associação entre HR-HPV e OSCC não é bem conhecida. O objetivo desse estudo foi determinar DNA de HR-HPV na cavidade oral normal de adultos saudáveis. Realizou-se um estudo cross-sectional com amostras da cavidade oral normal de 77 pacientes da Escola de Odontologia da Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida, Yucatan, México. HR-HPV foi detectado através de Captura Híbrida 2. Uma amostra em 77 (1,2% foi positiva para HR-PVH e era proveniente de um homem de 50 anos de idade. Concluiu-se que HR-HPV tem baixa prevalência na mucosa oral normal e a Captura Híbrida 2 pode ser um método adequado para estudos epidemiológicos.

  13. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 is a marker for normal and malignant human colonic stem cells (SC) and tracks SC overpopulation during colon tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Emina H; Hynes, Mark J; Zhang, Tao; Ginestier, Christophe; Dontu, Gabriela; Appelman, Henry; Fields, Jeremy Z; Wicha, Max S; Boman, Bruce M

    2009-04-15

    Although the concept that cancers originate from stem cells (SC) is becoming scientifically accepted, mechanisms by which SC contribute to tumor initiation and progression are largely unknown. For colorectal cancer (CRC), investigation of this problem has been hindered by a paucity of specific markers for identification and isolation of SC from normal and malignant colon. Accordingly, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) was investigated as a possible marker for identifying colonic SC and for tracking them during cancer progression. Immunostaining showed that ALDH1(+) cells are sparse and limited to the normal crypt bottom, where SCs reside. During progression from normal epithelium to mutant (APC) epithelium to adenoma, ALDH1(+) cells increased in number and became distributed farther up the crypt. CD133(+) and CD44(+) cells, which are more numerous and broadly distributed in normal crypts, showed similar changes during tumorigenesis. Flow cytometric isolation of cancer cells based on enzymatic activity of ALDH (Aldefluor assay) and implantation of these cells in nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient mice (a) generated xenograft tumors (Aldefluor(-) cells did not), (b) generated them after implanting as few as 25 cells, and (c) generated them dose dependently. Further isolation of cancer cells using a second marker (CD44(+) or CD133(+) serially) only modestly increased enrichment based on tumor-initiating ability. Thus, ALDH1 seems to be a specific marker for identifying, isolating, and tracking human colonic SC during CRC development. These findings also support our original hypothesis, derived previously from mathematical modeling of crypt dynamics, that progressive colonic SC overpopulation occurs during colon tumorigenesis and drives CRC development.

  14. Optimization of visibility and quantification of aberrant crypt foci in colonic mucosa in Wistar rats Otimização da visibilidade e quantificação de focos de criptas aberrantes em mucosa cólica de ratos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idália Maria Brasil Burlamaqui

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Test immersion of microscopy samples in water as an aid to visualizing and quantifying aberrant crypt foci (ACF in rat colon mucosa. METHODS: Carcinogenesis was induced with azoxymethane in Wistar rats kept on a conventional diet or a hypercaloric diet containing unsaturated fat. Fifteen weeks after induction, colon samples were retrieved and fixated in a 10% formaldehyde solution. The samples were divided into segments (distal, middle, proximal and stained with 1% toluidine blue. The technique tested in the study consisted of immersing microscopy samples in distilled water in order to eliminate the problem of light reflection known from conventional microscopy. RESULTS: When samples were immersed in water during microscopy, significantly more ACF could be visualized in all colon segments than with the conventional method proposed by Bird. CONCLUSION: Immersing microscopy samples in water aids the visualization and quantification of aberrant crypt foci in rat colon mucosa fixed in formaldehyde.OBJETIVO: Otimizar a visibilização de focos de criptas aberrantes (FCA em mucosa cólica de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Colo de rato Wistar, sob diferentes dietas e submetidos a iniciação de carcinogênese pelo azoximetano há 4 meses, foram previamente lavados, abertos e fixados em solução de formalina a 10% por 24 horas. Após serem corados em azul de toluidina a 1%, foram divididos em segmentos distal, médio e proximal e imersos em água destilada para quantificação de FCA. RESULTADOS: No método de imersão foi visibilizado maior quantidade de focos de criptas aberrantes em todos os segmentos cólicos, com diferença significante, quando comparado com o método de Bird. CONCLUSÃO: O método de imersão otimiza a visibilização e quantificação de focos de criptas aberrantes em mucosa cólica (ratos Wistar fixada em solução de formalina a 10%.

  15. Combination Of Aging And Dimethylhydrazine Treatment Causes An Increase In The Stem Cell Population Of Rat Colonic Crypts

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, Edi; Misra, Sandhya; Du, Jianhua; Patel, Bhaumik B.; Majumdar, Adhip P. N.

    2009-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased incidence of colon cancers. It is also becoming evident that cancer stem cells (CSC) play a vital role in the pathogenesis and prognosis of colon cancer. Recently, we reported the presence of colon cancer stem-like cells in macroscopically normal mucosa in patients with adenomatous polyps and that they increase with aging, suggesting that aging may predispose the colon to carcinogenesis. In the current study we have examined the combined effects of aging and...

  16. Efeitos do butirato nos níveis de peroxidação lipídica em células da mucosa cólica sem trânsito fecal: estudo experimental em ratos Effects of butyrate on levels of lipid peroxidation in cells of the colonic mucosa without fecal stream: experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Miguel do Monte Lameiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Os ácidos graxos de cadeia curta (AGCC representam o principal substrato energético para células da mucosa cólica. A derivação intestinal, reduzindo suprimento de AGCC, responsabiliza-se pela colite de exclusão (CE. Aplicação retal de butirato tem sido eficaz no tratamento da doença. Então, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os níveis de lipoperoxidação na mucosa cólica, após aplicação de butirato, em modelo de CE. Vinte seis ratos Wistar foram submetidos à colostomia proximal e fístula mucosa distal. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos segundo sacrifício ser realizado em duas ou quatro semanas. Cada grupo foi subdividido em dois subgrups segundo intervenção com soro fisiológico ou butirato. O diagnóstico de CE foi estabelecido por estudo histopatológico e os níveis de lipoperoxidação pelos níveis de malondialdeído (MDA. Utilizaram-se os testes de Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis (significantes quando pThe short-chain fatty acids (SCFA are the main energy substrate for the cells of the colonic mucosa. Diversion of the fecal stream reducing the supply of SCFA is responsible for diversion colitis (DC. Rectal application of butyrate has been demonstrated effective in the treatment of the disease. So the aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of lipid peroxidation in the colon mucosa after application of butyrate in model of DC. Twenty-six rats were submitted to proximal colostomy and distal mucous fistula. The animals were divided into two groups according sacrifice carried out in two or four weeks. Each group was divided into two subgroups according to intervention with saline solution or butyrate. The diagnosis of colitis was established by histopathology and the levels of lipid peroxidation by tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA. We used the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis, establishing a significance level of 5% (significant with p<0.05. After two weeks, the levels of MDA were lower in the segments

  17. Sigmoid colon cancer arising in a diverticulum of the colon with involvement of the urinary bladder: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Yasumichi; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Shozo; Yoshikawa, Akemi; Tsukioka, Yuji; Fukushima, Wataru; Hirosawa, Hisashi; Izumi, Ryohei; Saito, Katsuhiko

    2014-05-13

    Colon cancer can arise from the mucosa in a colonic diverticulum. Although colon diverticulum is a common disease, few cases have been previously reported on colon cancer associated with a diverticulum. We report a rare case of sigmoid colon cancer arising in a diverticulum with involvement of the urinary bladder, which presented characteristic radiographic images. A 73-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for macroscopic hematuria. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sigmoid colon tumor that protruded into the urinary bladder lumen. The radiographs showed a tumor with a characteristic dumbbell-shaped appearance. Colonoscopy showed a type 1 cancer and multiple diverticula in the sigmoid colon. A diagnosis of sigmoid colon cancer with involvement of the urinary bladder was made based on the pathological findings of the biopsied specimens. We performed sigmoidectomy and total resection of the urinary bladder with colostomy and urinary tract diversion. Histopathological findings showed the presence of a colovesical fistula due to extramurally growing colon cancer. Around the colon cancer, the normal colon mucosa was depressed sharply with lack of the muscular layer, suggesting that the colon cancer was arising from a colon diverticulum. The present case is the first report of sigmoid colon cancer arising in a diverticulum with involvement of the urinary bladder. Due to an accurate preoperative radiological diagnosis, we were able to successfully perform a curative resection for sigmoid colon cancer arising in a diverticulum with involvement of the urinary bladder.

  18. Estrogens regulate the expression of NHERF1 in normal colon during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello-Carrión, F Darío; Troncoso, Mariana; Guiñazu, Elina; Valdez, Susana R; Fanelli, Mariel A; Ciocca, Daniel R; Kreimann, Erica L

    2010-12-01

    In breast cancer cell lines, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulator factor 1 (NHERF1) gene is regulated at the transcriptional level by estrogens, the protein expression levels correlate with the presence of estrogen receptors and the effect is blocked by anti-estrogens. However, there is limited information regarding the regulation of NHERF1 by estrogens in normal colon tissue. The NHERF1 protein has an important role in the maintenance of the intestine ultrastructure. NHERF1-deficient mice showed defects in the intestinal microvilli as well as molecular alterations in brush border membrane proteins. Here, we have studied the expression of NHERF1 in normal rat colon and uterus during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats. We found that NHERF1 expression in rat colon during the estral cycle is modified by estrogen levels: higher expression of NHERF1 was observed during the proestrous and estrous stages and lower expression in diestrous 1 when estrogen levels decreased. In uterus, NHERF1 was expressed in the apical region of the luminal epithelium and glands in all stages of the estral cycle, and in both colon and uterus, the expression was independent of the proliferation status. Our results show that NHERF1 expression is regulated by estrogens in colon during the rat estral cycle.

  19. Normalization of pH level and gastric mucosa after eradication of H. pylori in the remnant stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shunji; Matsukura, Norio; Matsuda, Noriko; Tsuchiya, Shinichi; Naito, Zenya; Tajiri, Takashi

    2008-12-01

    The Updated Sydney System (USS) is used to evaluate chronic gastritis and chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) due to H. pylori infection. Here, we investigated USS scores and gastric juice pH levels in H. pylori infection-positive or -eradicated patients with remnant stomach after surgery. Gastric juice pH levels were measured using pH test-tape in 197 patients (112 H. pylori-positive and 85 H. pylori-negative after eradication) who had undergone distal gastrectomy and conventional H. pylori eradication therapy. In H. pylori infection-positive remnant stomach cases, gastric juice pH showed a reverse correlation with pepsinogen I/II ratio, and H. pylori infection-negative patients following eradication showed associations with the degree of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia at both the anastomosis and in the corpus. Further, pH levels in these patients were normalized time depending after the eradication in the remnant stomach. Eradication therapy for the remnant stomach contributes to the possible improvement of stomach conditions by controlling the pH level of gastric juice. This effect will be protective against the risk of secondary stomach carcinogenesis in the remnant stomach.

  20. Compared with Raw Bovine Meat, Boiling but Not Grilling, Barbecuing, or Roasting Decreases Protein Digestibility without Any Major Consequences for Intestinal Mucosa in Rats, although the Daily Ingestion of Bovine Meat Induces Histologic Modifications in the Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberli, Marion; Lan, Annaïg; Khodorova, Nadezda; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Walker, Francine; Piedcoq, Julien; Davila, Anne-Marie; Blachier, François; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles; Gaudichon, Claire

    2016-08-01

    Cooking may impair meat protein digestibility. When undigested proteins are fermented by the colon microbiota, they can generate compounds that potentially are harmful to the mucosa. This study addressed the effects of typical cooking processes and the amount of bovine meat intake on the quantity of undigested proteins entering the colon, as well as their effects on the intestinal mucosa. Male Wistar rats (n = 88) aged 8 wk were fed 11 different diets containing protein as 20% of energy. In 10 diets, bovine meat proteins represented 5% [low-meat diet (LMD)] or 15% [high-meat diet (HMD)] of energy, with the rest as total milk proteins. Meat was raw or cooked according to 4 processes (boiled, barbecued, grilled, or roasted). A meat-free diet contained only milk proteins. After 3 wk, rats ingested a (15)N-labeled meat meal and were killed 6 h later after receiving a (13)C-valine injection. Meat protein digestibility was determined from (15)N enrichments in intestinal contents. Cecal short- and branched-chain fatty acids and hydrogen sulfide were measured. Intestinal tissues were used for the assessment of protein synthesis rates, inflammation, and histopathology. Meat protein digestibility was lower in rats fed boiled meat (94.5% ± 0.281%) than in the other 4 groups (97.5% ± 0.0581%, P HMD) and on myeloperoxidase activity in the proximal colon (HMD > LMD), but not on other outcomes. The ingestion of bovine meat, whatever the cooking process and the intake amount, resulted in discrete histologic modifications of the colon (epithelium abrasion, excessive mucus secretion, and inflammation). Boiling bovine meat at a high temperature (100°C) for a long time (3 h) moderately lowered protein digestibility compared with raw meat and other cooking processes, but did not affect cecal bacterial metabolites related to protein fermentation. The daily ingestion of raw or cooked bovine meat had no marked effect on intestinal tissues, despite some slight histologic modifications

  1. Impaired absorption of marked oligopeptide Glycine-I Tyrosine-Glycine after successful autologous-allotopic ileal mucosa transplantation in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiler, H A; Steinorth, J; Witt, A; Mier, W; Mohammed, A; Waag, K L; Zachariou, Z

    2004-10-01

    After establishing a method for ileal mucosa transplantation in an animal model, the authors investigated the absorptive capacity for oligopeptides of the transplanted mucosa. In 14 beagle dogs the authors transplanted ileal mucosa in a vascularized demucosed segment of the transverse colon. The colonic wall-ileal mucosa complex then was integrated in the ileal continuity. Six animals were lost owing to operative complications. Absorptive capacity for oligopeptides was measured in the remaining 8 animals with the iodine 131 (131I)-marked tripeptide glycine-tyrosine-glycine before and 4 weeks after transplantation. The results were compared and analyzed with the Student's t test for matched pairs. Blood concentrations of the marked tripeptide with P value less than .05 were considered as a significant reduction in the absorptive capacity of the transplanted ileal mucosa. After fixation with glutaraldehyd graft, uptake of the colonic wall-ileal mucosa complex was evaluated histologically in 8 animals. In all 8 animals, a 100% graft uptake was verified in all sections. Fifteen minutes after application of 15 MBc Glycine-131I-Tyrosine-Glycine there was no significant difference in the absorption between normal and transplanted ileal mucosa. After 30 minutes, the absorption of the transplanted ileal mucosa showed a tendency (P < .1) for an impaired uptake of the marked tripeptide. However, 60 minutes after application the difference in the absorptive capacity of the transplanted ileal mucosa was significant (P < .05). Autologous allotopic ileal mucosa transplantation is feasible; however, an impaired absorption of oligopeptides of the transplanted mucosa 4 weeks after transplantation could be observed.

  2. GM-CSF produced by non-hematopoietic cells is required for early epithelial cell proliferation and repair of injured colonic mucosa1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Laia; McAllister, Christopher S.; Lakhdari, Omar; Minev, Ivelina; Shenouda, Steve; Kagnoff, Martin F.

    2012-01-01

    GM-CSF is a growth factor that promotes the survival and activation of macrophages and granulocytes, and dendritic cell (DC) differentiation and survival in vitro. The mechanism by which exogenous GM-CSF ameliorates the severity of Crohn’s disease in humans and colitis in murine models has been considered mainly to reflect its activity on myeloid cells. We used GM-CSF deficient (GM-CSF−/−) mice to probe the functional role of endogenous host-produced GM-CSF in a colitis model induced after injury to the colon epithelium. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) at doses that resulted in little epithelial damage and mucosal ulceration in wild type (WT) mice resulted in marked colon ulceration and delayed ulcer healing in GM-CSF−/− mice. Colon crypt epithelial cell proliferation in vivo was significantly decreased in GM-CSF−/− mice at early times after DSS injury. This was paralleled by decreased expression of crypt epithelial cell genes involved in cell cycle, proliferation, and wound healing. Decreased crypt cell proliferation and delayed ulcer healing in GM-CSF−/− mice were rescued by exogenous GM-CSF, indicating the lack of a developmental abnormality in the epithelial cell proliferative response in those mice. Non-hematopoietic cells and not myeloid cells produced the GM-CSF important for colon epithelial proliferation after DSS-induced injury as revealed by bone marrow chimera and DC depletion experiments, with colon epithelial cells being the cellular source of GM-CSF. Endogenous epithelial cell produced GM-CSF has a novel non-redundant role in facilitating epithelial cell proliferation and ulcer healing in response to injury of the colon crypt epithelium. PMID:23325885

  3. FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells with regulatory properties can be cultured from colonic mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Johanne Lade

    2005-01-01

    Summary CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (T(regs)) are involved in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance and ensure a balanced immune response competent of fighting pathogens and at the same time recognizing commensals as harmless. This feature is lost in Crohn's disease (CD). The forkhead/wing......(+) T cells. Thus, we demonstrate that FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells with regulatory properties can be propagated in vitro from inflamed mucosa of CD patients, which may be of interest in adoptive immunotherapy....

  4. Decreased expression of cytochrome P450 protein in non-malignant colonic tissue of patients with colonic adenoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergheim, I.; Bode, C.; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in epithelial cells lining the alimentary tract play an important role in both the elimination and activation of (pro-)carcinogens. To estimate the role of cytochrome P450 in carcinogenesis of the colon, expression patterns and protein levels of four...... representative CYPs (CYP2C, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) were determined in colon mucosa of normal and adenomatous colonic tissue of patients with adenomas and disease-free controls. METHODS: Expression of CYP2C, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 in colon mucosa of normal and adenomatous colonic tissue of patients...... with adenoma and disease-free controls was determined by RT-PCR. Protein concentration of CYPs was determined using Western blot. RESULTS: With the exception of CYP3A5, expression of CYP mRNA was similar among groups and tissues (e.g. normal colon mucosa and adenoma). CYP3A5 mRNA expression was significantly...

  5. Thermal coagulation-induced changes of the optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro in the spectral range 400-1100 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Huilan; Xing Da; Wei Huajiang; Gu Huaimin; Wu Guoyong; Lu Jianjun

    2008-01-01

    The absorption coefficients, the reduced scattering coefficients and the optical penetration depths for native and coagulated human normal and adenomatous colon tissues in vitro were determined over the range of 400-1100 nm using a spectrophotometer with an internal integrating sphere system, and the inverse adding-doubling method was applied to calculate the tissue optical properties from diffuse reflectance and total transmittance measurements. The experimental results showed that in the range of 400-1100 nm there were larger absorption coefficients (P < 0.01) and smaller reduced scattering coefficients (P < 0.01) for adenomatous colon tissues than for normal colon tissues, and there were smaller optical penetration depths for adenomatous colon tissues than for normal colon tissues, especially in the near-infrared wavelength. Thermal coagulation induced significant increase of the absorption coefficients and reduced scattering coefficients for the normal and adenomatous colon tissues, and significantly reduced decrease of the optical penetration depths for the normal and adenomatous colon tissues. The smaller optical penetration depth for coagulated adenomatous colon tissues is a disadvantage for laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). It is necessary to adjust the application parameters of lasers to achieve optimal therapy

  6. Immunohistochemical study of integrin α₅β₁, fibronectin, and Bcl-2 in normal oral mucosa, inflammatory fibroepithelial hyperplasia, oral epithelial dysplasia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Manuel Antonio Gordón; de Matos, Felipe Rodrigues; Freitas, Roseana de Almeida; Galvão, Hébel Cavalcanti

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the immunoexpression of integrin α₅β₁, fibronectin, and the Bcl-2 protein in normal oral mucosa (NOM), inflammatory fibroepithelial hyperplasia (IFH), oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Eleven cases of NOM, 16 IFH, 20 OED, and 27 OSCC were selected for analysis of the immunoexpression of integrin α₅β₁, fibronectin, and bcl-2 protein. There was an association between the intensity and location of the integrin α₅β₁ expression, especially in the OSCC, that 48.1% of cases showed weak immunoreactivity and 40.7% in the suprabasal layer (P < 0.05). There was an association between the pattern and distribution of fibronectin expression in basement membrane, where 90% of NOM showed a pattern of linear continuous and 80% of OED exhibited focal distribution (P < 0.05). The fibronectin expression in connective tissue was predominantly intense with an association of staining pattern among the different specimens, where 37% of OSCC showed a reticular pattern (P < 0.05). There was an association of bcl-2 protein among the types of specimens, especially in IFH and OSCC, where 100% of the cases exhibited scores 1 of staining (P < 0.05). Within this context, the interaction of integrin α₅β₁ with its main ligand in the extracellular matrix, fibronectin, is suggested to influence the survival of tumor cells and to favor their proliferation by modulating apoptosis through the upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins or the suppression of apoptotic mediators.

  7. Combination of aging and dimethylhydrazine treatment causes an increase in cancer-stem cell population of rat colonic crypts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Edi; Misra, Sandhya; Du, Jianhua; Patel, Bhaumik B; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2009-07-31

    Aging is associated with increased incidence of colon cancers. It is also becoming evident that cancer stem cells (CSC) play a vital role in the pathogenesis and prognosis of colon cancer. Recently, we reported the presence of colon cancer stem-like cells in macroscopically normal mucosa in patients with adenomatous polyps and that they increase with aging, suggesting that aging may predispose the colon to carcinogenesis. In the current study we have examined the combined effects of aging and carcinogen exposure on the status of colon CSCs in an experimental model. We used young (4-6 months) and aged (22-24 months) rats and exposed them to the carcinogen, dimethylhydroxide (DMH). We investigated the expression of colon cancer stem cell markers, CD44, CD166, EpCam, and ALDH1 as well as EGFR expression in normal colonic crypt epithelium following carcinogen treatment. Our results demonstrate that aging per se or carcinogen treatment alone causes an increase in the number of colon cancer stems cells, as evidenced by increased immunoreactive-CSC-markers positive cells in the colonic mucosa. In aged rats, carcinogen exposure results in a more pronounced increase in colon cancer stem cells. Our study shows that in aging colon the effects of carcinogens are more pronounced, and an increase in colon CSCs is one of the earliest changes preceding tumor development. Moreover, the current investigation of the use of a panel of immunohistochemical markers of colon CSC can potentially serve as a prognostic marker during screening for colon cancer.

  8. Lectin histochemistry of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H J

    1983-10-01

    Lectins linked to fluorescein were used as carbohydrate probes to examine the goblet cell mucin and epithelial cell surface glycoconjugate alterations in an experimental rodent model of colonic neoplasia induced with parenteral 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride. Lectins derived from Triticum vulgare (WGA), Ricinus communis (RCA1), and Limulus polyphemus (LPA) showed reduced labeling of goblet cell mucin in these tumors, while binding with peanut lectin from Arachis hypogaea (PNA), a lectin ordinarily failing to bind to mucin in normal colon, was positive. In addition, RCA1 and LPA showed increased cell surface labeling of neoplastic epithelial cells. Finally, alterations were observed in lectin binding to "transitional" colonic mucosa adjacent to colonic tumors from carcinogen-treated rats. These findings indicate that significant alterations in both membrane and mucin glycoconjugates occur in colonic tumors and mucosa adjacent to tumors in a chemically induced experimental animal model of human colon cancer.

  9. Keratin23 (KRT23) knockdown decreases proliferation and affects the DNA damage response of colon cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Hahn, Stephan; Mansilla, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    correlated with absent expression, while increased KRT23 expression in tumor samples correlated with promoter hypomethylation, as confirmed by bisulfite sequencing. Demethylation induced KRT23 expression in vitro. Expression profiling of shRNA mediated stable KRT23 knockdown in colon cancer cell lines showed...... response, mainly molecules of the double strand break repair homologous recombination pathway. KRT23 knockdown decreased the transcript and protein expression of key molecules as e.g. MRE11A, E2F1, RAD51 and BRCA1. Knockdown of KRT23 rendered colon cancer cells more sensitive to irradiation and reduced......Keratin 23 (KRT23) is strongly expressed in colon adenocarcinomas but absent in normal colon mucosa. Array based methylation profiling of 40 colon samples showed that the promoter of KRT23 was methylated in normal colon mucosa, while hypomethylated in most adenocarcinomas. Promoter methylation...

  10. Different response of normal and cancer colonic epithelial cells to butyrate and polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmanová, Jiřina; Vaculová, Alena; Hýžďalová, Martina; Koubková, Zuzana; Netíková, Jaromíra; Kozubík, Alois

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2006), S51-S51 ISSN 1107-3756. [The 11th World Congress on Advances in Oncology and 9th International Symposium on Molecular Medicine . 12.10.2006-14.10.2006, Hersonissos] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/04/0895; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : dietary lipids * colon cancer * cellular lipids Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  11. Detection of colorectal masses in CT colonography: application of deep residual networks for differentiating masses from normal colon anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näppi, Janne J.; Hironaka, Toru; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-01

    Even though the clinical consequences of a missed colorectal cancer far outweigh those of a missed polyp, there has been little work on computer-aided detection (CADe) for colorectal masses in CT colonography (CTC). One of the problems is that it is not clear how to manually design mathematical image-based features that could be used to differentiate effectively between masses and certain types of normal colon anatomy such as ileocecal valves (ICVs). Deep learning has demonstrated ability to automatically determine effective discriminating features in many image-based problems. Recently, residual networks (ResNets) were developed to address the practical problems of constructing deep network architectures for optimizing the performance of deep learning. In this pilot study, we compared the classification performance of a conventional 2D-convolutional ResNet (2D-ResNet) with that of a volumetric 3D-convolutional ResNet (3D-ResNet) in differentiating masses from normal colon anatomy in CTC. For the development and evaluation of the ResNets, 695 volumetric images of biopsy-proven colorectal masses, ICVs, haustral folds, and rectal tubes were sampled from 196 clinical CTC cases and divided randomly into independent training, validation, and test datasets. The training set was expanded by use of volumetric data augmentation. Our preliminary results on the 140 test samples indicate that it is feasible to train a deep volumetric 3D-ResNet for performing effective image-based discriminations in CTC. The 3D-ResNet slightly outperformed the 2D-ResNet in the discrimination of masses and normal colon anatomy, but the statistical difference between their very high classification accuracies was not significant. The highest classification accuracy was obtained by combining the mass-likelihood estimates of the 2D- and 3D-ResNets, which enabled correct classification of all of the masses.

  12. Reduction in oxidative stress levels in the colonic mucosa without fecal stream after the application of enemas containing aqueous Ilex paraguariensis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Fernando Lorenzetti da; Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves da; Almeida, Marcos Gonçalves de; Lameiro, Thais Miguel do Monte; Marques, Letícia Helena Souza; Margarido, Nelson Fontana; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the antioxidant effects of enemas containing aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis, comparing segments with and without fecal stream and correlating the segments with the duration of intervention. Twenty-six Wistar rats were subjected to a diversion of the fecal stream in the left colon by a proximal colostomy and distal mucosal fistula. The rats were distributed randomly into two experimental groups of 13 animals each based on the time of sacrifice after surgical procedure (two or four weeks). Each group was then divided into two experimental subgroups that received either second daily enemas containing 0.9% saline solution or aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis at 0.2g/100g. Colitis was diagnosed by histopathological analysis and the detection of oxidative tissue damage by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the tissue levels of malondialdehyde between colon segments with and without fecal stream in each experimental group, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to verify the variance between the levels of oxidative stress according the duration of the irrigation; both tests determined significance at 5% (pirrigation were 0.05±0.006 and 0.06±0.006, and 0.05± 0.03 and 0.08 ±0.02, respectively. The malondialdehyde levels in the animals irrigated with Ilex paraguariensis with and without fecal stream after two and four weeks of irrigation were 0.010±0.002 and 0.02±0.004, and 0.03±0.007 and 0.04±0.01, respectively. After two and four weeks of intervention, the levels of malondialdehyde were lower in the animals irrigated with Ilex paraguariensis regardless of the time of irrigation (p=0.0001 and p=0.002, respectively). The daily rectal application of enemas containing aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis decreases oxidative tissue damage in the colon without fecal stream regardless of the time of irrigation.

  13. Lipid changes in normal and cancer colon cells during differentiation and apoptosis induced by fatty acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmanová, Jiřina; Vaculová, Alena; Hýžďalová, Martina; Koubková, Zuzana; Netíková, Jaromíra; Kozubík, Alois

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2007), S43 ISSN 1107-3756. [12th World Congress on Advances in Oncology and 10th International Symposium on Molecular Medicine . 11.10.2007-13.10.2007, Hersonissos, Crete] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/07/1178; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : colon cancer * lipids * apoptosis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  14. The influence of surgical transection and anastomosis on the rate of cell proliferation in the colonic epithelium of normal and DMH-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Tutton, P M

    1983-10-01

    Normal and DMH-treated male rats aged 18-20 weeks underwent surgical transection and anastomosis of the transverse colon. Animals were subsequently killed at intervals of 14, 30 and 72 days. Three hours prior to sacrifice animals were injected with vinblastine sulphate and mitotic indices were subsequently estimated in histological sections. Possible differences between experimental and control groups were tested using a Student's t-test. The results show that the accumulated mitotic indices in normal and DMH-treated colon are statistically similar. The results also show that transection and anastomosis stimulates cell division in both normal and DMH-treated colon and that the increase is of greater amplitude and more prolonged duration in the DMH-treated rats. Carcinomas developed close to the line of anastomosis in DMH-treated but not in control rats. The results support the hypothesis that non-specific injury to hyperplastic colonic epithelium promotes carcinogenesis.

  15. Phase- and size-adjusted CT cut-off for differentiating neoplastic lesions from normal colon in contrast-enhanced CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luboldt, W.; Kroll, M.; Wetter, A.; Vogl, T.J.; Toussaint, T.L.; Hoepffner, N.; Holzer, K.; Kluge, A.

    2004-01-01

    A computed tomography (CT) cut-off for differentiating neoplastic lesions (polyps/carcinoma) from normal colon in contrast-enhanced CT colonography (CTC) relating to the contrast phase and lesion size is determined. CT values of 64 colonic lesions (27 polyps 0 . The slope m was determined by linear regression in the correlation (lesion ∝[xA + (1 - x)V]//H) and the Y-intercept y 0 by the minimal shift of the line needed to maximize the accuracy of separating the colonic wall from the lesions. The CT value of the lesions correlated best with the intermediate phase: 0.4A+ 0.6V(r=0.8 for polyps ≥10 mm, r=0.6 for carcinomas, r=0.4 for polyps <10 mm). The accuracy in the differentiation between lesions and normal colonic wall increased with the height implemented as divisor, reached 91% and was obtained by the dynamic cut-off described by the formula: cut-off(A,V,H) = 1.1[0.4A + 0.6V]/H + 69.8. The CT value of colonic polyps or carcinomas can be increased extrinsically by scanning in the phase in which 0.4A + 0.6V reaches its maximum. Differentiating lesions from normal colon based on CT values is possible in contrast-enhanced CTC and improves when the cut-off is adjusted (normalized) to the contrast phase and lesion size. (orig.)

  16. [Role of oral cavity colonization resistance in dental caries development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushanko, T A; Chereda, V V; Loban', G A

    2013-01-01

    Colonization resistance is one of local immunity mechanisms determined by a combination of factors that inhibit the adhesion and growth of mucous membrane bacteria. We examined patients with different levels of caries intensity assessing oral mucosa colonization resistance by our own method. Caries development resulted in changes of colonization resistance with the increased rate of inhibition of the oral mucosa colonization resistance barrier.

  17. Histological study of the left colon of rats after extra-mucosal seromyotomy (continent valves: evaluation of colonic emptying Estudo histológico do cólon esquerdo de ratos após a confecção de seromiotomias extra-mucosas (válvulas continentes: avaliação do grau de esvaziamento do conteúdo colônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Deoti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To elaborate an animal model with the objective of studying the continence of the biological valves surgically performed in the left colon of rats. METHODS: Thirty four rats were operated on and divided into three groups (G. G1 (sham animals which underwent laparotomy only; G2 (perineal amputation without valves: animals which underwent amputation of the anal sphincter complex combined with a perineal colostomy; G3 (abdominoperineal amputation combined with valves: animals which underwent abdominoperineal amputation combined with three, equidistant and circumferential (360(0, extra-mucosal seromyotomies, of the descending colon, which were sutured to create biological valves combined with perineal colostomy. Animals were euthanized in the late postoperative period and surgical valves were saved for histopathological study. RESULTS: Surgical procedure provoked intestinal dilation, as well as segmented chambers along the descending colon. Retained fecalomas between the valves and proximal to them were also noted. Six rats died of intestinal obstruction due to fecal impaction at the surgical site. The sequence of events was: stasis, obstruction, distention, perforation, peritonitis and death. Histopathology showed inflammation due to foreign body type reaction around the sutured colon causing partial concentric stenosis, capable of interfering normal mechanical activity of the distal colon. This process resulted in retardation of the intestinal transit. CONCLUSION: Extra-mucosal seromyotomies, with seromuscular suture, can be used as an operative procedure capable of causing retardation in the intestinal transit of rats.OBJETIVO: Modelo de experimentação, com confecção de válvulas biológicas no cólon esquerdo de ratos com o objetivo de estudar o grau de continência dessas válvulas. MÉTODOS: Trinta e quatro ratos foram operados e distribuidos em três grupos: G1 (grupo simulado submetido apenas à laparotomia, G2 (grupo amputado

  18. Tryptophan autofluorescence imaging of neoplasms of the human colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Bhaskar; Renkoski, Timothy; Graves, Logan R.; Rial, Nathaniel S.; Tsikitis, Vassiliki Liana; Nfonsom, Valentine; Pugh, Judith; Tiwari, Piyush; Gavini, Hemanth; Utzinger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Detection of flat neoplasia is a major challenge in colorectal cancer screening, as missed lesions can lead to the development of an unexpected `incident' cancer prior to the subsequent endoscopy. The use of a tryptophan-related autofluorescence has been reported to be increased in murine intestinal dysplasia. The emission spectra of cells isolated from human adenocarcinoma and normal mucosa of the colon were studied and showed markedly greater emission intensity from cancerous cells compared to cells obtained from the surrounding normal mucosa. A proto-type multispectral imaging system optimized for ultraviolet macroscopic imaging of tissue was used to obtain autofluorescence images of surgical specimens of colonic neoplasms and normal mucosa after resection. Fluorescence images did not display the expected greater emission from the tumor as compared to the normal mucosa, most probably due to increased optical absorption and scattering in the tumors. Increased fluorescence intensity in neoplasms was observed however, once fluorescence images were corrected using reflectance images. Tryptophan fluorescence alone may be useful in differentiating normal and cancerous cells, while in tissues its autofluorescence image divided by green reflectance may be useful in displaying neoplasms.

  19. The Colonic Microbiome and Epithelial Transcriptome Are Altered in Rats Fed a High-Protein Diet Compared with a Normal-Protein Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Luo, Zhen; Guan, Leluo; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-03-01

    A high-protein diet (HPD) can produce hazardous compounds and reduce butyrate-producing bacteria in feces, which may be detrimental to gut health. However, information on whether HPD affects intestinal function is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of an HPD on the microbiota, microbial metabolites, and epithelial transcriptome in the colons of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were fed either a normal-protein diet (20% protein, 56% carbohydrate) or an HPD (45% protein, 30% carbohydrate) for 6 wk (n = 10 rats per group, individually fed). After 6 wk, the colonic microbiome, microbial metabolites, and epithelial transcriptome were determined. Compared with the normal-protein diet, the HPD adversely altered the colonic microbiota by increasing (P 0.7, P < 0.05) with genes and metabolites generally regarded as being involved in disease pathogenesis, suggesting these bacteria may mediate the detrimental effects of HPDs on colonic health. Our findings suggest that the HPD altered the colonic microbial community, shifted the metabolic profile, and affected the host response in the colons of rats toward an increased risk of colonic disease. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Prostaglandin E2-induced colonic secretion in patients with and without colorectal neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Nicolai; Tilotta, Maria C; Witte, Anne-Barbara

    2010-01-01

    colorectal neoplasia. Patients without endoscopic findings of neoplasia served as controls. Biopsy specimens were obtained from normally appearing mucosa in the sigmoid part of colon. Biopsies were mounted in miniaturized modified Ussing air-suction chambers. Indomethacin (10 microM), various stimulators...

  1. Tissue quantification of neutral and acid mucins in the mucosa of the colon with and without fecal stream in rats Quantificação tecidual de mucinas neutras e ácidas na mucosa do cólon com e sem trânsito intestinal em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Nonose

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To quantify the intensity of the expression of neutral and acids mucins in mucosa of the colon with and without fecal stream and to correlate this with the duration of fecal transit diversion. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were subjected to fecal transit deviation in the left colon by a proximal colostomy and a distal mucous fistula. The animals were divided into three experimental groups, according to whether sacrificing would be performed six, 12 or 18 weeks after surgery. The expression of neutral and acid mucins was evaluated using the histochemical techniques of Periodic Acid Schiff and Alcian Blue, respectively. The tissue mucins expression was quantified by computer-assisted image analysis software (NIS-Elements in the segments with and without fecal stream. Student's paired t test was used to compare the quantities of mucins in colon with or without fecal stream and variance between the experimental groups by ANOVA and Newman-Keuls post-test, establishing level of signification of 5% (pOBJETIVO: Quantificar a intensidade de expressão de mucinas neutras e ácidas na mucosa cólica provida e desprovida de trânsito intestinal relacionando-a ao tempo de exclusão fecal. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos à derivação do trânsito no cólon esquerdo por colostomia proximal e fístula mucosa distal. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos experimentais segundo o sacrifício ter sido realizado seis, 12 e 18 semanas após a cirurgia. A avaliação da expressão de mucinas neutras e ácidas na mucosa cólica foi realizada com as técnicas histoquímicas do Periódico Ácido de Schiff e Azul de Alcian, respectivamente. A quantificação da expressão tecidual das mucinas foi com auxílio de programa de análise de imagem assistida por computador (NIS-Elements nos segmentos providos e desprovidos de trânsito fecal. Utilizou-se o teste t de Student pareado na comparação da expressão de mucinas nos segmentos

  2. Proteome Analysis of Rheumatoid Arthritis Gut Mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Ellingsen, Torkell; Glerup, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory joint disease leading to cartilage damage and ultimately impaired joint function. To gain new insight into the systemic immune manifestations of RA, we characterized the colon mucosa proteome from 11 RA-patients and 10 healthy controls. The biopsies were...

  3. Comparison of microarray platforms for measuring differential microRNA expression in paired normal/cancer colon tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Callari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microarray technology applied to microRNA (miRNA profiling is a promising tool in many research fields; nevertheless, independent studies characterizing the same pathology have often reported poorly overlapping results. miRNA analysis methods have only recently been systematically compared but only in few cases using clinical samples. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the inter-platform reproducibility of four miRNA microarray platforms (Agilent, Exiqon, Illumina, and Miltenyi, comparing nine paired tumor/normal colon tissues. The most concordant and selected discordant miRNAs were further studied by quantitative RT-PCR. Globally, a poor overlap among differentially expressed miRNAs identified by each platform was found. Nevertheless, for eight miRNAs high agreement in differential expression among the four platforms and comparability to qRT-PCR was observed. Furthermore, most of the miRNA sets identified by each platform are coherently enriched in data from the other platforms and the great majority of colon cancer associated miRNA sets derived from the literature were validated in our data, independently from the platform. Computational integration of miRNA and gene expression profiles suggested that anti-correlated predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs are commonly enriched in cancer-related pathways and in genes involved in glycolysis and nutrient transport. CONCLUSIONS: Technical and analytical challenges in measuring miRNAs still remain and further research is required in order to increase consistency between different microarray-based methodologies. However, a better inter-platform agreement was found by looking at miRNA sets instead of single miRNAs and through a miRNAs - gene expression integration approach.

  4. Mucosal Proliferations in Completely Examined Fallopian Tubes Accompanying Ovarian Low-grade Serous Tumors: Neoplastic Precursor Lesions or Normal Variants of Benign Mucosa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsky, Rebecca J; Price, Matt A; Zaloudek, Charles J; Rabban, Joseph T

    2018-05-01

    Malignant transformation of the fallopian tube mucosa, followed by exfoliation of malignant cells onto ovarian and/or peritoneal surfaces, has been implicated as the origin of most pelvic high-grade serous carcinoma. Whether a parallel pathway exists for pelvic low-grade serous tumors [ovarian serous borderline tumor (SBT) and low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC)] remains to be fully elucidated. The literature is challenging to interpret due to variation in the diagnostic criteria and terminology for cytologically low-grade proliferations of the fallopian tube mucosa, as well as variation in fallopian tube specimen sampling. Recently, a candidate fallopian tube precursor to ovarian SBT, so-called papillary tubal hyperplasia, was described in advanced stage patients. The current study was designed to identify fallopian tube mucosal proliferations unique to patients with low-grade serous ovarian tumors (serous cystadenoma, SBT, LGSC) and to determine if they may represent precursors to the ovarian tumors. Fallopian tubes were thinly sliced and entirely examined microscopically, including all of the fimbriated and nonfimbriated portions of the tubes, from patients with ovarian serous cystadenoma (35), SBT (61), and LGSC (11) and from a control population of patients with ovarian mucinous cystadenoma (28), mature cystic teratoma (18) or uterine leiomyoma (14). The slides of the fallopian tubes were examined in randomized order, without knowledge of the clinical history or findings in the ovaries or other organs. Alterations of the mucosa of the fallopian tube were classified as type 1: nonpapillary proliferation of cytologically bland tubal epithelium exhibiting crowding, stratification, and/or tufting without papillary fibrovascular cores or as type 2: papillary alterations consisting of a fibrovascular core lined by a cytologically bland layer of tubal epithelium. A third abnormality, type 3, consisted of detached intraluminal papillae, buds, or nests of epithelium that

  5. Inactivation of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Reduces Bile Acid/Farnesoid X Receptor Expression through Fxr gene CpG Methylation in Mouse Colon Tumors and Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmin, Ornella I; Fang, Changming; Lyon, Adam M; Doetschman, Tom C; Thompson, Patricia A; Martinez, Jesse D; Smith, Jeffrey W; Lance, Peter M; Romagnolo, Donato F

    2016-02-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates bile acid (BA) metabolism and possesses tumor suppressor functions. FXR expression is reduced in colorectal tumors of subjects carrying inactivated adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Identifying the mechanisms responsible for this reduction may offer new molecular targets for colon cancer prevention. We investigated how APC inactivation influences the regulation of FXR expression in colonic mucosal cells. We hypothesized that APC inactivation would epigenetically repress nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (FXR gene name) expression through increased CpG methylation. Normal proximal colonic mucosa and normal-appearing adjacent colonic mucosa and colon tumors were collected from wild-type C57BL/6J and Apc-deficient (Apc(Min) (/+)) male mice, respectively. The expression of Fxr, ileal bile acid-binding protein (Ibabp), small heterodimer partner (Shp), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In both normal and adjacent colonic mucosa and colon tumors, we measured CpG methylation of Fxr in bisulfonated genomic DNA. In vitro, we measured the impact of APC inactivation and deoxycholic acid (DCA) treatment on FXR expression in human colon cancer HCT-116 cells transfected with silencing RNA for APC and HT-29 cells carrying inactivated APC. In Apc(Min) (/+) mice, constitutive CpG methylation of the Fxrα3/4 promoter was linked to reduced (60-90%) baseline Fxr, Ibabp, and Shp and increased Cox-2 expression in apparently normal adjacent mucosa and colon tumors. Apc knockdown in HCT-116 cells increased cellular myelocytomatosis (c-MYC) and lowered (∼50%) FXR expression, which was further reduced (∼80%) by DCA. In human HCT-116 but not HT-29 colon cancer cells, DCA induced FXR expression and lowered CpG methylation of FXR. We conclude that the loss of APC function favors the silencing of FXR expression through CpG hypermethylation in mouse colonic mucosa and human colon cells

  6. Identification of a developmental gene expression signature, including HOX genes, for the normal human colonic crypt stem cell niche: overexpression of the signature parallels stem cell overpopulation during colon tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatlekar, Seema; Addya, Sankar; Salunek, Moreh; Orr, Christopher R; Surrey, Saul; McKenzie, Steven; Fields, Jeremy Z; Boman, Bruce M

    2014-01-15

    Our goal was to identify a unique gene expression signature for human colonic stem cells (SCs). Accordingly, we determined the gene expression pattern for a known SC-enriched region--the crypt bottom. Colonic crypts and isolated crypt subsections (top, middle, and bottom) were purified from fresh, normal, human, surgical specimens. We then used an innovative strategy that used two-color microarrays (∼18,500 genes) to compare gene expression in the crypt bottom with expression in the other crypt subsections (middle or top). Array results were validated by PCR and immunostaining. About 25% of genes analyzed were expressed in crypts: 88 preferentially in the bottom, 68 in the middle, and 131 in the top. Among genes upregulated in the bottom, ∼30% were classified as growth and/or developmental genes including several in the PI3 kinase pathway, a six-transmembrane protein STAMP1, and two homeobox (HOXA4, HOXD10) genes. qPCR and immunostaining validated that HOXA4 and HOXD10 are selectively expressed in the normal crypt bottom and are overexpressed in colon carcinomas (CRCs). Immunostaining showed that HOXA4 and HOXD10 are co-expressed with the SC markers CD166 and ALDH1 in cells at the normal crypt bottom, and the number of these co-expressing cells is increased in CRCs. Thus, our findings show that these two HOX genes are selectively expressed in colonic SCs and that HOX overexpression in CRCs parallels the SC overpopulation that occurs during CRC development. Our study suggests that developmental genes play key roles in the maintenance of normal SCs and crypt renewal, and contribute to the SC overpopulation that drives colon tumorigenesis.

  7. Expression profiling of miR-96, miR-584 and miR-422a in colon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the correlation between miRNAs; miR-96, miR-422a and miR584, and colon cancer, and also to test whether any of these miRNAs can act as non-invasive biomarkers in colon cancer. Methods: The tumor samples and the corresponding normal mucosa used in this study were collected from 60 ...

  8. [Effects of Acupuncture Stimulation of Different Layers of "Tianshu" (ST 25) Region on Changes of Intra-colonic Pressure in Normal Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue-Yi; Yu, Zhi; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Xu, Bin

    2018-02-25

    To observe the effect of manual acupuncture stimulation of different layers (skin, muscle, peritoneum, sub-peritoneum) of "Tianshu" (ST 25) region on proximal colonic pressure in normal rats. Forty-eight male SD rats were divided into 6 groups: all layer-needling, brushing, cutaneous needling, muscular needling, peritoneum-needling and sub-peritoneum-needling groups ( n =8 in each group). Manual needling or brushing was applied to "Tianshu" (ST 25) region. The colonic internal pressure was measured by using an amplifier and a pressure transducer-connected balloon which was implanted into the colonic cavity about 6 cm from the ileocecal valve. For rats of the all-layer needling group, an acupuncture needle was inserted into ST 25 about 1 cm deep and rotated for a while, for rats of the brushing group, a Chinese calligraphy brush pen was used to brush the skin hair for 1 min. For rats of the rest 4 groups, an acupuncture needle was inserted into the skin, muscle layer after cutting open the skin (about 0.1 cm), the peritoneum layer after cutting open the skin and muscle layers, and the sub-peritoneum layer after cutting open the skin, muscle and peritoneum layers, respectively, and rotated using the uniform reinforcing-reducing technique for about 1 min at a frequency of 120 twirlings per minute every time. During manual needling stimulation of the full layers, cutaneous layer, muscle layer, peritoneum layer and the sub-peritoneum layer of bilateral "Tianshu" (ST 25), the internal pressure of proximal colon was significantly decreased relevant to pre-stimulation in each group ( P 0.05). During hair brushing of ST 25 region, the colonic pressure was observably increased relevant to pre-needling stimulation ( P ST 25 on both sides may lower internal pressure of proximal colon in normal rats, suggesting their involvement of acupuncture effect in relaxing proximal colonic contraction.

  9. Effect of a hyperlipidic diet rich in omegas 3, 6 and 9 on aberrant crypt formation in rat colonic mucosa Efeito de uma dieta hiperlipídica rica em ômegas 3, 6 e 9 na formação de criptas aberrantes em mucosa cólica de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idália Maria Brasil Burlamaqui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids influences the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF in colonic mucosa of Wistar rats treated with azoxymethane (AOM. METHODS: At eight weeks of life, the rats were assigned to four groups: Group I―standard diet (STD not treated with AOM; Group II―hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet (FED, not treated with AOM; Group III―STD, treated with AOM; Group IV―FED, treated with AOM. At 16 weeks, the animals were injected intraperitoneal with 0.9% saline solution (Group I and II or AOM at 15mg/Kg (Groups III and IV once a week for two weeks. Fifteen weeks later, the animals were euthanized. RESULTS: FED promoted weight gain in Groups II and IV compared to Groups I and III, respectively. The groups did not differ with regard to the total number of ACF. The Chi-square test revealed no predominance of the presence of foci with OBJETIVO: Determinar se uma dieta hipercalórica, hiperlipídica, rica em ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (FED tem influência na formação de focos de cripta aberrante (FCA em mucosa cólica de ratos Wistar expostos ao azoximetano (AOM. MÉTODOS: Com oito semanas de vida, os ratos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: Grupo I: Dieta padrão (SD sem AOM; Grupo II: FED, sem AOM; Grupo III: SD, com AOM; Grupo IV: FED com AOM. Com 16 semanas, os animais dos grupos I e II receberam injeções intraperitoneais de solução salina 0,9%, enquanto os dos grupos III e IV receberam AOM na dose de 15mg/Kg de peso, 1 vez por semana por duas semanas. Quinze semanas após, os animais foram mortos. RESULTADOS: FED promoveu aumento de peso nos grupos II e IV em relação aos grupos I e III. Não houve aumento significante no número total de FCA entre os grupos. Em relação à multiplicidade das criptas por FCA, o teste do qui-quadrado mostrou que não houve predominância da presença <4 criptas por foco. Contudo, focos ≥5 criptas

  10. [Clinical significance of signal transduction and activators of transcription 3, E-cadherin and vimentin in colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Xu, Jian-Hua; Liu, Tao; Cui, Hao

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of STAT3, E-cadherin and vimentin in colon cancer. Samples of colon cancer tissue and adjacent normal tissue were procured from 70 patients with colon cancer. The expressions of STAT3, E-cadherin and vimentin were detected by immunohistochemistry. Associations of clinicopathological characteristics and these three factors were evaluated. STAT3, E-cadherin, vimentin were positive in 74.3%,32.9%, and 78.6% in the colon cancer tissues, respectively, and were 15.7%, 82.9%, and 12.9% in normal colon mucosa tissues, respectively. They were correlated with tumor differentiation, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, and TNM staging(Pcolon cancer. The expressions of STAT3, E-cadherin and vimentin may serve as prognostic indicators for patients with colon cancer.

  11. Detection of human papillomavirus infection by molecular tests and its relation to colonic polyps and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Gazzaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To prospectively examine the association between human papilloma virus (HPV colonization of the colonic mucosa and the development of colorectal polyps (CRPs, and colorectal cancer (CRC in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A case control study was performed between January 2013 and December 2014. All eligible patients underwent standard diagnostic colonoscopy. Patients with polyps or colorectal cancer were considered cases, while those with any other endoscopic findings were controls. Biopsy samples from polyps and tumors, and/or from normal colonic mucosa were acquired. Human papilloma virus colonization was detected using a hybrid capture technique of samples taken from both normal tissue, and CRPs and CRC. The association between HPV and CRPs/CRC was evaluated. Results: A total of 132 patients were recruited. The mean age was 53 (±15.9 years. Sixty patients had endoscopically detectable CRPs/CRC, and 72 had either inflammation or normal endoscopic evaluations. Only 4 (0.8% of the 132 samples that were collected and analyzed were positive for the HPV gene. Statistical analysis did not identify any significant association between HPV colonization and the presence of CRPs/CRC. The only significant predictor of detecting CRPs/CRC on colonoscopy was symptomatic presentation (odds ratio=11.072, 95% confidence interval 4.7-26.2, p<0.001. Conclusion: Human papilloma virus colonic colonization is rare in Saudi Arabia. An association between HPV colonization and CRP/CRC development could not be identified in this cohort of patients.

  12. Apoptotic block in colon cancer cells may be rectified by lentivirus mediated overexpression of caspase-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Wang, C; Shen, X; Yu, Y; Rui, Y; Zhang, D; Zhou, Z

    2013-12-01

    At present, the inhibition of apoptosis during pathogenesis of colorectal cancer is widely recognized while the role of caspase-9 in this process remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the differential expression of caspase-9 and evaluate the therapeutic potential of expression intervention in this study. We first examined the different expression of caspase-9 in normal colon mucosa, adenoma and cancer, investigating the relationship between its expression and clinico-pathological characteristics. Secondly, overexpression of caspase-9 was established in colon cancer cell lines by lentivirus infection to study the changes in growth, proliferation and apoptosis. Compared with normal colon mucosa, the expression of caspase-9 was higher in adenoma while lower in cancer both at mRNA and protein level (P expression is more common in poorly differentiated cancers (P expression of caspase-9, poorer colony formation and slower cell proliferation. In terms of apoptosis related indicators, caspase-9 overexpression leads to higher apoptosis rate and GO/G1 arrest, while up-regulating the expression of caspase-3 (P expression from colon mucosa, adenoma to cancer suggested it may be involved in the carcinogenesis of colon cancer. The overexpression of caspase-9 exhibits an inhibitory role in cancer growth and proliferation while promoting apoptosis. However, a non-apoptotic role of caspase-9 facilitating differentiation was also implied.

  13. Differences in telomerase activity between colon and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiomamitis, Georgios D; Notas, George; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Zizi-Sermpetzoglou, Adamantia; Georgiadou, Maria; Sfakianaki, Ourania; Kouroumallis, Elias

    2014-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers and the third leading cause of cancer death in both sexes. The disease progresses as a multistep process and is associated with genetic alterations. One of the characteristic features of cancer is telomerase activation. We sought to evaluate the differences in telomerase activity between colon cancer and adjacent normal tissue and to correlate the differences in telomerase activity between different locations with clinicopathological factors and survival. Matched colon tumour samples and adjacent normal mucosa samples 10 cm away from the tumour were collected during colectomy. We assessed telomerase activity using real time polymerase chain reaction. Several pathological characteristics of tumours, including p53, Ki-67, p21, bcl2 and MLH1 expression were also studied. We collected samples from 49 patients. There was a significantly higher telomerase activity in colon cancer tissue than normal tissue. Adenocarcinomas of the right colon express significantly higher telomerase than left-side cancers. Colon cancers and their adjacent normal tissue had significantly more telomerase and were more positive to MLH1 than rectal cancers. The expression of p53 negatively correlated to telomerase activity and was linked to better patient survival. Colon and rectal cancers seem to have different telomerase and MLH1 profiles, and this could be another factor for their different biologic and clinical behaviour and progression. These results support the idea that the large bowel cannot be considered a uniform organ, at least in the biology of cancer.

  14. MALToma of the Transverse colon, Ascending colon and Caecum: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    RESULT. We herein report a case of a 40-year-old male with mucosa - associated lymphoid tissue. [MALT] lymphoma of the transverse colon, ascending colon and caecum. He presented with severe abdominal pains and a centrally located huge abdominal mass for which a surgical resection was done. Histologically.

  15. 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase is an in vivo suppressor of colon tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Seung-Jae; Rerko, Ronald M; Yan, Min; Platzer, Petra; Guda, Kishore; Dotson, Angela; Lawrence, Earl; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Lovgren, Alysia Kern; Luo, Guangbin; Pretlow, Theresa P; Newman, Robert A; Willis, Joseph; Dawson, Dawn; Markowitz, Sanford D

    2006-08-08

    15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) is a prostaglandin-degrading enzyme that is highly expressed in normal colon mucosa but is ubiquitously lost in human colon cancers. Herein, we demonstrate that 15-PGDH is active in vivo as a highly potent suppressor of colon neoplasia development and acts in the colon as a required physiologic antagonist of the prostaglandin-synthesizing activity of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) oncogene. We first show that 15-PGDH gene knockout induces a marked 7.6-fold increase in colon tumors arising in the Min (multiple intestinal neoplasia) mouse model. Furthermore, 15-PGDH gene knockout abrogates the normal resistance of C57BL/6J mice to colon tumor induction by the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM), conferring susceptibility to AOM-induced adenomas and carcinomas in situ. Susceptibility to AOM-induced tumorigenesis is mediated by a marked induction of dysplasia, proliferation, and cyclin D1 expression throughout microscopic aberrant crypt foci arising in 15-PGDH null colons and is concomitant with a doubling of prostaglandin E(2) in 15-PGDH null colonic mucosa. A parallel role for 15-PGDH loss in promoting the earliest steps of colon neoplasia in humans is supported by our finding of a universal loss of 15-PGDH expression in microscopic colon adenomas recovered from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, including adenomas as small as a single crypt. These models thus delineate the in vivo significance of 15-PGDH-mediated negative regulation of the COX-2 pathway and moreover reveal the particular importance of 15-PGDH in opposing the neoplastic progression of colonic aberrant crypt foci.

  16. Avaliação dos níveis de peroxidação lipídica em células da mucosa cólica após aplicação de enemas com peróxido de hidrogênio: estudo experimental em ratos Evaluation of lipid peroxidation levels on mucosa colonic cells afther application of hydrogen peroxide in enemas: experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Helena Sousa Marques

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de clisteres contendo peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2 determina o aparecimento de quadros graves de colite, algumas vezes de evolução fatal. É possível que a colite induzida por H2O2 possa ocorrer pela quebra da barreira funcional do epitélio cólico por estresse oxidativo. Objetivo: Avaliar os níveis de peroxidação lipídica em células da mucosa cólica após instilação de H2O2 no reto excluso de trânsito fecal. Método: Vinte seis ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos a colostomia proximal terminal no cólon descendente e fístula mucosa distal. Os animais foram randomizados em dois grupos segundo o sacrifício ter sido realizado duas ou quatro semanas após a derivação intestinal. Cada grupo experimental foi dividido e dois subgrupos segundo aplicação de clisteres, em dias alternados, contendo solução fisiológica a 0,9% ou H2O2 a 3%. O diagnóstico de colite foi estabelecido por estudo histopatológico e os níveis de dano oxidativo tecidual pela dosagem de malondialdeído por espectrofotometria. Os resultados foram analisados com os testes de Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis, estabelecendo-se nível de significância de 5% (pThe use of rectal enemas with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 determines the onset of severe colitis, sometimes with fatal evolution. It is possible that H2O2-induced colitis can occur by damage to the functional epithelial barrier of the colon by oxidative stress. Objective: The aim of present study was evaluate the levels of lipid peroxidation in cells of the colonic mucosa after instillation of H2O2 into the rectum excluded from fecal transit. Method: Twenty six male Wistar rats were undergone to proximal terminal colostomy in the descending colon and distal mucous fistula. The animals were randomized in two experimental groups according to the sacrifice was made two or four weeks after diversion of the fecal stream. Each experimental group was divided into two subgroups second application of

  17. Reduction in oxidative stress levels in the colonic mucosa without fecal stream after the application of enemas containing aqueous Ilex paraguariensis extract Redução dos níveis de estresse oxidativo na mucosa cólica sem trânsito intestinal após aplicação de enemas contendo extrato aquoso de Ilex paraguariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lorenzetti da Cunha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the antioxidant effects of enemas containing aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis, comparing segments with and without fecal stream and correlating the segments with the duration of intervention. METHODS: Twenty-six Wistar rats were subjected to a diversion of the fecal stream in the left colon by a proximal colostomy and distal mucosal fistula. The rats were distributed randomly into two experimental groups of 13 animals each based on the time of sacrifice after surgical procedure (two or four weeks. Each group was then divided into two experimental subgroups that received either second daily enemas containing 0.9% saline solution or aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis at 0.2g/100g. Colitis was diagnosed by histopathological analysis and the detection of oxidative tissue damage by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the tissue levels of malondialdehyde between colon segments with and without fecal stream in each experimental group, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to verify the variance between the levels of oxidative stress according the duration of the irrigation; both tests determined significance at 5% (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos antioxidantes de clisteres contendo extrato aquoso de Ilex paraguariensis comparando segmentos com e sem trânsito fecal e correlacionando com o tempo de intervenção. MÉTODOS: Vinte e seis ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos à derivação do trânsito no cólon esquerdo pela confecção de colostomia proximal e fístula mucosa distal. Foram divididos de forma randomizada em dois grupos experimentais de 13 animais, de acordo com o sacrifício ser realizado após duas ou quatro semanas do procedimento cirúrgico. Cada grupo foi dividido em dois subgrupos experimentais segundo a aplicação diária ter sido realizada com enemas diários contendo solução fisiológica a 0,9% ou extrato aquoso de Ilex paraguariensis na concentra

  18. Late change of normal tissue treated either by high dose rate or low dose rate interstitial brachytherapy. A retrospective comparative study on oral and oropharyngeal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nose, Takayuki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Nishiyama, Kinji; Inoue, Toshihiko

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare late changes of normal tissue treated either by high dose rate (HDR) or low dose rate (LDR) interstitial brachytherapy. For HDR group, 22 oropharynx cancer patients who were treated by HDR Ir-192 interstitial brachytherapy with/without external beam radiotherapy in Osaka (Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases and Osaka University Hospital) during June 1994 through April 2000 and came to the follow-up clinics during July 2000 through December 2000 were studied. For LDR group, 26 oropharynx cancer patients who were treated by LDR Ir-192 interstitial brachytherapy with/without external beam radiotherapy in Nancy (Centre Alexis Vautrin) during February 1989 through July 1998 and came to the follow-up clinics during April 1999 through July 1999 were studied. The standard HDR schedules were 54 Gy/9 fr/5-6 days for monotherapy and 18-24 Gy/3-4 fr/2-3 days following 45 Gy external beam radiotherapy. The standard LDR schedules were 65 Gy/5-6 days for monotherapy and 15-25 Gy/2-3 days following 50 Gy external beam radiotherapy. For evaluation of the late changes, we scored the mucosal and muscular changes inside the treated volume using the modified Dische score system and the RTOG/EORTC late radiation morbidity scoring scheme. For 6 items of the modified Dische score system, no significant difference was found between HDR and LDR groups. For the remaining 2 items (pallor, mobility impairment of faucial pillars), LDR group showed higher scores (p=0.010, 0.002). LDR group showed a trend toward higher scores for the RTOG/EORTC scheme (p=0.059). Some predict late effects by HDR interstitial brachytherapy to be severer than by LDR because no dose-rate effects can be expected. Our study, however, showed at least equivalent or even milder late changes by HDR. Appropriate fractionation schedule and extra geometrical sparing effects by optimized dose distribution of HDR group might result in milder late changes. With our

  19. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals a Massive, Aneuploidy-Dependent Transcriptional Deregulation and Distinct Differences between Lymph Node–Negative and Lymph Node–Positive Colon Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grade, Marian; Hörmann, Patrick; Becker, Sandra; Hummon, Amanda B.; Wangsa, Danny; Varma, Sudhir; Simon, Richard; Liersch, Torsten; Becker, Heinz; Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Ried, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To characterize patterns of global transcriptional deregulation in primary colon carcinomas, we did gene expression profiling of 73 tumors [Unio Internationale Contra Cancrum stage II (n = 33) and stage III (n = 40)] using oligonucleotide microarrays. For 30 of the tumors, expression profiles were compared with those from matched normal mucosa samples. We identified a set of 1,950 genes with highly significant deregulation between tumors and mucosa samples (P 5-fold average expression difference between normal colon mucosa and carcinomas, including up-regulation of MYC and of HMGA1, a putative oncogene. Furthermore, we identified 68 genes that were significantly differentially expressed between lymph node–negative and lymph node–positive tumors (P deregulated genes were validated using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR in >40 tumor and normal mucosa samples with good concordance between the techniques. Finally, we established a relationship between specific genomic imbalances, which were mapped for 32 of the analyzed colon tumors by comparative genomic hybridization, and alterations of global transcriptional activity. Previously, we had conducted a similar analysis of primary rectal carcinomas. The systematic comparison of colon and rectal carcinomas revealed a significant overlap of genomic imbalances and transcriptional deregulation, including activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade, suggesting similar pathogenic pathways. PMID:17210682

  20. The significance of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV & DNA Topoisomerase II alpha (DNA-Topo II alpha immunoreactivity in normal oral mucosa, Oral Epithelial Dysplasia (OED and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Mohamed M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Head and neck cancer including oral cancer is considered to develop by accumulated genetic alterations and the major pathway is cancerization from lesions such as intraepithelial dysplasia in oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia. The relationship of proliferation markers with the grading of dysplasia is uncertain. The involvement of EBV in oral carcinogenesis is not fully understood. Aim The present study was designed to investigate the role of EBV and DNA Topoisomerase II∝ (DNA-Topo II∝ during oral carcinogenesis and to examine the prognostic significance of these protein expressions in OSCCs. Methods Using specific antibodies for EBV and DNA-Topo II∝, we examined protein expressions in archival lesion tissues from 16 patients with oral epithelial dysplasia, 22 oral squamous cell carcinoma and 20 normal oral mucosa by immunohistochemistry. Clinical information was obtained through the computerized retrospective database from the tumor registry. Results DNA-Topo II∝ was expressed in all examined specimens. Analysis of Variance ANOVA revealed highly significant difference (P 0.05 in inferior surface of tongue and in hard palatal tissues. Significant differences were observed between OEDs and NSE (P Conclusion EBV and DNA Topo II-αLI expression are possible indicators in oral carcinogenesis and may be valuable diagnostic and prognostic indices in oral carcinoma.

  1. A histochemical comparison of methyl green-pyronin, and hematoxylin and eosin for detecting apoptotic cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and normal oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumedha, S; Kotrashetti, V S; Somannavar, P; Nayak, R; Babji, D

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of apoptotic cells in oral pathological states could be useful for determining the rates of tissue turnover, which would help determine prognosis. The use of histochemical stains such as hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) and methyl green-pyronin (MGP) can provide a simple and cost-effective method for detecting apoptotic cells. We compared the efficacy of MGP and H & E for detecting apoptotic cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oral leukoplakia (OL), oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and normal oral mucosa (NOM). Ten cases each of OSCC, OSMF, OL and NOM were retrieved from the archives and two serial sections were stained, one with H & E and the other with MGP. Apoptotic cells were identified at 100 x magnification and the apoptotic index was calculated. Apoptotic cells were distinguished more readily in MGP stained sections than in those stained with H & E. Also, the apoptotic cell count was greater in OSCC compared to OL, OSMF and NOM. We concluded that MGP staining can be used as a routine, cost-effective method for detecting apoptotic cells.

  2. Inverted Lymphoglandular Polyp in Descending Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengmei Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old male with a history of left colon cancer, status post left colon resection for 12 years, presented with rectal bleeding. Colonoscopic examination revealed an 8 mm sessile polyp in the proximal descending colon. Microscopic examination showed that the surface of this polyp was covered with a layer of normal colonic mucosa with focal surface erosion. In the submucosal layer, an intimate admixture of multiple cystically dilated glands and prominent lymphoid aggregates with germinal centers was seen. The glands were lined by columnar epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining showed the glands were positive for CK20 and CDX2 and negative for CK7, with a low proliferative index, mostly consistent with reactive colonic glands. The patient remained asymptomatic after one-year follow-up. A review of the literature shows very rare descriptions of similar lesions, but none fits exactly this pattern. We would designate this inverted lymphoglandular polyp and present this case to raise the awareness of recognizing this unusual histological entity.

  3. Up-regulation of CHAF1A, a poor prognostic factor, facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zehua; Cui, Feifei; Yu, Fudong; Peng, Xiao; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Dawei [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated First People’s Hospital, 85 Wujin Road, Shanghai 200080 (China); Lu, Su [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated First People’s Hospital, 85 Wujin Road, Shanghai 200080 (China); Tang, Huamei, E-mail: tanghuamei@gmail.com [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated First People’s Hospital, 85 Wujin Road, Shanghai 200080 (China); Peng, Zhihai, E-mail: zhihai.peng@hotmail.com [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated First People’s Hospital, 85 Wujin Road, Shanghai 200080 (China)

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • We identified that CHAF1A was up-regulated in colon tumor mucosa in TMA. • The expression pattern of CHAF1A was validated with qPCR and western-blot. • CHAF1A overexpression is an independent indicator for poor colon cancer survival. • CHAF1A facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer both in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Deregulation of chromatin assembly factor 1, p150 subunit A (CHAF1A) has recently been reported to be involved in the development of some cancer types. In this study, we identified that the frequency of positive CHAF1A staining in primary tumor mucosa (45.8%, 93 of 203 samples) was significantly elevated compared to that in paired normal mucosa (18.7%, 38 of 203 samples). The increased expression was strongly associated with cancer stage, tumor invasion, and histological grade. The five-year survival rate of patients with CHAF1A-positive tumors was remarkably lower than that of patients with CHAF1A-negative tumors. Colon cancer cells with CHAF1A knockdown exhibited decreased cell growth index, reduction in colony formation ability, elevated cell apoptosis rate as well as impaired colon tumorigenicity in nude mice. Hence, CHAF1A upregulation functions as a poor prognostic indicator of colon cancer, potentially contributing to its progression by mediating cancer cell proliferation.

  4. Up-regulation of CHAF1A, a poor prognostic factor, facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zehua; Cui, Feifei; Yu, Fudong; Peng, Xiao; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Dawei; Lu, Su; Tang, Huamei; Peng, Zhihai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We identified that CHAF1A was up-regulated in colon tumor mucosa in TMA. • The expression pattern of CHAF1A was validated with qPCR and western-blot. • CHAF1A overexpression is an independent indicator for poor colon cancer survival. • CHAF1A facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer both in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Deregulation of chromatin assembly factor 1, p150 subunit A (CHAF1A) has recently been reported to be involved in the development of some cancer types. In this study, we identified that the frequency of positive CHAF1A staining in primary tumor mucosa (45.8%, 93 of 203 samples) was significantly elevated compared to that in paired normal mucosa (18.7%, 38 of 203 samples). The increased expression was strongly associated with cancer stage, tumor invasion, and histological grade. The five-year survival rate of patients with CHAF1A-positive tumors was remarkably lower than that of patients with CHAF1A-negative tumors. Colon cancer cells with CHAF1A knockdown exhibited decreased cell growth index, reduction in colony formation ability, elevated cell apoptosis rate as well as impaired colon tumorigenicity in nude mice. Hence, CHAF1A upregulation functions as a poor prognostic indicator of colon cancer, potentially contributing to its progression by mediating cancer cell proliferation

  5. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma; Colon carcinoma ... eat may play a role in getting colon cancer. Colon cancer may be linked to a high-fat, ...

  6. Proteomic analysis of minute amount of colonic biopsies by enteroscopy sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xing [Department of Analytical Chemistry and CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Xu, Yanli [Fuyang People’s Hospital (China); Meng, Qian [Department of Analytical Chemistry and CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Zheng, Qingqing [Digestive Endoscopic Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital (China); Wu, Jianhong [Department of Analytical Chemistry and CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Wang, Chen; Jia, Weiping [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Clinical Center for Diabetes, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital (China); Figeys, Daniel [Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, and Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Ottawa (Canada); Chang, Ying, E-mail: emulan@163.com [Digestive Endoscopic Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital (China); Zhou, Hu, E-mail: zhouhu@simm.ac.cn [Department of Analytical Chemistry and CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2016-08-05

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of malignant tumor worldwide. Currently, although many researchers have been devoting themselves in CRC studies, the process of locating biomarkers for CRC early diagnosis and prognostic is still very slow. Using a centrifugal proteomic reactor-based proteomic analysis of minute amount of colonic biopsies by enteroscopy sampling, 2620 protein groups were quantified between cancer mucosa and adjacent normal colorectal mucosa. Of which, 403 protein groups were differentially expressed with statistic significance between cancer and normal tissues, including 195 up-regulated and 208 down-regulated proteins in cancer tissues. Three proteins (SOD3, PRELP and NGAL) were selected for further Western blot validation. And the resulting Western blot experimental results were consistent with the quantitative proteomic data. SOD3 and PRELP are down-regulated in CRC mucosa comparing to adjacent normal tissue, while NGAL is up-regulated in CRC mucosa. In conclusion, the centrifugal proteomic reactor-based label-free quantitative proteomic approach provides a highly sensitive and powerful tool for analyzing minute protein sample from tiny colorectal biopsies, which may facilitate CRC biomarkers discovery for diagnoses and prognoses. -- Highlights: •Minute amount of colonic biopsies by endoscopy is suitable for proteomic analysis. •Centrifugal proteomic reactor can be used for processing tiny clinic biopsy sample. •SOD3 and PRELP are down-regulated in CRC, while NGAL is up-regulated in CRC.

  7. Proteomic analysis of minute amount of colonic biopsies by enteroscopy sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xing; Xu, Yanli; Meng, Qian; Zheng, Qingqing; Wu, Jianhong; Wang, Chen; Jia, Weiping; Figeys, Daniel; Chang, Ying; Zhou, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of malignant tumor worldwide. Currently, although many researchers have been devoting themselves in CRC studies, the process of locating biomarkers for CRC early diagnosis and prognostic is still very slow. Using a centrifugal proteomic reactor-based proteomic analysis of minute amount of colonic biopsies by enteroscopy sampling, 2620 protein groups were quantified between cancer mucosa and adjacent normal colorectal mucosa. Of which, 403 protein groups were differentially expressed with statistic significance between cancer and normal tissues, including 195 up-regulated and 208 down-regulated proteins in cancer tissues. Three proteins (SOD3, PRELP and NGAL) were selected for further Western blot validation. And the resulting Western blot experimental results were consistent with the quantitative proteomic data. SOD3 and PRELP are down-regulated in CRC mucosa comparing to adjacent normal tissue, while NGAL is up-regulated in CRC mucosa. In conclusion, the centrifugal proteomic reactor-based label-free quantitative proteomic approach provides a highly sensitive and powerful tool for analyzing minute protein sample from tiny colorectal biopsies, which may facilitate CRC biomarkers discovery for diagnoses and prognoses. -- Highlights: •Minute amount of colonic biopsies by endoscopy is suitable for proteomic analysis. •Centrifugal proteomic reactor can be used for processing tiny clinic biopsy sample. •SOD3 and PRELP are down-regulated in CRC, while NGAL is up-regulated in CRC.

  8. Up-regulation of CNDP2 facilitates the proliferation of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Conglong; Zhang, Zhenwei; Yu, Honglan; Yu, Miao; Yuan, Kaitao; Yang, Ting; Miao, Mingyong; Shi, Hanping

    2014-05-21

    Cytosolic nonspecific dipetidase (CN2) belongs to the family of M20 metallopeptidases. It was stated in previous articles that higher expression levels of CN2 were observed in renal cell carcinoma and breast cancer. Our study explored the correlation between CN2 and colon carcinogenesis. We analysed the relationship between 183 patients clinicopathological characteristics and its CN2 expression. To detect the levels of CN2 in colon cancer cell lines and colon cancer tissues by western blot. To verify cell proliferation in colon cancer cells with knockdown of CNDP2 and explore the causes of these phenomena. The expression levels of CN2 in clinical colon tumors and colon cancer cell lines were significantly higher than that in normal colon mucosa and colon cell lines. The difference in CN2 levels was associated with tumor location (right- and left-sided colon cancer), but there was no significant association with age, gender, tumor size, tumor grade, tumor stage or serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Knockdown of CNDP2 inhibited cell proliferation, blocked cell cycle progression and retarded carcinogenesis in an animal model. The signaling pathway through which knockdown of CNDP2 inhibited cell proliferation and tumorigenesis involved in EGFR, cyclin B1 and cyclin E. Knockdown of CNDP2 can inhibit the proliferation of colon cancer in vitro and retarded carcinogenesis in vivo.

  9. The human PKP2/plakophilin-2 gene is induced by Wnt/β-catenin in normal and colon cancer-associated fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niell, Núria; Larriba, María Jesús; Ferrer-Mayorga, Gemma; Sánchez-Pérez, Isabel; Cantero, Ramón; Real, Francisco X; Del Peso, Luis; Muñoz, Alberto; González-Sancho, José Manuel

    2018-02-15

    Colorectal cancer results from the malignant transformation of colonic epithelial cells. Stromal fibroblasts are the main component of the tumour microenvironment, and play an important role in the progression of this and other neoplasias. Wnt/β-catenin signalling is essential for colon homeostasis, but aberrant, constitutive activation of this pathway is a hallmark of colorectal cancer. Here we present the first transcriptomic study on the effect of a Wnt factor on human colonic myofibroblasts. Wnt3A regulates the expression of 1,136 genes, of which 662 are upregulated and 474 are downregulated in CCD-18Co cells. A set of genes encoding inhibitors of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway stand out among those induced by Wnt3A, which suggests that there is a feedback inhibitory mechanism. We also show that the PKP2 gene encoding the desmosomal protein Plakophilin-2 is a novel direct transcriptional target of Wnt/β-catenin in normal and colon cancer-associated fibroblasts. PKP2 is induced by β-catenin/TCF through three binding sites in the gene promoter and one additional binding site located in an enhancer 20 kb upstream from the transcription start site. Moreover, Plakophilin-2 antagonizes Wnt/β-catenin transcriptional activity in HEK-293T cells, which suggests that it may act as an intracellular inhibitor of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Our results demonstrate that stromal fibroblasts respond to canonical Wnt signalling and that Plakophilin-2 plays a role in the feedback control of this effect suggesting that the response to Wnt factors in the stroma may modulate Wnt activity in the tumour cells. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  10. Newly Diagnosed Colonic Adenocarcinoma: The Presenting Sign in a Young Woman with Undiagnosed Crohn’s Disease in the Absence of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and a Normal Microsatellite Instability Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Matthew Lowenthal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis has long been linked with an increased risk for colonic adenocarcinoma, whereas Crohn’s disease (CD has recently been reported to pose a similar increased risk. We report a 33-year-old healthy female with no family history who presented with abdominal pain and a colon mass. Histopathology revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma extending through the muscularis propria with metastatic lymph nodes and intact mismatch repair proteins by immunohistochemical expression and gene sequencing. The nonneoplastic grossly uninvolved background mucosa showed marked crypt distortion, crypt abscesses, CD-like lymphoid hyperplasia, transmural inflammation, and reactive epithelial atypia. Additional patient questioning revealed frequent loose stools since she was a teenager leading to diagnosis of a previously undiagnosed CD without primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC. The adenocarcinoma is suspected to be related to the underlying CD. Newly diagnosed adenocarcinoma in a young female as the presenting sign for CD in the absence of PSC is extremely rare.

  11. Quantitative gene expression underlying 18f-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Bodil E.; Binderup, Tina; Kjær, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Positron emission tomography (PET) with the glucose analogue 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is widely used in oncologic imaging. This study examines the molecular mechanism underlying the detection of colon cancer (CC) by FDG-PET. Methods: Pre-operative PET/CT scans and tissue samples....... Mean gene expression levels of GLUT1, HK2, ki67, HIF1α, VEGF and CaIX, but not HK1, were significantly higher in primary tumours than in surrounding normal colonic mucosa. Linear regressions pairing tumour SUVmax with gene expression levels showed significant correlations between SUVmax and HK2, ki67...

  12. Smoothelin expression in the gastrointestinal tract: implication in colonic inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Owen T M; Chiles, Lauren; Levy, Mary; Zhai, Jing; Yerian, Lisa M; Xu, Haodong; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Soffer, Edy E; Conklin, Jeffrey L; Dhall, Deepti; Kahn, Melissa E; Balzer, Bonnie L; Amin, Mahul B; Wang, Hanlin L

    2013-10-01

    Colonic inertia is a frustrating motility disorder to patients, clinicians, and pathologists. The pathogenesis is largely unknown. The aims of this study were to: (1) characterize the expression of smoothelin, a novel smooth muscle-specific contractile protein expressed only by terminally differentiated smooth muscle cells, in the normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract; and (2) determine whether smoothelin is aberrantly expressed in patients with colonic inertia. A total of 57 resections of the normal GI tract (distal esophagus to left colon) were obtained from patients without GI motor dysfunction. Sixty-one colon resections were obtained from patients with a clinical diagnosis of colonic inertia. Smoothelin immunostaining was conducted on full-thickness tissue sections. In the nondysmotile controls, strong and diffuse cytoplasmic staining for smoothelin was observed in both the inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of the muscularis propria (MP) throughout the entire GI tract. The muscularis mucosae (MM) and muscular vessel walls were either completely negative or only patchily and weakly stained. The 1 exception to this pattern was observed in the distal esophagus, in which the MM was also diffusely and strongly stained. In cases with colonic inertia, a moderate to marked reduction of smoothelin immunoreactivity was observed in 15 of 61 (24.6%) colon resections, selectively seen in the outer layer of the MP. The data demonstrate that smoothelin is differentially expressed in the MP and MM of the normal GI tract and suggest that defective smoothelin expression may play a role in the pathogenesis of colonic inertia in a subset of patients.

  13. Effects of nonpathogenic bacteria on cytokine secretion by human intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borruel, Natalia; Casellas, Francesc; Antolín, María; Llopis, Marta; Carol, Monica; Espíin, Eloy; Naval, Javier; Guarner, Francisco; Malagelada, Juan R

    2003-04-01

    The human intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, and the mucosa is the interface between the immune system and the luminal environment. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether host-bacteria interactions influence mucosal cytokine production. Macroscopically normal colonic specimens were obtained at surgery from eight patients with neoplasm, and inflamed ileal specimens were obtained from two patients with Crohn's disease. Mucosal explants were cultured for 24 h with either nonpathogenic Escherichia coli ECOR-26, Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001, L. casei DN-114 056, L. casei ATCC-334, or Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB-10. Each study included blank wells with no bacteria. Tissue and bacteria viability were confirmed by LDH release and culture. Concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, transforming growth factor beta1, interleukin (IL)-8, and IL-10 was measured in supernatants. In parallel experiments, neutralizing anti-TNFalpha antibody was added to the culture. Co-culture of mucosa with bacteria did not modify LDH release. Co-culture with L. casei strains significantly reduced TNFalpha release, whereas E. coli increased it. These effects were observed both in normal and inflamed mucosa. In combination studies, L. casei DN-114 001 prevented TNFalpha stimulation by E. coli. L. casei DN-114 001 also reduced IL-8 release via a TNFalpha-independent pathway. L. casei DN-114 056 or E. coli increased IL-10 release in the presence of neutralizing anti-TNFalpha. Nonpathogenic bacteria interact with human intestinal mucosa and can induce changes in cytokine production that are strain specific.

  14. Overexpression of GRK3, Promoting Tumor Proliferation, Is Predictive of Poor Prognosis in Colon Cancer

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    Tao Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 3 (GRK3, which belongs to a subfamily of kinases called GRKs, acts as a promoter mechanism in some cancer types. Our study found that GRK3 was significantly overexpressed in 162 pairs of colon cancer tissues than in the matched noncancerous mucosa (P<0.01. Based on immunohistochemistry staining of TMAs, GRK3 was dramatically stained positive in primary colon cancer (130/180, 72.22%, whereas it was detected minimally or negative in paired normal mucosa specimens (50/180, 27.78%. Overexpression of GRK3 was closely correlated with AJCC stage (P=0.001, depth of tumor invasion (P<0.001, lymph node involvement (P=0.004, distant metastasis (P=0.016, and histologic differentiation (P=0.004. Overexpression of GRK3 is an independent prognostic indicator that correlates with poor survival in colon cancer patients. Consistent with this, downregulation of GRK3 exhibited decreased cell growth index, reduction in colony formation ability, elevated cell apoptosis rate, and impaired colon tumorigenicity in a xenograft model. Hence, a specific overexpression of GRK3 was observed in colon cancer, GRK3 potentially contributing to progression by mediating cancer cell proliferation and functions as a poor prognostic indicator in colon cancer and potentially represent a novel therapeutic target for the disease.

  15. Keratin23 (KRT23 knockdown decreases proliferation and affects the DNA damage response of colon cancer cells.

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    Karin Birkenkamp-Demtröder

    Full Text Available Keratin 23 (KRT23 is strongly expressed in colon adenocarcinomas but absent in normal colon mucosa. Array based methylation profiling of 40 colon samples showed that the promoter of KRT23 was methylated in normal colon mucosa, while hypomethylated in most adenocarcinomas. Promoter methylation correlated with absent expression, while increased KRT23 expression in tumor samples correlated with promoter hypomethylation, as confirmed by bisulfite sequencing. Demethylation induced KRT23 expression in vitro. Expression profiling of shRNA mediated stable KRT23 knockdown in colon cancer cell lines showed that KRT23 depletion affected molecules of the cell cycle and DNA replication, recombination and repair. In vitro analyses confirmed that KRT23 depletion significantly decreased the cellular proliferation of SW948 and LS1034 cells and markedly decreased the expression of genes involved in DNA damage response, mainly molecules of the double strand break repair homologous recombination pathway. KRT23 knockdown decreased the transcript and protein expression of key molecules as e.g. MRE11A, E2F1, RAD51 and BRCA1. Knockdown of KRT23 rendered colon cancer cells more sensitive to irradiation and reduced proliferation of the KRT23 depleted cells compared to irradiated control cells.

  16. Habitual biting of oral mucosa: A conservative treatment approach

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    Sarabjot Kaur Bhatia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic biting of oral mucosa is an innocuous self inflicted injury, commonly seen in children suffering from developmental and psychological problems and has rarely been reported in normal unaffected individuals. The management strategies vary from counseling, prescription of sedatives to different prosthetic shields. The paper highlights the efficacy of a simple approach using soft mouth guard in the management of self inflicted lesions due to habitual biting of oral mucosa in two normal healthy children.

  17. Prolonged sulforaphane treatment activates survival signaling in nontumorigenic NCM460 colon cells but apoptotic signaling in tumorigenic HCT116 colon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Trujillo, Olivia N; Moyer, Mary P; Botnen, James H

    2011-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring chemopreventive agent; the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis is a key mechanism by which SFN exerts its colon cancer prevention. However, little is known about the differential effects of SFN on colon cancer and normal cells. In this study, we demonstrated that SFN (15 μmol/L) exposure (72 h) inhibited cell proliferation by up to 95% in colon cancer cells (HCT116) and by 52% in normal colon mucosa-derived (NCM460) cells. Our data also showed that SFN exposure (5 and 10 μmol/L) led to the reduction of G1 phase cell distribution and an induction of apoptosis in HCT116 cells, but to a much lesser extent in NCM460 cells. Furthermore, the examination of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling status revealed that SFN upregulated the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in NCM460 cells but not in HCT116 cells. In contrast, SFN enhanced the phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and decreased cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene (c-Myc) expression in HCT116 cells but not NCM460 cells. Taken together, the activation of survival signaling in NCM460 cells and apoptotic signaling in HCT116 cells may play a critical role in SFN's stronger potential of inhibiting cell proliferation in colon cancer cells than in normal colon cells. Copyright © 2011, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  18. Effective in vivo and ex vivo gene transfer to intestinal mucosa by VSV-G-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors

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    Kasahara Noriyuki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene transfer to the gastrointestinal (GI mucosa is a therapeutic strategy which could prove particularly advantageous for treatment of various hereditary and acquired intestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, GI infections, and cancer. Methods We evaluated vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein envelope (VSV-G-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors (LV for efficacy of gene transfer to both murine rectosigmoid colon in vivo and human colon explants ex vivo. LV encoding beta-galactosidase (LV-β-Gal or firefly-luciferase (LV-fLuc reporter genes were administered by intrarectal instillation in mice, or applied topically for ex vivo transduction of human colorectal explant tissues from normal individuals. Macroscopic and histological evaluations were performed to assess any tissue damage or inflammation. Transduction efficiency and systemic biodistribution were evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR. LV-fLuc expression was evaluated by ex vivo bioluminescence imaging. LV-β-Gal expression and identity of transduced cell types were examined by histochemical and immunofluorescence staining. Results Imaging studies showed positive fLuc signals in murine distal colon; β-Gal-positive cells were found in both murine and human intestinal tissue. In the murine model, β-Gal-positive epithelial and lamina propria cells were found to express cytokeratin, CD45, and CD4. LV-transduced β-Gal-positive cells were also seen in human colorectal explants, consisting mainly of CD45, CD4, and CD11c-positive cells confined to the LP. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of LV-mediated gene transfer into colonic mucosa. We also identified differential patterns of mucosal gene transfer dependent on whether murine or human tissue was used. Within the limitations of the study, the LV did not appear to induce mucosal damage and were not distributed beyond the distal colon.

  19. Lewis x is highly expressed in normal tissues: a comparative immunohistochemical study and literature revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, María V; Isla-Larrain, Marina; Rabassa, Martín E; Demichelis, Sandra; Colussi, Andrea G; Crespo, Marina; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Segal-Eiras, Amada

    2007-01-01

    An immunohistochemical analysis was employed to determine the expression of carbohydrate antigens associated to mucins in normal epithelia. Tissue samples were obtained as biopsies from normal breast (18), colon (35) and oral cavity mucosa (8). The following carbohydrate epitopes were studied: sialyl-Lewis x, Lewis x, Lewis y, Tn hapten, sialyl-Tn and Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen. Mucins were also studied employing antibodies against MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC6 and also normal colonic glycolipid. Statistical analysis was performed and Kendall correlations were obtained. Lewis x showed an apical pattern mainly at plasma membrane, although cytoplasmic staining was also found in most samples. TF, Tn and sTn haptens were detected in few specimens, while sLewis x was found in oral mucosa and breast tissue. Also, normal breast expressed MUC1 at a high percentage, whereas MUC4 was observed in a small number of samples. Colon specimens mainly expressed MUC2 and MUC1, while most oral mucosa samples expressed MUC4 and MUC1. A positive correlation between MUC1VNTR and TF epitope (r=0.396) was found in breast samples, while in colon specimens MUC2 and colonic glycolipid versus Lewis x were statistically significantly correlated (r=0.28 and r=0.29, respectively). As a conclusion, a defined carbohydrate epitope expression is not exclusive of normal tissue or a determined localization, and it is possible to assume that different glycoproteins and glycolipids may be carriers of carbohydrate antigens depending on the tissue localization considered.

  20. Necl 4 and RNase 5 Are Important Biomarkers for Gastric and Colon Adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, İlyas; Gökçe, Aysun; Demirtas, Levent; Eken, Hüseyin; Çimen, Ferda Keskin; Çimen, Orhan

    2017-05-31

    BACKGROUND There is a need to identify new prognostic factors that may be used in addition to the known risk factors in gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. In this study, we aimed to determine the expression of Necl 4 and RNase 5 biomarkers in gastric and colon adenocarcinomas, as well as the prognostic efficacy of these biomarkers in gastric and colon adenocarcinomas. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ninety-two cases resected due to stomach and colon adenocarcinoma were included in the study. The expression of Necl 4 and RNase 5 biomarkers was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of the stomach and colon normal mucosa and adenocarcinoma areas. RESULTS In colon adenocarcinomas, there was a significant association between Necl 4 and lymphovascular invasion, vascular invasion, and perineural invasion (p<0.05). There was a significant association between RNase 5 and histological differentiation in colon adenocarcinomas (p<0.05). There was no association between RNase 5 and Necl 4 in gastric or colon adenocarcinomas. CONCLUSIONS Necl 4 may have prognostic value in colon adenocarcinomas, but it is difficult to ascertain in gastric adenocarcinomas.

  1. Obscure bleeding colonic duplication responds to proton pump inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Jérémie; Projetti, Fabrice; Legros, Romain; Valgueblasse, Virginie; Sarabi, Matthieu; Carrier, Paul; Fredon, Fabien; Bouvier, Stéphane; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique; Sautereau, Denis

    2013-09-21

    We report the case of a 17-year-old male admitted to our academic hospital with massive rectal bleeding. Since childhood he had reported recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding and had two exploratory laparotomies 5 and 2 years previously. An emergency abdominal computed tomography scan, gastroscopy and colonoscopy, performed after hemodynamic stabilization, were considered normal. High-dose intravenous proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy was initiated and bleeding stopped spontaneously. Two other massive rectal bleeds occurred 8 h after each cessation of PPI which led to a hemostatic laparotomy after negative gastroscopy and small bowel capsule endoscopy. This showed long tubular duplication of the right colon, with fresh blood in the duplicated colon. Obscure lower gastrointestinal bleeding is a difficult medical situation and potentially life-threatening. The presence of ulcerated ectopic gastric mucosa in the colonic duplication explains the partial efficacy of PPI therapy. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding responding to empiric anti-acid therapy should probably evoke the diagnosis of bleeding ectopic gastric mucosa such as Meckel's diverticulum or gastrointestinal duplication, and gastroenterologists should be aware of this potential medical situation.

  2. Isolation and in vitro expansion of human colonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, P.; Sato, T.; Merlos-Suarez, A.; Barriga, F.M.; Iglesias, M.; Rossell, D.; Auer, H.; Gallardo, M.; Blasco, M.A.; Sancho, E.; Clevers, H.; Batlle, E.

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe the isolation of stem cells of the human colonic epithelium. Differential cell surface abundance of ephrin type-B receptor 2 (EPHB2) allows the purification of different cell types from human colon mucosa biopsies. The highest EPHB2 surface levels correspond to epithelial colonic

  3. The oral mucosa in leprosy: a clinical and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado; Michalany, Nilceo Schwery; Weckx, Luc Louis Maurice; Neto Pimentel, Dalva Regina; Hirata, Cleonice Hitomi Watashi; de Avelar Alchorne, Maurício Mota

    2006-01-01

    Multibacillary leprosy may involve the oral mucosa, with or without apparent lesions. There are few studies that deal with this issue in the era of multidrug therapy. To assess the frequency of oral mucosa involvement in multibacillary leprosy patients. A transversal study with twenty non-treated multibacillary leprosy patients. The patients were treated in Dracena, São Paulo, between 2000 and 2002. Clinical examination of the oral mucosa was carried out. All patients were submitted to jugal mucosa, soft palate and tongue biopsies, in altered or in pre-established sites. The cross-sections were stained by techniques of hematoxilin-eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen. Granuloma and alcohol-acid-resistant bacilli findings determined the specific histopathological involvement. The study involved 19 patients with an average of 2.5 years of disease progression. Specific histopathological involvement occurred in the tongue and soft palate of one lepromatous patient with an apparently normal oral mucosa. (1) Clinical alterations in the oral mucosa does not imply disease involvement, it is necessary to have histopathological confirmation. (2) Apparent specific clinical alterations are rare. (3) The clinically normal oral mucosa can show specific histopathological involvement.

  4. Relationships between body mass index and short-circuit current in human duodenal and colonic mucosal biopsies. Osbak PS, Bindslev N, Hansen MB. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2011 Jan;201(1):47-53

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Bindslev, Niels; Berner-Hansen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Retrospectively, to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and basal electrogenic transport as measured by short-circuit current (SCC) in human duodenal and colonic mucosal biopsies. Methods: The study included biopsies from mucosa of normal appearance in the sigmoid colon...... and >25 kg m)2). Statistical significance was assessed by the unpaired t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Correlation coefficients were calculated by Pearson product moment correlation. Results: In colonic biopsies, basal SCC (mean standard deviation) was significantly higher in 59 biopsies from 30...

  5. Antibiotic concentrations in intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmborg, A S

    1985-01-01

    The concentrations in the intestinal mucosa after the initial dose of cefoxitin, piperacillin and clindamycin have been studied. The antibiotics were given at the induction of anesthesia as prophylaxis to patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. The concentrations of the antibiotics in serum and intestinal mucosa taken during the operation were determined by the microbiological agar diffusion method. Therapeutic concentrations in intestinal mucosa were maintained during the major part of the operation period. The mean mucosa/serum concentration ratios were for cefoxitin 0.4, for piperacillin 0.5 and for clindamycin 1.2.

  6. Specific extracellular matrix remodeling signature of colon hepatic metastases.

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    Maguy Del Rio

    Full Text Available To identify genes implicated in metastatic colonization of the liver in colorectal cancer, we collected pairs of primary tumors and hepatic metastases before chemotherapy in 13 patients. We compared mRNA expression in the pairs of patients to identify genes deregulated during metastatic evolution. We then validated the identified genes using data obtained by different groups. The 33-gene signature was able to classify 87% of hepatic metastases, 98% of primary tumors, 97% of normal colon mucosa, and 95% of normal liver tissues in six datasets obtained using five different microarray platforms. The identified genes are specific to colon cancer and hepatic metastases since other metastatic locations and hepatic metastases originating from breast cancer were not classified by the signature. Gene Ontology term analysis showed that 50% of the genes are implicated in extracellular matrix remodeling, and more precisely in cell adhesion, extracellular matrix organization and angiogenesis. Because of the high efficiency of the signature to classify colon hepatic metastases, the identified genes represent promising targets to develop new therapies that will specifically affect hepatic metastasis microenvironment.

  7. Spontaneous intramural hematoma of the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Samuel; Gonçalves, Ana Rita; Araújo Correia, Luís

    2016-08-01

    A 73-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with sudden left quadrant abdominal pain and hematochezia. There was no history of trauma. He denied other symptoms or taking off-the-counter medication. His medical history was relevant for ischemic and aortic-mitral valve disease with prosthetic valves for which he was medicated with aspirin and warfarin. On physical examination the patient presented normal vital signs with tenderness on palpation of the left side of the abdomen. Laboratory tests revealed moderate anemia (10.8 g/dl) and thrombocytopenia (135.000x10^9 U/L) with therapeutic international normalized ratio (2.53). Colonoscopy revealed an extensive area of erythematous and bluish mucosa with an apparent torsion of the proximal descending colon around a volumous hematoma measuring 6.5x3 cm (Figure 1 A-C). Urgent abdominal CT confirmed the presence of a large intramural hematoma of the descending colon (Figure 2 A-B). A conservative approach was adopted with temporary suspension of anticoagulation. Given the high thrombotic risk, abdominal ultrasound was performed after 72 hours showing considerable reduction in the size of the hematoma. Anti-coagulation was then resumed without complications. One month later, colonoscopy was repeated showing complete healing of the mucosa. The increasing use of anti-aggregating and anti-coagulant therapy, especially in elderly patients, explains the increasing incidence of bleeding events seen in this population. However, gastrointestinal hematomas are estimated to occur in only 1 for every 250.000 anti-coagulated patients. Diagnosis is based on characteristic radiologic findings. While most parietal hematomas can be approached conservatively, surgery is indicated in the presence of complications or persistence of the hematoma.

  8. Effect of mefenamic acid on the immunity and hemostatic system of cancer patients and on the activity of cathepsin D-like protease in colonic cancer tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyachkin, B.M.; Basargin, S.T.; Timofeev, I.V.; Khaliulin, Yu.G.; Dorofeev, S.A.; Alekseenko, L.D.; Gumenyuk, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The study of the effect of sodium mefenaminate on radiation resistance of mice yielded positive results. Clinical investigations showed mefenamic acid to decrease the activity of cathepsin D-like protease in colonic cancer tissue. The acid field to affect the proteolytic activity of the normal mucosa. It revealed an immunomodulating activity and influenced the hemostatic system which usually manifested itself in amelioration of hypercoagulation

  9. A study of complexity of oral mucosa using fractal geometry

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    S R Shenoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The oral mucosa lining the oral cavity is composed of epithelium supported by connective tissue. The shape of the epithelial-connective tissue interface has traditionally been used to describe physiological and pathological changes in the oral mucosa. Aim: The aim is to evaluate the morphometric complexity in normal, dysplastic, well-differentiated, and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oral mucosa using fractal geometry. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 periodic acid–Schiff stained histological images of four groups: normal mucosa, dysplasia, well-differentiated SCC, and moderately differentiated SCC were verified by the gold standard. These images were then subjected to fractal analysis. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA and post hoc test: Bonferroni was applied. Results: Fractal dimension (FD increases as the complexity increases from normal to dysplasia and then to SCC. Normal buccal mucosa was found to be significantly different from dysplasia and the two grades of SCC (P < 0.05. ANOVA of fractal scores of four morphometrically different groups of buccal mucosa was significantly different with F (3,76 = 23.720 and P< 0.01. However, FD of dysplasia was not significantly different from well-differentiated and moderately differentiated SCC (P = 1.000 and P = 0.382, respectively. Conclusion: This study establishes FD as a newer tool in differentiating normal tissue from dysplastic and neoplastic tissue. Fractal geometry is useful in the study of both physiological and pathological changes in the oral mucosa. A new grading system based on FD may emerge as an adjuvant aid in cancer diagnosis.

  10. Annona crassiflora Mart. fruit pulp effects on biochemical parameters and rat colon carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Paula Venâncio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A. crassiflora Mart. a Brazilian savannah fruit, is a source of phytochemical compounds that possess a wide array of biological activities, including free radical scavenging. This native fruit proved to potentialize the mutagenic process in previous in vivo investigations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of A. crassiflora Mart. pulp intake on colonic cell proliferation and on the development of Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF in male Wistar rats. The animals were fed with either a commercial diet or a diet supplemented with A. crassiflora Mart. pulp mixed in 1%, 10% or 20% (w/w for 4 weeks or 20 weeks. The carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (4 doses, 40 mg kg-1 each was used to induce colonic ACF. After euthanasia, the blood, liver and colon samples were collected for biochemical determinations, oxidative stress or ACF development analysis, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses of the colonic mucosa were performed using antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in normal-appearing colonic crypt and β-catenin in ACF. There was no ACF development in the colon from groups treated with A. crassiflora Mart. pulp. Also, the biochemical and oxidative stress analysis, PCNA labeling and ACF development (number, multiplicity or cellular localization of β-catenin were unchanged as a result of marolo pulp intake. Thus, the present results suggest that A. crassiflora Mart. pulp intake did not exert any protective effect in the colon carcinogenesis induced by DMH in rats.

  11. Differential expression of colon cancer associated transcript1 (CCAT1) along the colonic adenoma-carcinoma sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaiyan, Bilal; Trink, Barry; Gure, Ali O; Nissan, Aviram; Ilyayev, Nadia; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Izadjoo, Mina; Roistacher, Marina; Pavlov, Vera; Tzivin, Victoria; Halle, David; Pan, Honguang

    2013-01-01

    The transition from normal epithelium to adenoma and, to invasive carcinoma in the human colon is associated with acquired molecular events taking 5-10 years for malignant transformation. We discovered CCAT1, a non-coding RNA over-expressed in colon cancer (CC), but not in normal tissues, thereby making it a potential disease-specific biomarker. We aimed to define and validate CCAT1 as a CC-specific biomarker, and to study CCAT1 expression across the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of CC tumorigenesis. Tissue samples were obtained from patients undergoing resection for colonic adenoma(s) or carcinoma. Normal colonic tissue (n = 10), adenomatous polyps (n = 18), primary tumor tissue (n = 22), normal mucosa adjacent to primary tumor (n = 16), and lymph node(s) (n = 20), liver (n = 8), and peritoneal metastases (n = 19) were studied. RNA was extracted from all tissue samples, and CCAT1 expression was analyzed using quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) with confirmatory in-situ hybridization (ISH). Borderline expression of CCAT1 was identified in normal tissue obtained from patients with benign conditions [mean Relative Quantity (RQ) = 5.9]. Significant relative CCAT1 up-regulation was observed in adenomatous polyps (RQ = 178.6 ± 157.0; p = 0.0012); primary tumor tissue (RQ = 64.9 ± 56.9; p = 0.0048); normal mucosa adjacent to primary tumor (RQ = 17.7 ± 21.5; p = 0.09); lymph node, liver and peritoneal metastases (RQ = 11,414.5 ± 12,672.9; 119.2 ± 138.9; 816.3 ± 2,736.1; p = 0.0001, respectively). qRT-PCR results were confirmed by ISH, demonstrating significant correlation between CCAT1 up-regulation measured using these two methods. CCAT1 is up-regulated across the colon adenoma-carcinoma sequence. This up-regulation is evident in pre-malignant conditions and through all disease stages, including advanced metastatic disease suggesting a role in both tumorigenesis and the metastatic process

  12. Effect of normalization methods on the performance of supervised learning algorithms applied to HTSeq-FPKM-UQ data sets: 7SK RNA expression as a predictor of survival in patients with colon adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriyari, Leili

    2017-11-03

    One of the main challenges in machine learning (ML) is choosing an appropriate normalization method. Here, we examine the effect of various normalization methods on analyzing FPKM upper quartile (FPKM-UQ) RNA sequencing data sets. We collect the HTSeq-FPKM-UQ files of patients with colon adenocarcinoma from TCGA-COAD project. We compare three most common normalization methods: scaling, standardizing using z-score and vector normalization by visualizing the normalized data set and evaluating the performance of 12 supervised learning algorithms on the normalized data set. Additionally, for each of these normalization methods, we use two different normalization strategies: normalizing samples (files) or normalizing features (genes). Regardless of normalization methods, a support vector machine (SVM) model with the radial basis function kernel had the maximum accuracy (78%) in predicting the vital status of the patients. However, the fitting time of SVM depended on the normalization methods, and it reached its minimum fitting time when files were normalized to the unit length. Furthermore, among all 12 learning algorithms and 6 different normalization techniques, the Bernoulli naive Bayes model after standardizing files had the best performance in terms of maximizing the accuracy as well as minimizing the fitting time. We also investigated the effect of dimensionality reduction methods on the performance of the supervised ML algorithms. Reducing the dimension of the data set did not increase the maximum accuracy of 78%. However, it leaded to discovery of the 7SK RNA gene expression as a predictor of survival in patients with colon adenocarcinoma with accuracy of 78%. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Prognostic and predictive potential molecular biomarkers in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastase, A; Pâslaru, L; Niculescu, A M; Ionescu, M; Dumitraşcu, T; Herlea, V; Dima, S; Gheorghe, C; Lazar, V; Popescu, I

    2011-01-01

    An important objective in nowadays research is the discovery of new biomarkers that can detect colon tumours in early stages and indicate with accuracy the status of the disease. The aim of our study was to identify potential biomarkers for colon cancer onset and progression. We assessed gene expression profiles of a list of 10 candidate genes (MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-7, DEFA 1, DEFA-5, DEFA-6, IL-8, CXCL-1, SPP-1, CTHRC-1) by quantitative real time PCR in triplets of colonic mucosa (normal, adenoma, tumoral tissue) collected from the same patient during surgery for a group of 20 patients. Additionally we performed immunohistochemistry for DEFA1-3 and SPP1. We remarked that DEFA5 and DEFA6 are key factors in adenoma formation (p<0.05). MMP7 is important in the transition from a benign to a malignant status (p <0.01) and further in metastasis being a prognostic indicator for tumor transformation and for the metastatic potential of cancer cells. IL8, irrespective of tumor stage, has a high mRNA level in adenocarcinoma (p< 0.05). The level of expression for SPP1 is correlated with tumor level. We suggest that high levels of DEFAS, DEFA6 (key elements in adenoma formation), MMP7 (marker of colon cancer onset and progression to metastasis), SPP1 (marker of progression) and IL8 could be used to diagnose an early stage colon cancer and to evaluate the prognostic of progression for colon tumors. Further, if DEFA5 and DEFA6 level of expression are low but MMP7, SPP1 and IL8 level are high we could point out that the transition from adenoma to adenocarcinoma had already occurred. Thus, DEFA5, DEFA6, MMP7, IL8 and SPP1 consist in a valuable panel of biomarkers, whose detection can be used in early detection and progressive disease and also in prognostic of colon cancer.

  14. Quantification of 18FDG in the Normal Colon-A First Step in Investigating Whether Its Presence Is a Marker of a Physiological Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Karna D; Cullis, James; Williams, Nigel R; Arasaradnam, Ramesh P; Wilson, Adrian J

    2016-01-01

    The visibility of the colon in positron emission tomography (PET) scans of patients without gastrointestinal disease indicating the presence of 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) is well recognised, but unquantified and unexplained. In this paper a qualitative scoring system was applied to PET scans from 30 randomly selected patients without gastrointestinal disease to detect the presence of 18FDG in 4 different sections of the colon and then both the total pixel value and the pixel value per unit length of each section of the colon were determined to quantify the amount of 18FDG from a randomly selected subset of 10 of these patients. Analysis of the qualitative scores using a non-parametric ANOVA showed that all sections of the colon contained 18FDG but there were differences in the amount of 18FDG present between sections (p0.05), but a difference in the amount/unit length between sections (p<0.01) with only the caecum and ascending colon and the descending colon having a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). These results are consistent since the eye is drawn to focal localisation of the 18FDG when qualitatively scoring the scans. The presence of 18FDG in the colon is counterintuitive since it must be passing from the blood to the lumen through the colonic wall. There is no active mechanism to achieve this and therefore we hypothesise that the transport is a passive process driven by the concentration gradient of 18FDG across the colonic wall. This hypothesis is consistent with the results obtained from the qualitative and quantitative measures analysed.

  15. Quantification of 18FDG in the Normal Colon-A First Step in Investigating Whether Its Presence Is a Marker of a Physiological Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna D Bardhan

    Full Text Available The visibility of the colon in positron emission tomography (PET scans of patients without gastrointestinal disease indicating the presence of 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG is well recognised, but unquantified and unexplained. In this paper a qualitative scoring system was applied to PET scans from 30 randomly selected patients without gastrointestinal disease to detect the presence of 18FDG in 4 different sections of the colon and then both the total pixel value and the pixel value per unit length of each section of the colon were determined to quantify the amount of 18FDG from a randomly selected subset of 10 of these patients. Analysis of the qualitative scores using a non-parametric ANOVA showed that all sections of the colon contained 18FDG but there were differences in the amount of 18FDG present between sections (p0.05, but a difference in the amount/unit length between sections (p<0.01 with only the caecum and ascending colon and the descending colon having a statistically significant difference (p<0.05. These results are consistent since the eye is drawn to focal localisation of the 18FDG when qualitatively scoring the scans. The presence of 18FDG in the colon is counterintuitive since it must be passing from the blood to the lumen through the colonic wall. There is no active mechanism to achieve this and therefore we hypothesise that the transport is a passive process driven by the concentration gradient of 18FDG across the colonic wall. This hypothesis is consistent with the results obtained from the qualitative and quantitative measures analysed.

  16. Expression of HSP27, HSP72 and MRP proteins in in vitro co-culture of colon tumour cell spheroids with normal cells after incubation with rhTGF- beta1 and/or CPT-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Roman; Jakubowicz-Gil, Joanna; Kandefer-Szerszen, Martyna

    2009-12-01

    We studied the expression of inducible heat shock protein (HSP27, HSP72) and multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) in co-cultures of human colon carcinoma cell spheroids obtained from different grades of tumour with normal human colon epithelium, myofibroblast and endothelial cell monolayers. We also measured the influence of recombinant human transforming growth factor beta1 (rhTGF-beta1) and camptothecin (CPT-11), added as single agents or in combination, on the levels of the HSPs, MRP, interleukin (IL)-6 and nitric oxide (NO). An immunoblotting analysis with densitometry showed that rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11 increased HSP27, HSP72 and MRP expression in tumour cells and myofibroblasts, as well as in co-cultures compared with appropriate controls. By contrast, in colonic epithelium, inhibition of HSPs and MRP was comparable with that of the control. In endothelial cells, HSP72 was undetectable. Direct interaction of colon tumour spheroids with normal myofibroblasts caused a significant, tumour-grade dependent increase in IL-6 production. Production of IL-6 was significantly lowered by rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11. Tumour cell spheroids cultivated alone produced larger amounts of NO than normal cells. In co-culture, the level of the radical decreased compared with the sum of NO produced by the monocultures of the two types of cells. rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11 decreased NO production both in tumour and normal cell monocultures and their co-cultures. In conclusion, direct interactions between tumour and normal cells influence the expression of HSP27, HSP72 and MRP, and alter IL-6 and NO production. rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11 may potentate resistance to chemotherapy by increasing HSP and MRP expression but, on the other hand, they may limit tumour cell spread by decreasing the level of some soluble mediators of inflammation (IL-6 and NO).

  17. Refined carbohydrate enhancement of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rat colon induced by the food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.; Thorup, I.

    1996-01-01

    ,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) and azoxymethane (AOM), the use of a diet-related colon cancer initiator, such as the heterocyclic amine 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) formed during meat cooking, would probably give a more relevant insight into diet-related colon carcinogenesis......The aberrant crypt foci (ACF) bioassay has been used extensively to study the early effects of different dietary components on the colonic mucosa of laboratory rodents. ACF are proposed to represent preneoplastic lesions of colon cancer. Compared to the normally used initiators 1....... In the present study it is shown that a feeding regimen with continuous low IQ doses (0.03% in the diet) throughout a study period of 10 weeks has a significant effect on the induction of ACF in the colon of male F344 rats. In addition, the study illustrates that the incidence of the IQ-induced ACF can...

  18. Effects of radiation on nasal mucosa of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Mang; Hu Sunhong; Liu Yuehui

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study histopathological changes in nasal mucosa of guinea pigs following a series of irradiation. Methods: A total of 60 healthy guinea pigs were divided into two groups randomly: the irradiation group (n=30) and the control group (n=30). The animals of the irradiation group were exposed nasally to linear accelerator X-rays at 5.0 Gy once a week for three weeks. At 1 d, 1 w, 2 w, 4 w, 10 w and half year after X-irradiation five animals per one group were sacrificed randomly, at each time point. Their middle nasal turbinate mucosa was observed under optical microscope and electron microscope, and were analysed by image analysis for histopathological transformation. Results: In the irradiation group, the early histopathological transformation was acute inflammatory reaction, at the fourth week the mucosa began to repair, which ended at the sixth month. But after repaired, some parts of the repaired mucosa were lined with squamous epithelium instead of the normal nasal mucosa. The rate of the cilia-covered area was only 52.9% at the sixth month. Conclusion: The nasal mucosa injury and the squamous metaplasia could form a pathological basis of dysfunction after irradiation

  19. Human colon tissue in organ culture: calcium and multi-mineral-induced mucosal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, Michael K; Veerapaneni, Indiradevi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Naik, Madhav; Varani, James

    2011-01-01

    We have recently shown that a multi-mineral extract from the marine red algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, suppresses colon polyp formation and inflammation in mice. In the present study, we used intact human colon tissue in organ culture to compare responses initiated by Ca(2+) supplementation versus the multi-mineral extract. Normal human colon tissue was treated for 2 d in culture with various concentrations of calcium or the mineral-rich extract. The tissue was then prepared for histology/immunohistochemistry, and the culture supernatants were assayed for levels of type I procollagen and type I collagen. At higher Ca(2+) concentrations or with the mineral-rich extract, proliferation of epithelial cells at the base and walls of the mucosal crypts was suppressed, as visualized by reduced Ki67 staining. E-cadherin, a marker of differentiation, was more strongly expressed at the upper third of the crypt and at the luminal surface. Treatment with Ca(2+) or with the multi-mineral extract influenced collagen turnover, with decreased procollagen and increased type I collagen. These data suggest that calcium or mineral-rich extract has the capacity to (1) promote differentiation in human colon tissue in organ culture and (2) modulate stromal function as assessed by increased levels of type I collagen. Taken together, these data suggest that human colon tissue in organ culture (supporting in vivo finding in mice) will provide a valuable model for the preclinical assessment of agents that regulate growth and differentiation in the colonic mucosa.

  20. Different effects of ERβ and TROP2 expression in Chinese patients with early-stage colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu-Jing; Wang, Guo-Qiang; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ji-Bin; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Ding, Pei-Rong; Ou, Qing-Jian; Zhang, Mei-Fang; Jiang, Wu; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen

    2012-12-01

    Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and TROP2 expressed in colon carcinoma and might play an important role there. We explored the relationship of ERβ and TROP2 expression with the prognosis of early-stage colon cancer. ERβ and TROP2 levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal mucosa and tumoral tissues from 220 Chinese patients with T(3)N(0)M(0) (stage IIa) and T(4)N(0)M(0) (stage IIb) colon cancer in the Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, who underwent curative surgical resection between 1995 and 2003. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied to analyze the overall survival (OS) data, and the ROC curve, Kaplan-Meier estimate, log rank test, and Jackknife method were used to show the effect of ERβ and TROP2 expression at different stages of cancer. The 5-year survival rates were not significantly different between the patients with stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer (83 vs. 80 %, respectively). The high expression of ERβ was related to decreasing OS in stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer, while the high expression of TROP2 was related to decreasing OS in stage IIb colon cancer. The expression of ERβ and TROP2 has tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting effect in stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer, respectively.

  1. Laser-induced fluorescence of oral mucosa cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaliashvili, Z. V.; Medoidze, T. D.; Melikishvili, Z. G.; Gogilashvili, K. T.

    2017-10-01

    The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra have been measured for cancer-infused and control mice mucosa tissues. It was established that there is quite a difference between their LIF spectral shapes. These spectral shapes are used to express the diagnostic of different states of tissues: from normal to cancer.

  2. Estudio de la mucosa oral en pacientes que emplean colutorios

    OpenAIRE

    Marzal Gamarra, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN 1. Recuerdo histológico de la mucosa oral La cavidad bucal, como toda cavidad orgánica que se comunica con el exterior, esta tapizada por una membrana mucosa de superficie húmeda. La humedad, que es aportada por las glándulas salivales mayores y menores, es necesaria para el mantenimiento de la estructura normal de los tejidos. 2. Colutorios y su utilización en Odontología Los colutorios son preparaciones líquidas destinadas a ser aplicadas sobre los dientes, las...

  3. Quantification of bacteria adherent to gastrointestinal mucosa by real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsdens, Xander W.; Linskens, Ronald K.; Mak, Mariëtte; Meuwissen, Stephan G. M.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2002-01-01

    The use of real-time quantitative PCR (5' nuclease PCR assay) as a tool to study the gastrointestinal microflora that adheres to the colonic mucosa was evaluated. We developed primers and probes based on the 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequences for the detection of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides

  4. Molecular and ecological aspects of MRSA ST398 colonization in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulinski, P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to understand the successful colonization of MRSA ST398 in pigs and the factors that may contribute to this colonization. The first part describes the development and application of an ex vivo pig nasal mucosa explants model to study MRSA colonization. The second part

  5. Antimicrobial compounds of porcine mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenkova, E. A.; Lukinova, E. A.; Fedulova, L. V.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate porcine oral cavity mucosa (OCM), nasal cavity mucosa (NCM), rectal mucosa (RM) and tongue mucosa (TM) as sources of antimicrobial compounds. Ultrafiltrates with MW >30 kDa, MW 5-30 kDa and MW 30 kDa, the zone of microbial growth inhibition was 7.5 mm, for the MW<5 kDa fraction, it was 7 mm, and for MW 5-30 kDa fraction, it was 4.5 mm. No significant differences were found in high molecular weight proteomic profile, while qualitative and quantitative differences were observed in the medium and low molecular weight areas, especially in OCM and NCM. HPLC showed 221 tissue-specific peptides in OCM, 156 in NCM, 225 in RM, but only 5 in TM. The results observed confirmed porcine mucous tissues as a good source of antimicrobial compounds, which could be an actual alternative for reduction of microbial spoilage of foods.

  6. Effect of complex polyphenols on colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caderni, G; Remy, S; Cheynier, V; Morozzi, G; Dolara, P

    1999-06-01

    Complex polyphenols and tannins from wine (WCPT) are being considered increasingly as potential cancer chemopreventive agents, since epidemiological studies suggest that populations consuming a high amount of polyphenols in the diet may have a lower incidence of some types of cancer. We studied the effect of WCPT on a series of parameters related to colon carcinogenesis in rats. WCPT were administered to F344 rats at a dose of 14 or 57 mg/kg/d, mixed with the diet. The higher dose is about ten times the exposure to polyphenols of a moderate drinker of red wine. In rats treated with WCPT, we measured fecal bile acids and long chain fatty acids, colon mucosa cell proliferation, apoptosis and, after administration of colon carcinogens, the number and size of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and nuclear aberrations. Colon mucosa proliferation was not varied by chronic administration (90 d) of WCPT (14 or 57 mg/kg/d). The highest dose of WCPT decreased the number of cells in the colon crypts, but did not increase apoptosis. WCPT (57 mg/kg) administered before or after the administration of azoxymethane (AOM) did not vary the number or multiplicity of ACF in the colon. The number of nuclear aberrations (NA) in colon mucosa was studied after administration of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo (4,5-f)quinoline (IQ), colon-specific carcinogens which require metabolic activation. The effect of DMH and IQ was not varied by pre-feeding WCPT (57 mg/kg) for 10 d. Similarly, the levels of total, secondary bile acids and long chain fatty acids did not varied significantly in animals fed WCPT for 90 d. WCPT administration does not influence parameters related to colon carcinogenesis in the rat.

  7. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y C; Yang, H Q; Zhuo, S M [Institute of Laser and Optoelectronics Technology, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Photonics Technology, Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine of Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Chen, G; Chen, J X [Department of Pathology, Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital, Fuzhou, 350014 (China); Yan, J, E-mail: chenjianxin@fjnu.edu.cn, E-mail: ynjun@yahoo.com [Department of Surgery, Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital, Fuzhou, 350014 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength {lambda}{sub ex} = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  8. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength λex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  9. Standardisation of tracer and type of meal in the evaluation of gastric emptying and colon transit rates in normal Beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormehl, I.C.; Jordaan, J.H.; Jacobs, D.J.; Plessis, M. du; Pilloy, W.

    1984-01-01

    The transit of 111 In-labelled polymer beads of different particle sizes in the stomach and colon of five healthy Beagle dogs was monitored after intake of different kinds of meal by a gamma camera and data processor system. The various meals studied were a solid balanced type of dog food mixed with molk, pure milk, and finally a metal of raw meat. The polymer beads carried triethylenetetramine type functions which efficiently chelated 111 In +3 from an aqueous solution of InCl 3 . These labelled beads were well mixed into the food before being offered to the dogs. Gastric emptying curves from which half-times of emptying (Tsub(1/2)) could be obtained are presented and statistically compared. Good quality images with quantification of the colon transit rate also became possible. It appeared that standardisation of the tracer and of the metal is compulsory for relevant and reproducible results. (orig.)

  10. Standardisation of tracer and type of meal in the evaluation of gastric emptying and colon transit rates in normal Beagle dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormehl, I.C.; Jordaan, J.H.; Jacobs, D.J.; Plessis, M. du; Pilloy, W.

    1984-01-01

    The transit of /sup 111/In-labelled polymer beads of different particle sizes in the stomach and colon of five healthy Beagle dogs was monitored after intake of different kinds of meal by a gamma camera and data processor system. The various meals studied were a solid balanced type of dog food mixed with molk, pure milk, and finally a meal of raw meat. The polymer beads carried triethylenetetramine type functions which efficiently chelated /sup 111/In/sup +3/ from an aqueous solution of InCl/sub 3/. These labelled beads were well mixed into the food before being offered to the dogs. Gastric emptying curves from which half-times of emptying (Tsub(1/2)) could be obtained are presented and statistically compared. Good quality images with quantification of the colon transit rate also became possible. It appeared that standardisation of the tracer and of the metal is compulsory for relevant and reproducible results.

  11. Deficient Pms2, ERCC1, Ku86, CcOI in field defects during progression to colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy; Loustaunau, Cristy; Facista, Alexander; Ramsey, Lois; Hassounah, Nadia; Taylor, Hilary; Krouse, Robert; Payne, Claire M; Tsikitis, V Liana; Goldschmid, Steve; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Perini, Rafael F; Bernstein, Carol

    2010-07-28

    In carcinogenesis, the "field defect" is recognized clinically because of the high propensity of survivors of certain cancers to develop other malignancies of the same tissue type, often in a nearby location. Such field defects have been indicated in colon cancer. The molecular abnormalities that are responsible for a field defect in the colon should be detectable at high frequency in the histologically normal tissue surrounding a colonic adenocarcinoma or surrounding an adenoma with advanced neoplasia (well on the way to a colon cancer), but at low frequency in the colonic mucosa from patients without colonic neoplasia. Using immunohistochemistry, entire crypts within 10 cm on each side of colonic adenocarcinomas or advanced colonic neoplasias were found to be frequently reduced or absent in expression for two DNA repair proteins, Pms2 and/or ERCC1. Pms2 is a dual role protein, active in DNA mismatch repair as well as needed in apoptosis of cells with excess DNA damage. ERCC1 is active in DNA nucleotide excision repair. The reduced or absent expression of both ERCC1 and Pms2 would create cells with both increased ability to survive (apoptosis resistance) and increased level of mutability. The reduced or absent expression of both ERCC1 and Pms2 is likely an early step in progression to colon cancer. DNA repair gene Ku86 (active in DNA non-homologous end joining) and Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (involved in apoptosis) had each been reported to be decreased in expression in mucosal areas close to colon cancers. However, immunohistochemical evaluation of their levels of expression showed only low to modest frequencies of crypts to be deficient in their expression in a field defect surrounding colon cancer or surrounding advanced colonic neoplasia. We show, here, our method of evaluation of crypts for expression of ERCC1, Pms2, Ku86 and CcOI. We show that frequency of entire crypts deficient for Pms2 and ERCC1 is often as great as 70% to 95% in 20 cm long areas

  12. DPEP1, expressed in the early stages of colon carcinogenesis, affects cancer cell invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toiyama, Yuji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Yasuda, Hiromi; Saigusa, Susumu; Yokoe, Takeshi; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Tanaka, Koji; Miki, Chikao; Kusunoki, Masato

    2011-02-01

    We investigated changes in the gene expression profile in colon cancer in order to identify gene markers that may be useful in the management of this disease. The Cancer Genome Anatomy Project was used to detect differences in gene expression between normal and cancer tissue. The overexpression of dipeptidase-1 (DPEP1) in cancer tissue was confirmed in a sample of 76 patients by real-time PCR. To identify the function of DPEP1, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to inactivate this gene in the colon cancer cell line. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to characterize the pattern of DPEP1 expression in colon cancer. DPEP1 expression in cancer was significantly higher than that in normal tissue. However, DPEP1 expression decreased with pathological differentiation, lymph-node and distant metastasis. Patients with tumors with decreased DPEP1 expression showed a poorer prognosis, and this was also true of patients with tumors who are treated with curative intent. RNAi-mediated DPEP1 reduction in the colon cancer cell line did not result in cell proliferation or apoptosis, but was associated with an increased invasive ability. DPEP1 protein was observed on the apical side of the cancer cells, and is expressed in the early stages of carcinogenesis, even in adenomas of both sporadic colorectal cancer and familial adenomatous polyposis patients. DPEP1 expression in normal colonic mucosa is very low, but it is highly expressed in colorectal adenoma and cancer specimens and is negatively correlated with parameters of pathological aggressiveness and poor prognosis. DPEP1 is expressed in the early stages of colon carcinogenesis and affects cancer cell invasiveness.

  13. Aberrant expression of sonic hedgehog pathway in colon cancer and melanosis coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong Chuan; Gao, Jun; Zi, Shu Ming; Yang, Ming; Du, Peng; Cui, Long

    2013-08-01

    To determine the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway correlated with the development of colon cancer and melanosis coli. Protein and mRNA levels of Hh signaling pathway components (sonic hedgehog [Shh], protein patched homolog 1 [Ptch 1], GLI family zinc finger 1 [Gli 1] and suppressor of fused homolog [Drosophila] [Sufu]) in 127 patients with colon cancer, 36 with melanosis coli and 20 adjacent normal mucosal tissues taken from surgical specimens were evaluated using antibody staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. In adjacent normal tissue Shh and Ptch1, but not Gli1 or Sufu, were weakly expressed and mainly in the lining epithelium of the colonic mucosa. In cancerous tissues Shh and Gli1 were uniformly strong while Ptch1 was patchy and weak, and Sufu uniformly weak, which paralleled their levels of corresponding mRNA. Elevated protein levels of Shh and Ptch were significantly associated with mucinous colonic tissues. Elevated Sufu protein levels were positively correlated with the diameter and invasion of the tumor. In patients with melanosis coli, mRNA levels of Shh, Ptch1, Gli1 and Sufu were very low, which was similar to those of adjacent normal tissues; but protein levels of Shh, Ptch1 and Gli1, but not Sufu, were high, which was similar to those of cancerous tissues. The mRNA and protein levels of Hh pathway components are aberrantly elevated in colon cancer, which may be the potential molecular classification markers. Further studies are required to determine the role of melanosis coli in the colon tumorigenesis. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  14. A central role for heme iron in colon carcinogenesis associated with red meat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastide, Nadia M; Chenni, Fatima; Audebert, Marc; Santarelli, Raphaelle L; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Baradat, Maryse; Jouanin, Isabelle; Surya, Reggie; Hobbs, Ditte A; Kuhnle, Gunter G; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Gueraud, Françoise; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2015-03-01

    Epidemiology shows that red and processed meat intake is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Heme iron, heterocyclic amines, and endogenous N-nitroso compounds (NOC) are proposed to explain this effect, but their relative contribution is unknown. Our study aimed at determining, at nutritional doses, which is the main factor involved and proposing a mechanism of cancer promotion by red meat. The relative part of heme iron (1% in diet), heterocyclic amines (PhIP + MeIQx, 50 + 25 μg/kg in diet), and NOC (induced by NaNO₂+ NaNO₂; 0.17 + 0.23 g/L of drinking water) was determined by a factorial design and preneoplastic endpoints in chemically induced rats and validated on tumors in Min mice. The molecular mechanisms (genotoxicity, cytotoxicity) were analyzed in vitro in normal and Apc-deficient cell lines and confirmed on colon mucosa. Heme iron increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, but dietary heterocyclic amines and NOC had no effect on carcinogenesis in rats. Dietary hemoglobin increased tumor load in Min mice (control diet: 67 ± 39 mm²; 2.5% hemoglobin diet: 114 ± 47 mm², P = 0.004). In vitro, fecal water from rats given hemoglobin was rich in aldehydes and was cytotoxic to normal cells, but not to premalignant cells. The aldehydes 4-hydroxynonenal and 4-hydroxyhexenal were more toxic to normal versus mutated cells and were only genotoxic to normal cells. Genotoxicity was also observed in colon mucosa of mice given hemoglobin. These results highlight the role of heme iron in the promotion of colon cancer by red meat and suggest that heme iron could initiate carcinogenesis through lipid peroxidation. . ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Electrolyte transport in distal colon of sodium-depleted rats: Effect of sodium repletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnamian, S.G.; Binder, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Dietary sodium depletion increases plasma aldosterone level and, as a result, induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption and electrogenic potassium secretion and stimulates Na + -K + -ATPase activity in rat distal colon, while inhibiting electroneutral sodium chloride absorption. To assess the events that occur as the aldosterone-stimulated colon reverts to normal, unidirectional 22 Na and 36 Cl fluxes were measured under voltage-clamp conditions across isolated distal colonic mucosa of rats that were initially dietary sodium depleted for 7 days and then sodium repleted for varying periods of time before the study. Within 8 h of dietary sodium repletion, plasma aldosterone level and Na + -K + -ATPase activity declined to normal, amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption decreased by >90%, and active electrogenic potassium secretion also decreased markedly. In contrast, electroneutral sodium chloride absorption did not completely return to levels seen in normal animals until ∼64-68 h. These results demonstrate that maintenance of electrogenic sodium absorption and potassium secretion are directly dependent on elevated plasma aldosterone levels. The inhibition of electroneutral sodium absorption, although initiated by excess aldosterone, persists after normalization of the plasma aldosterone level, thereby implying that the inhibition is dependent on additional factor(s)

  16. Cell surface fucosylation does not affect development of colon tumors in mice with germline Smad3 mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Steven E.; Karnak, David M.; Hurd, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Background/Aims: Neoplasia-related alterations in cell surface α(1,2)fucosylated glycans have been reported in multiple tumors including colon, pancreas, endometrium, cervix, bladder, lung, and choriocarcinoma. Spontaneous colorectal tumors from mice with a germline null mutation of transforming growth factor-β signaling gene Smad3 (Madh3) were tested for α(1,2)fucosylated glycan expression. Methods: Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin-I lectin staining, fucosyltransferase gene northern blot analysis, and a cross of mutant mice with Fut2 and Smad3 germline mutations were performed. Results: Spontaneous colorectal tumors from Smad3 (-/-) homozygous null mice were found to express α(1,2)fucosylated glycans in an abnormal pattern compared to adjacent nonneoplastic colon. Northern blot analysis of α(1,2)fucosyltransferase genes Fut1 and Fut2 revealed that Fut2, but not Fut1, steady-state mRNA levels were significantly increased in tumors relative to adjacent normal colonic mucosa. Mutant mice with a Fut2-inactivating germline mutation were crossed with Smad3 targeted mice. In Smad3 (-/-)/Fut2 (-/-) double knock-out mice, UEA-I lectin staining was eliminated from colon and colon tumors, however, the number and size of tumors present by 24 weeks of age did not vary regardless of the Fut2 genotype. Conclusions: In this model of colorectal cancer, cell surface α(1,2)fucosylation does not affect development of colon tumors. PMID:17264540

  17. Genetic diversity, phylogroup distribution and virulence gene profile of pks positive Escherichia coli colonizing human intestinal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarshar, Meysam; Scribano, Daniela; Marazzato, Massimiliano; Ambrosi, Cecilia; Aprea, Maria Rita; Aleandri, Marta; Pronio, Annamaria; Longhi, Catia; Nicoletti, Mauro; Zagaglia, Carlo; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Conte, Maria Pia

    2017-11-01

    Some Escherichia coli strains of phylogroup B2 harbor a (pks) pathogenicity island that encodes a polyketide-peptide genotoxin called colibactin. It causes DNA double-strand breaks and megalocytosis in eukaryotic cells and it may contribute to cancer development. Study of bacterial community that colonizes the adenomatous polyp lesion, defined as precancerous lesions, could be helpful to assess if such pathogenic bacteria possess a role in the polyp progression to cancer. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1500 E. coli isolates were obtained from biopsies of patients presenting adenomatous colon polyps, the normal tissues adjacent to the polyp lesion and patients presenting normal mucosa. pks island frequency, phylogenetic grouping, fingerprint genotyping, and virulence gene features of pks positive (pks + ) E. coli isolates were performed. We found pks + E. coli strongly colonize two patients presenting polypoid lesions and none were identified in patients presenting normal mucosa. Predominant phylogroups among pks + E. coli isolates were B2, followed by D. Clustering based on fragment profiles of composite analysis, typed the pks + isolates into 5 major clusters (I-V) and 17 sub-clusters, demonstrating a high level of genetic diversity among them. The most prevalent virulence genes were fimH and fyuA (100%), followed by vat (92%), hra and papA (69%), ibeA (28%), and hlyA (25%). Our results revealed that pks + E. coli can colonize the precancerous lesions, with a high distribution in both the polyp lesions and in normal tissues adjacent to the lesion. The high differences in fingerprinting patterns obtained indicate that pks + E. coli strains were genetically diverse, possibly allowing them to more easily adapt to environmental variations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of survivin mRNA in healthy oral mucosa, oral leucoplakia and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, G; Franchini, R; Bez, C; Sardella, A; Moneghini, L; Pellegrini, C; Bosari, S; Manfredi, M; Vescovi, P; Carrassi, A

    2010-01-01

    Survivin is involved in modulation of cell death and cell division processes. Survivin expression in normal adult tissues has not been fully understood, although it is markedly lower than in cancer, where it is over-expressed. To investigate survivin expression in normal, potentially malignant and cancerous oral mucosa. We measured survivin mRNA levels by real-time RT-PCR in specimens of oral mucosa (15 from normal mucosa, 17 from potentially malignant lesions, 17 from neoplasms). Scores were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc according to Conover. Chi-squared test was used for dichotomous data. The median relative levels of survivin mRNA resulted six for normal mucosa, eight for potentially malignant lesions, 13 for cancers: differences among these three groups were statistically significant, as between cancer and potentially malignant lesions. Expression in normal mucosa and potentially lesions group showed no significant difference. Low, but not marginal expression of survivin in normal mucosa is a new finding, and it could be explained with the higher sensibility of our methods. Survivin expression in oral potentially malignant lesions might indicate a progressive deregulation of expression paralleling oncogenesis, particularly during the first stages of process, suggesting a putative predictive role for survivin.

  19. Drug Reactions in Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Derviş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Both immunologic and nonimmunologic drug reactions can be seen in oral mucosa. Since considerable number of these reactions heals spontaneously without being noticed by the patients, exact frequency of the lesions is unknown. Most common lesions are xerostomia, taste disorders, mucosal ulcerations and edema. In this article, oral lesions resulting from drug intake similar to those from oral lesions of local and systemic diseases, and diagnostic problems caused by these similarities, have been reviewed.

  20. [Redo urethroplasty with buccal mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, C M; Ernst, L; Engel, O; Dahlem, R; Fisch, M; Kluth, L A

    2017-10-01

    Urethral strictures can occur on the basis of trauma, infections, iatrogenic-induced or idiopathic and have a great influence on the patient's quality of life. The current prevalence rate of male urethral strictures is 0.6% in industrialized western countries. The favored form of treatment has experienced a transition from less invasive interventions, such as urethrotomy or urethral dilatation, to more complex open surgical reconstruction. Excision and primary end-to-end anastomosis and buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty are the most frequently applied interventions with success rates of more than 80%. Risk factors for stricture recurrence after urethroplasty are penile stricture location, the length of the stricture (>4 cm) and prior repeated endoscopic therapy attempts. Radiation-induced urethral strictures also have a worse outcome. There are various therapy options in the case of stricture recurrence after a failed urethroplasty. In the case of short stricture recurrences, direct vision urethrotomy shows success rates of approximately 60%. In cases of longer or more complex stricture recurrences, redo urethroplasty should be the therapy of choice. Success rates are higher than after urethrotomy and almost comparable to those of primary urethroplasty. Patient satisfaction after redo urethroplasty is high. Primary buccal mucosa grafting involves a certain rate of oral morbidity. In cases of a redo urethroplasty with repeated buccal mucosa grafting, oral complications are only slightly higher.

  1. High-protein diet differently modifies intestinal goblet cell characteristics and mucosal cytokine expression in ileum and colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Annaïg; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Blouin, Jean-Marc; Liu, Xinxin; Descatoire, Véronique; Desclée de Maredsous, Caroline; Davila, Anne-Marie; Walker, Francine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, François

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that high-protein (HP) diet ingestion causes marked changes in the luminal environment of the colonic epithelium. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of such modifications on small intestinal and colonic mucosa, two segments with different transit time and physiological functions. Rats were fed with either normal protein (NP; 14% protein) or HP (53% protein) isocaloric diet for 2 weeks, and parameters related to intestinal mucous-secreting cells and to several innate/adaptive immune characteristics (myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine and epithelial TLR expression, proportion of immune cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues) were measured in the ileum and colon. In ileum from HP animals, we observed hyperplasia of mucus-producing cells concomitant with an increased expression of Muc2 at both gene and protein levels, reduction of mucosal myeloperoxidase activity, down-regulation of Tlr4 gene expression in enterocytes and down-regulation of mucosal Th cytokines associated with CD4+ lymphocyte reduction in mesenteric lymph nodes. These changes coincided with an increased amount of acetate in the ileal luminal content. In colon, HP diet ingestion resulted in a lower number of goblet cells at the epithelial surface but increased goblet cell number in colonic crypts together with an increased Muc3 and a slight reduction of Il-6 gene expression. Our data suggest that HP diet modifies the goblet cell distribution in colon and, in ileum, increases goblet cell activity and decreases parameters related to basal gut inflammatory status. The impact of HP diet on intestinal mucosa in terms of beneficial or deleterious effects is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CD4+ T regulatory cells from the colonic lamina propria of normal mice inhibit proliferation of enterobacteria-reactive, disease-inducing Th1-cells from scid mice with colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, M; Brimnes, J; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2003-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells into scid mice leads to a chronic colitis in the recipients. The transferred CD4+ T cells accumulate in the intestinal lamina propria (LP), express an activated Th1 phenotype and proliferate vigorously when exposed ex vivo to enteric bacterial antigens. As LP CD4......+ T cells from normal BALB/c mice do not respond to enteric bacterial antigens, we have investigated whether colonic LP-derived CD4+ T cells from normal mice suppress the antibacterial response of CD4+ T cells from scid mice with colitis. LP-derived CD4+ T cells cocultured with bone marrow......-derived dendritic cells effectively suppress the antibacterial proliferative response of CD4+ T cells from scid mice with colitis. The majority of these LP T-reg cells display a nonactivated phenotype and suppression is independent of antigen exposure, is partly mediated by soluble factor(s) different from IL-10...

  3. An increased rectal maximum tolerable volume and long anal canal are associated with poor short-term response to biofeedback therapy for patients with anismus with decreased bowel frequency and normal colonic transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, P L; Choi, M S; Kim, Y H; Son, H J; Kim, J J; Koh, K C; Paik, S W; Rhee, J C; Choi, K W

    2000-10-01

    Biofeedback is an effective therapy for a majority of patients with anismus. However, a significant proportion of patients still failed to respond to biofeedback, and little has been known about the factors that predict response to biofeedback. We evaluated the factors associated with poor response to biofeedback. Biofeedback therapy was offered to 45 patients with anismus with decreased bowel frequency (less than three times per week) and normal colonic transit time. Any differences in demographics, symptoms, and parameters of anorectal physiologic tests were sought between responders (in whom bowel frequency increased up to three times or more per week after biofeedback) and nonresponders (in whom bowel frequency remained less than three times per week). Thirty-one patients (68.9 percent) responded to biofeedback and 14 patients (31.1 percent) did not. Anal canal length was longer in nonresponders than in responders (4.53 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.08 +/- 0.56 cm; P = 0.02), and rectal maximum tolerable volume was larger in nonresponders than in responders. (361 +/- 87 vs. 302 +/- 69 ml; P = 0.02). Anal canal length and rectal maximum tolerable volume showed significant differences between responders and nonresponders on multivariate analysis (P = 0.027 and P = 0.034, respectively). This study showed that a long anal canal and increased rectal maximum tolerable volume are associated with poor short-term response to biofeedback for patients with anismus with decreased bowel frequency and normal colonic transit time.

  4. Colon interposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolauri, J.; Tampere Univ. Central Hospital; Paakkala, T.; Arajaervi, P.; Markkula, H.

    1987-01-01

    Colon interposition was carried out in 12 patients with oesophageal carcinoma and on 38 patients with benign oesophageal disease an average of 71 months before the radiographic examination. Various ischaemic changes including 'jejunization', loss of haustration and stricture formation were observed in 15 cases. In 12 patients one or several diverticula were seen in the colon graft. Reflux was observed in 17 cases in supine position. Double contrast technique in the examination of interposed colon is recommended. (orig.)

  5. Colonic duplication in an adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baro, P.; Dario Casas, J.; Sanchez, D.

    1988-01-01

    A case of colonic duplication that was diagnosed radiologically in an adult is reported. A long duplicated segment below the normal transverse colon, with a wide anastomosis at the hepatic flexure level, was observed on barium enema. The rarity of this anomaly unassociated with other malformations is emphasized. (orig.)

  6. A comparison of Helicobacter pylori and non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter spp. Binding to canine gastric mucosa with defined gastric glycophenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Irina; Freitas, Daniela P; Magalhães, Ana; Faria, Fátima; Lopes, Célia; Faustino, Augusto M; Smet, Annemieke; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Reis, Celso A; Gärtner, Fátima

    2014-08-01

    The gastric mucosa of dogs is often colonized by non-Helicobacter pylori helicobacters (NHPH), while H. pylori is the predominant gastric Helicobacter species in humans. The colonization of the human gastric mucosa by H. pylori is highly dependent on the recognition of host glycan receptors. Our goal was to define the canine gastric mucosa glycophenotype and to evaluate the capacity of different gastric Helicobacter species to adhere to the canine gastric mucosa. The glycosylation profile in body and antral compartments of the canine gastric mucosa, with focus on the expression of histo-blood group antigens was evaluated. The in vitro binding capacity of FITC-labeled H. pylori and NHPH to the canine gastric mucosa was assessed in cases representative of the canine glycosylation pattern. The canine gastric mucosa lacks expression of type 1 Lewis antigens and presents a broad expression of type 2 structures and A antigen, both in the surface and glandular epithelium. Regarding the canine antral mucosa, H. heilmannii s.s. presented the highest adhesion score whereas in the body region the SabA-positive H. pylori strain was the strain that adhered more. The canine gastric mucosa showed a glycosylation profile different from the human gastric mucosa suggesting that alternative glycan receptors may be involved in Helicobacter spp. binding. Helicobacter pylori and NHPH strains differ in their ability to adhere to canine gastric mucosa. Among the NHPH, H. heilmannii s.s. presented the highest adhesion capacity in agreement with its reported colonization of the canine stomach. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Microarray Analyses of Genes Differentially Expressed by Diet (Black Beans and Soy Flour) during Azoxymethane-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondini, Elizabeth A; Bennink, Maurice R

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that black bean (BB) and soy flour (SF)-based diets inhibit azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer. The objective of this study was to identify genes altered by carcinogen treatment in normal-appearing colonic mucosa and those attenuated by bean feeding. Ninety-five male F344 rats were fed control (AIN) diets upon arrival. At 4 and 5 weeks, rats were injected with AOM (15 mg/kg) or saline and one week later administered an AIN, BB-, or SF-based diet. Rats were sacrificed after 31 weeks, and microarrays were conducted on RNA isolated from the distal colonic mucosa. AOM treatment induced a number of genes involved in immunity, including several MHC II-associated antigens and innate defense genes (RatNP-3, Lyz2, Pla2g2a). BB- and SF-fed rats exhibited a higher expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and water and sodium absorption and lower expression of innate (RatNP-3, Pla2g2a, Tlr4, Dmbt1) and cell cycle-associated (Cdc2, Ccnb1, Top2a) genes. Genes involved in the extracellular matrix (Col1a1, Fn1) and innate immunity (RatNP-3, Pla2g2a) were induced by AOM in all diets, but to a lower extent in bean-fed animals. This profile suggests beans inhibit colon carcinogenesis by modulating cellular kinetics and reducing inflammation, potentially by preserving mucosal barrier function.

  8. Colonic lipoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, M.S.; Khatri, A.R.; Quraishy, M.S.; Fatima, L.; Muzaffar, S.

    2003-01-01

    Lipoma of the colon is rare and may lead to intestinal obstruct. We have presented two cases of colonic lipoma. Both were elderly females, one presented with diarrhea and the other with sub-acute intestinal obstruction. After colonoscopy surgical removal was done. Histopathology revealed lipoma. (author)

  9. Colonic angiodysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, C.; Legmann, P.; Garnier, T.; Levesque, M.

    1984-01-01

    The main clinical, endoscopic and radiographic findings in thirty documented cases of colonic angiodysplasia or vacular ectasia are described. We emphasise the association with colonic diverticulosis and cardiovascular pathology, describe the histological changes, summarize the present physiopathological hypothesis, and consider the various therapeutic approaches. (orig.)

  10. Colonic locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodou, D.

    2006-01-01

    The most effective screening method for colonic cancer is colonoscopy. However, colonoscopy cannot be easily embraced by the population because of the related pain intensity. Robotic devices that pull themselves forward through the colon are a possible alternative. The main challenge for such

  11. Untersuchungen zur Regeneration des Hinterendes bei Anaitides mucosa (Polychaeta, Phyllodocidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrkasten, A.

    1983-06-01

    Caudal regeneration was investigated in decerebrate Anaitides mucosa and in brain-intact individuals. Both groups show an identical capacity to regenerate lost caudal segments. Furthermore there is no difference in males and females. Low temperature (5 °C) inhibits the regeneration of caudal segments, but it is necessary for normal oogenesis. Under conditions of high temperature (15 °C), caudal regeneration is very extensive. At the same time degeneration of most oocytes occurs.

  12. Localization of ectopic gastric mucosa by scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alonzo, W.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    When gastric mucosal tissue occurs outside of the confines of the stomach, it is termed ectopic or heterotopic. Ectopic gastric mucosa may be found within Meckel's diverticulum, duplications of the alimentary tract, and Barrett's esophagus. In addition, a surgeon may inadvertently leave behind antral gastric mucosa while performing a partial gastrectomy for peptic ulcer disease (i.e., retained gastric antrum). It is important to detect the presence and location of ectopic mucosa because acid and pepsin secretion may cause ulceration in the adjacent tissue resulting in serious complications. The only currently available specific diagnostic technique for detecting ectopic gastric mucosa is pertechnetate Tc 99m (TcO 4- ) scintigraphy. This chapter reviews the functional anatomy of gastric mucosa, the mechanism of TcO 4 - localization, the various entities containing ectopic gastric mucosa, and the methods and results of TcO 4 - scanning for these disorders

  13. Microsatellite instability analysis in hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer using the Bethesda consensus panel of microsatellite markers in the absence of proband normal tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dourisboure Ricardo J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC is an autosomal dominant syndrome predisposing to the early development of various cancers including those of colon, rectum, endometrium, ovarium, small bowel, stomach and urinary tract. HNPCC is caused by germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes, mostly hMSH2 or hMLH1. In this study, we report the analysis for genetic counseling of three first-degree relatives (the mother and two sisters of a male who died of colorectal adenocarcinoma at the age of 23. The family fulfilled strict Amsterdam-I criteria (AC-I with the presence of extracolonic tumors in the extended pedigree. We overcame the difficulty of having a proband post-mortem non-tumor tissue sample for MSI testing by studying the alleles carried by his progenitors. Methods Tumor MSI testing is described as initial screening in both primary and metastasis tumor tissue blocks, using the reference panel of 5 microsatellite markers standardized by the National Cancer Institute (NCI for the screening of HNPCC (BAT-25, BAT-26, D2S123, D5S346 and D17S250. Subsequent mutation analysis of the hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes was performed. Results Three of five microsatellite markers (BAT-25, BAT-26 and D5S346 presented different alleles in the proband's tumor as compared to those inherited from his parents. The tumor was classified as high frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H. We identified in the HNPCC family a novel germline missense (c.1864C>A mutation in exon 12 of hMSH2 gene, leading to a proline 622 to threonine (p.Pro622Thr amino acid substitution. Conclusion This approach allowed us to establish the tumor MSI status using the NCI recommended panel in the absence of proband's non-tumor tissue and before sequencing the obligate carrier. According to the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD and the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumors (InSiGHT Database this is the first report of this mutation.

  14. Foreign Body in Jugal Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Thiago Luís Infanger; Pauna, Henrique Furlan; Hazboun, Igor Moreira; Dal Rio, Ana Cristina; Correa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; Nicola, Ester Maria Danielli

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Foreign body in the oral cavity may be asymptomatic for long time and only sometimes it can lead to a typical granulomatous foreign body reaction. Some patients may complain of oral pain and present signs of inflammation with purulent discharge. A granuloma is a distinct, compact microscopic structure composed of epithelioid-shaped macrophages typically surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and filled with fibroblasts and collagen. Nowadays, the increase of cosmetic invasive procedures such as injection of prosthetic materials in lips and cheeks may lead to unusual forms of inflammatory granulomas. Objectives Describe an unusual presentation of a foreign body reaction in the buccal mucosa due to previous injection of cosmetic agent. Resumed Report A 74-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery to investigate the presence of multiple painless, bilateral nodules in the buccal mucosa, with progressive growth observed during the previous 2 months. The histologic results showed a foreign body inflammatory reaction. Conclusion Oral granulomatosis lesions represent a challenging diagnosis for clinicians and a biopsy may be necessary. Patients may feel ashamed to report previous aesthetic procedures, and the clinicians must have a proactive approach.

  15. Foreign Body in Jugal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano, Thiago Luís Infanger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Foreign body in the oral cavity may be asymptomatic for long time and only sometimes it can lead to a typical granulomatous foreign body reaction. Some patients may complain of oral pain and present signs of inflammation with purulent discharge. A granuloma is a distinct, compact microscopic structure composed of epithelioid-shaped macrophages typically surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and filled with fibroblasts and collagen. Nowadays, the increase of cosmetic invasive procedures such as injection of prosthetic materials in lips and cheeks may lead to unusual forms of inflammatory granulomas. Objectives Describe an unusual presentation of a foreign body reaction in the buccal mucosa due to previous injection of cosmetic agent. Resumed Report A 74-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery to investigate the presence of multiple painless, bilateral nodules in the buccal mucosa, with progressive growth observed during the previous 2 months. The histologic results showed a foreign body inflammatory reaction. Conclusion Oral granulomatosis lesions represent a challenging diagnosis for clinicians and a biopsy may be necessary. Patients may feel ashamed to report previous aesthetic procedures, and the clinicians must have a proactive approach.

  16. Blood-group-related carbohydrates are expressed in organotypic cultures of human skin and oral mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, B; Andersson, A; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1999-01-01

    cultures. The organotypic skin and oral mucosa cultures showed a histological differentiation pattern analogous to that of normal skin and buccal mucosa, and a tissue-specific expression of carbohydrate structures and cytokeratins. However, both types of organotypic cultures also expressed markers which...... are normally seen during wound healing, including Lewis y, cytokeratin 16, and cytokeratin 19. We conclude that the organotypic cultures of oral mucosa and skin are suitable models for future studies of the function of cell-surface carbohydrates, although the expression of wound healing markers has to be taken...... the function of cell-surface carbohydrates, we established organotypic cultures of skin and buccal mucosa. In these cultures, keratinocytes are grown at the air-liquid interface on a supporting matrix consisting of homologous fibroblasts embedded in a collagen type I gel. We examined the expression of blood...

  17. Epithelial response to a high-protein diet in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Martin; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Armand, Lucie; Grauso, Marta; Jaffrézic, Florence; Laloë, Denis; Moroldo, Marco; Davila, Anne-Marie; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, François; Lan, Annaïg

    2017-01-31

    High-protein diets (HPD) alter the large intestine microbiota composition in association with a metabolic shift towards protein degradation. Some amino acid-derived metabolites produced by the colon bacteria are beneficial for the mucosa while others are deleterious at high concentrations. The aim of the present work was to define the colonic epithelial response to an HPD. Transcriptome profiling was performed on colonocytes of rats fed an HPD or an isocaloric normal-protein diet (NPD) for 2 weeks. The HPD downregulated the expression of genes notably implicated in pathways related to cellular metabolism, NF-κB signaling, DNA repair, glutathione metabolism and cellular adhesion in colonocytes. In contrast, the HPD upregulated the expression of genes related to cell proliferation and chemical barrier function. These changes at the mRNA level in colonocytes were not associated with detrimental effects of the HPD on DNA integrity (comet assay), epithelium renewal (quantification of proliferation and apoptosis markers by immunohistochemistry and western blot) and colonic barrier integrity (Ussing chamber experiments). The modifications of the luminal environment after an HPD were associated with maintenance of the colonic homeostasis that might be the result of adaptive processes in the epithelium related to the observed transcriptional regulations.

  18. Effect of entacapone on colon motility and ion transport in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Sheng; Liu, Chen-Zhe; Xu, Jing-Dong; Zheng, Li-Fei; Feng, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Jin-Xia

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of entacapone, a catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor, on colon motility and electrolyte transport in Parkinson’s disease (PD) rats. METHODS: Distribution and expression of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting methods. The colonic smooth muscle motility was examined in vitro by means of a muscle motility recording device. The mucosal electrolyte transport of PD rats was examined by using a short-circuit current (ISC) technique and scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET). Intracellular detection of cAMP and cGMP was accomplished by radioimmunoassay testing. RESULTS: COMT was expressed in the colons of both normal and PD rats, mainly on the apical membranes of villi and crypts in the colon. Compared to normal controls, PD rats expressed less COMT. The COMT inhibitor entacapone inhibited contraction of the PD rat longitudinal muscle in a dose-dependent manner. The β2 adrenoceptor antagonist ICI-118,551 blocked this inhibitory effect by approximately 67% (P fluid, as well as pretreatment using adenylate cyclase inhibitor MDL12330A. As an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase, indomethacin can inhibit entacapone-induced ISC by 45% (P < 0.01). When SIET was applied to measure Cl- flux changes, this provided similar results. Entacapone significantly increased intracellular cAMP content in the colonic mucosa, which was greatly inhibited by indomethacin. CONCLUSION: COMT expression exists in rat colons. The β2 adrenoceptor is involved in the entacapone-induced inhibition of colon motility. Entacapone induces cAMP-dependent Cl- secretion in the PD rat. PMID:25834315

  19. Hath1 inhibits proliferation of colon cancer cells probably through up-regulating expression of Muc2 and p27 and down-regulating expression of cyclin D1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dai-Hua; Niu, Bai-Lin; Du, Hui-Min; Ren, Ke; Sun, Jian-Ming; Gong, Jian-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that Math1 homologous to human Hath1 can cause mouse goblet cells to differentiate. In this context it is important that the majority of colon cancers have few goblet cells. In the present study, the potential role of Hath1 in colon carcinogenesis was investigated. Sections of paraffin-embedded tissues were used to investigate the goblet cell population of normal colon mucosa, mucosa adjacent colon cancer and colon cancer samples from 48 patients. Hath1 and Muc2 expression in these samples were tested by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time reverse transcription -PCR and Western blotting. After the recombinant plasmid, pcDNA3.1(+)-Hath1 had been transfected into HT29 colon cancer cells, three clones were selected randomly to test the levels of Hath1 mRNA, Muc2 mRNA, Hath1, Muc2, cyclin D1 and p27 by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting. Moreover, the proliferative ability of HT29 cells introduced with Hath1 was assessed by means of colony formation assay and xenografting. Expression of Hath1, Muc2, cyclin D1 and p27 in the xenograft tumors was also detected by Western blotting. No goblet cells were to be found in colon cancer and levels of Hath1 mRNA and Hath1, Muc2 mRNA and Muc2 were significantly down-regulated. Hath1 could decrease cyclin D1, increase p27 and Muc2 in HT29 cells and inhibit their proliferation. Hath1 may be an anti-oncogene in colon carcinogenesis.

  20. Primary Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma with a Nodular Opacity: Report of a Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Hirata, Tomomi; Takeuchi, Chie; Usuda, Jitsuo; Hosone, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we describe our experience in treating a case of primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma detected as a nodular opacity. A 79-year-old man was referred to our hospital. Computed tomography showed a nodular opacity measuring 20 mm in diameter with regular margins in segment 5 of the right middle lobe of the lung. Although the bronchoscopic brush cytology result was class III, the patient was tentatively diagnosed with suspected mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. A thoracoscopic right middle lobectomy was performed. The pathological findings showed nodular proliferation of small to medium-sized, mature-appearing atypical lymphoid cells, lymphoepithelial lesions, and vague follicles suggesting follicular colonization in some areas. The patient was diagnosed with low-grade small B-cell lymphoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. He has remained well to date, 23 months after surgery, without evidence of recurrence.

  1. Gene expression changes in the colon epithelium are similar to those of intact colon during late inflammation in interleukin-10 gene deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E Russ

    Full Text Available In addition to their role in absorption and secretion, epithelial cells play an important role in the protection of the colon mucosa from the resident microbiota and are important for the maintenance of homeostasis. Microarray analysis of intact colon samples is widely used to gain an overview of the cellular pathways and processes that are active in the colon during inflammation. Laser microdissection of colon epithelial cells allows a more targeted analysis of molecular pathways in the mucosa, preceding and during inflammation, with potentially increased sensitivity to changes in specific cell populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular changes that occur in early and late inflammation stages in colon epithelium of a mouse model of inflammatory bowel diseases. Microarray analysis of intact colon samples and microdissected colon epithelial cell samples from interleukin-10 gene deficient and control mice at 6 and 12 weeks of age was undertaken. Results of gene set enrichment analysis showed that more immune-related pathways were identified between interleukin-10 gene deficient and control mice at 6 weeks of age in epithelial cells than intact colon. This suggests that targeting epithelial cells could increase sensitivity for detecting immune changes that occur early in the inflammatory process. However, in the later stages of inflammation, microarray analyses of intact colon and epithelium both provide a similar overview of gene expression changes in the colon mucosa at the pathway level.

  2. Colon neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura F, K.

    1991-01-01

    The main aspects of colon neoplasms are described, including several factors that predispose the disease, the occurrence, the main biomedical radiography and the evaluation after the surgery. (C.G.C.)

  3. Circumvention and reactivation of the p53 oncogene checkpoint in mouse colon tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizu, Wataru; Belinsky, Glenn S; Flynn, Christopher; Noonan, Emily J; Boes, Colleen C; Godman, Cassandra A; Doshi, Bindi; Nambiar, Prashant R; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Giardina, Charles

    2006-10-16

    The p53 tumor suppressor protein is sequence-normal in azoxymethane (AOM)-induced mouse colon tumors, making them a good model for human colon cancers that retain a wild type p53 gene. Cellular localization and co-immunoprecipitation experiments using a cell line derived from an AOM-induced colon tumor (AJ02-NM(0) cells) pointed to constitutively expressed Mdm2 as being an important negative regulator of p53 in these cells. Although the Mdm2 inhibitory protein p19/ARF was expressed in AJ02-NM(0) cells, its level of expression was not sufficient for p53 activation. We tested the response of AJ02-NM(0) cells to the recently developed Mdm2 inhibitor, Nutlin-3. Nutlin-3 was found to activate p53 DNA binding in AJ02-NM(0) cells, to a level comparable to doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In addition, Nutlin-3 increased expression of the p53 target genes Bax and PERP to a greater extent than doxorubicin or 5-FU, and triggered a G2/M phase arrest in these cells, compared to a G1 arrest triggered by doxorubicin and 5-FU. The differences in the cellular response may be related to differences in the kinetics of p53 activation and/or its post-translational modification status. In an ex vivo experiment, Nutlin-3 was found to activate p53 target gene expression and apoptosis in AOM-induced tumor tissue, but not in normal adjacent mucosa. Our data indicate that Mdm2 inhibitors may be an effective means of selectively targeting colon cancers that retain a sequence-normal p53 gene while sparing normal tissue and that the AOM model is an appropriate model for the preclinical development of these drugs.

  4. Urokinase and the intestinal mucosa: evidence for a role in epithelial cell turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, P; Birchall, I; Rosella, O; Albert, V; Finch, C; Barkla, D; Young, G

    1998-01-01

    Background—The functions of urokinase in intestinal epithelia are unknown. 
Aims—To determine the relation of urokinase expressed by intestinal epithelial cells to their position in the crypt-villus/surface axis and of mucosal urokinase activity to epithelial proliferative kinetics in the distal colon. 
Methods—Urokinase expression was examined immunohistochemically in human intestinal mucosa. Urokinase activity was measured colorimetrically in epithelial cells isolated sequ...

  5. sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate scintigraphy and colonic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.; Merrick, M.V.; Palmer, K.R.; Millar, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Sucralfate is an aluminium substituted disaccharide, binding at low pH to sites of ulceration in the gastrointestinal tract. Dawson et al (1985) reported that abdominal scans taken 12-24 hours after ingestion of sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate provide a range of normal appearances in healthy subjects and the pattern of ileal or colonic abnormalities in inflammatory bowel disease, surprising in view of the low binding affinity of sucralfate at ileonic pH. The authors have studied a series of 18 consecutive patients undergoing routine colonoscopy preceded by sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate scintigraphy. In vitro tests of isotope binding to parent molecule and absence of gastric mucosal uptake show that the disappointing results were not due to disruption of the sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate complex. It is suggested that labelled sucralfate attaches to luminal contents rather than adhering to mucosa, supported by the caecal 'hot spots' found in patients shown to have caecal pooling at colonoscopy and by observations that the one poorly prepared patient with pronounced faecal retention at time of endoscopy also had increased retention of radioactivity throughout the colon in the absence of mucosal abnormality. (U.K.)

  6. Sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate scintigraphy and colonic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, A.; Merrick, M.V.; Palmer, K.R.; Millar, A.M.

    1987-09-05

    Sucralfate is an aluminium substituted disaccharide, binding at low pH to sites of ulceration in the gastrointestinal tract. Dawson et al (1985) reported that abdominal scans taken 12-24 hours after ingestion of sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate provide a range of normal appearances in healthy subjects and the pattern of ileal or colonic abnormalities in inflammatory bowel disease, surprising in view of the low binding affinity of sucralfate at ileonic pH. The authors have studied a series of 18 consecutive patients undergoing routine colonoscopy preceded by sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate scintigraphy. In vitro tests of isotope binding to parent molecule and absence of gastric mucosal uptake show that the disappointing results were not due to disruption of the sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate complex. It is suggested that labelled sucralfate attaches to luminal contents rather than adhering to mucosa, supported by the caecal 'hot spots' found in patients shown to have caecal pooling at colonoscopy and by observations that the one poorly prepared patient with pronounced faecal retention at time of endoscopy also had increased retention of radioactivity throughout the colon in the absence of mucosal abnormality. (U.K.).

  7. Colonic transit time relates to bacterial metabolism and mucosal turnover in the human gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Bahl, Martin Iain

    catabolism as reflected by microbial metabolites in urine. This results in a number of potentially deleterious protein-derived metabolites. Additionally, longer colonic transit time correlates with metabolites likely reflecting reduced renewal of the colonic mucosa. Together, this suggests that a high gut...

  8. The role of tobacco as an etiological agent for oral cancer: Cytomorphometrical analysis of the buccal mucosa in tobacco users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The results confirmed that tobacco chewing and smoking influenced the cytomorphology of normal appearing buccal mucosa and the degree of these changes were found to be greater in chewers as compared to smokers.

  9. Age-related loss of EGF-receptor related protein (ERRP) in the aging colon is a potential risk factor for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, Eva M; Levi, Edi; Du, Jianhua; Xu, Hu; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2004-12-01

    Although in Fischer-344 rats, aging is associated with increased activation of EGF-receptor (EGFR) in mucosa of much of the gastrointestinal tract, including the colon, regulation of this process is poorly understood. We hypothesize that loss of suppressor of EGFR may partly be responsible for this process. To test this hypothesis, we examined the expression of EGFR related protein (ERRP), a recently identified negative regulator of EGFR, in the colonic mucosa during aging and following administration of the colonic carcinogen dimethylhydrazine (DMH) that resulted in the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), which are considered to be precursor of adenoma and carcinoma. In Fischer-344 rats, aging is associated with increased activation of EGFR in the colonic mucosa, as evidenced by 30-35% increase in the levels of tyrosine phosphorylated EGFR in the proximal and distal colon of aged (20-22 months old) than in young (4-6 months old) rats. In contrast, the levels of ERRP in both regions of the colon of aged rats were decreased by 50-60%, compared to their younger counterparts. Administration of DMH, which induced a greater number of ACF in the colon of aged rats than in young animals, resulted in a corresponding reduction in ERRP in the colon. These results suggest that loss of ERRP expression is a common event during aging and early stages of chemically induced colon cancer. We also suggest that loss of ERRP could be a risk factor for developing colorectal cancer in the older population.

  10. Heterotopic Gastric Mucosa in the Distal Part of Esophagus in a Teenager: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, Vasile Valeriu; Ignat, Ancuta; Paduraru, Gabriela; Mihaila, Doina; Burlea, Marin; Ciubara, Anamaria

    2015-10-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM) of the esophagus is a congenital anomaly consisting of ectopic gastric mucosa. It may be connected with disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, exacerbated by Helicobacter pylori. The diagnosis of HGM is confirmed via endoscopy with biopsy. Histopathology provides the definitive diagnosis by demonstrating gastric mucosa adjacent to normal esophageal mucosa. HGM located in the distal esophagus needs differentiation from Barrett's esophagus. Barrett's esophagus is a well-known premalignant injury for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Malignant progression of HGM occurs in a stepwise pattern, following the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.We present a rare case of a teenage girl with HGM located in the distal esophagus, associated with chronic gastritis and biliary duodenogastric reflux. Endoscopy combined with biopsies is a mandatory method in clinical evaluation of metaplastic and nonmetaplastic changes within HGM of the esophagus.

  11. Regeneration of Vocal Fold Mucosa Using Tissue-Engineered Structures with Oral Mucosal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahori, Mioko; Chitose, Shun-ichi; Sato, Kiminori; Sueyoshi, Shintaro; Kurita, Takashi; Umeno, Hirohito; Monden, Yu; Yamakawa, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Scarred vocal folds result in irregular vibrations during phonation due to stiffness of the vocal fold mucosa. To date, a completely satisfactory corrective procedure has yet to be achieved. We hypothesize that a potential treatment option for this disease is to replace scarred vocal folds with organotypic mucosa. The purpose of this study is to regenerate vocal fold mucosa using a tissue-engineered structure with autologous oral mucosal cells. Study Design Animal experiment using eight beagles (including three controls). Methods A 3 mm by 3 mm specimen of canine oral mucosa was surgically excised and divided into epithelial and subepithelial tissues. Epithelial cells and fibroblasts were isolated and cultured separately. The proliferated epithelial cells were co-cultured on oriented collagen gels containing the proliferated fibroblasts for an additional two weeks. The organotypic cultured tissues were transplanted to the mucosa-deficient vocal folds. Two months after transplantation, vocal fold vibrations and morphological characteristics were observed. Results A tissue-engineered vocal fold mucosa, consisting of stratified epithelium and lamina propria, was successfully fabricated to closely resemble the normal layered vocal fold mucosa. Laryngeal stroboscopy revealed regular but slightly small mucosal waves at the transplanted site. Immunohistochemically, stratified epithelium expressed cytokeratin, and the distributed cells in the lamina propria expressed vimentin. Elastic Van Gieson staining revealed a decreased number of elastic fibers in the lamina propria of the transplanted site. Conclusion The fabricated mucosa with autologous oral mucosal cells successfully restored the vocal fold mucosa. This reconstruction technique could offer substantial clinical advantages for treating intractable diseases such as scarring of the vocal folds. PMID:26730600

  12. Melanosis coli in patients with colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Biernacka-Wawrzonek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intoduction: Melanosis coli is a benign lesion affecting the mucosa of the large intestine. There is a relationship between the presence of melanosis and anthraquinone laxative use. Melanosis coli is also observed in patients with colon cancer, but there is doubt whether these two conditions are related. Aim : To analyze the correlation between melanosis and colon cancer. Material and methods: We analyzed retrospectively 436 patients undergoing colon cancer surgery. There were 246 women and 190 men. Patients were divided into three age groups: under 50 years, between 51 and 65 years, and over 66 years. We analyzed sections of the cancer and intestinal mucosa from the tumor’s proximal (2–5 cm and distal (8–10 cm zone. Results : Melanosis coli was present in 52 patients, which represents 11.9% of patients with colon cancer. More often it was present in women. The most common location of melanosis and colon cancer was the terminal part of the large intestine. In patients below 50 years of age in both sexes melanosis coli did not occur. In men, melanosis was more common in the age group over 66 years. Intensity of pigmentation was higher in the tumor’s distal zone. Conclusions : The incidence of melanosis coli increases with age, similar to that of colon cancer. Melanosis was not present inside tumors, in almost half of the cases it was not present in the proximal zone, and the degree of pigmentation increased in distal zone. The cause-effect relationship between melanosis coli and colon cancer remains uncertain.

  13. Infrequent detection of germline allele-specific expression of TGFBR1 in lymphoblasts and tissues of colon cancer patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Guda, Kishore

    2009-06-15

    Recently, germline allele-specific expression (ASE) of the gene encoding for transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor (TGFBR1) has been proposed to be a major risk factor for cancer predisposition in the colon. Germline ASE results in a lowered expression of one of the TGFBR1 alleles (>1.5-fold), and was shown to occur in approximately 20% of informative familial and sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. In the present study, using the highly quantitative pyrosequencing technique, we estimated the frequency of ASE in TGFBR1 in a cohort of affected individuals from familial clusters of advanced colon neoplasias (cancers and adenomas with high-grade dysplasia), and also from a cohort of individuals with sporadic CRCs. Cases were considered positive for the presence of ASE if demonstrating an allelic expression ratio <0.67 or >1.5. Using RNA derived from lymphoblastoid cell lines, we find that of 46 informative Caucasian advanced colon neoplasia cases with a family history, only 2 individuals display a modest ASE, with allelic ratios of 1.65 and 1.73, respectively. Given that ASE of TGFBR1, if present, would likely be more pronounced in the colon compared with other tissues, we additionally determined the allele ratios of TGFBR1 in the RNA derived from normal-appearing colonic mucosa of sporadic CRC cases. We, however, found no evidence of ASE in any of 44 informative sporadic cases analyzed. Taken together, we find that germline ASE of TGFBR1, as assayed in lymphoblastoid and colon epithelial cells of colon cancer patients, is a relatively rare event.

  14. Aberrant gene methylation in non-neoplastic mucosa as a predictive marker of ulcerative colitis-associated CRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Marco; Scarpa, Melania; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Erroi, Francesca; Kotsafti, Andromachi; Basato, Silvia; Brun, Paola; D'Incà, Renata; Rugge, Massimo; Angriman, Imerio; Castoro, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    BACKGROUND PROMOTER: hypermethylation plays a major role in cancer through transcriptional silencing of critical genes. The aim of our study is to evaluate the methylation status of these genes in the colonic mucosa without dysplasia or adenocarcinoma at the different steps of sporadic and UC-related carcinogenesis and to investigate the possible role of genomic methylation as a marker of CRC. The expression of Dnmts 1 and 3A was significantly increased in UC-related carcinogenesis compared to non inflammatory colorectal carcinogenesis. In non-neoplastic colonic mucosa, the number of methylated genes resulted significantly higher in patients with CRC and in those with UC-related CRC compared to the HC and UC patients and patients with dysplastic lesion of the colon. The number of methylated genes in non-neoplastic colonic mucosa predicted the presence of CRC with good accuracy either in non inflammatory and inflammatory related CRC. Colonic mucosal samples were collected from healthy subjects (HC) (n = 30) and from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 29), UC and dysplasia (n = 14), UC and cancer (n = 10), dysplastic adenoma (n = 14), and colon adenocarcinoma (n = 10). DNA methyltransferases-1, -3a, -3b, mRNA expression were quantified by real time qRT-PCR. The methylation status of CDH13, APC, MLH1, MGMT1 and RUNX3 gene promoters was assessed by methylation-specific PCR. Methylation status of APC, CDH13, MGMT, MLH1 and RUNX3 in the non-neoplastic mucosa may be used as a marker of CRC: these preliminary results could allow for the adjustment of a patient's surveillance interval and to select UC patients who should undergo intensive surveillance.

  15. Endoscopic appearance of irradiated gastric mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sagher, L I; Van den Heule, B; Van Houtte, P; Engelholm, L; Balikdjan, D; Bleiberg, H

    1979-09-01

    Irradiation of the epigastric area for gastric cancer may induce actinic lesions of the stomach characterized on endoscopic examination by ulcerations, haemorrhagic gastritis, fragility of the mucosa, thickening and congestion of the gastric folds.

  16. Oral mucosa grafts for urethral reconstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reports reveal that split and full thickness skin grafts from the scrotum, penis, extragenital sites (ureter, saphenous .... Table 1: Summary of the history of oral mucosa grafts for urethroplasty .... advised that care should be taken when suturing the.

  17. Acidic Conditions in the NHE2-/- Mouse Intestine Result in an Altered Mucosa-Associated Bacterial Population with Changes in Mucus Oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda A. Engevik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms bacteria use to proliferate and alter the normal bacterial composition remain unknown. The ability to link changes in the intestinal micro-environment, such as ion composition and pH, to bacterial proliferation is clinically advantageous for diseases that involve an altered gut microbiota, such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease, obesity and diabetes. In human and mouse intestine, the apical Na+/H+ exchangers NHE2 and NHE3 affect luminal Na+, water, and pH. Loss of NHE2 results in acidic luminal pH. Since acid resistance systems in gram-positive bacteria are well documented, we hypothesize that gram-positive bacteria would increase in representation in the acidic NHE2-/- intestine. Methods: Intestinal ion composition was measured by fame photometry and chloridometry and pH measured electrochemically. DNA extracted from intestinal flushes or from mucosal scrapings was analyzed by qRT-PCR to examine luminal and mucosa-associated bacterial populations. Epithelial mucus oligosaccharide patterns were examined by histology with FIT-C labeled lectins. Results: Although total luminal and mucosa-associated bacteria were unchanged in NHE2-/- intestine, gram-positive bacterial phyla were increased in the mucosa-associated bacterial population in a region-specific manner. The genera Clostridium and Lactobacillus were increased in the cecum and colon which corresponded to changes in NHE2-/- mucus oligosaccharide composition of mannose, N-acetyglucosamine, N-acetygalactosamine and galactose. Conclusions: Together these data indicate that changes in ion transport induce region-specific bacterial changes, which alter host mucus oligosaccharide patterns. These host-bacterial interactions provide a possible mechanism of niche-development and shed insight on how certain groups proliferate in changing environments and maintain their proliferation by altering the host.

  18. Small invasive colon cancer with systemic metastasis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakamoto Taku

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Recently, especially in Japan, several researchers have suggested that colorectal cancer can develop not only through an adenoma-carcinoma sequence but also from normal mucosa via a de novo pathway, and that these de novo cancers have more aggressive malignant potential. We report a case of aggressive colon cancer resulting in systemic metastasis despite small tumour size. Case Presentation A 35-year-old woman presented at the referring hospital with swelling of the left cervical lymph node. Biopsy of the lymph node revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma; however, CT scan and mammography were unable to identify the site of the primary lesion. She was diagnosed with unknown primary cancer and referred to our hospital for further examination. Immunohistochemical reevaluation showed the cervical lymph node biopsy specimen to be positive for CDX2 and CK20 and negative for CK7 expression, leading us to suspect the presence of a primary colorectal cancer. We performed a total colonoscopy, and detected a small protruding lesion in the transverse colon. The tumour was only 12 mm in diameter, with a central depressed component and a severely thickened stalk, which suggested direct cancer invasion of the deep submucosa. We concluded that this lesion was the site of origin of the metastasis despite the small tumour size, and performed diagnostic endoscopic mucosal resection. The lesion was found to have an intramucosal cancer component, demonstrating that this lesion represented primary colon cancer. The patient was referred to the gastrointestinal oncology division for systemic chemotherapy. Conclusions In this case, immunohistochemical findings strongly suggested the existence of a colorectal cancer. The non-polypoid gross appearance of the tumour suggested that it can originate de novo , thus providing a valuable case in support of the aggressive malignant potential of a de novo colorectal cancer pathway.

  19. Histopathological findings in the oral mucosa of celiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bardellini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Celiac disease (CD is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible subjects. Although the small intestinal mucosa is the main site of the gut's involvement in CD, other mucosal surfaces belonging to the gastrointestinal tract and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue are known to be affected. Aim: Assuming that the oral mucosa could reflect the histopathological inflammatory alterations of the intestine in CD patients, this study wishes to assess the pattern of T-cell subsets in the oral mucosa of young adults with CD. Methods: A group of 37 patients (age range 20-38 years; female: male ratio 28:9 with CD were enrolled. Out of 37 patients, 19 patients (group A followed a gluten free diet (GFD -2 patients from less than one year; 6 patients between 1 and 5 years; 11 patients more than 5 years- while 18 patients (group B were still untreated. Fifteen healthy volunteers (age range 18-35 years, female: Male ratio 11:4 served as controls for the CD patients. Ethical approval for the research was granted by the Ethics Committee. Biopsy specimens were taken from normal looking oral mucosa. The immunohistochemical investigation was performed with monoclonal antibodies to CD3, CD4, CD8, and γδ-chains T cell receptor (TCR. Results: The T-lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate was significantly (p < 0.0001 increased in group B (both compared with group A and with the control group. Conclusion: This study confirms the oral cavity to be a site of involvement of CD and its possible diagnostic potentiality in this disease.

  20. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL/Lcn2) is upregulated in gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpízar-Alpízar, Warner; Laerum, Ole Didrik; Illemann, Martin

    2009-01-01

    characterized here the pattern of expression of NGAL/Lcn2 in gastric mucosa (45 non-neoplastic and 38 neoplastic tissue samples) and explored the connection between NGAL/Lcn2 expression and H. pylori infection. Immunohistochemical analysis showed high NGAL/Lcn2 expression in normal and gastritis-affected mucosa...... compared to low expression in intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and gastric cancer. In normal and gastritis-affected mucosa (n=36 tissue samples), NGAL/Lcn2 was more frequently seen in epithelial cells located at the neck and base of the glands in H. pylori-positive cases than in similar epithelial cells...... of noninfected cases (Fisher's exact test, p=0.04). In conclusion, the high expression of NGAL/Lcn2 in normal and gastritis-affected mucosa infected with H. pylori suggests that NGAL/Lcn2 is upregulated locally in response to this bacterial infection. It is discussed whether this may have a causal relation...

  1. Importance of neural mechanisms in colonic mucosal and muscular dysfunction in adult rats following neonatal colonic irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloner, A; Rao, A; Al-Chaer, E D; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that early life trauma induced by maternal separation or colonic irritation leads to hypersensitivity to colorectal distension in adulthood. We tested the hypothesis that repetitive colorectal distension in neonates leads to abnormalities in colonic permeability and smooth muscle function in the adult rat. In neonatal rats, repetitive colorectal distension was performed on days 8, 10, and 12. As adults, stool consistency was graded from 0 (formed stool) to 3 (liquid stool). Colonic tissue was isolated for histology and myeloperoxidase levels. The colonic mucosa was placed in modified Ussing chambers for measurements of permeability and short-circuit current responses to forskolin, electrical field stimulation, and carbachol. Segments of colonic musculature were placed in organ baths and contractile response to potassium chloride, electrical field stimulation, and carbachol were determined. In adult rats that experienced neonatal colonic irritation, no significant changes in colonic histology or myeloperoxidase activity were observed; however, stool consistency scores were increased. Mucosal permeability, measured as an increase in basal conductance, was significantly increased but no changes in short-circuit current responses were observed. In adulthood, rats that underwent colorectal distension as neonates exhibited an elevated smooth muscle contractile response to potassium chloride, but no changes in response to electrical field stimulation or carbachol. In summary, neonatal colonic irritation, shown previously to produce colonic hypersensitivity, leads to significant alterations in colonic mucosal and smooth muscle function characterized by loose stools, increased mucosal permeability, and increased smooth muscle contractility in the absence of colon inflammation in adulthood. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Fiber optic FTIR instrument for in vivo detection of colonic neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nortwick, Matthew; Hargrove, John; Wolters, Rolf; Crawford, James M.; Arroyo, May; Mackanos, Mark; Contag, Christopher H.; Wang, Thomas D.

    2009-02-01

    We demonstrate the proof of concept for use of a fiber optic FTIR instrument to perform in vivo detection of colonic neoplasia as an adjunct to medical endoscopy. FTIR is sensitive to the molecular composition of tissue, and can be used as a guide for biopsy by identifying pre-malignant tissue (dysplasia). First, we demonstrate the use of a silver halide optical fiber to collect mid-infrared absorption spectra in the 950 to 1800 cm-1 regime with high signal-to-noise from biopsy specimens of colonic mucosa tissue ex vivo. We observed subtle differences in wavenumber and magnitude of the absorbance peaks over this regime. We then show that optimal sub-ranges can be defined within this spectral regime and that spectral pre-processing can be performed to classify the tissue as normal, hyperplasia, or dysplasia with high levels of performance. We used a partial least squares discriminant analysis and a leave-one-subject-out crossvalidation strategy to classify the spectra. The results were compared with histology, and the optimal thresholds resulted in an overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value of 96%, 92%, 93%, and 82%, respectively for this technique. We demonstrate that mid-infrared absorption spectra can be collected remotely with an optical fiber and used to identify colonic dysplasia with high accuracy. We are now developing an endoscope compatible optical fiber to use this technique clinically for the early detection of cancer.

  3. Changes in cell proliferation and morphology in the large intestine of normal and DMH-treated rats following colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Tutton, P J

    1987-04-01

    Colostomies were formed in the midcolon of normal and DMH-treated rats. Changes in cell proliferation in the mucosa adjacent to the colostomy and in the defunctioned distal segment were measured at seven, 14, 30, and 72 days using a stathmokinetic technique. Animals were given intraperitoneal injections of vinblastine and sacrificed three hours later; counts of mitotic and nonmitotic cells were made in tissue sections, and three-hour accumulated mitotic indexes were estimated. The results show that, except at seven days in DMH-treated rats, cell proliferation was unchanged in the colon proximal to the colostomy. Morphologic evidence of hyperplasia was seen in some animals at seven and 14 days. The defunctioned segment showed rapid atrophy of both mucosa and muscularis and a gradual but progressive decrease in cell proliferation. The morphology of the mucosa adjacent to the suture line in both functioning and defunctioned segments in normal and DMH-treated rats was abnormal in many animals. Abnormalities that were seen included collections of dysplastic epithelial cells in the submucosa, focal adenomatous changes, and intramural carcinoma formation. Aggregates of lymphoid tissue often were associated with carcinomas.

  4. Surface ultrastuctures of the human laryngeal mucosa - observation by an newly developed technique of SEM cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, M.; Ohno, I.; Fujita, T.; Adachi, K.

    1981-01-01

    With the newly-developed techniques of SEM cinematography, surface ultrastructures of the human normal and pathological laryngeal mucosa were demonstrated. The high specialization of the laryngeal mucosa with its marked regional differences stresses the fact that even the squamous epithelium and nonciliated epithelium may play a role of utmost importance. All specimens were obtained after laryngectomy from 10 patients affected by laryngeal cancer which had been treated with or without preoperative irradiation of Lineac in total doses of 3,500-4,500 rad. Special attention was paid to the occurrence of microvilli and microplicae in the normal and pathological mucosa of the larynx, and their morphological and physiological significances were discussed briefly. (Auth.)

  5. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ORAL MUCOSA LEUKOPLAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. KOLENKO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, substantial changes have occurred in the structure of oral mucosa diseases, in particular an increased ratio of precancerous diseases, so that an effective non-invasive detection of any sign of malignancy appears as an urgent and most actual task of dentistry. Aim: To study the proliferative activity of epithelial cells in Ki-67 antigenin patients with leukoplakia of the oral mucosa. Materials and method: A complex clinical and laboratory examination was performed on 155 patients with oral leukoplakia, who addressed the Operative Dentistry Department of the “A.A.Bogomolets” National Medical University of Kiev between 2010 and 2014. All patients have been subjected to a careful clinical examination, which included: dental anamnesis, visual inspection, oral examination and digital palpation of oral mucosa and tongue mucosa, biopsy of leukoplakia lesions for cytological and histological examination. Results: Histological evaluation of the material has been performed according to the WHO (2005 classification of leukoplakia. 10 (14% sites of unaltered mucosa, 10 (14% samples of hyperkeratosis without atypia, 14 (19% biopsy specimens of hyperkeratosis SIN1, 15 (21% – hyperkeratosis SIN2, 10 (14% - SIN3 and 13 (18% cases of squamous cell carcinoma were evidenced. Immunohistochemical investigation evidenced the presence of protein Ki-67 in the nuclei of epithelial cells. In the unmodified epithelium of the oral mucosa, all epithelial cells with stained nuclei are virtually located in the basal layer. Conclusion: Against the general increase of the proliferative activity of epithelial cells with increasing SIN, a characteristic distribution of proliferating cells in the thickness of the epithelium was revealed for each studied group, as follows: in the control group and in leukoplakia without atypia, immunopositive cells are located in the basal layer, in leukoplakia (SIN1, SIN2 and SIN3 – in parabasal position while, in squamous

  6. Helicobacter pylori colonization critically depends on postprandial gastric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker, Roland; Azevedo-Vethacke, Marina; Groll, Claudia; Garten, Désirée; Josenhans, Christine; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Schreiber, Sören

    2012-01-01

    The risk of Helicobacter pylori infection is highest in childhood, but the colonization process of the stomach mucosa is poorly understood. We used anesthetized Mongolian gerbils to study the initial stages of H. pylori colonization. Prandial and postprandial gastric conditions characteristic of humans of different ages were simulated. The fraction of bacteria that reached the deep mucus layer varied strongly with the modelled postprandial conditions. Colonization success was weak with fast gastric reacidification typical of adults. The efficiency of deep mucus entry was also low with a slow pH decrease as seen in pH profiles simulating the situation in babies. Initial colonization was most efficient under conditions simulating the postprandial reacidification and pepsin activation profiles in young children. In conclusion, initial H. pylori colonization depends on age-related gastric physiology, providing evidence from an in vivo infection model that suggests an explanation why the bacterium is predominantly acquired in early childhood. PMID:23251780

  7. Colonic insufflation with carbon monoxide gas inhibits the development of intestinal inflammation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takagi Tomohisa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is complex, and an effective therapeutic strategy has yet to be established. Recently, carbon monoxide (CO has been reported to be capable of reducing inflammation by multiple mechanisms. In this study, we evaluated the role of colonic CO insufflation in acute colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS in rats. Methods Acute colitis was induced with TNBS in male Wistar rats. Following TNBS administration, the animals were treated daily with 200 ppm of intrarectal CO gas. The distal colon was removed to evaluate various parameters of inflammation, including thiobarbituric acid (TBA-reactive substances, tissue-associated myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, and the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-1 in colonic mucosa 7 days after TNBS administration. Results The administration of TNBS induced ulceration with surrounding edematous swelling in the colon. In rats treated with CO gas, the colonic ulcer area was smaller than that of air-treated rats 7 days after TNBS administration. The wet colon weight was significantly increased in the TNBS-induced colitis group, which was markedly abrogated by colonic insufflation with CO gas. The increase of MPO activity, TBA-reactive substances, and CINC-1 expression in colonic mucosa were also significantly inhibited by colonic insufflation with CO gas. Conclusions Colonic insufflation with CO gas significantly ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Clinical application of CO gas to improve colonic inflammatory conditions such as IBD might be useful.

  8. Transparency-enhancing technology allows three-dimensional assessment of gastrointestinal mucosa: A porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Hiroya; Ono, Satoshi; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Kudo, Yotaro; Ikemura, Masako; Kageyama, Natsuko; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Someya, Takao; Fukayama, Masashi; Koike, Kazuhiko; Onodera, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    Although high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of endoscopically resected gastrointestinal specimens can help elucidating morphological features of gastrointestinal mucosa or tumor, there are no established methods to achieve this without breaking specimens apart. We evaluated the utility of transparency-enhancing technology for three-dimensional assessment of gastrointestinal mucosa in porcine models. Esophagus, stomach, and colon mucosa samples obtained from a sacrificed swine were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, and subsequently deparaffinized for analysis. The samples were fluorescently stained, optically cleared using transparency-enhancing technology: ilLUmination of Cleared organs to IDentify target molecules method (LUCID), and visualized using laser scanning microscopy. After observation, all specimens were paraffin-embedded again and evaluated by conventional histopathological assessment to measure the impact of transparency-enhancing procedures. As a result, microscopic observation revealed horizontal section views of mucosa at deeper levels and enabled the three-dimensional image reconstruction of glandular and vascular structures. Besides, paraffin-embedded specimens after transparency-enhancing procedures were all assessed appropriately by conventional histopathological staining. These results suggest that transparency-enhancing technology may be feasible for clinical application and enable the three-dimensional structural analysis of endoscopic resected specimen non-destructively. Although there remain many limitations or problems to be solved, this promising technology might represent a novel histopathological method for evaluating gastrointestinal cancers. © 2018 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Morphological changes of intestinal mucosa in patients with different clinical variants of irritable bowel syndrome using tetracyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Nagieva S.; Svintsitskyy A.; Kuryk O.; Korendovych I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess histological changes of colonic mucosa in patients with clinically different types of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) before and after the treatment with tetracyclic antidepressant and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Methods. Adult patients (over 18 years) with confirmed diagnosis of IBS were examined. Biopsy specimens were taken from colon during colonoscopy for the next histological examination. One expert gastrointestinal pathologist assessed all tissue samples....

  10. HIF1α deficiency reduces inflammation in a mouse model of proximal colon cancer

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    Dessislava N. Mladenova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α is a transcription factor that regulates the adaptation of cells to hypoxic microenvironments, for example inside solid tumours. Stabilisation of HIF1α can also occur in normoxic conditions in inflamed tissue or as a result of inactivating mutations in negative regulators of HIF1α. Aberrant overexpression of HIF1α in many different cancers has led to intensive efforts to develop HIF1α-targeted therapies. However, the role of HIF1α is still poorly understood in chronic inflammation that predisposes the colon to carcinogenesis. We have previously reported that the transcription of HIF1α is upregulated and that the protein is stabilised in inflammatory lesions that are caused by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID sulindac in the mouse proximal colon. Here, we exploited this side effect of long-term sulindac administration to analyse the role of HIF1α in colon inflammation using mice with a Villin-Cre-induced deletion of Hif1α exon 2 in the intestinal epithelium (Hif1αΔIEC. We also analysed the effect of sulindac sulfide on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR pathway in vitro in colon cancer cells. Most sulindac-treated mice developed visible lesions, resembling the appearance of flat adenomas in the human colon, surrounded by macroscopically normal mucosa. Hif1αΔIEC mice still developed lesions but they were smaller than in the Hif1α-floxed siblings (Hif1αF/F. Microscopically, Hif1αΔIEC mice had significantly less severe colon inflammation than Hif1αF/F mice. Molecular analysis showed reduced MIF expression and increased E-cadherin mRNA expression in the colon of sulindac-treated Hif1αΔIEC mice. However, immunohistochemistry analysis revealed a defect of E-cadherin protein expression in sulindac-treated Hif1αΔIEC mice. Sulindac sulfide treatment in vitro upregulated Hif1α, c-JUN and IL8 expression through the AHR pathway. Taken together, HIF1α expression augments inflammation

  11. Advanced colonic cancer associated with radiation colitis, report of a case

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    Moriyama, Tomohiko; Sato, Tomoo; Iwai, Keiichirou; Yao, Takashi; Mibu, Ryuichi; Iida, Mitsuo [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Medical Sciences; Matsumoto, Takayuki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Hospital

    2002-07-01

    A 68-year-old woman with a history of irradiation for uterine cervical cancer was admitted to our institute, because of abdominal distension. Barium enema examination and total colonoscopy revealed narrowing, irregular mucosa and an ulcerating tumor in the sigmoid colon and a flat elevation in the transverse colon. Biopsy specimens from these tumors contained adenocarcinoma. Histological examination of the resected colon revealed the tumor in the sigmoid colon to be a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma invading the subserosa and that in the transverse colon to be an intramucosal adenocarcinoma. There were also areas of low or high grade dysplasia in the sigmoid colon. Histological findings compatible with radiation colitis were found in the sigmoid colon. These clinicopathologic features suggested a diagnosis of colonic cancer associated with radiation colitis. (author)

  12. Advanced colonic cancer associated with radiation colitis, report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Tomohiko; Sato, Tomoo; Iwai, Keiichirou; Yao, Takashi; Mibu, Ryuichi; Iida, Mitsuo; Matsumoto, Takayuki

    2002-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with a history of irradiation for uterine cervical cancer was admitted to our institute, because of abdominal distension. Barium enema examination and total colonoscopy revealed narrowing, irregular mucosa and an ulcerating tumor in the sigmoid colon and a flat elevation in the transverse colon. Biopsy specimens from these tumors contained adenocarcinoma. Histological examination of the resected colon revealed the tumor in the sigmoid colon to be a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma invading the subserosa and that in the transverse colon to be an intramucosal adenocarcinoma. There were also areas of low or high grade dysplasia in the sigmoid colon. Histological findings compatible with radiation colitis were found in the sigmoid colon. These clinicopathologic features suggested a diagnosis of colonic cancer associated with radiation colitis. (author)

  13. Development of a tissue-engineered human oral mucosa equivalent based on an acellular allogeneic dermal matrix: a preliminary report of clinical application to burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Takuya; Takami, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Ryo; Shimazaki, Shuji; Harii, Kiyonori

    2005-01-01

    Tissue-engineered skin equivalents composed of epidermal and dermal components have been widely investigated for coverage of full-thickness skin defects. We developed a tissue-engineered oral mucosa equivalent based on an acellular allogeneic dermal matrix and investigated its characteristics. We also tried and assessed its preliminary clinical application. Human oral mucosal keratinocytes were separated from a piece of oral mucosa and cultured in a chemically-defined medium. The keratinocytes were seeded on to the acellular allogeneic dermal matrix and cultured. Histologically, the mucosa equivalent had a well-stratified epithelial layer. Immunohistochemical study showed that it was similar to normal oral mucosa. We applied this equivalent in one case with an extensive burn wound. The equivalent was transplanted three weeks after the harvest of the patient's oral mucosa and about 30% of the graft finally survived. We conclude that this new oral mucosa equivalent could become a therapeutic option for the treatment of extensive burns.

  14. Chronic ethanol feeding promotes azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colonic tumorigenesis potentially by enhancing mucosal inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Pradeep K.; Chaudhry, Kamaljit K.; Mir, Hina; Gangwar, Ruchika; Yadav, Nikki; Manda, Bhargavi; Meena, Avtar S.; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is one of the major risk factors for colorectal cancer. However, the mechanism involved in this effect of alcohol is unknown. We evaluated the effect of chronic ethanol feeding on azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS)-induced carcinogenesis in mouse colon. Inflammation in colonic mucosa was assessed at a precancerous stage by evaluating mucosal infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages, and analysis of cytokine and chemokine gene expression. Chronic ethanol feeding significantly increased the number and size of polyps in colon of AOM/DSS treated mice. Confocal microscopic and immunoblot analyses showed a significant elevation of phospho-Smad, VEGF and HIF1α in the colonic mucosa. RT-PCR analysis at a precancerous stage indicated that ethanol significantly increases the expression of cytokines IL-1α, IL-6 and TNFα, and the chemokines CCL5/RANTES, CXCL9/MIG and CXCL10/IP-10 in the colonic mucosa of AOM/DSS treated mice. Confocal microscopy showed that ethanol feeding induces a dramatic elevation of myeloperoxidase, Gr1 and CD68-positive cells in the colonic mucosa of AOM/DSS-treated mice. Ethanol feeding enhanced AOM/DSS-induced suppression of tight junction protein expression and elevated cell proliferation marker, Ki-67 in the colonic epithelium. This study demonstrates that chronic ethanol feeding promotes colonic tumorigenesis potentially by enhancing inflammation and elevation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines

  15. Characterization and significance of ACE2 and Mas receptor in human colon adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stella; Zennaro, Cristina; Palmisano, Silvia; Velkoska, Elena; Sabato, Nicoletta; Toffoli, Barbara; Giacomel, Greta; Buri, Luigi; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Bellini, Giuseppe; Burrell, Louise M; De Manzini, Nicolò; Fabris, Bruno

    2012-03-01

    A new arm of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been recently characterized; this includes angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2 and angiotensin (Ang)1-7, a heptapeptide acting through the Mas receptor (MasR). Recent studies show that Ang1-7 has an antiproliferative action on lung adenocarcinoma cells. The aim of this study was to characterize RAS expression in human colon adenocarcinoma and to investigate whether Ang1-7 exerts an antiproliferative effect on human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Gene, protein expression and enzymatic activity of the main components of the RAS were determined on non-neoplastic colon mucosa as well as on the tumor mass and the mucosa taken 5 cm distant from it, both collected from patients with colon adenocarcinoma. Two different human colon cancer cell lines were treated with AngII and Ang1-7. The novel finding of this study was that MasR was significantly upregulated in colon adenocarcinoma compared with non-neoplastic colon mucosa, which showed little or no expression of it. ACE gene expression and enzymatic activity were also increased in the tumors. However, AngII and Ang1-7 did not have any pro-/antiproliferative effects in the cell lines studied. The data suggest that upregulation of the MasR could be used as a diagnostic marker of colon adenocarcinoma.

  16. [Nasal mucosa in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Maciej; Betlejewski, Stanisław

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease all over the world. 150 million people suffer from this disease, in Poland about 2 million. The disease on the basis of the onset and pathophysiology may be divided into type I and type II. Pathophysiologic changes include diabetic microangiopathy, macroangiopathy and neuropathy. The most common presentations in head and neck are otitis externa, hypoacusis, vertigo, disequilibrium, xerostomia, dysphagia, fungal and recurrent infections. The changes in nasal mucosa are not very well known. Only few papers concerned the problem. The main complaints of patients regarding the nose are xeromycteria, hyposmia and various degree of decreased patency of the nose. Chronic atrophic rhinitis, septal perforation, ulceration of nasal mucosa, alar necrosis, symptoms of staphylococcal or fungal infection can be found during otolaryngologic examination. The treatment in this group of patients should consist of systemic therapy of diabetes mellitus and on the other hand focal therapy with the use of a solution to moisten the nasal mucosa.

  17. Radiation tolerance of the vaginal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintz, b.L.; Kagan, A.R.; Chan, P.; Gilbert, H.A.; Nussbaum, H.; Rao, A.R.; Wollin, M.

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen patients with cancer of the vagina that were controlled locally for a minimum of eighteen months after teletherpay (T) or brachytherapy (B) or both (T and B), were analyzed for radiation tolerance of the vaginal mucosa. The site of vaginal necrosis did not always coincide with the site of the tumor. The posterior wall appeared more vulnerable than the anterior or lateral walls. For the distal vaginal mucosa, necrosis requiring surgical intervention occurred following combined T and B, if summated rad exceeded9800. The upper vagina tolerated higher dosages. No patient surgery for upper vaginal necrosis even though summated (T and B) dosage up to 14,000 rad was applied. Placing radioactive needles on the surface of the vaginal cylinder with or without interstitial perincal needles should be avoided. Further accumulation of data is needed to define these vaginal mucosa tolerance limits more closely

  18. [Effect of nasogastric tube on esophageal mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barinagarrementeria, R; Blancas Valencia, J M; Teramoto Matsubara, O; de la Garza González, S

    1991-01-01

    We studied 30 patients. 20 were males and 10 females. Mean age was 48 year old. Esophageal disease was not present neither gastro-esophageal reflux. Biopsy was taken between 24 hours and 25 days after nasogastric tube (NG) was put into place. Endoscopic findings were: hyperemic mucosa, submucosal hemorrhage, clots, erosions and ulcers near Esophago-gastric junction. Intraepithelial edema, vessel congestion, polymorphonuclear infiltration, fibrin thrombosis of submucosal vessels, ischemia, epithelial regeneration and ulcer were common histologic findings. All endoscopic and histologic alterations were related to the length of time of NG tube contact with the esophageal mucosa. We concluded that NG tube damages the esophageal mucosa by two mechanisms: a) Local irritation that favors b) gastric reflux by decreasing lower esophageal sphincter pressure.

  19. Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa of dead children Helicobacter pylori en la mucosa gástrica de cadáveres de niños

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    John Jairo Duque Alzate

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available 23 children under the age of 12 years who died violently without receiving any treatment, had their gastric mucosa studied by means of he Warthin-Starry stain and immunohistochemistry in search for Helicobacter pylori. It was found that 60.9% (14 cases were positive; of them 64,3% belonged to a low social class and 35,7% to the middle one. Of the positive cases, 9 had acute gastritis, 1 had chronic gastritis and only 4 had normal gastric mucosa. A clear association between Helicobacter pylory and changes in gastritis was observed. En 23 niños menores de 12 años que murieron en forma violenta sin haber recibido tratamiento, se estudiaron para Helicobacter pylori las mucosas gástricas con las coloraciones de hematoxilina eosina, Warthin Starry e inmunohistoquímica. Se encontró que 14 casos (60,9% fueron positivos para esta bacteria, de los cuales 9 (64,3% pertenecían a un estrato social bajo y 5 (35,7% a uno medio. De los casos positivos para H. pylori, 9 tenían gastritis aguda, 1 gastritis crónica y sólo en 4 la mucosa gástrica era normal. Se observó una clara asociación entre H. pylori y cambios de gastritis.

  20. Microbiological and molecular identification of bacterial species isolated from nasal and oropharyngeal mucosa of fuel workers in Riyadh,

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    Suaad S. AlWakeel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the bacterial species colonizing the nasal and oropharyngeal mucosa of fuel workers in Central Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on a microbiological and molecular level. Throat and nasal swab samples were obtained from 29 fuel station attendants in the period of time extending from March to May 2014 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Microbiological identification techniques were utilized to identify the bacterial species isolated. Antibiotic sensitivity was assessed for each of the bacterial isolates. Molecular identification techniques based on PCR analysis of specific genomic sequences was conducted and was the basis on which phylogeny representation was done for 10 randomly selected samples of the isolates. Blood was drawn and a complete blood count was conducted to note the hematological indices for each of the study participants. Nineteen bacterial species were isolated from both the nasal cavity and the oropharynx including Streptococcus thoraltensis, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus hominis, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and several others. We found 100% sensitivity of the isolates to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime and gentamicin. Whereas cefotaxime and azithromycin posted sensitivities of 85.7% and 91.4%, respectively. Low sensitivities (<60% sensitivity to the antibiotics ampicillin, erythromycin, clarithromycin and norfloxacin were observed. Ninety-seven percent similarity to the microbial bank species was noted when the isolates were compared to it. Most hematological indices recorded were within the normal range. In conclusion, exposure to toxic fumes and compounds within fuel products may be a contributing factor to bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract in fuel workers.

  1. [Expression and significance of CK7 and CK19 in colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zheng, Peng-sheng

    2010-02-01

    To detect the cytokeratin (CK) genes expression in the colon cancer, and investigate the expression variability in different pathological types and clinical stages. The CK gene expression pattern in normal colon, colon cancer tissues and colon cancer cell lines were analyzed by using Immunohistochemical, Immunocytochemical and Western blot ways. CK7 and CK19 didn't express in normal colon tissues. CK7 was low or not expressed in the colon cancer, and CK19 was highly expressed in the colon cancer. There were significant deviation (Pcolon cancer, and CK7-)/CK19+ may be one of the expression characteristics in colon cancer.

  2. Echoendoscopic characterization of the human colon

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    Fernando M. Castro-Poças

    Full Text Available Purpose: To characterize colon and rectum walls, pericolic and perirectal spaces, using endoscopic ultrasonography miniprobes. Methods: Sixty individuals (50% males, aged 18-80, were included. Using 12 and 20 MHz endoscopic ultrasonography miniprobes, all different colon segments (ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid and rectum were evaluated according to the number and thickness of the different layers in intestinal wall, to the presence and (largest diameter of vessels in the submucosa and of peri-intestinal nodes. Results: The 20 MHz miniprobe identified a higher number of layers than the 12 MHz miniprobe, with medians of 7 and 5 respectively (p < 0.001. The rectal wall (p = 0.001, its muscularis propria (p < 0.001 and mucosa (p = 0.01 were significantly thicker than the different segments of the colon, which had no significant differences between them. Patients aged 41-60 presented thicker colonic wall and muscularis propria in descending (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004 and rectum (p=0.01 and p=0.01. Submucosal vessels were identified in 30% of individuals in descending and rectum, and in 12% in ascending. Adenopathies were observed in 9% of the colon segments and 5% in rectum. Conclusions: A higher frequency enabled the identification of a higher number of layers. Rectal wall is thicker than the one from all the segments of the colon and there are no differences between these, namely in the ascending colon. Moreover, peri-intestinal adenopathies were rarely identified but present in asymptomatic individuals. All together, these results describe for the first time features which are relevant during staging and therapeutic management of colonic lesions.

  3. Urokinase and the intestinal mucosa: evidence for a role in epithelial cell turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, P; Birchall, I; Rosella, O; Albert, V; Finch, C; Barkla, D; Young, G

    1998-01-01

    Background—The functions of urokinase in intestinal epithelia are unknown. 
Aims—To determine the relation of urokinase expressed by intestinal epithelial cells to their position in the crypt-villus/surface axis and of mucosal urokinase activity to epithelial proliferative kinetics in the distal colon. 
Methods—Urokinase expression was examined immunohistochemically in human intestinal mucosa. Urokinase activity was measured colorimetrically in epithelial cells isolated sequentially from the crypt-villus axis of the rat small intestine. In separate experiments, urokinase activity and epithelial kinetics (measured stathmokinetically) were measured in homogenates of distal colonic mucosa of 14 groups of eight rats fed diets known to alter epithelial turnover. 
Results—From the crypt base, an ascending gradient of expression and activity of urokinase was associated with the epithelial cells. Median mucosal urokinase activities in each of the dietary groups of rats correlated positively with autologous median number of metaphase arrests per crypt (r=0.68; p<0.005) and per 100 crypt cells (r=0.75; p<0.001), but not with crypt column height. 
Conclusions—Localisation of an enzyme capable of leading to digestion of cell substratum in the region where cells are loosely attached to their basement membrane, and the association of its activity with indexes of cell turnover, suggest a role for urokinase in facilitating epithelial cell loss in the intestine. 

 Keywords: urokinase; intestinal epithelium; colon; epithelial proliferation PMID:9824347

  4. ESTUDO DA MUCOSA ENTERAL DE RESERVATÓRIOS EM "J" EM CÃES

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    SANDRA PEDROSO DE MORAES

    1998-07-01

    present, the best technique used for the surgical treatment of some large intestine diseases involving the whole colon. In order to study the characteristics of the "J" reservoir enteral mucosa, thirty-six dogs underwent surgery. After resection of 5cm of the jejunum caudalis the animals were divided into two equal groups (GI and GII for study-control. In GI, an entero-enteral end-to-end anastomosis was performed; in GII, a "J" reservoir was performed in the cranialis segment of the jejunum and this pouch was anastomosed end-to-end to the jejunun caudalis (similar to GI. On the 21st, 42nd and 63rd postoperative days, six animals of each group were sacrificed for macro and microscopic studies, including cellular counting and the measuring of the enteral mucosa lamina propria. On the 21st day, both groups showed oedema and erythema on macroscopic examination, and necrosis under microscopy in similar numbers. On the 42nd and 63rd days, these alterations decreased or disappeared in GI and persisted in GII. Only in the latter group, on macroscopy, ulcers were observed on the 21st day (2 dogs and on the 42nd day (1 dog. In both groups there was no significant difference as to the incidence of abscess under microscopy. On the 21st day there was an increase of the volumetric density of neutrophils polymorph, macrophages, eosinophils, plasma cells and lymphocites in both groups. All the cells, except the eosinophils, showed a significant enlargement of the volumetric density in GII on the 63rd day. The transversal diameter of lamina propria, except for the villi height, was significantly larger in GII on the 63rd postoperative day. It was concluded that the enteral mucosa of the "J" reservoir in dogs shows alterations of the normal pattern of macroscopy and microscopy, including the volumetric density enlargement of the inflammatory cells.

  5. Complete colonic duplication in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghnejad Tabari, Ahmad; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad Tabari, Nasibeh

    2012-01-01

    Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in 15% of gastrointestinal duplication. We report two cases of complete colonic duplications, and their characteristics. We present two patients with complete colonic duplication with different types and presentations. Case 1: A 2- year old boy presented to the clinic with abdominal protrusion, difficulty to defecate, chronic constipation and mucosal prolaps covered bulging (rectocele) since he was 6 months old. The patient had palpable pelvic mass with doughy consistency. Rectal exam confirmed perirectal mass with soft consistency. The patient underwent a surgical operation that had total tubular colorectal duplication with one blind end and was treated with simple fenestration of distal end, and was discharged without complication. After two years follow up, he had normal defecation and good weight gain. Case 2: A 2 -day old infant was referred with imperforate anus and complete duplication of recto-sigmoid colon, diphallus, double bladder, and hypospadiasis. After clinical and paraclinical investigations, he underwent operations in several stages in different periods, and was discharged without complications. After four years follow up, he led a normal life. The patients with complete duplication have to be examined carefully because of the high incidence of other systemic anomalies. Treatment includes simple resection of distal common wall, fenestration, and repair other associated anomalies.

  6. Imaging of total colonic Hirschsprung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranzinger, Enno; DiPietro, Michael A.; Strouse, Peter J.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a functional obstruction of the bowel caused by the absence of intrinsic enteric ganglion cells. The diagnosis of total colonic HD (TCHD) based on contrast enemas is difficult in newborns because radiological findings vary. To evaluate the radiographic and contrast enema findings in patients with pathologically proven TCHD. From 1966 to 2007, 17 records from a total of 31 patients with TCHD were retrospectively evaluated for diameter and shape of the colon, diameter of the small bowel, bowel wall contour, ileal reflux, abdominal calcifications, pneumoperitoneum, filling defects, transitional zones and rectosigmoid index. Three colonic patterns of TCHD were found: microcolon, question-mark-shape colon and normal caliber colon. Additional findings included spasmodic colon, ileal reflux, delayed evacuation and abdominal calcifications. Colonic transitional zones were found in eight patients with TCHD. The diagnosis of TCHD is difficult to establish by contrast enema studies. The length of the aganglionic small bowel and the age of the patient can influence the radiological findings in TCHD. The transitional zone and the rectosigmoid index can be false-positive in TCHD. The colon can appear normal. Consider TCHD if the contrast enema study is normal but the patient remains symptomatic and other causes of distal bowel obstruction have been excluded. (orig.)

  7. Ectopic gastric mucosa in the duodenal bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, H.; Oehler, G.; Schulz, A.; Rau, W.S.; Giessen Univ.; Giessen Univ.

    1989-01-01

    The radiological and clinical findings of 12 patients with ectopic gastric mucosa in the duodenal bulb are presented. This is a defined disease with characteristic radiological features: multiple small nodular defects of the contrast medium of 1-3 mm diameter. Histology shows complete heterotopia. Pathogenesis and clinical significance are discussed with reference to the literature on this subject. (orig.) [de

  8. Esophageal heterotopic gastric mucosa in esophageal atresia

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    Lachlan J.R. Harrison

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM is occasionally found at endoscopy in the proximal esophagus of adults and children, when it manifests as an asymptomatic small island of reddish pink mucosa just below the upper esophageal sphincter. There are few reports of esophageal HGM detected by endoscopy after repair of esophageal atresia (EA with tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF. We report a child with multiple patches of HGM in the proximal and distal esophagus seen at endoscopy after EA/TEF repair. No obvious symptoms were related to the HGM and she remains under endoscopic surveillance. The incidence of esophageal HGM may be increased in patients with EA and its distribution can be more extensive than a simple “inlet patch”. There is evidence to suggest that esophageal HGM increases the risk of developing Barrett's esophagus and has a malignant potential. Heterotopic gastric mucosa extends the spectrum of potential pathologies affecting the esophagus in patients with EA/TEF and supports current international guidelines for endoscopic surveillance of these patients. Keywords: Tracheo-esophageal fistula, Ectopic mucosa, Esophageal malignancy

  9. Butyrate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in intestinal cells and Crohn's mucosa through modulation of antioxidant defense machinery.

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    Ilaria Russo

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, including Crohn's disease (CrD. High levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS induce the activation of the redox-sensitive nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB, which in turn triggers the inflammatory mediators. Butyrate decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by the lamina propria mononuclear cells in CrD patients via inhibition of NF-κB activation, but how it reduces inflammation is still unclear. We suggest that butyrate controls ROS mediated NF-κB activation and thus mucosal inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells and in CrD colonic mucosa by triggering intracellular antioxidant defense systems. Intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and colonic mucosa from 14 patients with CrD and 12 controls were challenged with or without lipopolysaccaride from Escherichia coli (EC-LPS in presence or absence of butyrate for 4 and 24 h. The effects of butyrate on oxidative stress, p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation, p65-NF-κB activation and mucosal inflammation were investigated by real time PCR, western blot and confocal microscopy. Our results suggest that EC-LPS challenge induces a decrease in Gluthation-S-Transferase-alpha (GSTA1/A2 mRNA levels, protein expression and catalytic activity; enhanced levels of ROS induced by EC-LPS challenge mediates p65-NF-κB activation and inflammatory response in Caco-2 cells and in CrD colonic mucosa. Furthermore butyrate treatment was seen to restore GSTA1/A2 mRNA levels, protein expression and catalytic activity and to control NF-κB activation, COX-2, ICAM-1 and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine. In conclusion, butyrate rescues the redox machinery and controls the intracellular ROS balance thus switching off EC-LPS induced inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells and in CrD colonic mucosa.

  10. A Foreign Body Granuloma of the Buccal Mucosa Induced by Honeybee Sting

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    Kazuhiko Yamamoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A foreign body granuloma of the buccal mucosa induced by honeybee sting was reported. The patient was an 82-year-old female who presented with a submucous mass at the right buccal mucosa. The mass was 20 mm in diameter, elastically firm, partly mobile without pain or tenderness, and covered with almost normal mucosa. MR image did not delineate the lesion clearly. Under clinical diagnosis of a benign tumor, the lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The excised lesion was 14×11×9 mm in size and solid and yellowish in cut surface. Histologically, the lesion consisted of granulomatous tissue with a few narrow, curved, eosinophilic structures compatible with decomposed fragments of a honeybee sting and was diagnosed as a foreign body granuloma, although the patient did not recall being stung.

  11. Enhanced transferrin receptor expression by proinflammatory cytokines in enterocytes as a means for local delivery of drugs to inflamed gut mucosa.

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    Efrat Harel

    Full Text Available Therapeutic intervention in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs is often associated with adverse effects related to drug distribution into non-diseased tissues, a situation which attracts a rational design of a targeted treatment confined to the inflamed mucosa. Upon activation of immune cells, transferrin receptor (TfR expression increases at their surface. Because TfR is expressed in all cell types we hypothesized that its cell surface levels are regulated also in enterocytes. We, therefore, compared TfR expression in healthy and inflamed human colonic mucosa, as well as healthy and inflamed colonic mucosa of the DNBS-induced rat model. TfR expression was elevated in the colonic mucosa of IBD patients in both the basolateral and apical membranes of the enterocytes. Increased TfR expression was also observed in colonocytes of the induced colitis rats. To explore the underlying mechanism CaCo-2 cells were treated with various proinflammatory cytokines, which increased both TfR expression and transferrin cellular uptake in a mechanism that did not involve hyper proliferation. These findings were then exploited for the design of targetable carrier towards inflamed regions of the colon. Anti-TfR antibodies were conjugated to nano-liposomes. As expected, iron-starved Caco-2 cells internalized anti-TfR immunoliposomes better than controls. Ex vivo binding studies to inflamed mucosa showed that the anti-TfR immunoliposomes accumulated significantly better in the mucosa of DNBS-induced rats than the accumulation of non-specific immunoliposomes. It is concluded that targeting mucosal inflammation can be accomplished by nano-liposomes decorated with anti-TfR due to inflammation-dependent, apical, elevated expression of the receptor.

  12. Diverticulosis of the colon and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldmann, D; Farthmann, E H

    1983-12-01

    Colonic diverticula in reality are herniations of the mucosa through a thickened musculature of the bowel wall where it is penetrated by the vasa recta. Their prevalence increases with western food and with age. Low-residue diet and increased intraluminal pressure are considered to be etiologic factors. Diverticular disease is characterised by inflammatory and bleeding complications. Diverticulitis may lead to peridiverticulitis and pericolitis with frank peritonitis. Uncomplicated diverticulosis warrants observation only under dietary guidance. Repeated complications indicate elective operation by one-stage-resection. Perforation, abscess and massive bleeding necessitate immediate operative treatment aimed at elimination of the involved segment.

  13. Diverticulosis of the colon and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldmann, D.; Farthmann, E.H.

    1983-01-01

    Colonic diverticula in reality are herniations of the mucosa through a thickened musculature of the bowel wall where it is penetrated by the vasa recta. Their prevalence increases with western food and with age. Low-residue diet and increased intraluminal pressure are considered to be etiologic factors. Diverticular disease is characterised by inflammatory and bleeding complications. Diverticulitis may lead to peridiverticulitis and pericolitis with frank peritonitis. Uncomplicated diverticulosis warrants observation only under dietary guidance. Repeated complications indicate elective operation by one-stage-resection. Perforation, abscess and massive bleeding necessitate immediate operative treatment aimed at elimination of the involved segment. (orig.)

  14. Ultrastructural Histopathology of Vervet Monkey Colonic Epithelium After In Vitro Exposure to Cell-free Supernatants of Shigella Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, R. R.; Collins, N. E.; Cowley, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    The full dysentery syndrome of human shigellosis is often preceded by a transient diarrhoea that may be induced by bacterial extracellular products before invasion of the colonic mucosa and development of subsequent pathology. To examine this hypothesis, we studied the effects of cell-free cultures of Shigella sp. on the ultrastructure of monkey colonic epithelium in vitro. Clinical isolates of shigella strains were grown in a niche-simulating medium. Sheets of colon wall collected from verve...

  15. Post-mortem 3H-thymidine incorporation in human epidermis and oral mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellmann, B.

    1981-01-01

    Using the 3H-thymidine labelling method, the authors studied post-mortem incorporation activity in the epidermis and oral mucosa of corpses which were stored with their clothes on under conditions of normal room temperature (+20 0 ) and of cooling (+4 0 C). Samples were taken in the form of skin punches at 2 h or 4 h intervals, respec.. Using histo-autoradiograms, the incorporation of 3H-thymidine in dependence from the time interval between the points of time of death and sampling were determined in situe and given as the ratio of labelled cells of the germinative layer per 100 μm length of basement membrane. A linear drop of post-mortem thymidine incorporation rates in epidermis and oral mucosa was found in human corpse skin correlating with increasing temporal distance from the point of time of death. Incorporation rates in the oral mucosa were markedly higher (by a factor of 3 to 5) than those of the epidermis which agrees well with in vivo conditions. No labelling of cell nuclei, i.e. no synthetic activity of the germinative layer, could be detected in the epidermis 35-40 h after individual death at the latest (in the oral mucosa after 45-50 h). However, clear incorporation activities could be observed in the germinative layer of epidermis and oral mucosa after more than 4 d in the case of storage at +4 0 C. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa and bladder oversensitivity in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chia Lee

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the role of sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa in bladder oversensitivity of rats with metabolic syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female Wistar rats were fed a fructose-rich diet (60% or a normal diet for 3 months. Based on cystometry, the fructose-fed rats (FFRs were divided into a group with normal detrusor function or detrusor overactivity (DO. Acidic adenosine triphosphate (ATP solution (5mM, pH 3.3 was used to elicit reflex micturition. Cystometric parameters were evaluated before and after drug administration. Functional proteins of the bladder mucosa were assessed by western blotting. RESULTS: Compared to the controls, intravesical acidic ATP solution instillation induced a significant increase in provoked phasic contractions in both FFR groups and a significant decrease in the mean functional bladder capacity of group DO. Pretreatment with capsaicin for C-fiber desentization, intravesical liposome for mucosal protection, or intravenous pyridoxal 5-phosphate 6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid for antagonized purinergic receptors can interfere with the urodynamic effects of intravesical ATP in FFRs and controls. Over-expression of TRPV1, P2X(3, and iNOS proteins, and down-regulation of eNOS proteins were observed in the bladder mucosa of both fructose-fed groups. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations of sensory receptors and enzymes in the bladder mucosa, including over-expression of TRPV1, P2X(3, and iNOS proteins, can precipitate the emergence of bladder phasic contractions and oversensitivity through the activation of C-afferents during acidic ATP solution stimulation in FFRs. The down-regulation of eNOS protein in the bladder mucosa of FFRs may lead to a failure to suppress bladder oversensitivity and phasic contractions. Sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa and DO causing by metabolic syndrome are easier to elicit bladder oversensitivity to certain urothelium stimuli.

  17. Evaluation of tissue engineered models of the oral mucosa to investigate oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadev, Nishant P; Murdoch, Craig; Saville, Stephen P; Thornhill, Martin H

    2011-06-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal organism that can be isolated from the majority of healthy individuals. However, in certain susceptible individuals C. albicans can become pathogenic leading to the mucocutaneous infection; oral candidiasis. Murine models and in vitro monolayer cultures have generated some data on the likely virulence and host factors that contribute to oral candidiasis but these models have limitations. Recently, tissue engineered oral mucosal models have been developed to mimic the normal oral mucosa but little information is available on their true representation. In this study, we assessed the histological features of three different tissue engineered oral mucosal models compared to the normal oral mucosa and analysed both cell damage and cytokine release following infection with C. albicans. Models comprised of normal oral keratinocytes and a fibroblast-containing matrix displayed more similar immunohistological and proliferation characteristics to normal mucosa, compared to models composed of an oral carcinoma cell line. Although all models were invaded and damaged by C. albicans in a similar manner, the cytokine response was much more pronounced in models containing normal keratinocytes. These data suggest that models based on normal keratinocytes atop a fibroblast-containing connective tissue will significantly aid in dissecting the molecular pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphological evaluation of tongue mucosa in burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardella, Andrea; Gualerzi, Alice; Lodi, Giovanni; Sforza, Chiarella; Carrassi, Antonio; Donetti, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a morphological evaluation by immunofluorescence of biomarkers of keratinocyte intercellular adhesion, and of differentiation in the tongue mucosa of burning mouth syndrome patients (BMS), compared with a control group. A prospective blinded evaluation of tongue mucosal specimens processed for light microscopy was performed. Intercellular adhesion was evaluated by investigating the expression of desmoglein 1, desmoglein 3, and of occludin. Keratin 10 and keratin 14 (markers of epithelial differentiation) were also evaluated, as keratin 16 (marker for activated keratinocytes after epithelial injury). Apoptotic cascade was investigated by p53 and activated caspase-3 expression. The basal membrane integrity was analysed through laminin immunoreactivity. In both groups, a preserved three-dimensional architecture of the tongue was observed. Desmoglein 1 and desmoglein 3 epithelial distributions were similar in the desmosomes of patients and control subjects. Again, keratin 10 immunoreactivity and distribution pattern of keratin 14 in the epithelial compartment was similar in both groups. In control samples, keratin 16 immunoreactivity was scant throughout the epithelium with a punctuate and scattered cytoplasmic labelling. In contrast, in all BMS patients keratinocyte cytoplasm was homogeneously labelled for keratin 16, with a more intense staining than controls. Furthermore, keratin 16 staining progressively decreased proceeding towards the most superficial epithelial layers. The results of this study are consistent with and support the clinically normal features of oral mucosa in BMS, and suggest that keratin 16 may be involved in the cell mechanisms underlying the syndrome occurrence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MicroRNA-155 deletion promotes tumorigenesis in the azoxymethane-dextran sulfate sodium model of colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Kandy T.; Enos, Reilly T.; McClellan, Jamie L.; Cranford, Taryn L.; Chatzistamou, Ioulia; Singh, Udai P.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.; Fan, Daping

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies have linked microRNA-155 (miR-155) expression in the tumor microenvironment to poor prognosis. However, whether miR-155 upregulation is predictive of a pro- or antitumorigenic response is unclear, as the limited preclinical data available remain controversial. We examined miR-155 expression in tumor tissue from colon cancer patients. Furthermore, we investigated the role of this microRNA in proliferation and apoptosis, inflammatory processes, immune cell populations, and transforming growth factor-β/SMAD signaling in a chemically induced (azoxymethane-dextran sulfate sodium) mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer. We found a higher expression of miR-155 in the tumor region than in nontumor colon tissue of patients with colon cancer. Deletion of miR-155 in mice resulted in a greater number of polyps/adenomas, an increased symptom severity score, a higher grade of epithelial dysplasia, and a decrease in survival. Surprisingly, these findings were associated with an increase in apoptosis in the normal mucosa, but there was no change in proliferation. The protumorigenic effects of miR-155 deletion do not appear to be driven solely by dysregulation of inflammation, as both genotypes had relatively similar levels of inflammatory mediators. The enhanced tumorigenic response in miR-155−/− mice was associated with alterations in macrophages and neutrophils, as markers for these populations were decreased and increased, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated a greater activation of the transforming growth factor-β/SMAD pathway in miR-155−/− mice, which was correlated with the increased tumorigenesis. Given the multiple targets of miR-155, careful evaluation of its role in tumorigenesis is necessary prior to any consideration of its potential as a biomarker and/or therapeutic target in colon cancer. PMID:26744471

  20. Nasal Bacterial Colonization in Pediatric Epistaxis: The Role of Topical Antibacterial Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaddder Korkmaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epistaxis is a common problem in childhood. It has been shown that children with recurrent epistaxis are more likely to have nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus. It has been suggested that low-grade inflammation, crusting and increased vascularity due to bacterial colonization contributes to the development of epistaxis in children. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the nasal colonization and treatment outcome in pediatric epistaxis patients. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Charts of the pediatric patients referred to our university hospital otolaryngology outpatient clinics for the evaluation of epistaxis were reviewed. The patients whose nasal cultures had been taken at the first clinical visit comprised the study group. Results: Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacteria grown. The presence of crusting and hypervascularity was not dependent on the type of bacterial growth and there was no relation between hypervascularity and crusting of the nasal mucosa. Thirty-six patients were evaluated for the outcome analysis. Resolution of bleeding was not dependent on nasal colonization; in patients with colonization, there was no difference between topical antibacterial and non-antibacterial treatments. Conclusion: Despite the high colonization rates, topical antibacterial treatment was not found superior to non-antibacterial treatment. Our study does not support the belief that bacterial colonization results in hypervascularity of the septal mucosa causing epistaxis since no relation was found between nasal colonization, hypervascularity and crusting. The role of bacterial colonization in pediatric epistaxis need to be further investigated and treatment protocols must be determined accordingly.

  1. Long-term organ culture of adult rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamsuddin, A.K.M.; Barrett, L.A.; Autrup, Herman

    1978-01-01

    . The effect of in vivo carcinogen pretreatment was also studied. The explant culture from control untreated animals showed good epithelial differentiation with crypts until 6 weeks. In contrast, the explants from animals pretreated with 4 weekly doses of azoxymethane consistently showed epithelial......Colon explants from adult rats were maintained in culture for over 3 months in our laboratories with good epithelial preservation and cellular differentiation. The light and transmission electron microscopic features of rat colon mucosa during the culture period are described. In all the explants...

  2. Efficacy of radiotherapy of oral mucosa cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, Yu.I.; Garbuzov, M.I.; Sarantseva, I.P.; Popov, N.V.; Pereslegin, O.I.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of 10-year experience of a radiological department (962 patients) indicated late admission of oral mucosa cancer patients for specialized treatment: 75-85% of the patients were admitted with Stage 2-4 disease. The assessment of the efficacy of radiotherapy according to the 3 ad 5-year survival rates showed that better results were obtained for buccal mucosa cancer and the worst for mouth fundus cancer. Regional metastates are a poor prognostic sign, particularly fixed metastases in patients with tongue and mouth fundus cancer. Combined therapy turned out be the most effective in tongue cancer. In different variants of dose delivery in time the most favorable results were obtained with small fractionation (a conventional course). However it should be noted that a split course was usually applied to weak elderly patients with advanced stages of disease

  3. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von, E-mail: evonrose@medicine.umaryland.edu; Raufman, Jean-Pierre [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 22 S. Greene Street, N3W62, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Maryland Health Care System, 10 North Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2011-03-02

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  4. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer

  5. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Raufman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  6. In vivo adaptation and persistence of Neisseria meningitidis within the nasopharyngeal mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay O Johswich

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis (Nme asymptomatically colonizes the human nasopharynx, yet can initiate rapidly-progressing sepsis and meningitis in rare instances. Understanding the meningococcal lifestyle within the nasopharyngeal mucosa, a phase of infection that is prerequisite for disease, has been hampered by the lack of animal models. Herein, we compare mice expressing the four different human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs that can bind the neisserial Opa protein adhesins, and find that expression of human CEACAM1 is necessary and sufficient to establish intranasal colonization. During infection, in vivo selection for phase variants expressing CEACAM1-specific Opa proteins occurs, allowing mucosal attachment and entry into the subepithelial space. Consistent with an essential role for Opa proteins in this process, Opa-deficient meningococci were unable to colonize the CEACAM1-humanized mice. While simple Opa-mediated attachment triggered an innate response regardless of meningococcal viability within the inoculum, persistence of viable Opa-expressing bacteria within the CEACAM1-humanized mice was required for a protective memory response to be achieved. Parenteral immunization with a capsule-based conjugate vaccine led to the accumulation of protective levels of Nme-specific IgG within the nasal mucus, yet the sterilizing immunity afforded by natural colonization was instead conferred by Nme-specific IgA without detectable IgG. Considered together, this study establishes that the availability of CEACAM1 helps define the exquisite host specificity of this human-restricted pathogen, displays a striking example of in vivo selection for the expression of desirable Opa variants, and provides a novel model in which to consider meningococcal infection and immunity within the nasopharyngeal mucosa.

  7. A study of the colonic transit function by dual radionuclide colon scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Weidong; Sun Buzhou; Song Changyi; Lu Jinyan; Wang Shejiao; Zheng Xianghong; Huang Lin; Lei Yamei

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To establish a new, simple and noninvasive method which can quantitatively analyze the colonic transit function by dual radionuclide colon scintigraphy. Methods: 24 patients with constipation and 32 normal controls were studied. Na 131 I was sealed into capsule made by polyvinylchloride which can not be digested and absorbed in gastrointestinal tract. Patients and normal volunteers swallow 131 I capsules and drink 99 Tc m labelled sulfur colloid solution at the same time. The static image was acquired at the regular time, then calculate the Geometric Center values (GC). Results: 1) The capsules can be clearly located through the colonic contour shown by 99 Tc m labeled sulfur colloid when it reached the large bowel. 2) The transiting time from mouth to cecum, through colon and through whole gastrointestinal in normal people were (6.61 +- 1.94), (36.61 +- 10.51) and (42.72 +- 10.02) h, respectively, in constipation group were (8.03 +- 3.63), (65.50 +- 28.40) and (74.05 +- 28.17) h, respectively. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in two groups compared with each other. But the transiting time through colon and whole gastrointestinal in constipation was slower than that in normal people, with significant difference (P < 0.01). 3) Through examination the colonic transit abnormality can be divided into three patterns: whole colon transit delay, right-colon transit delay and left-colon transit delay. Conclusions: This method is a simple, physiologic and quantitative in evaluating the colonic transit, it can also stage the colonic dyskinesia of the patients

  8. Leishmaniasis mucosa y otras lesiones destructivas centrofaciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rodríguez

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Varias enfermedades producen lesiones del área centrofacial. Una de las más frecuentes en nuestro medio es la leishmaniasis destructivas mucosa. Como el INS es un centro de estudio de leishmaniasis, se atendieron pacientes o sus biopsias con afecciones del macizo centrofacial, primariamente remitidas con el diagnóstico clínico de leihsmaniasis mucosa. En un período de 7 años (1987-1993, se estudiaron 134 biopsias de estos pacientes. El diagnóstico de leishmaniasis mucosa fue definitivo en 26 casos, por demostración del amastigote con la coloración de hematoxilina eosina y el mismo diagnóstico se estableció por patrón histopatológico solamente, en 27 casos. Una técnica inmunoenzimática para demostrar los amastigotes no fue satisfactoria. La perforación banal del tabique nasal (52 biopsias es la entidad que el clínico y el patólogo confunden con mayor frecuencia con la leishmaniasis mucosa. Otras entidades demostradas fueron la paracoccidioidomicosis (3, histoplasmosis (2, rinosporidiosis (2. esporotricosis (l, tuberculosis bucal (3, lepra leprornatosa (l, escleroma nasal (2, granulomatosis de Wegener (2, linfomas angiocéntricos (4, aspiración crónica de cocaína (l, y carcinoma escamocelular palatino (1. La biopsia, luego de la historia clínica, es el pilar esencial para identificar y manejar adecuadamente estas lesiones, que pueden originar destrucción facial grave, a veces letal, si no se dispone del diagnóstico preciso y del tratamiento oportuno.

  9. Oral Neurothekeoma of the Right Buccal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C. Tham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral neurothekeoma or nerve sheath myxoma is a rare benign oral tumour of nerve sheath origin. Historically, this tumour has been subclassified as myxoid (classic, mixed, or the cellular type, depending on the amount of myxoid stroma and cellularity. We present a case of oral neurothekeoma (mixed type of the buccal mucosa. The tumour was completely excised. No recurrence was detected in the last 3 years after local excision.

  10. Vaginal reconstruction with sigmoid colon in patients with congenital absence of vagina and menses retention: a report of treatment experience in 22 young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Shulan; Wang, Mingqian

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the surgical feasibility, sexual satisfaction and complications of vaginal reconstruction with sigmoid colon in patients with congenital absence of vagina and menses retention. Retrospective analysis of surgical techniques and long-term postoperative follow-up was performed for 22 patients who underwent vaginal reconstruction with sigmoid colon at a single hospital between 1977 and 2011 to treat congenital absence of vagina with menses retention. All patients achieved satisfactory sexual function after marriage. No patients experienced enterospastic abdominal pain during sexual intercourse. The neovaginas accommodated two or more fingers and had depths >10 cm. The mucous membranes were soft and flexible, and secretions of the sigmoid mucosa provided adequate and acceptable lubrication. No patient required vaginal stents, and none developed vaginal stenosis or reported pain with vaginal expansion. Fifteen of the 22 patients underwent hysterectomies due to cervical agenesis; seven retained their uterus and had onset of normal menses postoperatively. Two patients became pregnant 1 year after marriage; one achieved 38-week gestation, underwent cesarean section due to premature rupture of membranes, and delivered a healthy boy. The other experienced natural incomplete abortion and underwent curettage at her local hospital. This study confirms that sigmoid colon vaginal reconstruction is a good choice for treating congenital absence of vagina and menses retention and results in the closest approximation to the physical function of a normal female vagina. Reproductive ability can be retained in many cases for patients with a well-developed uterus and cervix.

  11. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using 3 H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of 3 H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures

  12. Early colonic dysplasia: comparison of differential mucin staining and tritiated thymidine labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, J.A.; Colacchio, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Controversy has arisen regarding the interpretation and significance of histochemical changes in the mucin produced by the globlet cells in colonic mucosa. The shift from sulfomucin to sialomucin, which is readily identified utilizing high iron diamine-alcian blue staining techniques, has been alternately interpreted as a specific, early dysplastic and premalignant change or a nonspecific generalized response to trauma and inflammation, among others. An attempt to clarify this issue was made by comparing mucin changes identified by high iron diamine-alcian blue staining techniques with increases in DNA synthetic activity identified utilizing autoradiographic analysis of tritiated thymidine uptake. Male Holtzman rats were treated with 15 weekly subcutaneous injections of dimethylhydrazine (30 mg/kg per week) (10 rats) or placebo (10 rats). The colons were prepared and fixed, sequential sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin or high iron diamine-alcian blue, autoradiography was performed. Analyses of labeling index showed no difference in normal background crypts between the control and treatment groups nor in crypts adjacent to those displaying abnormal mucin staining. Crypts with abnormal mucin production (sialomucin dominant) had significantly higher labeling indexes when compared with those of control animals (p less than 0.005). These findings indicate that the shifts in mucin production identified with high iron diamine-alcian blue staining represent crypts with increased and abnormally distributed mitotic activity that is an early dysplastic response to the carcinogenic stimulus

  13. Synchronous Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor and Colon Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thivi Vasilakaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs represent the majority of primary mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. They are generally considered to be solitary tumors and therefore the synchronous occurrence with other primary malignancies of gastrointestinal track is considered a rare event. Here we present the case of a 75-year-old man admitted to our hospital with a 10-day history of gastrointestinal bleeding. Colonoscopy revealed an ulcerative mass of 4 cm in diameter in the ascending colon. Gastroscopy revealed a bulge in the gastric body measuring 1 cm in diameter with normal overlying mucosa. Surgical intervention was suggested and ileohemicolectomy with regional lymph node resection along with gastric wedge resection was performed. Pathologic examination of the ascending colon mass showed an invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma stage III B (T3N1M0. Grossly resected wedge of stomach showed a well circumscribed intramural tumor which microscopically was consistent with essentially benign gastrointestinal stromal tumor (according to Miettinen criteria. The patient did not receive additional treatment. Two years later the patient showed no evidence of recurrence or metastasis.

  14. Histologic Normalization Occurs in Ulcerative Colitis and Is Associated With Improved Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Britt; Hanauer, Stephen B; Erlich, Jonathan; Kassim, Olufemi; Gibson, Peter R; Turner, Jerrold R; Hart, John; Rubin, David T

    2017-10-01

    Mucosal healing, determined by histologic analysis, is a potential therapeutic target for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the histologic features of tissue normalization, as an outcome of treatment, have not been well described. We examined the prevalence and predictive values of normalization of the colonic mucosa, based on histologic analysis (histologic normalization) in patients with UC, and determined its association with risk of clinical relapse, compared with histologic disease quiescence and endoscopic mucosal healing. We performed a retrospective study of 646 patients with confirmed UC who underwent colonoscopy at a tertiary medical center from August 2005 through October 2013. We reviewed reports from pathology analyses of random mucosal biopsies from each colon segment, and categorized them into 3 groups based on histology findings: (1) normalization (completely normal mucosa with no features of chronicity present), (2) quiescence (crypt atrophy or branching without signs of active inflammation including erosions, abscesses, or focal neutrophil infiltration), or (3) active disease (epithelial infiltration by neutrophils, crypt abscesses, erosions, or ulceration). Histology findings were compared with clinical and endoscopic findings. We assessed variables associated with histology findings and, in patients in clinical remission (Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index score ≤2 and subscore of ≤1 for stool frequency or rectal bleeding), predictive values for clinical relapse at follow-up evaluations 6 months later or more were calculated. Of the 646 patients included in the study, 60% had endoscopic mucosal healing, 40% had histologic quiescence, and 10% had histologic normalization. The level of agreement between mucosal and histologic activity was moderate (agreement for 68% of samples; κ = 0.50; P normalization (P = .002). Of 310 patients in clinical remission at initial review, 25% had a clinical relapse, after a median time

  15. Methanolic extract of white asparagus shoots activates TRAIL apoptotic death pathway in human cancer cells and inhibits colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOUSSEROUEL, SOUAD; LE GRANDOIS, JULIE; GOSSÉ, FRANCINE; WERNER, DALAL; BARTH, STEPHAN W.; MARCHIONI, ERIC; MARESCAUX, JACQUES; RAUL, FRANCIS

    2013-01-01

    Shoots of white asparagus are a popular vegetable dish, known to be rich in many bioactive phytochemicals reported to possess antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. We evaluated the anticancer mechanisms of a methanolic extract of Asparagus officinalis L. shoots (Asp) on human colon carcinoma cells (SW480) and their derived metastatic cells (SW620), and Asp chemopreventive properties were also assessed in a model of colon carcinogenesis. SW480 and SW620 cell proliferation was inhibited by 80% after exposure to Asp (80 μg/ml). We demonstrated that Asp induced cell death through the activation of TRAIL DR4/DR5 death receptors leading to the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 and to cell apoptosis. By specific blocking agents of DR4/DR5 receptors we were able to prevent Asp-triggered cell death confirming the key role of DR4/DR5 receptors. We found also that Asp (80 μg/ml) was able to potentiate the effects of the cytokine TRAIL on cell death even in the TRAIL-resistant metastatic SW620 cells. Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM), once a week for two weeks. One week after (post-initiation) rats received daily Asp (0.01%, 14 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water. After 7 weeks of Asp-treatment the colon of rats exhibited a 50% reduction of the number of preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci). In addition Asp induced inhibition of several pro-inflammatory mediators, in association with an increased expression of host-defense mediators. In the colonic mucosa of Asp-treated rats we also confirmed the pro-apoptotic effects observed in vitro including the activation of the TRAIL death-receptor signaling pathway. Taken together, our data highlight the chemopreventive effects of Asp on colon carcinogenesis and its ability to promote normal cellular homeostasis. PMID:23754197

  16. Mycobacterium leprae is identified in the oral mucosa from paucibacillary and multibacillary leprosy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado de Abreu, M A M; Roselino, A M; Enokihara, M; Nonogaki, S; Prestes-Carneiro, L E; Weckx, L L M; Alchorne, M M A

    2014-01-01

    In leprosy, the nasal mucosa is considered as the principal route of transmission for the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. The objective of this study was to identify M. leprae in the oral mucosa of 50 untreated leprosy patients, including 21 paucibacillary (PB) and 29 multibacillary (MB) patients, using immunohistochemistry (IHC), with antibodies against bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and phenolic glycolipid antigen-1 (PGL-1), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with MntH-specific primers for M. leprae, and to compare the results. The material was represented by 163 paraffin blocks containing biopsy samples obtained from clinically normal sites (including the tongue, buccal mucosa and soft palate) and visible lesions anywhere in the oral mucosa. All patients and 158 available samples were included for IHC study. Among the 161 available samples for PCR, 110 had viable DNA. There was viable DNA in at least one area of the oral mucosa for 47 patients. M. leprae was detected in 70% and 78% of patients using IHC and PCR, respectively, and in 94% of the patients by at least one of the two diagnostic methods. There were no differences in detection of M. leprae between MB and PB patients. Similar results were obtained using anti-BCG and anti-PGL-1 antibodies, and immunoreactivity occurred predominantly on free-living bacteria on the epithelial surface, with a predilection for the tongue. Conversely, there was no area of predilection according to the PCR results. M. leprae is present in the oral mucosa at a high frequency, implicating this site as a potential means of leprosy transmission. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  17. Colonic lymphoid follicles associated with colonic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, S.N.; Teplick, S.K.; Ross, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors prospectively evaluated 62 patients over 40 years old in whom lymphoid follicles were demonstrated on double-contrast enema examinations. Eighteen patients (29%) had no current radiographic evidence of, or history of, colonic neoplasms. Forty-four patients (71%) had an associated neoplasm. Fourteen patients had associated colonic carcinoma, and ten patients had a history of a previously resected colon cancer. One patient had previously undergone resection for ''polyps.'' Twenty-two patients had an associated ''polyp.'' There were no clinical or radiographic features that could reliably distinguish the neoplastic from the nonneoplastic groups. However, lymphoid follicles in the left colon or diffusely involving the colon were more likely to be associated with a colonic neoplasm. Lymphoid follicles were almost always identified near a malignant lesion

  18. Benign colonic metaplasia at a previous stoma site in a patient without adenomatous polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Megan; Patrawala, Samit; Vogt, Adam; Kelleher, Michael; Lee, Michael; Parker, Douglas C

    2016-03-01

    There are few reported cases of cutaneous intestinal metaplasia or primary adenocarcinoma arising at the ileostomy site following panproctocolectomy. These complications have been seen almost exclusively in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, benign intraepidermal colonic mucosa at a reversed ileostomy site in a patient without familial adenomatous polyposis or IBD has not been documented. We report a case of a 51-year-old female with a history of colonic adenocarcinoma who presented with pruritic, erythematous, scaly plaques on the right lower abdomen, present since reversal of her ileostomy in 2007. Skin biopsy revealed benign foci of colonic epithelium with no evidence of adenomatous change. Benign intraepidermal colonic mucosa was diagnosed based on histopathologic findings and immunohistochemistry. To our knowledge, this is the first case of intraepidermal benign colonic metaplasia forming in a patient following ostomy reversal. The case emphasizes the importance of patient education and physical examination of the stoma or stoma remnants for detection of unusual or changing lesions due to the risk for malignant transformation. It also demonstrates that benign colonic mucosa should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating lesions near ileostomy sites, regardless of whether the patient has a history of familial adenomatous polyposis or IBD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. In vivo microscopic imaging of the bronchial mucosa using an endo-cytoscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Kiyoshi; Fujiwara, Taiki; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Alaa, Mohamed; Chiyo, Masako; Nakajima, Takahiro; Hoshino, Hidehisa; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Nakatani, Yukio; Yoshino, Ichiro

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the capabilities of an endo-cytoscopy system (ECS) that enables microscopic imaging of the tracheobronchial tree during bronchoscopy, including normal bronchial epithelium, dysplastic mucosa and squamous cell carcinoma. The newly developed ECS has a 3.2 mm diameter that can be passed through the 4.2 mm working channel of a mother endoscope for insertion of the ECS. It has a high magnification of 570× on a 17 in. video monitor. Twenty-two patients (7 squamous cell carcinoma, 11 squamous dysplasia and 4 after PDT therapies) were underwent white light, NBI light and AFI bronchoscopy. Both abnormal areas of interest and normal bronchial mucosa were stained with 0.5% methylene blue and examined with ECS at high magnification (570×). Histological examinations using haematoxylin and eosin staining were made of biopsied specimens. Analyzed ECS images were compared with the corresponding histological examinations. In normal bronchial mucosa, ciliated columnar epithelial cells were visible. In bronchial squamous dysplasia, superficial cells with abundant cytoplasm were arranged regularly. In squamous cell carcinoma, large, polymorphic tumor cells showed increased cellular densities with irregular stratified patterns. These ECS images corresponded well with the light-microscopic examination of conventional histology. ECS was useful for the discrimination between normal bronchial epithelial cells and dysplastic cells or malignant cells during bronchoscopy in real time. This novel technology has an excellent potential to provide in vivo diagnosis during bronchoscopic examinations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Colon-targeted oral drug delivery systems: design trends and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Seth; Brown, Jack E; Dave, Vivek S

    2015-08-01

    Colon-specific drug delivery systems (CDDS) are desirable for the treatment of a range of local diseases such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pancreatitis, and colonic cancer. In addition, the colon can be a potential site for the systemic absorption of several drugs to treat non-colonic conditions. Drugs such as proteins and peptides that are known to degrade in the extreme gastric pH, if delivered to the colon intact, can be systemically absorbed by colonic mucosa. In order to achieve effective therapeutic outcomes, it is imperative that the designed delivery system specifically targets the drugs into the colon. Several formulation approaches have been explored in the development colon-targeted drug delivery systems. These approaches involve the use of formulation components that interact with one or more aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, such as the difference in the pH along the GI tract, the presence of colonic microflora, and enzymes, to achieve colon targeting. This article highlights the factors influencing colon-specific drug delivery and colonic bioavailability, and the limitations associated with CDDS. Further, the review provides a systematic discussion of various conventional, as well as relatively newer formulation approaches/technologies currently being utilized for the development of CDDS.

  1. A mucosa oral na hanseníase: um estudo clínico e histopatológico The oral mucosa in leprosy: a clinical and histopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado de Abreu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a anseníase multibacilar pode causar comprometimento da mucosa oral, com ou sem lesões aparentes. Há poucos estudos que tratam deste assunto na era da multidrogaterapia. OBJETIVO: Verificar a freqüência do comprometimento da mucosa oral em pacientes de hanseníase multibacilar. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal em vinte pacientes de hanseníase multibacilar, não-tratados, atendidos consecutivamente em Dracena, São Paulo, entre o período de 2000 e 2002. Foi realizado exame clínico completo da mucosa oral. Os pacientes foram submetidos a biópsias na mucosa jugal, na língua e no palato mole, em alteração ou em pontos pré-estabelecidos. Os cortes foram corados pelas técnicas da hematoxilina-eosina e Ziehl-Neelsen. O encontro de granuloma e bacilos álcool-ácido-resistentes ao exame histopatológico determinou o comprometimento específico. RESULTADOS: O estudo envolveu 19 pacientes multibacilares com tempo médio de evolução de 2,5 anos. Ocorreu comprometimento histopatológico específico em apenas um paciente virchowiano, com mucosa oral clinicamente normal, na língua e no palato mole. CONCLUSÕES: 1. Alteração clínica na mucosa oral não implica em comprometimento pela doença, é necessário confirmação histopatológica. 2. Alterações clínicas específicas aparentes são raras. 3. A mucosa oral clinicamente normal pode exibir comprometimento histopatológico específico.INTRODUCTION: Multibacillary leprosy may involve the oral mucosa, with or without apparent lesions. There are few studies that deal with this issue in the era of multidrug therapy. AIM: To assess the frequence of oral mucosa involvement in multibacillary leprosy patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A transversal study with twenty non-treated multibacillary leprosy patients. The patients were treated in Dracena, São Paulo, between 2000 and 2002. Clinical examination of the oral mucosa was carried out. All patients were

  2. Studies of blood flow in human nasal mucosa with /sup133/Xe washout technique and laser doppler flowmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, P.

    1986-01-01

    The techniques were applied for studies of the influence of environmental temperature on the human nasal mucosa, for studies of mediators in nasal allergy and for studies of the sympathetic neurogenic control of blood flow in the nasal mucosa. The results show that the two techniques are complementary to one another. The /sup133/Xe washout technique is useful for semiquantitative estimations of blood flow in the deeper parts of the mucosa, while the laser doppler technique is especially suited for continuous recordings of relative blood flow changes in the superficial part of the mucosa. Vascular changes may take part in body temperature regulation changes may take part in body temperature regulation as well as in conditioning of respiratory air. The results support the theories that changes in nasal mucosal blood flow are related to body temperature control, while conditioning of inspiratory air may be more dependent on mucosal blood content. The observed dissociation between changes in the resistance and the capacitance vessels also illustrates that these vascular segments are regulated in different ways. The present results indicate that leukotriene D/sub4/ might contribute to an increased blood flow in the nasal mucosa and to blockage of the nasal airway in the acute allergic reaction. Vasomotion is demonstrated to be present in the nasal mucosa, and it appears to be partly dependent on sympathetic neurogenic activity. The development of the present techniques, means that vascular changes involved in normal nasal function and in nasal disease may be evaluated by a new approach. (author)

  3. Enfermedad Diverticular del Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo López Escobar

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Los divertículos del colon han sido reconocidos por varios observadores desde hace más de un siglo, pero en su mayor parte se trataba de casos aislados, hoy se la considera como la enfermedad del siglo XX, la de la era moderna y de los países industrializados y de avanzada tecnología (5,18,33.

    Según el diccionario de la Real Academia Española (11, divertículo, del latín, diverticulum, quiere decir desviación de un camino; y desde el punto de vista anatómico, apéndice hueco y terminado en fondo de saco. (Gráfica No. 1.

    Goligher (17 lo define como la “posada al borde del camino, probablemente un lugar, a menudo, de mala reputación”.

    Historia

    Según Hackford (18, el proceso fué descrito brevemente por Littre a comienzos del siglo XVIII; pero se le atribuye a Cruveilhier la primera descripción como proceso patológico en 1849, quien, además, mencionó: “encontramos, no rara vez, en el sigmoide, entre las bandas de fibras musculares longitudinales, una serie de pequeños tumores piriformes oscuros, que están formados por hernias de la mucosa a través de brechas en la capa muscular” (17.

    Fleischman en 1815 hizo la primera observación de la enfermedad y empleó el término divertículo (45.

    Rokitansky en 1.849, habló de una enfermedad adquirida y consideró que su causa consistía en la constipación (45.

    Virchowen 1853 describió la perisigmoiditis (45.

    En 1859 Sidney Jones informó de una fístula colo-vesical debida a diverticulitis (5,45.

    Loomis en 1870 describe una peritonitis como resultante de una diverticulitis (45.

    En 1877 Ball describió la anatomía patológica de la enfermedad y presentó dos casos de fístula colovesical debidas a diverticulitis (9. Cripps en 1.888 popularizó la colostomía de desviación como tratamiento para la fístula colovesical(18...

  4. Effect of luminal or circulating nitrite on colonic ion movement in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radcliffe, B.C.; Nance, S.H.; Deakin, E.J.; Roediger, W.E.W.

    1987-01-01

    The disposition of intravenously or luminally administered nitrite across the colonic mucosa and its effect on ion movement into or from the colon was assessed in anesthetized Porton rats using the isolated colon instilled either with sodium chloride or sodium chloride with sodium butyrate. Ionic changes in the colon after intravenous injection of 10 μmol NaNO 2 were compared with those occurring after injection of 10 μmol NaCl. After intravenous administration of nitrite, both nitrite and nitrate appeared in the colonic instillate in a ratio of 1:1. Nitrite increased chloride absorption (110%) and bicarbonate production (20%) when 40 mM butyrate was included in the instillate. Net sodium absorption, measured in the whole colon, was unchanged. Intravenous nitrite had no effect on ionic movement in the absence of butyrate. When NaNO 2 was included luminally with the sodium chloride-butyrate instillate, bicarbonate production rate increased, but sodium and chloride absorption were unaffected. Nitrite concentration in the instillate decreased during the 40-min experimental period at a rate of 0.275 nmol·min -1 ·cm -2 and nitrate appeared at a rate of 0.037 nmol·min -1 ·cm -2 . The authors conclude that nitrite stimulates bicarbonate production in the colon, probably by stimulating the oxidation by butyrate, the main source of CO 2 generation by the colonic mucosa

  5. The effect of sennosides on colonic mucosal histology and bowel preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorkom, B A; Karrenbeld, A; Limburg, A J; Kleibeuker, J H

    Introduction: A single high dose of sennosides is often used to optimize bowel preparation for diagnostic procedures. From previous studies it is suspected that sennosides in such a dose cause acute damage to the colonic mucosa. This study was designed to determine any effects of sennosides on

  6. Metabolism of acyclic and cyclic N-nitroamines by cultured human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Harris, Curtis C.; Trump, Benjamin F.

    1978-01-01

    Cultured human colon mucosa was found to metabolize both acyclic and cyclic N-nitrosamines as measured by 14C-CO2 formation and reaction of the activated moieties with cellular macromolecules. Dimethylnitrosamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine were metabolized by explants from all patients studied. A p...

  7. Morphofunctional State of Esophageal Mucosa in Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Depending on the Nutritional Status of Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.D. Fadieienko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We have studied morphofunctional state of esophageal mucosa in 57 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD with normal (body mass index (BMI — 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 and excessive (BMI over 25 kg/m2 body weight. A histologic and morphometric study of esophageal mucosa, immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of apoptosis marker CD95 and inflammatory marker cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 were carried out. In reflux esophagitis, most characteristic are changes in multilayered epithelium — hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, proliferation of basal cells and acanthosis. At that, significant differences in morphometric characteristics of patients with normal BMI and overweight were not found. The development of reflux esophagitis was associated with violations of pro-apoptotic ability of esophageal mucosa cells and increased expression of COX-2, most significant in patients with high BMI. Detected disorders may determine the mechanisms of complicated course of GERD in these patients.

  8. Antegrade Colonic Lavage in Acute Colonic Obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Michael E.; Johnson, Colin D.

    1986-01-01

    Conventional management of acute left sided colonic obstruction employs some form of proximal colostomy. Intraoperative antegrade colonic irrigation relieves proximal faecal loading and may permit safer primary resection and anastomosis. The results of a pilot study are presented, and are shown to be favourable.

  9. Premalignant alterations of the gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frager, D.; Mitsudo, S.; Kozecky, O.; Frager, J.; Wolf, E.; Beneventano, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Atrophic gastritus or intestinal metaplasia is the precursor to many gastric carcinomas that arise in a dysplatic epithelium. The authors retrospectively reviewed the radiographic features of the gastric mucosa in 30 patients with the pathologic diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (27) or atrophic gastritus (3). In 12 patients (40%) the area gastricae were enlarged to 5 mm or greater. In these 12 patients and in an additional 11 (total of 23, or 76%), a polypoid-nodular gastric mucosal pattern was seen. These findings and patterns are illustrated, and the differential diagnosis and clinical implications are discussed

  10. CYTOKINE REGULATION OF ULCEROGENESIS IN GASTRODUODENAL MUCOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Matveeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerogenesis in gastroduodenal mucosa area is a complex multistep process. Its, phases arecontrolled by interaction and activation of pro­ and antiinflammatory cytokine cascade. Present review article summarizes scientific data on impact of cytokines upon ulcerative and reparatory processes, a variety of their diagnostic and therapeutic options is defined. Evaluation of cytokine status, or, in some cases, cytokine genotyping in patients with stomach and duodenal ulcers, may predict clinical course of the disease, as well as efficiency of basic and eradication therapy, correction of the treatment.

  11. Perineal mass protrusion with rectal mucosa: a rectal duplication that underwent exstrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junjie; Vongphet, Soulithone; Zhang, Zhichong; Mo, Jiacong

    2011-08-01

    We present a rare case of a male neonate with a perineal mass with rectal mucosa, diagnosed as an exstrophic duplication of the rectum. It was accompanied by a cord that was deeply invested in the pelvic diaphragm and was composed of smooth muscle, fibrous tissue, and some rectal glands. The association of exstrophic rectal duplication with a bifid scrotum, hypospadias, and normal anus has not been described previously in the literature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Absence of pepsinogen A3 gene expression in the gastric mucosa of patients with gastric cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, E J; Peña, A S; Crusius, J B; Defize, J; van der Stoop, P; Meuwissen, S G; Pals, G

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the expression of pepsinogen A3 (Pg3) encoding genes in the gastric mucosa of normal controls and subjects with atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. METHODS--One hundred and fifty nine patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with sampling of gastric biopsy specimens and serum. Pg3 isoproteins were determined by electrophoresis in serum and gastric mucosal biopsy specimens. Pg3 encoding genes were assessed by PCR in DNA obtained from peripheral blood. RESULTS...

  13. Mapping Local Cytosolic Enzymatic Activity in Human Esophageal Mucosa with Porous Silicon Nanoneedles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, Ciro; Campagnolo, Paola; Almeida, Carina S; Abbassi-Ghadi, Nima; Chow, Lesley W; Hanna, George B; Stevens, Molly M

    2015-09-16

    Porous silicon nanoneedles can map Cathepsin B activity across normal and tumor human esophageal mucosa. Assembling a peptide-based Cathepsin B cleavable sensor over a large array of nano-needles allows the discrimination of cancer cells from healthy ones in mixed culture. The same sensor applied to tissue can map Cathepsin B activity with high resolution across the tumor margin area of esophageal adenocarcinoma. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for colonic cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic cancer detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and cancerous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  15. Use of nonsteroidal antiinflamatory drugs for chemoprevention of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is in the third most frequent cancer among malignant tumors of both sexes in developed countries. It is predominantly a disease of older persons and occurs mostly after the age of 60. Although the etiology of colon cancer is unknown, it is assumed to arise as a result of unclear and complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. The main element in the etiology of colorectal cancer is the process of genetic changes in epithelial cells of colon mucosa. It is believed that specific epidemiological factors such as stress, hypoxia, reduced intake of glucose and other nutrients, a hereditary predisposition to mutagenic effects, the meat in the diet, bile acids, reduced intake of minerals and vitamins as well as changes in pH of feces lead to initiation of the process of carcinogenesis in mucosa of the colon. Cancer chemoprevention is defined as the use of chemical agents in order to block, prevent or delay the reversal development or progress of cancer. It is believed that chemoprevention is a key component of cancer control, and numerous studies indicate potential role of NSAIDs in chemoprevention of colon cancer.

  16. [Clinical and morphological variants of diverticular disease in colon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, S V; Lazebnik, L B; Potapova, V B; Rogozina, V A

    2013-01-01

    Our own results of two-stage research are presented in the article. The first stage contains the retrospective analysis of 3682 X-ray examining of large bowel which were conducted in 2002-2004 to define the structure of colon disease and to determine gender differences. The second stage is prospective research which took place from 2003 to 2012 and 486 patients with diverticular disease were regularly observed. Following parameters were estimated: dynamics of complaints, life quality, clinical symptoms. Multiple X-ray and endoscopic examining were done with estimation of quantity and size of diverticula, changes of colon mucosa, comparison of X-ray and endoscopic methods in prognosis of complications. Two basic clinical morphological variants of diverticular disease (DD) of colon are made out as a result of our research. There are IBD-like and DD with ischemic component. The variants differ by pain characteristics, presence of accompanying diseases, life quality parameters and description of colon mucosa morphological research. We suppose that different ethiopathogenetic factors of development of both variants mentioned above influence the disease prognosis and selection of treatment.

  17. Honey and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ostadrahimi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is acomplex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumorproperties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates therisk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisiverole in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship betweenconsumption of honey and apoptosis in human gastric mucosa.Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 subjects over 18 years old, referred totwo hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Subjects were undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 62subjects were finally enrolled. Honey consumption was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire(FFQ and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technique. We tested polynomial curve tofind the best fit between honey consumption and apoptosis.Results: A positive relation between honey consumption and apoptosis was found (P=0.024.Our results indicated that the final and the best fit curve was: apoptosis = 1.714+1.648(honeyamount - 0.533(honey amount2 +1.833×10-5(honey amount7.Conclusion: Honey consumption had positive effects on gastric cancer by inducing apoptosis ingastric mucosa.

  18. Infecciones virales en piel y mucosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Martínez G., Dra.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Diversos virus pueden infectar la piel y las mucosas de los seres humanos, manifestándose en diferentes patologías, de acuerdo a la edad, género y estado inmunológico. Un grupo importante de éstos tiene capacidad de replicar en células epiteliales, originando cuadros clínicos en los cuales se evidencia la destrucción celular o bien la hiperplasia del tejido infectado. Gran parte de estos virus persisten en células infectadas por años y tienen la capacidad de reactivarse y de manifestar nuevamente enfermedades cutáneas o mucosas. En algunos casos, ésta sólo se expresa de manera subclínica en una excreción del virus por secreciones que son fuente de infección. En los últimos años, los avances en técnicas moleculares han permitido contar con metodologías diagnósticas cada vez más sensibles, específicas y rápidas. Así como también el progreso en el área de vacunas y antivirales nos entrega mayores herramientas profilácticas y terapéuticas.

  19. Cholesterol esterase activity of human intestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponz de Leon, M.; Carubbi, F.; Di Donato, P.; Carulli, N.

    1985-01-01

    It has been suggested that cholesterol absorption in humans is dependent on bile acid pool composition and that expansion of the cholic acid pool size is followed by an increase of the absorption values. Similar observations were reported in rats. In the present study, therefore, the authors investigated some general properties of human intestinal cholesterol esterase, with particular emphasis on the effect of bile acids on this enzymatic activity. Twenty-nine segments of small intestine were taken during operations; the enzymatic activity was studied by using mucosal homogenate as a source of enzyme and oleic acid, cholesterol, and 14 C-labeled cholesterol as substrates. The time-activity relationship was linear within the first two hours; optimal pH for esterification ranged between 5 and 6.2. There was little difference between the esterifying activity of the jejunal and ileal mucosa. Esterification of cholesterol was observed with all the investigated fatty acids but was maximal with oleic acid. Bile acids did not affect cholesterol esterase activity when present in the incubation mixture at 0.1 and 1.0 mM; the enzymatic activity, however, was significantly inhibited when bile acids were added at 20 mM. In conclusion, this study has shown that the human intestinal mucosa possesses a cholesterol esterase activity; at variance with the rat, however, the human enzyme does not seem to be stimulated by trihydroxy bile acids

  20. Evaluation of pemphigus cases involving oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöz, Gizem; Bektaş-Kayhan, Kivanç; Ünür, Meral

    2014-09-01

    Pemphigus, defines a group of disorders in autoimmune etiology which could be life-threatening and clinical manifestations are mainly epithelial blistering affecting cutaneous and/or mucosal surfaces including oral mucosa. The aim of our study is to evaluate the clinical appearance of pemphigus with oral involvement by reported 15 pemphigus cases. This retrospective study of 15 cases of pemphigus obtained over a period of 7 years from 2006 to 2013 in Istanbul University, Dentistry Faculty, Oral Medicine and Surgery Department was designed. Age distribution of pemphigus was from 15 to 59 years with an average age of 41.3 years. Of the 15 patients, the male:female ratio was 1:2.75 (4 male, 11 female). The most common clinical various of pemphigus was pemphigus vulgaris, diagnosed in all patients. The buccal mucosa (34.3%) was the most commonly affected site followed by tongue (20%), gingiva (17.1%), palate (11.4%), lips (11.4%) and floor of mouth (5.7%). Our explanation of this conclusion, while speculative, is that socioeconomic situation related stress in males and hormonal changes like pregnancy and menostasis in females; systemic disease and using drugs; dental trauma and bruxism could be responsible for flare up in the disease.

  1. Enfermedades de la mucosa oral más frecuentes en niños y adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Rivera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta carta científica es reportar la frecuencia de lesiones de la mucosa oral y variaciones normales de la anatomía de la cavidad oral en niños y adolescentes mediante una revisión sistemática de la literatura.

  2. Management of Colonic Volvulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingold, Daniel; Murrell, Zuri

    2012-01-01

    Colonic volvulus is a common cause of large bowel obstruction worldwide. It can affect all parts of the colon, but most commonly occurs in the sigmoid and cecal areas. This disease has been described for centuries, and was studied by Hippocrates himself. Currently, colonic volvulus is the third most common cause of large bowel obstruction worldwide, and is responsible for ∼15% of large bowel obstructions in the United States. This article will discuss the history of colonic volvulus, and the predisposing factors that lead to this disease. Moreover, the epidemiology and diagnosis of each type of colonic volvulus, along with the various treatment options will be reviewed. PMID:24294126

  3. Diverticular Disease of the Colon: Neuromuscular Function Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassotti, Gabrio; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Bernardini, Nunzia; Dore, Maria P

    2016-10-01

    Colonic diverticular disease is a frequent finding in daily clinical practice. However, its pathophysiological mechanisms are largely unknown. This condition is likely the result of several concomitant factors occurring together to cause anatomic and functional abnormalities, leading as a result to the outpouching of the colonic mucosa. A pivotal role seems to be played by an abnormal colonic neuromuscular function, as shown repeatedly in these patients, and by an altered visceral perception. There is recent evidence that these abnormalities might be related to the derangement of the enteric innervation, to an abnormal distribution of mucosal neuropeptides, and to low-grade mucosal inflammation. The latter might be responsible for the development of visceral hypersensitivity, often causing abdominal pain in a subset of these patients.

  4. Structural alterations of the mucosa stroma in the Barrett's esophagus metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Killingsworth, Murray C; Lord, Reginald V N

    2012-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the extracellular matrix play important roles in intercellular communications and contribute to the development of a number of diseases, including diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The present study examined the structural characteristics and alterations of the extracellular matrix of the mucosa stroma in the Barrett's esophagus metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. A total of 41 esophageal tissue specimens (15 esophageal adenocarcinoma, 10 Barrett's esophagus intestinal metaplasia, seven dysplasia and nine normal esophagus) were studied. The present study used transmission electron microscopy and computerized quantitative electron-microscopic analysis in order to investigate the characteristics of the extracellular matrix of the mucosa. The study revealed that marked structural alterations of the mucosa stroma, relating to changes in the distribution and appearance of collagen fibers as well as to changes in numbers of matrix microvesicles, occur in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. It was found that there were 3.1 times more microvesicles in the stroma in Barrett's esophagus than in the stroma of the normal esophagus (P<0.0001) and that there were 5.8 times more microvesicles in esophageal adenocarcinoma than in the normal esophagus (P<0.0001). There were 1.9 times more microvesicles in esophageal adenocarcinoma than in Barrett's esophagus (P=0.0043). The study demonstrates distinctive alterations of the mucosa stroma extracellular matrix in the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. The findings suggest that the redistribution of collagen fibers and increases in numbers of matrix microvesicles may play roles in the formation of specialized intestinal metaplasia and the development of adenocarcinoma. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. A scoring system based on artificial neural network for predicting 10-year survival in stage II A colon cancer patients after radical surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wu; Lu, Shi-Xun; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Li, Pei-Xing; Yun, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Rong-Xin; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 20% patients with stage II A colon cancer will develop recurrent disease post-operatively. The present study aims to develop a scoring system based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for predicting 10-year survival outcome. The clinical and molecular data of 117 stage II A colon cancer patients from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were used for training set and test set; poor pathological grading (score 49), reduced expression of TGFBR2 (score 33), over-expression of TGF-β (score 45), MAPK (score 32), pin1 (score 100), β-catenin in tumor tissue (score 50) and reduced expression of TGF-β in normal mucosa (score 22) were selected as the prognostic risk predictors. According to the developed scoring system, the patients were divided into 3 subgroups, which were supposed with higher, moderate and lower risk levels. As a result, for the 3 subgroups, the 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 16.7%, 62.9% and 100% (P < 0.001); and the 10-year disease free survival (DFS) rates were 16.7%, 61.8% and 98.8% (P < 0.001) respectively. It showed that this scoring system for stage II A colon cancer could help to predict long-term survival and screen out high-risk individuals for more vigorous treatment. PMID:27008710

  6. A scoring system based on artificial neural network for predicting 10-year survival in stage II A colon cancer patients after radical surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian-Hong; Fang, Yu-Jing; Li, Cai-Xia; Ou, Qing-Jian; Jiang, Wu; Lu, Shi-Xun; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Li, Pei-Xing; Yun, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Rong-Xin; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De Sen

    2016-04-19

    Nearly 20% patients with stage II A colon cancer will develop recurrent disease post-operatively. The present study aims to develop a scoring system based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for predicting 10-year survival outcome. The clinical and molecular data of 117 stage II A colon cancer patients from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were used for training set and test set; poor pathological grading (score 49), reduced expression of TGFBR2 (score 33), over-expression of TGF-β (score 45), MAPK (score 32), pin1 (score 100), β-catenin in tumor tissue (score 50) and reduced expression of TGF-β in normal mucosa (score 22) were selected as the prognostic risk predictors. According to the developed scoring system, the patients were divided into 3 subgroups, which were supposed with higher, moderate and lower risk levels. As a result, for the 3 subgroups, the 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 16.7%, 62.9% and 100% (P < 0.001); and the 10-year disease free survival (DFS) rates were 16.7%, 61.8% and 98.8% (P < 0.001) respectively. It showed that this scoring system for stage II A colon cancer could help to predict long-term survival and screen out high-risk individuals for more vigorous treatment.

  7. Standard colonic lavage alters the natural state of mucosal-associated microbiota in the human colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Harrell

    Full Text Available Past studies of the human intestinal microbiota are potentially confounded by the common practice of using bowel-cleansing preparations. We examined if colonic lavage changes the natural state of enteric mucosal-adherent microbes in healthy human subjects.Twelve healthy individuals were divided into three groups; experimental group, control group one, and control group two. Subjects in the experimental group underwent an un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopy with biopsies. Within two weeks, subjects were given a standard polyethylene glycol-based bowel cleansing preparation followed by a second flexible sigmoidoscopy. Subjects in control group one underwent two un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopies within one week. Subjects in the second control group underwent an un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopy followed by a second flexible sigmoidoscopy after a 24-hour clear liquid diet within one week. The mucosa-associated microbial communities from the two procedures in each subject were compared using 16S rRNA gene based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP, and library cloning and sequencing.Clone library sequencing analysis showed that there were changes in the composition of the mucosa-associated microbiota in subjects after colonic lavage. These changes were not observed in our control groups. Standard bowel preparation altered the diversity of mucosa-associated microbiota. Taxonomic classification did not reveal significant changes at the phylum level, but there were differences observed at the genus level.Standard bowel cleansing preparation altered the mucosal-adherent microbiota in all of our subjects, although the degree of change was variable. These findings underscore the importance of considering the confounding effects of bowel preparation when designing experiments exploring the gut microbiota.

  8. Morphologic observation of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in the large intestine of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZhaXi, Yingpai; Wang, Wenhui; Zhang, Wangdong; Gao, Qiang; Guo, Minggang; Jia, Shuai

    2014-07-01

    The structure and distribution of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) throughout the large intestine of 10 Bactrian camels were comparatively studied by anatomical and histological methods. The results showed that Peyer's patches (PPs) were mainly located on the mucosal surfaces of the entire ileocecal orifice, the beginning of the cecum and the first third of the colon. The shape of PPs gradually changed from "scrotiform" to "faviform" along the large intestine with the scrotiform PP as the major type in the ileocecal orifice. The distribution density also gradually decreased from the ileocecal orifice to the colon. The histological observations further revealed that the MALT in the form of PPs or isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF) and lamina propria lymphocytes was mainly present in the lamina propria and submucosa from the entire ileocecal orifice, where the muscularis mucosa is usually incomplete, to the colonic forepart. In addition, lymphoid tissue was much more abundant in the lamina propria and submucosa of the ileocecal orifice as compared to the cecum and colon. Statistically, the MALT of the ileocecal orifice contained a higher number of lymphoid follicles (37.7/10 mm(2) ) than that of the cecum, colon, or rectum (P lymphoid follicles were clearly visible. Together, our data suggest that the ileocecal orifice constitutes the main inductive site for the mucosal immunity in the large intestine of the Bactrian camel; and that scrotiform PPs are likely to the result of long-term adaptation of the Bactrian camel to the harsh living environment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Early colon cancer : findings on double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Kwon; Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Soon Jin; Lim, Hyo Keun

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the radiologic findings of early colon cancer on double-contrast barium enema. We retrospectively reviewed the double-contrast barium enemas of eight patients (M:F = 6:2; mean age : 67 yrs; range : 48-77 yrs) who were pathologically proven to be early colon cancer. The location, size and gross morphology of lesions was evaluated using double-contrast barium enema, while depth of invasion, degree of differentiation, precancerous lesions and lymph node metastasis were evaluated histopathologically. Early colon cancer was found in the rectum (n=4), sigmoid colon (n=3) and ascending colon (n=1). The size of mass ranged from 2.3 ∼ 8.3 (mean, 4.6) cm. And the polypoid type was most common (n=7); this was subdivided into sessile (Is, n=5), semipedunculated (Isp, n=1) and pedunculated type (Ip, n=1). Another mass was a sessile polypoid combined with a flat depressed lesion. In eight cases, four cancers were confined to the mucosa, while the remaining four had infiltrated the submucosa. Most cancers arose from villous and villotubular adenoma. All cases were well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and no metastasis to lymph nodes had occurred. In early colon cancer, lesions were mainly polypoid and large. Most arose from villous and villotubular adenoma. (author). 19 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  10. Hypoxia inhibits colonic ion transport via activation of AMP kinase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucosal hypoxia is a common endpoint for many pathological processes including ischemic colitis, colonic obstruction and anastomotic failure. Previous studies suggest that hypoxia modulates colonic mucosal function through inhibition of chloride secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this observation are poorly understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic energy regulator found in a wide variety of cells and has been linked to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mediated chloride secretion in several different tissues. We hypothesized that AMPK mediates many of the acute effects of hypoxia on human and rat colonic electrolyte transport. METHODS: The fluorescent chloride indicator dye N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide was used to measure changes in intracellular chloride concentrations in isolated single rat colonic crypts. Ussing chamber experiments in human colonic mucosa were conducted to evaluate net epithelial ion transport. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that acute hypoxia inhibits electrogenic chloride secretion via AMPK mediated inhibition of CFTR. Pre-treatment of tissues with the AMPK inhibitor 6-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl)]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyyrazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidine (compound C) in part reversed the effects of acute hypoxia on chloride secretion. CONCLUSION: We therefore suggest that AMPK is a key component of the adaptive cellular response to mucosal hypoxia in the colon. Furthermore, AMPK may represent a potential therapeutic target in diseased states or in prevention of ischemic intestinal injury.

  11. Compartmentalised expression of meprin in small intestinal mucosa: enhanced expression in lamina propria in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottaz, Daniel; Buri, Caroline; Monteleone, Giovanni; Rösmann, Sandra; Macdonald, Thomas T; Sanderson, Ian R; Sterchi, Erwin E

    2007-03-01

    Epithelial cells in the human small intestine express meprin, an astacin-like metalloprotease, which accumulates normally at the brush border membrane and in the gut lumen. Therefore, meprin is targeted towards luminal components. In coeliac disease patients, peptides from ingested cereals trigger mucosal inflammation in the small intestine, disrupting epithelial cell differentiation and function. Using in situ hybridisation on duodenal tissue sections, we observed a marked shift of meprin mRNA expression from epithelial cells, the predominant expression site in normal mucosa, to lamina propria leukocytes in coeliac disease. Meprin thereby gains access to the substrate repertoire present beneath the epithelium.

  12. Lichenoid reaction to carbamazepine in the oral mucosa: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Gabriela; Bruno, Ingrid S; Seo, Juliana; Hirota, Silvio K; Acay, Renata; Migliari, Dante A

    2011-01-01

    Lichenoid drug reactions are more common in skin, but they may also occur in the oral mucosa. It is difficult to diagnose these lesions due to their clinical similarity to the idiopathic oral lichen planus lesions. The present article reports a case of lichenoid reaction in oral mucosa associated to the use of carbamazepine, emphasizing the diagnostic process.

  13. Prevalência de helicobactérias e alterações na mucosa gástrica de cães saudáveis Prevalence of helicobacters and alterations in gastric mucosa of healthy dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Q. Moutinho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence, distribution and density of gastric helicobacter colonization were determined in 50 healthy dogs, characterizing the macroscopic and microcospic aspects of their mucosa. Helicobacter prevalence was 96%, with greater distribution in the gastric fundus and body. Although the presence of macroscopic alterations was high (58%, it was characterized as mild due to the predominance of less severe ones (65.5%. High prevalence of mostly monoclear cell infriltate (64.7% was noted. Association between the presence of helicobacter and macro and microscopic alterations was not observed.

  14. Gene expression profiling of gastric mucosa in mice lacking CCK and gastrin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chun-Mei; Kodama, Yosuke; Flatberg, Arnar

    2014-01-01

    normalized, which was associated with an up-regulated pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) type 1 receptor (PAC1). The basal part of the gastric mucosa expressed parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) in a subpopulation of likely ECL cells (and possibly other cells) and vitamin D3 1α...... suggest a possible link between gastric PTHLH and vitamin D and bone metabolism.......The stomach produces acid, which may play an important role in the regulation of bone homeostasis. The aim of this study was to reveal signaling pathways in the gastric mucosa that involve the acid secretion and possibly the bone metabolism in CCK1 and/or CCK2 receptor knockout (KO) mice. Gastric...

  15. Circulating IGF-I and IGFBP3 levels control human colonic stem cell function and are disrupted in diabetic enteropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestroni, Anna; Jung, Peter; Orsenigo, Elena; Nasr, Moufida Ben; Tezza, Sara; Bassi, Roberto; Finzi, Giovanna; Marando, Alessandro; Vergani, Andrea; Frego, Roberto; Albarello, Luca; Andolfo, Annapaola; Manuguerra, Roberta; Viale, Edi; Staudacher, Carlo; Corradi, Domenico; Batlle, Eduard; Breault, David; Secchi, Antonio; Folli, Franco; Fiorina, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Summary The role of circulating factors in regulating colonic stem cells (CoSCs) and colonic epithelial homeostasis is unclear. Individuals with long-standing type 1 diabetes (T1D) frequently have intestinal symptoms, termed diabetic enteropathy (DE), though its etiology is unknown. Here, we report T1D patients with DE exhibit abnormalities in their intestinal mucosa and CoSCs, which fail to generate in vitro mini-guts. Proteomic profiling of T1D+DE patient serum revealed altered levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its binding protein-3 (IGFBP3). IGFBP3 prevented in vitro growth of patient-derived organoids via binding its receptor TMEM219, in an IGF-1-independent manner, and disrupted in vivo CoSC function in a preclinical DE model. Restoration of normoglycemia in patients with long-standing T1D via kidney-pancreas transplantation or in diabetic mice by treatment with an ecto-TMEM219 recombinant protein normalized circulating IGF-1/IGFBP3 levels and reestablished CoSC homeostasis. These findings demonstrate that peripheral IGF-1/IGFBP3 control CoSCs and their dysfunction in DE. PMID:26431183

  16. Upregulated expression of human neutrophil peptides 1, 2 and 3 (HNP 1-3) in colon cancer serum and tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Bøgebo, Rikke; Gammeltoft, Steen

    2005-01-01

    of identifying biomarkers for colon cancer. METHODS: By Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionisation--Time Of Flight/Mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF/MS) we compare the protein profiles of colon cancer serum with serum from healthy individuals and the protein profiles of colon tumours with normal colon tissue...

  17. Co-expression of nuclear and cytoplasmic HMGB1 is inversely associated with infiltration of CD45RO+ T cells and prognosis in patients with stage IIIB colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Rui-Qing; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Shi; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Ding, Ya; Li, Chun-Yan; Yu, Xing-Juan; Zhang, Xing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen; Zheng, Li-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The intratumoral infiltration of T cells, especially memory T cells, is associated with a favorable prognosis in early colorectal cancers. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains elusive. This study examined whether high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule, is involved in the infiltration of T cells and disease progression in locally advanced colon cancer. Seventy-two cases of pathologically-confirmed specimens were obtained from patients with stage IIIB (T3N1M0) colon cancer who underwent radical resection between January 1999 and May 2002 at the Cancer Center of Sun Yat-Sen University. The density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) within the tumor tissue and the expression of HMGB1 in the cancer cells were examined via immunohistochemical analysis. The phenotype of CD45RO+ cells was confirmed using a flow cytometric assay. The association between HMGB1 expression, the density of TILs, and the 5-year survival rate were analyzed. The density of CD45RO+ T cells within the tumor was independently prognostic, although a higher density of CD3+ T cells was also associated with a favorable prognosis. More importantly, the expression of HMGB1 was observed in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm (co-expression pattern) in a subset of colon cancer tissues, whereas nuclear-only expression of HMGB1 (nuclear expression pattern) existed in most of the cancer tissues and normal mucosa. The co-expression pattern of HMGB1 in colon cancer cells was inversely associated with the infiltration of both CD3+ and CD45RO+ T cells and 5-year survival rates. This study revealed that the co-expression of HMGB1 is inversely associated with the infiltration of CD45RO+ T cells and prognosis in patients with stage IIIB colon cancer, indicating that the distribution patterns of HMGB1 might contribute to the progression of colon cancer via modulation of the local immune response

  18. Effects Aerosol of Industrial Bleach and Detergent Mixture on Mucosa Layer and Lamina Mucosa Conjunctiva in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Vaezi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today bleach and detergents are being frequently used and some people use their mixture for more cleaning. Because of chemical interaction of bleach and detergent, chlorine gas was released and thereby it could be dangerous for human health. This study examined the effects of exposed toxic mixture of bleach and detergent on the Mucosa layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva in the mice. In this study, 42 adult male mice NMRI race weighing 35-40 gr and from age 8 to 10 weeks were divided into 6 experimental groups and one control group. Experimental groups 1-2-3 with the use of chamber, the exposed 20 minutes were exposed to spray the amount 1 cc of mixture of bleach and detergent by nebulizer. Experimental groups 4-5-6 were for 35 minutes to inhale the same amount of material. Mice killed at 24-48-72 hours after exposed and the Mucosa Layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva tissue was studied pathology. In the study of microscopic sections prepared of mouse mucosa layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva tissue experimental group comparison with the control group, significant decrease was observed in mucosa layer the have (p ≤ 0.001  and significant decrease was observed in the Lamina mucosa have(p ≤ 0. 01,  p ≤ 0.001. As a result, increasing the exposed time of mixing bleach and detergent, as time passed, increasing the tissue damage and changes.

  19. Extravirgin olive oil up-regulates CB₁ tumor suppressor gene in human colon cancer cells and in rat colon via epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Andrea; Falconi, Anastasia; Di Germanio, Clara; Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Costa, Antonio; Caramuta, Stefano; Del Carlo, Michele; Compagnone, Dario; Dainese, Enrico; Cifani, Carlo; Maccarrone, Mauro; D'Addario, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    Extravirgin olive oil (EVOO) represents the typical lipid source of the Mediterranean diet, an eating habit pattern that has been associated with a significant reduction of cancer risk. Diet is the more studied environmental factor in epigenetics, and many evidences suggest dysregulation of epigenetic pathways in cancer. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of EVOO and its phenolic compounds on endocannabinoid system (ECS) gene expression via epigenetic regulation in both human colon cancer cells (Caco-2) and rats exposed to short- and long-term dietary EVOO. We observed a selective and transient up-regulation of CNR1 gene - encoding for type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB₁) - that was evoked by exposure of Caco-2 cells to EVOO (100 ppm), its phenolic extracts (OPE, 50 μM) or authentic hydroxytyrosol (HT, 50 μM) for 24 h. None of the other major elements of the ECS (i.e., CB₂; GPR55 and TRPV1 receptors; and NAPE-PLD, DAGL, FAAH and MAGL enzymes) was affected at any time point. The stimulatory effect of OPE and HT on CB₁ expression was inversely correlated to DNA methylation at CNR1 promoter and was associated with reduced proliferation of Caco-2 cells. Interestingly, CNR1 gene was less expressed in Caco-2 cells when compared to normal colon mucosa cells, and again this effect was associated with higher level of DNA methylation at CNR1. Moreover, in agreement with the in vitro studies, we also observed a remarkable (~4-fold) and selective increase in CB₁ expression in the colon of rats receiving dietary EVOO supplementation for 10 days. Consistently, CpG methylation of rat Cnr1 promoter, miR23a and miR-301a, previously shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and predicted to target CB₁ mRNA, was reduced after EVOO administration down to ~50% of controls. Taken together, our findings demonstrating CB₁ gene expression modulation by EVOO or its phenolic compounds via epigenetic mechanism, both in vitro and in vivo, may

  20. CT in colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Takashi; Kubo, Kozo; Ogawa, Hajime; Sato, Yukihiko; Tomita, Masayoshi; Hanawa, Makoto; Matsuzawa, Tohru; Nishioka, Ken

    1990-01-01

    CT pictures from 59 lesions of advanced colon cancer including rectal cancer were reviewed to evaluate a role of CT in preoperative staging diagnosis. CT findings were recorded following general rules for clinical and pathological studies on cancer of colon rectum and anus, proposed by Japanese society for cancer of colon and rectum. Tumors were detected in 90% of advanced colon cancers. Sensitivity in local extension (S factor) was 58.0%. Sensitivity in lymphonode involvement (N factor) was 50.0%. Sensitivity in final staging diagnosis, dividing colon cancer into two groups below st II and above st III, was 63.3%. Further study should be necessitated to provide useful information for preoperative staging diagnosis of colon cancer. (author)

  1. Isolated colonic inertia is not usually the cause of chronic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragg, J; McDonald, R; Hompes, R; Jones, O M; Cunningham, C; Lindsey, I

    2011-11-01

    Chronic constipation is classified as outlet obstruction, colonic inertia or both. We aimed to determine the incidence of isolated colonic inertia in chronic constipation and to study symptom pattern in those with prolonged colonic transit time. Chronic constipation patients were classified radiologically by surgeon-reported defaecating proctography and transit study into four groups: isolated outlet obstruction, isolated colonic inertia, outlet obstruction plus colonic inertia, or normal. Symptom patterns were defined as stool infrequency (twice weekly or less) or frequent unsuccessful evacuations (more than twice weekly). Of 541 patients with chronic constipation, 289 (53%) were classified as isolated outlet obstruction, 26 (5%) as isolated colonic inertia, 159 (29%) as outlet obstruction plus colonic inertia and 67 (12%) as normal. Of 448 patients (83%) with outlet obstruction, 35% had additional colonic inertia. Only 14% of those with prolonged colonic transit time had isolated colonic inertia. Frequent unsuccessful evacuations rather than stool infrequency was the commonest symptom pattern in all three disease groups (isolated outlet obstruction 86%, isolated colonic inertia 54% and outlet obstruction plus colonic inertia 63%). Isolated colonic inertia is an unusual cause of chronic constipation. Most patients with colonic inertia have associated outlet obstruction. These data question the clinical significance of isolated colonic inertia. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. An Act of Colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    When Gideon Welles, U.S. Secretary of the Navy, sat down to write his diary entry on September 26, 1862, his thoughts turned once more to colonization. President Lincoln was an ardent proponent of colonization, “the government-promoted settlement of black Americans in Africa or some other location....... Croix. Thus, when the Lincoln administration seriously considered colonization plans in 1862, Danish Charge d’Affaires Waldemar Raasløff offered free transport for freedmen to the Caribbean island, where there was a “distinct lack of laborers.” As a small first step towards colonization, Denmark...

  3. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  4. B7-H4-Ig treatment of normal mice changes lymphocyte homeostasis and increases the potential of regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna N; Schmidt, Esben G W; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Enteroantigens (eAgs) drive tolerogenic and inflammatory immune responses in the gut and are of importance for sustained immune homeostasis in colonic mucosa. Decline of regulatory activity in the gut mucosa might result in chronic colitis. B7-H4 is a co-inhibitory receptor expressed by professio......Enteroantigens (eAgs) drive tolerogenic and inflammatory immune responses in the gut and are of importance for sustained immune homeostasis in colonic mucosa. Decline of regulatory activity in the gut mucosa might result in chronic colitis. B7-H4 is a co-inhibitory receptor expressed...... of severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice undergoing T cell transfer colitis did not influence the course of disease probably reflecting the lack of Tregs in this model of chronic colitis. In conclusion, we show that treatment with B7-H4-Ig in vivo changes lymphocyte homeostasis and increases...

  5. The colon mucosa is a potential site for the initial triggering of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Ellingsen, Torkell Juulsgaad; Glerup, Henning

    2017-01-01

    extracted by colonoscopy and analyzed by label-free quantitative proteomics, enabling the quantitation of 5366 proteins. The abundance of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) was statistically significantly increased in RA-patient biopsies compared with controls and correlated with the administered dosage...

  6. Expression of the glutathione enzyme system of human colon mucosa by localisation, gender and age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoensch, H.; Peters, W.H.M.; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Kirch, W.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The glutathione S-transferases (GST) can metabolise endogenous and exogenous toxins and carcinogens by catalysing the conjugation of diverse electrophiles with reduced glutathione (GSH). Variations of GST enzyme activity could influence the susceptibility of developing cancers in certain

  7. Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Matos Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7% than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5% (p = 0.02. The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3% and uninfected women (85.7%, followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identified. There was no significant difference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fluconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.

  8. Gene expression profile and genomic alterations in colonic tumours induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Luceri, Cristina; Toti, Simona; Giannini, Augusto; Dolara, Piero; Caderni, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    Azoxymethane (AOM) or 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats shares many phenotypical similarities with human sporadic colon cancer and is a reliable model for identifying chemopreventive agents. Genetic mutations relevant to human colon cancer have been described in this model, but comprehensive gene expression and genomic analysis have not been reported so far. Therefore, we applied genome-wide technologies to study variations in gene expression and genomic alterations in DMH-induced colon cancer in F344 rats. For gene expression analysis, 9 tumours (TUM) and their paired normal mucosa (NM) were hybridized on 4 × 44K Whole rat arrays (Agilent) and selected genes were validated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Functional analysis on microarray data was performed by GenMAPP/MappFinder analysis. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) was performed on 10 paired TUM-NM samples hybridized on Rat genome arrays 2 × 105K (Agilent) and the results were analyzed by CGH Analytics (Agilent). Microarray gene expression analysis showed that Defcr4, Igfbp5, Mmp7, Nos2, S100A8 and S100A9 were among the most up-regulated genes in tumours (Fold Change (FC) compared with NM: 183, 48, 39, 38, 36 and 32, respectively), while Slc26a3, Mptx, Retlna and Muc2 were strongly down-regulated (FC: -500; -376, -167, -79, respectively). Functional analysis showed that pathways controlling cell cycle, protein synthesis, matrix metalloproteinases, TNFα/NFkB, and inflammatory responses were up-regulated in tumours, while Krebs cycle, the electron transport chain, and fatty acid beta oxidation were down-regulated. a-CGH analysis showed that four TUM out of ten had one or two chromosomal aberrations. Importantly, one sample showed a deletion on chromosome 18 including Apc. The results showed complex gene expression alterations in adenocarcinomas encompassing many altered pathways. While a-CGH analysis showed a low degree of genomic imbalance, it is interesting to

  9. Colonization and infection by Helicobacter pylori in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Leif Percival

    2007-11-01

    When Helicobacter pylori arrives in the human stomach, it may penetrate the mucin layer and adhere to the gastric epithelial cells or it may pass through the stomach without colonizing the mucosa. In this paper, the colonization process and the ensuing immunological response will be briefly described. Urease production is necessary for H. pylori to establish a pH-neutral microenvironment around the bacteria. The flagella enable the bacteria to move and the shape of H. pylori makes it possible to penetrate the mucin layer where it comes into contact with the gastric epithelial cells. H. pylori contains several adhesins that enable it to adhere to the epithelial cells. This adherence activates IL-8 which, together with bacterial antigens, attracts polymorphs and monocytes and causes acute gastritis. Antigen-presenting cells activate lymphocytes and other mononuclear cells that are attracted to the inflamed mucosa, causing chronic superficial gastritis and initiating a cytotoxic or an antigen-producing Th response. The infection is established within a few weeks after the primary exposure to H. pylori. After this initial colonization, many chemical, biochemical, and immunologic reactions take place that are of importance in the progress of the infection and the development of disease.

  10. Disruption of Pyridine Nucleotide Redox Status During Oxidative Challenge at Normal and Low-Glucose States: Implications for Cellular Adenosine Triphosphate, Mitochondrial Respiratory Activity, and Reducing Capacity in Colon Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circu, Magdalena L.; Maloney, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We recently demonstrated that menadione (MQ), a redox cycling quinone, mediated the loss of mitochondrial glutathione/glutathione disulfide redox balance. In this study, we showed that MQ significantly disrupted cellular pyridine nucleotide (NAD+/NADH, NADP+/NADPH) redox balance that compromised cellular ATP, mitochondrial respiratory activity, and NADPH-dependent reducing capacity in colonic epithelial cells, a scenario that was exaggerated by low glucose. In the cytosol, MQ induced NAD+ loss concurrent with increased NADP+ and NAD kinase activity, but decreased NADPH. In the mitochondria, NADH loss occurred in conjunction with increased nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase activity and NADP+, and decreased NADPH. These results are consistent with cytosolic NAD+-to-NADP+ and mitochondrial NADH-to-NADPH shifts, but compromised NADPH availability. Thus, despite the sacrifice of NAD+/NADH in favor of NADPH generation, steady-state NADPH levels were not maintained during MQ challenge. Impairments of cellular bioenergetics were evidenced by ATP losses and increased mitochondrial O2 dependence of pyridine nucleotide oxidation–reduction; half-maximal oxidation (P50) was 10-fold higher in low glucose, which was lowered by glutamate or succinate supplementation. This exaggerated O2 dependence is consistent with increased O2 diversion to nonmitochondrial O2 consumption by MQ-semiquinone redox cycling secondary to decreased NADPH-dependent MQ detoxication at low glucose, a situation that was corrected by glucose-sparing mitochondrial substrates. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 2151–2162. PMID:21083422

  11. Inflammatory chronic disease of the colon: How to image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, Roberta; Barchiesi, Annalisa; Di Mizio, Veronica; Di Terlizzi, Marco; Leo, Luca; Filippone, Antonella; Canalis, Luigi; Fossaceca, Rita; Carriero, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn's disease and UC, is a chronic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. The inflammatory process in UC is confined to the mucosa and submucosa and it involves only the colon. In contrast, in Crohn's disease the inflammation process extends through the bowel wall layers and it can involve any part of gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, inflammatory bowel disease of the colon may be associated with complications, such as toxic megacolon, fulminant colitis, acute bleeding, fistulas and abscesses. Radiographic imaging studies are useful for the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease, and may be used to assess the extent and severity of disease, rule out complications, and monitor the response to therapy. The double-contrast barium study is a valuable technique for diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease colonic alterations, even in patients with early mucosal abnormalities. The earliest finding of UC is characterized by a fine granular appeareance of the colonic mucosa, usually involving the rectosigmoid junction. In chronic UC double-contrast enema may reveal marked colonic shortening with tubular narrowing of the bowel and loss of haustration. The earliest radiographics findings of Crohn's disease are represented by aphthous ulcers. As disease progresses, aphthous ulcers may enlarge and coalesce to form stellate or linear areas of ulceration. In advanced Crohn's disease, transmural ulceration may lead to the development of fissures, sinus tracts, fistulas, and abscesses. Cross sectional studies such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and sometimes ultrasound, are useful alternative tools not only in the assessment of bowel wall abnormalities, but also for the assessment of extraluminal alterations in patients with advanced disease

  12. Sevelamer crystals in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract in a teenager with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joseph; Olson, Kristin; Butani, Lavjay

    2016-02-01

    Non-calcium-containing phosphate binders, such as sevelamer preparations, are being increasingly used in patients on dialysis due to their lower association with hypercalcemia and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. While minor gastrointestinal side effects are quite common with the use of sevelamer, more serious gastrointestinal toxicities have only rarely been reported. We report a pediatric patient on maintenance dialysis receiving sevelamer hydrochloride who developed severe abdominal pain and a high-grade stricture of the sigmoid colon. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, resulting in a partial colectomy and colostomy. Histopathologic examination showed colonic mucosal injury and characteristic "fish-scale"-like sevelamer hydrochloride crystals within the mucosa. Whether the sevelamer crystals were causal, contributory or purely incidental remains to be clearly elucidated. However, our case raises sufficient concern to warrant additional investigation into whether there is a causal relationship between sevelamer use and intestinal mucosal injury.

  13. Microstructure imaging of human rectal mucosa using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N. R.; Chen, G.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.; Zhuo, S. M.; Zheng, L. Q.; Jiang, X. S.

    2011-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has high resolution and sensitivity. In this study, MPM was used to image microstructure of human rectal mucosa. The morphology and distribution of the main components in mucosa layer, absorptive cells and goblet cells in the epithelium, abundant intestinal glands in the lamina propria and smooth muscle fibers in the muscularis mucosa were clearly monitored. The variations of these components were tightly relevant to the pathology in gastrointestine system, especially early rectal cancer. The obtained images will be helpful for the diagnosis of early colorectal cancer.

  14. Glucagon-like peptide 2 improves nutrient absorption and nutritional status in short-bowel patients with no colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, P B; Hartmann, B; Thulesen, J

    2001-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is intestinotrophic, antisecretory, and transit-modulating in rodents, and it is mainly secreted from the intestinal mucosa of the terminal ileum and colon after food ingestion. We assessed the effect of GLP-2 on the gastrointestinal function in patients without a ...

  15. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin

    2010-01-01

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer

  16. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

  17. Colon and rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldombide, L.; Cordoba, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study is about the diagnosis, therapy and monitoring of colon cancer. The techniques used are the endoscopy with biopsy in the pre and post operative colon surgery, abdominal ultrasound, chest X-ray studies of hemogram as well as liver and renal function

  18. gamma-Aminobutyric acid production in small and large intestine of normal and germ-free Wistar rats. Influence of food intake and intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berlo, C L; de Jonge, H R; van den Bogaard, A E; van Eijk, H M; Janssen, M A; Soeters, P B

    1987-09-01

    In recent hypotheses concerning the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is claimed to be produced by the colonic flora, although enzymes necessary to generate GABA have been reported to be present in intestinal mucosa. In this study, using normal and germ-free Wistar rats, we determined GABA levels and amino-grams of arterial blood and of venous effluent from small and large bowel. The data indicate that large and small intestinal mucosa significantly contribute to GABA production. In the fasted state GABA concentrations are greater in the venous effluent of the small bowel than in the venous effluent of the large bowel. Feeding increases the arterioportal differences, and uptake in the small bowel is still significantly higher than in the large bowel. This process is not, or can only be to a minor degree, bacterially mediated, because GABA production in the gut both in the fed and fasted state is of similar magnitude in germ-free and normal animals. gamma-Aminobutyric acid release correlates significantly with glutamine uptake in the small bowel of fasted rats. Only a small fraction of the glutamine taken up is needed to account for GABA release, so that conclusions concerning which amino acids may serve as precursors of GABA cannot be drawn. Further studies are needed to delineate the metabolic pathways leading to GABA synthesis.

  19. Dorsal onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G. Barbagli

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... promote the transformation of the urethral mucosa plate into a tube, according to ... Allen stirrups and sequential inflatable compression sleeves. Figure 2 .... the ventral, dorsal or lateral surface of the urethra, we investigated if.

  20. Reconstruction of highly contracted socket after irradiation with antral mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Yosihiko; Masaki, Michiyosi; Kato, Hisakazu

    1999-01-01

    We have repaired 3 cases of the highly contracted socket after irradiation by lining it using antral mucosa and obtained excellent results. Although this procedure requires rhinological skill to obtain the mucosa, it has an advantage leaving no visible scar at the donor site. Usually it is not difficult to obtain a sufficient quantity of the mucous membrane to line a whole socket from one antrum. Besides, it is also easy to line its surface since the shape of antral mucosa is originally in a sac form. All we have to do is making 20 mm long incision to the mucosa, putting a silicone conformer into it, and inlaying it into the graft bed. Thus, having once obtained the mucous membrane, the surgical procedure itself is a quite simple one. (author)

  1. Serotonin Immunoreactive Cells and Nerve Fibers in the Mucosa of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hydroxytryptamine) immunoreactivity in the pyloric mucosa of the rat stomach. The immunoreactive elements included the endocrine cells, mast cells and mucosal nerve fibers in the lamina propria. The immunopositive endocrine cells were oval in ...

  2. Roseomonas mucosa Isolated from Bloodstream of Pediatric Patient ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, J. Dien; Deville, J. G.; Summanen, P. H.; Lewinski, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of catheter-related bacteremia associated with Roseomonas mucosa isolated from an immunocompromised pediatric patient with a history of multiple episodes of urinary tract infection and bacteremia. PMID:20534804

  3. Colon transit scintigraphy by 67 Ga citrate for idiopathic constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neshandar Asll, I.; Ehsani, M.J.; Javadi, H.

    2005-01-01

    Background/objective: segmental colonic transit studies are important in patients with severe constipation. This study is the first Iranian preliminary survey of colonic transit scintigraphy using 67 Ga -citrate as a new method in constipated patients with normal radiographic and colonoscopic evaluations. Patients and methods: thirteen patients with idiopathic constipation underwent colon transit scintigraphy. After oral administration of 6-7 MBq Ga-citrates, serial abdominal images were taken up to 72 hours. Pattern classification wa s performed visually according to the distribution of radioactivity, Scintigraphic parameters such as geometric mean center of seq mental retention of tracer, as well as mean ac activity profiles and colonic tracer half-clearance time were calculated Results: Three patterns of colonic transit scintigraphy were recognized. Nine patients had the normal pattern, i.e. excellent propagation of ac activity. Three patients had the colonic inertia pattern with marked retention of activity in the transverse colon and splenic flexure at 48 hours, One patient had significant retention of activity in the recto sigmoid at 72 hours, defined as functional recto sigmoid obstruction . No significant difference was seen in GMC24h between the normal pattern and colonic inertia (P4.053), but GMC48h and GMC72h markedly differed between the two groups (P50.0 16 and 0.025 respectively). 'The mean half clearance time of the two groups was di different (P4.017). Our results are well compatible with scintigraphic diagnostic criteria in different patterns of colonic transit defined by other studies with different radiotracer. Conclusion: oral 67 Ga -citrate colon transit scintigraphy is a feasible method to evaluate idiopathic constipation and seems to be a suitable surrogate for radio-opaque markers. Keywords: oral 67 Ga -citrate, colonic transit study, idiopathic constipation, scintigraphy

  4. EGFR regulation of colon cancer stem-like cells during aging and in response to the colonic carcinogen dimethylhydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Jyoti; Du, Jianhua; Yu, Yingjie; Kanwar, Shailender S; Levi, Edi; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2012-04-01

    One of the most consistent pathological conditions in the gastrointestinal tract with advancing age is malignancy, particularly gastrointestinal cancers, the incidence of which increases sharply with aging. Although the reasons for the age-related rise in colorectal cancer are not fully understood, we hypothesize that aging increases susceptibility of the colon to carcinogen(s)/toxicant(s), leading to an increase in cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) that express cancer stem cell markers, in the colonic mucosa. The current study demonstrates that aging is associated with increased expression of several colon CSLC markers [CD44, CD166, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH-1)] and a higher proportion of cells expressing these markers. Aging is also accompanied by increased expression of miR-21 in colon. These increases are further increased in response to the colonic carcinogen dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Aging is also associated with increased tyrosine-phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Inhibition of EGFR using the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab abrogated the age-related increase in CD166 and ALDH-1 as well as miRNA (miR)-21. Our results provide new evidence that aging and DMH are associated with increases in CSLC biomarkers and miR21, each of which have been linked to colorectal cancer. EGFR inhibition attenuates these changes, indicating a role for EGFR in age- and mutagen-associated changes in CSLCs.

  5. Studies on nerve terminations in human mucosa and skin

    OpenAIRE

    Hilliges, Marita

    1997-01-01

    - In spite of their accessibility and important sensory function,the nervous tissue components of human oral and vaginal mucosa and skin have beensubject to very few, if any, systematic investigations. Studies on the innervationof oral tissues have mainly focused on the dental pulp, the periodontium and thegingiva, probably because of specific clinical interest, thus largely neglectingthe mucosa. Genital studies comprise only in a few cases the vagina and when thevagina is i...

  6. Increased Expression of Toll-Like Receptors 4, 5, and 9 in Small Bowel Mucosa from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Dlugosz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to compare patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and healthy controls regarding the expression of toll-like receptors 2, 4, 5, and 9 (TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9, the primary mucosal receptors of bacterial components, in small and large bowel mucosa. Methods. We analysed biopsies from jejunum and sigmoid colon of 22 patients (17 females with IBS aged 18–66 (median: 39 years and 14 healthy volunteers (12 females aged 22–61 (median: 42 years. Eight patients had constipation-predominant IBS (C-IBS, 7 had diarrhoea-predominant IBS (D-IBS, and 7 had IBS without predominance of constipation or diarrhoea. We analysed mRNA levels for TLRs using quantitative PCR and distribution of TLRs in mucosa using immunohistochemistry. Results. We found increased mRNA expression of TLR4 (mean fold change 1.85±0.31 versus 1.0±0.20; p<0.05, TLR5 (1.96±0.36 versus 1.0±0.20; p<0.05 and TLR9 (2.00±0.24 versus 1.0±0.25; p<0.01 but not of TLR2 in the small bowel mucosa from patients with IBS compared to the controls. There was no significant difference in mRNA levels for TLRs in colon mucosa between patients and controls. Conclusion. Upregulation of TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9 suggests the involvement of bacteria or dysregulation of the immune response to commensal flora in small bowel mucosa in IBS patients.

  7. Microarray-based identification and RT-PCR test screening for epithelial-specific mRNAs in peripheral blood of patients with colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppola Domenico

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of screening for colorectal cancer using a simple blood-based assay for the detection of tumor cells disseminated in the circulation at an early stage of the disease is gaining positive feedback from several lines of research. This method seems able to reduce colorectal cancer mortality and may replace colonoscopy as the most effective means of detecting colonic lesions. Methods In this work, we present a new microarray-based high-throughput screening method to identifying candidate marker mRNAs for the early detection of epithelial cells diluted in peripheral blood cells. This method includes 1. direct comparison of different samples of colonic mucosa and of blood cells to identify consistent epithelial-specific mRNAs from among 20,000 cDNA assayed by microarray slides; 2. identification of candidate marker mRNAs by data analysis, which allowed selection of only 10 putative differentially expressed genes; 3. Selection of some of the most suitable mRNAs (TMEM69, RANBP3 and PRSS22 that were assayed in blood samples from normal subjects and patients with colon cancer as possible markers for the presence of epithelial cells in the blood, using reverse transcription – polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results Our present results seem to provide an indication, for the first time obtained by genome-scale screening, that a suitable and consistent colon epithelium mRNA marker may be difficult to identify. Conclusion The design of new approaches to identify such markers is warranted.

  8. Cesarean section changes neonatal gut colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Thorsen, Jonathan; Chawes, Bo L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delivery by means of cesarean section has been associated with increased risk of childhood immune-mediated diseases, suggesting a role of early bacterial colonization patterns for immune maturation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the influence of delivery method on gut and airway......-driven partial least squares analyses. The initial airway microbiota was unaffected by birth method. CONCLUSION: Delivery by means of cesarean section was associated with early colonization patterns of the neonatal gut but not of the airways. The differences normalized within the first year of life. We speculate...

  9. Urotensin-II receptor is over-expressed in colon cancer cell lines and in colon carcinoma in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Alessandro; Zappavigna, Silvia; Romano, Marco; Grieco, Paolo; Luce, Amalia; Marra, Monica; Gravina, Antonietta Gerarda; Stiuso, Paola; D'Armiento, Francesco Paolo; Vitale, Giovanni; Tuccillo, Concetta; Novellino, Ettore; Loguercio, Carmela; Caraglia, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Urotensin (U)-II receptor (UTR) has been previously reported to be over-expressed in a number of tumours. Whether UTR-related pathway plays a role in colon carcinogenesis is unknown. We evaluated UTR protein and mRNA expression in human epithelial colon cancer cell lines and in normal colon tissue, adenomatous polyps and colon cancer. U-II protein expression was assessed in cancer cell lines. Moreover, we evaluated the effects of U-II(4-11) (an UTR agonist), antagonists and knockdown of UTR protein expression through a specific shRNA, on proliferation, invasion and motility of human colon cancer cells. Cancer cell lines expressed U-II protein and UTR protein and mRNA. By immunohistochemistry, UTR was expressed in 5-30% of epithelial cells in 45 normal controls, in 30-48% in 21 adenomatous polyps and in 65-90% in 48 colon adenocarcinomas. UTR mRNA expression was increased by threefold in adenomatous polyps and eightfold in colon cancer, compared with normal colon. U-II(4-11) induced a 20-40% increase in cell growth while the blockade of the receptor with specific antagonists caused growth inhibition of 20-40%. Moreover, the knock down of UTR with a shRNA or the inhibition of UTR with the antagonist urantide induced an approximately 50% inhibition of both motility and invasion. UTR appears to be involved in the regulation of colon cancer cell invasion and motility. These data suggest that UTR-related pathway may play a role in colon carcinogenesis and that UTR may function as a target for therapeutic intervention in colon cancer. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  10. The development and characterization of two types of chronic responses in irradiated mouse colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Followill, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis to be tested is that there are two distinct types of chronic responses in irradiated normal tissues, each resulting from damage to different cell populations in the tissue. The first is a sequela of chronic epithelial depletion in which the tissue's integrity cannot be maintained. The other response is due to cell loss in the connective tissue and/or vascular stroma, i.e. a 'primary' chronic response. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis in the murine colon by first, establishing a model of each chronic response and then, by determining whether the responses differed in timing of expression, histology, and expression of specific collagen types. The model of late damage used was colonic obstructions/strictures induced by a single dose of 27 Gy ('consequential' response) and two equal doses of 14.75 Gy (t = 10 days) ('primary' response). 'Consequential' lesions appeared as early as 5 weeks after 27 Gy and were characterized by a deep mucosal ulceration and a thickened fibrotic serosa containing excessive accumulations of collagen types I and III. Both types were commingled in the scar at the base of the ulcer. Fibroblasts were synthesizing pro-collagen types I and III mRNA 10 weeks prior to measurable increases in collagen. A significant decrease in the ratio of collagen types I:III was associated with the 'consequential' response at 4-5 months post-irradiation. The 'primary' response, on the other hand, did not appear until 40 weeks after the split dose even though the total dose delivered was approximately the same as that for the 'consequential' response. The 'primary' response was characterized with an intact mucosa and a thickened fibrotic submucosa which contained excessive amounts of only collagen type I. An increased number of fibroblasts were synthesizing pro-collagen type I mRNA nearly 25 weeks before collage type I levels were increased

  11. Evidence of helicobacter pylori infection in dental plaque and gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiq, M.; Haseeb-ur-Rehman; Mahmood, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in dental plaque of individuals suffering from H. pylori associated gastric disease. Patients and Methods: Patients presenting with symptoms/signs of chronic gastritis were included in the study. Specimens of dental plaque and gastric biopsy were collected from all the patients. The dental plaque specimen was processed for helicourease test and the gastric biopsy specimens were processed both for the helicourease test and histopathology. Results: Out of all patients studied (n=52), 32 (61.53%) were positive for helicourease test with gastric biopsy while 48 (92.30%) were positive with dental plaque. The histopathology of gastric biopsy showed H. pylori associated chronic active gastritis in 42 (80.76%) patients. Eight (15.38%) patients showed chronic active gastritis which was not associated with H. pylori while in 2 (3.84%) patients the gastric biopsy specimen was unremarkable. Conclusion: Majority of the patients have possible H. pylori colonization in dental plaque while about two-thirds have H. pylori associated chronic active gastritis. Oral cavity may be the first place for colonization and then the infection involves the gastric mucosa. (author)

  12. Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease: Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Human Gut Mucosa before and after Rifaximin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Cianci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Uncomplicated diverticular disease (UDD is a frequent condition in adults. The pathogenesis of symptoms remains unknown. Bacteria are able to interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs and to induce inflammation through both innate immunity and T-cell recruitment. We investigated the pattern of TLRs 2 and 4 and the intestinal homing in patients with UDD before and after a course of Rifaximin. Methods. Forty consecutive patients with UDD and 20 healthy asymptomatic subjects were enrolled. Among UDD patients, 20 were assigned to a 2-month course of treatment with Rifaximin 1.2 g/day for 15 days/month and 20 received placebo. Blood sample and colonic biopsies were obtained from patients and controls. The samples were collected and analyzed at baseline and at the end of treatment. Flow cytometry was performed using monoclonal antibodies (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD103, TCR-gamma/delta, CD14, TLR2, and TLR4. Results. In UDD, TLR2 and TLR4 expression on immune cell subpopulations from blood and mucosa of the affected colon are altered as compared with controls. Rifaximin treatment induced significant modifications of altered conditions. Conclusions. Our data show the role of TLRs in the development of inflammation in UDD. TLRs distribution is altered in UDD and these alterations are reversed after antibiotic treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02068482.

  13. A Case of Sigmoid Colon Tuberculosis Mimicking Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Seong-Min; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Min-Dae; Lee, Hee-Ryong; Jung, Peel; Ryu, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Il-Seon

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the sigmoid colon is a rare disorder. An 80-year-old man visited Bongseng Memorial Hospital for medical examination. A colonoscopy was performed, and a lesion in the sigmoid colon that was suspected to be colon cancer was found. A biopsy was performed, and tuberculous enteritis with chronic granulomatous inflammation was diagnosed. Intestinal tuberculosis is most frequent in the ileocecal area, followed by the ascending colon, transverse colon, duodenum, stomach, and sigmoid c...

  14. Presence of Different Candida Species at Denture Wearers With Type 2 Diabetes and Clinically Healthy Oral Mucosa-Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Sanja Matić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: The aim of this study was to examine prevalence of different Candida spp. at diabetics and nondiabetics wearing dentures without clinical signs of Denture Stomatitis (DS and to study if some local and systematic factors are confounders for harboring Candida at these subjects. Material and Methods: Total of 60 subjects wearing partial or complete upper acrylic denture having at least half of palatal mucosa covered by denture were selected and stratified into three experimental groups: systematically health subjects; patients with diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes (T2D and good glycoregulation; and T2D subjects with poorly regulated blood sugar level. Cotton swab samples were obtained from each patient from hard palate mucosa and denture surface. Swab cultures were made on Sabouraud dextrose agar and ChromAgar Media for distinciton of various Candida spp. Density growth was also measured. Results: Frequency of Candida spp. findings were similar between groups. At healthy subjects, only C.albicans was detected. At diabetics, C.albicans was the most common isolated species, followed by C.glabrata and C.tropicalis. Negative finding of yeasts on palatal mucosa, but positive on denture surface were detected at all groups, with the highest frequency (33.4% at diabetics with poor glycoregulation. Denture surface was heavier colonized than hard palate mucosa. Duration of diabetes in years were only independent predictors for harboring Candida spp. at denture surface (Exp B=1.186, CI=1.047-1.344, p=0.007. Conclusions: Prosthesis of denture wearers without DS may serve as reservoir of Candida spp. Presence of more pathogenic and resistant non-albicans species are related to diabetics, even without clinical signs of DS.

  15. Ischemic colitis masquerading as colonic tumor, Case report with review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parakkal Deepak; Radha Devi

    2011-01-01

    Ischemic colitis can mimic a carcinoma on computed tomographic (CT) imaging or endoscopic examination. A coexisting colonic carcinoma or another potentially obstructing lesion has also been described in 20% of the cases of ischemic colitis. CT scan can differentiate it from colon cancer in 75% of cases. However, colonoscopy is the preferred method for diagnosing ischemic colitis as it allows for direct visualization with tissue sampling. Varied presentations of ischemic colitis have been described as an ulcerated or submucosal mass or as a narrowed segment of colon with ulcerated mucosa on colonoscopy. Awareness and early recognition of such varied presentations of a common condition is necessary to differentiate from a colonic carcinoma, and to avoid unnecessary surgery and related complications.

  16. Protruding and non-protruding colon carcinomas originating in gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Carlos A; Lindh, Claes; Björk, Jan; Törnblom, Hans; Befrits, Ragnar

    2010-07-01

    Colon carcinomas arising in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALTC) are termed dome carcinomas (DC) because of their protruding phenotype. Only 8 GALTC cases have been reported in the literature. A female patient, aged 53, having a familial pedigree of colon cancer, uterine cervix cancer and brain tumour developed a signet-ring carcinoma in the cecum and 10 years later endometrial cancer. While asymptomatic, a plaque-like protrusion in the colon was detected at surveillance colonoscopy. Histology demonstrated a protruding GALTC. The surgical specimen showed four additional carcinomas: 2 GALTC (non-protruding) and 2 carcinomas in lymphoid-free colonic mucosa (LFCMC). Since adenomas could not be demonstrated neither previously nor in the colectomy specimen, it is suggested that the GALTCs in this patient may have followed the GALT-carcinoma pathway.

  17. Studies on the visualization of the fine relief of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persigehl, M.; Niemann, G.; Klose, K.C.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility of visualizing the fine relief of the colon was examined by studying human intestinal segments removed post mortem. The visualization depends, among other things, on the extent of expansion of the colon wall. The visualization of the fine relief structure becomes progressively poorer, the greater the extension of the wall. This might indicate that fold formation of the mucosa through a state of contraction of the tunica mucosa is done of the responsible factors for the visualization of the fine relief structures. The article discusses, apart from this factor, the course of the vessels as an anatomical basic pattern determining the manifestation of the fine relief structure; for this purpose, the course of the vessels in the intestine of the dog was visualized by intra-arterial contrast medium injection and then compared with the human fine relief. (orig.) [de

  18. Leptin promotes wound healing in the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, Hirochika; Tokuyama, Reiko; Ide, Shinji; Okubo, Mitsuru; Tadokoro, Susumu; Tezuka, Mitsuki; Tatehara, Seiko; Satomura, Kazuhito

    2014-01-01

    Leptin, a 16 kDa circulating anti-obesity hormone, exhibits many physiological properties. Recently, leptin was isolated from saliva; however, its function in the oral cavity is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the physiological role of leptin in the oral cavity by focusing on its effect on wound healing in the oral mucosa. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to examine the expression of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) in human/rabbit oral mucosa. To investigate the effect of leptin on wound healing in the oral mucosa, chemical wounds were created in rabbit oral mucosa, and leptin was topically administered to the wound. The process of wound repair was histologically observed and quantitatively analyzed by measuring the area of ulceration and the duration required for complete healing. The effect of leptin on the proliferation, differentiation and migration of human oral mucosal epithelial cells (RT7 cells) was investigated using crystal violet staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a wound healing assay, respectively. Ob-R was expressed in spinous/granular cells in the epithelial tissue and vascular endothelial cells in the subepithelial connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Topical administration of leptin significantly promoted wound healing and shortened the duration required for complete healing. Histological analysis of gingival tissue beneath the ulceration showed a denser distribution of blood vessels in the leptin-treated group. Although the proliferation and differentiation of RT7 cells were not affected by leptin, the migration of these cells was accelerated in the presence of leptin. Topically administered leptin was shown to promote wound healing in the oral mucosa by accelerating epithelial cell migration and enhancing angiogenesis around the wounded area. These results strongly suggest that topical administration of leptin may be useful as a treatment to promote wound healing in the oral mucosa.

  19. Assessing the colonic microbiome, hydrogenogenic and hydrogenotrophic genes, transit and breath methane in constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, P G; Parthasarathy, G; Chen, J; O'Connor, H M; Chia, N; Bharucha, A E; Gaskins, H R

    2017-10-01

    Differences in the gut microbiota and breath methane production have been observed in chronic constipation, but the relationship between colonic microbiota, transit, and breath tests remains unclear. In 25 healthy and 25 constipated females we evaluated the sigmoid colonic mucosal and fecal microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, abundance of hydrogenogenic FeFe (FeFe-hydA) and hydrogenotrophic (methyl coenzyme M reductase A [mrcA] and dissimilatory sulfite reductase A [dsrA]) genes with real-time qPCR assays, breath hydrogen and methane levels after oral lactulose, and colonic transit with scintigraphy. Breath hydrogen and methane were not correlated with constipation, slow colon transit, or with abundance of corresponding genes. After adjusting for colonic transit, the abundance of FeFehydA, dsrA, and mcrA were greater (Ptransit, and overall microbiome composition. In the colonic mucosa and feces, the abundance of hydrogenogenic and hydrogenotrophic genes were positively correlated (Ptransit. Corroborating our earlier findings with 16S rRNA genes, colonic mucosal but not fecal hydrogenogenic and hydrogenotrophic genes were more abundant in constipated vs. healthy subjects independent of colonic transit. Breath gases do not directly reflect the abundance of target genes contributing to their production. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Oral administration of a recombinant cholera toxin B subunit promotes mucosal healing in the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, K J; Royal, J M; Kouokam, J C; Haribabu, B; Jala, V R; Yaddanapudi, K; Hamorsky, K T; Dryden, G W; Matoba, N

    2017-07-01

    Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) is a component of a licensed oral cholera vaccine. However, CTB has pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects whose impacts on the gut are not fully understood. Here, we found that oral administration in mice of a plant-made recombinant CTB (CTBp) significantly increased several immune cell populations in the colon lamina propria. Global gene expression analysis revealed that CTBp had more pronounced impacts on the colon than the small intestine, with significant activation of TGFβ-mediated pathways in the colon epithelium. The clinical relevance of CTBp-induced impacts on colonic mucosa was examined. In a human colon epithelial model using Caco2 cells, CTBp, but not the non-GM1-binding mutant G33D-CTBp, induced TGFβ-mediated wound healing. In a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) acute colitis mouse model, oral administration of CTBp protected against colon mucosal damage as manifested by mitigated body weight loss, decreased histopathological scores, and blunted escalation of inflammatory cytokine levels while inducing wound healing-related genes. Furthermore, biweekly oral administration of CTBp significantly reduced disease severity and tumorigenesis in the azoxymethane/DSS model of ulcerative colitis and colon cancer. Altogether, these results demonstrate CTBp's ability to enhance mucosal healing in the colon, highlighting its potential application in ulcerative colitis therapy besides cholera vaccination.

  1. Úlcera eosinófila de la mucosa oral Eosinophilic ulcer of oral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Bencini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available La Úlcera Eosinófila de la Mucosa Oral, es una entidad poco frecuente, pobremente descrita en la literatura mundial. Se define como una lesión benigna autolimitada que si bien puede presentarse en distintas áreas de la cavidad bucal, presenta una marcada predilección por la mucosa ventral de la lengua. Clínicamente, se presenta como una lesión ulcerada de bordes indurados y sobreelevados. Los hallazgos histopatológicos son característicos y consisten en un infiltrado mixto rico en eosinófilos, acompañado de una población de grandes células mononucleadas. Recientes artículos basados en estudios inmunohistoquimicos, permiten afirmar la presencia de grandes linfocitos atípicos CD30+ y por lo tanto, incluir esta lesión en el espectro de las entidades simuladoras de desordenes linfoproliferativos. A pesar de esto, el mecanismo etiopatogenico permanece oscuro y el trauma local juega un rol todavía no dilucidado; aunque se halla presente en la mayoría de las publicaciones, explicando el fenómeno como un mecanismo reactivo. La importancia de esta lesión, radica en su diagnostico diferencial por su semejanza clínica al carcinoma espinocelular, histoplasmosis, chancro sifilítico, Úlcera tuberculosa, carcinoma epidermoide y otras. En nuestro trabajo se revisa la literatura y se discuten la características clínicas, histopatológicas y alternativas terapéuticas, a partir del artículo de un caso clínico en una paciente joven, que luego de la biopsia escisión como método para el diagnostico de certeza, se produce una recidiva de la lesión; lo que orientó el tratamiento hacia la cirugía combinada con corticoterapia local intralesional, logrando su remisión.Eosinophilic Ulcer of the Oral Mucosa, an entity, poorly deciphers in world-wide literature. It is defined as a self-limited, benign injury that although it can appear in different areas of the buccal cavity it presents a noticeable predilection via the ventral mucosa of the

  2. Sildenafil normalizes bowel transit in preclinical models of constipation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Sharman

    Full Text Available Guanylyl cyclase-C (GC-C agonists increase cGMP levels in the intestinal epithelium to promote secretion. This process underlies the utility of exogenous GC-C agonists such as linaclotide for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C. Because GC-C agonists have limited use in pediatric patients, there is a need for alternative cGMP-elevating agents that are effective in the intestine. The present study aimed to determine whether the PDE-5 inhibitor sildenafil has similar effects as linaclotide on preclinical models of constipation. Oral administration of sildenafil caused increased cGMP levels in mouse intestinal epithelium demonstrating that blocking cGMP-breakdown is an alternative approach to increase cGMP in the gut. Both linaclotide and sildenafil reduced proliferation and increased differentiation in colon mucosa, indicating common target pathways. The homeostatic effects of cGMP required gut turnover since maximal effects were observed after 3 days of treatment. Neither linaclotide nor sildenafil treatment affected intestinal transit or water content of fecal pellets in healthy mice. To test the effectiveness of cGMP elevation in a functional motility disorder model, mice were treated with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS to induce colitis and were allowed to recover for several weeks. The recovered animals exhibited slower transit, but increased fecal water content. An acute dose of sildenafil was able to normalize transit and fecal water content in the DSS-recovery animal model, and also in loperamide-induced constipation. The higher fecal water content in the recovered animals was due to a compromised epithelial barrier, which was normalized by sildenafil treatment. Taken together our results show that sildenafil can have similar effects as linaclotide on the intestine, and may have therapeutic benefit to patients with CIC, IBS-C, and post-infectious IBS.

  3. Permeability of skin and oral mucosa to water and horseradish peroxidase as related to the thickness of the permeability barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squier, C.A.; Hall, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    The permeability of porcine skin and keratinized and nonkeratinized oral mucosa to tritium-labeled water and horseradish peroxidase (HRPO) was determined using perfusion chambers. Small blocks from each tissue were also incubated with HRPO and the extent of penetration visualized microscopically; this enabled measurements to be made of the thickness of the permeability barrier to this water-soluble tracer. Results obtained after inverting the oral mucosa in the chambers or adding metabolic inhibitors indicated that both compounds diffuse across the tissue. The permeability constants derived directly in the study showed that skin was less permeable than oral mucosa and that the floor of the mouth was significantly more permeable than all other regions. When these constants were normalized in terms of a standard permeability barrier thickness and the different tissues compared, the values obtained for skin were again less than those of the oral regions but, of these, the buccal mucosa was significantly higher. The difference in permeability between epidermis and keratinized oral epithelium may be due to differences in the volume density of membrane-coating granules known to exist between the tissues; differences between the oral mucosal regions may reflect differences in the nature of the intercellular barrier material

  4. Space Colonization-Benefits for the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, W. H.

    2003-01-01

    We have begun to colonize space, even to the extent of early space tourism. Our early Vostok, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Spacehab, Mir and now ISS are humankind's first ventures toward colonization. Efforts are underway to provide short space tours, and endeavors such as the X-Prize are encouraging entrepreneurs to provide new systems. Many believe that extended space travel (colonization) will do for the 21st century what aviation did for the 20th. Our current concerns including terrorism, hunger, disease, and problems of air quality, safe abundant water, poverty, and weather vagaries tend to overshadow long-term activities such as Space Colonization in the minds of many. Our leading ``think tanks'' such as the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Brookings Institute do not rate space travel high on lists of future beneficial undertakings even though many of the concerns listed above are prominently featured. It is the contention of this paper that Space Colonization will lead toward solutions to many of the emerging problems of our Earth, both technological and sociological. The breadth of the enterprise far exceeds the scope of our normal single-purpose missions and, therefore, its benefits will be greater.

  5. Changing incidence of diverticular disease of the colon in Korea : a serial radiologic study (report III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwoen, Young Teck; Han, Sung Il; Chung, Soo Kyo; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-10-15

    Diverticular disease of the colon (DDC), the most common affliction in developed countries, increases in incidence. It is an acquired disease where overactivity of smooth muscle of the colon causes mucosa and sub mucosa to herniate through the muscle layer of the bowel. Starting from 1964, we have periodically carried out radiologic survey to acertain the tendency of DDC to gradually increase in the Koreans. Initially Kim reported the incidence to be 0.2% in 1964 but the incidence in 1979 increased to 2.5% as reported by Chung et al. As the third survey on the series of the study on DDC, we have recently reviewed 1,859 consecutive new cases of double contrast barium enemas performed at the department of radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical College during the 5 year's period from Feb. 1983 to May 1987. The results were as follows. 1. The present study revealed an incidence 6.0% of DDC, 7.2% in male and 5.0% in female. 2. The distribution of diverticular was 37.0% in cecum, 39.0% in ascending colon, 13.6% in transverse colon, 6.2% in descending colon, 3.7% in sigmoid colon. 3. The mean number of diverticular was 5. 4. The average age of patients with DDC was 50.5 years. From the present study, it has emerged that the diverticular disease of the colon in the Koreans is definitely on gradual increase with a significant change in the site of predominant involvement from the right to the left colon.

  6. Changing incidence of diverticular disease of the colon in Korea : a serial radiologic study (report III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwoen, Young Teck; Han, Sung Il; Chung, Soo Kyo; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1988-01-01

    Diverticular disease of the colon (DDC), the most common affliction in developed countries, increases in incidence. It is an acquired disease where overactivity of smooth muscle of the colon causes mucosa and sub mucosa to herniate through the muscle layer of the bowel. Starting from 1964, we have periodically carried out radiologic survey to acertain the tendency of DDC to gradually increase in the Koreans. Initially Kim reported the incidence to be 0.2% in 1964 but the incidence in 1979 increased to 2.5% as reported by Chung et al. As the third survey on the series of the study on DDC, we have recently reviewed 1,859 consecutive new cases of double contrast barium enemas performed at the department of radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical College during the 5 year's period from Feb. 1983 to May 1987. The results were as follows. 1. The present study revealed an incidence 6.0% of DDC, 7.2% in male and 5.0% in female. 2. The distribution of diverticular was 37.0% in cecum, 39.0% in ascending colon, 13.6% in transverse colon, 6.2% in descending colon, 3.7% in sigmoid colon. 3. The mean number of diverticular was 5. 4. The average age of patients with DDC was 50.5 years. From the present study, it has emerged that the diverticular disease of the colon in the Koreans is definitely on gradual increase with a significant change in the site of predominant involvement from the right to the left colon.

  7. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  8. [The effect of hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater for nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis mice model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhifeng; Xu, Yu; Ou, Jin; Xiang, Rong; Tao, Zezhang

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater for nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis mice model, and explore the possible mechanism of nasal irrigation with seawater in treatment of allergic rhinitis. We used Der pl to make allergic rhinitis model of BALB/c mice, and divided them into three groups randomly. Nasal irrigation with hypertonic seawater (HS) or isotonic seawater (IS) in the treatment group 1-14 days after modeling, and black control (BC) group was given no treatment after modeling. Normal control (NC) group was given no treatment, the number of rubs and sneezings in each group were counted in 30 min after the last nasal irrigation. Mice were then killed 24 h after the last therapy. The noses of mice from each group were removed and fixed, then the slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, the others were observed by transmission electron microscope. Mice with hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater were significantly improved in rubs and sneezings compared to the black control group (P 0. 05); Ciliated columnar epithelium cells in mucosal tissues of HS group and IS group were arranged trimly, better than that in the black control group. Morphology and microstructure in nasal mucosal of HS group was closer to the normal group than in IS group. The injury of nasal mucosa ciliated epithelium was significantly improved by nasal irrigation with hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater, and the former is better than the latter, the mechanism of nasal irrigation with seawater in treatment of allergic rhinitis may rely on repairing the injured nasal mucosa ciliated epithelium, thereby the symptoms of nasal was reduced.

  9. Accumulation of immunoglobulin-containing cells in the gut mucosa and presence of faecal immunoglobulin in severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice with T cell-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Brimnes, J; Reimann, J

    1998-01-01

    and IgG2b were found to accumulate in colon segments displaying the most severe histopathology, including inflammatory cellular infiltration, epithelial hyperplasia and ulcerative lesions. Compared with colon segments of normal C.B-17 mice, the lesional scid colon shows increased levels of cells positive...

  10. Overexpression of long non-coding RNA colon cancer-associated transcript 2 is associated with advanced tumor progression and poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junling; Jiang, Yong; Zhu, Jing; Wu, Tao; Ma, Ju; Du, Chuang; Chen, Shanwen; Li, Tengyu; Han, Jinsheng; Wang, Xin

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) colon cancer-associated transcript 2 (CCAT2) expression in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Expression levels of lncRNA CCAT2 in CRC, adjacent non-tumor and healthy colon mucosa tissues were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The disease-free survival and overall survival rates were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard analysis. The expression level of lncRNA CCAT2 in CRC tissues was increased significantly compared with adjacent normal tissues or non-cancerous tissues. CCAT2 expression was observed to be progressively increased between tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages I and IV. A high level of CCAT2 expression was revealed to be associated with poor cell differentiation, deeper tumor infiltration, lymph node metastasis, distance metastasis, vascular invasion and advanced TNM stage. Compared with patients with low levels of CCAT2 expression, patients with high levels of CCAT2 expression had shorter disease-free survival and overall survival times. Multivariate analyses indicated that high CCAT2 expression was an independent poor prognostic factor. Therefore, increased lncRNA CCAT2 expression maybe a potential diagnostic biomarker for CRC, and an independent predictor of prognosis in patients with CRC.

  11. Dietary elevated sucrose modulation of diesel-induced genotoxicity in the colon and liver of Big Blue rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, L.; Moller, P.; Hansen, Max

    2003-01-01

    Earlier studies have indicated that sucrose possesses either co-carcinogenic or tumor-promoter effects in colon carcinogenesis induced by genotoxic carcinogens. In this study we investigated the role of sucrose on diesel exhaust particle (DEP)-induced genotoxicity in the colonic mucosa and liver......-breaks and DNA adducts in liver. DEP and sucrose treatment did not have any effect on mutation frequency in colon and liver. Oxidative DNA damage detected as 8-oxodG (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine) and endonuclease III or formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase sensitive sites was unaltered in colon and liver....... The mRNA expression levels of the DNA repair enzymes N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG), 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and ERCC1 (part of the nucleotide excision repair complex) measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were increased in liver by DEP feeding. In colon...

  12. Carotenoids and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, M L; Benson, J; Curtin, K; Ma, K N; Schaeffer, D; Potter, J D

    2000-02-01

    Carotenoids have numerous biological properties that may underpin a role for them as chemopreventive agents. However, except for beta-carotene, little is known about how dietary carotenoids are associated with common cancers, including colon cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between dietary alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin and the risk of colon cancer. Data were collected from 1993 case subjects with first primary incident adenocarcinoma of the colon and from 2410 population-based control subjects. Dietary data were collected from a detailed diet-history questionnaire and nutrient values for dietary carotenoids were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture-Nutrition Coordinating Center carotenoid database (1998 updated version). Lutein was inversely associated with colon cancer in both men and women [odds ratio (OR) for upper quintile of intake relative to lowest quintile of intake: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.04; P = 0.04 for linear trend]. The greatest inverse association was observed among subjects in whom colon cancer was diagnosed when they were young (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.92; P = 0.02 for linear trend) and among those with tumors located in the proximal segment of the colon (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.91; P lettuce, tomatoes, oranges and orange juice, carrots, celery, and greens. These data suggest that incorporating these foods into the diet may help reduce the risk of developing colon cancer.

  13. Glycoprotein expression by adenomatous polyps of the colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roney, Celeste A.; Xie, Jianwu; Xu, Biying; Jabour, Paul; Griffiths, Gary; Summers, Ronald M.

    2008-03-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. Specificity in diagnostic imaging for detecting colorectal adenomas, which have a propensity towards malignancy, is desired. Adenomatous polyp specimens of the colon were obtained from the mouse model of colorectal cancer called adenomatous polyposis coli-multiple intestinal neoplasia (APC Min). Histological evaluation, by the legume protein Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-1), determined expression of the glycoprotein α-L-fucose. FITC-labelled UEA-1 confirmed overexpression of the glycoprotein by the polyps on fluorescence microscopy in 17/17 cases, of which 13/17 included paraffin-fixed mouse polyp specimens. In addition, FITC-UEA-1 ex vivo multispectral optical imaging of 4/17 colonic specimens displayed over-expression of the glycoprotein by the polyps, as compared to non-neoplastic mucosa. Here, we report the surface expression of α-L-fucosyl terminal residues by neoplastic mucosal cells of APC specimens of the mouse. Glycoprotein expression was validated by the carbohydrate binding protein UEA-1. Future applications of this method are the development of agents used to diagnose cancers by biomedical imaging modalities, including computed tomographic colonography (CTC). UEA-1 targeting to colonic adenomas may provide a new avenue for the diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma by CT imaging.

  14. [Oral mucosa reaction in patients adapting to removable dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanishvili, A K; Soldatova, L N; Pihur, O L; Mihajlova, E S; Peremyshlenko, A S; Soldatov, V S

    Oral mucosa reaction of prosthetic bed to the removable acrylic dentures was evaluated in 43 patients (12 male and 31 female) aged 56-69 years with partial and full teeth loss in one or both jaws. Patients of the first (control) group (17 patients) were not using additional tools improving fixation of the removable dentures during adaptation period, while patients of the second (main) group (26 patients) used Corega cream for dentures fixation for 30 days follow-up. Oral mucosa assessment was carried out on 3-4 and 28-30 day of dentures use by 3 end points: pain syndrome, moisture level, inflammation of a prosthetic bed. The results proved Corega cream to improve prosthetic bed mucosa condition reducing inflammatory response to polymeric materials of removable dentures basis.

  15. Speech and swallowing outcomes in buccal mucosa carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunila John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms among all oral cancers in India. Understanding the role of speech language pathologists (SLPs in the domains of evaluation and management strategies of this condition is limited, especially in the Indian context. This is a case report of a young adult with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa with no deleterious habits usually associated with buccal mucosa carcinoma. Following composite resection, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction, he developed severe oral dysphagia and demonstrated unintelligible speech. This case report focuses on the issues of swallowing and speech deficits in buccal mucosa carcinoma that need to be addressed by SLPs, and the outcomes of speech and swallowing rehabilitation and prognostic issues.

  16. Harvesting oral mucosa for one-stage anterior urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Balwant Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucosa has been the most popular substitute material for urethral reconstructive surgery because it is easy to harvest, is easy to access, has a concealed donor site scar, and obviates most of the problems associated with other grafts. However, the success of using oral mucosa for urethral surgery is mainly attributed to the biological properties of this tissue. Herein, the surgical steps of harvesting oral mucosa from the inner cheek are presented with an emphasis on tips and tricks to render the process easier and more reproducible and to prevent intra and post-operative complications. The following steps are emphasized: Nasal intubation, ovoid shape graft, delicate harvesting leaving the muscle intact, donor site closure and removal of submucosal tissue.

  17. Relationship between functional elongated colonic transit time and constipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yuchang; Qian Xuequn; Zhang Genfu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To retrospectively analyze the role of colonic transit test in diagnosis and aetiology of constipation. Methods: 87 cases of constipation diagnosed under Agachan scoring system and having completed transit test at least once were enrolled. All cases were divided into two groups: group A have normal colonic transit time, group B have extended colonic transit time. A comparison of the ratio of rectosigmoid transit by total colon (RRT) between group A and B. Result: 32 cases were enrolled in group A and 55 in group B. Low value of RRT was presented in 10 cases out of 32 in group A (31.3%), while in group B the abnormality was observed in 9 cases out of 55 (16.4%). A statistical difference between the two group was revealed by x 2 test (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Colonic transit test helps the confirming the aetiology of constipation, and the evaluation of rectosigmoid transit function is especially valuable

  18. Colonic macrophage polarization in homeostasis, inflammation, and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, Caroline B.

    2016-01-01

    Our review focuses on the colonic macrophage, a monocyte-derived, tissue-resident macrophage, and the role it plays in health and disease, specifically in inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and cancer of the colon and rectum. We give special emphasis to macrophage polarization, or phenotype, in these different states. We focus on macrophages because they are one of the most numerous leukocytes in the colon, and because they normally contribute to homeostasis through an anti-inflammatory phenotype. However, in conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, proinflammatory macrophages are increased in the colon and have been linked to disease severity and progression. In colorectal cancer, tumor cells may employ anti-inflammatory macrophages to promote tumor growth and dissemination, whereas proinflammatory macrophages may antagonize tumor growth. Given the key roles that this cell type plays in homeostasis, inflammation, and cancer, the colonic macrophage is an intriguing therapeutic target. As such, potential macrophage-targeting strategies are discussed. PMID:27229123

  19. [Oral mucosa graft urethroplasty for complicated urethral strictures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Akio; Sumitomo, Makoto; Kanbara, Taiki; Tsujita, Yujiro; Yoshii, Takahiko; Yoshii, Hidehiko; Satoh, Akinori; Asakuma, Junichi; Ito, Keiichi; Hayakawa, Masamichi; Asano, Tomohiko

    2010-03-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and outcome of one-stage oral mucosa graft urethroplasty, which is currently the procedure of choice for treating lengthy and complicated urethral strictures not amenable to excision and primary end-to-end anastomosis. Seven patients 33 to 74 years old (mean age = 53.7) underwent one-stage oral mucosa graft urethroplasty for a stricture in either the bulbar urethra (four patients), penile urethra (two patients), or pan-anterior urethra (one patient). Three of the strictures were due to trauma, one was due to inflammation, and one was due to a failed hypospadia repair. The other two were iatrogenic. All patients had previously undergone either internal urethrotomy or repeated urethral dilation. Three patients received a tube graft, three received a ventral onlay, and one received a dorsal onlay. A free graft of oral mucosa was harvested from the inside of each patient's left cheek, and if necessary to obtain a sufficient length, the harvest was extended to include mucosa from the lower lip and the right cheek. The graft lengths ranged from 2.5 to 12 cm (mean = 4.6 cm). A urethral catheter was left in place for 3 weeks postoperatively. While no severe complications at the donor site were observed during follow-up periods ranging from 3 to 55 months (mean = 14 months), two patients who had received a tube graft developed distal anastomotic ring strictures that were managed by internal urethrotomy. The other five required no postoperative urological procedure even though one who had received a ventral onlay developed a penoscrotal fistula. Oral mucosa is an ideal urethral graft, and oral mucosa graft urethroplasty is an effective procedure for repairing complicated urethral strictures involving long portions of the urethra.

  20. [Microcirculation of the nasal mucosa during use of balloon tamponade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, M; Siegert, R

    1997-03-01

    Nasal packings are commonly accepted in the treatment of severe epistaxis. Cuffed catheters are known to cause damage to the nasal mucosa most likely by interfering with tissue perfusion. In this study the effect of different pressure levels on local perfusion of septal mucosa is investigated. In 15 healthy subjects the blood flow in septal mucosa was measured by laser doppler flowmetry by positioning a cuffed epistaxis catheter into the nasal cavity with a laser probe attached to it. Increasing pressure was administered by injecting saline solution while continuously recording intraluminal pressure, perfusion, and filling volume. The local pressure affecting the septal mucosa at the moment of stalling perfusion was determined by subtracting the extranasal cuff pressure from the current intranasal cuff pressure at same inflation volumes. Microcirculation of the septal mucosa stopped when the local pressure exceeded a value of Pmean = 42 mmHg. Individual variations (n = 15) were small (s = 9 mmHg). The intraluminal cuff pressure was measured to be about ten times higher due to the retraction force of the cuff. Spontaneous oscillations of the blood flow were reduced with increasing pressure to the blood vessels. Filling volumes up to 3.2 ml were sufficient to stop perfusion. Cuffed nasal packings stop the blood flow in nasal mucosa even at low local pressures. Depending on the material characteristics of different cuffs the pressure to dilate the cuff may, however, be several times higher than the actual local pressure. This effect may cause problems in the proper use of cuffed catheters. Laser doppler flowmetry proved to be helpful in determining reproducible perfusion values.

  1. The mandibular ridge oral mucosa model of stromal influences on the endothelial tip cells: an immunohistochemical and TEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Didilescu, Andreea Cristiana; Stănescu, Ruxandra; Pop, Florinel; Mănoiu, Valentina Mariana; Jianu, Adelina Maria; Vâlcu, Marek

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate by immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the morphological features of the oral mucosa endothelial tip cells (ETCs) and to determine the immune and ultrastructural patterns of the stromal nonimmune cells which could influence healing processes. Immune labeling was performed on bioptic samples obtained from six edentulous patients undergoing surgery for dental implants placement; three normal samples were collected from patients prior to the extraction of the third mandibular molar. The antibodies were tested for CD34, CD117(c-kit), platelet derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFR-α), Mast Cell Tryptase, CD44, vimentin, CD45, CD105, alpha-smooth muscle actin, FGF2, Ki67. In light microscopy, while stromal cells (StrCs) of the reparatory and normal oral mucosa, with a fibroblastic appearance, were found positive for a CD34/CD44/CD45/CD105/PDGFR-α/vimentin immune phenotype, the CD117/c-kit labeling led to a positive stromal reaction only in the reparatory mucosa. In TEM, non-immune StrCs presenting particular ultrastructural features were identified as circulating fibrocytes (CFCs). Within the lamina propria CFCs were in close contact with ETCs. Long processes of the ETCs were moniliform, and hook-like collaterals were arising from the dilated segments, suggestive for a different stage migration. Maintenance and healing of oral mucosa are so supported by extensive processes of angiogenesis, guided by ETCs that, in turn, are influenced by the CFCs that populate the stromal compartment both in normal and reparatory states. Therefore, CFCs could be targeted by specific therapies, with pro- or anti-angiogenic purposes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. X-radiation effect on soluble proteins of gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhomlinov, B.F.; Chajka, Ya.P.; Fedorovich, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    Using the method of electrophoresis in agar gel soluble proteins of gastric mucosa of rats were separated into 11 fractions. Proteins posessing a proteolytic (pH 1.8) and lipase (pH 7.4) activity were localized within the second and third prealbumin fractions. Soluble proteins of gastric mucosa contain glyco- and lipoproteid complexes. Exposure of rats to 1000 R of X-rays induces quantitative redistribution within the electrophoretic spectrum of soluble proteins and a considerable disturbance of the proteolytic activity of total soluble proteins throughout the entire period of observation (from 10 min to 72h)

  3. Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to the Gastric Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Clyne

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of many enteric diseases. Helicobacter pylori is a duodenal pathogen that adheres to the gastric epithelium and causes gastritis and peptic ulceration. The mechanism by which H pylori causes disease has not yet been elucidated but adherence to the gastric mucosa is thought to be an important virulence determinant of the organism. What is known about adherence of H pylori to the gastric mucosa is summarized. Topics discussed are the mechanism of H pylori adherence; in vitro and in vivo models of H pylori infection; and adherence and potential adhesins and receptors for H pylori.

  4. Alphamimetic effects at the nasal mucosa in the MR tomogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benammar-Englmaier, M.; Hallermeier, J.K.; Englmaier, B.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of xylometazolin spray (OTRIVEN) on the nasal mucosa was tested on persons with and without clinical signs of rhinitis and sinusitis. MRI is an excellent means to show the decongestive effect. The reaction is chiefly seen at the inferior and middle nasal concha and becomes manifest in a few minutes. No significant effect is noticeable at the maxillary sinus mucosa and infiltrated ethmoidal sinus. Generally, it is possible to show and examine the pharmacological effects that change the size and the liquid consistency of organs. (orig.) [de

  5. The production of the oral mucosa of antiendomysial and anti-tissue-transglutaminase antibodies in patients with celiac disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compilato, Domenico; Campisi, Giuseppina; Pastore, Luca; Carroccio, Antonio

    2010-12-14

    verify whether the oral mucosa is colonized by lymphocytes activated in the intestine or if gluten could stimulate naïve lymphocytes directly in the oral mucosa. This would have important implications for the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of CD.

  6. The Production of the Oral Mucosa of Antiendomysial and Anti—Tissue-Transglutaminase Antibodies in Patients with Celiac Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Compilato

    2010-01-01

    evaluated in order to verify whether the oral mucosa is colonized by lymphocytes activated in the intestine or if gluten could stimulate naïve lymphocytes directly in the oral mucosa. This would have important implications for the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of CD.

  7. New technique for laryngotracheal mucosa transplantation. 'Stamp' welding using indocyanine green dye and albumin interaction with diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Pankratov, M M; Gleich, L L; Rebeiz, E E; Shapshay, S M

    1995-07-01

    To investigate (1) the possibility of survival of free mucosa "stamp" grafts fixed in the airway with a new technique using indocyanine green-dyed albumin solder activated with a diode laser and (2) the degree of improvement of wound healing in the airway by applying modified microskin transplantation techniques from burn surgery to cover a relatively large wound with a few small pieces of mucosa anchored in place with the previously mentioned technique. Three (one control and two experimental) rectangular (10 x 8 mm) wounds in tracheal mucosa were produced in four experimental animals (dogs) using a carbon dioxide laser. The control wound was left uncovered. In the first experimental wound, a mucosal flap was raised and then fixed in place by a trapdoor flap method. In the second experimental wound, two small (each 2 x 3 mm) autogenous mucosa grafts were anchored onto the surface with indocyanine green-dyed albumin activated with an 810-nm diode laser. Histomorphologically, the postoperative results from three wounds were compared. The experimental wounds were completely covered by regenerated squamous cells in 1 week and by ciliated epithelium in 2 weeks after the operation despite the discrepancy in size of the graft to wound area (1:6.7) covered with the stamp mucosa. No thermal damage from the diode laser was noted in the second experimental wounds. In the control wounds, no coverage was observed at 1 week, and only squamous cells were noted 2 weeks postoperatively. All the wounds had normal ciliated epithelium coverage at 4 weeks. Transplanted stamp grafts provided similar or better healing than trapdoor flap transplants. This new technique made endoscopic mucosal grafting possible and offers a potential breakthrough in the management of laryngotracheal stenosis.

  8. CT findings of colonic diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shigeru; Ohba, Satoru; Mizutani, Masaru

    1998-01-01

    Although colonic diverticulitis has no indication for operation, but in some mistaken cases were operated with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We evaluated the CT findings of colonic diverticulitis about 19 cases and of asymptomatic colonic diverticula about 15 cases retrospectively. Diagnosis was confirmed of barium enema and operation. CT are complementary methods of examination that can delineated the range of thickening of the colon and the extension of inflammatory changes around the colon. We also believe that CT findings of colonic diverticulitis are useful for differentiating from a diagnosis of appendicitis. (author)

  9. Dysregulation of microRNAs in colonic field carcinogenesis: implications for screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay P Kunte

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC screening tests often have a trade-off between efficacy and patient acceptability/cost. Fecal tests (occult blood, methylation engender excellent patient compliance but lack requisite performance underscoring the need for better population screening tests. We assessed the utility of microRNAs (miRNAs as markers of field carcinogenesis and their potential role for CRC screening using the azoxymethane (AOM-treated rat model. We found that 63 miRNAs were upregulated and miR-122, miR-296-5p and miR-503# were downregulated in the uninvolved colonic mucosa of AOM rats. We monitored the expression of selected miRNAs in colonic biopsies of AOM rats at 16 weeks and correlated it with tumor development. We noted that the tumor bearing rats had significantly greater miRNA modulation compared to those without tumors. The miRNAs showed good diagnostic performance with an area under the receiver operator curve (AUROC of >0.7. We also noted that the miRNA induction in the colonic mucosa was mirrorred in the mucus layer fecal colonocytes isolated from AOM rat stool and the degree of miRNA induction was greater in the tumor bearing rats compared to those without tumors. Lastly, we also noted significant miRNA modulation in the Pirc rats- the genetic model of colon carcinogenesis, both in the uninvolved colonic mucosa and the fecal colonocytes. We thus demonstrate that miRNAs are excellent markers of field carcinogenesis and could accurately predict future neoplasia. Based on our results, we propose an accurate, inexpensive, non-invasive miRNA test for CRC risk stratification based on rectal brushings or from abraded fecal colonocytes.

  10. A surprise case of colonic interposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Blind nasogastric intubation failure as a result of changes to the normal anatomical pathway is not uncommon. This case report is of fluoroscopically guided intubation in a patient in whom blind intubation failed as a result of what was subsequently found to be a colonic interposition with associated late complications. Fluroscopically guided nasogastric intubation is a safe and effective procedure that should always be considered when blind intubation has failed

  11. Complicated colonic intussusception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin James

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript deals with the case of a 53-year-old woman who developed large bowel obstruction. Per-rectal examination revealed a pedunculated lesion in the rectum; rigid sigmoidoscopy revealed a prolapsing pedunculated mass with a necrotic surface. The patient recovered well following anterior resection. Histology confirmed a pedunculated sub mucosal lipoma as the lead point for intussusception. Colonic intussusception is a rare cause of adult large bowel obstruction, and the preoperative clinical diagnosis of this condition can be difficult. Resection of the involved segment of the colon is the most appropriate choice of treatment in most such cases.

  12. Colonic potassium handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby; Matos, Joana E.; Prætorius, Helle

    2010-01-01

    , intestinal K+ losses caused by activated ion secretion may become life threatening. This topical review provides an update of the molecular mechanisms and the regulation of mammalian colonic K+ absorption and secretion. It is motivated by recent results, which have identified the K+ secretory ion channel...... regulated by hormones and adapts readily to changes in dietary K+ intake, aldosterone and multiple local paracrine agonists. In chronic renal insufficiency, colonic K+ secretion is greatly enhanced and becomes an important accessory K+ excretory pathway. During severe diarrheal diseases of different causes...

  13. Abnormalities of small bowel and colon in systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Cinotti, A.; Cavallari, L.; Orzincolo, C.; Dovigo, L.; Trotta, F.; Menegale, G.

    1990-01-01

    A series of 21 subjects (2 males and 19 females) affected with systemic sclerosis, was examined by small bowel (oral and intubation methods) and colon enema. The underlying process responsible for abnormalities in the small bowel and colon in systemic sclerosis is a variable and pacthy destruction of the muscularis propria, that produces the structural and functional changes detected on X-ray: Pathologic condition is the same affecting the esophagus. The scout film of the abdomen often reveals colonic distension and fecal impaction, so that it may be quite difficult to prepare adequately the patients for a barium enema. Peristalsis may be virtually absent in short segments, and transit time may be several time longer than that in normal patients. For these reasons, intestinal pseudo-obstruction may appear in systemic sclerosis. The observed radiographic changes are: 1) in the small bowel: a) dilatation of the gut, especially in its proximal portions (duodenum and jejunum), in which the valvulae conniventes are straightened, normal or thinned; b) presence of diverticula, 2-4 cm in diameter, with hemispherical shape without the neck-like opening into the bowel lumen; 2) in the colon, the characteristic finding is an increase in size of individual haustra, forming sacculations or pseudo-diverticula, usually on the antemesenteric border of the transverse colon, better demonstrated on post-evacuation film. Moreover, loss of colonic haustration is also observed associated to colonic elongation and dilatation

  14. Predictive value of diminutive colonic adenoma trial: the PREDICT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Philip; Shad, Javaid; Ormseth, Eric; Coyle, Walter; Cash, Brooks; Butler, James; Schindler, William; Kikendall, Walter J; Furlong, Christopher; Sobin, Leslie H; Hobbs, Christine M; Cruess, David; Rex, Douglas

    2003-05-01

    Diminutive adenomas (1-9 mm in diameter) are frequently found during colon cancer screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS). This trial assessed the predictive value of these diminutive adenomas for advanced adenomas in the proximal colon. In a multicenter, prospective cohort trial, we matched 200 patients with normal FS and 200 patients with diminutive adenomas on FS for age and gender. All patients underwent colonoscopy. The presence of advanced adenomas (adenoma >or= 10 mm in diameter, villous adenoma, adenoma with high grade dysplasia, and colon cancer) and adenomas (any size) was recorded. Before colonoscopy, patients completed questionnaires about risk factors for adenomas. The prevalence of advanced adenomas in the proximal colon was similar in patients with diminutive adenomas and patients with normal FS (6% vs. 5.5%, respectively) (relative risk, 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-2.6). Diminutive adenomas on FS did not accurately predict advanced adenomas in the proximal colon: sensitivity, 52% (95% CI, 32%-72%); specificity, 50% (95% CI, 49%-51%); positive predictive value, 6% (95% CI, 4%-8%); and negative predictive value, 95% (95% CI, 92%-97%). Male gender (odds ratio, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.01-2.61) was associated with an increased risk of proximal colon adenomas. Diminutive adenomas on sigmoidoscopy may not accurately predict advanced adenomas in the proximal colon.

  15. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium Std fimbriae bind terminal α (1,2)fucose residues in the cecal mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, Daniela; Winter, Maria G.; Jakomin, Marcello; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The std operon encodes a fimbrial adhesin of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium that is required for attachment to intestinal epithelial cells and for cecal colonization in the mouse. To study the mechanism by which this virulence factor contributes to colonization we characterized its binding specificity. Std-mediated binding to human colonic epithelial (Caco-2) cells could be abrogated by removing N-linked glycans. Adherence of Std fimbriated S. Typhimurium to Caco-2 cells could be blocked by co-incubation with H type 2 oligosaccharide (Fucα1-2Galβ1-4GlcNAc) or by pretreatment of cells with α1-2 fucosidase. In contrast, pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with neuraminidase or co-incubation with the type 2 disaccharide precursor (Galβ1-4GlcNAc) did not reduce adherence of Std fimbriated S. Typhimurium. Binding of purified Std fimbriae to Fucα1-2Galβ1-4GlcNAc in a solid phase binding assay was competitively inhibited by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), a lectin specific for Fucα1-2 moieties. Purified Std fimbriae and UEA both bound to a receptor localized in the mucus layer of the murine cecum. These data suggest that the std operon encodes an adhesin that binds an α1-2 fucosylated receptor(s) present in the cecal mucosa. PMID:19183274

  16. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  17. Tuft (caveolated) cells in two human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Barkla, D. H.; Whitehead, R. H.; Foster, H.; Tutton, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of an unusual cell type in two human colon carcinoma cell lines is reported. The cells show the same morphology as "tuft" (caveolated) cells present in normal gastrointestinal epithelium. Tuft cells were seen in cell line LIM 1863 growing in vitro and in human colon carcinoma cell line LIM 2210 growing as subcutaneous solid tumour xenografts in nude mice. Characteristic morphologic features of tuft cells included a wide base, narrow apex and a tuft of long microvilli projecting f...

  18. Detection of secondary involvement of the colon from gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Kunihisa

    1994-01-01

    A comparative study with CT and barium enema (BE) was performed on 60 patients (121 lesions) with secondary involvement to the colon from gastric carcinoma. The lesions were visualized as abnormally thick colonic walls (more than 5 mm in thickness) on CT as well as stenotic or striped appearance on BE. The colonic lesions were equally detected by CT and BE in 49 patients (103 lesions). Although CT was superior to BE in only one patient (one lesion), BE was more accurated in 10 patients (17 lesions). CT failed to demonstrate early changes of secondary involvement to the colon. The presence of ascites or mesenteric abnormalities was not detected by CT in 15 patients, even though spread of gastric carcinoma to the colon mainly occurred by the direct invasion along mesenteric reflections or intraperitoneal seeding. As a conclusion, it was found that BE was more accurate for the detection of secondary involvement to the colon from gastric carcinoma comparing to CT. Normal findings on CT did not eliminate the possibility of colonic metastasis, therefore, BE study was desirable if clinical findings suggest the involvement of colonic metastasis. (author)

  19. Penetration effect of prostaglandin E2 gel on oral mucosa of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafinus Arifin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several researches reported that Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 injection on buccal mucosa combined with orthodontic pressure can faster tooth movement but has disadvantages such as high alveolar bone and root resorption furthermore pain from injection needle. PGE2 gel was made to better replace the lacks of injectable PGE2. Purpose: This research was aimed to prove that PGE 2 gel can penetrate rat’s oral mucosa effecting the appearance of PMN cells. Methods: This research was an in vivo laboratory experiment using 36 Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into 3 groups: normal group, topical PGE2 gel group after 1, 2, 4, 8 hours (4 subgroups, and topical gel without PGE2 group after 1, 2, 4, 8 hours (4 subgroups. Each group consists of 4 rats, therefore the total sample for all research groups were 36 rats. Gel with 25 µg/mL of PGE2 and gel without PGE2 were applied on oral mucosa for 2 minutes. Then, the rats were sacrificed after 1 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours, and 8 hours application. After that, the samples were prepared for histological examination with Hematoxyllin and Eosin. The picture were taken with OptiLab View and PMN cells amount were counted with light microscope, set 400 times of magnification. Results: Penetration effect of PGE2 gel on rat’s oral mucosa result in PMN inflammation cells distribution. One-way ANOVA showed no significant difference on PMN cells count in rats’ lower jaws between groups of normal and gel without PGE2. There was significant difference between groups of PGE2 gel and gel without PGE2 (p=0,001. PGE2 gel application showed PGE2 as inflammatory media, even though administered topically. Conclusion: PGE2 gel can penetrate rat’s oral mucosa, effecting PMN cells 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours after application of PGE2 gel.Latar belakang: Beberapa penelitian melaporkan bahwa injeksi (Prostaglandin E2 PGE2pada mukosa bukal yang dikombinasikan dengan tekanan ortodonti dapat mempercepat pergerakan gigi, tapi

  20. Elevated C-peptide and insulin predict increased risk of colorectal adenomas in normal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, Adriana C; Keku, Temitope O; Lund, Pauline Kay; Hoyo, Cathrine; Galanko, Joseph; Burcal, Lauren; Holston, Rachel; Massa, Berri; Omofoye, Oluwaseun; Sandler, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Lower concentrations of the insulin–like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and elevated concentrations of insulin or C-peptide have been associated with an increase in colorectal cancer risk (CRC). However few studies have evaluated IGFBP-1 and C-peptide in relation to adenomatous polyps, the only known precursor for CRC. Between November 2001 and December 2002, we examined associations between circulating concentrations of insulin, C-peptide, IGFBP-1 and apoptosis among 190 individuals with one or more adenomatous polyps and 488 with no adenomatous polyps using logistic regression models. Individuals with the highest concentrations of C-peptide were more likely to have adenomas (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-4.0) than those with the lowest concentrations; associations that appeared to be stronger in men (OR = 4.4, 95% CI 1.7-10.9) than women. Individuals with high insulin concentrations also had a higher risk of adenomas (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.7-7.4), whereas higher levels of IGFBP-1 were associated with a reduced risk of adenomas in men only (OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). Overweight and obese individuals with higher C-peptide levels (>1 st Q) were at increased risk for lower apoptosis index (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 0.9-7.1), an association that remained strong in overweight and obese men (OR = 6.3, 95% CI 1.0-36.7). Higher levels of IGFBP-1 in overweight and obese individuals were associated with a reduced risk of low apoptosis (OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-1.0). Associations between these peptides and the apoptosis index in overweight and obese individuals, suggest that the mechanism by which C-peptide could induce adenomas may include its anti-apoptotic properties. This study suggests that hyperinsulinemia and IGF hormones predict adenoma risk, and that outcomes associated with colorectal carcinogenesis maybe modified by gender

  1. EGFR and Bcl-2 in gastric mucosa of children infected with Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Ryszczuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of EGFR and Bcl-2 proteins as inhibitory markers of apoptosis in surface epithelial cells and gland cells of antral gastric mucosa in children infected with Helicobacter pylori according to the severity and activity of antral gastritis and to assess the correlation between the number of cells expressing EGFR and the number of cells expressing Bcl-2 in H. pylori infected children.Materials and methods: The study included 44 children: 68.2% with chronic gastritis and positive IgG against H. pylori, and 31.8% with functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and with normal IgG against H. pylori. The evaluation of EGFR expression in gastric mucosa was performed immunohistochemically using monoclonal mouse anti-EGFR antibody. The polyclonal antibody was used to determine the expression of anti-Bcl-2.Results: A significant increase in the number of cells expressing EGFR and Bcl-2 protein was found in the epithelial cells in severe as well as mild and moderate gastritis in the group of children infected with H. pylori. An increase in the number of cells expressing EGFR and Bcl-2 protein was also found in the epithelial cells in group I according to the activity of gastritis. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the numbers of cells expressing EGFR and Bcl-2 in H. pylori infected children.Conclusion: Increased expression of EGFR and Bcl-2 proteins in the epithelial cells and a statistically significant positive correlation between the numbers of cells expressing EGFR and Bcl-2 in H. pylori infected children could suggest increased regeneration abilities of gastric mucosa.

  2. Review: Non-transecting bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: Non-transecting bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa. S Bugeja, S Ivaz, AV Frost, DE Andrich, AR Mundy. Abstract. Augmentation urethroplasty using oral mucosal graft has become the standard surgical treatment of long bulbar strictures. In very tight strictures the urethral plate is narrowed to the extent that an ...

  3. Helicobacter pylori and histopathological changes of gastric mucosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori and histopathological changes of gastric mucosa in Uganda population with varying prevalence of stomach cancer. ... Results: The severity of gastritis correlated with the presence of H. pylori in Ganda and Nyarwanda but not in Nkole. Intestinal metaplasia (IM) was observed in Nyarwanda and Nkole and ...

  4. Histomorphometric evaluation of small intestinal mucosa of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histomorphometry of the small intestinal mucosa of the red jungle fowl (RJF) and commercial broiler breed (CBC) from day one to four months post-hatch were investigated. For the sake of comparison between these two breeds, the following parameters were included: the number of villi, villus surface area and the intestinal ...

  5. Taste buds in the palatal mucosa of snakes | Berkhoudt | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An examination of the oral mucosa of Crotalus and several Scolecophidia revealed the presence of taste buds. The taste buds in these two divergent groups of snakes are similar in appearance, and correspond to previous descriptions of gustatory organs in other reptiles. Few taste buds were present in any specimen, and ...

  6. An overview of oral mucosa condition of shisha smoker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Amtha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shisha is a water pipe that tobacco extract and fruit scented burnt using coal. It produces the smoke through the vessel and inhaled using a hose with good taste. The culture of shisha smoking is popular in Midle East country that curently has been also entering Indonesia. The side effect of shisha smoking habit is still very rare reported. Aim of this study is to describe the oral mucosa condition of shisha user. A preliminary observasional study was conducted at several sisha cafe at South Jakarta. Under informed consent, subject with habit of tobacco and shisha smoker were included. Sociodemographic data (age, gender, duration, frequency of smoking, salivary flow rate and oral mucosa changes were documented. Eighteen subjects were recruited into this study. Most of shisha smoker was also tobacco smoker. Shisha was more practiced by male at  age (15-24 years old. The oral mucosa changes such as keratosis, melanosis, leukoedema, coated tongue, gingivitis and xerostomia were found on subject with habit of tobacco smoking habit only or both shisha and tobacco smoking. In conclusion apparently the shisha smoking habit may casue oral mucosa changes almost the same with tobacco smoking habit

  7. reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia of the oral mucosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-02-02

    Feb 2, 2009 ... cases(0.9%) were those of denture irritation hyperplasia. The age ... reported to have recurred and all of them were gingival lesions. ... grade chronic irritations to the oral mucosa such as ..... J. Periodontal.1980; 51: 55-61. 7.

  8. Colonization, mouse-style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  9. Schwannoma of the Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Nonose

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are neoplasms originating from Schwann cells, which are the cells forming nerve sheaths. These neoplasms generally involve peripheral nerves. They rarely affect the gastrointestinal tract and primary colon involvement is extremely rare. The objective of the present paper was to present a case of primary schwannoma of the sigmoid colon, unassociated with von Recklinghausen disease, that was histopathologically confirmed by means of an immunohistochemical panel. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who had had rectal bleeding when evacuating, with pain and tenesmus, for 4 months. She underwent colonoscopy, which identified a raised submucous lesion of 2.8 cm in diameter, located in the sigmoid colon, 30 cm from the anal margin. During examination, loop polypectomy with lesion excision was performed. Histopathological evaluation showed that this was a tumor of stromal origin. Its resection margins were compromised by neoplasia, and colon resection by means of videolaparoscopy was indicated. Conventional histopathological examination using the hematoxylin-eosin technique suggested that the neoplasm was of mesenchymal origin. An immunohistochemical panel was run for etiological confirmation, using anti-CD34 antibodies, desmin, cytokeratins (AE1/AE3, cKit, chromogranin and S-100 protein. The panel showed intense immunoexpression of S-100 protein. Investigation of the proliferative activity rate using Ki-67 antibodies showed that there was a low rate of mitotic activity, thus confirming the diagnosis of primary benign schwannoma of the colon. The patient’s postoperative evolution was uneventful and she remains in good health, without signs of tumor recurrence, 15 months after surgical excision.

  10. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  11. Increased expression of CD133 and reduced dystroglycan expression are strong predictors of poor outcome in colon cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coco Claudio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression levels of CD133, a cancer stem cell marker, and of the α-subunit of the dystroglycan (α-DG complex, have been previously reported to be altered in colorectal cancers. Methods Expression levels of CD133 and α-DG were assessed by immunohistochemistry in a series of colon cancers and their prognostic significance was evaluated. Results Scattered cells positive for CD133 were rarely detected at the bases of the crypts in normal colonic mucosa while in cancer cells the median percentage of positive cells was 5% (range 0–80. A significant correlation was observed with pT parameter and tumor stage but not with tumor grade and N status. Recurrence and death from disease were significantly more frequent in CD133-high expressing tumors and Kaplan-Meier curves showed a significant separation between high vs low expressor groups for both disease-free (p = 0.002 and overall (p = 0.008 survival. Expression of α-DG was reduced in a significant fraction of tumors but low α-DG staining did not correlate with any of the classical clinical-pathological parameters. Recurrence and death from the disease were significantly more frequent in α-DG-low expressing tumors and Kaplan-Meier curves showed a significant separation between high vs low expressor tumors for both disease-free (p = 0.02 and overall (p = 0.02 survival. Increased expression of CD133, but not loss of α-DG, confirmed to be an independent prognostic parameters at a multivariate analysis associated with an increased risk of recurrence (RR = 2.4; p = 0.002 and death (RR = 2.3; p = 0.003. Conclusions Loss of α-DG and increased CD133 expression are frequent events in human colon cancer and evaluation of CD133 expression could help to identify high-risk colon cancer patients.

  12. In vivo analysis of tissue by Raman microprobe: examination of human skin lesions and esophagus Barrett's mucosa on an animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Ali; Piot, Olivier; Derancourt, Sylvie; Cadiot, Guillaume; Diebold, Marie D.; Bernard, Philippe; Manfait, Michel

    2006-02-01

    In the last few years, Raman spectroscopy has been increasingly used for the characterization of normal and pathological tissues. A new Raman system, constituted of optic fibers bundle coupled to an axial Raman spectrometer (Horiba Jobin Yvon SAS), was developed for in vivo investigations. Here, we present in vivo analysis on two tissues: human skin and esophagus mucosa on a rat model. The skin is a directly accessible organ, representing a high diversity of lesions and cancers. Including malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and the squamous cell carcinoma, skin cancer is the cancer with the highest incidence worldwide. Several Raman investigations were performed to discriminate and classify different types of skin lesions, on thin sections of biopsies. Here, we try to characterize in vivo the different types of skin cancers in order to be able to detect them in their early stages of development and to define precisely the exeresis limits. Barrett's mucosa was also studied by in vivo examination of rat's esophagus. Barrett's mucosa, induced by gastro-esophageal reflux, is a pretumoral state that has to be carefully monitored due to its high risk of evolution in adenocarcinoma. A better knowledge of the histological transformation of esophagus epithelium in a Barrett's type will lead to a more efficient detection of the pathology for its early diagnosis. To study these changes, an animal model (rats developing Barrett's mucosa after duodenum - esophagus anastomosis) was used. Potential of vibrational spectroscopy for Barrett's mucosa identification is assessed on this model.

  13. Increased Expression and Aberrant Localization of Mucin 13 in Metastatic Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Brij K.; Maher, Diane M.; Ebeling, Mara C.; Sundram, Vasudha; Koch, Michael D.; Lynch, Douglas W.; Bohlmeyer, Teresa; Watanabe, Akira; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Puumala, Susan E.; Jaggi, Meena

    2012-01-01

    MUC13 is a newly identified transmembrane mucin. Although MUC13 is known to be overexpressed in ovarian and gastric cancers, limited information is available regarding the expression of MUC13 in metastatic colon cancer. Herein, we investigated the expression profile of MUC13 in colon cancer using a novel anti-MUC13 monoclonal antibody (MAb, clone ppz0020) by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. A cohort of colon cancer samples and tissue microarrays containing adjacent normal, non-metastatic colon cancer, metastatic colon cancer, and liver metastasis tissues was used in this study to investigate the expression pattern of MUC13. IHC analysis revealed significantly higher (pcolon cancer samples compared with faint or very low expression in adjacent normal tissues. Interestingly, metastatic colon cancer and liver metastasis tissue samples demonstrated significantly (pcolon cancer and adjacent normal colon samples. Moreover, cytoplasmic and nuclear MUC13 expression correlated with larger and poorly differentiated tumors. Four of six tested colon cancer cell lines also expressed MUC13 at RNA and protein levels. These studies demonstrate a significant increase in MUC13 expression in metastatic colon cancer and suggest a correlation between aberrant MUC13 localization (cytoplasmic and nuclear expression) and metastatic colon cancer. PMID:22914648

  14. Collagen levels are normalized after decompression of experimentally obstructed colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehn, Martin; Ågren, Sven Per Magnus; Syk, I

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to define the dynamics in collagen concentrations in the large bowel wall following decompression of experimental obstruction.......Our aim was to define the dynamics in collagen concentrations in the large bowel wall following decompression of experimental obstruction....

  15. Colon preneoplasia after carcinogen exposure is enhanced and colonic serotonergic system is suppressed by food deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannen, Vinicius; Fernandes, Cleverson R; Stopper, Helga; Zanette, Dalila L; Ferreira, Frederico R; Frajacomo, Fernando T; Carvalho, Milene C; Brandão, Marcus L; Elias Junior, Jorge; Jordão Junior, Alceu Afonso; Uyemura, Sérgio Akira; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Garcia, Sérgio B

    2013-10-04

    Calorie restriction regimens usually promote health and extend life-span in mammals. This is partially related to their preventive effects against malignancies. However, certain types of nutritional restriction failed to induce beneficial effects. The American Institute of Nutrition defines calorie restriction as diets which have only 40% fewer calories, but provide normal amounts of necessary food components such as protein, vitamins and minerals; whereas, food restriction means 40% less of all dietary ingredients plus 40% less calories. Our study aimed to test the hypothesis that the latter type of food deprivation (40% less food than consumed by standard fed rats) might increase cancer risk instead of reducing it, as is generally assumed for all dietary restrictive regimens. Since the endogenous modulation of the colon serotonergic system has been observed to play a role during the early steps of carcinogenesis we also investigated whether the serotoninergic system could be involved in the food intake modulation of cancer risk. For this, rats were exposed to a carcinogen and subjected to food deprivation for 56 days. Triglyceride levels and visceral adipose tissue were reduced while hepatic and colonic lipid peroxidation was increased. This dietary restriction also decreased serotonin levels in colon, and gene expression of its intestinal transporter and receptors. Finally, the numbers of preneoplastic lesions in the colon tissue of carcinogen-exposed rats were increased. Our data suggest that food deprivation enhances formation of early tumorigenic lesions by suppressing serotonergic activity in colon tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An experimental study on tissue reaction of various contrast agents on endometrium, tuber mucosa, and peritoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, In Ae; Park, Jae Hyung; Yoon, Dae Young; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    1994-01-01

    To compare the tissue reactions of various water-soluble and oil-based contrast agents on the endometrium, salpingeal mumosa, and peritoneum. Thirty-three rabbits were used for evaluating the histologic reactions of uterine endometrium, salpinx, and peritoneum. Hysterosalpingography(HSG) was underwent in these rabbits by used Lipiodol, Hexabrix, Rayvist. Ultravist-300, Ultravist-370, and normal saline. Pathologic results were obtained in each of the six groups from the uterine endometrium, salpingeal mucosa, and peritoneum without knowledge of the contrast agent used and time interval from HSG. Mild inflammations were observed in the endometrium, salpingeal mucosa, and peritoneum during the first week of HSG in all rabbits in which water-soluble contrast agents were used. Although there was no significant difference in the degree of inflammation among the groups using various contrast agents, the group with oil-based contrast agent(Lipiodol) showed delayed absorption of contrast agent in the peritoneum, frequent intravasation, fat granuloma, peritoneal adhesion, or uterine infarction. Our results suggest that water-soluble contrast agents can be used safely for HSG, but the use of oil-based contrast agent is questional in safety and should be avoid in patients with tubal obstruction, salpingitis, or endometritis

  17. Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophilia complicated with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Tangsun, Yinyan; Xiao, Yonglong; Zhang, Deping; Cao, Min

    2016-09-01

    Tissue eosinophilia is rarely observed in cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B cell origin. The present study describes a rare case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, which was initially misdiagnosed as eosinophilic pneumonia. The initial diagnosis was formed based on the results of chest radiography, peripheral eosinophilia tests and bronchoalveolar lavage, and the clinical course of the patient. Following administration of methylprednisolone (40 mg/day) for 4 days and oral administration of prednisolone (30 mg/day), the clinical course rapidly improved and the eosinophil count immediately decreased a to normal level. However, abnormal shadows observed on computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest did not diminish. At 6 months after the initiation of treatment, CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy was performed, and a final diagnosis of primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma was made based on immunohistochemical examination. Primary lung MALT lymphoma remains a rare entity, with an indolent course and a reasonably favorable prognosis, whose diagnosis may be challenging.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus in oral mucosa from human immunodeficiency virus positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the detection rate of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is higher in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. In an attempt to contribute to our epidemiological understanding of this coinfection and to investigate the activity of EBV in normal oral mucosa, we performed a cross-sectional study with HIV-positive patients. Methods: oral smears from 145 HIV-positive patients were collected between March 2010 and March 2011. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR and reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR were used to genotype EBV and to detect EBNA-2 expression, respectively. Results: EBV DNA was detected in 48.3% of the study participants, of whom 32.85% were EBV-1 and 45.71% were EBV-2 carriers. Additionally, 14.28% were coinfected with both types. EBNA-2 mRNA was expressed in 45.7% of the EBV -positive samples, including 20.0% with EBV-1 only, 20.0% with EBV-2 only and 1.4% with both genotypes. Immune status affected the overall EBV infection, and EBV-2 positivity was significantly correlated with sexual lifestyle of the participants. EBV co-infection with both viral types was dependent upon HIV viral load and the activity of the EBNA-2 gene. Conclusion: we report a high prevalence of active EBV in the oral mucosa of asymptomatic HIV-seropositive individuals. This study addresses the need for monitoring and treatment of HIV-infected patients with EBV reactivation.

  19. Exercise reduces inflammation and cell proliferation in rat colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Martins, Lisandra Vanessa; Fernandes, Cleverson Rodrigues; Herrero, Fábio Augusto; Perez, Sérgio Eduardo de Andrade; Turatti, Aline; Garcia, Sérgio Britto

    2008-04-01

    There is evidence that the risk of colon cancer is reduced by appropriate levels of physical exercise. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved in this protective effect of exercise remain largely unknown. Inflammation is emerging as a unifying link between a range of environment exposures and neoplastic risk. The carcinogen dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH) induces an increase in epithelial cell proliferation and in the expression of the inflammation-related enzyme cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) in the colon of rats. Our aim was to verify whether these events could be attenuated by exercise. Four groups of eight Wistar rats were used in the experiment. The groups G1 and G3 were sedentary (controls), and the groups G2 and G4 were submitted to 8 wk of swimming training, 5 d.wk. The groups G3 and G4 were given subcutaneous injections of DMH immediately after the exercise protocols. Fifteen days after the neoplasic induction, the rats were sacrificed and the colon was processed for histological examination and immunohistochemistry staining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and COX-2. We found a significant increase in the PCNA-labeling index in both DMH-treated groups of rats. However, this increase was significantly attenuated in the training group G4 (P < 0.01). Similar results were observed in relation to the COX-2 expression. From our findings, we conclude that exercise training exerts remarkable antiproliferative and antiinflammatory effects in the rat colonic mucosa, suggesting that this may be an important mechanism to explain how exercise protects against colonic cancer.

  20. COX-2 gene expression in colon cancer tissue related to regulating factors and promoter methylation status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asting, Annika Gustafsson; Carén, Helena; Andersson, Marianne; Lönnroth, Christina; Lagerstedt, Kristina; Lundholm, Kent

    2011-01-01

    Increased cyclooxygenase activity promotes progression of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms behind COX-2 induction remain elusive. This study was therefore aimed to define external cell signaling and transcription factors relating to high COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue. Tumor and normal colon tissue were collected at primary curative operation in 48 unselected patients. COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue was quantified including microarray analyses on tumor mRNA accounting for high and low tumor COX-2 expression. Cross hybridization was performed between tumor and normal colon tissue. Methylation status of up-stream COX-2 promoter region was evaluated. Tumors with high COX-2 expression displayed large differences in gene expression compared to normal colon. Numerous genes with altered expression appeared in tumors of high COX-2 expression compared to tumors of low COX-2. COX-2 expression in normal colon was increased in patients with tumors of high COX-2 compared to normal colon from patients with tumors of low COX-2. IL1β, IL6 and iNOS transcripts were up-regulated among external cell signaling factors; nine transcription factors (ATF3, C/EBP, c-Fos, Fos-B, JDP2, JunB, c-Maf, NF-κB, TCF4) showed increased expression and 5 (AP-2, CBP, Elk-1, p53, PEA3) were decreased in tumors with high COX-2. The promoter region of COX-2 gene did not show consistent methylation in tumor or normal colon tissue. Transcription and external cell signaling factors are altered as covariates to COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue, but DNA methylation of the COX-2 promoter region was not a significant factor behind COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue

  1. COX-2 gene expression in colon cancer tissue related to regulating factors and promoter methylation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerstedt Kristina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased cyclooxygenase activity promotes progression of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms behind COX-2 induction remain elusive. This study was therefore aimed to define external cell signaling and transcription factors relating to high COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue. Method Tumor and normal colon tissue were collected at primary curative operation in 48 unselected patients. COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue was quantified including microarray analyses on tumor mRNA accounting for high and low tumor COX-2 expression. Cross hybridization was performed between tumor and normal colon tissue. Methylation status of up-stream COX-2 promoter region was evaluated. Results Tumors with high COX-2 expression displayed large differences in gene expression compared to normal colon. Numerous genes with altered expression appeared in tumors of high COX-2 expression compared to tumors of low COX-2. COX-2 expression in normal colon was increased in patients with tumors of high COX-2 compared to normal colon from patients with tumors of low COX-2. IL1β, IL6 and iNOS transcripts were up-regulated among external cell signaling factors; nine transcription factors (ATF3, C/EBP, c-Fos, Fos-B, JDP2, JunB, c-Maf, NF-κB, TCF4 showed increased expression and 5 (AP-2, CBP, Elk-1, p53, PEA3 were decreased in tumors with high COX-2. The promoter region of COX-2 gene did not show consistent methylation in tumor or normal colon tissue. Conclusions Transcription and external cell signaling factors are altered as covariates to COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue, but DNA methylation of the COX-2 promoter region was not a significant factor behind COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue.

  2. Gallium colonic transit study patterns in obstructive defecation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.; Sun, W.M.; Gaffney, R.; Ganesananthan, S.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Idiopathic constipation may be due to delayed colonic transit or ano-rectal dysfunction and obstructive defecation. The aim of this study was to relate patterns of colonic transit to results of ano-rectal manometry. Sixteen patients (4 males, 12 females, age 20-58 years) were studied. All underwent ano-rectal manometric studies and colonic transit studies. The transit studies were performed following the oral ingestion of 4 MBq 67 Gacitrate with images performed at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h. Computed data on half clearance times (T 1/2 ), mean activity positions (MAP) and segmental tracer retention were obtained. Five patients had normal ano-rectal manometry, 7 decreased rectal sensation and 4 absent or paradoxical ano-rectal reflex (anismus). The T 1/2 for subjects with normal manometry was 78.5 ± 11.9 h, decreased rectal sensation 73 ± 4.9 h and the anismus group 52 ± 12.1 h (P < 0.05). Total retention at 72 h was less at 56 ± 3.73 h in the anismus group compared to normal manometry (74.7 ± 12.2) and decreased rectal sensation (90.7 ± 12.1), with higher MAP and less tracer in the right colon at 48 h in the anismus group (P < 0.05). The results indicate that colonic transit studies in constipated patients with anismus have different patterns to those with normal anorectal manometry or decreased rectal sensation

  3. MZC Gel Inhibits SHIV-RT and HSV-2 in Macaque Vaginal Mucosa and SHIV-RT in Rectal Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calenda, Giulia; Villegas, Guillermo; Barnable, Patrick; Litterst, Claudia; Levendosky, Keith; Gettie, Agegnehu; Cooney, Michael L; Blanchard, James; Fernández-Romero, José A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Teleshova, Natalia

    2017-03-01

    The Population Council's microbicide gel MZC (also known as PC-1005) containing MIV-150 and zinc acetate dihydrate (ZA) in carrageenan (CG) has shown promise as a broad-spectrum microbicide against HIV, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and human papillomavirus. Previous data show antiviral activity against these viruses in cell-based assays, prevention of vaginal and rectal simian-human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT) infection, and reduction of vaginal HSV shedding in rhesus macaques and also excellent antiviral activity against HSV and human papillomavirus in murine models. Recently, we demonstrated that MZC is safe and effective against SHIV-RT in macaque vaginal explants. Here we established models of ex vivo SHIV-RT/HSV-2 coinfection of vaginal mucosa and SHIV-RT infection of rectal mucosa in macaques (challenge of rectal mucosa with HSV-2 did not result in reproducible tissue infection), evaluated antiviral activity of MZC, and compared quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay readouts for monitoring SHIV-RT infection. MZC (at nontoxic dilutions) significantly inhibited SHIV-RT in vaginal and rectal mucosas and HSV-2 in vaginal mucosa when present during viral challenge. Analysis of SHIV-RT infection and MZC activity by 1-step simian immunodeficiency virus gag quantitative RT-PCR and p27 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated similar virus growth dynamics and MZC activity by both methods and higher sensitivity of quantitative RT-PCR. Our data provide more evidence that MZC is a promising dual compartment multipurpose prevention technology candidate.

  4. Circulating Zonulin Correlates with Density of Enteroviruses and Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells in the Small Bowel Mucosa of Celiac Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobjova, Tamara; Raikkerus, Helerin; Kadaja, Lumme; Talja, Ija; Uibo, Oivi; Heilman, Kaire; Uibo, Raivo

    2017-02-01

    Impaired intestinal integrity, including increased permeability of the small bowel mucosa, has been shown in patients with celiac disease (CD) as well as with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Zonulin (ZO, pre-haptoglobin), a tight junction regulator, plays a particular role in the regulation of intestinal barrier function and in the pathogenesis of the above-mentioned diseases. To investigate whether enteroviruses (EVs) and immunoregulatory cells are associated with intestinal permeability in patients with CD alone and with coexistent T1D. Altogether 80 patients (mean age 10.68 ± 6.69 years) who had undergone small bowel biopsy were studied. Forty patients with functional dyspepsia and normal small bowel mucosa formed the control group. The circulating ZO level in sera was evaluated using ELISA. The densities of EV, FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO+) dendritic cells (DCs) and glutamic acid dexarboxylase (GAD)65+ cells in small bowel mucosa were investigated by immunohistochemistry. The expression analysis of FOXP3, tight junction protein 1 (TJP1), gap junction (GJA1), IDO and CD103 genes was evaluated by real-time PCR. The ZO level was higher in CD patients compared to subjects with a normal small bowel mucosa, particularly in those with Marsh IIIc atrophy (p = 0.01), and correlated with the density of EV (r = 0.63; p = 0.0003) and IDO+ DCs (r = 0.58; p = 0.01) in the small bowel mucosa. The density of GAD65+ epithelial cells was correlated with the density of EV (r = 0.59; p = 0.03) and IDO+ DCs (r = 0.78; p = 0.004) in CD patients. The relative expression of FOXP3 mRNA in the small bowel mucosa tissue was significantly higher in patients with CD, compared to subjects with a normal mucosa, and correlated with the density of EV (r = 0.62; p = 0.017) as well as with the relative expression of IDO mRNA (r = 0.54; p = 0.019). The CD is associated with elevation of the circulating ZO level, the value of which

  5. Serous otitis media and immunological reactions in the middle ear mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Baan, S.; Seldenrijk, C. A.; Henzen-Logmans, S. C.; Drexhage, H. A.

    1988-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study was performed on the middle ear mucosa of 21 children with chronic serous otitis media (SOM). In 86% of the patients a highly organized lymphatic tissue was found in the middle ear mucosa which can be regarded as part of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).

  6. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of Apis mellifera honey on the Helicobacter pylori infection of Wistar rats gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Yamamoto AMARAL

    Full Text Available Abstract Considering that Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium able to colonize the upper gastrointestinal tract and cause mucosal injury, not always can be effectively eradicated by the traditional approaches, there is an interest in alternative therapies until a vaccine be available. Honey is a food supplement with high carbohydrate content and antioxidant activity, as well as broad antimicrobial spectrum. After analyzing the physicochemical and in vitro antimicrobial properties of an Apis mellifera honey from the Atlantic forest of Alagoas / Brazil, the purpose of the present work was evaluate its in vivo effects against Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa of Wistar rats. First, it was verified the success of inoculation/infection of the pathogen in the gastric mucosa of the rats, through the subsequent removal of their stomachs for histological analysis (hematoxylin and eosin stain and Giemsa stain. Then, four groups of animals were treated with sterilized distilled deionized water, the Apis mellifera honey, a combination of omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin, and an association of such medicines and honey (1:1. Except the control, all treatments were effective in combating infection, however, honey reduced the inflammatory process, whilst the antibiotics increase the number of eosinophils.

  7. How many segments are necessary to characterize delayed colonic transit time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, Michel; Devroede, Ghislain; Bon, Cyriaque; Raynaud, Jean-Jacques; Bejou, Bakhtiar; Benamouzig, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Measuring colonic transit time with radiopaque markers is simple, inexpensive, and very useful in constipated patients. Yet, the algorithm used to identify colonic segments is subjective, rather than founded on prior experimentation. The aim of the present study is to describe a rational way to determine the colonic partition in the measurement of colonic transit time. Colonic transit time was measured in seven segments: ascending colon, hepatic flexure, right and left transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, and rectosigmoid in 852 patients with functional bowel and anorectal disorders. An unsupervised algorithm for modeling Gaussian mixtures served to estimate the number of subgroups from this oversegmented colonic transit time. After that, we performed a k-means clustering that separated the observations into homogenous groups of patients according to their oversegmented colonic transit time. The Gaussian mixture followed by the k-means clustering defined 4 populations of patients: "normal and fast transit" (n = 548) and three groups of patients with delayed colonic transit time "right delay" (n = 82) in which transit is delayed in the right part of the colon, "left delay" (n = 87) with transit delayed in the left part of colon and "outlet constipation" (n = 135) for patients with transit delayed in the terminal intestine. Only 3.7 % of patients were "erroneously" classified in the 4 groups recognized by clustering. This unsupervised analysis of segmental colonic transit time shows that the classical division of the colon and the rectum into three segments is sufficient to characterize delayed segmental colonic transit time.

  8. CriticalSorb™ promotes permeation of flux markers across isolated rat intestinal mucosae and Caco-2 monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, D J; Bzik, V A; Lewis, A L; Illum, L

    2012-09-01

    CriticalSorb™ is a novel absorption enhancer based on Solutol(®) HS15, one that has been found to enhance the nasal transport. It is in clinical trials for nasal delivery of human growth hormone. The hypothesis was that permeating enhancement effects of the Solutol(®)HS15 component would translate to the intestine. Rat colonic mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and Papp values of [(14)C]-mannitol, [(14)C]-antipyrine, FITC-dextran 4000 (FD-4), and TEER values were calculated in the presence of CriticalSorb™. Tissues were fixed for H & E staining. Caco-2 monolayers were grown on Transwells™ for similar experiments. CriticalSorb™(0.01% v/v) significantly increased the Papp of [(14)C]-mannitol, FD-4 [(14)C]-antipyrine across ileal and colonic mucosae, accompanied by a decrease in TEER. In Caco-2 monolayers, it also increased the Papp of [(14)C]-mannitol FD-4 and [(14)C]-antipyrine over 120 min. In both monolayers and tissues, it acted as a moderately effective P-glycoprotein inhibitor. There was no evidence of cytotoxicity in Caco-2 at concentrations of 0.01% for up to 24 h and histology of tissues showed intact epithelia at 120 min. Solutol(®) HS15 is the key component in CriticalSorb™ that enables non-cytotoxic in vitro intestinal permeation and its mechanism of action is a combination of increased paracellular and transcellular flux.

  9. Upregulated Expression of Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V Receptors in Mucosae of Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Patients with a History of Alcohol Consumption or Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Kusumoto, Junya; Takeda, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Takumi; Akashi, Masaya; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Terashi, Hiroto; Komori, Takahide

    2017-01-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel (subfamily V, members 1-4) (TRPV1-4) are expressed in skin and neurons and activated by external stimuli in normal mucosae of all oral cavity sites. The oral cavity is exposed to various stimuli, including temperature, mechanical stimuli, chemical substances, and changes in pH, and, notably, the risk factors for oncogenic transformation in oral squamous epithelium are the same as the external stimuli received by TRPV1-4 receptors. Hence, we examined the relationship between oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and TRPV1-4 expression. Oral SCC patients (n = 37) who underwent surgical resection were included in this study. We investigated the expression of TRPV1-4 by immunohistochemical staining and quantification of TRPV1-4 mRNA in human oral mucosa. In addition, we compared the TRPV1-4 levels in mucosa from patients with SCC to those in normal oral mucosa. The receptors were expressed in oral mucosa at all sites (tongue, buccal mucosa, gingiva, and oral floor) and the expression was stronger in epithelia from patients with SCC than in normal epithelia. Furthermore, alcohol consumption and tobacco use were strongly associated with the occurrence of oral cancer and were found to have a remarkable influence on TRPV1-4 receptor expression in normal oral mucosa. In particular, patients with a history of alcohol consumption demonstrated significantly higher expression levels. Various external stimuli may influence the behavior of cancer cells. Overexpression of TRPV1-4 is likely to be a factor in enhanced sensitivity to external stimuli. These findings could contribute to the establishment of novel strategies for cancer therapy or prevention.

  10. Review article: uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzziello, L; Iacopini, F; Bulajic, M; Shah, S; Costamagna, G

    2006-05-15

    Diverticular disease of the colon is the fifth most important gastrointestinal disease in terms of direct and indirect health care costs in western countries. Uncomplicated diverticular disease is defined as the presence of diverticula in the absence of complications such as perforation, fistula, obstruction and/or bleeding. The distribution of diverticula along the colon varies worldwide being almost always left-sided and directly related to age in western countries and right-sided where diet is rich in fibre. The pathophysiology of diverticular disease is complex and relates to abnormal colonic motility, changes in the colonic wall, chronic mucosal low-grade inflammation, imbalance in colonic microflora and visceral hypersensitivity. Moreover, there can be genetic factors involved in the development of colonic diverticula. The use of non-absorbable antibiotics is the mainstay of therapy in patients with mild to moderate symptoms, and the effect of fibre-supplementation alone does not appear to be significantly different from placebo, although no definite data are available. More recently, alternative treatments have been reported. Mesalazine acts as a local mucosal immunomodulator and has been shown to improve symptoms and prevent recurrence of diverticulitis. In addition, probiotics have also been shown to be beneficial by re-establishing a normal gut microflora. In this study, the current literature on uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon is reviewed.

  11. Hyaluronic Acid in Normal and Neoplastic Colorectal Tissue: Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric and Fluor Metric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cleto Marolla

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The expression of HA was found to be slightly lower in tumor tissue than in colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa, although this difference was not statistically significant. This finding probably influenced the lower expression of HA in tumor tissue than in colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa. Compared to normal tissues, HA levels are significantly increased in the tumor tissues unless they exhibit lymph node metastasis. Otherwise, the expression of HA in tumor tissue did not correlated with the other clinicopathological parameters.