WorldWideScience

Sample records for normal base deficit

  1. A new selective developmental deficit: Impaired object recognition with normal face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germine, Laura; Cashdollar, Nathan; Düzel, Emrah; Duchaine, Bradley

    2011-05-01

    Studies of developmental deficits in face recognition, or developmental prosopagnosia, have shown that individuals who have not suffered brain damage can show face recognition impairments coupled with normal object recognition (Duchaine and Nakayama, 2005; Duchaine et al., 2006; Nunn et al., 2001). However, no developmental cases with the opposite dissociation - normal face recognition with impaired object recognition - have been reported. The existence of a case of non-face developmental visual agnosia would indicate that the development of normal face recognition mechanisms does not rely on the development of normal object recognition mechanisms. To see whether a developmental variant of non-face visual object agnosia exists, we conducted a series of web-based object and face recognition tests to screen for individuals showing object recognition memory impairments but not face recognition impairments. Through this screening process, we identified AW, an otherwise normal 19-year-old female, who was then tested in the lab on face and object recognition tests. AW's performance was impaired in within-class visual recognition memory across six different visual categories (guns, horses, scenes, tools, doors, and cars). In contrast, she scored normally on seven tests of face recognition, tests of memory for two other object categories (houses and glasses), and tests of recall memory for visual shapes. Testing confirmed that her impairment was not related to a general deficit in lower-level perception, object perception, basic-level recognition, or memory. AW's results provide the first neuropsychological evidence that recognition memory for non-face visual object categories can be selectively impaired in individuals without brain damage or other memory impairment. These results indicate that the development of recognition memory for faces does not depend on intact object recognition memory and provide further evidence for category-specific dissociations in visual

  2. Focal brachial enhancement deficit: a normal anatomic variant?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Nicholas [Memorial Hermann, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX (United States); Saverino, Benjamin [Missouri PC, Radiology Specialists of St. Joseph, St. Joseph, MO (United States); Cai, Chunyan [The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Department of Internal Medicine, McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX (United States); The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Biostatistics/Epidemiology/Research/Design Core, Center for Clinical and Translational Sciences, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-10-15

    To identify the incidence of brachialis enhancement deficits (BEDs) on contrast-enhanced elbow MRIs and determine if there is an association between the presence of BEDs and presenting symptoms, other imaging findings, or patient positioning. Elbow MRIs from 138 patients (64 males, mean age 45.3 years) were reviewed. The presence, size, and degree of enhancement of BEDs as well as degree of elbow flexion, relative degree of forearm rotation, and additional finding of pathology on the MRI were recorded. BEDs were found in 54 % (75/138) of contrast-enhanced elbow MRIs. No statistically significant difference was seen between age, gender, presenting symptoms and the presence of BEDs. The BEDs varied considerably in size and degree of diminished enhancement compared to adjacent muscle. There was a very significant correlation between degree of elbow flexion and presence of BEDs (p < 0.0001) and a significant inverse correlation between cross-sectional size of BEDs and degree of flexion (p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between BED enhancement difference and degree of flexion and no significant correlation between degree of forearm rotation and cross-sectional area or enhancement difference of the BEDs. No correlation was found between the presence of BEDs and other pathology present on the MRI. BEDs are a common, likely asymptomatic phenomenon seen on post contrast elbow MRIs. The etiology of BEDs is uncertain, but they may represent a vascular phenomenon related to elbow flexion causing diminished enhancement related to brachialis compression. (orig.)

  3. Cognitive Decline in Patients with Chronic Hydrocephalus and Normal Aging: ‘Growing into Deficits'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlijn H. de Beer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: To explore the theory of ‘growing into deficits', a concept known from developmental neurology, in a series of cases with chronic hydrocephalus (CH. Methods: Patients were selected from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort and underwent extensive dementia screening. Results: Twelve patients with CH were selected, in whom Alzheimer's disease was considered unlikely, based on biomarker information and follow-up. Mean Mini-Mental State Examination score was 24 (range 7-30. Most patients were functioning on a level of mild dementia [Clinical Dementia Rating score of 0.5 in 8/11 (66.7% patients]. On neuropsychological examination, memory and executive functions, as well as processing speed were most frequently impaired. Conclusion: In our opinion, the theory of ‘growing into deficits' shows a parallel with the clinical course of CH and normal aging when Alzheimer's disease was considered very unlikely, because most of these patients were functioning well for a very large part of their lives. The altered cerebrospinal fluid dynamics might make the brain more vulnerable to aging-related changes, leading to a faster cognitive decline in CH patients compared to healthy subjects, especially in case of concomitant brain damage such as traumatic brain injury or meningitis.

  4. COMPARISON OF OXYGEN UPTAKE KINETICS AND OXYGEN DEFICIT IN SEVERELY OVERWEIGHT AND NORMAL WEIGHT ADOLESCENT FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Loftin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in oxygen uptake kinetics and oxygen deficit existed between normal weight and severely overweight adolescent girls. Subjects included 10 normal weight and 8 severely overweight girls. The participants performed a leg cycling VO2 peak test and a constant load leg cycling test at 80% of the ventilatory threshold (T-vent. In the constant workload test O2 kinetics as indicated by Phase I (VO2 L at 20 sec and Phase II time constants (t were determined. Also, the O2 deficit (VO2 L was measured. As expected significant differences were noted in body composition and VO2 peak relative to mass with normal weight body mass averaging 55.3 ± 7.0 kg, severely overweight 90.5 ± 18.0 kg, % fat normal weight 27.3 ± 3.9%, severely overweight 49.7 ± 4.9% and VO2 peak (ml·kg-1·min-1 normal weight 32.0 ± 2.7 and severely overweight 22.0 ± 5.3. VO2 peak (l·min-1 and T-vent (%VO2 max were similar between groups. Results revealed similar O2 kinetic responses between groups; phase I kinetics normal weight 0.72 ± 0.15 L; severely overweight 0.75 ± 0.13L, phase II (t normal weight 41.5 ± 21.3 sec; severely overweight 33.9 ± 22.7 sec. However, the O2 deficit was significantly higher in the severely overweight (0.75 ± 0.15L when compared to the normal weight group (0.34 ± 0.13L. Correlations ranged from r = -0.15 to 0.51 between VO2 peak (L·min-1 or fat weight and phase I, t and O2 deficit. These data generally support previous research concerning the independence of O2 uptake response and body size

  5. Clonidine Normalizes Sensorimotor Gating Deficits in Patients With Schizophrenia on Stable Medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oranje, Bob; Glenthøj, Birte Y

    2013-01-01

    Background : Cognitive deficits form core features in schizophrenia. Several studies have shown improvements in prefrontal cognitive function by α ( 2 ) -agonists in schizophrenia. In the present study, it was investigated whether clonidine (an α ( 2 ) -adrenoceptor agonist) could normalize...... paradigm on 5 occasions: once after oral administration of placebo and after a single dose of 25, 50, 75, and 150 µg of clonidine. Their results were compared with 20 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers, who received no treatment. Results : In the placebo treatment, patients showed deficient PPI...... and sensitization, yet normal habituation compared with the controls. Except the highest dose, all dosages of clonidine significantly increased percentage PPI in the patients compared with placebo, to such levels that it no longer differed significantly from the healthy controls. However, none of the dosages...

  6. Emergency department spirometric volume and base deficit delineate risk for torso injury in stable patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipe Eilynn K

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to determine torso injury rates and sensitivities associated with fluid-positive abdominal ultrasound, metabolic acidosis (increased base deficit and lactate, and impaired pulmonary physiology (decreased spirometric volume and PaO2/FiO2. Methods Level I trauma center prospective pilot and post-pilot study (2000–2001 of stable patients. Increased base deficit was 2.5 mmol/L in ethanol-negative and ≥ 3.0 mmol/L in ethanol-positive patients. Decreased PaO2/FiO2 was Results Of 215 patients, 66 (30.7% had a torso injury (abdominal/pelvic injury n = 35 and/or thoracic injury n = 43. Glasgow Coma Scale score was 14.8 ± 0.5 (13–15. Torso injury rates and sensitivities were: abdominal ultrasound negative and normal base deficit, lactate, PaO2/FiO2, and spirometric volume – 0.0% & 0.0%; normal base deficit and normal spirometric volume – 4.2% & 4.5%; chest/abdominal soft tissue injury – 37.8% & 47.0%; increased lactate – 39.7% & 47.0%; increased base deficit – 41.3% & 75.8%; increased base deficit and/or decreased spirometric volume – 43.8% & 95.5%; decreased PaO2/FiO2 – 48.9% & 33.3%; positive abdominal ultrasound – 62.5% & 7.6%; decreased spirometric volume – 73.4% & 71.2%; increased base deficit and decreased spirometric volume – 82.9% & 51.5%. Conclusions Trauma patients with normal base deficit and spirometric volume are unlikely to have a torso injury. Patients with increased base deficit or lactate, decreased spirometric volume, decreased PaO2/FiO2, or positive FAST have substantial risk for torso injury. Increased base deficit and/or decreased spirometric volume are highly sensitive for torso injury. Base deficit and spirometric volume values are readily available and increase or decrease the suspicion for torso injury.

  7. Cognition in anxious children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a comparison with clinical and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Arlene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognition in children with anxiety disorders (ANX and comorbid Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD has received little attention, potentially impacting clinical and academic interventions in this highly disabled group. This study examined several cognitive features relative to children with either pure condition and to normal controls. Methods One hundred and eight children ages 8–12 and parents were diagnosed by semi-structured parent interview and teacher report as having: ANX (any anxiety disorder except OCD or PTSD; n = 52, ADHD (n = 21, or ANX + ADHD (n = 35. All completed measures of academic ability, emotional perception, and working memory. Clinical subjects were compared to 35 normal controls from local schools. Results Groups did not differ significantly on age, gender, or estimated IQ. On analyses of variance, groups differed on academic functioning (Wide Range Achievement Test, p Conclusion Though requiring replication, findings suggest that ANX + ADHD relates to greater cognitive and academic vulnerability than ANX, but may relate to reduced perception of anger.

  8. Factor Structure, Validity, Reliability and Normalization of the Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Scale in Iranian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Tabatabaei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Researches on attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder indicated that this common disorder would not be resolved with age and continues into adulthood. This study was carried out with the objective of validation and normalization of diagnostic scale of adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder scale in Iranian sample. Methods: This study was performed as a psychometric study on the patients (1400 to 1600 cases referred to two psychiatry and neurology clinics in Tehran in the autumn and winter of 2014. Among these patients, 301 persons were selected by purposeful non-random sampling according to the sample size formula based on ratio or two-value variable (patient and non-patient and related questionnaire was administered to them. Cronbach's alpha, Spearman- Brown, and Guttmann’s coefficients was used to evaluate concurrent validity and reliability and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis in order to assess the construct validity. Results: In this study, Cronbach's alpha of the total scale was 0.88 and for the subscales of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity were 0.82, 0.72, 0.67, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the mentioned scale and adult attention deficit/hyperactivity questionnaire (Wender Utah was obtained 0.59, and between the subscales and the Wender Utah questionnaire, were 0.56, 0.49, and 0.40, respectively, which all three were significant (p<0/01. Confirmatory factor analysis results showed that this scale has three factors and two goodness-of-fit indices. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that specialists can diagnose and treat the patients using this diagnostic scale.

  9. Base Deficit as an Indicator of Significant Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multiruka1

    important cause of morbidity and mortality among trauma patients. ... the use of BD as an indicator of significant BAT. Methods: ... Key words: Base deficit, Blunt abdominal trauma,. Predictor. ..... Delineate Risk for Torso Injury in Stable Patients.

  10. Normalization based K means Clustering Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Virmani, Deepali; Taneja, Shweta; Malhotra, Geetika

    2015-01-01

    K-means is an effective clustering technique used to separate similar data into groups based on initial centroids of clusters. In this paper, Normalization based K-means clustering algorithm(N-K means) is proposed. Proposed N-K means clustering algorithm applies normalization prior to clustering on the available data as well as the proposed approach calculates initial centroids based on weights. Experimental results prove the betterment of proposed N-K means clustering algorithm over existing...

  11. Hippocampal atrophy in people with memory deficits: results from the population-based IPREA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Luca; van Lew, Baldur; Reiber, Johan H C; Gandin, Claudia; Galluzzo, Lucia; Scafato, Emanuele; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Milles, Julien; Pievani, Michela

    2014-07-01

    Clinical studies have shown that hippocampal atrophy is present before dementia in people with memory deficits and can predict dementia development. The question remains whether this association holds in the general population. This is of interest for the possible use of hippocampal atrophy to screen population for preventive interventions. The aim of this study was to assess hippocampal volume and shape abnormalities in elderly adults with memory deficits in a cross-sectional population-based study. We included individuals participating in the Italian Project on the Epidemiology of Alzheimer Disease (IPREA) study: 75 cognitively normal individuals (HC), 31 individuals with memory deficits (MEM), and 31 individuals with memory deficits not otherwise specified (MEMnos). Hippocampal volumes and shape were extracted through manual tracing and the growing and adaptive meshes (GAMEs) shape-modeling algorithm. We investigated between-group differences in hippocampal volume and shape, and correlations with memory deficits. In MEM participants, hippocampal volumes were significantly smaller than in HC and were mildly associated with worse memory scores. Memory-associated shape changes mapped to the anterior hippocampus. Shape-based analysis detected no significant difference between MEM and HC, while MEMnos showed shape changes in the posterior hippocampus compared with HC and MEM groups. These findings support the discriminant validity of hippocampal volumetry as a biomarker of memory impairment in the general population. The detection of shape changes in MEMnos but not in MEM participants suggests that shape-based biomarkers might lack sensitivity to detect Alzheimer's-like pathology in the general population.

  12. Comparing the drawings of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with normal children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Haghighi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common behavioral problem during childhood and in school-aged children. Various projection drawings have been designed for assessing children's personality and psychological disorders including the tests of draw a person (DAP and draw a family (DAF. We aimed to compare the differences between typically developing children and children with ADHD using these tests.In this case-control study, all the 9-10 year-old boy students studying at the third and fourth grades were enrolled from schools in the 2nd educational district of Shiraz, south of Iran. Eighty students were then selected and enrolled into the ADHD group and the control group. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition- text Revised (DSM-IV-TR, and the Child Symptoms Inventory were used to diagnose the children with ADHD. We evaluated and analyzed impulsiveness, non-impulsiveness, emotional problems and incompatibility indices in the DAP and DAF tests in each group.A significant difference was found in the indices of incompatibility and emotional problems, impulsiveness, non-impulsiveness and DAF between typically developing children and those with ADHD. The mean (±SD total scores of the above mentioned indices in the ADHD group were 19.79(±2.94, 12.31(±1.84, 5.26(±2.29 and 5.89(±2.13, respectively (P<0.001. The corresponding figures for these indices in the normal group were 12.11(±4.74, 5.63(±2, 10.36± (2.33 and 2.88(±2.13, respectively (P<0.001.Significant differences were obtained between the control group and children with ADHD using these two drawing tests. The rate of impulsivity and emotional problems indices in drawings of children with ADHD was markedly more common than those of the typically developing children. This suggests the need for further assessment to screen ADHD.

  13. The Democratic Deficit and School-Based Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Megan; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to apply the theory of the democratic deficit to school-based management with an emphasis on Australia. This theory was developed to examine managerial restructuring of the Australian Public Service in the 1990s. Given similarities between the use of managerial practices in the public service and government schools, the…

  14. Decision-making deficits in normal elderly persons associated with executive personality disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Christopher M; Barrash, Joseph; Koenigs, Anna L; Bechara, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel; Denburg, Natalie L

    2013-11-01

    The problems that some community-dwelling elderly persons develop in real-world decision-making may have disastrous consequences for their health and financial well-being. Investigations across the adult life span have identified personality as an important individual differences variable that is related to decision-making ability. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality characteristics, as rated by an informant, and complex decision-making performance among elderly persons. It was hypothesized that deficits in decision-making would be associated with personality characteristics reflecting weak executive functioning (Lack of Planning, Poor Judgment, Lack of Persistence, Perseveration, Lack of Initiative, Impulsivity, and Indecisiveness). Fifty-eight elderly persons participated. Their health and cognitive status were deemed intact via comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. The Iowa Scales of Personality, completed by an informant, was used to assess personality characteristics, and the Iowa Gambling Task, completed by the participant, was used to assess complex decision-making abilities. Longstanding disturbances in executive personality characteristics were found to be associated with poor decision-making, and these disturbances remained predictive of poor decision-making even after taking into consideration demographic, neuropsychological, and mood factors. Acquired personality disturbances did not add significantly to prediction after longstanding disturbances were taken into account. Disturbances in other dimensions of personality were not significantly associated with poor decision-making. Our study suggests that attentiveness to the personality correlates of difficulties with aspects of executive functioning over the adult years could enhance the ability to identify older individuals at risk for problems with real-world decision-making.

  15. Comparing the drawings of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Mahnaz; Khaterizadeh, Maedeh; Chalbianloo, Gholamreza; Toobaei, Sholeh; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral problem during childhood and in school-aged children. Various projection drawings have been designed for assessing children's personality and psychological disorders including the tests of draw a person (DAP) and draw a family (DAF). We aimed to compare the differences between typically developing children and children with ADHD using these tests. In this case-control study, all the 9-10 year-old boy students studying at the third and fourth grades were enrolled from schools in the 2nd educational district of Shiraz, south of Iran. Eighty students were then selected and enrolled into the ADHD group and the control group. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition- text Revised (DSM-IV-TR), and the Child Symptoms Inventory were used to diagnose the children with ADHD. We evaluated and analyzed impulsiveness, non-impulsiveness, emotional problems and incompatibility indices in the DAP and DAF tests in each group. A significant difference was found in the indices of incompatibility and emotional problems, impulsiveness, non-impulsiveness and DAF between typically developing children and those with ADHD. The mean (±SD) total scores of the above mentioned indices in the ADHD group were 19.79(±2.94), 12.31(±1.84), 5.26(±2.29) and 5.89(±2.13), respectively (Pchildren with ADHD using these two drawing tests. The rate of impulsivity and emotional problems indices in drawings of children with ADHD was markedly more common than those of the typically developing children. This suggests the need for further assessment to screen ADHD.

  16. [Implications of mental image processing in the deficits of verbal information coding during normal aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaie, Thierry; Thomas, Delphine

    2008-06-01

    Our study specifies the contributions of image generation and image maintenance processes occurring at the time of imaginal coding of verbal information in memory during normal aging. The memory capacities of 19 young adults (average age of 24 years) and 19 older adults (average age of 75 years) were assessed using recall tasks according to the imagery value of the stimuli to learn. The mental visual imagery capacities are assessed using tasks of image generation and temporary storage of mental imagery. The variance analysis indicates a more important decrease with age of the concretness effect. The major contribution of our study rests on the fact that the decline with age of dual coding of verbal information in memory would result primarily from the decline of image maintenance capacities and from a slowdown in image generation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Space Deficits in Parkinson’s Disease Patients: Quantitative or Qualitative Differences from Normal Controls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Natsopoulos

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD and the same number of normal controls (NCs were studied on a test battery including five conceptual categories of spatial ability. The two groups of subjects were matched for age, sex, years of education, socioeconomic status and non-verbal (Raven Standard Progressive Matrices intelligence. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA showed that the PD patients performed less efficiently on almost all the tasks. A logistic regression analysis (LRA classified 81.48% of the subjects into the PD group and 92.59% into NC group, indicating that left-right and back-front Euclidean orientation, three dimensional mental rotation and visuospatial immediate recognition memory of mirror image patterns discriminate well between the two groups. Application of a structural model (confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that both PD patients and the NC group stemmed from a homogeneous population, suggesting that the differences found between the two groups are of a quantitative rather than of a qualitative nature.

  18. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Performances on a cognitive theory of mind task: specific decline or general cognitive deficits? Evidence from normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliss, Rafika; Lemerre, Marion; Mollard, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Compromised theory of mind (ToM) can be explained either by a failure to implement specific representational capacities (mental state representations) or by more general executive selection demands. In older adult populations, evidence supporting affected executive functioning and cognitive ToM in normal aging are reported. However, links between these two functions remain unclear. In the present paper, we address these shortcomings by using a specific task of ToM and classical executive tasks. We studied, using an original cognitive ToM task, the effect of age on ToM performances, in link with the progressive executive decline. 96 elderly participants were recruited. They were asked to perform a cognitive ToM task, and 5 executive tests (Stroop test and Hayling Sentence Completion Test to appreciate inhibitory process, Trail Making Test and Verbal Fluency for shifting assessment and backward span dedicated to estimate working memory capacity). The results show changes in cognitive ToM performance according to executive demands. Correlational studies indicate a significant relationship between ToM performance and the selected executive measures. Regression analyzes demonstrates that level of vocabulary and age as the best predictors of ToM performance. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that ToM deficits are related to age-related domain-general decline rather than as to a breakdown in specialized representational system. The implications of these findings for the nature of social cognition tests in normal aging are also discussed.

  20. Comparison of Mental Health Status in Mothers of Primary School Children with Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder and Mothers of Normal Children in Yazd city (2015- 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jafari Nodoushan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ADHD is one of the most common disorders among school children throughout the world. Parents of these children are faced with more conflicts than normal children's parents. The Purpose of his study was to evaluate and compare the mental health status of mothers having children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder versus mental health of mothers having normal primary school children, Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 160 mothers of primary-school children who were selected through random cluster sampling; 80 of them had children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder and the remaining half had normal children. Also, for the diagnosis of children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder, the Conners test as well as test of General Mental Health (GHQ were used to measure mothers' mental health. The data were then analyzed in two levels of descriptive and inferential statistics (T-test and analysis of variance Results: Comparison of mental health and its subscales indicated that mothers of children with ADHD disorder were lower in all aspects of mental health than mothers of normal children. Conclution: According to the research results, mothers of children with attention deficit/hyperactive disorder have lower levels of mental health than mothers of normal children. So, it is recommended that education and health officials provide training courses for these parents to promote their mental health status and consequently their quality of family life.

  1. Can we predict cognitive deficits based on cognitive complaints?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Małgorzata Szepietowska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine whether the intensity of cognitive complaints can, in conjunction with other selected variables, predict the general level of cognitive functions evaluated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA test. Current reports do not show clear conclusions on this subject. Some data indicate that cognitive complaints have a predictive value for low scores in standardised tasks, suggesting cognitive dysfunction (e.g. mild cognitive impairment. Other data, however, do not support the predictive role of complaints, and show no relationship to exist between the complaints and the results of cognitive tests. Material and methods: The study included 118 adults (58 women and 60 men. We used the MoCA test, a self-report questionnaire assessing the intensity of cognitive complaints (Patient-Reported Outcomes in Cognitive Impairment – PROCOG and Dysexecutive Questionnaire/Self – DEX-S, and selected subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R PL. On the basis of the results from the MoCA test, two separate groups were created, one comprising respondents with lower results, and one – those who obtained scores indicating a normal level of cognitive function. We compared these groups according to the severity of the complaints and the results obtained with the other methods. Logistic regression analysis was performed taking into account the independent variables (gender, age, result in PROCOG, DEX-S, and neurological condition and the dependent variable (dichotomized result in MoCA. Results: Groups with different levels of performance in MoCA differed in regards of some cognitive abilities and the severity of complaints related to semantic memory, anxiety associated with a sense of deficit and loss of skills, but provided similar self-assessments regarding the efficiency of episodic memory, long-term memory, social skills and executive functions. The severity of complaints does not allow

  2. Flood Risk Assessment Based On Security Deficit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J.; Metzger, R.; Hingray, B.; Musy, A.

    Risk is a human perception: a given risk may be considered as acceptable or unac- ceptable depending on the group that has to face that risk. Flood risk analysis of- ten estimates economic losses from damages, but neglects the question of accept- able/unacceptable risk. With input from land use managers, politicians and other stakeholders, risk assessment based on security deficit analysis determines objects with unacceptable risk and their degree of security deficit. Such a risk assessment methodology, initially developed by the Swiss federal authorities, is illustrated by its application on a reach of the Alzette River (Luxembourg) in the framework of the IRMA-SPONGE FRHYMAP project. Flood risk assessment always involves a flood hazard analysis, an exposed object vulnerability analysis, and an analysis combing the results of these two previous analyses. The flood hazard analysis was done with the quasi-2D hydraulic model FldPln to produce flood intensity maps. Flood intensity was determined by the water height and velocity. Object data for the vulnerability analysis, provided by the Luxembourg government, were classified according to their potential damage. Potential damage is expressed in terms of direct, human life and secondary losses. A thematic map was produced to show the object classification. Protection goals were then attributed to the object classes. Protection goals are assigned in terms of an acceptable flood intensity for a certain flood frequency. This is where input from land use managers and politicians comes into play. The perception of risk in the re- gion or country influences the protection goal assignment. Protection goals as used in Switzerland were used in this project. Thematic maps showing the protection goals of each object in the case study area for a given flood frequency were produced. Com- parison between an object's protection goal and the intensity of the flood that touched the object determine the acceptability of the risk and the

  3. The comparison of attentional control deficits in the three group of normal, with social anxiety disorder and with comorbidity (social anxiety disorder and depression) students of Lorestan University

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadampour E; Rezaei F; Hosseini Ramaghani NA; Moradi M

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: One of the mechanisms that thought to underlie social anxiety disorder is dysfunction in attentional control. The current study was designed to compare attentional control deficits in the three group: normal, with social anxiety disorder and with comorbidity (social anxiety disorder and depression) students. Methods: The design of present study was causal-comparative. Statistical population of this study contained all normal female students, with social anxiety disorde...

  4. Application of a data-mining method based on Bayesian networks to lesion-deficit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovits, Edward H.; Gerring, Joan P.

    2003-01-01

    Although lesion-deficit analysis (LDA) has provided extensive information about structure-function associations in the human brain, LDA has suffered from the difficulties inherent to the analysis of spatial data, i.e., there are many more variables than subjects, and data may be difficult to model using standard distributions, such as the normal distribution. We herein describe a Bayesian method for LDA; this method is based on data-mining techniques that employ Bayesian networks to represent structure-function associations. These methods are computationally tractable, and can represent complex, nonlinear structure-function associations. When applied to the evaluation of data obtained from a study of the psychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury in children, this method generates a Bayesian network that demonstrates complex, nonlinear associations among lesions in the left caudate, right globus pallidus, right side of the corpus callosum, right caudate, and left thalamus, and subsequent development of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, confirming and extending our previous statistical analysis of these data. Furthermore, analysis of simulated data indicates that methods based on Bayesian networks may be more sensitive and specific for detecting associations among categorical variables than methods based on chi-square and Fisher exact statistics.

  5. A comparative study of deficit pattern in theory of mind and emotion regulation methods in evaluating patients with bipolar disorder and normal individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Fakhari; Khalegh Minashiri; Abolfazl Fallahi; Mohammad Taher Panah

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study compared patterns of deficit in "theory of mind" and "emotion regulation" in patientswith bipolar disorder and normal individuals. METHODS: In this causal-comparative study, subjects were 20 patients with bipolar disorder and 20 normalindividuals. Patients were selected via convenience sampling method among hospitalized patients at Razi hospital ofTabriz, Iran. The data was collected through two scales: Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and Emotion RegulationQuestionnai...

  6. CNN-based ranking for biomedical entity normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haodi; Chen, Qingcai; Tang, Buzhou; Wang, Xiaolong; Xu, Hua; Wang, Baohua; Huang, Dong

    2017-10-03

    Most state-of-the-art biomedical entity normalization systems, such as rule-based systems, merely rely on morphological information of entity mentions, but rarely consider their semantic information. In this paper, we introduce a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture that regards biomedical entity normalization as a ranking problem and benefits from semantic information of biomedical entities. The CNN-based ranking method first generates candidates using handcrafted rules, and then ranks the candidates according to their semantic information modeled by CNN as well as their morphological information. Experiments on two benchmark datasets for biomedical entity normalization show that our proposed CNN-based ranking method outperforms traditional rule-based method with state-of-the-art performance. We propose a CNN architecture that regards biomedical entity normalization as a ranking problem. Comparison results show that semantic information is beneficial to biomedical entity normalization and can be well combined with morphological information in our CNN architecture for further improvement.

  7. Comparison of the outcome of burn patients using acute-phase plasma base deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, S H; As'adi, K; Mousavi, J

    2011-12-31

    Background. In recent years, plasma base deficit has been used as a marker to determine the status of tissue perfusion in trauma patients and also to predict the outcome of these patients. This study was performed to investigate the effect of plasma base deficit in predicting burn patient outcome. Methods. This prospective cohort study was performed from October 2009 to October 2010 in the acute phase of burn patients who were admitted within 6 h post-injury to Motahari Burn Hospital in Iran. The patients were divided into two groups based on the plasma base deficit in the first 24 h post-injury: group A, in which the mean plasma base deficit was less than or equal to -6 (more negative), and group B, in which the mean plasma base deficit greater than -6. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v.16 software. Results. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in each group. The mean plasma base deficit in group A (-7.76 ± 2.18 mmol) was significantly less than that in group B (-1.19 ± 2.82) mmol (p 0.05) and despite removal of interfering factors, there were significant differences between the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome score and the percentage of sepsis between the two groups (p 0.05). Conclusion. The plasma base deficit can be used as a valuable marker in the resuscitation of burn patients, along with clinical criteria. Physiological indicators (burn percentage, age, and mucosal burns) are not sufficient to predict mortality and morbidity in burn patients, and it is necessary to investigate the role of biochemical markers such as base deficit in determining the final outcome of burn patients.

  8. Rhythm-based heartbeat duration normalization for atrial fibrillation detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Saiful; Ammour, Nassim; Alajlan, Naif; Aboalsamh, Hatim

    2016-05-01

    Screening of atrial fibrillation (AF) for high-risk patients including all patients aged 65 years and older is important for prevention of risk of stroke. Different technologies such as modified blood pressure monitor, single lead ECG-based finger-probe, and smart phone using plethysmogram signal have been emerging for this purpose. All these technologies use irregularity of heartbeat duration as a feature for AF detection. We have investigated a normalization method of heartbeat duration for improved AF detection. AF is an arrhythmia in which heartbeat duration generally becomes irregularly irregular. From a window of heartbeat duration, we estimate the possible rhythm of the majority of heartbeats and normalize duration of all heartbeats in the window based on the rhythm so that we can measure the irregularity of heartbeats for both AF and non-AF rhythms in the same scale. Irregularity is measured by the entropy of distribution of the normalized duration. Then we classify a window of heartbeats as AF or non-AF by thresholding the measured irregularity. The effect of this normalization is evaluated by comparing AF detection performances using duration with the normalization, without normalization, and with other existing normalizations. Sensitivity and specificity of AF detection using normalized heartbeat duration were tested on two landmark databases available online and compared with results of other methods (with/without normalization) by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. ROC analysis showed that the normalization was able to improve the performance of AF detection and it was consistent for a wide range of sensitivity and specificity for use of different thresholds. Detection accuracy was also computed for equal rates of sensitivity and specificity for different methods. Using normalized heartbeat duration, we obtained 96.38% accuracy which is more than 4% improvement compared to AF detection without normalization. The proposed normalization

  9. An iPad-Based Tool for Improving the Skills of Children with Attention Deficit Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wrońska, Natalia; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya; Mendez-Zorrilla, Amaia

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), with a worldwide prevalence of 5.29%–7.1%, is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders among children and adolescents. Apart from typical symptoms like inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness, patients also evidence attention deficit problems with reading comprehension. This in turn causes poor school performance and widens the gap with peers without ADHD. This paper presents a novel and interactive tool based on Serious Games...

  10. Exposure to 56Fe irradiation accelerates normal brain aging and produces deficits in spatial learning and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Casadesus, Gemma; Carey, Amanda N.; Rabin, Bernard M.; Joseph, James A.

    Previous studies have shown that radiation exposure, particularly to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles) such as 56Fe, produces deficits in spatial learning and memory. These adverse behavioral effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. It is possible that these shared effects may be produced by the same mechanism. For example, an increased release of reactive oxygen species, and the subsequent oxidative stress and inflammatory damage caused to the central nervous system, is likely responsible for the deficits seen in aging and following irradiation. Therefore, dietary antioxidants, such as those found in fruits and vegetables, could be used as countermeasures to prevent the behavioral changes seen in these conditions. Both aged and irradiated rats display cognitive impairment in tests of spatial learning and memory such as the Morris water maze and the radial arm maze. These rats have decrements in the ability to build spatial representations of the environment, and they utilize non-spatial strategies to solve tasks. Furthermore, they show a lack of spatial preference, due to a decline in the ability to process or retain place (position of a goal with reference to a “map” provided by the configuration of numerous cues in the environment) information. These declines in spatial memory occur in measures dependent on both reference and working memory, and in the flexibility to reset mental images. These results show that irradiation with 56Fe high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts, particularly middle-aged ones, to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere.

  11. Running rescues a fear-based contextual discrimination deficit in aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody V. Wu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging and exercise exert extensive, often opposing, effects on the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus altering volume, synaptic function, and behaviors. The DG is especially important for behaviors requiring pattern separation—a cognitive process that enables animals to differentiate between highly similar contextual experiences. To determine how age and exercise modulate pattern separation in an aversive setting, young, aged, and aged mice provided with a running wheel were assayed on a fear-based contextual discrimination task. Aged mice showed a profound impairment in contextual discrimination compared to young animals. Voluntary exercise rescued this deficit to such an extent that behavioral pattern separation of aged-run mice was now similar to young animals. Running also resulted in a significant increase in the number of immature neurons with tertiary dendrites in aged mice. Despite this, neurogenesis levels in aged-run mice were still considerably lower than in young animals. Thus, mechanisms other than DG neurogenesis likely play significant roles in improving behavioral pattern separation elicited by exercise in aged animals.

  12. Deficits in emotion based decision-making in schizophrenia; a new insight based on the Iowa Gambling Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Shirayama, Yukihiko; Niitsu, Tomihisa; Hashimoto, Kenji; Iyo, Masaomi

    2015-03-03

    Defective decision-making is a symptom of impaired cognitive function observed in patients with schizophrenia. Impairment on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been reported in patients with schizophrenia, but these results are inconsistent among studies. We differentiated subjects based on whether they expressed certainty at having deciphered an advantageous strategy in the course of the task. We investigated this impairment using the IGT in patients with schizophrenia and performed analysis different to standard advantageous decks minus disadvantageous decks in all 100 card choices, [C+D]-[A+B](1-100). We examined the effects on behavior after receiving a big penalty. Results were dependent on participants utilizing with or without certainty, the best strategy for positive gain. Schizophrenic patients without certainty failed to show card choice shift, from disadvantageous to advantageous decks. Differences in card choices on the IGT were clearly shown between patients with schizophrenia and normal controls by the use of improvement from block 1 to blocks 3-5, [C+D]-[A+B]([41-100]-[1-20]) (Pemotion-based learning in schizophrenia without uncertainty were related to scores on the SANS and S5 attention. In addition, S1 affective flattering and S4 anhedonia-asociality were also related to these deficits. For a while, normal controls showed a smooth shift from disadvantageous to advantageous decks after big penalties, with or without a certainty for strategy. However, patients with schizophrenia failed to show switching from disadvantageous to advantageous decks, even after big penalties, under the same conditions. Our results highlight certainty of strategy and behavior after a big penalty, as two points of difference between patients with schizophrenia and normal controls in the accumulation of net scores. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Model-based normalization for iterative 3D PET image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, B.; Li, Q.; Asma, E.; Leahy, R.M.; Holdsworth, C.H.; Chatziioannou, A.; Tai, Y.C.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a method for normalization in 3D PET for use with maximum a posteriori (MAP) or other iterative model-based image reconstruction methods. This approach is an extension of previous factored normalization methods in which we include separate factors for detector sensitivity, geometric response, block effects and deadtime. Since our MAP reconstruction approach already models some of the geometric factors in the forward projection, the normalization factors must be modified to account only for effects not already included in the model. We describe a maximum likelihood approach to joint estimation of the count-rate independent normalization factors, which we apply to data from a uniform cylindrical source. We then compute block-wise and block-profile deadtime correction factors using singles and coincidence data, respectively, from a multiframe cylindrical source. We have applied this method for reconstruction of data from the Concorde microPET P4 scanner. Quantitative evaluation of this method using well-counter measurements of activity in a multicompartment phantom compares favourably with normalization based directly on cylindrical source measurements. (author)

  14. How distributed processing produces false negatives in voxel-based lesion-deficit analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajardo-Vidal, Andrea; Lorca-Puls, Diego L; Crinion, Jennifer T; White, Jitrachote; Seghier, Mohamed L; Leff, Alex P; Hope, Thomas M H; Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Green, David W; Bowman, Howard; Price, Cathy J

    2018-07-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that if the same deficit can be caused by damage to one or another part of a distributed neural system, then voxel-based analyses might miss critical lesion sites because preservation of each site will not be consistently associated with preserved function. The first part of our investigation used voxel-based multiple regression analyses of data from 359 right-handed stroke survivors to identify brain regions where lesion load is associated with picture naming abilities after factoring out variance related to object recognition, semantics and speech articulation so as to focus on deficits arising at the word retrieval level. A highly significant lesion-deficit relationship was identified in left temporal and frontal/premotor regions. Post-hoc analyses showed that damage to either of these sites caused the deficit of interest in less than half the affected patients (76/162 = 47%). After excluding all patients with damage to one or both of the identified regions, our second analysis revealed a new region, in the anterior part of the left putamen, which had not been previously detected because many patients had the deficit of interest after temporal or frontal damage that preserved the left putamen. The results illustrate how (i) false negative results arise when the same deficit can be caused by different lesion sites; (ii) some of the missed effects can be unveiled by adopting an iterative approach that systematically excludes patients with lesions to the areas identified in previous analyses, (iii) statistically significant voxel-based lesion-deficit mappings can be driven by a subset of patients; (iv) focal lesions to the identified regions are needed to determine whether the deficit of interest is the consequence of focal damage or much more extensive damage that includes the identified region; and, finally, (v) univariate voxel-based lesion-deficit mappings cannot, in isolation, be used to predict outcome in other patients

  15. Mesh Denoising based on Normal Voting Tensor and Binary Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, S. K.; Reitebuch, U.; Polthier, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a tensor multiplication based smoothing algorithm that follows a two step denoising method. Unlike other traditional averaging approaches, our approach uses an element based normal voting tensor to compute smooth surfaces. By introducing a binary optimization on the proposed tensor together with a local binary neighborhood concept, our algorithm better retains sharp features and produces smoother umbilical regions than previous approaches. On top of that, we provide a stoc...

  16. Determination of rolling resistance coefficient based on normal tyre stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykov, S. P.; Tarasuyk, V. N.; Koval, V. S.; Ovchinnikova, N. I.; Fedotov, A. I.; Fedotov, K. V.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the article is to develop analytical dependence of wheel rolling resistance coefficient based on the mathematical description of normal tyre stiffness. The article uses the methods of non-holonomic mechanics and plane section methods. The article shows that the abscissa of gravity center of tyre stiffness expansion by the length of the contact area is the shift of normal road response. It can be used for determining rolling resistance coefficient. When determining rolling resistance coefficient using ellipsis and power function equations, one can reduce labor costs for testing and increase assessment accuracy.

  17. Water deficit and water surplus maps for Brazil, based on FAO Penman-Monteith potential evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalton Evandro Machado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The climatological water balance (CWB proposed by Thornthwaite and Mather (1957 is a useful tool for agricultural planning. This method requires the soil water holding capacity (SWHC, rainfall (R and potential evapotranspiration (PET data as input. Among the methods used to estimate PET, the one proposed by Thornthwaite (1948 is the simplest and the most used in Brazil, however it presents limitations of use, which is caused by its empirical relationships. When Thornthwaite PET method is used into the CWB, the errors associated to PET are transferred to the output variables, mainly water deficit (WD and water surplus (WS. As all maps of WD and WS for Brazil are based on Thornthwaite PET, the objective of this study was to produce new maps of these variables considering Penman-Monteith PET. For this purpose, monthly normal climate data base (1961-1990 from Brazilian Meteorological Service (INMET, with 219 locations in all country, was used. PET data were estimated by Thornthwaite (TH and FAO Penman-Monteith (PM methods. PET, from both methods, and R data were used to estimate the CWB for a SWHC of 100 mm, having as results actual ET (AET, WD and WS. Results obtained with PET from the two methods were compared by regression analysis. The results showed that TH method underestimated annual PM PET by 13% in 84% of the places. Such underestimation also led to AET and WD underestimations of 7% (in 69% of places and 40% (in 83% of places, respectively. For WS, the use of TH PET data in the CWB resulted in overestimations of about 80% in 78% of places. The differences observed in the CWB variables resulted in changes in the maps of WD and WS for Brazil. These new maps, based on PM PET, provide more accurate information, mainly for agricultural and hydrological planning and irrigation and drainage projects purposes.

  18. Deficits in audiovisual speech perception in normal aging emerge at the level of whole-word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Nelms, Caitlin E; Baum, Sarah H; Zurkovsky, Lilia; Barense, Morgan D; Newhouse, Paul A; Wallace, Mark T

    2015-01-01

    Over the next 2 decades, a dramatic shift in the demographics of society will take place, with a rapid growth in the population of older adults. One of the most common complaints with healthy aging is a decreased ability to successfully perceive speech, particularly in noisy environments. In such noisy environments, the presence of visual speech cues (i.e., lip movements) provide striking benefits for speech perception and comprehension, but previous research suggests that older adults gain less from such audiovisual integration than their younger peers. To determine at what processing level these behavioral differences arise in healthy-aging populations, we administered a speech-in-noise task to younger and older adults. We compared the perceptual benefits of having speech information available in both the auditory and visual modalities and examined both phoneme and whole-word recognition across varying levels of signal-to-noise ratio. For whole-word recognition, older adults relative to younger adults showed greater multisensory gains at intermediate SNRs but reduced benefit at low SNRs. By contrast, at the phoneme level both younger and older adults showed approximately equivalent increases in multisensory gain as signal-to-noise ratio decreased. Collectively, the results provide important insights into both the similarities and differences in how older and younger adults integrate auditory and visual speech cues in noisy environments and help explain some of the conflicting findings in previous studies of multisensory speech perception in healthy aging. These novel findings suggest that audiovisual processing is intact at more elementary levels of speech perception in healthy-aging populations and that deficits begin to emerge only at the more complex word-recognition level of speech signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Topology-based hierarchical scheduling using deficit round robin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Yan, Ying; Berger, Michael Stubert

    2009-01-01

    according to the topology. The mapping process could be completed through the network management plane or by manual configuration. Based on the knowledge of the network, the scheduler can manage the traffic on behalf of other less advanced nodes, avoid potential traffic congestion, and provide flow...... protection and isolation. Comparisons between hierarchical scheduling, flow-based scheduling, and class-based scheduling schemes have been carried out under a symmetric tree topology. Results have shown that the hierarchical scheduling scheme provides better flow protection and isolation from attack...

  20. The impact of a model-based clinical regional registry for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Michele; Cartabia, Massimo; Didoni, Anna; Fortinguerra, Filomena; Reale, Laura; Mondini, Matteo; Bonati, Maurizio

    2017-09-01

    This article describes the development and clinical impact of the Italian Regional ADHD Registry, aimed at collecting and monitoring diagnostic and therapeutic pathways of care for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder children and adolescents, launched by the Italian Lombardy Region in June 2011. In particular, the model-based software used to run the registry and manage clinical care data acquisition and monitoring, is described. This software was developed using the PROSAFE programme, which is already used for data collection in many Italian intensive care units, as a stand-alone interface case report form. The use of the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder regional registry led to an increase in the appropriateness of the clinical management of all patients included in the registry, proving to be an important instrument in ensuring an appropriate healthcare strategy for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

  1. Consultation-Based Academic Intervention for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: School Functioning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitendra, Asha K.; DuPaul, George J.; Volpe, Robert J.; Tresco, Katy E.; Junod, Rosemary E. Vile; Lutz, J. Gary; Cleary, Kristi S.; Flammer-Rivera, Lizette M.; Manella, Mark C.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of two consultation-based models for designing academic interventions to enhance the educational functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Children (N = 167) meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual" (4th ed.--text revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria for…

  2. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  3. Executive functions differences in normal scholars, with Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, disorder of arithmetical skills and comorbid condition

    OpenAIRE

    Gaitán Chipatecua, Alexandra; Rey-Anacona, César-Armando

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio descriptivo-comparativo fue comparar el desempeño en funciones ejecutivas de escolares entre ocho y trece años con trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH), trastorno del cálculo (TC), TDAH+TC y controles normales. Los diagnósticos se confirmaron a través de una entrevista clínica semiestructurada, un cuestionario clínico de déficit atencional y pruebas de cálculo matemático. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los...

  4. Auditory brainstem response latency in forward masking, a marker of sensory deficits in listeners with normal hearing thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehraei, Golbarg; Paredes Gallardo, Andreu; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2017-01-01

    -spontaneous rate fibers results in a faster recovery of wave-V latency as the slow contribution of these fibers is reduced. Results showed that in young audiometrically normal listeners, a larger change in wave-V latency with increasing masker-to-probe interval was related to a greater effect of a preceding masker......-V latency changes with increasing masker-to-probe intervals. In the same listeners, behavioral forward masking detection thresholds were measured. We hypothesized that 1) auditory nerve fiber deafferentation increases forward masking thresholds and increases wave-V latency and 2) a preferential loss of low...

  5. Mesh Denoising based on Normal Voting Tensor and Binary Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sunil Kumar; Reitebuch, Ulrich; Polthier, Konrad

    2017-08-17

    This paper presents a two-stage mesh denoising algorithm. Unlike other traditional averaging approaches, our approach uses an element-based normal voting tensor to compute smooth surfaces. By introducing a binary optimization on the proposed tensor together with a local binary neighborhood concept, our algorithm better retains sharp features and produces smoother umbilical regions than previous approaches. On top of that, we provide a stochastic analysis on the different kinds of noise based on the average edge length. The quantitative results demonstrate that the performance of our method is better compared to state-of-the-art smoothing approaches.

  6. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping of stroke lesions underlying somatosensory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sarah; Kessner, Simon S; Cheng, Bastian; Bönstrup, Marlene; Schulz, Robert; Hummel, Friedhelm C; De Bruyn, Nele; Peeters, Andre; Van Pesch, Vincent; Duprez, Thierry; Sunaert, Stefan; Schrooten, Maarten; Feys, Hilde; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Thijs, Vincent; Verheyden, Geert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between stroke lesion location and the resulting somatosensory deficit. We studied exteroceptive and proprioceptive somatosensory symptoms and stroke lesions in 38 patients with first-ever acute stroke. The Erasmus modified Nottingham Sensory Assessment was used to clinically evaluate somatosensory functioning in the arm and hand within the first week after stroke onset. Additionally, more objective measures such as the perceptual threshold of touch and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded. Non-parametric voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was performed to investigate lesion contribution to different somatosensory deficits in the upper limb. Additionally, structural connectivity of brain areas that demonstrated the strongest association with somatosensory symptoms was determined, using probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion tensor imaging data from a healthy age-matched sample. Voxels with a significant association to somatosensory deficits were clustered in two core brain regions: the central parietal white matter, also referred to as the sensory component of the superior thalamic radiation, and the parietal operculum close to the insular cortex, representing the secondary somatosensory cortex. Our objective recordings confirmed findings from clinical assessments. Probabilistic tracking connected the first region to thalamus, internal capsule, brain stem, postcentral gyrus, cerebellum, and frontal pathways, while the second region demonstrated structural connections to thalamus, insular and primary somatosensory cortex. This study reveals that stroke lesions in the sensory fibers of the superior thalamocortical radiation and the parietal operculum are significantly associated with multiple exteroceptive and proprioceptive deficits in the arm and hand.

  7. Can Motivation Normalize Working Memory and Task Persistence in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? The Effects of Money and Computer-Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovis, Sebastiaan; van der Oord, Saskia; Wiers, Reinout W.; Prins, Pier J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Visual-spatial "Working Memory" (WM) is the most impaired executive function in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Some suggest that deficits in executive functioning are caused by motivational deficits. However, there are no studies that investigate the effects of motivation on the visual-spatial WM of children with-…

  8. Can motivation normalize working memory and task persistence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? The effects of money and computer-gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dovis, S.; van der Oord, S.; Wiers, R.W.; Prins, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Visual-spatial Working Memory (WM) is the most impaired executive function in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Some suggest that deficits in executive functioning are caused by motivational deficits. However, there are no studies that investigate the effects of

  9. Vocal fold contact patterns based on normal modes of vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Simeon L; Titze, Ingo R

    2018-05-17

    The fluid-structure interaction and energy transfer from respiratory airflow to self-sustained vocal fold oscillation continues to be a topic of interest in vocal fold research. Vocal fold vibration is driven by pressures on the vocal fold surface, which are determined by the shape of the glottis and the contact between vocal folds. Characterization of three-dimensional glottal shapes and contact patterns can lead to increased understanding of normal and abnormal physiology of the voice, as well as to development of improved vocal fold models, but a large inventory of shapes has not been directly studied previously. This study aimed to take an initial step toward characterizing vocal fold contact patterns systematically. Vocal fold motion and contact was modeled based on normal mode vibration, as it has been shown that vocal fold vibration can be almost entirely described by only the few lowest order vibrational modes. Symmetric and asymmetric combinations of the four lowest normal modes of vibration were superimposed on left and right vocal fold medial surfaces, for each of three prephonatory glottal configurations, according to a surface wave approach. Contact patterns were generated from the interaction of modal shapes at 16 normalized phases during the vibratory cycle. Eight major contact patterns were identified and characterized by the shape of the flow channel, with the following descriptors assigned: convergent, divergent, convergent-divergent, uniform, split, merged, island, and multichannel. Each of the contact patterns and its variation are described, and future work and applications are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microsoft Kinect-based Continuous Performance Test: An Objective Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gomez, David; Peñuelas-Calvo, Inmaculada; Masó-Besga, Antonio Eduardo; Vallejo-Oñate, Silvia; Baltasar Tello, Itziar; Arrua Duarte, Elsa; Vera Varela, María Constanza; Carballo, Juan; Baca-García, Enrique

    2017-03-20

    One of the major challenges in mental medical care is finding out new instruments for an accurate and objective evaluation of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Early ADHD identification, severity assessment, and prompt treatment are essential to avoid the negative effects associated with this mental condition. The aim of our study was to develop a novel ADHD assessment instrument based on Microsoft Kinect, which identifies ADHD cardinal symptoms in order to provide a more accurate evaluation. A group of 30 children, aged 8-12 years (10.3 [SD 1.4]; male 70% [21/30]), who were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit of the Department of Psychiatry at Fundación Jiménez Díaz Hospital (Madrid, Spain), were included in this study. Children were required to meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria of ADHD diagnosis. One of the parents or guardians of the children filled the Spanish version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior (SWAN) rating scale used in clinical practice. Each child conducted a Kinect-based continuous performance test (CPT) in which the reaction time (RT), the commission errors, and the time required to complete the reaction (CT) were calculated. The correlations of the 3 predictors, obtained using Kinect methodology, with respect to the scores of the SWAN scale were calculated. The RT achieved a correlation of -.11, -.29, and -.37 with respect to the inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity factors of the SWAN scale. The correlations of the commission error with respect to these 3 factors were -.03, .01, and .24, respectively. Our findings show a relation between the Microsoft Kinect-based version of the CPT and ADHD symptomatology assessed through parental report. Results point out the importance of future research on the development of objective measures for the diagnosis of ADHD among children and adolescents. ©David Delgado-Gomez, Inmaculada

  11. The normal acid-base status of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Nina K; Malte, Hans; Baatrup, Erik; Wang, Tobias

    2012-03-15

    Rodent models are commonly used for various physiological studies including acid-base regulation. Despite the widespread use of especially genetic modified mice, little attention have been made to characterise the normal acid-base status in these animals in order to reveal proper control values. Furthermore, several studies report blood gas values obtained in anaesthetised animals. We, therefore, decided to characterise blood CO(2) binding characteristic of mouse blood in vitro and to characterise normal acid-base status in conscious BALBc mice. In vitro CO(2) dissociation curves, performed on whole blood equilibrated to various PCO₂ levels in rotating tonometers, revealed a typical mammalian pK' (pK'=7.816-0.234 × pH (r=0.34)) and a non-bicarbonate buffer capacity (16.1 ± 2.6 slyke). To measure arterial acid-base status, small blood samples were taken from undisturbed mice with indwelling catheters in the carotid artery. In these animals, pH was 7.391 ± 0.026, plasma [HCO(3)(-)] 18.4 ± 0.83 mM, PCO₂ 30.3 ± 2.1 mm Hg and lactate concentration 4.6 ± 0.7 mM. Our study, therefore, shows that mice have an arterial pH that resembles other mammals, although arterial PCO₂ tends to be lower than in larger mammals. However, pH from arterial blood sampled from mice anaesthetised with isoflurane was significantly lower (pH 7.239 ± 0.021), while plasma [HCO(3)(-)] was 18.5 ± 1.4 mM, PCO₂ 41.9 ± 2.9 mm Hg and lactate concentration 4.48 ± 0.67 mM. Furthermore, we measured metabolism and ventilation (V(E)) in order to determine the ventilation requirements (VE/VO₂) to answer whether small mammals tend to hyperventilate. We recommend, therefore, that studies on acid-base regulation in mice should be based on samples taken for indwelling catheters rather than cardiac puncture of terminally anaesthetised mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative metagenomic analyses based on average genome size normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Jeremy Alexander; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2011-01-01

    provide not just a census of the community members but direct information on metabolic capabilities and potential interactions among community members. Here we introduce a method for the quantitative characterization and comparison of microbial communities based on the normalization of metagenomic data...... marine sources using both conventional small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene analyses and our quantitative method to calculate the proportion of genomes in each sample that are capable of a particular metabolic trait. With both environments, to determine what proportion of each community they make up and how......). These analyses demonstrate how genome proportionality compares to SSU rRNA gene relative abundance and how factors such as average genome size and SSU rRNA gene copy number affect sampling probability and therefore both types of community analysis....

  13. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping of stroke lesions underlying somatosensory deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Meyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between stroke lesion location and the resulting somatosensory deficit. We studied exteroceptive and proprioceptive somatosensory symptoms and stroke lesions in 38 patients with first-ever acute stroke. The Erasmus modified Nottingham Sensory Assessment was used to clinically evaluate somatosensory functioning in the arm and hand within the first week after stroke onset. Additionally, more objective measures such as the perceptual threshold of touch and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded. Non-parametric voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was performed to investigate lesion contribution to different somatosensory deficits in the upper limb. Additionally, structural connectivity of brain areas that demonstrated the strongest association with somatosensory symptoms was determined, using probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion tensor imaging data from a healthy age-matched sample. Voxels with a significant association to somatosensory deficits were clustered in two core brain regions: the central parietal white matter, also referred to as the sensory component of the superior thalamic radiation, and the parietal operculum close to the insular cortex, representing the secondary somatosensory cortex. Our objective recordings confirmed findings from clinical assessments. Probabilistic tracking connected the first region to thalamus, internal capsule, brain stem, postcentral gyrus, cerebellum, and frontal pathways, while the second region demonstrated structural connections to thalamus, insular and primary somatosensory cortex. This study reveals that stroke lesions in the sensory fibers of the superior thalamocortical radiation and the parietal operculum are significantly associated with multiple exteroceptive and proprioceptive deficits in the arm and hand.

  14. Patients with primary biliary cholangitis and fatigue present with depressive symptoms and selected cognitive deficits, but with normal attention performance and brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenouzi, Roman; von der Gablentz, Janina; Heldmann, Marcus; Göttlich, Martin; Weiler-Normann, Christina; Sebode, Marcial; Ehlken, Hanno; Hartl, Johannes; Fellbrich, Anja; Siemonsen, Susanne; Schramm, Christoph; Münte, Thomas F; Lohse, Ansgar W

    2018-01-01

    In primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) fatigue is a major clinical challenge of unknown etiology. By demonstrating that fatigue in PBC is associated with an impaired cognitive performance, previous studies have pointed out the possibility of brain abnormalities underlying fatigue in PBC. Whether structural brain changes are present in PBC patients with fatigue, however, is unclear. To evaluate the role of structural brain abnormalities in PBC patients severely affected from fatigue we, therefore, performed a case-control cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) study and correlated changes of white and grey brain matter with the cognitive and attention performance. 20 female patients with PBC and 20 female age-matched controls were examined in this study. The assessment of fatigue, psychological symptoms, cognitive and attention performance included clinical questionnaires, established cognition tests and a computerized test battery of attention performance. T1-weighted cMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans were acquired with a 3 Tesla scanner. Structural brain alterations were investigated with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and DTI analyses. Results were correlated to the cognitive and attention performance. Compared to healthy controls, PBC patients had significantly higher levels of fatigue and associated psychological symptoms. Except for an impairment of verbal fluency, no cognitive or attention deficits were found in the PBC cohort. The VBM and DTI analyses revealed neither major structural brain abnormalities in the PBC cohort nor correlations with the cognitive and attention performance. Despite the high burden of fatigue and selected cognitive deficits, the attention performance of PBC patients appears to be comparable to healthy people. As structural brain alterations do not seem to be present in PBC patients with fatigue, fatigue in PBC must be regarded as purely functional. Future studies should evaluate, whether functional brain changes

  15. Patients with primary biliary cholangitis and fatigue present with depressive symptoms and selected cognitive deficits, but with normal attention performance and brain structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Zenouzi

    Full Text Available In primary biliary cholangitis (PBC fatigue is a major clinical challenge of unknown etiology. By demonstrating that fatigue in PBC is associated with an impaired cognitive performance, previous studies have pointed out the possibility of brain abnormalities underlying fatigue in PBC. Whether structural brain changes are present in PBC patients with fatigue, however, is unclear. To evaluate the role of structural brain abnormalities in PBC patients severely affected from fatigue we, therefore, performed a case-control cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI study and correlated changes of white and grey brain matter with the cognitive and attention performance.20 female patients with PBC and 20 female age-matched controls were examined in this study. The assessment of fatigue, psychological symptoms, cognitive and attention performance included clinical questionnaires, established cognition tests and a computerized test battery of attention performance. T1-weighted cMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI scans were acquired with a 3 Tesla scanner. Structural brain alterations were investigated with voxel-based morphometry (VBM and DTI analyses. Results were correlated to the cognitive and attention performance.Compared to healthy controls, PBC patients had significantly higher levels of fatigue and associated psychological symptoms. Except for an impairment of verbal fluency, no cognitive or attention deficits were found in the PBC cohort. The VBM and DTI analyses revealed neither major structural brain abnormalities in the PBC cohort nor correlations with the cognitive and attention performance.Despite the high burden of fatigue and selected cognitive deficits, the attention performance of PBC patients appears to be comparable to healthy people. As structural brain alterations do not seem to be present in PBC patients with fatigue, fatigue in PBC must be regarded as purely functional. Future studies should evaluate, whether functional brain

  16. The impact of sample size on the reproducibility of voxel-based lesion-deficit mappings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorca-Puls, Diego L; Gajardo-Vidal, Andrea; White, Jitrachote; Seghier, Mohamed L; Leff, Alexander P; Green, David W; Crinion, Jenny T; Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Hope, Thomas M H; Bowman, Howard; Price, Cathy J

    2018-07-01

    This study investigated how sample size affects the reproducibility of findings from univariate voxel-based lesion-deficit analyses (e.g., voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry). Our effect of interest was the strength of the mapping between brain damage and speech articulation difficulties, as measured in terms of the proportion of variance explained. First, we identified a region of interest by searching on a voxel-by-voxel basis for brain areas where greater lesion load was associated with poorer speech articulation using a large sample of 360 right-handed English-speaking stroke survivors. We then randomly drew thousands of bootstrap samples from this data set that included either 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, or 360 patients. For each resample, we recorded effect size estimates and p values after conducting exactly the same lesion-deficit analysis within the previously identified region of interest and holding all procedures constant. The results show (1) how often small effect sizes in a heterogeneous population fail to be detected; (2) how effect size and its statistical significance varies with sample size; (3) how low-powered studies (due to small sample sizes) can greatly over-estimate as well as under-estimate effect sizes; and (4) how large sample sizes (N ≥ 90) can yield highly significant p values even when effect sizes are so small that they become trivial in practical terms. The implications of these findings for interpreting the results from univariate voxel-based lesion-deficit analyses are discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Absence of gender effect on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as assessed by optimized voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pinchen; Wang, Pei-Ning; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Chao, Tzu-Cheng; Wu, Ming-Ting

    2008-12-30

    Brain abnormalities, as determined by structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have been reported in patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, female subjects have been underrepresented in previous reports. In this study, we used optimized voxel-based morphometry to compare the total and regional gray matter volumes between groups of 7- to 17-year-old ADHD and healthy children (total 114 subjects). Fifty-seven children with ADHD (n=57, 35 males and 22 females) and healthy children (n=57) received MRI scans. Segmented brain MRI images were normalized into standardized stereotactic space, modulated to allow volumetric analysis, smoothed and compared at the voxel level with statistical parametric mapping. Global volumetric comparisons between groups revealed that the total brain volumes of ADHD children were smaller than those of the control children. As for the regional brain analysis, the brain volumes of ADHD children were found to be bilaterally smaller in the following regions as compared with normal control values: the caudate nucleus and the cerebellum. There were two clusters of regional decrease in the female brain, left posterior cingulum and right precuneus, as compared with the male brain. Brain regions showing the interaction effect of diagnosis and gender were negligible. These results were consistent with the hypothesized dysfunctional systems in ADHD, and they also suggested that neuroanatomical abnormalities in ADHD were not influenced by gender.

  18. Feedback-based probabilistic category learning is selectively impaired in attention/hyperactivity deficit disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Goldfarb, Liat

    2017-07-01

    Although Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is closely linked to executive function deficits, it has recently been attributed to procedural learning impairments that are quite distinct from the former. These observations challenge the ability of the executive function framework solely to account for the diverse range of symptoms observed in ADHD. A recent neurocomputational model emphasizes the role of striatal dopamine (DA) in explaining ADHD's broad range of deficits, but the link between this model and procedural learning impairments remains unclear. Significantly, feedback-based procedural learning is hypothesized to be disrupted in ADHD because of the involvement of striatal DA in this type of learning. In order to test this assumption, we employed two variants of a probabilistic category learning task known from the neuropsychological literature. Feedback-based (FB) and paired associate-based (PA) probabilistic category learning were employed in a non-medicated sample of ADHD participants and neurotypical participants. In the FB task, participants learned associations between cues and outcomes initially by guessing and subsequently through feedback indicating the correctness of the response. In the PA learning task, participants viewed the cue and its associated outcome simultaneously without receiving an overt response or corrective feedback. In both tasks, participants were trained across 150 trials. Learning was assessed in a subsequent test without a presentation of the outcome or corrective feedback. Results revealed an interesting disassociation in which ADHD participants performed as well as control participants in the PA task, but were impaired compared with the controls in the FB task. The learning curve during FB training differed between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that the ability to incrementally learn by feedback is selectively disrupted in ADHD participants. These results are discussed in relation to both

  19. [Mindfulness-based intervention in attention-deficit-/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedeler, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on mindfulness-based interventions in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Mindfulness means paying attention and being aware of the experiences occurring in the present moment, and it is usually developed by the practice of meditation. Research shows that mindfulness training is associated with improved attention systems and self-regulation, and that it therefore fosters those skills that are underdeveloped in individuals with ADHD. Although only few studies have investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness training in ADHD (many of which showing methodological limitations), the findings do suggest that mindfulness may be useful in ADHD interventions.

  20. Normal estimation for pointcloud using GPU based sparse tensor voting

    OpenAIRE

    Liu , Ming; Pomerleau , François; Colas , Francis; Siegwart , Roland

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Normal estimation is the basis for most applications using pointcloud, such as segmentation. However, it is still a challenging problem regarding computational complexity and observation noise. In this paper, we propose a normal estimation method for pointcloud using results from tensor voting. Comparing with other approaches, we show it has smaller estimation error. Moreover, by varying the voting kernel size, we find it is a flexible approach for structure extraction...

  1. Predicting clinical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder based on temporal patterns between and within intrinsic connectivity networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun-Heng; Jiao, Yun; Li, Lihua

    2017-10-24

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common brain disorder with high prevalence in school-age children. Previously developed machine learning-based methods have discriminated patients with ADHD from normal controls by providing label information of the disease for individuals. Inattention and impulsivity are the two most significant clinical symptoms of ADHD. However, predicting clinical symptoms (i.e., inattention and impulsivity) is a challenging task based on neuroimaging data. The goal of this study is twofold: to build predictive models for clinical symptoms of ADHD based on resting-state fMRI and to mine brain networks for predictive patterns of inattention and impulsivity. To achieve this goal, a cohort of 74 boys with ADHD and a cohort of 69 age-matched normal controls were recruited from the ADHD-200 Consortium. Both structural and resting-state fMRI images were obtained for each participant. Temporal patterns between and within intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) were applied as raw features in the predictive models. Specifically, sample entropy was taken asan intra-ICN feature, and phase synchronization (PS) was used asan inter-ICN feature. The predictive models were based on the least absolute shrinkage and selectionator operator (LASSO) algorithm. The performance of the predictive model for inattention is r=0.79 (p<10 -8 ), and the performance of the predictive model for impulsivity is r=0.48 (p<10 -8 ). The ICN-related predictive patterns may provide valuable information for investigating the brain network mechanisms of ADHD. In summary, the predictive models for clinical symptoms could be beneficial for personalizing ADHD medications. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reference man models based on normal data from human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Gi-ichiro; Kawamura, Hisao

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative description of the physical, and metabolic parameters of the human body is the very basic for internal dosimetry. Compilation of anatomical and other types of data Asian populations for internal (and external) dosimetry is of grate significance because of the potential spread of nuclear energy use in the Asian region and the major contribution of the region to the world population (about 58%). It has been observed that some differences exist for habitat, race, body sizes and pattern of food consumption. In the early stage of revision of ICRP Reference man by the Task Group, Characteristics of the human body of non-European populations received considerable attention as well as those of the European populations of different sexes and ages. In this context, an IAEA-RCA Co-ordinated Research Program on Compilation of Anatomical, Physiological and Metabolic Characteristics for a Reference Asian Man endorsed. In later stages of reference Man revision, anatomical data for Asians was discusses together with those of European populations, presumably due to ICRP's decision of unanimous use of the Reference Man for radiation protection. Reference man models for adults and 15, 10, 5, 1, 0 year-old males and females of Asian populations were developed for use in internal and external dosimetry. Based on the concept of ICRP Reference Man (Publication 23), the reference values were derived from the normal organ mass data for Japanese and statistical data on the physique and nutrition of Japanese and Chinese. Also incorporated were variations in physical measurements, as observed in the above mentioned IAEA-RCA Co-ordinated Research Program. The work was partly carried out within the activities of the ICRP Task Group on Reference Man. The weight of the skeleton was adjusted following the revised values in Publication 70. This paper will report basic shared and non-shared characteristics of Reference Man' for Asians and ICRP Reference Man. (author)

  3. Is insomnia associated with deficits in neuropsychological functioning? Evidence from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Caspi, Avshalom; Gregory, Alice M; Harrington, HonaLee; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2015-04-01

    People with insomnia complain of cognitive deficits in daily life. Results from empirical studies examining associations between insomnia and cognitive impairment, however, are mixed. Research is needed that compares treatment-seeking and community-based insomnia study samples, measures subjective as well as objective cognitive functioning, and considers participants' pre-insomnia cognitive function. We used data from the Dunedin Study, a representative birth cohort of 1,037 individuals, to examine whether insomnia in early midlife was associated with subjective and objective cognitive functioning. We also tested whether individuals with insomnia who reported seeking treatment for their sleep problems (treatment-seekers) showed greater impairment than other individuals with insomnia (non-treatment-seekers). The role of key confounders, including childhood cognitive ability and comorbid health conditions, was evaluated. Insomnia was diagnosed at age 38 according to DSM-IV criteria. Objective neuropsychological assessments at age 38 included the WAIS-IV IQ test, the Wechsler Memory Scale, and the Trail-Making Test. Childhood cognitive functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R). A total of 949 cohort members were assessed for insomnia symptoms and other study measures at age 38. Although cohort members with insomnia (n = 186, 19.6%) had greater subjective cognitive impairment than their peers at age 38, they did not exhibit greater objective impairment on formal testing. Treatment-seekers, however, exhibited significant objective impairment compared to non-treatment-seekers. Controlling for comorbidity, daytime impairment, and medications slightly decreased this association. Childhood cognitive deficits antedated the adult cognitive deficits of treatment-seekers. Links between insomnia and cognitive impairment may be strongest among individuals who seek clinical treatment. Clinicians should take into account the

  4. Reliability assessment based on small samples of normal distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhibo; Zhu Jianshi; Xu Naixin

    2003-01-01

    When the pertinent parameter involved in reliability definition complies with normal distribution, the conjugate prior of its distributing parameters (μ, h) is of normal-gamma distribution. With the help of maximum entropy and the moments-equivalence principles, the subjective information of the parameter and the sampling data of its independent variables are transformed to a Bayesian prior of (μ,h). The desired estimates are obtained from either the prior or the posterior which is formed by combining the prior and sampling data. Computing methods are described and examples are presented to give demonstrations

  5. Data-based perfect-deficit approach to understanding climate extremes and forest carbon assimilation capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Suhua; Yi, Chuixiang; Hendrey, George; Eaton, Timothy; Rustic, Gerald; Wang, Shaoqiang; Liu, Heping; Krakauer, Nir Y; Wang, Weiguo; Desai, Ankur R; Montagnani, Leonardo; Tha Paw U, Kyaw; Falk, Matthias; Black, Andrew; Bernhofer, Christian; Grünwald, Thomas; Laurila, Tuomas; Cescatti, Alessandro; Moors, Eddy

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the warming climate plays a vital role in driving certain types of extreme weather. The impact of warming and of extreme weather on forest carbon assimilation capacity is poorly known. Filling this knowledge gap is critical towards understanding the amount of carbon that forests can hold. Here, we used a perfect-deficit approach to identify forest canopy photosynthetic capacity (CPC) deficits and analyze how they correlate to climate extremes, based on observational data measured by the eddy covariance method at 27 forest sites over 146 site-years. We found that droughts severely affect the carbon assimilation capacities of evergreen broadleaf forest (EBF) and deciduous broadleaf forest. The carbon assimilation capacities of Mediterranean forests were highly sensitive to climate extremes, while marine forest climates tended to be insensitive to climate extremes. Our estimates suggest an average global reduction of forest CPC due to unfavorable climate extremes of 6.3 Pg C (∼5.2% of global gross primary production) per growing season over 2001–2010, with EBFs contributing 52% of the total reduction

  6. Prospective analysis of neuropsychological deficits following resection of benign skull base meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweckberger, Klaus; Hallek, Eveline; Vogt, Lidia; Giese, Henrik; Schick, Uta; Unterberg, Andreas W

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Resection of skull base tumors is challenging. The introduction of alternative treatment options, such as radiotherapy, has sparked discussion regarding outcome in terms of quality of life and neuropsychological deficits. So far, however, no prospective data are available on this topic. METHODS A total of 58 patients with skull base meningiomas who underwent surgery for the first time were enrolled in this prospective single-center trial. The average age of the patients was 56.4 ± 12.5 years. Seventy-nine percent of the tumors were located within the anterior skull base. Neurological examinations and neuropsychological testing were performed at 3 time points: 1 day prior to surgery (T1), 3-5 months after surgery (T2), and 9-12 months after surgery (T3). The average follow-up duration was 13.8 months. Neuropsychological assessment consisted of quality of life, depression and anxiety, verbal learning and memory, cognitive speed, attention and concentration, figural memory, and visual-motor speed. RESULTS Following surgery, 23% of patients showed transient neurological deficits and 12% showed permanent new neurological deficits with varying grades of manifestation. Postoperative quality of life, however, remained stable and was slightly improved at follow-up examinations at T3 (60.6 ± 21.5 vs 63.6 ± 24.1 points), and there was no observed effect on anxiety and depression. Long-term verbal memory, working memory, and executive functioning were slightly affected within the first months following surgery and appeared to be the most vulnerable to impairment by the tumor or the resection but were stable or improved in the majority of patients at long-term follow-up examinations after 1 year. CONCLUSIONS This report describes the first prospective study of neuropsychological outcomes following resection of skull base meningiomas and, as such, contributes to a better understanding of postoperative impairment in these patients. Despite deterioration in a minority

  7. Comparative study of attachment relationships in young children with symptoms of externalizing disorders: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Najafi Shoar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the relationship of attachment between children with externalizing disorder (ADHD and less conflict and conduct disorder was performed with normal children. And the correlation was causalcomparative research design. The study population included all male students in Year 94 was 12.7 years in Tabriz To this aim, and to a multi-stage random sampling method, a sample of 200 (150 patients with symptoms and 50 normal KCAQ people were selected and CSI-4 was performed on them. The data were analyzed using ANOVA. The results showed that children with externalizing disorders and normal children in terms of attachment there is a significant difference (P <0/005. So that children with attention disorders and children with the disorder more or less active and less conflict in relationships have insecure attachment styles. Another finding of the study showed that children with conduct disorder, avoidant, ambivalent insecure attachment relationships are the common children are secure attachment relationships. Thus, the results of this study have practical implications in clinical areas to the extent that the design of such attachment-based interventions are necessary.

  8. Gray Matter Alterations in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Identified by Voxel Based Morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Larry J.; Biederman, Joseph; Liang, Lichen; Valera, Eve M.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Brown, Ariel; Kaiser, Jonathan; Spencer, Thomas; Faraone, Stephen V.; Makris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Background Gray and white matter volume deficits have been reported in many structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, there is a paucity of structural MRI studies of adults with ADHD. This study used voxel based morphometry and applied an a priori region of interest approach based on our previous work, as well as from well-developed neuroanatomical theories of ADHD. Methods Seventy-four adults with DSM-IV ADHD and 54 healthy control subjects comparable on age, sex, race, handedness, IQ, reading achievement, frequency of learning disabilities, and whole brain volume had an MRI on a 1.5T Siemens scanner. A priori region of interest hypotheses focused on reduced volumes in ADHD in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, putamen, inferior parietal lobule, and cerebellum. Analyses were carried out by FSL-VBM 1.1. Results Relative to control subjects, ADHD adults had significantly smaller gray matter volumes in parts of six of these regions at p ≤ .01, whereas parts of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule were significantly larger in ADHD at this threshold. However, a number of other regions were smaller and larger in ADHD (especially fronto-orbital cortex) at this threshold. Only the caudate remained significantly smaller at the family-wise error rate. Conclusions Adults with ADHD have subtle volume reductions in the caudate and possibly other brain regions involved in attention and executive control supporting frontostriatal models of ADHD. Modest group brain volume differences are discussed in the context of the nature of the samples studied and voxel based morphometry methodology. PMID:21183160

  9. Estimating deficit probabilities with price-responsive demand in contract-based electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetovic, Alexander; Munoz, Cristian M.

    2009-01-01

    Studies that estimate deficit probabilities in hydrothermal systems have generally ignored the response of demand to changing prices, in the belief that such response is largely irrelevant. We show that ignoring the response of demand to prices can lead to substantial over or under estimation of the probability of an energy deficit. To make our point we present an estimation of deficit probabilities in Chile's Central Interconnected System between 2006 and 2010. This period is characterized by tight supply, fast consumption growth and rising electricity prices. When the response of demand to rising prices is acknowledged, forecasted deficit probabilities and marginal costs are shown to be substantially lower

  10. An iPad-Based Tool for Improving the Skills of Children with Attention Deficit Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Wrońska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, with a worldwide prevalence of 5.29%–7.1%, is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders among children and adolescents. Apart from typical symptoms like inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness, patients also evidence attention deficit problems with reading comprehension. This in turn causes poor school performance and widens the gap with peers without ADHD. This paper presents a novel and interactive tool based on Serious Games for Health, whose aim is not only to improve comprehension, but also hold the user’s attention. This tool is geared towards assessing reading quality and is intended for iPad devices. Preliminary results obtained from the experiment performed to evaluate the game are included in this report. A group of six typically developing children from Colegio Vizcaya aged between 8 and 12 took part in the evaluation of motivation, satisfaction and usability of the same therapy in the new media. Results obtained by participants playing the game were analysed together with questionnaires concerning the usability of the system. Game evaluation resulted in relatively good statistics-average score was 3 points out of 4 and average time for completing the exercise was 59 seconds. A SUS questionnaire with an average score of 92.75 out of 100 indicates that the game presented is user-friendly and an effective tool. Moreover, based on the feedback obtained from participants, the game had been improved and additional functionality introduced. Older participants completed the first game faster than the younger ones, but age was not influential in subsequent games.

  11. Classifying adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on functional and structural imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannaccone, Reto; Hauser, Tobias U; Ball, Juliane; Brandeis, Daniel; Walitza, Susanne; Brem, Silvia

    2015-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disabling psychiatric disorder associated with consistent deficits in error processing, inhibition and regionally decreased grey matter volumes. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, interviews and questionnaires, which are to some degree subjective and would benefit from verification through biomarkers. Here, pattern recognition of multiple discriminative functional and structural brain patterns was applied to classify adolescents with ADHD and controls. Functional activation features in a Flanker/NoGo task probing error processing and inhibition along with structural magnetic resonance imaging data served to predict group membership using support vector machines (SVMs). The SVM pattern recognition algorithm correctly classified 77.78% of the subjects with a sensitivity and specificity of 77.78% based on error processing. Predictive regions for controls were mainly detected in core areas for error processing and attention such as the medial and dorsolateral frontal areas reflecting deficient processing in ADHD (Hart et al., in Hum Brain Mapp 35:3083-3094, 2014), and overlapped with decreased activations in patients in conventional group comparisons. Regions more predictive for ADHD patients were identified in the posterior cingulate, temporal and occipital cortex. Interestingly despite pronounced univariate group differences in inhibition-related activation and grey matter volumes the corresponding classifiers failed or only yielded a poor discrimination. The present study corroborates the potential of task-related brain activation for classification shown in previous studies. It remains to be clarified whether error processing, which performed best here, also contributes to the discrimination of useful dimensions and subtypes, different psychiatric disorders, and prediction of treatment success across studies and sites.

  12. An iPad-Based Tool for Improving the Skills of Children with Attention Deficit Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrońska, Natalia; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya; Mendez-Zorrilla, Amaia

    2015-06-02

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), with a worldwide prevalence of 5.29%-7.1%, is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders among children and adolescents. Apart from typical symptoms like inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness, patients also evidence attention deficit problems with reading comprehension. This in turn causes poor school performance and widens the gap with peers without ADHD. This paper presents a novel and interactive tool based on Serious Games for Health, whose aim is not only to improve comprehension, but also hold the user's attention. This tool is geared towards assessing reading quality and is intended for iPad devices. Preliminary results obtained from the experiment performed to evaluate the game are included in this report. A group of six typically developing children from Colegio Vizcaya aged between 8 and 12 took part in the evaluation of motivation, satisfaction and usability of the same therapy in the new media. Results obtained by participants playing the game were analysed together with questionnaires concerning the usability of the system. Game evaluation resulted in relatively good statistics-average score was 3 points out of 4 and average time for completing the exercise was 59 seconds. A SUS questionnaire with an average score of 92.75 out of 100 indicates that the game presented is user-friendly and an effective tool. Moreover, based on the feedback obtained from participants, the game had been improved and additional functionality introduced. Older participants completed the first game faster than the younger ones, but age was not influential in subsequent games.

  13. Effort-Based Decision Making in Schizophrenia: Evaluation of Paradigms to Measure Motivational Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael F; Horan, William P

    2015-09-01

    Effort-based decision making requires one to decide how much effort to expend for a certain amount of reward. As the amount of reward goes up most people are willing to exert more effort. This relationship between reward level and effort expenditure can be measured in specialized performance-based tasks that have only recently been applied to schizophrenia. Such tasks provide a way to measure objectively motivational deficits in schizophrenia, which now are only assessed with clinical interviews of negative symptoms. The articles in this theme provide reviews of the relevant animal and human literatures (first 2 articles), and then a psychometric evaluation of 5 effort-based decision making paradigms (last 2 articles). This theme section is intended to stimulate interest in this emerging area among basic scientists developing paradigms for preclinical studies, human experimentalists trying to disentangle factors that contribute to performance on effort-based tasks, and investigators looking for objective endpoints for clinical trials of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A brain-computer interface based attention training program for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Guan Lim

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms can be difficult to treat. We previously reported that a 20-session brain-computer interface (BCI attention training programme improved ADHD symptoms. Here, we investigated a new more intensive BCI-based attention training game system on 20 unmedicated ADHD children (16 males, 4 females with significant inattentive symptoms (combined and inattentive ADHD subtypes. This new system monitored attention through a head band with dry EEG sensors, which was used to drive a feed forward game. The system was calibrated for each user by measuring the EEG parameters during a Stroop task. Treatment consisted of an 8-week training comprising 24 sessions followed by 3 once-monthly booster training sessions. Following intervention, both parent-rated inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms on the ADHD Rating Scale showed significant improvement. At week 8, the mean improvement was -4.6 (5.9 and -4.7 (5.6 respectively for inattentive symptoms and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms (both p<0.01. Cohen's d effect size for inattentive symptoms was large at 0.78 at week 8 and 0.84 at week 24 (post-boosters. Further analysis showed that the change in the EEG based BCI ADHD severity measure correlated with the change ADHD Rating Scale scores. The BCI-based attention training game system is a potential new treatment for ADHD.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01344044.

  15. Output Legitimacy Deficits and the Inclusive Framework of the OECD/G20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera, Valderrama I.J.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, the author considers output legitimacy deficits in the context of the Inclusive Framework of the OECD/G20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Initiative, with special emphasis on the issues and problems that this raises for developing countries.

  16. Effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on neurophysiological correlates of performance monitoring in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenberg, P.L.; Hepark, S.; Kan, C.C.; Barendregt, H.P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) would enhance attenuated amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing performance monitoring biomarkers of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Fifty adult ADHD patients took part in a randomised

  17. Model-Based Normalization of a Fractional-Crystal Collimator for Small-Animal PET Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yusheng; Matej, Samuel; Karp, Joel S; Metzler, Scott D

    2017-05-01

    Previously, we proposed to use a coincidence collimator to achieve fractional-crystal resolution in PET imaging. We have designed and fabricated a collimator prototype for a small-animal PET scanner, A-PET. To compensate for imperfections in the fabricated collimator prototype, collimator normalization, as well as scanner normalization, is required to reconstruct quantitative and artifact-free images. In this study, we develop a normalization method for the collimator prototype based on the A-PET normalization using a uniform cylinder phantom. We performed data acquisition without the collimator for scanner normalization first, and then with the collimator from eight different rotation views for collimator normalization. After a reconstruction without correction, we extracted the cylinder parameters from which we generated expected emission sinograms. Single scatter simulation was used to generate the scattered sinograms. We used the least-squares method to generate the normalization coefficient for each LOR based on measured, expected and scattered sinograms. The scanner and collimator normalization coefficients were factorized by performing two normalizations separately. The normalization methods were also verified using experimental data acquired from A-PET with and without the collimator. In summary, we developed a model-base collimator normalization that can significantly reduce variance and produce collimator normalization with adequate statistical quality within feasible scan time.

  18. Current State and Model for Development of Technology-Based Care for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Steven J.; Calub, Catrina A.; Schweitzer, Julie B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Care (i.e., evaluation and intervention) delivered through technology is used in many areas of mental health services, including for persons with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Technology can facilitate care for individuals with ADHD, their parents, and their care providers. The adoption of technological tools for ADHD care requires evidence-based studies to support the transition from development to integration into use in the home, school, or work for persons with the disorder. The initial phase, which is development of technological tools, has begun in earnest; however, the evidence base for many of these tools is lacking. In some instances, the uptake of a piece of technology into home use or clinical practice may be further along than the research to support its use. Methods: In this study, we review the current evidence regarding technology for ADHD and also propose a model to evaluate the support for other tools that have yet to be tested. Results: We propose using the Research Domain Criteria as a framework for evaluating the tools' relationships to dimensions related to ADHD. Conclusion: This article concludes with recommendations for testing new tools that may have promise in improving the evaluation or treatment of persons with ADHD. PMID:26985703

  19. Mindfulness based cognitive therapy versus treatment as usual in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Lotte; Kan, Cornelis C; Carpentier, Pieter J; Sizoo, Bram; Hepark, Sevket; Grutters, Janneke; Donders, Rogier; Buitelaar, Jan K; Speckens, Anne E M

    2015-09-15

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often present with a lifelong pattern of core symptoms that is associated with impairments of functioning in daily life. This has a substantial personal and economic impact. In clinical practice there is a high need for additional or alternative interventions for existing treatments, usually consisting of pharmacotherapy and/or psycho-education. Although previous studies show preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in reducing ADHD symptoms and improving executive functioning, these studies have methodological limitations. This study will take account of these limitations and will examine the effectiveness of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) in further detail. A multi-centre, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial will be conducted in N = 120 adults with ADHD. Patients will be randomised to MBCT in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU alone. Assessments will take place at baseline and at three, six and nine months after baseline. Primary outcome measure will be severity of ADHD symptoms rated by a blinded clinician. Secondary outcome measures will be self-reported ADHD symptoms, executive functioning, mindfulness skills, self-compassion, positive mental health and general functioning. In addition, a cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted. This trial will offer valuable information about the clinical and cost-effectiveness of MBCT in addition to TAU compared to TAU alone in adults swith ADHD. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02463396. Registered 8 June 2015.

  20. Emotional reasoning and parent-based reasoning in normal children.

    OpenAIRE

    Morren, M.; Muris, P.; Kindt, M.

    2004-01-01

    A previous study by Muris, Merckelbach, and Van Spauwen demonstrated that children display emotional reasoning irrepective of their anxiety levels. That is when estimating whether a situation is dangerous, childen not only rely on objective danger information but also on their own anciety-response. The present study further examined emotional reasoning in childeren aged 7-13 years (N=508). In addition, it was investigated whether children also show parent-based reasoning, which can be defined...

  1. Chronic exposure to graphene-based nanomaterials induces behavioral deficits and neural damage in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Xu, Tiantian; Wu, Siyu; Lei, Lili; He, Defu

    2017-10-01

    Nanomaterials of graphene and its derivatives have been widely applied in recent years, but whose impacts on the environment and health are still not well understood. In the present study, the potential adverse effects of graphite (G), graphite oxide nanoplatelets (GO) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) on the motor nervous system were investigated using nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as the assay system. After being characterized using TEM, SEM, XPS and PLE, three nanomaterials were chronically exposed to C. elegans for 6 days. In total, 50-100 mg l -1 GO caused a significant reduction in the survival rate, but G and GDDs showed low lethality on nematodes. After chronic exposure of sub-lethal dosages, three nanomaterials were observed to distribute primarily in the pharynx and intestine; but GQDs were widespread in nematode body. Three graphene-based nanomaterials resulted in significant declines in locomotor frequency of body bending, head thrashing and pharynx pumping. In addition, mean speed, bending angle-frequency and wavelength of the crawling movement were significantly reduced after exposure. Using transgenic nematodes, we found high concentrations of graphene-based nanomaterials induced down-expression of dat-1::GFP and eat-4::GFP, but no significant changes in unc-47::GFP. This indicates that graphene-based nanomaterials can lead to damages in the dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurons. The present data suggest that chronic exposure of graphene-based nanomaterials may cause neurotoxicity risks of inducing behavioral deficits and neural damage. These findings provide useful information to understand the toxicity and safe application of graphene-based nanomaterials. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Narrative Intervention: A School-Based Counseling Strategy for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Khosrow; Yoosefi Looyeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a group narrative intervention for improving the behavior of 8- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at home and school. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

  3. More attention, less deficit:wearable eeg-based serious game for focus improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Alchalabi, Alaa Eddin; Eddin, Amer Nour; Shirmohammadi, Shervin

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attention Deficit Disorders (ADD) are two of the most spread mental disorders characterized by the lack of attention and focus. One way to measure focus is through Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals that can be read using the new wireless EEG reading devices often used by Brain-computer Interface (BCI) researchers. In parallel, serious games have been recently providing opportunities for the rehabilitation of various cognitive and emotional ...

  4. Uncovering the social deficits in the autistic brain.A Source-Based Morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Grecucci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that mainly affects social interaction and communication. Evidence from behavioral and functional MRI studies supports the hypothesis that dysfunctional mechanisms involving social brain structures play a major role in autistic symptomatology. However, the investigation of anatomical abnormalities in the brain of people with autism has led to inconsistent results. We investigated whether specific brain regions, known to display functional abnormalities in autism, may exhibit mutual and peculiar patterns of covariance in their grey-matter concentrations. We analyzed structural MRI images of 32 young men affected by autistic disorder (AD and 50 healthy controls. Controls were matched for sex, age, handedness. IQ scores were also monitored to avoid confounding. A multivariate Source-Based Morphometry (SBM was applied for the first time on AD and controls to detect maximally independent networks of gray matter. Group comparison revealed a gray-matter source that showed differences in AD compared to controls. This network includes broad temporal regions involved in social cognition and high-level visual processing, but also motor and executive areas of the frontal lobe. Notably, we found that gray matter differences, as reflected by SBM, significantly correlated with social and behavioral deficits displayed by AD individuals and encoded via the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. These findings provide support for current hypotheses about the neural basis of atypical social and mental states information processing in autism.

  5. Optimal consistency in microRNA expression analysis using reference-gene-based normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Gardiner, Erin J; Cairns, Murray J

    2015-05-01

    Normalization of high-throughput molecular expression profiles secures differential expression analysis between samples of different phenotypes or biological conditions, and facilitates comparison between experimental batches. While the same general principles apply to microRNA (miRNA) normalization, there is mounting evidence that global shifts in their expression patterns occur in specific circumstances, which pose a challenge for normalizing miRNA expression data. As an alternative to global normalization, which has the propensity to flatten large trends, normalization against constitutively expressed reference genes presents an advantage through their relative independence. Here we investigated the performance of reference-gene-based (RGB) normalization for differential miRNA expression analysis of microarray expression data, and compared the results with other normalization methods, including: quantile, variance stabilization, robust spline, simple scaling, rank invariant, and Loess regression. The comparative analyses were executed using miRNA expression in tissue samples derived from subjects with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls. We proposed a consistency criterion for evaluating methods by examining the overlapping of differentially expressed miRNAs detected using different partitions of the whole data. Based on this criterion, we found that RGB normalization generally outperformed global normalization methods. Thus we recommend the application of RGB normalization for miRNA expression data sets, and believe that this will yield a more consistent and useful readout of differentially expressed miRNAs, particularly in biological conditions characterized by large shifts in miRNA expression.

  6. Tensor-Based Morphometry Reveals Volumetric Deficits in Moderate=Severe Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily L; Hua, Xue; Villalon-Reina, Julio; Moran, Lisa M; Kernan, Claudia; Babikian, Talin; Mink, Richard; Babbitt, Christopher; Johnson, Jeffrey; Giza, Christopher C; Thompson, Paul M; Asarnow, Robert F

    2016-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause widespread and prolonged brain degeneration. TBI can affect cognitive function and brain integrity for many years after injury, often with lasting effects in children, whose brains are still immature. Although TBI varies in how it affects different individuals, image analysis methods such as tensor-based morphometry (TBM) can reveal common areas of brain atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), secondary effects of the initial injury, which will differ between subjects. Here we studied 36 pediatric moderate to severe TBI (msTBI) participants in the post-acute phase (1-6 months post-injury) and 18 msTBI participants who returned for their chronic assessment, along with well-matched controls at both time-points. Participants completed a battery of cognitive tests that we used to create a global cognitive performance score. Using TBM, we created three-dimensional (3D) maps of individual and group differences in regional brain volumes. At both the post-acute and chronic time-points, the greatest group differences were expansion of the lateral ventricles and reduction of the lingual gyrus in the TBI group. We found a number of smaller clusters of volume reduction in the cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and fusiform gyrus, and throughout the frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices. Additionally, we found extensive associations between our cognitive performance measure and regional brain volume. Our results indicate a pattern of atrophy still detectable 1-year post-injury, which may partially underlie the cognitive deficits frequently found in TBI.

  7. Tensor-Based Morphometry Reveals Volumetric Deficits in Moderate=Severe Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Villalon-Reina, Julio; Moran, Lisa M.; Kernan, Claudia; Babikian, Talin; Mink, Richard; Babbitt, Christopher; Johnson, Jeffrey; Giza, Christopher C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Asarnow, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause widespread and prolonged brain degeneration. TBI can affect cognitive function and brain integrity for many years after injury, often with lasting effects in children, whose brains are still immature. Although TBI varies in how it affects different individuals, image analysis methods such as tensor-based morphometry (TBM) can reveal common areas of brain atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), secondary effects of the initial injury, which will differ between subjects. Here we studied 36 pediatric moderate to severe TBI (msTBI) participants in the post-acute phase (1–6 months post-injury) and 18 msTBI participants who returned for their chronic assessment, along with well-matched controls at both time-points. Participants completed a battery of cognitive tests that we used to create a global cognitive performance score. Using TBM, we created three-dimensional (3D) maps of individual and group differences in regional brain volumes. At both the post-acute and chronic time-points, the greatest group differences were expansion of the lateral ventricles and reduction of the lingual gyrus in the TBI group. We found a number of smaller clusters of volume reduction in the cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and fusiform gyrus, and throughout the frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices. Additionally, we found extensive associations between our cognitive performance measure and regional brain volume. Our results indicate a pattern of atrophy still detectable 1-year post-injury, which may partially underlie the cognitive deficits frequently found in TBI. PMID:26393494

  8. A Machine Learning-Based Analysis of Game Data for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Monika D; Roots, Kurt; Srivastava, Sanjana; Schumann, Jennifer; Srivastava, Jaideep; Hale, T Sigi

    2013-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is found in 9.5 percent of the U.S. population and poses lifelong challenges. Current diagnostic approaches rely on evaluation forms completed by teachers and/or parents, although they are not specifically trained to recognize cognitive disorders. The most accurate diagnosis is by a psychiatrist, often only available to children with severe symptoms. Development of a tool that is engaging and objective and aids medical providers is needed in the diagnosis of ADHD. The goal of this research is to work toward the development of such a tool. The proposed approach takes advantage of two trends: The rapid adoption of tangible user interface devices and the popularity of interactive videogames. CogCubed Inc. (Minneapolis, MN) has created "Groundskeeper," a game on the Sifteo Cubes (Sifteo, Inc., San Francisco, CA) game system with elements that exercise skills affected by ADHD. "Groundskeeper" was evaluated for 52 patients, with and without ADHD. Gameplay data were mathematically transformed into ADHD-indicative feature variables and subjected to machine learning algorithms to develop diagnostic models to aid psychiatric clinical assessments of ADHD. The effectiveness of the developed model was evaluated against the diagnostic impressions of two licensed child/adolescent psychiatrists using semistructured interviews. Our predictive algorithms were highly accurate in correctly predicting diagnoses based on gameplay of "Groundskeeper." The F-measure, a measure of diagnosis accuracy, from the predictive models gave values as follows: ADHD, inattentive type, 78 percent (P>0.05); ADHD, combined type, 75 percent (Pdepressive disorders, 76%. This represents a promising new approach to screening tools for ADHD.

  9. A new normalization method based on electrical field lines for electrical capacitance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L F; Wang, H X

    2009-01-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is considered to be one of the most promising process tomography techniques. The image reconstruction for ECT is an inverse problem to find the spatially distributed permittivities in a pipe. Usually, the capacitance measurements obtained from the ECT system are normalized at the high and low permittivity for image reconstruction. The parallel normalization model is commonly used during the normalization process, which assumes the distribution of materials in parallel. Thus, the normalized capacitance is a linear function of measured capacitance. A recently used model is a series normalization model which results in the normalized capacitance as a nonlinear function of measured capacitance. The newest presented model is based on electrical field centre lines (EFCL), and is a mixture of two normalization models. The multi-threshold method of this model is presented in this paper. The sensitivity matrices based on different normalization models were obtained, and image reconstruction was carried out accordingly. Simulation results indicate that reconstructed images with higher quality can be obtained based on the presented model

  10. Exposure to childhood adversity and deficits in emotion recognition: results from a large, population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erin C; Crawford, Katherine M; Soare, Thomas W; Button, Katherine S; Raffeld, Miriam R; Smith, Andrew D A C; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2018-03-07

    Emotion recognition skills are essential for social communication. Deficits in these skills have been implicated in mental disorders. Prior studies of clinical and high-risk samples have consistently shown that children exposed to adversity are more likely than their unexposed peers to have emotion recognition skills deficits. However, only one population-based study has examined this association. We analyzed data from children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective birth cohort (n = 6,506). We examined the association between eight adversities, assessed repeatedly from birth to age 8 (caregiver physical or emotional abuse; sexual or physical abuse; maternal psychopathology; one adult in the household; family instability; financial stress; parent legal problems; neighborhood disadvantage) and the ability to recognize facial displays of emotion measured using the faces subtest of the Diagnostic Assessment of Non-Verbal Accuracy (DANVA) at age 8.5 years. In addition to examining the role of exposure (vs. nonexposure) to each type of adversity, we also evaluated the role of the timing, duration, and recency of each adversity using a Least Angle Regression variable selection procedure. Over three-quarters of the sample experienced at least one adversity. We found no evidence to support an association between emotion recognition deficits and previous exposure to adversity, either in terms of total lifetime exposure, timing, duration, or recency, or when stratifying by sex. Results from the largest population-based sample suggest that even extreme forms of adversity are unrelated to emotion recognition deficits as measured by the DANVA, suggesting the possible immutability of emotion recognition in the general population. These findings emphasize the importance of population-based studies to generate generalizable results. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  11. High self-perceived stress and many stressors, but normal diurnal cortisol rhythm, in adults with ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Lindholm, Torun; Nordenström, Anna; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Lajic, Svetlana

    2009-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is associated with significant impairment in many life activities and may thus increase the risk of chronic stress in everyday life. We compared adults with a DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis (n=28) with healthy controls (n=28) regarding subjective stress and amounts of stressors in everyday life, diurnal salivary cortisol in the everyday environment and salivary cortisol before and after cognitive stress in a laboratory setting. The association between cortisol concentrations and impulsivity was also investigated. Consistent with assumptions, individuals with ADHD reported significantly more self-perceived stress than controls, and subjective stress correlated with the amount of stressors in everyday life. The two groups were comparable with respect to overall diurnal cortisol levels and rhythm, as well as in pre- and post-stress cortisol concentrations. Post-stress cortisol (but not baseline cortisol) concentration was positively correlated with impulsivity. The group with high post-stress cortisol also reported more symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as self-perceived stress and stressors in every-day life. The diagnosis of ADHD significantly increased the risk of belonging to the group with high post-stress cortisol levels. The results in this study warrant a focus not only on the primary diagnosis of ADHD, but also calls for a broader assessment of stressors and subjective stress in everyday life, as well as support comprising stress management and coping skills.

  12. Integrating Growth Stage Deficit Irrigation into a Process Based Crop Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose R.; Winter, Jonathan M.; Elliott, Joshua; Ruane, Alex C.; Porter, Cheryl; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Current rates of agricultural water use are unsustainable in many regions, creating an urgent need to identify improved irrigation strategies for water limited areas. Crop models can be used to quantify plant water requirements, predict the impact of water shortages on yield, and calculate water productivity (WP) to link water availability and crop yields for economic analyses. Many simulations of crop growth and development, especially in regional and global assessments, rely on automatic irrigation algorithms to estimate irrigation dates and amounts. However, these algorithms are not well suited for water limited regions because they have simplistic irrigation rules, such as a single soil-moisture based threshold, and assume unlimited water. To address this constraint, a new modeling framework to simulate agricultural production in water limited areas was developed. The framework consists of a new automatic irrigation algorithm for the simulation of growth stage based deficit irrigation under limited seasonal water availability; and optimization of growth stage specific parameters. The new automatic irrigation algorithm was used to simulate maize and soybean in Gainesville, Florida, and first used to evaluate the sensitivity of maize and soybean simulations to irrigation at different growth stages and then to test the hypothesis that water productivity calculated using simplistic irrigation rules underestimates WP. In the first experiment, the effect of irrigating at specific growth stages on yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) in maize and soybean was evaluated. In the reproductive stages, IWUE tended to be higher than in the vegetative stages (e.g. IWUE was 18% higher than the well watered treatment when irrigating only during R3 in soybean), and when rainfall events were less frequent. In the second experiment, water productivity (WP) was significantly greater with optimized irrigation schedules compared to non-optimized irrigation schedules in

  13. MR guided spatial normalization of SPECT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, B.; Barnden, L.R.; Kwiatek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In SPECT population studies where magnetic resonance (MR) scans are also available, the higher resolution of the MR scans allows for an improved spatial normalization of the SPECT scans. In this approach, the SPECT images are first coregistered to their corresponding MR images by a linear (affine) transformation which is calculated using SPM's mutual information maximization algorithm. Non-linear spatial normalization maps are then computed either directly from the MR scans using SPM's built in spatial normalization algorithm, or, from segmented TI MR images using DARTEL, an advanced diffeomorphism based spatial normalization algorithm. We compare these MR based methods to standard SPECT based spatial normalization for a population of 27 fibromyalgia patients and 25 healthy controls with spin echo T 1 scans. We identify significant perfusion deficits in prefrontal white matter in FM patients, with the DARTEL based spatial normalization procedure yielding stronger statistics than the standard SPECT based spatial normalization. (author)

  14. Normalized mutual information based PET-MR registration using K-Means clustering and shading correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knops, Z.F.; Maintz, J.B.A.; Viergever, M.A.; Pluim, J.P.W.; Gee, J.C.; Maintz, J.B.A.; Vannier, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    A method for the efficient re-binning and shading based correction of intensity distributions of the images prior to normalized mutual information based registration is presented. Our intensity distribution re-binning method is based on the K-means clustering algorithm as opposed to the generally

  15. Reference Evapotranspiration Retrievals from a Mesoscale Model Based Weather Variables for Soil Moisture Deficit Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant K. Srivastava

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo and soil moisture deficit (SMD are vital for understanding the hydrological processes, particularly in the context of sustainable water use efficiency in the globe. Precise estimation of ETo and SMD are required for developing appropriate forecasting systems, in hydrological modeling and also in precision agriculture. In this study, the surface temperature downscaled from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model is used to estimate ETo using the boundary conditions that are provided by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF. In order to understand the performance, the Hamon’s method is employed to estimate the ETo using the temperature from meteorological station and WRF derived variables. After estimating the ETo, a range of linear and non-linear models is utilized to retrieve SMD. The performance statistics such as RMSE, %Bias, and Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE indicates that the exponential model (RMSE = 0.226; %Bias = −0.077; NSE = 0.616 is efficient for SMD estimation by using the Observed ETo in comparison to the other linear and non-linear models (RMSE range = 0.019–0.667; %Bias range = 2.821–6.894; NSE = 0.013–0.419 used in this study. On the other hand, in the scenario where SMD is estimated using WRF downscaled meteorological variables based ETo, the linear model is found promising (RMSE = 0.017; %Bias = 5.280; NSE = 0.448 as compared to the non-linear models (RMSE range = 0.022–0.707; %Bias range = −0.207–−6.088; NSE range = 0.013–0.149. Our findings also suggest that all the models are performing better during the growing season (RMSE range = 0.024–0.025; %Bias range = −4.982–−3.431; r = 0.245–0.281 than the non−growing season (RMSE range = 0.011–0.12; %Bias range = 33.073–32.701; r = 0.161–0.244 for SMD estimation.

  16. Trade off between variable and fixed size normalization in orthogonal polynomials based iris recognition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, R; Anna Poorani, G

    2016-01-01

    Iris normalization is an important stage in any iris biometric, as it has a propensity to trim down the consequences of iris distortion. To indemnify the variation in size of the iris owing to the action of stretching or enlarging the pupil in iris acquisition process and camera to eyeball distance, two normalization schemes has been proposed in this work. In the first method, the iris region of interest is normalized by converting the iris into the variable size rectangular model in order to avoid the under samples near the limbus border. In the second method, the iris region of interest is normalized by converting the iris region into a fixed size rectangular model in order to avoid the dimensional discrepancies between the eye images. The performance of the proposed normalization methods is evaluated with orthogonal polynomials based iris recognition in terms of FAR, FRR, GAR, CRR and EER.

  17. Subcortical amplitude modulation encoding deficits suggest evidence of cochlear synaptopathy in normal-hearing 18-19 year olds with higher lifetime noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Brandon T; Waheed, Sajal; Bruce, Ian C; Roberts, Larry E

    2017-11-01

    Noise exposure and aging can damage cochlear synapses required for suprathreshold listening, even when cochlear structures needed for hearing at threshold remain unaffected. To control for effects of aging, behavioral amplitude modulation (AM) detection and subcortical envelope following responses (EFRs) to AM tones in 25 age-restricted (18-19 years) participants with normal thresholds, but different self-reported noise exposure histories were studied. Participants with more noise exposure had smaller EFRs and tended to have poorer AM detection than less-exposed individuals. Simulations of the EFR using a well-established cochlear model were consistent with more synaptopathy in participants reporting greater noise exposure.

  18. New component-based normalization method to correct PET system models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinouchi, Shoko; Miyoshi, Yuji; Suga, Mikio; Yamaya, Taiga; Yoshida, Eiji; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Tashima, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Normalization correction is necessary to obtain high-quality reconstructed images in positron emission tomography (PET). There are two basic types of normalization methods: the direct method and component-based methods. The former method suffers from the problem that a huge count number in the blank scan data is required. Therefore, the latter methods have been proposed to obtain high statistical accuracy normalization coefficients with a small count number in the blank scan data. In iterative image reconstruction methods, on the other hand, the quality of the obtained reconstructed images depends on the system modeling accuracy. Therefore, the normalization weighing approach, in which normalization coefficients are directly applied to the system matrix instead of a sinogram, has been proposed. In this paper, we propose a new component-based normalization method to correct system model accuracy. In the proposed method, two components are defined and are calculated iteratively in such a way as to minimize errors of system modeling. To compare the proposed method and the direct method, we applied both methods to our small OpenPET prototype system. We achieved acceptable statistical accuracy of normalization coefficients while reducing the count number of the blank scan data to one-fortieth that required in the direct method. (author)

  19. A GMM-Based Test for Normal Disturbances of the Heckman Sample Selection Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pfaffermayr

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Heckman sample selection model relies on the assumption of normal and homoskedastic disturbances. However, before considering more general, alternative semiparametric models that do not need the normality assumption, it seems useful to test this assumption. Following Meijer and Wansbeek (2007, the present contribution derives a GMM-based pseudo-score LM test on whether the third and fourth moments of the disturbances of the outcome equation of the Heckman model conform to those implied by the truncated normal distribution. The test is easy to calculate and in Monte Carlo simulations it shows good performance for sample sizes of 1000 or larger.

  20. A scheme for PET data normalization in event-based motion correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Victor W; Kyme, Andre Z; Fulton, Roger; Meikle, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    Line of response (LOR) rebinning is an event-based motion-correction technique for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging that has been shown to compensate effectively for rigid motion. It involves the spatial transformation of LORs to compensate for motion during the scan, as measured by a motion tracking system. Each motion-corrected event is then recorded in the sinogram bin corresponding to the transformed LOR. It has been shown previously that the corrected event must be normalized using a normalization factor derived from the original LOR, that is, based on the pair of detectors involved in the original coincidence event. In general, due to data compression strategies (mashing), sinogram bins record events detected on multiple LORs. The number of LORs associated with a sinogram bin determines the relative contribution of each LOR. This paper provides a thorough treatment of event-based normalization during motion correction of PET data using LOR rebinning. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that normalization of the corrected event during LOR rebinning should account for the number of LORs contributing to the sinogram bin into which the motion-corrected event is binned. Failure to account for this factor may cause artifactual slice-to-slice count variations in the transverse slices and visible horizontal stripe artifacts in the coronal and sagittal slices of the reconstructed images. The theory and implementation of normalization in conjunction with the LOR rebinning technique is described in detail, and experimental verification of the proposed normalization method in phantom studies is presented.

  1. Effort-based decision making as an objective paradigm for the assessment of motivational deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Duncan, Mark; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Faulkner, Guy E; Remington, Gary

    2015-10-01

    Negative symptoms and motivational deficits are prevalent features of schizophrenia, and represent robust predictors of real-world functional outcomes. The standard for assessment of these symptoms is clinical interview and severity ratings on standardized rating scales. In the present study we examined the psychometric properties of a performance-based measure of motivational deficits in patients with schizophrenia. Ninety-seven patients with schizophrenia were included in this investigation. Patients' willingness to expend effort for reward (i.e., motivation) was evaluated using an effort-based decision making paradigm where participants chose over a series of trials whether to expend a greater amount of effort for a larger monetary reward versus less effort for a smaller reward. Effort performance was evaluated twice, separated by a two-week interval. Patients with schizophrenia opted to expend greater effort for trials with higher reward value and greater likelihood of reward receipt. Patients did not find the task overly difficult and reported being motivated to perform well, underscoring the tolerability of the task for patients. Test-retest consistency was good and there was only minimal change in scores over time. Effort performance was not related to sociodemographic or clinical variables (e.g., positive symptoms); however, deficit syndrome patients exerted effort for reward at a significantly lower rate than nondeficit patients. The effort-based decision making task used in the present study represents an objective paradigm that can be used to evaluate motivational impairments in patients with schizophrenia. Such performance-based measures of motivation may also serve as viable endpoints in clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stewart analysis of apparently normal acid-base state in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moviat, M.; Boogaard, M. van den; Intven, F.; Voort, P. van der; Hoeven, H. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe Stewart parameters in critically ill patients with an apparently normal acid-base state and to determine the incidence of mixed metabolic acid-base disorders in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational multicenter study of

  3. Refixation saccades with normal gain values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsager, Leise Elisabeth Hviid; Faber, Christian Emil; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass

    2017-01-01

    -ocular reflex. However, this partial deficit is in conflict with the current way of interpreting vHIT results in which the vestibular function is classified as either normal or pathological based only on the gain value. Refixation saccades, which are evident signs of vestibulopathy, are not considered...

  4. Study of Sesame (Sesame indicum L. Cultivars based on Morphological Characteristics Under Water Deficit Stress Condition Using Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Asghari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation sesame cultivars based on morphological characteristics under water deficit stress condition using factor analysis, an experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications during 2009 in Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources in Parsabad. In this experiment, irrigation as the main factor at three levels (50, 75 and 100 percent of crop water requirement and ten sesame cultivars as the sub-factor were studied. The water requirement of sesame was calculated using CROPWAT software (Penman-Monteith method according to FAO-56. Results showed significant differences between the cultivars and the irrigation levels for all studied traits. Interaction between cultivars and irrigation levels was significant for some of traits. Comparisons of means showed that in water deficit condition, yield and all of traits reduced. In all traits the greatest amounts observed in complete irrigation treatment. In 50 percent of water requirement treatment, amount of leaf chlorophyll, root length, root branches and root length/plant height ratio were greater than other treatments. The Karaj1, Ultan, Naze and IS cultivars were better than other cultivars in stress and non stress condition. In factor analysis 5 and 4 first factors in non stress and stress condition explained 91.36 and 89.52 percent of trait variance, respectively. Grouping of sesame cultivars based on first and second factors in non stress conditions showed that Karaj1, Ultan and Naze cultivars were better than other cultivars. Also, in stress conditions Karaj1 and Ultan cultivars grouped as water deficit stress and better cultivars.

  5. [Family-based psychosocial interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Miika; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Nissinen, Heidi; Autti-Rämö, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial family-based interventions--family therapy, cognitive-behavioral parent training and family-based treatment protocols--are empirically supported treatments for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Well-researched interventions such as remote and group-based parent training programs relate to improvements in parenting quality, positive parenting, and the child's decreased ADHD and conduct behavioral problems, whereas individual family-based treatments are sometimes required, depending on symptom severity. Specific family-based treatment protocols are tailored for older children and adolescents with severe behavioral and emotional problems. Considering the above, empirically supported programs are used more in Finland, compared to licensed Anglo-American treatment protocols.

  6. Finite element based nonlinear normalization of human lumbar intervertebral disc stiffness to account for its morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquer, Ghislain; Laurent, Marc; Brandejsky, Vaclav; Pretterklieber, Michael L; Zysset, Philippe K

    2014-06-01

    Disc degeneration, usually associated with low back pain and changes of intervertebral stiffness, represents a major health issue. As the intervertebral disc (IVD) morphology influences its stiffness, the link between mechanical properties and degenerative grade is partially lost without an efficient normalization of the stiffness with respect to the morphology. Moreover, although the behavior of soft tissues is highly nonlinear, only linear normalization protocols have been defined so far for the disc stiffness. Thus, the aim of this work is to propose a nonlinear normalization based on finite elements (FE) simulations and evaluate its impact on the stiffness of human anatomical specimens of lumbar IVD. First, a parameter study involving simulations of biomechanical tests (compression, flexion/extension, bilateral torsion and bending) on 20 FE models of IVDs with various dimensions was carried out to evaluate the effect of the disc's geometry on its compliance and establish stiffness/morphology relations necessary to the nonlinear normalization. The computed stiffness was then normalized by height (H), cross-sectional area (CSA), polar moment of inertia (J) or moments of inertia (Ixx, Iyy) to quantify the effect of both linear and nonlinear normalizations. In the second part of the study, T1-weighted MRI images were acquired to determine H, CSA, J, Ixx and Iyy of 14 human lumbar IVDs. Based on the measured morphology and pre-established relation with stiffness, linear and nonlinear normalization routines were then applied to the compliance of the specimens for each quasi-static biomechanical test. The variability of the stiffness prior to and after normalization was assessed via coefficient of variation (CV). The FE study confirmed that larger and thinner IVDs were stiffer while the normalization strongly attenuated the effect of the disc geometry on its stiffness. Yet, notwithstanding the results of the FE study, the experimental stiffness showed consistently

  7. Histogram-based normalization technique on human brain magnetic resonance images from different acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofei; Shi, Lin; Luo, Yishan; Yang, Wei; Li, Hongpeng; Liang, Peipeng; Li, Kuncheng; Mok, Vincent C T; Chu, Winnie C W; Wang, Defeng

    2015-07-28

    a histogram-based MRI intensity normalization method. The method can normalize scans which were acquired on different MRI units. We have validated that the method can greatly improve the image analysis performance. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that with the help of our normalization method, we can create a higher quality Chinese brain template.

  8. Object Detection and Tracking-Based Camera Calibration for Normalized Human Height Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehoon Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a normalized human height estimation algorithm using an uncalibrated camera. To estimate the normalized human height, the proposed algorithm detects a moving object and performs tracking-based automatic camera calibration. The proposed method consists of three steps: (i moving human detection and tracking, (ii automatic camera calibration, and (iii human height estimation and error correction. The proposed method automatically calibrates camera by detecting moving humans and estimates the human height using error correction. The proposed method can be applied to object-based video surveillance systems and digital forensic.

  9. White Matter Microstructure in Subjects with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Katherine E.; Levitt, Jennifer G.; Loo, Sandra K.; Ly, Ronald; Yee, Victor; O'Neill, Joseph; Alger, Jeffry; Narr, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous voxel-based and regions-of-interest (ROI)-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have found above-normal mean diffusivity (MD) and below-normal fractional anisotropy (FA) in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, findings remain mixed, and few studies have examined the contribution of ADHD…

  10. Virtual reality-based therapy for the treatment of balance deficits in patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Jeffrey P; Staniszewski, Kristi; Hays, Kaitlin; Gerber, Don; Natale, Audrey; O'Dell, Denise

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and safety of utilizing a commercially available virtual reality gaming system as a treatment intervention for balance training. A randomized controlled trial in which assessment and analysis were blinded. An inpatient rehabilitation facility. Interventions included balance-based physical therapy using a Nintendo Wii, as monitored by a physical therapist, and receipt of one-on-one balance-based physical therapy using standard physical therapy modalities available for use in the therapy gym. Participants in the standard physical therapy group were found to have slightly higher enjoyment at mid-intervention, while those receiving the virtual reality-based balance intervention were found to have higher enjoyment at study completion. Both groups demonstrated improved static and dynamic balance over the course of the study, with no significant differences between groups. Correlational analyses suggest a relationship exists between Wii balance board game scores and BBS scores for measures taken beyond the baseline assessment. This study provides a modest level of evidence to support using commercially available VR gaming systems for the treatment of balance deficits in patients with a primary diagnosis of TBI receiving inpatient rehabilitation. Additional research of these types of interventions for the treatment of balance deficits is warranted.

  11. Bladder cancer mapping in Libya based on standardized morbidity ratio and log-normal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhdiri, Maryam Ahmed; Samat, Nor Azah; Mohamed, Zulkifley

    2017-05-01

    Disease mapping contains a set of statistical techniques that detail maps of rates based on estimated mortality, morbidity, and prevalence. A traditional approach to measure the relative risk of the disease is called Standardized Morbidity Ratio (SMR). It is the ratio of an observed and expected number of accounts in an area, which has the greatest uncertainty if the disease is rare or if geographical area is small. Therefore, Bayesian models or statistical smoothing based on Log-normal model are introduced which might solve SMR problem. This study estimates the relative risk for bladder cancer incidence in Libya from 2006 to 2007 based on the SMR and log-normal model, which were fitted to data using WinBUGS software. This study starts with a brief review of these models, starting with the SMR method and followed by the log-normal model, which is then applied to bladder cancer incidence in Libya. All results are compared using maps and tables. The study concludes that the log-normal model gives better relative risk estimates compared to the classical method. The log-normal model has can overcome the SMR problem when there is no observed bladder cancer in an area.

  12. Time-invariant component-based normalization for a simultaneous PET-MR scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzunce, M A; Reader, A J

    2016-05-07

    Component-based normalization is a method used to compensate for the sensitivity of each of the lines of response acquired in positron emission tomography. This method consists of modelling the sensitivity of each line of response as a product of multiple factors, which can be classified as time-invariant, time-variant and acquisition-dependent components. Typical time-variant factors are the intrinsic crystal efficiencies, which are needed to be updated by a regular normalization scan. Failure to do so would in principle generate artifacts in the reconstructed images due to the use of out of date time-variant factors. For this reason, an assessment of the variability and the impact of the crystal efficiencies in the reconstructed images is important to determine the frequency needed for the normalization scans, as well as to estimate the error obtained when an inappropriate normalization is used. Furthermore, if the fluctuations of these components are low enough, they could be neglected and nearly artifact-free reconstructions become achievable without performing a regular normalization scan. In this work, we analyse the impact of the time-variant factors in the component-based normalization used in the Biograph mMR scanner, but the work is applicable to other PET scanners. These factors are the intrinsic crystal efficiencies and the axial factors. For the latter, we propose a new method to obtain fixed axial factors that was validated with simulated data. Regarding the crystal efficiencies, we assessed their fluctuations during a period of 230 d and we found that they had good stability and low dispersion. We studied the impact of not including the intrinsic crystal efficiencies in the normalization when reconstructing simulated and real data. Based on this assessment and using the fixed axial factors, we propose the use of a time-invariant normalization that is able to achieve comparable results to the standard, daily updated, normalization factors used in this

  13. Normalization references for USEtoxTM-based toxic impact categories: North American and European economic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Lautier, Anne; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.

    2011-01-01

    economic regions, North America and Europe, to calculate normalization references for the three currently-modelled USEtoxTM-based impact categories, i.e. freshwater ecotoxicity, human toxicity, divided into cancer effects and non-cancer effects. Base years for the references are 2004 for Europe and 2006...... coverage of organics in both the inventory and the CF databases. With respect to the intended global character of the USEtoxTM model, different approaches to determine normalization references of other economic systems (e.g. Asia or world) are discussed in relation to these findings. Overall, we thus...... recommend the use of the provided set of normalization references for USEtoxTM, but we also advocate 1) to perform an update as soon as a more comprehensive inventory can be obtained and as soon as characterization factors for metals are revised; 2) to consider extension to other economic systems in order...

  14. Confirming the diversity of the brain after normalization: an approach based on identity authentication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanglin Chen

    Full Text Available During the development of neuroimaging, numerous analyses were performed to identify population differences, such as studies on age, gender, and diseases. Researchers first normalized the brain image and then identified features that represent key differences between groups. In these studies, the question of whether normalization (a pre-processing step widely used in neuroimaging studies reduces the diversity of brains was largely ignored. There are a few studies that identify the differences between individuals after normalization. In the current study, we analyzed brain diversity on an individual level, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The main idea was to utilize brain images for identity authentication. First, the brain images were normalized and registered. Then, a pixel-level matching method was developed to compute the identity difference between different images for matching. Finally, by analyzing the performance of the proposed brain recognition strategy, the individual differences in brain images were evaluated. Experimental results on a 150-subject database showed that the proposed approach could achieve a 100% identification ratio, which indicated distinct differences between individuals after normalization. Thus, the results proved that after the normalization stage, brain images retain their main distinguishing information and features. Based on this result, we suggest that diversity (individual differences should be considered when conducting group analysis, and that this approach may facilitate group pattern classification.

  15. Motivational deficits in effort-based decision making in individuals with subsyndromal depression, first-episode and remitted depression patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Hua; Huang, Jia; Zhu, Cui-Ying; Wang, Ye-Fei; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K; Xie, Guang-Rong

    2014-12-30

    Anhedonia is a hallmark symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD). Preliminary findings suggest that anhedonia is characterized by reduced reward anticipation and motivation of obtaining reward. However, relatively little is known about reward-based decision-making in depression. We tested the hypothesis that anhedonia in MDD may reflect specific impairments in motivation on reward-based decision-making and the deficits might be associated with depressive symptoms severity. In study 1, individuals with and without depressive symptoms performed the modified version of the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT), a behavioral measure of cost/benefit decision-making. In study 2, MDD patients, remitted MDD patients and healthy controls were recruited for the same procedures. We found evidence for decreased willingness to make effort for rewards among individuals with subsyndromal depression; the effect was amplified in MDD patients, but dissipated in patients with remitted depression. We also found that reduced anticipatory and consummatory pleasure predicted decreased willingness to expend efforts to obtain rewards in MDD patients. For individuals with subsyndromal depression, the impairments were correlated with anticipatory anhedonia but not consummatory anhedonia. These data offer novel evidence that motivational deficits in MDD are correlated with depression severity and predicted by self-reported anhedonia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. kCCA Transformation-Based Radiometric Normalization of Multi-Temporal Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiation normalization is an essential pre-processing step for generating high-quality satellite sequence images. However, most radiometric normalization methods are linear, and they cannot eliminate the regular nonlinear spectral differences. Here we introduce the well-established kernel canonical correlation analysis (kCCA into radiometric normalization for the first time to overcome this problem, which leads to a new kernel method. It can maximally reduce the image differences among multi-temporal images regardless of the imaging conditions and the reflectivity difference. It also perfectly eliminates the impact of nonlinear changes caused by seasonal variation of natural objects. Comparisons with the multivariate alteration detection (CCA-based normalization and the histogram matching, on Gaofen-1 (GF-1 data, indicate that the kCCA-based normalization can preserve more similarity and better correlation between an image-pair and effectively avoid the color error propagation. The proposed method not only builds the common scale or reference to make the radiometric consistency among GF-1 image sequences, but also highlights the interesting spectral changes while eliminates less interesting spectral changes. Our method enables the application of GF-1 data for change detection, land-use, land-cover change detection etc.

  17. On reconciling ground-based with spaceborne normalized radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgartner, Francois; Munk, Jens; Jezek, K C

    2002-01-01

    This study examines differences in the normalized radar cross section, derived from ground-based versus spaceborne radar data. A simple homogeneous half-space model, indicates that agreement between the two improves as 1) the distance from the scatterer is increased; and/or 2) the extinction...

  18. 19 CFR 351.405 - Calculation of normal value based on constructed value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of normal value based on constructed value. 351.405 Section 351.405 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and...

  19. A pseudospectra-based approach to non-normal stability of embedded boundary methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaka, Narsimha; Samtaney, Ravi

    2017-11-01

    We present non-normal linear stability of embedded boundary (EB) methods employing pseudospectra and resolvent norms. Stability of the discrete linear wave equation is characterized in terms of the normalized distance of the EB to the nearest ghost node (α) in one and two dimensions. An important objective is that the CFL condition based on the Cartesian grid spacing remains unaffected by the EB. We consider various discretization methods including both central and upwind-biased schemes. Stability is guaranteed when α Funds under Award No. URF/1/1394-01.

  20. Quadrilateral mesh fitting that preserves sharp features based on multi-normals for Laplacian energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Imai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Because the cost of performance testing using actual products is expensive, manufacturers use lower-cost computer-aided design simulations for this function. In this paper, we propose using hexahedral meshes, which are more accurate than tetrahedral meshes, for finite element analysis. We propose automatic hexahedral mesh generation with sharp features to precisely represent the corresponding features of a target shape. Our hexahedral mesh is generated using a voxel-based algorithm. In our previous works, we fit the surface of the voxels to the target surface using Laplacian energy minimization. We used normal vectors in the fitting to preserve sharp features. However, this method could not represent concave sharp features precisely. In this proposal, we improve our previous Laplacian energy minimization by adding a term that depends on multi-normal vectors instead of using normal vectors. Furthermore, we accentuate a convex/concave surface subset to represent concave sharp features.

  1. Datum Feature Extraction and Deformation Analysis Method Based on Normal Vector of Point Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Wang, J.; Jin, F.; Liang, Z.; Yang, Y.

    2018-04-01

    In order to solve the problem lacking applicable analysis method in the application of three-dimensional laser scanning technology to the field of deformation monitoring, an efficient method extracting datum feature and analysing deformation based on normal vector of point cloud was proposed. Firstly, the kd-tree is used to establish the topological relation. Datum points are detected by tracking the normal vector of point cloud determined by the normal vector of local planar. Then, the cubic B-spline curve fitting is performed on the datum points. Finally, datum elevation and the inclination angle of the radial point are calculated according to the fitted curve and then the deformation information was analyzed. The proposed approach was verified on real large-scale tank data set captured with terrestrial laser scanner in a chemical plant. The results show that the method could obtain the entire information of the monitor object quickly and comprehensively, and reflect accurately the datum feature deformation.

  2. THE ANALYSIS OF MOISTURE DEFICIT BASED ON MODIS AND LANDSAT SATELLITE IMAGES. CASE STUDY: THE OLTENIA PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ONȚEL IRINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite images are an important source of information to identify and analyse some hazardous climatic phenomena such as the dryness and drought. These phenomena are characterized by scarce rainfall, increased evapotranspiration and high soil moisture deficit. The soil water reserve depletes to the wilting coefficient, soon followed by the pedological drought which has negative effects on vegetation and agricultural productivity. The MODIS satellite images (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer allow the monitoring of the vegetation throughout the entire vegetative period, with a frequency of 1-2 days and with a spatial resolution of 250 m, 500 m and 1 km away. Another useful source of information is the LANDSAT satellite images, with a spatial resolution of 30 m. Based on MODIS and Landsat satellite images, were calculated moisture monitoring index such as SIWSI (Shortwave Infrared Water Stress Index. Consequently, some years with low moisture such as 2000, 2002, 2007 and 2012 could be identified. Spatially, the areas with moisture deficit varied from one year to another all over the whole analised period (2000-2012. The remote sensing results was corelated with Standard Precipitation Anomaly, which gives a measure of the severity of a wet or dry event.

  3. Computer-based attention training in the schools for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Naomi J; Sheldrick, Radley Christopher; Gotthelf, David; Perrin, Ellen C

    2011-07-01

    Objective. This study examined the efficacy of 2 computer-based training systems to teach children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to attend more effectively. Design/methods. A total of 41 children with ADHD from 2 middle schools were randomly assigned to receive 2 sessions a week at school of either neurofeedback (NF) or attention training through a standard computer format (SCF), either immediately or after a 6-month wait (waitlist control group). Parents, children, and teachers completed questionnaires pre- and postintervention. Results. Primary parents in the NF condition reported significant (P ADHD index, the BASC Attention Problems Scale, and on the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF). Conclusion. This randomized control trial provides preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of computer-based interventions for ADHD and supports the feasibility of offering them in a school setting.

  4. A compact fiber optics-based heterodyne combined normal and transverse displacement interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuanetti, Bryan; Wang, Tianxue; Prakash, Vikas

    2017-03-01

    While Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) has become a common diagnostic tool for the measurement of normal component of particle motion in shock wave experiments, this technique has not yet been modified for the measurement of combined normal and transverse motion, as needed in oblique plate impact experiments. In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of a compact fiber-optics-based heterodyne combined normal and transverse displacement interferometer. Like the standard PDV, this diagnostic tool is assembled using commercially available telecommunications hardware and uses a 1550 nm wavelength 2 W fiber-coupled laser, an optical focuser, and single mode fibers to transport light to and from the target. Two additional optical probes capture first-order beams diffracted from a reflective grating at the target free-surface and deliver the beams past circulators and a coupler where the signal is combined to form a beat frequency. The combined signal is then digitized and analyzed to determine the transverse component of the particle motion. The maximum normal velocity that can be measured by this system is limited by the equivalent transmission bandwidth (3.795 GHz) of the combined detector, amplifier, and digitizer and is estimated to be ∼2.9 km/s. Sample symmetric oblique plate-impact experiments are performed to demonstrate the capability of this diagnostic tool in the measurement of the combined normal and transverse displacement particle motion.

  5. Normal mammogram detection based on local probability difference transforms and support vector machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiracharit, W.; Kumhom, P.; Chamnongthai, K.; Sun, Y.; Delp, E.J.; Babbs, C.F

    2007-01-01

    Automatic detection of normal mammograms, as a ''first look'' for breast cancer, is a new approach to computer-aided diagnosis. This approach may be limited, however, by two main causes. The first problem is the presence of poorly separable ''crossed-distributions'' in which the correct classification depends upon the value of each feature. The second problem is overlap of the feature distributions that are extracted from digitized mammograms of normal and abnormal patients. Here we introduce a new Support Vector Machine (SVM) based method utilizing with the proposed uncrossing mapping and Local Probability Difference (LPD). Crossed-distribution feature pairs are identified and mapped into a new features that can be separated by a zero-hyperplane of the new axis. The probability density functions of the features of normal and abnormal mammograms are then sampled and the local probability difference functions are estimated to enhance the features. From 1,000 ground-truth-known mammograms, 250 normal and 250 abnormal cases, including spiculated lesions, circumscribed masses or microcalcifications, are used for training a support vector machine. The classification results tested with another 250 normal and 250 abnormal sets show improved testing performances with 90% sensitivity and 89% specificity. (author)

  6. Clinical usefulness of normal data bases comparisons for the SPECT diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcourt, J.; Koulibaly, P.M.; Migneco, O.; Dygai, I.; Robert, P.H.; Nobili, F.; Ebmeir, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim. The possible added value of voxel by voxel comparisons to normal data bases has not been evaluated for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We conducted a prospective comparison of the diagnostic performances of 2 software packages: Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) (Friston et al.) and NeuroGam (NGam) (Segami Corporation). Materials and methods. A total of 152 subjects (age ≥ 50 years) were included: 93 AD, 28 depressed patients and 31 normal controls (NC). They were studied in 4 centers as part of a European project 'SPECT in dementia' BMH4-98-3130. NC were used to build the normal data bases and the total population was submitted to the readers for the diagnosis of AD. AD final diagnosis was based on NINCDS/ADRDA criteria for probable AD and DSM-IV criteria for dementia of AD type. SPECT scans were obtained in each center with dedicated cameras 30 to 90 min after i.v. injection of 250 to 925 MBq of 99mTc-HMPAO. All data were reconstructed on the same workstation by filtered backprojection with attenuation correction. The 4.7 mm thick cuts (CUTS) were displayed in the transverse, sagittal and coronal planes with the same color scale. They also were submitted to the 2 packages tested. For SPM, we used SPM'96 for Windows'95. For each individual scan we computed the corresponding z-map by comparison to the NC data base. We used p<0.01 to threshold the t-maps and a p corrected value <0.01 on intensity for cluster selection. For NGam, the same NC were used to build the normal data base. Each individual scan was then compared to this base and the results consisted in a 3D parametric image of voxel by voxel standard deviations form the normal mean value. 4 expert readers (more than 3 years experience; more than 5 SPECT per week) were asked to class the scans as AD or not with a 4 degree of confidence. They reviewed the CUTS alone, CUTS+SPM and CUTS+NGam. ROC analysis was performed and the areas under curves (AUC) statistically compared. Results. Average

  7. Specificity of Reward Sensitivity and Parasympathetic-Based Regulation among Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Rachel B; Musser, Erica D; Raiker, Joseph S; Coles, Erika K; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E

    2018-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with disruptionsin reward sensitivity and regulatory processes. However, it is unclear whether thesedisruptions are better explained by comorbid disruptive behavior disorder (DBD)symptomology. This study sought to examine this question using multiple levels ofanalysis (i.e., behavior, autonomic reactivity). One hundred seventeen children (aged 6 to 12 years; 72.6% male; 69 with ADHD) completed theBalloon-Analogue Risk Task (BART) to assess external reward sensitivity behaviorally.Sympathetic-based internal reward sensitivity and parasympathetic-based regulationwere indexed via cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia(RSA), respectively. Children with ADHD exhibited reduced internal reward sensitivity (i.e.,lengthened PEP; F(1,112)=4.01, p=0.047) compared to healthy controls and werecharacterized by greater parasympathetic-based dysregulation (i.e., reduced RSAaugmentation F(1,112)=10.12, p=0.002). However, follow-up analyses indicated theADHD effect was better accounted for by comorbid DBD diagnoses; that is, childrenwith ADHD and comorbid ODD were characterized by reduced internal rewardsensitivity (i.e., lengthened PEP; t=2.47, p=0.046) and by parasympathetic-baseddysregulation (i.e., reduced RSA augmentation; t=3.51, p=0.002) in response to rewardwhen compared to typically developing youth. Furthermore, children with ADHD and comorbid CD exhibited greater behaviorally-based external reward sensitivity (i.e.,more total pops; F(3,110)= 5.96, p=0.001) compared to children with ADHD only (t=3.87, p=0.001) and children with ADHD and ODD (t=3.56, p=0.003). Results suggest that disruptions in sensitivity to reward may be betteraccounted for, in part, by comorbid DBD.Key Words: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autonomic nervous system,disruptive behavior disorders, reward sensitivityPowered.

  8. Physiological arousal deficits in addicted gamers differ based on preferred game genre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Olivia; Pammer, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    There has been significant discussion surrounding the psychopathology of excessive gaming and whether it constitutes an addiction. The current study investigated physiological and subjective levels of arousal in gamers of two genres and the relationship between sensation seeking and gaming addiction. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and skin conductance were recorded at baseline, during gaming for 15 min and after gaming in 30 massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) and 30 first-person shooter (FPS) male gamers. Gamers were identified as addicted using the Addiction-Engagement Questionnaire. Sensation seeking was measured using the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking. Addicted MMORPG gamers (n=16) displayed significant decreases in cardiovascular activity during gaming compared to baseline and showed significant increases after gaming. Addicted FPS gamers (n=13) had significant increases in BP during gaming which decreased significantly after gaming. In comparison, non-addicted MMORPG gamers (n=14) had significant decreases in HR during gaming, whereas BP in non-addicted MMORPG and FPS gamers (n=17) increased during gaming and after gaming. There were no significant relationships between sensation seeking and addiction. There are physiological arousal deficits in addicted gamers, and these patterns differ according to the genre of game played. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Motor imagery based brain-computer interfaces: An emerging technology to rehabilitate motor deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Valerdi, Luz Maria; Salido-Ruiz, Ricardo Antonio; Ramirez-Mendoza, Ricardo A

    2015-12-01

    When the sensory-motor integration system is malfunctioning provokes a wide variety of neurological disorders, which in many cases cannot be treated with conventional medication, or via existing therapeutic technology. A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a tool that permits to reintegrate the sensory-motor loop, accessing directly to brain information. A potential, promising and quite investigated application of BCI has been in the motor rehabilitation field. It is well-known that motor deficits are the major disability wherewith the worldwide population lives. Therefore, this paper aims to specify the foundation of motor rehabilitation BCIs, as well as to review the recent research conducted so far (specifically, from 2007 to date), in order to evaluate the suitability and reliability of this technology. Although BCI for post-stroke rehabilitation is still in its infancy, the tendency is towards the development of implantable devices that encompass a BCI module plus a stimulation system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficient implementation of Bailey and Borwein pseudo-random number generator based on normal numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliakov, G.; Creighton, D.; Johnstone, M.; Wilkin, T.

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes an implementation of a Linear Congruential Generator (LCG) based on the binary representation of the normal number α, and of a combined generator based on that LCG. The base LCG with the modulus 333 provides a quality sequence with the period ≈3.7ṡ1015, which passes all but two statistical tests from BigCrush test suite. We improved on the original implementation by adapting Barrett's modular reduction method, which resulted in four-fold increase in efficiency. The combined generator has the period of ≈1023 and passes all tests from BigCrush suite.

  11. Characteristic analysis on UAV-MIMO channel based on normalized correlation matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xi jun; Chen, Zi li; Hu, Yong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Based on the three-dimensional GBSBCM (geometrically based double bounce cylinder model) channel model of MIMO for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the simple form of UAV space-time-frequency channel correlation function which includes the LOS, SPE, and DIF components is presented. By the methods of channel matrix decomposition and coefficient normalization, the analytic formula of UAV-MIMO normalized correlation matrix is deduced. This formula can be used directly to analyze the condition number of UAV-MIMO channel matrix, the channel capacity, and other characteristic parameters. The simulation results show that this channel correlation matrix can be applied to describe the changes of UAV-MIMO channel characteristics under different parameter settings comprehensively. This analysis method provides a theoretical basis for improving the transmission performance of UAV-MIMO channel. The development of MIMO technology shows practical application value in the field of UAV communication.

  12. Improving the Dictation in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Using Computer Based Interventions: A Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Tehranidoost

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the current study was to assess the impact of computer games and computer-assisted type instruction on dictation scores of elementary school children with attention deficit – hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Method: In this single-blind clinical trial, 37 elementary school children with ADHD, selected by convenience sampling and divided into group I (n=17 and group II (n=20, underwent eight one-hour sessions (3 sessions per week of intervention by computer games versus computer-assisted type instruction, respectively. 12 school dictation scores were considered: 4 scores preintervention, 4 scores during interventions, and 4 scores post-intervention. Dictation test was taken during each session. Data was analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA. Results: Two groups were matched for age, gender, school grade, medication, IQ, parent’s and teacher’s Conners’ scale scores, having computer at home, history of working with computer, and mean dictation scores. There was no significant difference in dictation scores before and after interventions and also between the study groups. The improvement in school dictation scores had no significant correlation with age, gender, Ritalin use, owning a computer at home and past history of computer work, baseline dictation scores, Ritalin dose, educational status, IQ, and the total score of parent’s and teacher’s Conners’ rating scale. Conclusion: Absence of significant improvement in dictation scores in study groups may be due to the confounding effect of other variables with known impact on dictation scores. Further studies in this field should also assess the change of attention and memory.

  13. Detection of prospective memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment of suspected Alzheimer's disease etiology using a novel event-based prospective memory task.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Blanco-Campal, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relative discriminatory efficacy of an event-based prospective memory (PM) task, in which specificity of the instructions and perceptual salience of the PM cue were manipulated, compared with two widely used retrospective memory (RM) tests (Rivermead Paragraph Recall Test and CERAD-Word List Test), when detecting mild cognitive impairment of suspected Alzheimer\\'s disease etiology (MCI-AD) (N = 19) from normal controls (NC) (N = 21). Statistical analyses showed high discriminatory capacity of the PM task for detecting MCI-AD. The Non-Specific-Non-Salient condition proved particularly useful in detecting MCI-AD, possibly reflecting the difficulty of the task, requiring more strategic attentional resources to monitor for the PM cue. With a cutoff score of <4\\/10, the Non-Specific-Non-Salient condition achieved a sensitivity = 84%, and a specificity = 95%, superior to the most discriminative RM test used (CERAD-Total Learning: sensitivity = 83%; specificity = 76%). Results suggest that PM is an early sign of memory failure in MCI-AD and may be a more pronounced deficit than retrospective failure, probably reflecting the greater self-initiated retrieval demands involved in the PM task used. Limitations include the relatively small sample size, and the use of a convenience sample (i.e. memory clinic attenders and healthy active volunteers), reducing the generalizability of the results, which should be regarded as preliminary. (JINS, 2009, 15, 154-159.).

  14. Acid-base changes in canine neonates following normal birth or dystocia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lúcio, C F; Silva, L C G; Rodrigues, J A; Veiga, G A L; Vannucchi, C I

    2009-07-01

    There are limited data concerning blood gas parameters in neonatal dogs. Knowledge of the normal physiology may facilitate effective therapeutic intervention and potentially reduce neonatal mortality. This study examined acid-base parameters in pups born at normal parturition (n = 27) compared with those born after obstetrical assistance or caesarean operation (n = 13) and those born following oxytocin (OXY) administration for treatment of uterine inertia (n = 11). Pups were subjected to an objective scoring method of neonatal health adapted from use in humans (the Apgar score) at birth and again at 5 and 60 min after birth. Venous blood samples were collected at 5 and 60 min after birth for evaluation of blood gas parameters. At birth, all pups had low Apgar scores and a mixed acidosis. The base excess was lowest for pups delivered after OXY administration. The Apgar score improved for all pups after 5 min of birth and there was an improvement in carbon dioxide tension, base excess and venous blood pH at 1 h, although in all pups a metabolic acidosis persisted. These data provide an important insight into neonatal physiology and the variability of blood gas parameters in pups born at normal and abnormal parturition and provide the basis for clinical decision making following dystocia.

  15. [Voxel-Based Morphometry in Medicated-naive Boys with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Chen, Lizhou; Li, Fei; Chen, Ying; Guo, Lanting; Gong, Qiyong; Huang, Xiaoqi

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD)is one of the most common neuro-developmental disorders occurring in childhood,characterized by symptoms of age-inappropriate inattention,hyperactivity/impulsivity,and the prevalence is higher in boys.Although gray matter volume deficits have been frequently reported for ADHD children via structural magnetic resonance imaging,few of them had specifically focused on male patients.The present study aimed to explore the alterations of gray matter volumes in medicated-naive boys with ADHD via a relatively new voxel-based morphometry technique.According to the criteria of DSM-IV-TR,43medicated-naive ADHD boys and 44age-matched healthy boys were recruited.The magnetic resonance image(MRI)scan was performed via a 3T MRI system with three-dimensional(3D)spoiled gradient recalled echo(SPGR)sequence.Voxel-based morphometry with diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra in SPM8 was used to preprocess the3DT1-weighted images.To identify gray matter volume differences between the ADHD and the controls,voxelbased analysis of whole brain gray matter volumes between two groups were done via two sample t-test in SPM8 with age as covariate,threshold at P<0.001.Finally,compared to the controls,significantly reduced gray matter volumes were identified in the right orbitofrontal cortex(peak coordinates[-2,52,-25],t=4.01),and bilateral hippocampus(Left:peak coordinates[14,0,-18],t=3.61;Right:peak coordinates[-14,15,-28],t=3.64)of ADHD boys.Our results demonstrated obvious reduction of whole brain gray matter volumes in right orbitofrontal cortex and bilateral hippocampus in boys with ADHD.This suggests that the abnormalities of prefrontal-hippocampus circuit may be the underlying cause of the cognitive dysfunction and abnormal behavioral inhibition in medicatednaive boys with ADHD.

  16. Diffusion tensor MR imaging of white matter integrity in HIV-positive patients with planning deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Diogo Goulart; Doring, Thomas M.; Wilner, Nina Ventura; Cabral, Rafael Ferracini; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Leite, Sarah C.B.; Bahia, Paulo R.V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether normal controls and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with and without planning deficits differ on white matter integrity. A total of 34 HIV-positive patients with planning deficits were compared with 13 HIV-positive patients without planning deficits and 19 gender-, age-, and education-matched control subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed along 30 noncolinear directions in a 1.5-T scanner. For tract-based spatial statistics analysis, a white matter skeleton was created, and a permutation-based inference with 5000 permutations with a threshold of p < 0.05 was used to identify abnormalities in fractional anisotropy (FA). The median, radial, and axial diffusivities were also projected onto the mean FA skeleton. Compared with controls, HIV-positive patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and bilateral uncinate fasciculi. Compared to HIV-positive patients without planning deficits, patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and right uncinate fascicule. DTI can detect extensive white matter abnormalities in the normal-appearing white matter of HIV-positive patients with planning deficits compared with controls and HIV-positive patients without planning deficits. (orig.)

  17. Diffusion tensor MR imaging of white matter integrity in HIV-positive patients with planning deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Diogo Goulart; Doring, Thomas M.; Wilner, Nina Ventura; Cabral, Rafael Ferracini; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zimmermann, Nicolle; Fonseca, Rochele Paz [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Department of Psychology, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Leite, Sarah C.B.; Bahia, Paulo R.V. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether normal controls and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with and without planning deficits differ on white matter integrity. A total of 34 HIV-positive patients with planning deficits were compared with 13 HIV-positive patients without planning deficits and 19 gender-, age-, and education-matched control subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed along 30 noncolinear directions in a 1.5-T scanner. For tract-based spatial statistics analysis, a white matter skeleton was created, and a permutation-based inference with 5000 permutations with a threshold of p < 0.05 was used to identify abnormalities in fractional anisotropy (FA). The median, radial, and axial diffusivities were also projected onto the mean FA skeleton. Compared with controls, HIV-positive patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and bilateral uncinate fasciculi. Compared to HIV-positive patients without planning deficits, patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and right uncinate fascicule. DTI can detect extensive white matter abnormalities in the normal-appearing white matter of HIV-positive patients with planning deficits compared with controls and HIV-positive patients without planning deficits. (orig.)

  18. Theory of normal and superconducting properties of fullerene-based solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.L.

    1992-10-01

    Recent experiments on the normal-state and superconducting properties of fullerene-based solids are used to constrain the proposal theories of the electronic nature of these materials. In general, models of superconductivity based on electron pairing induced by phonons are consistent with electronic band theory. The latter experiments also yield estimates of the parameters characterizing these type H superconductors. It is argued that, at this point, a ''standard model'' of phonons interacting with itinerant electrons may be a good first approximation for explaining the properties of the metallic fullerenes

  19. Classifying Normal and Abnormal Status Based on Video Recordings of Epileptic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on video recordings of the movement of the patients with epilepsy, this paper proposed a human action recognition scheme to detect distinct motion patterns and to distinguish the normal status from the abnormal status of epileptic patients. The scheme first extracts local features and holistic features, which are complementary to each other. Afterwards, a support vector machine is applied to classification. Based on the experimental results, this scheme obtains a satisfactory classification result and provides a fundamental analysis towards the human-robot interaction with socially assistive robots in caring the patients with epilepsy (or other patients with brain disorders in order to protect them from injury.

  20. ENU mutagenesis screening for dominant behavioral mutations based on normal control data obtained in home-cage activity, open-field, and passive avoidance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yumiko; Furuse, Tamio; Yamada, Ikuko; Masuya, Hiroshi; Kushida, Tomoko; Shibukawa, Yoko; Nakai, Yuji; Kobayashi, Kimio; Kaneda, Hideki; Gondo, Yoichi; Noda, Tetsuo; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Wakana, Shigeharu

    2010-01-01

    To establish the cutoff values for screening ENU-induced behavioral mutations, normal variations in mouse behavioral data were examined in home-cage activity (HA), open-field (OF), and passive-avoidance (PA) tests. We defined the normal range as one that included more than 95% of the normal control values. The cutoffs were defined to identify outliers yielding values that deviated from the normal by less than 5% for C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, DBF(1), and N(2) (DXDB) progenies. Cutoff values for G1-phenodeviant (DBF(1)) identification were defined based on values over +/- 3.0 SD from the mean of DBF(1) for all parameters assessed in the HA and OF tests. For the PA test, the cutoff values were defined based on whether the mice met the learning criterion during the 2nd (at a shock intensity of 0.3 mA) or the 3rd (at a shock intensity of 0.15 mA) retention test. For several parameters, the lower outliers were undetectable as the calculated cutoffs were negative values. Based on the cutoff criteria, we identified 275 behavioral phenodeviants among 2,646 G1 progeny. Of these, 64 were crossed with wild-type DBA/2J individuals, and the phenotype transmission was examined in the G2 progeny using the cutoffs defined for N(2) mice. In the G2 mice, we identified 15 novel dominant mutants exhibiting behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity in the HA or OF tests, hypoactivity in the OF test, and PA deficits. Genetic and detailed behavioral analysis of these ENU-induced mutants will provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying behavior.

  1. Normal Threshold Size of Stimuli in Children Using a Game-Based Visual Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfang; Ali, Zaria; Subramani, Siddharth; Biswas, Susmito; Fenerty, Cecilia; Henson, David B; Aslam, Tariq

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate and explore the ability of novel game-based perimetry to establish normal visual field thresholds in children. One hundred and eighteen children (aged 8.0 ± 2.8 years old) with no history of visual field loss or significant medical history were recruited. Each child had one eye tested using a game-based visual field test 'Caspar's Castle' at four retinal locations 12.7° (N = 118) from fixation. Thresholds were established repeatedly using up/down staircase algorithms with stimuli of varying diameter (luminance 20 cd/m 2 , duration 200 ms, background luminance 10 cd/m 2 ). Relationships between threshold and age were determined along with measures of intra- and intersubject variability. The Game-based visual field test was able to establish threshold estimates in the full range of children tested. Threshold size reduced with increasing age in children. Intrasubject variability and intersubject variability were inversely related to age in children. Normal visual field thresholds were established for specific locations in children using a novel game-based visual field test. These could be used as a foundation for developing a game-based perimetry screening test for children.

  2. [Quantitative analysis method based on fractal theory for medical imaging of normal brain development in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heheng; Luo, Liangping; Huang, Li

    2011-02-01

    The present paper is aimed to study the fractal spectrum of the cerebral computerized tomography in 158 normal infants of different age groups, based on the calculation of chaotic theory. The distribution range of neonatal period was 1.88-1.90 (mean = 1.8913 +/- 0.0064); It reached a stable condition at the level of 1.89-1.90 during 1-12 months old (mean = 1.8927 +/- 0.0045); The normal range of 1-2 years old infants was 1.86-1.90 (mean = 1.8863 +/- 4 0.0085); It kept the invariance of the quantitative value among 1.88-1.91(mean = 1.8958 +/- 0.0083) during 2-3 years of age. ANOVA indicated there's no significant difference between boys and girls (F = 0.243, P > 0.05), but the difference of age groups was significant (F = 8.947, P development.

  3. Assay based on electrical impedance spectroscopy to discriminate between normal and cancerous mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giana, Fabián Eduardo; Bonetto, Fabián José; Bellotti, Mariela Inés

    2018-03-01

    In this work we present an assay to discriminate between normal and cancerous cells. The method is based on the measurement of electrical impedance spectra of in vitro cell cultures. We developed a protocol consisting on four consecutive measurement phases, each of them designed to obtain different information about the cell cultures. Through the analysis of the measured data, 26 characteristic features were obtained for both cell types. From the complete set of features, we selected the most relevant in terms of their discriminant capacity by means of conventional statistical tests. A linear discriminant analysis was then carried out on the selected features, allowing the classification of the samples in normal or cancerous with 4.5% of false positives and no false negatives.

  4. A population-based study of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and associated impairment in middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Das

    Full Text Available Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most prevalent childhood psychiatric condition. It frequently persists into adulthood and can have serious health and other adverse consequences. The majority of previous adult ADHD studies have focused on young adults so that relatively little is known about ADHD symptoms and their effects in mid and late life. In addition, effects of subclinical levels of attention deficit and hyperactivity have not been studied in detail. In this study we investigated ADHD symptoms and related impairment in a large population-based sample of middle-aged Australian adults (n = 2091; 47% male. Applying the WHO adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS we observed that 6.2% of participants had scores that were previously associated with ADHD diagnosis. No significant gender difference in the distribution of ASRS scores was observed. Multiple regression analyses indicated strong positive correlations between symptoms of ADHD and depression/anxiety and significant negative associations (p<0.01 with employment, financial stress, relationship quality, health and well-being measures in this age group. Importantly, associations were highly significant even when few ADHD symptoms were reported. Compared to the hyperactivity component, the inattention trait was particularly strongly associated and remained significant after controlling for depression/anxiety symptoms. Our study confirms previous findings and significantly adds to existing literature especially for an age-group that has not been well-studied. Our results suggest that ADHD symptoms continue to be associated with ill-health and functional impairment in mid-life and are, therefore, likely to be a major, previously unrecognized source of late-life morbidity with associated social and economic costs. Thus, there is a compelling need for better understanding and development of age-appropriate approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in mid- to late-life.

  5. Normal age-related conversion of bone marrow in the skull base. Assessment with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Koki; Tomura, Noriaki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Izumi, Junichi; Kurosawa, Ryo; Sashi, Ryuji; Watarai, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the normal age-related sequence of conversion from hematopoietic to fatty marrow in the skull base by means of MR imaging. We retrospectively reviewed T1-weighted MR images of the skull base for the distribution of hematopoietic and fatty marrow. The subjects consisted of 169 MR examinations that were performed with the spin-echo technique. The age of the subjects ranged from 0 months to 20 years old. Patients with known marrow abnormalities were excluded from this study. Marrow conversion was assessed in the presphenoid, postsphenoid, basiocciput, petrous apex, clivus, zygomatic bone, and condyle of the mandible. The signal intensity was visually graded, and the signal intensity ratio was determined on the basis of the intensities of the subcutaneous fat and air. The signal intensity of all observed regions was as low as that of muscles until 3 months of age. Conversion of hematopoietic to fatty marrow first occurred in the zygomatic bone until 6 months of age. The presphenoid increased in signal intensity from 5 months to 2 years of age, and the sphenoid sinus began to be pneumatic at this age. Marrow conversion of the postsphenoid and basiocciput was later than that of the presphenoid. Most of the bone marrow of the skull base appeared as fatty conversion until 3 years of age, although some mandibular condyles appeared hematopoietic at 3 years of age. The normal age-related conversion from hematopoietic to fatty marrow in the skull base followed a well-defined sequence. Knowledge of the normal bone marrow conversion by MR imaging is essential for the recognition of pathologic marrow processes. (author)

  6. Strain-based finite elements for the analysis of cylinders with holes and normally intersecting cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabir, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    A finite element solution to the problems of stress distribution for cylindrical shells with circular and elliptical holes and also for normally intersecting thin elastic cylindrical shells is given. Quadrilateral and triangular curved finite elements are used in the analysis. The elements are of a new class, based on simple independent generalised strain functions insofar as this is allowed by the compatibility equations. The elements also satisfy exactly the requirements of strain-free-rigid body displacements and uses only the external 'geometrical' nodal degrees of freedom to avoid the difficulties associated with unnecessary internal degrees of freedom. We first develop strain based quadrilateral and triangular elements and apply them to the solution of the problem of stress concentrations in the neighbourhood of small and large circular and elliptical holes when the cylinders are subjected to a uniform axial tension. These results are compared with analytical solutions based on shallow shell approximations and show that the use of these strain based elements obviates the need for using an inordinately large number of elements. Normally intersecting cylinders are common configurations in structural components for nuclear reactor systems and design information for such configurations are generally lacking. The opportunity is taken in the present paper to provide a finite element solution to this problem. A method of substructing will be introduced to enable a solution to the large number of non banded set of simultaneous equations encountered. (orig./HP)

  7. Recognition-Based Pedagogy: Teacher Candidates' Experience of Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkison, Paul T.; DaoJensen, Thuy

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to introduce what we call "recognition-based pedagogy" as a conceptual frame through which teachers and instructors can collaboratively develop educative experiences with students. Recognition-based pedagogy connects the theories of critical pedagogy, identity politics, and the politics of recognition with the educative…

  8. Prevalence of autism and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder in Down syndrome: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxelgren, Ulrika Wester; Myrelid, Åsa; Annerén, Göran; Ekstam, Bodil; Göransson, Cathrine; Holmbom, Agneta; Isaksson, Anne; Åberg, Marie; Gustafsson, Jan; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a population-based group of children and adolescents with Down syndrome, and to relate the findings to level of intellectual disability and to medical conditions. From a population-based cohort of 60 children and adolescents with Down syndrome, 41 individuals (29 males, 12 females; mean age 11y, age range 5-17y) for whom parents gave consent for participation were clinically assessed with regard to ASD and ADHD. The main instruments used were the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham-IV Rating Scale, and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II. High rates of ASD and ADHD were found: 17 (42%) and 14 (34%) of the 41 children met DSM criteria for ASD and ADHD respectively. Children with Down syndrome and coexisting neurodevelopmental/neuropsychiatric disorders in addition to intellectual disability and medical disorders constitute a severely disabled group. Based on the results, we suggest that screening is implemented for both ASD and ADHD, at the age of 3 to 5 years and early school years respectively, to make adequate interventions possible. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  9. Neurocognitive impairment in deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, E; Binnur Akdede, B; Alptekin, K

    2017-10-01

    Most studies suggested that patients with deficit schizophrenia have more severe impairment compared with patients with non-deficit schizophrenia. However, it is not clear whether deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia are associated with differential neurocognitive profiles. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to compare cognitive performances of deficit and non-deficit patients with each other and with healthy controls. In the current meta-analysis, differences in cognitive abilities between 897 deficit and 1636 non-deficit patients with schizophrenia were examined. Cognitive performances of 899 healthy controls were also compared with 350 patients with deficit and 592 non-deficit schizophrenia. Both deficit (d = 1.04-1.53) and non-deficit (d = 0.68-1.19) schizophrenia were associated with significant deficits in all cognitive domains. Deficit patients underperformed non-deficit patients in all cognitive domains (d = 0.24-0.84) and individual tasks (d = 0.39-0.93). The relationship between deficit syndrome and impairment in olfaction, social cognition, verbal fluency, and speed-based cognitive tasks were relatively stronger. Our findings suggest that there is consistent evidence for a significant relationship between deficit syndrome and more severe cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

  10. Motion Normalized Proportional Control for Improved Pattern Recognition-Based Myoelectric Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheme, Erik; Lock, Blair; Hargrove, Levi; Hill, Wendy; Kuruganti, Usha; Englehart, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes two novel proportional control algorithms for use with pattern recognition-based myoelectric control. The systems were designed to provide automatic configuration of motion-specific gains and to normalize the control space to the user's usable dynamic range. Class-specific normalization parameters were calculated using data collected during classifier training and require no additional user action or configuration. The new control schemes were compared to the standard method of deriving proportional control using a one degree of freedom Fitts' law test for each of the wrist flexion/extension, wrist pronation/supination and hand close/open degrees of freedom. Performance was evaluated using the Fitts' law throughput value as well as more descriptive metrics including path efficiency, overshoot, stopping distance and completion rate. The proposed normalization methods significantly outperformed the incumbent method in every performance category for able bodied subjects (p < 0.001) and nearly every category for amputee subjects. Furthermore, one proposed method significantly outperformed both other methods in throughput (p < 0.0001), yielding 21% and 40% improvement over the incumbent method for amputee and able bodied subjects, respectively. The proposed control schemes represent a computationally simple method of fundamentally improving myoelectric control users' ability to elicit robust, and controlled, proportional velocity commands.

  11. GC-MS-Based Endometabolome Analysis Differentiates Prostate Cancer from Normal Prostate Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Lima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is an important health problem worldwide. Diagnosis and management of PCa is very complex because the detection of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA has several drawbacks. Metabolomics brings promise for cancer biomarker discovery and for better understanding PCa biochemistry. In this study, a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS based metabolomic profiling of PCa cell lines was performed. The cell lines include 22RV1 and LNCaP from PCa with androgen receptor (AR expression, DU145 and PC3 (which lack AR expression, and one normal prostate cell line (PNT2. Regarding the metastatic potential, PC3 is from an adenocarcinoma grade IV with high metastatic potential, DU145 has a moderate metastatic potential, and LNCaP has a low metastatic potential. Using multivariate analysis, alterations in levels of several intracellular metabolites were detected, disclosing the capability of the endometabolome to discriminate all PCa cell lines from the normal prostate cell line. Discriminant metabolites included amino acids, fatty acids, steroids, and sugars. Six stood out for the separation of all the studied PCa cell lines from the normal prostate cell line: ethanolamine, lactic acid, β-Alanine, L-valine, L-leucine, and L-tyrosine.

  12. Perfect GMR effect in gapped graphene-based ferromagnetic normal ferromagnetic junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Karbaschi; Gholam Reza Rashedi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the quantum transport property in gapped graphene-based ferromagnetic/normal/ferromagnetic (FG/NG/FG) junctions by using the Dirac–Bogoliubov–de Gennes equation. The graphene is fabricated on SiC and BN substrates separately, so carriers in FG/NG/FG structures are considered as massive relativistic particles. Transmission prob-ability, charge, and spin conductances are studied as a function of exchange energy of ferromagnets (h), size of graphene gap, and thickness of normal graphene region (L) respectively. Using the experimental values of Fermi energy in the normal graphene part (EFN∼400 meV) and energy gap in graphene (260 meV for SiC and 50 meV for BN substrate), it is shown that this structure can be used for both spin-up and spin-down polarized current. The latter case has different behavior of gapped FG/NG/FG from that of gapless FG/NG/FG structures. Also perfect charge giant magnetoresistance is observed in a range of EFN−mv2F

  13. In vivo estimation of normal amygdala volume from structural MRI scans with anatomical-based segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siozopoulos, Achilleas; Thomaidis, Vasilios; Prassopoulos, Panos; Fiska, Aliki

    2018-02-01

    Literature includes a number of studies using structural MRI (sMRI) to determine the volume of the amygdala, which is modified in various pathologic conditions. The reported values vary widely mainly because of different anatomical approaches to the complex. This study aims at estimating of the normal amygdala volume from sMRI scans using a recent anatomical definition described in a study based on post-mortem material. The amygdala volume has been calculated in 106 healthy subjects, using sMRI and anatomical-based segmentation. The resulting volumes have been analyzed for differences related to hemisphere, sex, and age. The mean amygdalar volume was estimated at 1.42 cm 3 . The mean right amygdala volume has been found larger than the left, but the difference for the raw values was within the limits of the method error. No intersexual differences or age-related alterations have been observed. The study provides a method for determining the boundaries of the amygdala in sMRI scans based on recent anatomical considerations and an estimation of the mean normal amygdala volume from a quite large number of scans for future use in comparative studies.

  14. Conductance of graphene based normal-superconductor junction with double magnetic barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahipour, B.; Mohebalipour, A.; Maleki, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    We study conductance of a graphene based normal metal-superconductor junction with two magnetic barriers. The magnetic barriers are induced via two applied magnetic fields with the same magnitudes and opposite directions accompanied by an applied electrostatic potential. We solve Dirac-Bogoliubov-De-Gennes (DBdG) equation to calculate conductance of the junction. We find that applying the magnetic field leads to suppression of the Andreev reflection and conductance for all energies. On the other hand, we observe a crossover from oscillatory to tunneling behavior of the conductance as a function of the applied potential by increasing the magnetic field.

  15. Reconstruction for limited-projection fluorescence molecular tomography based on projected restarted conjugate gradient normal residual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Fei; Wang, Xin; Bai, Jing

    2011-12-01

    Limited-projection fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) can greatly reduce the acquisition time, which is suitable for resolving fast biology processes in vivo but suffers from severe ill-posedness because of the reconstruction using only limited projections. To overcome the severe ill-posedness, we report a reconstruction method based on the projected restarted conjugate gradient normal residual. The reconstruction results of two phantom experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible for limited-projection FMT. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  16. High School-Based Treatment for Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a Pilot Study Examining Outcomes and Dosage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Steven W.; Schultz, Brandon K.; DeMars, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and dose-response relationship of a school-based treatment program for high school students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Two paraprofessionals provided interventions to 24 students with ADHD randomly assigned to the treatment condition at two public high schools. They…

  17. Effect of Neuroscience-Based Cognitive Skill Training on Growth of Cognitive Deficits Associated with Learning Disabilities in Children Grades 2-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtzon, Sarah Abitbol

    2012-01-01

    Working memory, executive functions, and cognitive processes associated with specific academic areas, are empirically identified as being the core underlying cognitive deficits in students with specific learning disabilities. Using Hebb's theory of neuroplasticity and the principle of automaticity as theoretical bases, this experimental study…

  18. [Classification of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Typically Developing Children Based on Electroencephalogram Principal Component Analysis and k-Nearest Neighbor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiaojiao; Guo, Qian; Li, Wenjie; Wang, Suhong; Zou, Ling

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to assist the individual clinical diagnosis of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using electroencephalogram signal detection method.Firstly,in our experiments,we obtained and studied the electroencephalogram signals from fourteen attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children and sixteen typically developing children during the classic interference control task of Simon-spatial Stroop,and we completed electroencephalogram data preprocessing including filtering,segmentation,removal of artifacts and so on.Secondly,we selected the subset electroencephalogram electrodes using principal component analysis(PCA)method,and we collected the common channels of the optimal electrodes which occurrence rates were more than 90%in each kind of stimulation.We then extracted the latency(200~450ms)mean amplitude features of the common electrodes.Finally,we used the k-nearest neighbor(KNN)classifier based on Euclidean distance and the support vector machine(SVM)classifier based on radial basis kernel function to classify.From the experiment,at the same kind of interference control task,the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children showed lower correct response rates and longer reaction time.The N2 emerged in prefrontal cortex while P2 presented in the inferior parietal area when all kinds of stimuli demonstrated.Meanwhile,the children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder exhibited markedly reduced N2 and P2amplitude compared to typically developing children.KNN resulted in better classification accuracy than SVM classifier,and the best classification rate was 89.29%in StI task.The results showed that the electroencephalogram signals were different in the brain regions of prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal cortex between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children during the interference control task,which provided a scientific basis for the clinical diagnosis of attention-deficit

  19. Subtyping of Toddlers with ASD Based on Patterns of Social Attention Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0179 TITLE: “Subtyping of Toddlers with ASD Based on Patterns of Social Attention Deficits” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE “Subtyping of Toddlers with ASD Based on Patterns of Social Attention Deficits” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0179 5c...proposed project is to elucidate the factors that affect spontaneous dyadic orienting at the earliest stages when ASD can be reliably diagnosed in order

  20. [Prospective memory - concepts, methods of assessment, neuroanatomical bases and its deficits in mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiłkość, Monika; Izdebski, Paweł; Zajac-Lamparska, Ludmiła

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades of the last century there has been a shift in the studies on memory. In psychology of memory the criticism of the laboratory approach resulted in development of the ecological approach. One of the effects of this change was to initiate researches on memory that includes plans for the future, which has resulted in the distinction of the concept of prospective memory. Prospective memory is used in many aspects of everyday life. It deals with remembering intentions and plans, it is connected with remembering about specific task or activity in the future. There are three types of PM: event-based prospective memory, time-based prospective memory and activity-based prospective memory. Current research in this field have already established its own paradigm and tools measuring PM and there is still increasing scientific interest in this issue. Prospective memory assessment may be carried out in various ways. Among them, the most frequently used are: a) questionnaires, b) psychological tests, c) experimental procedures. Within the latter, the additional distinction can be introduced for: the experiments conducted under natural conditions and the laboratory procedures. In Polish literature, there are only a few articles on PM. The aim of this work is to review studies on assessment methods of PM. Its neuroanatomical bases and its functioning in different mental disorders are analyzed. The work is aimed to focus clinicians attention on prospective memory as an area which is important for complex diagnosis of cognitive processes.

  1. Deficit irrigation based on drought tolerance and root signalling in potatoes and tomatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Richardt; Battilano, Adriano; Plauborg, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture is a big consumer of fresh water in competition with other sectors of the society. Within the EU-project SAFIR new water-saving irrigation strategies were developed based on pot, semi-field and field experiments with potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), fresh tomatoes (Lycopersicon escule...

  2. Development of a Theoretically Based Treatment for Sentence Comprehension Deficits in Individuals with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Swathi; Caplan, David; Sandberg, Chaleece; Levy, Joshua; Berardino, Alex; Ascenso, Elsa; Villard, Sarah; Tripodis, Yorghos

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Two new treatments, 1 based on sentence to picture matching (SPM) and the other on object manipulation (OM), that train participants on the thematic roles of sentences using pictures or by manipulating objects were piloted. Method: Using a single-subject multiple-baseline design, sentence comprehension was trained on the affected sentence…

  3. Evaluation of Normalization Methods to Pave the Way Towards Large-Scale LC-MS-Based Metabolomics Profiling Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenborg, Dirk; Baggerman, Geert; Vanaerschot, Manu; Witters, Erwin; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Burzykowski, Tomasz; Berg, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Combining liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based metabolomics experiments that were collected over a long period of time remains problematic due to systematic variability between LC-MS measurements. Until now, most normalization methods for LC-MS data are model-driven, based on internal standards or intermediate quality control runs, where an external model is extrapolated to the dataset of interest. In the first part of this article, we evaluate several existing data-driven normalization approaches on LC-MS metabolomics experiments, which do not require the use of internal standards. According to variability measures, each normalization method performs relatively well, showing that the use of any normalization method will greatly improve data-analysis originating from multiple experimental runs. In the second part, we apply cyclic-Loess normalization to a Leishmania sample. This normalization method allows the removal of systematic variability between two measurement blocks over time and maintains the differential metabolites. In conclusion, normalization allows for pooling datasets from different measurement blocks over time and increases the statistical power of the analysis, hence paving the way to increase the scale of LC-MS metabolomics experiments. From our investigation, we recommend data-driven normalization methods over model-driven normalization methods, if only a few internal standards were used. Moreover, data-driven normalization methods are the best option to normalize datasets from untargeted LC-MS experiments. PMID:23808607

  4. An imbalance fault detection method based on data normalization and EMD for marine current turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Milu; Wang, Tianzhen; Tang, Tianhao; Benbouzid, Mohamed; Diallo, Demba

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes an imbalance fault detection method based on data normalization and Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) for variable speed direct-drive Marine Current Turbine (MCT) system. The method is based on the MCT stator current under the condition of wave and turbulence. The goal of this method is to extract blade imbalance fault feature, which is concealed by the supply frequency and the environment noise. First, a Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT) detector is developed and the monitoring variable is selected by analyzing the relationship between the variables. Then, the selected monitoring variable is converted into a time series through data normalization, which makes the imbalance fault characteristic frequency into a constant. At the end, the monitoring variable is filtered out by EMD method to eliminate the effect of turbulence. The experiments show that the proposed method is robust against turbulence through comparing the different fault severities and the different turbulence intensities. Comparison with other methods, the experimental results indicate the feasibility and efficacy of the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Differentiated Technology-based Interventions for Enhancing Understanding, Flow and Self-efficacy by Learners with Developmental and Attention Deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldborg, Hanne; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of digital technologies for strengthening the participation and inclusion of learners with developmental and attention Deficits (focus learners) into the mainstream classroom. The paper describes the authors’ approach to the challenge of researching the extent...

  6. A computed tomography-based spatial normalization for the analysis of [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hanna; Kim, Jin Su; Choi, Jae Yong; Ryu, Young Hoon; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung

    2014-01-01

    We developed a new computed tomography (CT)-based spatial normalization method and CT template to demonstrate its usefulness in spatial normalization of positron emission tomography (PET) images with [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET studies in healthy controls. Seventy healthy controls underwent brain CT scan (120 KeV, 180 mAs, and 3 mm of thickness) and [(18)F] FDG PET scans using a PET/CT scanner. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired for all subjects. By averaging skull-stripped and spatially-normalized MR and CT images, we created skull-stripped MR and CT templates for spatial normalization. The skull-stripped MR and CT images were spatially normalized to each structural template. PET images were spatially normalized by applying spatial transformation parameters to normalize skull-stripped MR and CT images. A conventional perfusion PET template was used for PET-based spatial normalization. Regional standardized uptake values (SUV) measured by overlaying the template volume of interest (VOI) were compared to those measured with FreeSurfer-generated VOI (FSVOI). All three spatial normalization methods underestimated regional SUV values by 0.3-20% compared to those measured with FSVOI. The CT-based method showed slightly greater underestimation bias. Regional SUV values derived from all three spatial normalization methods were correlated significantly (p normalization may be an alternative method for structure-based spatial normalization of [(18)F] FDG PET when MR imaging is unavailable. Therefore, it is useful for PET/CT studies with various radiotracers whose uptake is expected to be limited to specific brain regions or highly variable within study population.

  7. Change in household income and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during childhood: A nationwide population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Choi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is reported to be more prevalent among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in various countries. The effect of poverty on child development appears to depend on how long poverty lasts. The timing of poverty also seems to be important for childhood outcomes. Lifetime socioeconomic status may shape current health. Thus, we investigated the effects of household income changes from birth to 4 years on the occurrence of ADHD. Methods: Data were obtained from 18,029 participants in the Korean National Health Insurance cohort who were born in 2002 and 2003. All individuals were followed until December 2013 or the occurrence of ADHD, whichever came first. Household income trajectories were estimated using the national health insurance premium and the group-based model. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare incidence rates between different income trajectory groups after adjustment for possible confounding risk factors. Results: Of 18,029 participants, 554 subjects (3.1% were identified as having ADHD by age 10 or 11. Seven household income trajectories within three categories were found. Children living in decreasing, consistently low, and consistently mid-low income households had an increased risk of ADHD compared to children who consistently lived in the mid-high household income group. Conclusions: Children who live in decreasing-income or consistently low-income households have a higher risk for ADHD. Promotion of targeted policies and priority support may help reduce ADHD in this vulnerable group.

  8. Effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on neurophysiological correlates of performance monitoring in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Poppy L A; Hepark, Sevket; Kan, Cornelis C; Barendregt, Henk P; Buitelaar, Jan K; Speckens, Anne E M

    2014-07-01

    To examine whether mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) would enhance attenuated amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing performance monitoring biomarkers of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fifty adult ADHD patients took part in a randomised controlled study investigating ERP and clinical measures pre-to-post MBCT. Twenty-six patients were randomly allocated to MBCT, 24 to a wait-list control. Main outcome measures included error processing (ERN, Pe), conflict monitoring (NoGo-N2), and inhibitory control (NoGo-P3) ERPs concomitant to a continuous performance task (CPT-X). Inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity ADHD symptoms, psychological distress and social functioning, and mindfulness skills were also assessed. MBCT was associated with increased Pe and NoGo-P3 amplitudes, coinciding with reduced 'hyperactivity/impulsivity' and 'inattention' symptomatology. Specific to the MBCT; enhanced Pe amplitudes correlated with a decrease in hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and increased 'act-with-awareness' mindfulness skill, whereas, enhanced P3 correlated with amelioration in inattention symptoms. MBCT enhanced ERP amplitudes associated with motivational saliency and error awareness, leading to improved inhibitory regulation. MBCT suggests having comparable modulation on performance monitoring ERP amplitudes as pharmacological treatments. Further study and development of MBCT as a treatment for ADHD is warranted, in addition to its potential scope for clinical applicability to broader defined externalising disorders and clinical problems associated with impairments of the prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Deficits in cue detection underlie event-based prospective memory impairment in major depression: an eye tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyi; Zhou, Renlai; Cui, Hong; Chen, Xinyin

    2013-10-30

    This study examined the cue detection in the non-focal event-based prospective memory (PM) of individuals with and without a major depressive disorder using behavioural and eye tracking assessments. The participants were instructed to search on each trial for a different target stimulus that could be present or absent and to make prospective responses to the cue object. PM tasks included cue only and target plus cue, whereas ongoing tasks included target only and distracter only. The results showed that a) participants with depression performed more poorly than those without depression in PM; b) participants with depression showed more fixations and longer total and average fixation durations in both ongoing and PM conditions; c) participants with depression had lower scores on accuracy in target-plus-cue trials than in cue-only trials and had a higher gaze rate of targets on hits and misses in target-plus-cue trials than did those without depression. The results indicate that the state of depression may impair top-down cognitive control function, which in turn results in particular deficits in the engagement of monitoring for PM cues. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing gray matter in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Xiao-Fei; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Li-Zhi; Zhang, You-Ming; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that temporal lobe radiation necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy (RT) could involve gray matter (GM). The purpose of the study was to assess the radiation-induced GM volume differences between NPC patients who had and had not received RT and the effect of time after RT on GM volume differences in those patients who had received RT. We used magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess differences in GM volume between 30 NPC patients with normal-appearing whole-brain GM after RT and 15 control patients with newly diagnosed but not yet medically treated NPC. Correlation analyses were used to investigate the relationship between GM volume changes and time after RT. Patients who had received RT had GM volume decreases in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule (p 100 voxels). Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated that regional GM volume loss in the left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were negatively related to the mean dose to the ipsilateral temporal lobe, respectively. These results indicate that GM volume deficits in bilateral temporal lobes in patients who had received RT might be radiation-induced. Our findings might provide new insight into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced structural damage in normal-appearing brain tissue. Yet this is an exploratory study, whose findings should therefore be taken with caution. (orig.)

  11. Progress and roadblocks in the search for brain-based biomarkers of autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, L Q; Dajani, D R; Voorhies, W; Bednarz, H; Kana, R K

    2017-08-22

    Children with neurodevelopmental disorders benefit most from early interventions and treatments. The development and validation of brain-based biomarkers to aid in objective diagnosis can facilitate this important clinical aim. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of current progress in the use of neuroimaging to identify brain-based biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), two prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders. We summarize empirical work that has laid the foundation for using neuroimaging to objectively quantify brain structure and function in ways that are beginning to be used in biomarker development, noting limitations of the data currently available. The most successful machine learning methods that have been developed and applied to date are discussed. Overall, there is increasing evidence that specific features (for example, functional connectivity, gray matter volume) of brain regions comprising the salience and default mode networks can be used to discriminate ASD from typical development. Brain regions contributing to successful discrimination of ADHD from typical development appear to be more widespread, however there is initial evidence that features derived from frontal and cerebellar regions are most informative for classification. The identification of brain-based biomarkers for ASD and ADHD could potentially assist in objective diagnosis, monitoring of treatment response and prediction of outcomes for children with these neurodevelopmental disorders. At present, however, the field has yet to identify reliable and reproducible biomarkers for these disorders, and must address issues related to clinical heterogeneity, methodological standardization and cross-site validation before further progress can be achieved.

  12. A Classification Method of Normal and Overweight Females Based on Facial Features for Automated Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bum Ju Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight have become serious public health problems worldwide. Obesity and abdominal obesity are associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome. In this paper, we first suggest a method of predicting normal and overweight females according to body mass index (BMI based on facial features. A total of 688 subjects participated in this study. We obtained the area under the ROC curve (AUC value of 0.861 and kappa value of 0.521 in Female: 21–40 (females aged 21–40 years group, and AUC value of 0.76 and kappa value of 0.401 in Female: 41–60 (females aged 41–60 years group. In two groups, we found many features showing statistical differences between normal and overweight subjects by using an independent two-sample t-test. We demonstrated that it is possible to predict BMI status using facial characteristics. Our results provide useful information for studies of obesity and facial characteristics, and may provide useful clues in the development of applications for alternative diagnosis of obesity in remote healthcare.

  13. Pupillometer-based objective chromatic perimetry in normal eyes and patients with retinal photoreceptor dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaat, Alon; Sher, Ifat; Kolker, Andrew; Elyasiv, Sivan; Rosenfeld, Elkana; Mhajna, Mohamad; Melamed, Shlomo; Belkin, Michael; Rotenstreich, Ygal

    2013-04-17

    To evaluate a novel objective perimetry using multifocal chromatic pupil light reflex in normal participants and patients with photoreceptor dysfunction, and to relate this new technique with subjective dark-adapted chromatic Goldmann perimetry. Thirty-two eyes of 17 retinitis pigmentosa (RP) or cone-rod dystrophy patients and 20 eyes of 12 healthy individuals were tested. A computerized infrared video pupillometer was used to record changes in pupil diameter in response to short- and long-wavelength stimuli (peak 485 and 640 nm, respectively; light intensity 40 cd/m(2)) at 13 different points of the 30° visual field (VF), under background illumination of 2.7 cd/m(2). The pupillary response (PR) of patients was compared with PR obtained from normal control participants. In 11 patients, the pupillary responses were also compared with their findings on dark-adapted chromatic Goldmann perimetry. Significantly reduced pupillary responses were obtained in RP patients in response to the short-wavelength stimulus in nearly all perimetric locations (P chromatic Goldmann perimetry. In all patients that were tested by the chromatic Goldmann, minimal PR was recorded in areas that were nondetected in the chromatic Goldmann perimetry. This study demonstrates the potential feasibility of using pupillometer-based chromatic perimetry for objectively assessing VF defects and retinal function in patients with retinal dystrophies. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01021982.).

  14. Simulation based medical education; teaching normal delivery on intermediate fidelity simulator to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nighat; Baig, Lubna; Shah, Nusrat; Hussain, Riffat; Aly, Syed Moyn

    2017-10-01

    To assess the effectiveness of medium fidelity simulator in teaching normal vaginal delivery to medical students. The quasi-experimental study was conducted at the professional development centre of the Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, from June to December 2015, and comprised medical students. Third-year medical students were included. They were divided into two groups. Group A was taught normal delivery through traditional PowerPoint and group B through simulator. The instruments used for assessing knowledge were pre-test and post-test, for skills of labour/delivery checklist of performance was used, and perception forms were filled to evaluate workshops/learning environment by students. Of the 76 participants, there were 36(47.4%) in group A and 40(52.6%) in group B. The overall mean age of the participants was 20.86±0.76 years in group B and 20.60±0.95 years in group A (p=0.19). The mean grade point average of the participants was 2.89±0.47 in group A and 2.87±0.48 in group B (p=0.81).Group B performed much better in skill of delivery having a mean score of 8.91±3.20compared to group A which had mean of 5.67±1.84 (pSimulation-based skill learning showed significantly better results.

  15. Detecting brain growth patterns in normal children using tensor-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D; Levitt, Jennifer G; Caplan, Rochelle; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W

    2009-01-01

    Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based volumetric studies have shown age-related increases in the volume of total white matter and decreases in the volume of total gray matter of normal children. Recent adaptations of image analysis strategies enable the detection of human brain growth with improved spatial resolution. In this article, we further explore the spatio-temporal complexity of adolescent brain maturation with tensor-based morphometry. By utilizing a novel non-linear elastic intensity-based registration algorithm on the serial structural MRI scans of 13 healthy children, individual Jacobian growth maps are generated and then registered to a common anatomical space. Statistical analyses reveal significant tissue growth in cerebral white matter, contrasted with gray matter loss in parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe. In addition, a linear regression with age and gender suggests a slowing down of the growth rate in regions with the greatest white matter growth. We demonstrate that a tensor-based Jacobian map is a sensitive and reliable method to detect regional tissue changes during development. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Normal Development of Sutures and synchondroses in the central skull base : CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Hong Gee; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kang, Jee Hee; Lee, Kyung Hee; Lim, Myung Kwan; Cho, Young Kuk; Ok, Cheol Su; Suh, Chang Hae

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the developmental patterns of the sutures and synchondroses in the central skull base. We evaluated the CT scans of 109 children (age range 29 days to 15 years) with no skull base abnormality who had undergone axial CT of the skull base with 1-mm collimation. Using a five-tier scheme, we analyzed the developmental patterns of the 18 sutures and synchondroses related to the sphenoid and occipital bones. Fusion of the sutures and synchondroses related to the sphenoid bone progressed rapidly during the first two years. Thereafter, changes in the sphenoid bone were dominated by pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus. Fusion of the synchondroses within the sphenoid body, including intersphenoidal, intrapresphenoidal, intrapostsphenoidal synchondrosis occurred early and in most cases was graded ≥3D4. Fusion of the sphenosquamosal, sphenoethmoidal, and frontosphenoidal sutures was delayed, and residual sclerosis was a common finding. Except for Kerckring-supraoccipital synchondrosis, fusion of the six sutures and synchondroses related to the occipital bone occurred more gradually than that of those related to the sphenoid bone. Among these, fusion of the occipitomastoidal suture and petro-occipital synchondrosis was the last to occur. A knowledge of the developmental patterns of sutures and synchondroses can help differentiate normal conditions from those such as fracture, osseous dysplasia, or congenital malformation, which are abnormal. Our results provide certain basic information about skull base maturity in children. (author)

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF LAND BASED ENDURANCE TRAINING VERSUS AQUATIC BASED ENDURANCE TRAINING ON IMPROVING ENDURANCE IN NORMAL INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha Eunice Regima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently the exercises and fitness professionals have adopted water as an alternative medium for delivering programs to improve fitness and health. When exercise on dry land our skeletal muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory and other body systems are greatly affected by the forces of gravity. When exercise in water, the effects created by the gravitational pull on the body are attenuated. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of land based endurance training and aquatic based endurance training for enhancing endurance in normal individuals. Methods: An experimental study design with 30 subjects healthy individuals between 20-30 years of both sexes currently were divided equally into 2 groups. Group A underwent land based exercises while Group B underwent aquatic based exercises. The outcome measures consist of RPP (rate pressure product, REC HR (recovery heart rate, RHR (resting heart rate and 6MWD (6 minute walking distance was measured before (pre-training and after four weeks of endurance training. Results: In this study, the mean improvement between the 2 groups of land and aquatic based endurance exercises were tested for significance using a dependent t test. The calculated t value were 43.550, 4.583, 16, 5.870 for RPP, REC HR, RHR, 6MWD for group A respectively. For group B 25.922, 12.762, 27.495,19.236 for RPP, REC HR, RHR, 6MWD for group A respectively with p<0.05. This clearly indicated that both land based exercises and aquatic based exercises will improve cardiovascular endurance significantly and there is no significant difference between land based exercises and aquatic based exercises for enhancing endurance in normal individuals. Conclusion: It is concluded that both land based and aquatic based endurance exercises methods produce equivalent, if not same effect on the enhancement of aerobic endurance. There was no significant difference between these two exercising mediums. Nonetheless

  18. A Platoon Dispersion Model Based on a Truncated Normal Distribution of Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding platoon dispersion is critical for the coordination of traffic signal control in an urban traffic network. Assuming that platoon speed follows a truncated normal distribution, ranging from minimum speed to maximum speed, this paper develops a piecewise density function that describes platoon dispersion characteristics as the platoon moves from an upstream to a downstream intersection. Based on this density function, the expected number of cars in the platoon that pass the downstream intersection, and the expected number of cars in the platoon that do not pass the downstream point are calculated. To facilitate coordination in a traffic signal control system, dispersion models for the front and the rear of the platoon are also derived. Finally, a numeric computation for the coordination of successive signals is presented to illustrate the validity of the proposed model.

  19. Intensity Variation Normalization for Finger Vein Recognition Using Guided Filter Based Singe Scale Retinex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shan Juan; Lu, Yu; Yoon, Sook; Yang, Jucheng; Park, Dong Sun

    2015-07-14

    Finger vein recognition has been considered one of the most promising biometrics for personal authentication. However, the capacities and percentages of finger tissues (e.g., bone, muscle, ligament, water, fat, etc.) vary person by person. This usually causes poor quality of finger vein images, therefore degrading the performance of finger vein recognition systems (FVRSs). In this paper, the intrinsic factors of finger tissue causing poor quality of finger vein images are analyzed, and an intensity variation (IV) normalization method using guided filter based single scale retinex (GFSSR) is proposed for finger vein image enhancement. The experimental results on two public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in enhancing the image quality and finger vein recognition accuracy.

  20. Intensity Variation Normalization for Finger Vein Recognition Using Guided Filter Based Singe Scale Retinex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Juan Xie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Finger vein recognition has been considered one of the most promising biometrics for personal authentication. However, the capacities and percentages of finger tissues (e.g., bone, muscle, ligament, water, fat, etc. vary person by person. This usually causes poor quality of finger vein images, therefore degrading the performance of finger vein recognition systems (FVRSs. In this paper, the intrinsic factors of finger tissue causing poor quality of finger vein images are analyzed, and an intensity variation (IV normalization method using guided filter based single scale retinex (GFSSR is proposed for finger vein image enhancement. The experimental results on two public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in enhancing the image quality and finger vein recognition accuracy.

  1. Parameters optimization for wavelet denoising based on normalized spectral angle and threshold constraint machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Ma, Yong; Liang, Kun; Tian, Yong; Wang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Wavelet parameters (e.g., wavelet type, level of decomposition) affect the performance of the wavelet denoising algorithm in hyperspectral applications. Current studies select the best wavelet parameters for a single spectral curve by comparing similarity criteria such as spectral angle (SA). However, the method to find the best parameters for a spectral library that contains multiple spectra has not been studied. In this paper, a criterion named normalized spectral angle (NSA) is proposed. By comparing NSA, the best combination of parameters for a spectral library can be selected. Moreover, a fast algorithm based on threshold constraint and machine learning is developed to reduce the time of a full search. After several iterations of learning, the combination of parameters that constantly surpasses a threshold is selected. The experiments proved that by using the NSA criterion, the SA values decreased significantly, and the fast algorithm could save 80% time consumption, while the denoising performance was not obviously impaired.

  2. Vascular Risk Factors and Diseases Modulate Deficits of Reward-Based Reversal Learning in Acute Basal Ganglia Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla K Seidel

    Full Text Available Besides motor function, the basal ganglia have been implicated in feedback learning. In patients with chronic basal ganglia infarcts, deficits in reward-based reversal learning have previously been described.We re-examined the acquisition and reversal of stimulus-stimulus-reward associations and acquired equivalence in eleven patients with acute basal ganglia stroke (8 men, 3 women; 57.8±13.3 years, whose performance was compared eleven healthy subjects of comparable age, sex distribution and education, who were recruited outside the hospital. Eleven hospitalized patients with a similar vascular risk profile as the stroke patients but without stroke history served as clinical control group.In a neuropsychological assessment 7±3 days post-stroke, verbal and spatial short-term and working memory and inhibition control did not differ between groups. Compared with healthy subjects, control patients with vascular risk factors exhibited significantly reduced performance in the reversal phase (F[2,30] = 3.47; p = 0.044; post-hoc comparison between risk factor controls and healthy controls: p = 0.030, but not the acquisition phase (F[2,30] = 1.01; p = 0.376 and the acquired equivalence (F[2,30] = 1.04; p = 0.367 tasks. In all tasks, the performance of vascular risk factor patients closely resembled that of basal ganglia stroke patients. Correlation studies revealed a significant association of the number of vascular risk factors with reversal learning (r = -0.33, p = 0.012, but not acquisition learning (r = -0.20, p = 0.121 or acquired equivalence (r = -0.22, p = 0.096.The previously reported impairment of reward-based learning may be attributed to vascular risk factors and associated diseases, which are enriched in stroke patients. This study emphasizes the necessity of appropriate control subjects in cognition studies.

  3. Genetic and environmental influences on adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: a large Swedish population-based study of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, H; Asherson, P; Chang, Z; Ljung, T; Friedrichs, B; Larsson, J-O; Lichtenstein, P

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently persists into adulthood. Family and twin studies delineate a disorder with strong genetic influences among children and adolescents based on parent- and teacher-reported data but little is known about the genetic and environmental contribution to DSM-IV ADHD symptoms in adulthood. We therefore aimed to investigate the impact of genetic and environmental influences on the inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms of ADHD in adults. Twin methods were applied to self-reported assessments of ADHD symptoms from a large population-based Swedish twin study that included data from 15 198 Swedish male and female twins aged 20 to 46 years. The broad heritability [i.e., A + D, where A is an additive genetic factor and D (dominance) a non-additive genetic factor] was 37% (A = 11%, D = 26%) for inattention and 38% (A = 18%, D = 20%) for hyperactivity-impulsivity. The results also indicate that 52% of the phenotypic correlation between inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity (r = 0.43) was explained by genetic influences whereas the remaining part of the covariance was explained by non-shared environmental influences. These results were replicated across age strata. Our findings of moderate broad heritability estimates are consistent with previous literature on self-rated ADHD symptoms in older children, adolescents and adults and retrospective reports of self-rated childhood ADHD by adults but differ from studies of younger children with informant ratings. Future research needs to clarify whether our data indicate a true decrease in the heritability of ADHD in adults compared to children, or whether this relates to the use of self-ratings in contrast to informant data.

  4. Incidence of Enuresis and Encopresis Among Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Population-Based Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Michael W.; Natchev, Brooke E.; Katusic, Slavica K.; Colligan, Robert C.; Weaver, Amy L.; Voigt, Robert G.; Barbaresi, William J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study reports the incidence of enuresis and encopresis among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) versus those without AD/HD. METHOD Subjects included 358 (74.5% male) children with research-identified AD/HD from a 1976-1982 population-based birth cohort (N = 5718) and 729 (75.2% male) non-AD/HD control subjects from the same birth cohort, matched by gender and age. All subjects were retrospectively followed from birth until a diagnosis of enuresis or encopresis was made or last follow-up prior to 18 years of age. The complete medical record for each subject was reviewed to obtain information on age of initial diagnosis of an elimination disorder, frequency and duration of symptoms, identification of exclusionary criteria specified by DSM-IV, with confirmation of the diagnosis by expert consensus. RESULTS Children with AD/HD were 2.1 (95% CI, 1.3-3.4; p = 0.002) times more likely to meet DSM-IV criteria for enuresis than non-AD/HD controls; they were 1.8 (95% CI, 1.2 – 2.7; p = 0.006) times more likely to do so than non-AD/HD controls when less stringent criteria for a diagnosis of enuresis were employed. Though not significant, children with AD/HD were 1.8 (95% CI, 0.7-4.6; p = 0.23) times more likely to meet criteria for encopresis than non-AD/HD controls. The relative risk was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.0-4.1; p = 0.05) when a less stringent definition for encopresis was utilized. CONCLUSIONS The results of this population-based study demonstrate that children with AD/HD are more likely than their peers without AD/HD to develop enuresis with a similar trend for encopresis. PMID:23680296

  5. Academic Achievement in Adults with a History of Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Population-Based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Robert G; Katusic, Slavica K; Colligan, Robert C; Killian, Jill M; Weaver, Amy L; Barbaresi, William J

    2017-01-01

    Previous research on the developmental course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is limited by biased clinic-referred samples and other methodological problems. Thus, questions about adult academic outcomes associated with childhood ADHD remain unanswered. Thus, the objective of this study was to describe academic outcomes in adulthood among incident cases of research-identified childhood ADHD versus non-ADHD referents from a population-based birth cohort. Young adults with research-identified childhood ADHD (N = 232; mean age 27.0 yr; 72.0% men) and referents (N = 335; mean age 28.6 yr; 62.7% men) from a 1976 to 1982 birth cohort (N = 5699) were invited to participate in a followup study and were administered an academic achievement battery consisting of the basic reading component of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III) and the arithmetic subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test-Third Edition (WRAT-3). Outcomes were compared between the 2 groups using linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, and comorbid learning disability status. Childhood ADHD cases scored from 3 to 5 grade equivalents lower on all academic tests compared with referents, with mean (SD) standard scores of 95.7 (8.4) versus 101.8 (8.1) in basic reading; 95.0 (9.3) versus 101.9 (8.5) in letterword identification; 98.2 (8.6) versus 103.2 (9.2) in passage comprehension; 95.7 (9.1) versus 100.9 (9.0) in word attack; and 87.8 (12.9) versus 98.0 (12.0) in arithmetic. This is the first prospective, population-based study of adult academic outcomes of childhood ADHD. Our data provide evidence that childhood onset ADHD is associated with long-term underachievement in reading and math that may negatively impact ultimate educational attainment and occupational functioning in adulthood.

  6. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among School Children and Associated Co-morbidities - A Hospital Based Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimal, H; Pokharel, A

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is the most common neuro- developmental disorders of childhood characterized by the core symptoms including inattentiveness and distractibility and frequently involve impairments in executive functioning, increased impulsivity, and restlessness. Objective To find out the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among school aged children Presented to Pediatric clinic and also to investigate associated comorbidities. Method This study was conducted at Nobel Medical College Teaching Hospital, Biratnagar during April 2014 - March 2015. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was diagnosed by the developmental Pediatrician after taking relevant history and the clinical assessment using Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder rating scale with diagnostic criteria consistent with Diagnostic Statistical Manual - IV classification. Spence anxiety scale child and parent rated version and Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire were also used. Result Result showed the yearly prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder being 41(11.7%) with male: female ratio of 4:1. The study reported that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder combined type was the commonest type that was 26(63%) cases followed by Inattentive type 9(22%) cases and 6(15%) were hyperactive type. The mean age for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was 7 years and 5 months. The most common co-morbidities were sleep problem 12(29.3%), Learning difficulty 10(24.4%), Anxiety disorder 10(24.4), Oppositional Defiant Disorder 9(22%), Autism Spectrum Disorder 5(12%), speech delay 6(14.6%), and 4(10%) had associated tics. There was abnormal SDQ prevalence of 29.3% across the area of emotional distress. The mean abnormal SDQ score in total difficulty area 8 (20.7%), socializing with peer 9(22%), behavioral difficulty 11(26.8%), hyperactivity/inattention 23(56.1%) and impact of difficulties in young person's life being 5(12.2%). Conclusion There is

  7. Effects of active music therapy on the normal brain: fMRI based evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglio, Alfredo; Galandra, Caterina; Sibilla, Luisella; Esposito, Fabrizio; Gaeta, Francesca; Di Salle, Francesco; Moro, Luca; Carne, Irene; Bastianello, Stefano; Baldi, Maurizia; Imbriani, Marcello

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neurophysiological bases of Active Music Therapy (AMT) and its effects on the normal brain. Twelve right-handed, healthy, non-musician volunteers were recruited. The subjects underwent 2 AMT sessions based on the free sonorous-music improvisation using rhythmic and melodic instruments. After these sessions, each subject underwent 2 fMRI scan acquisitions while listening to a Syntonic (SP) and an A-Syntonic (AP) Production from the AMT sessions. A 3 T Discovery MR750 scanner with a 16-channel phased array head coil was used, and the image analysis was performed with Brain Voyager QX 2.8. The listening to SP vs AP excerpts mainly activated: (1) the right middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal sulcus, (2) the right middle frontal gyrus and in particular the right precentral gyrus, (3) the bilateral precuneus, (4) the left superior temporal sulcus and (5) the left middle temporal gyrus. These results are consistent with the psychological bases of the AMT approach and with the activation of brain areas involved in memory and autobiographical processes, and also in personal or interpersonal significant experiences. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and to explain possible effects of AMT in clinical settings.

  8. The spectral theorem for quaternionic unbounded normal operators based on the S-spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpay, Daniel, E-mail: dany@math.bgu.ac.il; Kimsey, David P., E-mail: dpkimsey@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Colombo, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.colombo@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Matematica, Via E. Bonardi, 9, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper we prove the spectral theorem for quaternionic unbounded normal operators using the notion of S-spectrum. The proof technique consists of first establishing a spectral theorem for quaternionic bounded normal operators and then using a transformation which maps a quaternionic unbounded normal operator to a quaternionic bounded normal operator. With this paper we complete the foundation of spectral analysis of quaternionic operators. The S-spectrum has been introduced to define the quaternionic functional calculus but it turns out to be the correct object also for the spectral theorem for quaternionic normal operators. The lack of a suitable notion of spectrum was a major obstruction to fully understand the spectral theorem for quaternionic normal operators. A prime motivation for studying the spectral theorem for quaternionic unbounded normal operators is given by the subclass of unbounded anti-self adjoint quaternionic operators which play a crucial role in the quaternionic quantum mechanics.

  9. Matrix normalized MALDI-TOF quantification of a fluorotelomer-based acrylate polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Keegan; Mabury, Scott A

    2015-05-19

    The degradation of fluorotelomer-based acrylate polymers (FTACPs) has been hypothesized to serve as a source of the environmental contaminants, perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs). Studies have relied on indirect measurement of presumed degradation products to evaluate the environmental fate of FTACPs; however, this approach leaves a degree of uncertainty. The present study describes the development of a quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry method as the first direct analysis method for FTACPs. The model FTACP used in this study was poly(8:2 FTAC-co-HDA), a copolymer of 8:2 fluorotelomer acrylate (8:2 FTAC) and hexadecyl acrylate (HDA). Instead of relying on an internal standard polymer, the intensities of 40 poly(8:2 FTAC-co-HDA) signals (911-4612 Da) were normalized to the signal intensity of a matrix-sodium cluster (659 Da). We termed this value the normalized polymer response (P(N)). By using the same dithranol solution for the sample preparation of poly(8:2 FTAC-co-HDA) standards, calibration curves with coefficient of determinations (R(2)) typically >0.98 were produced. When poly(8:2 FTAC-co-HDA) samples were prepared with the same dithranol solution as the poly(8:2 FTAC-co-HDA) standards, quantification to within 25% of the theoretical concentration was achieved. This approach minimized the sample-to-sample variability that typically plagues MALDI-TOF, and is the first method developed to directly quantify FTACPs.

  10. Relationship between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and family functioning: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussen, Alexandra; Sciberras, Emma; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Efron, Daryl

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between family functioning and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in an Australian community-based sample. Children were screened for ADHD in their second year of formal schooling. Two hundred and two (202) primary caregivers completed validated measures of family quality of life (QoL), parent mental health, parenting styles and parental relationship quality. Compared with controls, parents of children screening positive for ADHD reported poorer family QoL in the domains of emotional impact (mean difference [MD] -20.1; 95% CI -38.2 to -1.9, p = 0.03) and impact on family activities (MD -17.2; 95% CI -27.9 to -6.5, p = 0.002), less parental warmth (MD -3.4; 95% CI -6.0 to -0.9, p = 0.01) and higher parental depression (MD 6.8; 95% CI 1.8 to 11.7, p = 0.009) and anxiety (MD 6.2; 95% CI 1.7 to 10.6, p = 0.008) after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and child conduct symptoms. Parents of children screening positive for ADHD reported higher stress (MD 4.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 7.1, p = 0.007) and more inconsistent (MD 3.0; 95% CI 1.2 to 4.8, p = 0.002) and hostile (MD = 2.2; 95% CI 1.0 to 3.4, p = 0.001) parenting after adjusting for socio-demographic factors only. No difference in parental relationship quality and parental inductive reasoning was identified. These findings suggest a strong association between poor family functioning and ADHD symptoms and carry implications for comprehensive ADHD management and the importance of seeing the child within the family context.

  11. Incidence of enuresis and encopresis among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Michael W; Natchev, Brooke E; Katusic, Slavica K; Colligan, Robert C; Weaver, Amy L; Voigt, Robert G; Barbaresi, William J

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the incidence of enuresis and encopresis among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus those without ADHD. Subjects included 358 children (74.5% boys) with research-identified ADHD from a 1976 to 1982 population-based birth cohort (n = 5718) and 729 (75.2% boys) non-ADHD control subjects from the same birth cohort, matched by gender and age. All subjects were retrospectively followed from birth until a diagnosis of enuresis or encopresis was made or last follow-up before 18 years of age. The complete medical record for each subject was reviewed to obtain information on age of initial diagnosis of an elimination disorder, frequency and duration of symptoms, and identification of exclusionary criteria specified by DSM-IV, with confirmation of the diagnosis by expert consensus. Children with ADHD were 2.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-3.4; P = .002) times more likely to meet DSM-IV criteria for enuresis than non-ADHD controls; they were 1.8 (95% CI, 1.2-2.7; P = .006) times more likely to do so than non-ADHD controls when less stringent criteria for a diagnosis of enuresis were employed. Though not significant, children with ADHD were 1.8 (95% CI, 0.7-4.6; P = .23) times more likely to meet criteria for encopresis than non-ADHD controls. The relative risk was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.0-4.1; P = .05) when a less stringent definition for encopresis was utilized. Children with ADHD are more likely than their peers without ADHD to develop enuresis with a similar trend for encopresis. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Feasibility Study of Land Cover Classification Based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for Landslide Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilanki Dahigamuwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable land cover leads to excessive damage from landslides and other natural hazards, whereas the presence of vegetation is expected to mitigate rainfall-induced landslide potential. Hence, unexpected and rapid changes in land cover due to deforestation would be detrimental in landslide-prone areas. Also, vegetation cover is subject to phenological variations and therefore, timely classification of land cover is an essential step in effective evaluation of landslide hazard potential. The work presented here investigates methods that can be used for land cover classification based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, derived from up-to-date satellite images, and the feasibility of application in landslide risk prediction. A major benefit of this method would be the eventual ability to employ NDVI as a stand-alone parameter for accurate assessment of the impact of land cover in landslide hazard evaluation. An added benefit would be the timely detection of undesirable practices such as deforestation using satellite imagery. A landslide-prone region in Oregon, USA is used as a model for the application of the classification method. Five selected classification techniques—k-nearest neighbor, Gaussian support vector machine (GSVM, artificial neural network, decision tree and quadratic discriminant analysis support the viability of the NDVI-based land cover classification. Finally, its application in landslide risk evaluation is demonstrated.

  13. Approach for Text Classification Based on the Similarity Measurement between Normal Cloud Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The similarity between objects is the core research area of data mining. In order to reduce the interference of the uncertainty of nature language, a similarity measurement between normal cloud models is adopted to text classification research. On this basis, a novel text classifier based on cloud concept jumping up (CCJU-TC is proposed. It can efficiently accomplish conversion between qualitative concept and quantitative data. Through the conversion from text set to text information table based on VSM model, the text qualitative concept, which is extraction from the same category, is jumping up as a whole category concept. According to the cloud similarity between the test text and each category concept, the test text is assigned to the most similar category. By the comparison among different text classifiers in different feature selection set, it fully proves that not only does CCJU-TC have a strong ability to adapt to the different text features, but also the classification performance is also better than the traditional classifiers.

  14. Utilization of Stimulants and Atomoxetine for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among 5.4 Million Children Using Population-Based Longitudinal Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furu, Kari; Karlstad, Øystein; Zoëga, Helga

    2017-01-01

    Use of stimulants to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased over the past two decades and varies substantially between countries. The objective of this multinational population-based study was to examine utilization of ADHD drugs (stimulants and atomoxetine) including...... the importance of close monitoring of treatment for ADHD among children.......Use of stimulants to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased over the past two decades and varies substantially between countries. The objective of this multinational population-based study was to examine utilization of ADHD drugs (stimulants and atomoxetine) including...... comedication with other psychotropic drugs in the entire child population in the five Nordic countries. We included longitudinal data on dispensed ADHD drugs from five Nordic prescription registers during 2008-2012, which in 2012 comprised 48,296 individuals among 5.42 million inhabitants aged 0-17 years...

  15. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children with a 7-repeat allele of the dopamine recepter D4 gene have extreme behavior but normal performance on critical neuropsychological tests of attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanson, J.; Oosterlaan, J.; Murias, M.; Schuck, S.; Flodman, P.; Spence, M.A.; Wasdell, M.; Ding, Y.; Chi, H-C.; Smith, M.; Mann, M.; Carlson, C.; Kennedy, J.L.; Sergeant, J.A.; Leung, P.; Zhang, Y-P.; Sadeh, A.; Chan, C.; Whalen, C.K.; Babb, K.; Moyzis, R.; Posner, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    An association of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene located on chromosome 11p15.5 and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been demonstrated and replicated by multiple investigators. A specific allele [the 7-repeat of a 48-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in exon 3] has

  16. Comparative Study of Various Normal Mode Analysis Techniques Based on Partial Hessians

    OpenAIRE

    GHYSELS, AN; VAN SPEYBROECK, VERONIQUE; PAUWELS, EWALD; CATAK, SARON; BROOKS, BERNARD R.; VAN NECK, DIMITRI; WAROQUIER, MICHEL

    2010-01-01

    Standard normal mode analysis becomes problematic for complex molecular systems, as a result of both the high computational cost and the excessive amount of information when the full Hessian matrix is used. Several partial Hessian methods have been proposed in the literature, yielding approximate normal modes. These methods aim at reducing the computational load and/or calculating only the relevant normal modes of interest in a specific application. Each method has its own (dis)advantages and...

  17. Discriminant analysis of normal and malignant breast tissue based upon INAA investigation of elemental concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwanhoong Ng; Senghuat Ong; Bradley, D.A.; Laimeng Looi

    1997-01-01

    Discriminant analysis of six trace element concentrations measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in 26 paired-samples of malignant and histologically normal human breast tissues shows the technique to be a potentially valuable clinical tool for making malignant-normal classification. Nonparametric discriminant analysis is performed for the data obtained. Linear and quadratic discriminant analyses are also carried out for comparison. For this data set a formal analysis shows that the elements which may be useful in distinguishing between malignant and normal tissues are Ca, Rb and Br, providing correct classification for 24 out of 26 normal samples and 22 out of 26 malignant samples. (Author)

  18. Word Processing in Dyslexics: An Automatic Decoding Deficit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Regina; Van Der Leu, Aryan

    1993-01-01

    Compares dyslexic children with normal readers on measures of phonological decoding and automatic word processing. Finds that dyslexics have a deficit in automatic phonological decoding skills. Discusses results within the framework of the phonological deficit and the automatization deficit hypotheses. (RS)

  19. Daily Report Cards as a School-Based Intervention for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Darren A.; Whittaker, Sarah; Ford, Tamsin J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes daily report cards and the evidence relating to their use in schools for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This intervention typically involves teachers evaluating a student's behaviour at school against pre-determined targets and parents subsequently providing reinforcement at home for positive…

  20. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Tic Disorder, and Allergy: Is There a Link? A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorder usually co-occur in the same individuals, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Previous evidence has shown that a frequent coexistence of allergic diseases was noted in patients with ADHD or tic disorder. We attempted to investigate the possible link among ADHD,…

  1. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Polygenic Risk Scores Predict Attention Problems in a Population-Based Sample of Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, M.M.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Kan, K.J.; Abdellaoui, A.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Ehli, E.A.; Davies, G.E.; Scheet, P.; Xiao, X.; Hudziak, J.J.; Hottenga, J.J.; Neale, B.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Clinically, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention and is among the most common childhood disorders. These same traits that define ADHD are variable in the general population, and the clinical diagnosis may represent

  2. Software Application Profile: RVPedigree: a suite of family-based rare variant association tests for normally and non-normally distributed quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oualkacha, Karim; Lakhal-Chaieb, Lajmi; Greenwood, Celia Mt

    2016-04-01

    RVPedigree (Rare Variant association tests in Pedigrees) implements a suite of programs facilitating genome-wide analysis of association between a quantitative trait and autosomal region-based genetic variation. The main features here are the ability to appropriately test for association of rare variants with non-normally distributed quantitative traits, and also to appropriately adjust for related individuals, either from families or from population structure and cryptic relatedness. RVPedigree is available as an R package. The package includes calculation of kinship matrices, various options for coping with non-normality, three different ways of estimating statistical significance incorporating triaging to enable efficient use of the most computationally-intensive calculations, and a parallelization option for genome-wide analysis. The software is available from the Comprehensive R Archive Network [CRAN.R-project.org] under the name 'RVPedigree' and at [https://github.com/GreenwoodLab]. It has been published under General Public License (GPL) version 3 or newer. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  3. The effects of strength-based versus deficit-based self-regulated learning strategies on students' effort intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    In two randomized experiments, one conducted online (n = 174) and one in the classroom (n = 267), we tested the effects of two types of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies on students’ intentions to put effort into professional development activities: strength-based SRL strategies (i.e.,

  4. RecoverNow: Feasibility of a Mobile Tablet-Based Rehabilitation Intervention to Treat Post-Stroke Communication Deficits in the Acute Care Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H Mallet

    Full Text Available Approximately 40% of patients diagnosed with stroke experience some degree of aphasia. With limited health care resources, patients' access to speech and language therapies is often delayed. We propose using mobile-platform technology to initiate early speech-language therapy in the acute care setting. For this pilot, our objective was to assess the feasibility of a tablet-based speech-language therapy for patients with communication deficits following acute stroke.We enrolled consecutive patients admitted with a stroke and communication deficits with NIHSS score ≥1 on the best language and/or dysarthria parameters. We excluded patients with severe comprehension deficits where communication was not possible. Following baseline assessment by a speech-language pathologist (SLP, patients were provided with a mobile tablet programmed with individualized therapy applications based on the assessment, and instructed to use it for at least one hour per day. Our objective was to establish feasibility by measuring recruitment rate, adherence rate, retention rate, protocol deviations and acceptability.Over 6 months, 143 patients were admitted with a new diagnosis of stroke: 73 had communication deficits, 44 met inclusion criteria, and 30 were enrolled into RecoverNow (median age 62, 26.6% female for a recruitment rate of 68% of eligible participants. Participants received mobile tablets at a mean 6.8 days from admission [SEM 1.6], and used them for a mean 149.8 minutes/day [SEM 19.1]. In-hospital retention rate was 97%, and 96% of patients scored the mobile tablet-based communication therapy as at least moderately convenient 3/5 or better with 5/5 being most "convenient".Individualized speech-language therapy delivered by mobile tablet technology is feasible in acute care.

  5. RecoverNow: Feasibility of a Mobile Tablet-Based Rehabilitation Intervention to Treat Post-Stroke Communication Deficits in the Acute Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Karen H; Shamloul, Rany M; Corbett, Dale; Finestone, Hillel M; Hatcher, Simon; Lumsden, Jim; Momoli, Franco; Shamy, Michel C F; Stotts, Grant; Swartz, Richard H; Yang, Christine; Dowlatshahi, Dar

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 40% of patients diagnosed with stroke experience some degree of aphasia. With limited health care resources, patients' access to speech and language therapies is often delayed. We propose using mobile-platform technology to initiate early speech-language therapy in the acute care setting. For this pilot, our objective was to assess the feasibility of a tablet-based speech-language therapy for patients with communication deficits following acute stroke. We enrolled consecutive patients admitted with a stroke and communication deficits with NIHSS score ≥1 on the best language and/or dysarthria parameters. We excluded patients with severe comprehension deficits where communication was not possible. Following baseline assessment by a speech-language pathologist (SLP), patients were provided with a mobile tablet programmed with individualized therapy applications based on the assessment, and instructed to use it for at least one hour per day. Our objective was to establish feasibility by measuring recruitment rate, adherence rate, retention rate, protocol deviations and acceptability. Over 6 months, 143 patients were admitted with a new diagnosis of stroke: 73 had communication deficits, 44 met inclusion criteria, and 30 were enrolled into RecoverNow (median age 62, 26.6% female) for a recruitment rate of 68% of eligible participants. Participants received mobile tablets at a mean 6.8 days from admission [SEM 1.6], and used them for a mean 149.8 minutes/day [SEM 19.1]. In-hospital retention rate was 97%, and 96% of patients scored the mobile tablet-based communication therapy as at least moderately convenient 3/5 or better with 5/5 being most "convenient". Individualized speech-language therapy delivered by mobile tablet technology is feasible in acute care.

  6. Association between the attention deficits and delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Opora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the society we can find a lot of prejudices concerning AD/HD. The article contains facts and evidence based on research presenting that the delinquency is very often a distant complication of attention deficits but it doesn’t mean that a child with attention deficits has to be delinquent. The article describes the association between the attention deficits and delinquency. There are presented some risk factors coming from the attention deficits and protective factors which let the child follow the social norms. The research was based on 108 delinquent juveniles staying under the probation supervision. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the frequency of the attention deficits among delinquent juveniles staying under supervision. The research findings concern also the association between the attention deficit and external behavioural disorders. In the summary several conditions are described which are important to protect children with attention deficit from delinquency.

  7. Normal and friction stabilization techniques for interactive rigid body constraint-based contact force computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silcowitz-Hansen, Morten; Abel, Sarah Maria Niebe; Erleben, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel, yet simple, method for stabilization of normal forces. A normal stabilization term, carefully designed from hypotheses about interactive usability, is added to the contact force problem. Further, we propose friction stabilization as a completely new stabilization paradigm...

  8. Diffusion tensor imaging of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. A voxel-based fractional anisotropy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Tetsuo; Ohmura, Takehisa; Miyake, Hiroji; Marumoto, Kohei; Domen, Kazuhisa

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using a 3.0 tesla magnetic resonance scanner was used to investigate white matter changes caused by idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) in 10 patients diagnosed by clinical symptoms (gait disturbance, dementia, and/or urinary incontinence) and Evans index >0.3, and compared with findings for 10 age-matched controls (≥60 years). Then, using a computer-automated method, fractional anisotropy (FA) brain maps were generated and finally transformed into the standard space. Voxel-based FA values within two regions of interests (ROIs), the forceps minor and corticospinal tracts, were then separately evaluated. Within each ROI, statistical comparisons of results from the INPH and control groups were performed. In addition, for INPH patients, grading scores for clinical symptoms and FA values were correlated. The forceps minor mean FA value was much smaller for the INPH group (0.504) than for the control group (0.631). The corticospinal tract mean FA value was slightly smaller for the INPH group (0.588) than for the control group (0.632). Additional analyses indicated that lower FA values within the forceps minor tended to be associated with clinical symptoms such as urinary incontinence and gait disturbance. Our findings indicate FA values decreased in the forceps minor of INPH patients. We also found that lower values were associated with severer clinical symptoms, implying that DTI techniques may be developed for more accurate diagnosis. (author)

  9. Normal Inverse Gaussian Model-Based Image Denoising in the NSCT Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of image denoising is to retain useful details while removing as much noise as possible to recover an original image from its noisy version. This paper proposes a novel normal inverse Gaussian (NIG model-based method that uses a Bayesian estimator to carry out image denoising in the nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT domain. In the proposed method, the NIG model is first used to describe the distributions of the image transform coefficients of each subband in the NSCT domain. Then, the corresponding threshold function is derived from the model using Bayesian maximum a posteriori probability estimation theory. Finally, optimal linear interpolation thresholding algorithm (OLI-Shrink is employed to guarantee a gentler thresholding effect. The results of comparative experiments conducted indicate that the denoising performance of our proposed method in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio is superior to that of several state-of-the-art methods, including BLS-GSM, K-SVD, BivShrink, and BM3D. Further, the proposed method achieves structural similarity (SSIM index values that are comparable to those of the block-matching 3D transformation (BM3D method.

  10. Arabic CWR Based on Correlation of Normalized Signatures of Words Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala S. Zaghloul

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional methods for Arabic OCR (AOCR based on segmentation of each word into a set of characters. The Arabic language is of cursive nature, and the character's shape depends on its position in the word. There are about 100 shape of the characters have to be classified, and some of them may be overlapped. Our approach use a normalized signature of the time signal of the pulse coupled neural network PCNN, supported with some shape primitives to represent the number of the word complementary and their positions within the image of the word. A lookup dictionary of words with its signatures was constructed, and structured in groups using a decision tree. The tested signature was routed through the tree to the nearest group, and then the signature and its related word with higher correlation within the selected group will be the classified. This method overcome many difficulties arise in cursive word recognition CWR for printed script with different font type and size; also it shows higher accuracy for the classification process, 96%.

  11. A Reliable Image Watermarking Scheme Based on Redistributed Image Normalization and SVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musrrat Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital image watermarking is the process of concealing secret information in a digital image for protecting its rightful ownership. Most of the existing block based singular value decomposition (SVD digital watermarking schemes are not robust to geometric distortions, such as rotation in an integer multiple of ninety degree and image flipping, which change the locations of the pixels but don’t make any changes to the pixel’s intensity of the image. Also, the schemes have used a constant scaling factor to give the same weightage to the coefficients of different magnitudes that results in visible distortion in some regions of the watermarked image. Therefore, to overcome the problems mentioned here, this paper proposes a novel image watermarking scheme by incorporating the concepts of redistributed image normalization and variable scaling factor depending on the coefficient’s magnitude to be embedded. Furthermore, to enhance the security and robustness the watermark is shuffled by using the piecewise linear chaotic map before the embedding. To investigate the robustness of the scheme several attacks are applied to seriously distort the watermarked image. Empirical analysis of the results has demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  12. Timing of left heart base descent in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy and normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kerry E; Devine, Bryan C; Woolley, Richard; Corcoran, Brendan M; French, Anne T

    2008-01-01

    The identification and assessment of myocardial failure in canine idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is achieved using a variety of two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic techniques. More recently, the availability of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) has raised the potential for development of new ways of more accurately identifying a disease phenotype. Nevertheless, TDI has not been universally adapted to veterinary clinical cardiology primarily because of the lack of information on its utility in diagnosis. We assessed the application of timing of left heart base descent using TDI in the identification of differences between DCM and normal dogs. The times from the onset of the QRS complex on a simultaneously recorded electrocardiograph to the onset (Q--S'), peak (Q--peak S'), and end (Q--end S') of the systolic velocity peak were measured in the interventricular septum (IVS) and the left ventricular free wall. The duration of S' was also calculated. The Q--S' (FW), Q--end S' (FW), and duration S' (FW) were correlated with ejection fraction in the diseased group (P canine DCM and identifies new TDI parameters that can be added to the range of Doppler and echocardiographic parameters used for detecting myocardial failure in the dog.

  13. Similarity measurement method of high-dimensional data based on normalized net lattice subspace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wenfa; Wang Gongming; Li Ke; Huang Su

    2017-01-01

    The performance of conventional similarity measurement methods is affected seriously by the curse of dimensionality of high-dimensional data.The reason is that data difference between sparse and noisy dimensionalities occupies a large proportion of the similarity, leading to the dissimilarities between any results.A similarity measurement method of high-dimensional data based on normalized net lattice subspace is proposed.The data range of each dimension is divided into several intervals, and the components in different dimensions are mapped onto the corresponding interval.Only the component in the same or adjacent interval is used to calculate the similarity.To validate this meth-od, three data types are used, and seven common similarity measurement methods are compared. The experimental result indicates that the relative difference of the method is increasing with the di-mensionality and is approximately two or three orders of magnitude higher than the conventional method.In addition, the similarity range of this method in different dimensions is [0, 1], which is fit for similarity analysis after dimensionality reduction.

  14. Shack-Hartmann centroid detection method based on high dynamic range imaging and normalization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Javier; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Luis; Quiroga, Juan Antonio; Belenguer, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    In the optical quality measuring process of an optical system, including diamond-turning components, the use of a laser light source can produce an undesirable speckle effect in a Shack-Hartmann (SH) CCD sensor. This speckle noise can deteriorate the precision and accuracy of the wavefront sensor measurement. Here we present a SH centroid detection method founded on computer-based techniques and capable of measurement in the presence of strong speckle noise. The method extends the dynamic range imaging capabilities of the SH sensor through the use of a set of different CCD integration times. The resultant extended range spot map is normalized to accurately obtain the spot centroids. The proposed method has been applied to measure the optical quality of the main optical system (MOS) of the mid-infrared instrument telescope smulator. The wavefront at the exit of this optical system is affected by speckle noise when it is illuminated by a laser source and by air turbulence because it has a long back focal length (3017 mm). Using the proposed technique, the MOS wavefront error was measured and satisfactory results were obtained.

  15. Distinguishing patients with Parkinson's disease subtypes from normal controls based on functional network regional efficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong Zhang

    Full Text Available Many studies have demonstrated that the pathophysiology and clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD are inhomogeneous. However, the symptom-specific intrinsic neural activities underlying the PD subtypes are still not well understood. Here, 15 tremor-dominant PD patients, 10 non-tremor-dominant PD patients, and 20 matched normal controls (NCs were recruited and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Functional brain networks were constructed based on randomly generated anatomical templates with and without the cerebellum. The regional network efficiencies (i.e., the local and global efficiencies were further measured and used to distinguish subgroups of PD patients (i.e., with tremor-dominant PD and non-tremor-dominant PD from the NCs using linear discriminant analysis. The results demonstrate that the subtype-specific functional networks were small-world-organized and that the network regional efficiency could discriminate among the individual PD subgroups and the NCs. Brain regions involved in distinguishing between the study groups included the basal ganglia (i.e., the caudate and putamen, limbic regions (i.e., the hippocampus and thalamus, the cerebellum, and other cerebral regions (e.g., the insula, cingulum, and calcarine sulcus. In particular, the performances of the regional local efficiency in the functional network were better than those of the global efficiency, and the performances of global efficiency were dependent on the inclusion of the cerebellum in the analysis. These findings provide new evidence for the neurological basis of differences between PD subtypes and suggest that the cerebellum may play different roles in the pathologies of different PD subtypes. The present study demonstrated the power of the combination of graph-based network analysis and discrimination analysis in elucidating the neural basis of different PD subtypes.

  16. Novel coherent supercontinuum light sources based on all-normal dispersion fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidt, Alexander

    2011-07-05

    The concept of broadband coherent supercontinuum (SC) generation in all-normal dispersion (ANDi) fibers in the near-infrared, visible and ultraviolet (UV) spectral regions is introduced and investigated in detail. In numerical studies, explicit design criteria are established for ANDi photonic crystal fiber (PCF) designs that allow the generation of flat and smooth ultrabroad spectral profiles without significant fine structure and with excellent stability and coherence properties. The key benefit of SC generation in ANDi fibers is the conservation of a single ultrashort pulse in the time domain with smooth and recompressible phase distribution. In the numerical investigation of the SC generation dynamics self-phase modulation and optical wave breaking are identified as the dominant nonlinear effects responsible for the nonlinear spectral broadening. It is further demonstrated that coherence properties, spectral bandwidth and temporal compressibility are independent of input pulse duration for constant peak power. The numerical predictions are in excellent agreement with experimental results obtained in two realizations of ANDi PCF optimized for the near-infrared and visible spectral region. In these experiments, the broadest SC spectrum generated in the normal dispersion regime of an optical fiber to date is achieved. The exceptional temporal properties of the generated SC pulses are verified experimentally and their applicability for the time-resolved study of molecular dynamics in ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy is demonstrated. In an additional nonlinear pulse compression experiment, the SC pulses obtained in a short piece of ANDi PCF could be temporally recompressed to sub-two cycle durations by linear chirp compensation. Numerical simulations show that even shorter pulse durations with excellent quality can be achieved by full phase compensation. The concept is further extended into the UV spectral regime by considering tapered optical fibers with

  17. Localized Energy-Based Normalization of Medical Images: Application to Chest Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, R H H M; Maduskar, P; Hogeweg, L; Melendez, J; Sánchez, C I; van Ginneken, B

    2015-09-01

    Automated quantitative analysis systems for medical images often lack the capability to successfully process images from multiple sources. Normalization of such images prior to further analysis is a possible solution to this limitation. This work presents a general method to normalize medical images and thoroughly investigates its effectiveness for chest radiography (CXR). The method starts with an energy decomposition of the image in different bands. Next, each band's localized energy is scaled to a reference value and the image is reconstructed. We investigate iterative and local application of this technique. The normalization is applied iteratively to the lung fields on six datasets from different sources, each comprising 50 normal CXRs and 50 abnormal CXRs. The method is evaluated in three supervised computer-aided detection tasks related to CXR analysis and compared to two reference normalization methods. In the first task, automatic lung segmentation, the average Jaccard overlap significantly increased from 0.72±0.30 and 0.87±0.11 for both reference methods to with normalization. The second experiment was aimed at segmentation of the clavicles. The reference methods had an average Jaccard index of 0.57±0.26 and 0.53±0.26; with normalization this significantly increased to . The third experiment was detection of tuberculosis related abnormalities in the lung fields. The average area under the Receiver Operating Curve increased significantly from 0.72±0.14 and 0.79±0.06 using the reference methods to with normalization. We conclude that the normalization can be successfully applied in chest radiography and makes supervised systems more generally applicable to data from different sources.

  18. Eighteen-month follow-up of a play-based intervention to improve the social play skills of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Bundy, Anita; Cordier, Reinie; Lincoln, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    There is a well-documented need for interventions to successfully address the social difficulties of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This study aimed to further the development of a previously conducted pilot of a play-based intervention. To achieve this, children's social play outcomes pre-post and 18-month following the intervention were examined by raters unaware of the study's purpose. Additionally, parents' experiences of the intervention were explored. Participants included five children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who had participated in a play-based intervention and their typically developing playmates; parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder also participated. Children and their playmates attended an 18-month follow-up play session and parents participated in semi-structured interviews. The Test of Playfulness was used to measure children's play outcomes in the context of social play with a peer, pre-post and 18-months following the intervention. Wilcoxon signed-ranks (Z) and Cohen's-d were used to measure effect. Thematic analysis was used to analyse reoccurring themes from parents' interviews. Children's social play outcomes improved pre-post intervention (Z = 2.02; P = 0.04; d = 1.6) and were maintained 18-month post intervention (Z = 0.14; P = 0.89; d = -0.4). Core themes included: the intervention as an enjoyable experience, a common language for talking about play/social interactions, an observable change in children's skills, transference of skills and the need for support to refresh learnt lessons over time. The intervention demonstrated preliminary and long-term efficacy in developing the social play skills of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Further research is required to optimise intervention feasibility and parent involvement prior to conducting a large-scale research. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  19. Tourette-like behaviors in the normal population are associated with hyperactive/impulsive ADHD-like behaviors but do not relate to deficits in conditioned inhibition or response inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja eHeym

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Tourette Syndrome (TS present as distinct conditions clinically; however, comorbidity and inhibitory control deficits have been proposed for both. Whilst such deficits have been studied widely within clinical populations, findings are mixed – partly due to comorbidity and/or medication effects - and studies have rarely distinguished between subtypes of the disorders. Studies in the general population are sparse. Using a continuity approach, the present study examined (i the relationships between inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive aspects of ADHD and TS-like behaviors in the general population, and (ii their unique associations with automatic and executive inhibitory control, as well as (iii yawning (a proposed behavioral model of TS. One hundred and thirty-eight participants completed self-report measures for ADHD and TS-like behaviors as well as yawning, and a conditioned inhibition task to assess automatic inhibition. A sub-sample of fifty-four participants completed three executive inhibition tasks. An exploratory factor analysis of the TS behavior checklist supported a distinction between phonic and motor like pure TS behaviors. Whilst hyperactive/impulsive aspects of ADHD were associated with increased pure and compulsive TS-like behaviors, inattention in isolation was related to reduced obsessive-compulsive TS-like behaviors. TS-like behaviors were associated with yawning during situations of inactivity, and specifically motor TS was related to yawning during stress. Phonic TS and inattention aspects of ADHD were associated with yawning during concentration/activity. Whilst executive interference control deficits were linked to hyperactive/impulsive ADHD-like behaviors, this was not the case for inattentive ADHD or TS-like behaviors, which instead related to increased performance on some measures. No associations were observed for automatic conditioned inhibition.

  20. Family-based association study of DRD4 gene in methylphenidate-responded Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Wing-Leung Leung

    Full Text Available The 48-basepair (48-bp variable number tandem repeat (VNTR polymorphism in exon 3 of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4 is implicated in the etiology of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. In particular, ADHD in European-ancestry population is associated with an increased prevalence of the 7-repeat (7R allele of the exon 3 VNTR. However, it is intriguing to note that the 7R allele has been found to be of very low prevalence in the Chinese general population. In a previous case-control study, our research team had found that the 7R allele was similarly absent in Chinese ADHD children in Hong Kong. Instead, there was an increased prevalence of the 2R allele in Chinese ADHD children. Interestingly, in Asian samples, the 2R allele had been found to be an evolutionary derivative of the 7R allele with equivalent biochemical functionality. So, the finding of an association between ADHD and 2R allele in Chinese population does not exactly contradict the original 7R allele finding in European-ancestry population. However, given the potential pitfall of population stratification in the previous case-control design, this current study tested the 2R allele and ADHD association using a methodologically more rigorous family-based approach on 33 Chinese ADHD probands who had favorable clinical responses to stimulant medication (methylphenidate. Haplotype Relative Risk (HRR analysis and Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT both showed a significant preferential transmission of the 2R allele from the biological parents to ADHD probands (pone-tailed = 0.038, OR = 2.04; pone-tailed = 0.048, OR = 2.29, respectively. A second hypothesis speculates that it is the deviation, including 7R and 2R alleles, from the conserved ancestral 4R allele which confers risk to ADHD. Thus, a preferential transmission of non-4R alleles, against the 4R allele, from biological parents to their ADHD probands is predicted. Both HRR analysis and TDT confirmed such

  1. Normalization of hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier-201 induced vasoconstriction: targeting nitric oxide and endothelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverne, Yannick J; de Wijs-Meijler, Daphne; Te Lintel Hekkert, Maaike; Moon-Massat, Paula F; Dubé, Gregory P; Duncker, Dirk J; Merkus, Daphne

    2017-05-01

    Hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC)-201 is a cell-free modified hemoglobin solution potentially facilitating oxygen uptake and delivery in cardiovascular disorders and hemorrhagic shock. Clinical use has been hampered by vasoconstriction in the systemic and pulmonary beds. Therefore, we aimed to 1 ) determine the possibility of counteracting HBOC-201-induced pressor effects with either adenosine (ADO) or nitroglycerin (NTG); 2 ) assess the potential roles of nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and endothelin (ET) in mediating the observed vasoconstriction; and 3 ) compare these effects in resting and exercising swine. Chronically instrumented swine were studied at rest and during exercise after administration of HBOC-201 alone or in combination with ADO. The role of NO was assessed by supplementation with NTG or administration of the eNOS inhibitor N ω -nitro-l-arginine. Alternative vasoactive pathways were investigated via intravenous administration of the ET A /ET B receptor blocker tezosentan or a mixture of ROS scavengers. The systemic and to a lesser extent the pulmonary pressor effects of HBOC-201 could be counteracted by ADO; however, dosage titration was very important to avoid systemic hypotension. Similarly, supplementation of NO with NTG negated the pressor effects but also required titration of the dose. The pressor response to HBOC-201 was reduced after eNOS inhibition and abolished by simultaneous ET A /ET B receptor blockade, while ROS scavenging had no effect. In conclusion, the pressor response to HBOC-201 is mediated by vasoconstriction due to NO scavenging and production of ET. Further research should explore the effect of longer-acting ET receptor blockers to counteract the side effect of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC)-201 can disrupt hemodynamic homeostasis, mimicking some aspects of endothelial dysfunction, resulting in elevated systemic and pulmonary blood

  2. GPU-based normalized cuts for road extraction using satellite imagery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on the framework NVIDIA CUDA. Apart from the ... quality and to generate the elongated road network for further ... the framework of normalized cuts introduced by. Shi and Malik ..... Youn J and Bethel J S 2004 Adaptive snakes for urban.

  3. Illumination normalization based on simplified local binary patterns for a face verification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Illumination normalization is a very important step in face recognition. In this paper we propose a simple implementation of Local Binary Patterns, which effectively reduces the variability caused by illumination changes. In combination with a likelihood ratio classifier, this illumination

  4. "Symptom-based insulin adjustment for glucose normalization" (SIGN) algorithm: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joyce Yu-Chia; Tsou, Keith; Lim, Jiahui; Koh, Feaizen; Ong, Sooim; Wong, Sabrina

    2012-12-01

    Lack of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) records in actual practice settings continues to create therapeutic challenges for clinicians, especially in adjusting insulin therapy. In order to overcome this clinical obstacle, a "Symptom-based Insulin adjustment for Glucose Normalization" (SIGN) algorithm was developed to guide clinicians in caring for patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes who have few to no SMBG records. This study examined the clinical outcome and safety of the SIGN algorithm. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin usage, and insulin-related adverse effects of a total of 114 patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes who refused to use SMBG or performed SMBG once a day for less than three times per week were studied 3 months prior to the implementation of the algorithm and prospectively at every 3-month interval for a total of 6 months after the algorithm implementation. Patients with type 1 diabetes, nonadherence to diabetes medications, or who were not on insulin therapy at any time during the study period were excluded from this study. Mean HbA1c improved by 0.29% at 3 months (P = 0.015) and 0.41% at 6 months (P = 0.006) after algorithm implementation. A slight increase in HbA1c was observed when the algorithm was not implemented. There were no major hypoglycemic episodes. The number of minor hypoglycemic episodes was minimal with the majority of the cases due to irregular meal habits. The SIGN algorithm appeared to offer a viable and safe approach when managing uncontrolled patients with type 2 diabetes who have few to no SMBG records.

  5. A Soil-Plate Based Pipeline for Assessing Cereal Root Growth in Response to Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-Induced Water Deficit Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sven K; Oliver, Melvin J

    2017-01-01

    Drought is a serious problem that causes losses in crop-yield every year, but the mechanisms underlying how roots respond to water deficit are difficult to study under controlled conditions. Methods for assaying root elongation and architecture, especially for seedlings, are commonly achieved on artificial media, such as agar, moistened filter paper, or in hydroponic systems. However, it has been demonstrated that measuring root characteristics under such conditions does not accurately mimic what is observed when plants are grown in soil. Morphological changes in root behavior occur because of differences in solute diffusion, mechanical impedance, exposure to light (in some designs), and gas exchange of roots grown under these conditions. To address such deficiencies, we developed a quantitative method for assaying seedling root lengths and germination in soil using a plate-based approach with wheat as a model crop. We also further developed the method to include defined water deficits stress levels using the osmotic properties of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Seeds were sown into soil-filled vertical plates and grown in the dark. Root length measurements were collected using digital photography through the transparent lid under green lighting to avoid effects of white light exposure on growth. Photographs were analyzed using the cross-platform ImageJ plugin, SmartRoot, which can detect root edges and partially automate root detection for extraction of lengths. This allowed for quick measurements and straightforward and accurate assessments of non-linear roots. Other measurements, such as root width or angle, can also be collected by this method. An R function was developed to collect exported root length data, process and reformat the data, and output plots depicting root/shoot growth dynamics. For water deficit experiments, seedlings were transplanted side-by-side into well-watered plates and plates containing PEG solutions to simulate precise water deficits.

  6. Improved Discovery of Molecular Interactions in Genome-Scale Data with Adaptive Model-Based Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick O.

    2013-01-01

    Background High throughput molecular-interaction studies using immunoprecipitations (IP) or affinity purifications are powerful and widely used in biology research. One of many important applications of this method is to identify the set of RNAs that interact with a particular RNA-binding protein (RBP). Here, the unique statistical challenge presented is to delineate a specific set of RNAs that are enriched in one sample relative to another, typically a specific IP compared to a non-specific control to model background. The choice of normalization procedure critically impacts the number of RNAs that will be identified as interacting with an RBP at a given significance threshold – yet existing normalization methods make assumptions that are often fundamentally inaccurate when applied to IP enrichment data. Methods In this paper, we present a new normalization methodology that is specifically designed for identifying enriched RNA or DNA sequences in an IP. The normalization (called adaptive or AD normalization) uses a basic model of the IP experiment and is not a variant of mean, quantile, or other methodology previously proposed. The approach is evaluated statistically and tested with simulated and empirical data. Results and Conclusions The adaptive (AD) normalization method results in a greatly increased range in the number of enriched RNAs identified, fewer false positives, and overall better concordance with independent biological evidence, for the RBPs we analyzed, compared to median normalization. The approach is also applicable to the study of pairwise RNA, DNA and protein interactions such as the analysis of transcription factors via chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) or any other experiments where samples from two conditions, one of which contains an enriched subset of the other, are studied. PMID:23349766

  7. Radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing gray matter in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Xiao-Fei; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Li-Zhi; Zhang, You-Ming [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Ming-Yuan [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Guangzhou (China); Li, Li [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-05-15

    Evidence is accumulating that temporal lobe radiation necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy (RT) could involve gray matter (GM). The purpose of the study was to assess the radiation-induced GM volume differences between NPC patients who had and had not received RT and the effect of time after RT on GM volume differences in those patients who had received RT. We used magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess differences in GM volume between 30 NPC patients with normal-appearing whole-brain GM after RT and 15 control patients with newly diagnosed but not yet medically treated NPC. Correlation analyses were used to investigate the relationship between GM volume changes and time after RT. Patients who had received RT had GM volume decreases in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule (p < 0.001, uncorrected, cluster size >100 voxels). Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated that regional GM volume loss in the left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were negatively related to the mean dose to the ipsilateral temporal lobe, respectively. These results indicate that GM volume deficits in bilateral temporal lobes in patients who had received RT might be radiation-induced. Our findings might provide new insight into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced structural damage in normal-appearing brain tissue. Yet this is an exploratory study, whose findings should therefore be taken with caution. (orig.)

  8. Different percentages of false-positive results obtained using five methods for the calculation of reference change values based on simulated normal and ln-normal distributions of data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Fraser, Callum G

    2016-01-01

    a homeostatic set point that follows a normal (Gaussian) distribution. This set point (or baseline in steady-state) should be estimated from a set of previous samples, but, in practice, decisions based on reference change value are often based on only two consecutive results. The original reference change value......-positive results. The aim of this study was to investigate false-positive results using five different published methods for calculation of reference change value. METHODS: The five reference change value methods were examined using normally and ln-normally distributed simulated data. RESULTS: One method performed...... best in approaching the theoretical false-positive percentages on normally distributed data and another method performed best on ln-normally distributed data. The commonly used reference change value method based on two results (without use of estimated set point) performed worst both on normally...

  9. Assessment of 1H NMR-based metabolomics analysis for normalization of urinary metals against creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassiède, Marc; Nair, Sindhu; Dueck, Meghan; Mino, James; McKay, Ryan; Mercier, Pascal; Quémerais, Bernadette; Lacy, Paige

    2017-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR, or NMR) spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are commonly used for metabolomics and metal analysis in urine samples. However, creatinine quantification by NMR for the purpose of normalization of urinary metals has not been validated. We assessed the validity of using NMR analysis for creatinine quantification in human urine samples in order to allow normalization of urinary metal concentrations. NMR and ICP-MS techniques were used to measure metabolite and metal concentrations in urine samples from 10 healthy subjects. For metabolite analysis, two magnetic field strengths (600 and 700MHz) were utilized. In addition, creatinine concentrations were determined by using the Jaffe method. Creatinine levels were strongly correlated (R 2 =0.99) between NMR and Jaffe methods. The NMR spectra were deconvoluted with a target database containing 151 metabolites that are present in urine. A total of 50 metabolites showed good correlation (R 2 =0.7-1.0) at 600 and 700MHz. Metal concentrations determined after NMR-measured creatinine normalization were comparable to previous reports. NMR analysis provided robust urinary creatinine quantification, and was sufficient for normalization of urinary metal concentrations. We found that NMR-measured creatinine-normalized urinary metal concentrations in our control subjects were similar to general population levels in Canada and the United Kingdom. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Illumination normalization of face image based on illuminant direction estimation and improved Retinex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jizheng; Mao, Xia; Chen, Lijiang; Xue, Yuli; Rovetta, Alberto; Caleanu, Catalin-Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Illumination normalization of face image for face recognition and facial expression recognition is one of the most frequent and difficult problems in image processing. In order to obtain a face image with normal illumination, our method firstly divides the input face image into sixteen local regions and calculates the edge level percentage in each of them. Secondly, three local regions, which meet the requirements of lower complexity and larger average gray value, are selected to calculate the final illuminant direction according to the error function between the measured intensity and the calculated intensity, and the constraint function for an infinite light source model. After knowing the final illuminant direction of the input face image, the Retinex algorithm is improved from two aspects: (1) we optimize the surround function; (2) we intercept the values in both ends of histogram of face image, determine the range of gray levels, and stretch the range of gray levels into the dynamic range of display device. Finally, we achieve illumination normalization and get the final face image. Unlike previous illumination normalization approaches, the method proposed in this paper does not require any training step or any knowledge of 3D face and reflective surface model. The experimental results using extended Yale face database B and CMU-PIE show that our method achieves better normalization effect comparing with the existing techniques.

  11. Illumination normalization of face image based on illuminant direction estimation and improved Retinex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizheng Yi

    Full Text Available Illumination normalization of face image for face recognition and facial expression recognition is one of the most frequent and difficult problems in image processing. In order to obtain a face image with normal illumination, our method firstly divides the input face image into sixteen local regions and calculates the edge level percentage in each of them. Secondly, three local regions, which meet the requirements of lower complexity and larger average gray value, are selected to calculate the final illuminant direction according to the error function between the measured intensity and the calculated intensity, and the constraint function for an infinite light source model. After knowing the final illuminant direction of the input face image, the Retinex algorithm is improved from two aspects: (1 we optimize the surround function; (2 we intercept the values in both ends of histogram of face image, determine the range of gray levels, and stretch the range of gray levels into the dynamic range of display device. Finally, we achieve illumination normalization and get the final face image. Unlike previous illumination normalization approaches, the method proposed in this paper does not require any training step or any knowledge of 3D face and reflective surface model. The experimental results using extended Yale face database B and CMU-PIE show that our method achieves better normalization effect comparing with the existing techniques.

  12. A Bootstrap Based Measure Robust to the Choice of Normalization Methods for Detecting Rhythmic Features in High Dimensional Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larriba, Yolanda; Rueda, Cristina; Fernández, Miguel A; Peddada, Shyamal D

    2018-01-01

    Motivation: Gene-expression data obtained from high throughput technologies are subject to various sources of noise and accordingly the raw data are pre-processed before formally analyzed. Normalization of the data is a key pre-processing step, since it removes systematic variations across arrays. There are numerous normalization methods available in the literature. Based on our experience, in the context of oscillatory systems, such as cell-cycle, circadian clock, etc., the choice of the normalization method may substantially impact the determination of a gene to be rhythmic. Thus rhythmicity of a gene can purely be an artifact of how the data were normalized. Since the determination of rhythmic genes is an important component of modern toxicological and pharmacological studies, it is important to determine truly rhythmic genes that are robust to the choice of a normalization method. Results: In this paper we introduce a rhythmicity measure and a bootstrap methodology to detect rhythmic genes in an oscillatory system. Although the proposed methodology can be used for any high-throughput gene expression data, in this paper we illustrate the proposed methodology using several publicly available circadian clock microarray gene-expression datasets. We demonstrate that the choice of normalization method has very little effect on the proposed methodology. Specifically, for any pair of normalization methods considered in this paper, the resulting values of the rhythmicity measure are highly correlated. Thus it suggests that the proposed measure is robust to the choice of a normalization method. Consequently, the rhythmicity of a gene is potentially not a mere artifact of the normalization method used. Lastly, as demonstrated in the paper, the proposed bootstrap methodology can also be used for simulating data for genes participating in an oscillatory system using a reference dataset. Availability: A user friendly code implemented in R language can be downloaded from http://www.eio.uva.es/~miguel/robustdetectionprocedure.html.

  13. Perceived discrimination among men and women with normal weight and obesity. A population-based study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Lena M; Näslund, Erik; Rasmussen, Finn

    2010-08-01

    We examined whether men and women with obesity reported different types of discrimination to a greater extent than those with normal weight, and explored whether these associations were modified by socioeconomic position. National representative sample of men and women, with normal weight (n = 2,000), moderate obesity (n = 2,461) and severe obesity (n = 557). Participants were identified in a yearly population-based survey (1996-2006) and data on perceived discrimination and potential confounding factors were measured in 2008. Logistic regression models tested whether obesity was associated with perceived lifetime, workplace, healthcare and interpersonal discrimination. The overall response rate was 56%. For men, moderate obesity was associated with workplace discrimination, while severely obese women were more likely to report this sort of discrimination than normal weight women. Severely obese individuals were twice as likely to report healthcare discrimination than normal weight individuals. Women, regardless of weight status group, were in turn twice as likely to report healthcare discrimination as men. Women with severe obesity were significantly more likely to report interpersonal discrimination compared with normal weight women. Socioeconomic position modified the association between weight status and healthcare discrimination. Highly educated individuals with moderate and severe obesity were more likely to report healthcare discrimination than their normal weight counterparts, whereas low educated individuals with normal weight, moderate and severe obesity were equally likely to report discrimination. In this large, population-based study, discrimination was more likely to be reported by obese individuals compared with those of normal weight. The associations, however, varied according to gender and socioeconomic position.

  14. Control Deficit Subjects are Superior for Man-Made Objects on a Verbal Semantic Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roncero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When semantic deficits occur following brain damage, the subjects generally show anomia as well as deficits on semantic matching tasks such as the Camels and Cactus test. Such individuals can be further characterized as demonstrating either a semantic control deficit or a storage deficit (Jeffries & Lambon Ralph, 2006. Semantic control subjects show improved performance when responses are constrained, but storage subjects do not. In the present study, we categorized 17 subjects with neurodegenerative diseases – Alzheimer’s disease and Primary Progressive Aphasia - as Semantic Storage or Semantic Control patterns of deficit, based on their performance on three semantic tasks—Naming, Cued Naming, and Word-to-Picture Matching. This was done independent of both the subject’s localization of brain damage and clinical diagnosis. Subjects who demonstrated impaired performance on the Naming task, but showed normal performance on Cued Naming and Word-to-Picture Matching, were classified as showing a control deficit (N = 8, while subjects who were impaired on all three semantic tasks were classified as anomic subjects with a storage deficit (N = 9. Despite only using these three semantic tasks, the identified sub-groups demonstrated different patterns of semantic knowledge consistent with either a control deficit or a storage deficit. The identified sub-groups, for example, were comparable for letter fluency, but subjects with a storage deficit were significantly worse for animal fluency. Accessing subjects’ semantic knowledge with the word and picture versions of the Camels and Cactus test, we also found that storage deficit subjects’ performance was equally poor on both versions compared to normal elderly participants, whereas control deficit subjects were relatively impaired only in the word version. Finally, comparing FDG PET scans for these subjects, we noted storage deficit subjects typically had bilateral temporal damage—all but one

  15. Selection of appropriate template for spatial normalization of brain images: tensor based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2004-01-01

    Although there have been remarkable advances in spatial normalization techniques, the differences in the shape of the hemispheres and the sulcal pattern of brains relative to age, gender, races, and diseases cannot be fully overcome by the nonlinear spatial normalization techniques. T1 SPGR MR images in 16 elderly male normal volunteers (>55 y. mean age: = 61.8 ± 3.5 y) were spatially normalized onto the age/gender specific Korean templates, and the Caucasian MNI template and the extent of the deformations were compared. These particular subjects were never included in the development of the templates. First , the images were matched into the templates using an affine transformation to eliminate the global difference between the templates and source images. Second the affine registration was followed by an estimation of nonlinear deformation. Determinants of the Jacobian matrices of the nonlinear deformation were then calculated for every voxel to estimate the regional volume change during the nonlinear transformation Jacobian determinant images highlighted the great magnitude of the relative local volume changes obtained when the elderly brains were spatially normalized onto the young/midlife male or female templates. They reflect the enlargement of CSF space in the lateral ventricles, sylvian fissures and cisterna magna, and the shrinkage of the cortex noted mainly in frontal, insular and lateral temporal cortexes, and the cerebellums in the aged brains. In the Jacobian determinant images, a regional shrinkage of the brain in the left middle prefrontal cortex was observed in addition to the regional expansion in the ventricles and sylvian fissures, which may be due to the age differences between the template and source images. The regional anatomical difference between template and source images could impose an extreme deformation of the source images during the spatial normalization and therefore. Individual brains should be placed into the appropriate template

  16. Selection of appropriate template for spatial normalization of brain images: tensor based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Although there have been remarkable advances in spatial normalization techniques, the differences in the shape of the hemispheres and the sulcal pattern of brains relative to age, gender, races, and diseases cannot be fully overcome by the nonlinear spatial normalization techniques. T1 SPGR MR images in 16 elderly male normal volunteers (>55 y. mean age: = 61.8 {+-} 3.5 y) were spatially normalized onto the age/gender specific Korean templates, and the Caucasian MNI template and the extent of the deformations were compared. These particular subjects were never included in the development of the templates. First , the images were matched into the templates using an affine transformation to eliminate the global difference between the templates and source images. Second the affine registration was followed by an estimation of nonlinear deformation. Determinants of the Jacobian matrices of the nonlinear deformation were then calculated for every voxel to estimate the regional volume change during the nonlinear transformation Jacobian determinant images highlighted the great magnitude of the relative local volume changes obtained when the elderly brains were spatially normalized onto the young/midlife male or female templates. They reflect the enlargement of CSF space in the lateral ventricles, sylvian fissures and cisterna magna, and the shrinkage of the cortex noted mainly in frontal, insular and lateral temporal cortexes, and the cerebellums in the aged brains. In the Jacobian determinant images, a regional shrinkage of the brain in the left middle prefrontal cortex was observed in addition to the regional expansion in the ventricles and sylvian fissures, which may be due to the age differences between the template and source images. The regional anatomical difference between template and source images could impose an extreme deformation of the source images during the spatial normalization and therefore. Individual brains should be placed into the appropriate

  17. The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Gormezano

    Full Text Available Climate change is predicted to expand the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay and when it grows to 180 days, 28-48% of adult male polar bears are projected to starve unless nutritional deficits can be offset by foods consumed on land. We updated a dynamic energy budget model developed by Molnar et al. to allow influx of additional energy from novel terrestrial foods (lesser snow geese, eggs, caribou that polar bears currently consume as part of a mixed diet while on land. We calculated the units of each prey, alone and in combination, needed to alleviate these lethal energy deficits under conditions of resting or limited movement (2 km d-1 prior to starvation. We further considered the total energy available from each sex and age class of each animal prey over the period they would overlap land-bound polar bears and calculated the maximum number of starving adult males that could be sustained on each food during the ice-free season. Our results suggest that the net energy from land-based food, after subtracting costs of limited movement to obtain it, could eliminate all projected nutritional deficits of starving adult male polar bears and likely other demographic groups as well. The hunting tactics employed, success rates as well as behavior and abundance of each prey will determine the realized energetic values for individual polar bears. Although climate change may cause a phenological mismatch between polar bears and their historical ice-based prey, it may simultaneously yield a new match with certain land-based foods. If polar bears can transition their foraging behavior to effectively exploit these resources, predictions for starvation-related mortality may be overestimated for western Hudson Bay. We also discuss potential complications with stable-carbon isotope studies to evaluate utilization of land-based foods by polar bears including metabolic effects of capture-related stress and consuming a mixed diet.

  18. The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormezano, Linda J; Rockwell, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to expand the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay and when it grows to 180 days, 28-48% of adult male polar bears are projected to starve unless nutritional deficits can be offset by foods consumed on land. We updated a dynamic energy budget model developed by Molnar et al. to allow influx of additional energy from novel terrestrial foods (lesser snow geese, eggs, caribou) that polar bears currently consume as part of a mixed diet while on land. We calculated the units of each prey, alone and in combination, needed to alleviate these lethal energy deficits under conditions of resting or limited movement (2 km d-1) prior to starvation. We further considered the total energy available from each sex and age class of each animal prey over the period they would overlap land-bound polar bears and calculated the maximum number of starving adult males that could be sustained on each food during the ice-free season. Our results suggest that the net energy from land-based food, after subtracting costs of limited movement to obtain it, could eliminate all projected nutritional deficits of starving adult male polar bears and likely other demographic groups as well. The hunting tactics employed, success rates as well as behavior and abundance of each prey will determine the realized energetic values for individual polar bears. Although climate change may cause a phenological mismatch between polar bears and their historical ice-based prey, it may simultaneously yield a new match with certain land-based foods. If polar bears can transition their foraging behavior to effectively exploit these resources, predictions for starvation-related mortality may be overestimated for western Hudson Bay. We also discuss potential complications with stable-carbon isotope studies to evaluate utilization of land-based foods by polar bears including metabolic effects of capture-related stress and consuming a mixed diet.

  19. Field-Based Estimates of Global Warming Potential in Bioenergy Systems of Hawaii: Crop Choice and Deficit Irrigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan N Pawlowski

    Full Text Available Replacing fossil fuel with biofuel is environmentally viable from a climate change perspective only if the net greenhouse gas (GHG footprint of the system is reduced. The effects of replacing annual arable crops with perennial bioenergy feedstocks on net GHG production and soil carbon (C stock are critical to the system-level balance. Here, we compared GHG flux, crop yield, root biomass, and soil C stock under two potential tropical, perennial grass biofuel feedstocks: conventional sugarcane and ratoon-harvested, zero-tillage napiergrass. Evaluations were conducted at two irrigation levels, 100% of plantation application and at a 50% deficit. Peaks and troughs of GHG emission followed agronomic events such as ratoon harvest of napiergrass and fertilization. Yet, net GHG flux was dominated by carbon dioxide (CO2, as methane was oxidized and nitrous oxide (N2O emission was very low even following fertilization. High N2O fluxes that frequently negate other greenhouse gas benefits that come from replacing fossil fuels with agronomic forms of bioenergy were mitigated by efficient water and fertilizer management, including direct injection of fertilizer into buried irrigation lines. From soil intensively cultivated for a century in sugarcane, soil C stock and root biomass increased rapidly following cultivation in grasses selected for robust root systems and drought tolerance. The net soil C increase over the two-year crop cycle was three-fold greater than the annualized soil surface CO2 flux. Deficit irrigation reduced yield, but increased soil C accumulation as proportionately more photosynthetic resources were allocated belowground. In the first two years of cultivation napiergrass did not increase net greenhouse warming potential (GWP compared to sugarcane, and has the advantage of multiple ratoon harvests per year and less negative effects of deficit irrigation to yield.

  20. Field-Based Estimates of Global Warming Potential in Bioenergy Systems of Hawaii: Crop Choice and Deficit Irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Meghan N; Crow, Susan E; Meki, Manyowa N; Kiniry, James R; Taylor, Andrew D; Ogoshi, Richard; Youkhana, Adel; Nakahata, Mae

    2017-01-01

    Replacing fossil fuel with biofuel is environmentally viable from a climate change perspective only if the net greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the system is reduced. The effects of replacing annual arable crops with perennial bioenergy feedstocks on net GHG production and soil carbon (C) stock are critical to the system-level balance. Here, we compared GHG flux, crop yield, root biomass, and soil C stock under two potential tropical, perennial grass biofuel feedstocks: conventional sugarcane and ratoon-harvested, zero-tillage napiergrass. Evaluations were conducted at two irrigation levels, 100% of plantation application and at a 50% deficit. Peaks and troughs of GHG emission followed agronomic events such as ratoon harvest of napiergrass and fertilization. Yet, net GHG flux was dominated by carbon dioxide (CO2), as methane was oxidized and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very low even following fertilization. High N2O fluxes that frequently negate other greenhouse gas benefits that come from replacing fossil fuels with agronomic forms of bioenergy were mitigated by efficient water and fertilizer management, including direct injection of fertilizer into buried irrigation lines. From soil intensively cultivated for a century in sugarcane, soil C stock and root biomass increased rapidly following cultivation in grasses selected for robust root systems and drought tolerance. The net soil C increase over the two-year crop cycle was three-fold greater than the annualized soil surface CO2 flux. Deficit irrigation reduced yield, but increased soil C accumulation as proportionately more photosynthetic resources were allocated belowground. In the first two years of cultivation napiergrass did not increase net greenhouse warming potential (GWP) compared to sugarcane, and has the advantage of multiple ratoon harvests per year and less negative effects of deficit irrigation to yield.

  1. Flat super-continuum generation based on normal dispersion nonlinear photonic crystal fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chow, K.K.; Takushima, Y.; Lin, C.

    2006-01-01

    Flat super-continuum generation spanning over the whole telecommunication band using a passively modelocked fibre laser source at 1550 nm together with a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photoinc crystal fibre is demonstrated. Since the pulses propagate in the normal dispersion regime of the fibre...

  2. A Study of Spectral Integration and Normalization in NMR-based Metabonomic Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Lowry, David F.; Jarman, Kristin H.; Harbo, Sam J.; Meng, Quanxin; Fuciarelli, Alfred F.; Pounds, Joel G.; Lee, Monica T.

    2005-09-15

    Metabonomics involves the quantitation of the dynamic multivariate metabolic response of an organism to a pathological event or genetic modification (Nicholson, Lindon and Holmes, 1999). The analysis of these data involves the use of appropriate multivariate statistical methods. Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) linear projection methods, primarily Principal Component Analysis (PCA), have been documented as a valuable pattern recognition technique for 1H NMR spectral data (Brindle et al., 2002, Potts et al., 2001, Robertson et al., 2000, Robosky et al., 2002). Prior to PCA the raw data is typically processed through four steps; (1) baseline correction, (2) endogenous peak removal, (3) integration over spectral regions to reduce the number of variables, and (4) normalization. The effect of the size of spectral integration regions and normalization has not been well studied. We assess the variability structure and classification accuracy on two distinctly different datasets via PCA and a leave-one-out cross-validation approach under two normalization approaches and an array of spectral integration regions. This study indicates that independent of the normalization method the classification accuracy achieved from metabonomic studies is not highly sensitive to the size of the spectral integration region. Additionally, both datasets scaled to mean zero and unity variance (auto-scaled) has higher variability within classification accuracy over spectral integration window widths than data scaled to the total intensity of the spectrum.

  3. Assessing colonic anatomy normal values based on air contrast enemas in children younger than 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, Ilan J. N.; Yacob, Desale; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Saps, Miguel; Benninga, Marc A.; Cooper, Jennifer N.; Minneci, Peter C.; Deans, Katherine J.; Bates, D. Gregory; Thompson, Benjamin P.

    2017-01-01

    Contrast enemas with barium or water-soluble contrast agents are sometimes performed in children with severe intractable constipation to identify anatomical abnormalities. However there are no clear definitions for normal colonic size or abnormalities such as colonic dilation or sigmoid redundancy

  4. Morphometric connectivity analysis to distinguish normal, mild cognitive impaired, and Alzheimer subjects based on brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge; Mysling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates a novel way of looking at the regions in the brain and their relationship as possible markers to classify normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and Alzheimer Disease (AD) subjects. MRI scans from a subset of 101 subjects from the ADNI study at baseline was used...

  5. Normalized Mini-Mental State Examination for assessing cognitive change in population-based brain aging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipps, Viviane; Amieva, Hélène; Andrieu, Sandrine; Dufouil, Carole; Berr, Claudine; Dartigues, Jean-François; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Proust-Lima, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in population-based longitudinal studies to quantify cognitive change. However, its poor metrological properties, mainly ceiling/floor effects and varying sensitivity to change, have largely restricted its usefulness. We propose a normalizing transformation that corrects these properties, and makes possible the use of standard statistical methods to analyze change in MMSE scores. The normalizing transformation designed to correct at best the metrological properties of MMSE was estimated and validated on two population-based studies (n = 4,889, 20-year follow-up) by cross-validation. The transformation was also validated on two external studies with heterogeneous samples mixing normal and pathological aging, and samples including only demented subjects. The normalizing transformation provided correct inference in contrast with models analyzing the change in crude MMSE that most often lead to biased estimates of risk factors and incorrect conclusions. Cognitive change can be easily and properly assessed with the normalized MMSE using standard statistical methods such as linear (mixed) models. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Normal development and growth of the human neurocranium and cranial base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friede, H

    1981-01-01

    The literature on normal development and growth of certain areas of the human head is reviewed, starting with the early induction of the desmal neurocranium. the development of the brain capsule with its dural reinforcement bands and their connection with the basicranium is discussed, as is the primordial chondrocranium, including its bone replacement. Growth of the calvaria and the three cranial fossae is also analysed. Special interest is focused on the anterior fossa, as knowledge of the growth in this area is very important for an understanding of pathogenesis and possibilities of treating premature craniosynostosis. Finally it is stressed that close observation of the effects of treatment on this pathology may increase our knowledge of normal growth.

  7. EMG normalization method based on grade 3 of manual muscle testing: Within- and between-day reliability of normalization tasks and application to gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabard-Fougère, Anne; Rose-Dulcina, Kevin; Pittet, Vincent; Dayer, Romain; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Armand, Stéphane

    2018-02-01

    Electromyography (EMG) is an important parameter in Clinical Gait Analysis (CGA), and is generally interpreted with timing of activation. EMG amplitude comparisons between individuals, muscles or days need normalization. There is no consensus on existing methods. The gold standard, maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), is not adapted to pathological populations because patients are often unable to perform an MVIC. The normalization method inspired by the isometric grade 3 of manual muscle testing (isoMMT3), which is the ability of a muscle to maintain a position against gravity, could be an interesting alternative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the within- and between-day reliability of the isoMMT3 EMG normalizing method during gait compared with the conventional MVIC method. Lower limb muscles EMG (gluteus medius, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, semitendinosus) were recorded bilaterally in nine healthy participants (five males, aged 29.7±6.2years, BMI 22.7±3.3kgm -2 ) giving a total of 18 independent legs. Three repeated measurements of the isoMMT3 and MVIC exercises were performed with an EMG recording. EMG amplitude of the muscles during gait was normalized by these two methods. This protocol was repeated one week later. Within- and between-day reliability of normalization tasks were similar for isoMMT3 and MVIC methods. Within- and between-day reliability of gait EMG normalized by isoMMT3 was higher than with MVIC normalization. These results indicate that EMG normalization using isoMMT3 is a reliable method with no special equipment needed and will support CGA interpretation. The next step will be to evaluate this method in pathological populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. How to normalize Twitter counts? A first attempt based on journals in the Twitter Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornmann, Lutz; Haunschild, Robin

    One possible way of measuring the broad impact of research (societal impact) quantitatively is the use of alternative metrics (altmetrics). An important source of altmetrics is Twitter, which is a popular microblogging service. In bibliometrics, it is standard to normalize citations for cross-field comparisons. This study deals with the normalization of Twitter counts (TC). The problem with Twitter data is that many papers receive zero tweets or only one tweet. In order to restrict the impact analysis on only those journals producing a considerable Twitter impact, we defined the Twitter Index (TI) containing journals with at least 80 % of the papers with at least 1 tweet each. For all papers in each TI journal, we calculated normalized Twitter percentiles (TP) which range from 0 (no impact) to 100 (highest impact). Thus, the highest impact accounts for the paper with the most tweets compared to the other papers in the journal. TP are proposed to be used for cross-field comparisons. We studied the field-independency of TP in comparison with TC. The results point out that the TP can validly be used particularly in biomedical and health sciences, life and earth sciences, mathematics and computer science, as well as physical sciences and engineering. In a first application of TP, we calculated percentiles for countries. The results show that Denmark, Finland, and Norway are the countries with the most tweeted papers (measured by TP).

  9. Comparative study of various normal mode analysis techniques based on partial Hessians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghysels, An; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Pauwels, Ewald; Catak, Saron; Brooks, Bernard R; Van Neck, Dimitri; Waroquier, Michel

    2010-04-15

    Standard normal mode analysis becomes problematic for complex molecular systems, as a result of both the high computational cost and the excessive amount of information when the full Hessian matrix is used. Several partial Hessian methods have been proposed in the literature, yielding approximate normal modes. These methods aim at reducing the computational load and/or calculating only the relevant normal modes of interest in a specific application. Each method has its own (dis)advantages and application field but guidelines for the most suitable choice are lacking. We have investigated several partial Hessian methods, including the Partial Hessian Vibrational Analysis (PHVA), the Mobile Block Hessian (MBH), and the Vibrational Subsystem Analysis (VSA). In this article, we focus on the benefits and drawbacks of these methods, in terms of the reproduction of localized modes, collective modes, and the performance in partially optimized structures. We find that the PHVA is suitable for describing localized modes, that the MBH not only reproduces localized and global modes but also serves as an analysis tool of the spectrum, and that the VSA is mostly useful for the reproduction of the low frequency spectrum. These guidelines are illustrated with the reproduction of the localized amine-stretch, the spectrum of quinine and a bis-cinchona derivative, and the low frequency modes of the LAO binding protein. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Distinct and shared cognitive functions mediate event- and time-based prospective memory impairment in normal ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonneaud, Julie; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Bon, Laetitia; Viader, Fausto; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2011-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to perform an action at a specific point in the future. Regarded as multidimensional, PM involves several cognitive functions that are known to be impaired in normal aging. In the present study, we set out to investigate the cognitive correlates of PM impairment in normal aging. Manipulating cognitive load, we assessed event- and time-based PM, as well as several cognitive functions, including executive functions, working memory and retrospective episodic memory, in healthy subjects covering the entire adulthood. We found that normal aging was characterized by PM decline in all conditions and that event-based PM was more sensitive to the effects of aging than time-based PM. Whatever the conditions, PM was linked to inhibition and processing speed. However, while event-based PM was mainly mediated by binding and retrospective memory processes, time-based PM was mainly related to inhibition. The only distinction between high- and low-load PM cognitive correlates lays in an additional, but marginal, correlation between updating and the high-load PM condition. The association of distinct cognitive functions, as well as shared mechanisms with event- and time-based PM confirms that each type of PM relies on a different set of processes. PMID:21678154

  11. Smartphone App–Based Assessment of Gait During Normal and Dual-Task Walking: Demonstration of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wanting; Zhu, Hao; Harrison, Rachel; Lo, On-Yee; Lipsitz, Lewis; Travison, Thomas; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Zhou, Junhong

    2018-01-01

    Background Walking is a complex cognitive motor task that is commonly completed while performing another task such as talking or making decisions. Gait assessments performed under normal and “dual-task” walking conditions thus provide important insights into health. Such assessments, however, are limited primarily to laboratory-based settings. Objective The objective of our study was to create and test a smartphone-based assessment of normal and dual-task walking for use in nonlaboratory settings. Methods We created an iPhone app that used the phone’s motion sensors to record movements during walking under normal conditions and while performing a serial-subtraction dual task, with the phone placed in the user’s pants pocket. The app provided the user with multimedia instructions before and during the assessment. Acquired data were automatically uploaded to a cloud-based server for offline analyses. A total of 14 healthy adults completed 2 laboratory visits separated by 1 week. On each visit, they used the app to complete three 45-second trials each of normal and dual-task walking. Kinematic data were collected with the app and a gold-standard–instrumented GAITRite mat. Participants also used the app to complete normal and dual-task walking trials within their homes on 3 separate days. Within laboratory-based trials, GAITRite-derived heel strikes and toe-offs of the phone-side leg aligned with smartphone acceleration extrema, following filtering and rotation to the earth coordinate system. We derived stride times—a clinically meaningful metric of locomotor control—from GAITRite and app data, for all strides occurring over the GAITRite mat. We calculated stride times and the dual-task cost to the average stride time (ie, percentage change from normal to dual-task conditions) from both measurement devices. We calculated similar metrics from home-based app data. For these trials, periods of potential turning were identified via custom-developed algorithms

  12. Mitochondrial base excision repair in mouse synaptosomes during normal aging and in a model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Ricardo Gredilla; Weissman, Lior; Yang, JL

    2012-01-01

    Brain aging is associated with synaptic decline and synaptic function is highly dependent on mitochondria. Increased levels of oxidative DNA base damage and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations or deletions lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, playing an important role in the aging...... process and the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Here we have investigated the repair of oxidative base damage, in synaptosomes of mouse brain during normal aging and in an AD model. During normal aging, a reduction in the base excision repair (BER) capacity was observed...... suggest that the age-related reduction in BER capacity in the synaptosomal fraction might contribute to mitochondrial and synaptic dysfunction during aging. The development of AD-like pathology in the 3xTgAD mouse model was, however, not associated with deficiencies of the BER mechanisms...

  13. Normal-mode-based analysis of electron plasma waves with second-order Hermitian formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J. J.; White, R. L.

    2018-03-01

    The classic problem of the dynamic evolution and Landau damping of linear Langmuir electron waves in a collisionless plasma with Maxwellian background is cast as a second-order, self-adjoint problem with a continuum spectrum of real and positive squared frequencies. The corresponding complete basis of singular normal modes is obtained, along with their orthogonality relation. This yields easily the general expression of the time-reversal-invariant solution for any initial-value problem. Examples are given for specific initial conditions that illustrate different behaviors of the Landau-damped macroscopic moments of the perturbations.

  14. Wind turbine condition monitoring based on SCADA data using normal behavior models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlechtingen, Meik; Santos, Ilmar; Achiche, Sofiane

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a system for wind turbine condition monitoring using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Interference Systems (ANFIS). For this purpose: (1) ANFIS normal behavior models for common Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) data are developed in order to detect abnormal behavior...... the applicability of ANFIS models for monitoring wind turbine SCADA signals. The computational time needed for model training is compared to Neural Network (NN) models showing the strength of ANFIS in training speed. (2) For automation of fault diagnosis Fuzzy Interference Systems (FIS) are used to analyze...

  15. Understanding the Transfer Deficit: Contextual Mismatch, Proactive Interference, and Working Memory Affect Toddlers' Video-Based Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Koeun; Kirkorian, Heather L; Pempek, Tiffany A

    2017-04-17

    Researchers tested the impact of contextual mismatch, proactive interference, and working memory (WM) on toddlers' transfer across contexts. Forty-two toddlers (27-34 months) completed four object-retrieval trials, requiring memory updating on Trials 2-4. Participants watched hiding events on a tablet computer. Search performance was tested using another tablet (match) or a felt board (mismatch). WM was assessed. On earlier search trials, WM predicted transfer in both conditions, and toddlers in the match condition outperformed those in the mismatch condition; however, the benefit of contextual match and WM decreased over trials. Contextual match apparently increased proactive interference on later trials. Findings are interpreted within existing accounts of the transfer deficit, and a combined account is proposed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Shared familial risk factors between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and overweight/obesity - a population-based familial coaggregation study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Sjölander, Arvid; Serlachius, Eva; Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V; Almqvist, Catarina; Larsson, Henrik

    2017-06-01

    Despite meta-analytic evidence for the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and overweight/obesity, the mechanisms underlying the association are yet to be fully understood. By linking multiple Swedish national and regional registers, we identified 472,735 index males born during 1973-1992, with information on body weight and height directly measured before they were conscripted for military service. We further identified 523,237 full siblings born during 1973-2002 for the index males. All individuals were followed up from their third birthday to December 31, 2009 for ADHD diagnosis. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between overweight/obesity in index males and ADHD in their full siblings. Siblings of index males with overweight/obesity had increased risk for ADHD (overweight: OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05-1.24; obesity: OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.24-1.63), compared with siblings of index males with normal weight. The results were adjusted for birth year of the index male and sex of the sibling. After further adjustment for ADHD status of the index male, the familial coaggregation remained significant (overweight: OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.04-1.22; obesity: OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.21-1.57). The results were similar across sex of the siblings. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and overweight/obesity share familial risk factors, which are not limited to those causing overweight/obesity through the mediation of ADHD. Future research aiming at identifying family-wide environmental risk factors as well as common pleiotropic genetic variants contributing to both traits is warranted. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  17. Uncovering the Neural Bases of Cognitive and Affective Empathy Deficits in Alzheimer's Disease and the Behavioral-Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermody, Nadene; Wong, Stephanie; Ahmed, Rebekah; Piguet, Olivier; Hodges, John R; Irish, Muireann

    2016-05-30

    Loss of empathy is a core presenting feature of the behavioral-variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), resulting in socioemotional difficulties and behavioral transgressions. In contrast, interpersonal functioning remains relatively intact in Alzheimer's disease (AD), despite marked cognitive decline. The neural substrates mediating these patterns of loss and sparing in social functioning remain unclear, yet are relevant for our understanding of the social brain. We investigated cognitive versus affective aspects of empathy using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) in 25 AD and 24 bvFTD patients and contrasted their performance with 22 age- and education-matched controls. Cognitive empathy was comparably compromised in AD and bvFTD, whereas affective empathy was impaired exclusively in bvFTD. While controlling for overall cognitive dysfunction ameliorated perspective-taking deficits in AD, empathy loss persisted across cognitive and affective domains in bvFTD. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed divergent neural substrates of empathy loss in each patient group. Perspective-taking deficits correlated with predominantly left-sided temporoparietal atrophy in AD, whereas widespread bilateral frontoinsular, temporal, parietal, and occipital atrophy was implicated in bvFTD. Reduced empathic concern in bvFTD was associated with atrophy in the left orbitofrontal, inferior frontal, and insular cortices, and the bilateral mid-cingulate gyrus. Our findings suggest that social cognitive deficits in AD arise largely as a consequence of global cognitive dysfunction, rather than a loss of empathy per se. In contrast, loss of empathy in bvFTD reflects the deterioration of a distributed network of frontoinsular and temporal structures that appear crucial for monitoring and processing social information.

  18. Reward value-based gain control: divisive normalization in parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Kenway; Grattan, Lauren E; Glimcher, Paul W

    2011-07-20

    The representation of value is a critical component of decision making. Rational choice theory assumes that options are assigned absolute values, independent of the value or existence of other alternatives. However, context-dependent choice behavior in both animals and humans violates this assumption, suggesting that biological decision processes rely on comparative evaluation. Here we show that neurons in the monkey lateral intraparietal cortex encode a relative form of saccadic value, explicitly dependent on the values of the other available alternatives. Analogous to extra-classical receptive field effects in visual cortex, this relative representation incorporates target values outside the response field and is observed in both stimulus-driven activity and baseline firing rates. This context-dependent modulation is precisely described by divisive normalization, indicating that this standard form of sensory gain control may be a general mechanism of cortical computation. Such normalization in decision circuits effectively implements an adaptive gain control for value coding and provides a possible mechanistic basis for behavioral context-dependent violations of rationality.

  19. Laser frequency locking based on the normal and abnormal saturated absorption spectroscopy of 87Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Jian-Hong; Liu Chang; Wang Yan-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We present a practical method to avoid the mis-locking phenomenon in the saturated-absorption-spectrum laser-frequency-locking system and set up a simple theoretical model to explain the abnormal saturated absorption spectrum. The method uses the normal and abnormal saturated absorption spectra of the same transition 5 2 S 1/2 , F = 2–5 2 P 3/2 , F′ = 3 saturated absorption of the 87 Rb D 2 resonance line. After subtracting these two signals with the help of electronics, we can obtain a spectrum with a single peak to lock the laser. In our experiment, we use the normal and inverse signals of the transitions 5 2 S 1/2 , F = 2–5 2 P 3/2 , F′ = 3 saturated absorption of the 87 Rb D 2 resonance line to lock a 780-nm distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser. This method improves the long-term locking performance and is suitable for other kinds of diode lasers. (paper)

  20. A Network Flow-based Analysis of Cognitive Reserve in Normal Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wook Yoo, Sang; Han, Cheol E; Shin, Joseph S; Won Seo, Sang; Na, Duk L; Kaiser, Marcus; Jeong, Yong; Seong, Joon-Kyung

    2015-05-20

    Cognitive reserve is the ability to sustain cognitive function even with a certain amount of brain damages. Here we investigate the neural compensation mechanism of cognitive reserve from the perspective of structural brain connectivity. Our goal was to show that normal people with high education levels (i.e., cognitive reserve) maintain abundant pathways connecting any two brain regions, providing better compensation or resilience after brain damage. Accordingly, patients with high education levels show more deterioration in structural brain connectivity than those with low education levels before symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) become apparent. To test this hypothesis, we use network flow measuring the number of alternative paths between two brain regions in the brain network. The experimental results show that for normal aging, education strengthens network reliability, as measured through flow values, in a subnetwork centered at the supramarginal gyrus. For AD, a subnetwork centered at the left middle frontal gyrus shows a negative correlation between flow and education, which implies more collapse in structural brain connectivity for highly educated patients. We conclude that cognitive reserve may come from the ability of network reorganization to secure the information flow within the brain network, therefore making it more resistant to disease progress.

  1. An Efficient Normalized Rank Based SVM for Room Level Indoor WiFi Localization with Diverse Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Rezgui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an efficient and effective WiFi fingerprinting-based indoor localization algorithm, which uses the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI of WiFi signals. In practical harsh indoor environments, RSSI variation and hardware variance can significantly degrade the performance of fingerprinting-based localization methods. To address the problem of hardware variance and signal fluctuation in WiFi fingerprinting-based localization, we propose a novel normalized rank based Support Vector Machine classifier (NR-SVM. Moving from RSSI value based analysis to the normalized rank transformation based analysis, the principal features are prioritized and the dimensionalities of signature vectors are taken into account. The proposed method has been tested using sixteen different devices in a shopping mall with 88 shops. The experimental results demonstrate its robustness with no less than 98.75% correct estimation in 93.75% of the tested cases and 100% correct rate in 56.25% of cases. In the experiments, the new method shows better performance over the KNN, Naïve Bayes, Random Forest, and Neural Network algorithms. Furthermore, we have compared the proposed approach with three popular calibration-free transformation based methods, including difference method (DIFF, Signal Strength Difference (SSD, and the Hyperbolic Location Fingerprinting (HLF based SVM. The results show that the NR-SVM outperforms these popular methods.

  2. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  3. Prognostic value of normal stress-only myocardial perfusion imaging: a comparison between conventional and CZT-based SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Shu; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Timmer, Jorik R. [Isala Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Mouden, Mohamed; Engbers, Elsemiek [Isala Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Isala Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands); Knollema, Siert; Jager, Pieter L. [Isala Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging has proven to have prognostic importance in patients with suspected stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The recently introduced ultrafast cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based gamma cameras have been associated with less equivocal findings and more normal interpretations, allowing stress-only imaging to be performed more often. However, it is yet unclear whether normal stress-only CZT SPECT has comparable prognostic value as normally interpreted stress-only conventional SPECT. The study population consisted of 1,650 consecutive patients without known CAD with normal stress-only myocardial perfusion results with either conventional (n = 362) or CZT SPECT (n = 1,288). The incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE, all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization) was compared between the conventional SPECT and CZT SPECT groups. Multivariable analyses using the Cox model were used to adjust for differences in baseline variables. Patients scanned with CZT were less often male (33 vs 39 %), had less often hypercholesterolaemia (41 vs 50 %) and had more often a family history of CAD (57 vs 49 %). At a median follow-up time of 37 months (interquartile range 28-45 months) MACE occurred in 68 patients. The incidence of MACE was 1.5 %/year in the CZT group, compared to 2.0 %/year in the conventional group (p = 0.08). After multivariate analyses, there was a trend to a lower incidence of MACE in the CZT SPECT group (hazard ratio 0.61, 95 % confidence interval 0.35-1.04, p = 0.07). The prognostic value of normal stress-only CZT SPECT is at least comparable and may be even better than that of normal conventional stress SPECT. (orig.)

  4. Speech Emotion Recognition Based on Power Normalized Cepstral Coefficients in Noisy Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bashirpour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic recognition of speech emotional states in noisy conditions has become an important research topic in the emotional speech recognition area, in recent years. This paper considers the recognition of emotional states via speech in real environments. For this task, we employ the power normalized cepstral coefficients (PNCC in a speech emotion recognition system. We investigate its performance in emotion recognition using clean and noisy speech materials and compare it with the performances of the well-known MFCC, LPCC, RASTA-PLP, and also TEMFCC features. Speech samples are extracted from the Berlin emotional speech database (Emo DB and Persian emotional speech database (Persian ESD which are corrupted with 4 different noise types under various SNR levels. The experiments are conducted in clean train/noisy test scenarios to simulate practical conditions with noise sources. Simulation results show that higher recognition rates are achieved for PNCC as compared with the conventional features under noisy conditions.

  5. A scan statistic for continuous data based on the normal probability model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Temporal, spatial and space-time scan statistics are commonly used to detect and evaluate the statistical significance of temporal and/or geographical disease clusters, without any prior assumptions on the location, time period or size of those clusters. Scan statistics are mostly used for count data, such as disease incidence or mortality. Sometimes there is an interest in looking for clusters with respect to a continuous variable, such as lead levels in children or low birth weight. For such continuous data, we present a scan statistic where the likelihood is calculated using the the normal probability model. It may also be used for other distributions, while still maintaining the correct alpha level. In an application of the new method, we look for geographical clusters of low birth weight in New York City.

  6. Calculation of TC in a normal-superconductor bilayer using the microscopic-based Usadel theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinis, John M.; Hilton, G.C.; Irwin, K.D.; Wollman, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Usadel equations give a theory of superconductivity, valid in the diffusive limit, that is a generalization of the microscopic equations of the BCS theory. Because the theory is expressed in a tractable and physical form, even experimentalists can analytically and numerically calculate detailed properties of superconductors in physically relevant geometries. Here, we describe the Usadel equations and review their solution in the case of predicting the transition temperature T C of a thin normal-superconductor bilayer. We also extend this calculation for thicker bilayers to show the dependence on the resistivity of the films. These results, which show a dependence on both the interface resistance and heat capacity of the films, provide important guidance on fabricating bilayers with reproducible transition temperatures

  7. Routing and wavelength assignment based on normalized resource and constraints for all-optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Seong-Soon; Nam, Hyun-Soon; Lim, Chang-Kyu

    2003-08-01

    With the rapid growth of the Optical Internet, high capacity pipes is finally destined to support end-to-end IP on the WDM optical network. Newly launched 2D MEMS optical switching module in the market supports that expectations of upcoming a transparent optical cross-connect in the network have encouraged the field applicable research on establishing real all-optical transparent network. To open up a customer-driven bandwidth services, design of the optical transport network becomes more challenging task in terms of optimal network resource usage. This paper presents a practical approach to finding a route and wavelength assignment for wavelength routed all-optical network, which has λ-plane OXC switches and wavelength converters, and supports that optical paths are randomly set up and released by dynamic wavelength provisioning to create bandwidth between end users with timescales on the order of seconds or milliseconds. We suggest three constraints to make the RWA problem become more practical one on deployment for wavelength routed all-optical network in network view: limitation on maximum hop of a route within bearable optical network impairments, limitation on minimum hops to travel before converting a wavelength, and limitation on calculation time to find all routes for connections requested at once. We design the NRCD (Normalized Resource and Constraints for All-Optical Network RWA Design) algorithm for the Tera OXC: network resource for a route is calculated by the number of internal switching paths established in each OXC nodes on the route, and is normalized by ratio of number of paths established and number of paths equipped in a node. We show that it fits for the RWA algorithm of the wavelength routed all-optical network through real experiments on the distributed objects platform.

  8. Tensor-based morphometry as a neuroimaging biomarker for Alzheimer's disease: an MRI study of 676 AD, MCI, and normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D; Parikshak, Neelroop; Lee, Suh; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2008-11-15

    In one of the largest brain MRI studies to date, we used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to create 3D maps of structural atrophy in 676 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy elderly controls, scanned as part of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Using inverse-consistent 3D non-linear elastic image registration, we warped 676 individual brain MRI volumes to a population mean geometric template. Jacobian determinant maps were created, revealing the 3D profile of local volumetric expansion and compression. We compared the anatomical distribution of atrophy in 165 AD patients (age: 75.6+/-7.6 years), 330 MCI subjects (74.8+/-7.5), and 181 controls (75.9+/-5.1). Brain atrophy in selected regions-of-interest was correlated with clinical measurements--the sum-of-boxes clinical dementia rating (CDR-SB), mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and the logical memory test scores - at voxel level followed by correction for multiple comparisons. Baseline temporal lobe atrophy correlated with current cognitive performance, future cognitive decline, and conversion from MCI to AD over the following year; it predicted future decline even in healthy subjects. Over half of the AD and MCI subjects carried the ApoE4 (apolipoprotein E4) gene, which increases risk for AD; they showed greater hippocampal and temporal lobe deficits than non-carriers. ApoE2 gene carriers--1/6 of the normal group--showed reduced ventricular expansion, suggesting a protective effect. As an automated image analysis technique, TBM reveals 3D correlations between neuroimaging markers, genes, and future clinical changes, and is highly efficient for large-scale MRI studies.

  9. Neurologic deficit after resection of the sacrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, R; Ruggieri, P; Mercuri, M; Capanna, R; Briccoli, A; Perin, S; Orsini, U; Demitri, S; Arlecchini, S

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe neurologic deficit (sensory, motor, and sphincteral) resulting from sacrifice of the sacral nerve roots removed during resection of the sacrum. The anatomical and functional bases of sphincteral continence and the amount of neurologic deficit are discussed based on level of sacral resection. A large review of the literature on the subject is reported and discussed. The authors emphasize how the neurophysiological bases of sphincteral continence (rectum and bladder) and of sexual ability are still not well known, and how the literature reveals disagreement on the subject. A score system is proposed to evaluate neurologic deficit. The clinical model of neurologic deficit caused by resection of the sacrum may be extended to an evaluation of post-traumatic deficit.

  10. Directional output distance functions: endogenous directions based on exogenous normalization constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we develop a model for computing directional output distance functions with endogenously determined direction vectors. We show how this model is related to the slacks-based directional distance function introduced by Fare and Grosskopf and show how to use the slacks-based function to e...

  11. Optimization of stereotactically-guided conformal treatment planning of sellar and parasellar tumors, based on normal brain dose volume histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perks, Julian R.; Jalali, Rakesh; Cosgrove, Vivian P.; Adams, Elizabeth J.; Shepherd, Stephen F.; Warrington, Alan P.; Brada, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the optimal treatment plan for stereo tactically-guided conformal radiotherapy (SCRT) of sellar and parasellar lesions, with respect to sparing normal brain tissue, in the context of routine treatment delivery, based on dose volume histogram analysis. Methods and Materials: Computed tomography (CT) data sets for 8 patients with sellar- and parasellar-based tumors (6 pituitary adenomas and 2 meningiomas) have been used in this study. Treatment plans were prepared for 3-coplanar and 3-, 4-, 6-, and 30-noncoplanar-field arrangements to obtain 95% isodose coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) for each plan. Conformal shaping was achieved by customized blocks generated with the beams eye view (BEV) facility. Dose volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for the normal brain (excluding the PTV), and comparisons made for normal tissue sparing for all treatment plans at ≥80%, ≥60%, and ≥40% of the prescribed dose. Results: The mean volume of normal brain receiving ≥80% and ≥60% of the prescribed dose decreased by 22.3% (range 14.8-35.1%, standard deviation σ = 7.5%) and 47.6% (range 25.8-69.1%, σ 13.2%), respectively, with a 4-field noncoplanar technique when compared with a conventional 3-field coplanar technique. Adding 2 further fields, from 4-noncoplanar to 6-noncoplanar fields reduced the mean normal brain volume receiving ≥80% of the prescribed dose by a further 4.1% (range -6.5-11.8%, σ = 6.4%), and the volume receiving ≥60% by 3.3% (range -5.5-12.2%, σ = 5.4%), neither of which were statistically significant. Each case must be considered individually however, as a wide range is seen in the volume spared when increasing the number of fields from 4 to 6. Comparing the 4- and 6-field noncoplanar techniques to a 30-field conformal field approach (simulating a dynamic arc plan) revealed near-equivalent normal tissue sparing. Conclusion: Four to six widely spaced, fixed-conformal fields provide the optimum class solution

  12. An inexact log-normal distribution-based stochastic chance-constrained model for agricultural water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Fan, Jie; Xu, Ye; Sun, Wei; Chen, Dong

    2018-05-01

    In this study, an inexact log-normal-based stochastic chance-constrained programming model was developed for solving the non-point source pollution issues caused by agricultural activities. Compared to the general stochastic chance-constrained programming model, the main advantage of the proposed model is that it allows random variables to be expressed as a log-normal distribution, rather than a general normal distribution. Possible deviations in solutions caused by irrational parameter assumptions were avoided. The agricultural system management in the Erhai Lake watershed was used as a case study, where critical system factors, including rainfall and runoff amounts, show characteristics of a log-normal distribution. Several interval solutions were obtained under different constraint-satisfaction levels, which were useful in evaluating the trade-off between system economy and reliability. The applied results show that the proposed model could help decision makers to design optimal production patterns under complex uncertainties. The successful application of this model is expected to provide a good example for agricultural management in many other watersheds.

  13. Smartphone App-Based Assessment of Gait During Normal and Dual-Task Walking: Demonstration of Validity and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Brad; Yu, Wanting; Zhu, Hao; Harrison, Rachel; Lo, On-Yee; Lipsitz, Lewis; Travison, Thomas; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Zhou, Junhong

    2018-01-30

    Walking is a complex cognitive motor task that is commonly completed while performing another task such as talking or making decisions. Gait assessments performed under normal and "dual-task" walking conditions thus provide important insights into health. Such assessments, however, are limited primarily to laboratory-based settings. The objective of our study was to create and test a smartphone-based assessment of normal and dual-task walking for use in nonlaboratory settings. We created an iPhone app that used the phone's motion sensors to record movements during walking under normal conditions and while performing a serial-subtraction dual task, with the phone placed in the user's pants pocket. The app provided the user with multimedia instructions before and during the assessment. Acquired data were automatically uploaded to a cloud-based server for offline analyses. A total of 14 healthy adults completed 2 laboratory visits separated by 1 week. On each visit, they used the app to complete three 45-second trials each of normal and dual-task walking. Kinematic data were collected with the app and a gold-standard-instrumented GAITRite mat. Participants also used the app to complete normal and dual-task walking trials within their homes on 3 separate days. Within laboratory-based trials, GAITRite-derived heel strikes and toe-offs of the phone-side leg aligned with smartphone acceleration extrema, following filtering and rotation to the earth coordinate system. We derived stride times-a clinically meaningful metric of locomotor control-from GAITRite and app data, for all strides occurring over the GAITRite mat. We calculated stride times and the dual-task cost to the average stride time (ie, percentage change from normal to dual-task conditions) from both measurement devices. We calculated similar metrics from home-based app data. For these trials, periods of potential turning were identified via custom-developed algorithms and omitted from stride-time analyses

  14. Quantitative skeletal evaluation based on cervical vertebral maturation: a longitudinal study of adolescents with normal occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Liu, J; Xu, T; Long, X; Lin, J

    2010-07-01

    The study aims were to investigate the correlation between vertebral shape and hand-wrist maturation and to select characteristic parameters of C2-C5 (the second to fifth cervical vertebrae) for cervical vertebral maturation determination by mixed longitudinal data. 87 adolescents (32 males, 55 females) aged 8-18 years with normal occlusion were studied. Sequential lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist radiographs were taken annually for 6 consecutive years. Lateral cephalograms were divided into 11 maturation groups according to Fishman Skeletal Maturity Indicators (SMI). 62 morphological measurements of C2-C5 at 11 different developmental stages (SMI1-11) were measured and analysed. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing, correlation coefficient analysis and variable cluster analysis were used for statistical analysis. Of the 62 cervical vertebral parameters, 44 were positively correlated with SMI, 6 were negatively correlated and 12 were not correlated. The correlation coefficients between cervical vertebral parameters and SMI were relatively high. Characteristic parameters for quantitative analysis of cervical vertebral maturation were selected. In summary, cervical vertebral maturation could be used reliably to evaluate the skeletal stage instead of the hand-wrist radiographic method. Selected characteristic parameters offered a simple and objective reference for the assessment of skeletal maturity and timing of orthognathic surgery. Copyright 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural improvement of unliganded simian immunodeficiency virus gp120 core by normal-mode-based X-ray crystallographic refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiaorui; Lu, Mingyang; Poon, Billy K.; Wang, Qinghua; Ma, Jianpeng

    2009-01-01

    The structural model of the unliganded and fully glycosylated simian immunodeficiency virus gp120 core determined to 4.0 Å resolution was substantially improved using a recently developed normal-mode-based anisotropic B-factor refinement method. The envelope protein gp120/gp41 of simian and human immunodeficiency viruses plays a critical role in viral entry into host cells. However, the extraordinarily high structural flexibility and heavy glycosylation of the protein have presented enormous difficulties in the pursuit of high-resolution structural investigation of some of its conformational states. An unliganded and fully glycosylated gp120 core structure was recently determined to 4.0 Å resolution. The rather low data-to-parameter ratio limited refinement efforts in the original structure determination. In this work, refinement of this gp120 core structure was carried out using a normal-mode-based refinement method that has been shown in previous studies to be effective in improving models of a supramolecular complex at 3.42 Å resolution and of a membrane protein at 3.2 Å resolution. By using only the first four nonzero lowest-frequency normal modes to construct the anisotropic thermal parameters, combined with manual adjustments and standard positional refinement using REFMAC5, the structural model of the gp120 core was significantly improved in many aspects, including substantial decreases in R factors, better fitting of several flexible regions in electron-density maps, the addition of five new sugar rings at four glycan chains and an excellent correlation of the B-factor distribution with known structural flexibility. These results further underscore the effectiveness of this normal-mode-based method in improving models of protein and nonprotein components in low-resolution X-ray structures

  16. Toward a normalized clinical drug knowledge base in China-applying the RxNorm model to Chinese clinical drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Yaoyun; Jiang, Min; Wang, Jingqi; Dong, Jiancheng; Liu, Yun; Tao, Cui; Jiang, Guoqian; Zhou, Yi; Xu, Hua

    2018-04-04

    In recent years, electronic health record systems have been widely implemented in China, making clinical data available electronically. However, little effort has been devoted to making drug information exchangeable among these systems. This study aimed to build a Normalized Chinese Clinical Drug (NCCD) knowledge base, by applying and extending the information model of RxNorm to Chinese clinical drugs. Chinese drugs were collected from 4 major resources-China Food and Drug Administration, China Health Insurance Systems, Hospital Pharmacy Systems, and China Pharmacopoeia-for integration and normalization in NCCD. Chemical drugs were normalized using the information model in RxNorm without much change. Chinese patent drugs (i.e., Chinese herbal extracts), however, were represented using an expanded RxNorm model to incorporate the unique characteristics of these drugs. A hybrid approach combining automated natural language processing technologies and manual review by domain experts was then applied to drug attribute extraction, normalization, and further generation of drug names at different specification levels. Lastly, we reported the statistics of NCCD, as well as the evaluation results using several sets of randomly selected Chinese drugs. The current version of NCCD contains 16 976 chemical drugs and 2663 Chinese patent medicines, resulting in 19 639 clinical drugs, 250 267 unique concepts, and 2 602 760 relations. By manual review of 1700 chemical drugs and 250 Chinese patent drugs randomly selected from NCCD (about 10%), we showed that the hybrid approach could achieve an accuracy of 98.60% for drug name extraction and normalization. Using a collection of 500 chemical drugs and 500 Chinese patent drugs from other resources, we showed that NCCD achieved coverages of 97.0% and 90.0% for chemical drugs and Chinese patent drugs, respectively. Evaluation results demonstrated the potential to improve interoperability across various electronic drug systems

  17. Discrimination Between Cervical Cancer Cells and Normal Cervical Cells Based on Longitudinal Elasticity Using Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueqin; Zhong, Yunxin; Ye, Ting; Wang, Dajing; Mao, Bingwei

    2015-12-01

    The mechanical properties of cells are considered promising biomarkers for the early diagnosis of cancer. Recently, atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanoindentation technology has been utilized for the examination of cell cortex mechanics in order to distinguish malignant cells from normal cells. However, few attempts to evaluate the biomechanical properties of cells have focused on the quantification of the non-homogeneous longitudinal elasticity of cellular structures. In the present study, we applied a variation of the method of Carl and Schillers to investigate the differences between longitudinal elasticity of human cervical squamous carcinoma cells (CaSki) and normal cervical epithelial cells (CRL2614) using AFM. The results reveal a three-layer heterogeneous structure in the probing volume of both cell types studied. CaSki cells exhibited a lower whole-cell stiffness and a softer nuclei zone compared to the normal counterpart cells. Moreover, a better differentiated cytoskeleton was found in the inner cytoplasm/nuclei zone of the normal CRL2614 cells, whereas a deeper cytoskeletal distribution was observed in the probing volume of the cancerous counterparts. The sensitive cortical panel of CaSki cells, with a modulus of 0.35~0.47 kPa, was located at 237~225 nm; in normal cells, the elasticity was 1.20~1.32 kPa at 113~128 nm. The present improved method may be validated using the conventional Hertz-Sneddon method, which is widely reported in the literature. In conclusion, our results enable the quantification of the heterogeneous longitudinal elasticity of cancer cells, in particular the correlation with the corresponding depth. Preliminary results indicate that our method may potentially be applied to improve the detection of cancerous cells and provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease.

  18. Progression to Legal Blindness in Patients With Normal Tension Glaucoma: Hospital-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Akira; Rivera, Jonathan A; Takagi, Daisuke; Nishida, Takashi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2015-06-01

    To determine the probability of an eye with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) progressing to legal blindness under standard ophthalmic care. Patients diagnosed with NTG (n = 382) between 1985 and 2007 at Gifu University Hospital were followed for at least 5 years under standard ophthalmic care. The collected data included the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and visual field status. Blindness was defined as a BCVA of blindness in one or both eyes. The mean follow-up period after diagnosis was 13.3 ± 5.4 years with a range of 5.0 to 29.1 years. At diagnosis, 18 patients (4.7%) had unilateral blindness due to glaucoma. At final examination, 34 patients had progressed to unilateral blindness and 5 to bilateral blindness. The Kaplan-Meier life table analysis estimate for unilateral blindness was 5.8 ± 1.3% at 10 years and 9.9 ± 1.9% at 20 years. Similarly, that for bilateral blindness was 0.3 ± 0.3% at 10 years and 1.4 ± 0.8% at 20 years. A Cox proportional hazard model analysis showed that a lower initial BCVA (P blindness in at least one eye. The probability of blindness in eyes with NTG is much lower than previously reported in patients with high-tension glaucoma. Nevertheless, special care should be taken to follow NTG patients, and especially those with worse BCVA and more advanced visual field loss at diagnosis.

  19. Image reconstruction method for electrical capacitance tomography based on the combined series and parallel normalization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Xiangyuan; Guo, Shuqing

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel image reconstruction method for electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) based on the combined series and parallel model is presented. A regularization technique is used to obtain a stabilized solution of the inverse problem. Also, the adaptive coefficient of the combined model is deduced by numerical optimization. Simulation results indicate that it can produce higher quality images when compared to the algorithm based on the parallel or series models for the cases tested in this paper. It provides a new algorithm for ECT application

  20. Physiological and biochemical changes in Matricaria chamomilla induced by Pseudomonas fluorescens and water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid MOHAMMADI

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses and rhizosphere microorganisms affect growth parameters and accumulation of active ingredients especially in plants with medicinal properties. The present study examined the effects of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. seedling inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens PF-135 strain on its growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content, and essential oil concentration at both regular watering and water deficit experiments. Based on the obtained results, water deficit stress reduced root dry mass, and flower fresh and dry mass as well. However, amount of H2O2 and MDA in root and shoot tissues were considerably lower in inoculated plants compared to non-inoculated ones under both normal watering and water deficit regimes. It indicates that lipid peroxidation and production of reactive oxygen species has been diminished in inoculated plants. Also, essential oil content in inoculated plants significantly increased compared with that of non-inoculated ones under water deficit stress condition. It can be concluded that P. fluorescens PF-135 strain has an outstanding potential to alleviate adverse effects of water deficit on plant growth, and hence can be used as an excellent PGPR in order to boost chamomile productivity especially under water deficit stress condition.

  1. Voxel-based comparison of whole brain gray matter of patients with mild Alzheimer's disease with normal aging volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Sheng; Wu Hongkun; Xiao Jiangxi; Wang Yinhua; Jiang Xuexiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To detect gray matter abnormalities of whole brain in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: Thirteen patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and sixteen normal aging volunteers underwent 3D SPGR scanning. For every subject, data was transferred to PC to be normalized, segmented and smoothed using SPM99. Non-dependent samples T-tests were conducted to compare gray matter' density voxel to voxel between the two groups. Results Significant reductions in gray matter density were found in the bilateral hippocampi and nucleus amygdalae, bilateral insulae, bilateral medial thalami, bilateral rectus gyri, right superior temporal gyms, right caudate nucleus, fight prefrontal lobe, right basal forebrain and portions of right occipital lobe. Conclusion: VBM reveals significant gray matter' reductions of numeral cortices in mild Alzheimer's disease. It can be a useful method to evaluate the anatomical changes in the progress of the disease. (authors)

  2. INR calibration of Owren-type prothrombin time based on the relationship between PT% and INR utilizing normal plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Tomas L; Egberg, Nils; Hillarp, Andreas; Ødegaard, Ole R; Edlund, Bror; Svensson, Jan; Sandset, Per M; Rånby, Mats

    2004-06-01

    Prothrombin time (PT) is clinically important and is used to monitor oral anticoagulant therapy. To obtain PT results in international normalized ratio (INR), the current standardization procedure is complex and involves reference reagents. The PT of diluted plasma samples can be determined with a combined thromboplastin (the Owren-type procedure), but not necessarily with a plain thromboplastin (the Quick-type procedure). Owren-type PT procedures can therefore, as an alternative to the INR calibration, be calibrated with diluted normal plasma to give PT results in percent of normal PT activity (PT%). The present study explored if a plasma-based calibration of an Owren-type PT procedure can be used to obtain results in INR. The approach was to establish a relationship between PT% and INR by multi-center analysis of 365 samples from healthy individuals and patients on warfarin treatment. INR values were obtained by manual Quick-type reference procedure and PT% values by various automated Owren-type procedures. A relationship INR = (1/PT% + 0.018)/0.028 was found. A calibration procedure, based on the relationship, was investigated. Calibrators were the median PT of 21 normal plasma at dilutions representing 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5% and 6.25% of normal PT activity. These were assigned INR values of 1.00, 1.36, 2.07, 3.05 and 6.36. Calibration of various Owren-type assays was repeatedly performed by 5 expert laboratories during 3 consecutive years. The INR values of certain lyophilised or frozen control plasmas were determined. The frozen control plasmas had externally assigned INR values according to WHO guide-lines. Within the laboratory, CV was typically below 3%. No appreciable difference among the results of the different laboratories or the three assay occasions was found. Externally assigned and INR values were essentially identical to those found. These and other results indicated that the calibration procedure was reproducible, precise and accurate. Thus, an

  3. A Computational Model for the Automatic Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Based on Functional Brain Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Tan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the problem of computer-aided diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD using machine learning techniques. With the ADHD-200 dataset, we developed a Support Vector Machine (SVM model to classify ADHD patients from typically developing controls (TDCs, using the regional brain volumes as predictors. Conventionally, the volume of a brain region was considered to be an anatomical feature and quantified using structural magnetic resonance images. One major contribution of the present study was that we had initially proposed to measure the regional brain volumes using fMRI images. Brain volumes measured from fMRI images were denoted as functional volumes, which quantified the volumes of brain regions that were actually functioning during fMRI imaging. We compared the predictive power of functional volumes with that of regional brain volumes measured from anatomical images, which were denoted as anatomical volumes. The former demonstrated higher discriminative power than the latter for the classification of ADHD patients vs. TDCs. Combined with our two-step feature selection approach which integrated prior knowledge with the recursive feature elimination (RFE algorithm, our SVM classification model combining functional volumes and demographic characteristics achieved a balanced accuracy of 67.7%, which was 16.1% higher than that of a relevant model published previously in the work of Sato et al. Furthermore, our classifier highlighted 10 brain regions that were most discriminative in distinguishing between ADHD patients and TDCs. These 10 regions were mainly located in occipital lobe, cerebellum posterior lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe. Our present study using functional images will likely provide new perspectives about the brain regions affected by ADHD.

  4. Improvement in social deficits in autism spectrum disorders using a theatre-based, peer-mediated intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Blythe A; Swain, Deanna M; Coke, Catherine; Simon, David; Newsom, Cassandra; Houchins-Juarez, Nea; Jenson, Ashley; Wang, Lily; Song, Yanna

    2014-02-01

    Social Emotional NeuroScience Endocrinology Theatre is a novel intervention program aimed at improving reciprocal social interaction in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using behavioral strategies and theatrical techniques in a peer-mediated model. Previous research using a 3-month model showed improvement in face perception, social interaction, and reductions in stress. The current study assessed a 2-week summer camp model. Typically developing peers were trained and paired with ASD youth (8-17 years). Social perception and interaction skills were measured before and after treatment using neuropsychological and parental measures. Behavioral coding by reliable, independent raters was conducted within the treatment context (theatre) and outside the setting (playground). Salivary cortisol levels to assess physiological arousal were measured across contexts (home, theatre, and playground). A pretest-posttest design for within-group comparisons was used, and prespecified pairwise comparisons were achieved using a nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Significant differences were observed in face processing, social awareness, and social cognition (P < 0.05). Duration of interaction with familiar peers increased significantly over the course of treatment (P < 0.05), while engagement with novel peers outside the treatment setting remained stable. Cortisol levels rose on the first day of camp compared with home values yet declined by the end of treatment and further reduced during posttreatment play with peers. Results corroborate previous findings that the peer-mediated theatre program contributes to improvement in core social deficits in ASD using a short-term, summer camp treatment model. Future studies will explore treatment length and peer familiarity to optimize and generalize gains. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Age-related pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Slovenia in children and adolescents: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhec, M; Locatelli, I

    2017-05-01

    There are no data on age-related pharmacotherapy for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) medication in children and adolescents in the most European countries. The main aim of this paper was to obtain that data for children and adolescents in Slovenia. The number of ADHD drug prescriptions per patient was obtained from the health claims data on prescription drugs of the Health Insurance Institute of Slovenia for the study period (2003-2015). Three age groups were analyzed: 2-5 years, 6-12 years, and 13-17 years. Only immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH), methylphenidate-osmotic release oral delivery system (OROS-MPH), and atomoxetine (ATX) were available and included in this study. Less than 50% of patients in Slovenia were treated with medication. The number of patients treated with MPH in the 6-12 age group remained approximately the same between 2007 and 2015 (604-729 patients). In the 13-17 age group, however that number increased 2-fold between 2003 and 2015, from 288 to 555. The number of patients treated with ATX in the 6-12 age group age group increased from 20 to 163 between 2007 and 2015. The number was similar in the 13-17 age group, increasing from 10 to 165 in the same period. In 2015, 21% of the patients from all age groups in this study were treated with ATX. The number of patients treated for ADHD increased rapidly in all age groups. Patients under the age of six are prescribed medication in Slovenia, which should be avoided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Classification between normal and tumor tissues based on the pair-wise gene expression ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, YeeLeng; Zhang, XueWu; Ling, MT; Wang, XiangHong; Wong, YC; Danchin, Antoine

    2004-01-01

    Precise classification of cancer types is critically important for early cancer diagnosis and treatment. Numerous efforts have been made to use gene expression profiles to improve precision of tumor classification. However, reliable cancer-related signals are generally lacking. Using recent datasets on colon and prostate cancer, a data transformation procedure from single gene expression to pair-wise gene expression ratio is proposed. Making use of the internal consistency of each expression profiling dataset this transformation improves the signal to noise ratio of the dataset and uncovers new relevant cancer-related signals (features). The efficiency in using the transformed dataset to perform normal/tumor classification was investigated using feature partitioning with informative features (gene annotation) as discriminating axes (single gene expression or pair-wise gene expression ratio). Classification results were compared to the original datasets for up to 10-feature model classifiers. 82 and 262 genes that have high correlation to tissue phenotype were selected from the colon and prostate datasets respectively. Remarkably, data transformation of the highly noisy expression data successfully led to lower the coefficient of variation (CV) for the within-class samples as well as improved the correlation with tissue phenotypes. The transformed dataset exhibited lower CV when compared to that of single gene expression. In the colon cancer set, the minimum CV decreased from 45.3% to 16.5%. In prostate cancer, comparable CV was achieved with and without transformation. This improvement in CV, coupled with the improved correlation between the pair-wise gene expression ratio and tissue phenotypes, yielded higher classification efficiency, especially with the colon dataset – from 87.1% to 93.5%. Over 90% of the top ten discriminating axes in both datasets showed significant improvement after data transformation. The high classification efficiency achieved suggested

  7. Grey matter volume differences associated with gender in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Villemonteix

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Female participants have been underrepresented in previous structural magnetic resonance imaging reports on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. In this study, we used optimized voxel-based morphometry to examine grey matter volumes in a sample of 33 never-medicated children with combined-type ADHD and 27 typically developing (TD children. We found a gender-by-diagnosis interaction effect in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, whereby boys with ADHD exhibited reduced volumes compared with TD boys, while girls with ADHD showed increased volumes when compared with TD girls. Considering the key role played by the ventral ACC in emotional regulation, we discuss the potential contribution of these alterations to gender-specific symptoms’ profiles in ADHD.

  8. Grey matter volume differences associated with gender in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemonteix, Thomas; De Brito, Stéphane A; Slama, Hichem; Kavec, Martin; Balériaux, Danielle; Metens, Thierry; Baijot, Simon; Mary, Alison; Peigneux, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    Female participants have been underrepresented in previous structural magnetic resonance imaging reports on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we used optimized voxel-based morphometry to examine grey matter volumes in a sample of 33 never-medicated children with combined-type ADHD and 27 typically developing (TD) children. We found a gender-by-diagnosis interaction effect in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), whereby boys with ADHD exhibited reduced volumes compared with TD boys, while girls with ADHD showed increased volumes when compared with TD girls. Considering the key role played by the ventral ACC in emotional regulation, we discuss the potential contribution of these alterations to gender-specific symptoms' profiles in ADHD. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Base excision repair activities differ in human lung cancer cells and corresponding normal controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahalil, Bensu; Bohr, Vilhelm A; De Souza-Pinto, Nadja C

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative damage to DNA is thought to play a role in carcinogenesis by causing mutations, and indeed accumulation of oxidized DNA bases has been observed in samples obtained from tumors but not from surrounding tissue within the same patient. Base excision repair (BER) is the main pathway...... for the repair of oxidized modifications both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. In order to ascertain whether diminished BER capacity might account for increased levels of oxidative DNA damage in cancer cells, the activities of BER enzymes in three different lung cancer cell lines and their non......-cancerous counterparts were measured using oligonucleotide substrates with single DNA lesions to assess specific BER enzymes. The activities of four BER enzymes, OGG1, NTH1, UDG and APE1, were compared in mitochondrial and nuclear extracts. For each specific lesion, the repair activities were similar among the three...

  10. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  11. Benefits of game-based leisure activities in normal aging and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narme, Pauline

    2016-12-01

    Given the increasing prevalence of dementia and the limited efficacy of pharmacological treatments, it is crucial to improve the knowledge of the factors that might delay the onset of dementia for developing non-pharmacological interventions. Recent studies have provided evidence that game-based interventions, especially the practice of video games, could improve the cognitive functioning (e.g. executive functions) in older adults and in demented patients. The positive effects of these games have also been demonstrated on physical health (e.g. improvement of balance and gait). Video gamed-based interventions may also alleviate mood or behavioral disorders, and increase interactions with friends, family, caregivers or other patients. The positive impact of games on these domains (cognitive and physical decline, social isolation) suggests that game-based interventions might contribute to delay the onset of dementia. Thus, playing games might be considered as a protective factor in dementia and even more as a potential non-pharmacological strategy in dementia rather than leisure activity.

  12. Attention-based classification pattern, a research domain criteria framework, in youths with bipolar disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Ana; Caetano, Sheila Cavalcante; Brentani, Helena; Rocca, Cristiana Castanho de Almeida; dos Santos, Bernardo; Andrade, Enio Roberto; Zeni, Cristian Patrick; Tramontina, Silzá; Rohde, Luis Augusto Paim; Lafer, Beny

    2015-03-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health has initiated the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project. Instead of using disorder categories as the basis for grouping individuals, the RDoC suggests finding relevant dimensions that can cut across traditional disorders. Our aim was to use the RDoC's framework to study patterns of attention deficit based on results of Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT II) in youths diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), BD+ADHD and controls. Eighteen healthy controls, 23 patients with ADHD, 10 with BD and 33 BD+ADHD aged 12-17 years old were assessed. Pattern recognition was used to partition subjects into clusters based simultaneously on their performance in all CPT II variables. A Fisher's linear discriminant analysis was used to build a classifier. Using cluster analysis, the entire sample set was best clustered into two new groups, A and B, independently of the original diagnoses. ADHD and BD+ADHD were divided almost 50% in each subgroup, and there was an agglomeration of controls and BD in group B. Group A presented a greater impairment with higher means in all CPT II variables and lower Children's Global Assessment Scale. We found a high cross-validated classification accuracy for groups A and B: 95.2%. Variability of response time was the strongest CPT II measure in the discriminative pattern between groups A and B. Our classificatory exercise supports the concept behind new approaches, such as the RDoC framework, for child and adolescent psychiatry. Our approach was able to define clinical subgroups that could be used in future pathophysiological and treatment studies. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  13. Improved normal tissue sparing in head and neck radiotherapy using biological cost function based-IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N; Lawford, C; Khoo, V; Rolfo, M; Joon, D L; Wada, M

    2011-12-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has reduced the impact of acute and late toxicities associated with head and neck radiotherapy. Treatment planning system (TPS) advances in biological cost function based optimization (BBO) and improved segmentation techniques have increased organ at risk (OAR) sparing compared to conventional dose-based optimization (DBO). A planning study was undertaken to compare OAR avoidance in DBO and BBO treatment planning. Simultaneous integrated boost treatment plans were produced for 10 head and neck patients using both planning systems. Plans were compared for tar get coverage and OAR avoidance. Comparisons were made using the BBO TPS Monte Carlo dose engine to eliminate differences due to inherent algorithms. Target coverage (V95%) was maintained for both solutions. BBO produced lower OAR doses, with statistically significant improvement to left (12.3%, p = 0.005) and right parotid mean dose (16.9%, p = 0.004), larynx V50_Gy (71.0%, p = 0.005), spinal cord (21.9%, p < 0.001) and brain stem dose maximums (31.5%, p = 0.002). This study observed improved OAR avoidance with BBO planning. Further investigations will be undertaken to review any clinical benefit of this improved planned dosimetry.

  14. Normal and Pathological NCAT Image and Phantom Data Based on Physiologically Realistic Left Ventricle Finite-Element Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veress, Alexander I.; Segars, W. Paul; Weiss, Jeffrey A.; Tsui, Benjamin M.W.; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2006-01-01

    The 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) phantom, which provides a realistic model of the normal human anatomy and cardiac and respiratory motions, is used in medical imaging research to evaluate and improve imaging devices and techniques, especially dynamic cardiac applications. One limitation of the phantom is that it lacks the ability to accurately simulate altered functions of the heart that result from cardiac pathologies such as coronary artery disease (CAD). The goal of this work was to enhance the 4D NCAT phantom by incorporating a physiologically based, finite-element (FE) mechanical model of the left ventricle (LV) to simulate both normal and abnormal cardiac motions. The geometry of the FE mechanical model was based on gated high-resolution x-ray multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) data of a healthy male subject. The myocardial wall was represented as transversely isotropichyperelastic material, with the fiber angle varying from -90 degrees at the epicardial surface, through 0 degrees at the mid-wall, to 90 degrees at the endocardial surface. A time varying elastance model was used to simulate fiber contraction, and physiological intraventricular systolic pressure-time curves were applied to simulate the cardiac motion over the entire cardiac cycle. To demonstrate the ability of the FE mechanical model to accurately simulate the normal cardiac motion as well abnormal motions indicative of CAD, a normal case and two pathologic cases were simulated and analyzed. In the first pathologic model, a subendocardial anterior ischemic region was defined. A second model was created with a transmural ischemic region defined in the same location. The FE based deformations were incorporated into the 4D NCAT cardiac model through the control points that define the cardiac structures in the phantom which were set to move according to the predictions of the mechanical model. A simulation study was performed using the FE-NCAT combination to investigate how the

  15. Elastic moduli of normal and pathological human breast tissues: an inversion-technique-based investigation of 169 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samani, Abbas; Zubovits, Judit; Plewes, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Understanding and quantifying the mechanical properties of breast tissues has been a subject of interest for the past two decades. This has been motivated in part by interest in modelling soft tissue response for surgery planning and virtual-reality-based surgical training. Interpreting elastography images for diagnostic purposes also requires a sound understanding of normal and pathological tissue mechanical properties. Reliable data on tissue elastic properties are very limited and those which are available tend to be inconsistent, in part as a result of measurement methodology. We have developed specialized techniques to measure tissue elasticity of breast normal tissues and tumour specimens and applied them to 169 fresh ex vivo breast tissue samples including fat and fibroglandular tissue as well as a range of benign and malignant breast tumour types. Results show that, under small deformation conditions, the elastic modulus of normal breast fat and fibroglandular tissues are similar while fibroadenomas were approximately twice the stiffness. Fibrocystic disease and malignant tumours exhibited a 3-6-fold increased stiffness with high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma exhibiting up to a 13-fold increase in stiffness compared to fibrogalndular tissue. A statistical analysis showed that differences between the elastic modulus of the majority of those tissues were statistically significant. Implications for the specificity advantages of elastography are reviewed

  16. Elastic moduli of normal and pathological human breast tissues: an inversion-technique-based investigation of 169 samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samani, Abbas [Department of Medical Biophysics/Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, Medical Sciences Building, London, Ontario, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Zubovits, Judit [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada); Plewes, Donald [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2007-03-21

    Understanding and quantifying the mechanical properties of breast tissues has been a subject of interest for the past two decades. This has been motivated in part by interest in modelling soft tissue response for surgery planning and virtual-reality-based surgical training. Interpreting elastography images for diagnostic purposes also requires a sound understanding of normal and pathological tissue mechanical properties. Reliable data on tissue elastic properties are very limited and those which are available tend to be inconsistent, in part as a result of measurement methodology. We have developed specialized techniques to measure tissue elasticity of breast normal tissues and tumour specimens and applied them to 169 fresh ex vivo breast tissue samples including fat and fibroglandular tissue as well as a range of benign and malignant breast tumour types. Results show that, under small deformation conditions, the elastic modulus of normal breast fat and fibroglandular tissues are similar while fibroadenomas were approximately twice the stiffness. Fibrocystic disease and malignant tumours exhibited a 3-6-fold increased stiffness with high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma exhibiting up to a 13-fold increase in stiffness compared to fibrogalndular tissue. A statistical analysis showed that differences between the elastic modulus of the majority of those tissues were statistically significant. Implications for the specificity advantages of elastography are reviewed.

  17. Elastic moduli of normal and pathological human breast tissues: an inversion-technique-based investigation of 169 samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Abbas; Zubovits, Judit; Plewes, Donald

    2007-03-01

    Understanding and quantifying the mechanical properties of breast tissues has been a subject of interest for the past two decades. This has been motivated in part by interest in modelling soft tissue response for surgery planning and virtual-reality-based surgical training. Interpreting elastography images for diagnostic purposes also requires a sound understanding of normal and pathological tissue mechanical properties. Reliable data on tissue elastic properties are very limited and those which are available tend to be inconsistent, in part as a result of measurement methodology. We have developed specialized techniques to measure tissue elasticity of breast normal tissues and tumour specimens and applied them to 169 fresh ex vivo breast tissue samples including fat and fibroglandular tissue as well as a range of benign and malignant breast tumour types. Results show that, under small deformation conditions, the elastic modulus of normal breast fat and fibroglandular tissues are similar while fibroadenomas were approximately twice the stiffness. Fibrocystic disease and malignant tumours exhibited a 3-6-fold increased stiffness with high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma exhibiting up to a 13-fold increase in stiffness compared to fibrogalndular tissue. A statistical analysis showed that differences between the elastic modulus of the majority of those tissues were statistically significant. Implications for the specificity advantages of elastography are reviewed.

  18. Age and gender effects on normal regional cerebral blood flow studied using two different voxel-based statistical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirson, A.S.; George, J.; Krug, B.; Vander Borght, T.; Van Laere, K.; Jamart, J.; D'Asseler, Y.; Minoshima, S.

    2009-01-01

    Fully automated analysis programs have been applied more and more to aid for the reading of regional cerebral blood flow SPECT study. They are increasingly based on the comparison of the patient study with a normal database. In this study, we evaluate the ability of Three-Dimensional Stereotactic Surface Projection (3 D-S.S.P.) to isolate effects of age and gender in a previously studied normal population. The results were also compared with those obtained using Statistical Parametric Mapping (S.P.M.99). Methods Eighty-nine 99m Tc-E.C.D.-SPECT studies performed in carefully screened healthy volunteers (46 females, 43 males; age 20 - 81 years) were analysed using 3 D-S.S.P.. A multivariate analysis based on the general linear model was performed with regions as intra-subject factor, gender as inter-subject factor and age as co-variate. Results Both age and gender had a significant interaction effect with regional tracer uptake. An age-related decline (p < 0.001) was found in the anterior cingulate gyrus, left frontal association cortex and left insula. Bilateral occipital association and left primary visual cortical uptake showed a significant relative increase with age (p < 0.001). Concerning the gender effect, women showed higher uptake (p < 0.01) in the parietal and right sensorimotor cortices. An age by gender interaction (p < 0.01) was only found in the left medial frontal cortex. The results were consistent with those obtained with S.P.M.99. Conclusion 3 D-S.S.P. analysis of normal r.C.B.F. variability is consistent with the literature and other automated voxel-based techniques, which highlight the effects of both age and gender. (authors)

  19. Multistep Cylindrical Structure Analysis at Normal Incidence Based on Water-Substrate Broadband Metamaterial Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chonghua

    2018-01-01

    A new multistep cylindrical structure based on water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers is designed to reduce the traditional radar cross-section (RCS) of a rod-shaped object. The proposed configuration consists of two distinct parts. One of these components is formed by a four-step cylindrical metal structure, whereas the other one is formed by a new water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorber. The designed structure can significantly reduce the radar cross section more than 10 dB from 4.58 to 18.42 GHz which is the 86.5 % bandwidth of from C-band to 20 GHz. The results of measurement show reasonably good accordance with the simulated ones, which verifies the ability and effect of the proposed design.

  20. ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    People who suffer from ADHD are far more likely than normal to drop out of school (32 ... secondary to learning disabilities, partial sensory deficits or even low cognitive ... bad days (Fig. 3), which can lead to frustration for teachers, parents and the child, as there is always the feeling that ... boys who often present very young.

  1. Magnesium supplementation in children with attention deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with associated mineral deficiency. Aim: To assess magnesium level in ADHD children and compare it to the normal levels in children. Then, to detect the effect of magnesium supplementation as an add on therapy, ...

  2. Method for the determination of the equation of state of advanced fuels based on the properties of normal fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.J.; Catton, I.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1976-12-01

    An equation of state based on the properties of normal fluids, the law of rectilinear averages, and the second law of thermodynamics can be derived for advanced LMFBR fuels on the basis of the vapor pressure, enthalpy of vaporization, change in heat capacity upon vaporization, and liquid density at the melting point. The method consists of estimating an equation of state by means of the law of rectilinear averages and the second law of thermodynamics, integrating by means of the second law until an instability is reached, and then extrapolating by means of a self-consistent estimation of the enthalpy of vaporization

  3. Normal and Pathological NCAT Image and PhantomData Based onPhysiologically Realistic Left Ventricle Finite-Element Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veress, Alexander I.; Segars, W. Paul; Weiss, Jeffrey A.; Tsui,Benjamin M.W.; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2006-08-02

    The 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) phantom, whichprovides a realistic model of the normal human anatomy and cardiac andrespiratory motions, is used in medical imaging research to evaluate andimprove imaging devices and techniques, especially dynamic cardiacapplications. One limitation of the phantom is that it lacks the abilityto accurately simulate altered functions of the heart that result fromcardiac pathologies such as coronary artery disease (CAD). The goal ofthis work was to enhance the 4D NCAT phantom by incorporating aphysiologically based, finite-element (FE) mechanical model of the leftventricle (LV) to simulate both normal and abnormal cardiac motions. Thegeometry of the FE mechanical model was based on gated high-resolutionx-ray multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) data of a healthy malesubject. The myocardial wall was represented as transversely isotropichyperelastic material, with the fiber angle varying from -90 degrees atthe epicardial surface, through 0 degreesat the mid-wall, to 90 degreesat the endocardial surface. A time varying elastance model was used tosimulate fiber contraction, and physiological intraventricular systolicpressure-time curves were applied to simulate the cardiac motion over theentire cardiac cycle. To demonstrate the ability of the FE mechanicalmodel to accurately simulate the normal cardiac motion as well abnormalmotions indicative of CAD, a normal case and two pathologic cases weresimulated and analyzed. In the first pathologic model, a subendocardialanterior ischemic region was defined. A second model was created with atransmural ischemic region defined in the same location. The FE baseddeformations were incorporated into the 4D NCAT cardiac model through thecontrol points that define the cardiac structures in the phantom whichwere set to move according to the predictions of the mechanical model. Asimulation study was performed using the FE-NCAT combination toinvestigate how the differences in contractile function

  4. Normalization in Unsupervised Segmentation Parameter Optimization: A Solution Based on Local Regression Trend Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Georganos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In object-based image analysis (OBIA, the appropriate parametrization of segmentation algorithms is crucial for obtaining satisfactory image classification results. One of the ways this can be done is by unsupervised segmentation parameter optimization (USPO. A popular USPO method does this through the optimization of a “global score” (GS, which minimizes intrasegment heterogeneity and maximizes intersegment heterogeneity. However, the calculated GS values are sensitive to the minimum and maximum ranges of the candidate segmentations. Previous research proposed the use of fixed minimum/maximum threshold values for the intrasegment/intersegment heterogeneity measures to deal with the sensitivity of user-defined ranges, but the performance of this approach has not been investigated in detail. In the context of a remote sensing very-high-resolution urban application, we show the limitations of the fixed threshold approach, both in a theoretical and applied manner, and instead propose a novel solution to identify the range of candidate segmentations using local regression trend analysis. We found that the proposed approach showed significant improvements over the use of fixed minimum/maximum values, is less subjective than user-defined threshold values and, thus, can be of merit for a fully automated procedure and big data applications.

  5. An efficient approach for differentiating Alzheimer's disease from normal elderly based on multicenter MRI using gray-level invariant features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muwei Li

    Full Text Available Machine learning techniques, along with imaging markers extracted from structural magnetic resonance images, have been shown to increase the accuracy to differentiate patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD from normal elderly controls. Several forms of anatomical features, such as cortical volume, shape, and thickness, have demonstrated discriminative capability. These approaches rely on accurate non-linear image transformation, which could invite several nuisance factors, such as dependency on transformation parameters and the degree of anatomical abnormality, and an unpredictable influence of residual registration errors. In this study, we tested a simple method to extract disease-related anatomical features, which is suitable for initial stratification of the heterogeneous patient populations often encountered in clinical data. The method employed gray-level invariant features, which were extracted from linearly transformed images, to characterize AD-specific anatomical features. The intensity information from a disease-specific spatial masking, which was linearly registered to each patient, was used to capture the anatomical features. We implemented a two-step feature selection for anatomic recognition. First, a statistic-based feature selection was implemented to extract AD-related anatomical features while excluding non-significant features. Then, seven knowledge-based ROIs were used to capture the local discriminative powers of selected voxels within areas that were sensitive to AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The discriminative capability of the proposed feature was measured by its performance in differentiating AD or MCI from normal elderly controls (NC using a support vector machine. The statistic-based feature selection, together with the knowledge-based masks, provided a promising solution for capturing anatomical features of the brain efficiently. For the analysis of clinical populations, which are inherently heterogeneous

  6. Registration-based assessment of regional lung function via volumetric CT images of normal subjects vs. severe asthmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sanghun; Hoffman, Eric A.; Wenzel, Sally E.; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Yin, Youbing; Castro, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the use of image registration-derived variables associated with computed tomographic (CT) imaging of the lung acquired at multiple volumes. As an evaluation of the utility of such an imaging approach, we explored two groups at the extremes of population ranging from normal subjects to severe asthmatics. A mass-preserving image registration technique was employed to match CT images at total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC) for assessment of regional air volume change and lung deformation between the two states. Fourteen normal subjects and thirty severe asthmatics were analyzed via image registration-derived metrics together with their pulmonary function test (PFT) and CT-based air-trapping. Relative to the normal group, the severely asthmatic group demonstrated reduced air volume change (consistent with air trapping) and more isotropic deformation in the basal lung regions while demonstrating increased air volume change associated with increased anisotropic deformation in the apical lung regions. These differences were found despite the fact that both PFT-derived TLC and FRC in the two groups were nearly 100% of predicted values. Data suggest that reduced basal-lung air volume change in severe asthmatics was compensated by increased apical-lung air volume change and that relative increase in apical-lung air volume change in severe asthmatics was accompanied by enhanced anisotropic deformation. These data suggest that CT-based deformation, assessed via inspiration vs. expiration scans, provides a tool for distinguishing differences in lung mechanics when applied to the extreme ends of a population range. PMID:23743399

  7. Story Comprehension and Academic Deficits in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: What Is the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthiaume, Kristen S.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the reliable findings that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have both attentional and academic difficulties, it is assumed that the attentional deficit contributes to the academic problems. In this article, existing support for a link between the attentional and academic difficulties experienced by children…

  8. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  9. NIRS-based neurofeedback training in a virtual reality classroom for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Friederike; Hudak, Justin; Dresler, Thomas; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Kühnhausen, Jan; Renner, Tobias J; Gawrilow, Caterina

    2017-01-24

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from attention deficits, motor hyperactivity, and impulsive behaviour. These impairments are experienced at home, at school, and with friends. Functional imaging studies show that ADHD behaviour and impairments in executive functions (EFs) are mirrored by aberrant neurophysiological functioning. Moreover, several studies show that ADHD behaviour, impairments in EFs, and a lack of self-control contribute to poor school performance. Non-pharmacological interventions such as neurofeedback training (NFT), for instance, aim at improving neurophysiological and neuropsychological functioning as well as behaviour. Consequently, NFT is expected to improve school performance, EFs, and self-control in children with ADHD. Generalization of acquired self-regulation skills from laboratory to real life is crucial for a transfer to everyday situations and is hypothesized to be facilitated via training using virtual reality (VR) environments. Consequently, experiencing NFT in VR is expected to yield greater effects than training in two dimensions (2D). Ninety children with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD will be included in the study. Participants may be medicated or unmedicated. After random assignation to one of three conditions, all participants receive 15 training sessions of either near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-based NFT in VR, NIRS-based NFT in 2D, or electromyogram-based biofeedback training in VR. ADHD symptoms, self-control, EF, health-related quality of life, school performance, and motor activity measured via parent, teacher, and child reports or objectively will be assessed before and after the intervention and at a 6 months follow-up. Furthermore, we are interested in parents' expectations about the training's effects. This is, to our knowledge, the first study investigating the efficacy of NFT for children with ADHD in a VR compared to a 2D environment. Furthermore, this study will contribute to

  10. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, D C

    1990-09-01

    The attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common chronic disorder of childhood. No precise definition or approach to treatment is universally accepted; however, an extensive literature exists on which to base a rational approach to management. Symptomatic treatment with stimulant medication in selected patients is effective and safe, but not curative. Successful outcome depends on multimodality therapy, involving parents, teachers, and other professionals. Associated conditions, including learning disorders and emotional disturbance, must be identified and dealt with.

  11. Knowledge deficit, attitude and behavior scales association to objective measures of sun exposure and sunburn in a Danish population based sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Brian; Søndergaard, Jens; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2017-01-01

    and important were positively correlated with protective behavior. Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma, perceived benefits and importance of protection behavior was also correlated with use of protection. 'Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma and Perceived barrier towards sun avoidance between...... 12 and 15' were both associated with increased risk of sunburn. Attitude towards tan was associated to both outdoor time and exposure as well as use of protection, but not to sunburn. The results regarding Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma associated to UVR exposure and Perceived barrier...

  12. A quantitative index of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid distribution in normal pressure hydrocephalus using an MRI-based processing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, A; Mitsuoka, H; Sato, K; Kanayama, S

    2000-06-01

    Our purpose was to quantify the intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume components using an original MRI-based segmentation technique and to investigate whether a CSF volume index is useful for diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). We studied 59 subjects: 16 patients with NPH, 14 young and 13 elderly normal volunteers, and 16 patients with cerebrovascular disease. Images were acquired on a 1.5-T system, using a 3D-fast asymmetrical spin-echo (FASE) method. A region-growing method (RGM) was used to extract the CSF spaces from the FASE images. Ventricular volume (VV) and intracranial CSF volume (ICV) were measured, and a VV/ICV ratio was calculated. Mean VV and VV/ICV ratio were higher in the NPH group than in the other groups, and the differences were statistically significant, whereas the mean ICV value in the NPH group was not significantly increased. Of the 16 patients in the NPH group, 13 had VV/ICV ratios above 30%. In contrast, no subject in the other groups had a VV/ICV ratios higher than 30%. We conclude that these CSF volume parameters, especially the VV/ICV ratio, are useful for the diagnosis of NPH.

  13. A quantitative index of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid distribution in normal pressure hydrocephalus using an MRI-based processing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, A.; Mitsuoka, H.; Sato, K.; Kanayama, S.

    2000-01-01

    Our purpose was to quantify the intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume components using an original MRI-based segmentation technique and to investigate whether a CSF volume index is useful for diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). We studied 59 subjects: 16 patients with NPH, 14 young and 13 elderly normal volunteers, and 16 patients with cerebrovascular disease. Images were acquired on a 1.5-T system, using a 3D-fast asymmetrical spin- echo (FASE) method. A region-growing method (RGM) was used to extract the CSF spaces from the FASE images. Ventricular volume (VV) and intracranial CSF volume (ICV) were measured, and a VV/ICV ratio was calculated. Mean VV and VV/ICV ratio were higher in the NPH group than in the other groups, and the differences were statistically significant, whereas the mean ICV value in the NPH group was not significantly increased. Of the 16 patients in the NPH group, 13 had VV/ICV ratios above 30%. In contrast, no subject in the other groups had a VV/ICV ratios higher than 30%. We conclude that these CSF volume parameters, especially the VV/ICV ratio, are useful for the diagnosis of NPH. (orig.)

  14. A quantitative index of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid distribution in normal pressure hydrocephalus using an MRI-based processing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Koshigaya Municipal Hospital, 10-47-1 Higashikoshigaya, Koshigaya City, Saitama 343-0023 (Japan); Mitsuoka, H.; Sato, K. [Department of Neurosurgery, Juntendo University (Japan); Kanayama, S. [Research and Development Centre, Toshiba Corporation (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    Our purpose was to quantify the intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume components using an original MRI-based segmentation technique and to investigate whether a CSF volume index is useful for diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). We studied 59 subjects: 16 patients with NPH, 14 young and 13 elderly normal volunteers, and 16 patients with cerebrovascular disease. Images were acquired on a 1.5-T system, using a 3D-fast asymmetrical spin- echo (FASE) method. A region-growing method (RGM) was used to extract the CSF spaces from the FASE images. Ventricular volume (VV) and intracranial CSF volume (ICV) were measured, and a VV/ICV ratio was calculated. Mean VV and VV/ICV ratio were higher in the NPH group than in the other groups, and the differences were statistically significant, whereas the mean ICV value in the NPH group was not significantly increased. Of the 16 patients in the NPH group, 13 had VV/ICV ratios above 30%. In contrast, no subject in the other groups had a VV/ICV ratios higher than 30%. We conclude that these CSF volume parameters, especially the VV/ICV ratio, are useful for the diagnosis of NPH. (orig.)

  15. Kalman/Map Filtering-Aided Fast Normalized Cross Correlation-Based Wi-Fi Fingerprinting Location Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Sun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A Kalman/map filtering (KMF-aided fast normalized cross correlation (FNCC-based Wi-Fi fingerprinting location sensing system is proposed in this paper. Compared with conventional neighbor selection algorithms that calculate localization results with received signal strength (RSS mean samples, the proposed FNCC algorithm makes use of all the on-line RSS samples and reference point RSS variations to achieve higher fingerprinting accuracy. The FNCC computes efficiently while maintaining the same accuracy as the basic normalized cross correlation. Additionally, a KMF is also proposed to process fingerprinting localization results. It employs a new map matching algorithm to nonlinearize the linear location prediction process of Kalman filtering (KF that takes advantage of spatial proximities of consecutive localization results. With a calibration model integrated into an indoor map, the map matching algorithm corrects unreasonable prediction locations of the KF according to the building interior structure. Thus, more accurate prediction locations are obtained. Using these locations, the KMF considerably improves fingerprinting algorithm performance. Experimental results demonstrate that the FNCC algorithm with reduced computational complexity outperforms other neighbor selection algorithms and the KMF effectively improves location sensing accuracy by using indoor map information and spatial proximities of consecutive localization results.

  16. Kalman/Map filtering-aided fast normalized cross correlation-based Wi-Fi fingerprinting location sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongliang; Xu, Yubin; Li, Cheng; Ma, Lin

    2013-11-13

    A Kalman/map filtering (KMF)-aided fast normalized cross correlation (FNCC)-based Wi-Fi fingerprinting location sensing system is proposed in this paper. Compared with conventional neighbor selection algorithms that calculate localization results with received signal strength (RSS) mean samples, the proposed FNCC algorithm makes use of all the on-line RSS samples and reference point RSS variations to achieve higher fingerprinting accuracy. The FNCC computes efficiently while maintaining the same accuracy as the basic normalized cross correlation. Additionally, a KMF is also proposed to process fingerprinting localization results. It employs a new map matching algorithm to nonlinearize the linear location prediction process of Kalman filtering (KF) that takes advantage of spatial proximities of consecutive localization results. With a calibration model integrated into an indoor map, the map matching algorithm corrects unreasonable prediction locations of the KF according to the building interior structure. Thus, more accurate prediction locations are obtained. Using these locations, the KMF considerably improves fingerprinting algorithm performance. Experimental results demonstrate that the FNCC algorithm with reduced computational complexity outperforms other neighbor selection algorithms and the KMF effectively improves location sensing accuracy by using indoor map information and spatial proximities of consecutive localization results.

  17. Neurocognitive Profile of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD: A comparison between subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Ahmadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the differences between ADHD subtypes in executive function tasks compared to themselves and normal controls.In this study, 45 school aged children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and 30 normal children who were matched based on age and IQ score in Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R were compared in terms of executive function. We used Wisconsin Sorting Card Test to assess executive function in both groups. We also used children's scores in Children Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4 for diagnosing ADHD and specifying ADHD subtypes. Data were entered in SPSS-17 and analyzed by T-test and ANOVA static tests to clarify the differences between ADHD and controls and between ADHD subtypes. Scheffe's test was also used to identify which groups were different from one another. The mean and standard divisions (SD were used for descriptive analysis.ADHD subtypes are significantly different in terms of perseverative responses (p≤ 0/01 and perseverative errors (p≤ 0/001. Based on Scheffe's test, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders-Hyperactive type (ADHD-H is not that different from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders-Inattention type (ADHD-I and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders-Combined type (ADHD-C, but there are significant responses and perseverative differences between ADHD-I and ADHD-C in terms of perseverative errors. ADHD-C shows more perseverative responses and perseverative errors than ADHD-I.The findings of this study revealed that executive function patterns are different in children with ADHD compared to normal children. In this study it was also found that ADHD subtypes are also different in terms of perseveration and response inhibition domains; ADHD-C has more deficits in these domains.

  18. Generation of benchmark DVH's for normal tissues in IMRT for base of tongue and tonsil cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.S.; Arun Singh, O.; Goswami, P.; Bhardwaj, A.; Santam; Susmita, Goshal; Sharma, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    IMRT is the treatment of choice for treatment of prostate and H and N cancer treatment but it take quality of time to generate an optimal treatment plan and Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) varies significantly from one plan to other patient plan which is difficult to compare. Here the authors propose to generate bench mark DVH's for normal tissues for Base of tongue (BOT) and Tonsil cancer treatment to bring consistency in selection of plans and reduce the overall time of planning and comparison b/n different plan will be simpler and easier. Here the authors propose to generate benchmark DVH for spinal cord, larynx, pharynx, parotid and brain stem for BOT and tonsil patients treated with Intensity modulated radiotherapy in Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research. And to see whether Benchmark DVH can be effectively used in IMRT for BOT and Ca Tonsil

  19. Analysis of rabbit intervertebral disc physiology based on water metabolism. II. Changes in normal intervertebral discs under axial vibratory load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, N.; Tsuji, H.; Ohshima, H.; Kitano, S.; Itoh, T.; Sano, A.

    1988-01-01

    Metabolic changes induced by axial vibratory load to the spine were investigated based on water metabolism in normal intervertebral discs of rabbits with or without pentobarbital anesthesia. Tritiated water concentration in the intervertebral discs of unanesthetized rabbits was reduced remarkably by axial vibration for 30 minutes using the vibration machine developed for this study. Repeated vibratory load for 18 and 42 hours duration showed the recovery of 3 H 2 O concentration of the intervertebral disc without anesthesia. Computer simulation suggested a reduction of blood flow surrounding the intervertebral disc following the vibration stress. However, no reduction of the 3 H 2 O concentration in the intervertebral disc was noted under anesthesia. Emotional stress cannot be excluded as a factor in water metabolism in the intervertebral disc

  20. NIRS-based neurofeedback training in a virtual reality classroom for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Blume, Friederike; Hudak, Justin; Dresler, Thomas; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; K?hnhausen, Jan; Renner, Tobias J.; Gawrilow, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    Background Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from attention deficits, motor hyperactivity, and impulsive behaviour. These impairments are experienced at home, at school, and with friends. Functional imaging studies show that ADHD behaviour and impairments in executive functions (EFs) are mirrored by aberrant neurophysiological functioning. Moreover, several studies show that ADHD behaviour, impairments in EFs, and a lack of self-control contribute to poor sc...

  1. Influences of Normalization Method on Biomarker Discovery in Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Untargeted Metabolomics: What Should Be Considered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaqing; Zhang, Pei; Lv, Mengying; Guo, Huimin; Huang, Yin; Zhang, Zunjian; Xu, Fengguo

    2017-05-16

    Data reduction techniques in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics has made the following workflow of data analysis more lucid. However, the normalization process still perplexes researchers, and its effects are always ignored. In order to reveal the influences of normalization method, five representative normalization methods (mass spectrometry total useful signal, median, probabilistic quotient normalization, remove unwanted variation-random, and systematic ratio normalization) were compared in three real data sets with different types. First, data reduction techniques were used to refine the original data. Then, quality control samples and relative log abundance plots were utilized to evaluate the unwanted variations and the efficiencies of normalization process. Furthermore, the potential biomarkers which were screened out by the Mann-Whitney U test, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, random forest, and feature selection algorithm Boruta in different normalized data sets were compared. The results indicated the determination of the normalization method was difficult because the commonly accepted rules were easy to fulfill but different normalization methods had unforeseen influences on both the kind and number of potential biomarkers. Lastly, an integrated strategy for normalization method selection was recommended.

  2. [Barriers to the normalization of telemedicine in a healthcare system model based on purchasing of healthcare services using providers' contracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Francesc; Saigí, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Despite the clear political will to promote telemedicine and the large number of initiatives, the incorporation of this modality in clinical practice remains limited. The objective of this study was to identify the barriers perceived by key professionals who actively participate in the design and implementation of telemedicine in a healthcare system model based on purchasing of healthcare services using providers' contracts. We performed a qualitative study based on data from semi-structured interviews with 17 key informants belonging to distinct Catalan health organizations. The barriers identified were grouped in four areas: technological, organizational, human and economic. The main barriers identified were changes in the healthcare model caused by telemedicine, problems with strategic alignment, resistance to change in the (re)definition of roles, responsibilities and new skills, and lack of a business model that incorporates telemedicine in the services portfolio to ensure its sustainability. In addition to suitable management of change and of the necessary strategic alignment, the definitive normalization of telemedicine in a mixed healthcare model based on purchasing of healthcare services using providers' contracts requires a clear and stable business model that incorporates this modality in the services portfolio and allows healthcare organizations to obtain reimbursement from the payer. 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic alcohol intake during adolescence, but not adulthood, promotes persistent deficits in risk-based decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Abigail G; Tsutsui, Kimberly T; Clark, Jeremy J

    2014-06-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is a major public health concern and is strongly correlated with the development of alcohol abuse problems in adulthood. Adolescence is characterized by maturation and remodeling of brain regions implicated in decision making and therefore may be uniquely vulnerable to environmental insults such as alcohol exposure. We have previously demonstrated that voluntary alcohol consumption in adolescence results in maladaptive risk-based decision making in adulthood. However, it is unclear whether this effect on risk-based decision making can be attributed to chronic alcohol use in general or to a selective effect of alcohol use during the adolescent period. Ethanol (EtOH) was presented to adolescent (postnatal day [PND] 30 to 49) and adult rats (PND 80 to 99) for 20 days, either 24 hours or 1 h/d, in a gel matrix consisting of distilled water, gelatin, polycose (10%), and EtOH (10%). The 24-hour time course of EtOH intake was measured and compared between adolescent and adult animals. Following 20 days of withdrawal from EtOH, we assessed risk-based decision making with a concurrent instrumental probability-discounting task. Blood EtOH concentrations (BECs) were taken from trunk blood and assessed using the Analox micro-stat GM7 in separate groups of animals at different time points. Unlike animals exposed to EtOH during adolescence, animals exposed to alcohol during adulthood did not display differences in risk preference compared to controls. Adolescent and adult rats displayed similar EtOH intake levels and patterns when given either 24- or 1-hour access per day. In addition, while both groups reached significant BEC levels, we failed to find a difference between adult and adolescent animals. Here, we show that adolescent, but not adult, EtOH intake leads to a persistent increase in risk preference which cannot be attributed to differences in intake levels or BECs attained. Our findings support previous work implicating adolescence as a time

  4. Additive effect of congenital heart disease and early developmental disorders on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder: a nationwide population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Pei-Chen; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Chen, Mu-Hong; Soong, Wen-Jue; Kou, Yu Ru

    2017-11-01

    In this retrospective nationwide population-based case-control study, we investigated the impact of congenital heart disease (CHD) on the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which remains unclear. Children aged disorders (EDD) that were diagnosed before ADHD and ASD diagnosis were also analyzed. The incidence rates of perinatal comorbidities, EDD, ADHD, and ASD were higher in the CHD group than in the control group. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the CHD group had an increased risk of developing ADHD (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.52, 95% confidence interval CI 1.96-3.25) and ASD (aHR 1.97, 95% CI 1.11-3.52) after adjusting for confounding comorbidities. EDD, but not perinatal comorbidities were also independent risk factors for ADHD and ASD after adjustment. Subgroup analysis indicated that the risk for ADHD (HR 16.59, 95% CI 12.17-22.60) and ASD (HR 80.68, 95% CI 39.96-176.12) was greatly increased in CHD subjects with EDD than in non-CHD subjects without EDD. These findings suggested that CHD at birth and EDD during early childhood were two independent risk factors for ADHD and ASD and that concurrent CHD and EDD might additively increase these risks.

  5. Gambling frequency and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in relation to problem gambling among Swedish adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Charlotta; Wagner, Philippe; Nilsson, Kent W; Leppert, Jerzy; Åslund, Cecilia

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the associations between gambling frequency, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and problem gambling among adolescent boys and girls. One hypothesis was that adolescents with increased ADHD symptoms have a higher frequency of gambling compared to adolescents with fewer ADHD symptoms. A population-based sample of adolescents (aged 15-18 years) completed a questionnaire on demographics, gambling habits, ADHD symptoms, and problematic gambling; 1412 adolescents (from 4440 sampled) with gambling experience were included in the final sample. A zero-inflated negative binomial regression analysis revealed that increased ADHD symptoms, higher gambling frequency, and higher age were associated with lower odds for being non-susceptible to gambling problems. Moreover, gambling frequency interacted with ADHD symptoms in predicting probability of being non-susceptible to gambling problems. However, when analysing those already susceptible to problem gambling, ADHD symptoms did not modify the effect of gambling frequency on the expected magnitude of gambling problems. In susceptible individuals, problem gambling increased with both increased ADHD symptoms and increased gambling frequency, but the level of problems due to gambling frequency did not change depending on the ADHD symptom level. There was an interaction effect between sex and gambling frequency in relation to gambling problems. Adolescents with ADHD symptoms seem to be more sensitive to gambling, in terms of being susceptible to developing gambling problems. However, once susceptible, adolescents with ADHD symptoms are affected by gambling frequency similarly to other susceptible participants.

  6. The switch from conventional to atypical antipsychotic treatment should not be based exclusively on the presence of cognitive deficits. A pilot study in individuals with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Moreno José

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atypical antipsychotics provide better control of the negative and affective symptoms of schizophrenia when compared with conventional neuroleptics; nevertheless, their heightened ability to improve cognitive dysfunction remains a matter of debate. This study aimed to examine the changes in cognition associated with long-term antipsychotic treatment and to evaluate the effect of the type of antipsychotic (conventional versus novel antipsychotic drugs on cognitive performance over time. Methods In this naturalistic study, we used a comprehensive neuropsychological battery of tests to assess a sample of schizophrenia patients taking either conventional (n = 13 or novel antipsychotics (n = 26 at baseline and at two years after. Results Continuous antipsychotic treatment regardless of class was associated with improvement on verbal fluency, executive functions, and visual and verbal memory. Patients taking atypical antipsychotics did not show greater cognitive enhancement over two years than patients taking conventional antipsychotics. Conclusions Although long-term antipsychotic treatment slightly improved cognitive function, the switch from conventional to atypical antipsychotic treatment should not be based exclusively on the presence of these cognitive deficits.

  7. A Pilot Study Examining a Computer-Based Intervention to Improve Recognition and Understanding of Emotions in Young Children with Communication and Social Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Neri L

    2017-06-01

    A common social impairment in individuals with ASD is difficulty interpreting and or predicting emotions of others. To date, several interventions targeting teaching emotion recognition and understanding have been utilized both by researchers and practitioners. The results suggest that teaching emotion recognition is possible, but that the results do not generalize to non-instructional contexts. This study sought to replicate earlier findings of a positive impact of teaching emotion recognition using a computer-based intervention and to extend it by testing for generalization on live models in the classroom setting. Two boys and one girl, four to eight years in age, educated in self-contained classrooms for students with communication and social skills deficits, participated in this study. A multiple probe across participants design was utilized. Measures of emotion recognition and understanding were assessed at baseline, intervention, and one month post-intervention to determine maintenance effects. Social validity was assessed through parent and teacher questionnaires. All participants showed improvements in measures assessing their recognition of emotions in faces, generalized knowledge to live models, and maintained gains one month post intervention. These preliminary results are encouraging and should be utilized to inform a group design, in order to test efficacy with a larger population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation of Lactic Acid and Base Deficit Values Obtained From Arterial and Peripheral Venous Samples in a Pediatric Population During Intraoperative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, Brianne M; Walia, Hina; Sebastian, Roby; Martin, David; Tumin, Dmitry; Tobias, Joseph D

    2017-12-01

    Lactic acid and base deficit (BD) values are frequently monitored in the intensive care unit and operating room setting to evaluate oxygenation, ventilation, cardiac output, and peripheral perfusion. Although generally obtained from an arterial cannula, such access may not always be available. The current study prospectively investigates the correlation of arterial and peripheral venous values of BD and lactic acid. The study cohort included 48 patients. Arterial BD values ranged from -8 to 4 mEq/L and peripheral venous BD values ranged from -8 to 4 mEq/L. Arterial lactic acid values ranged from 0.36 to 2.45 μmol/L and peripheral venous lactic acid values ranged from 0.38 to 4 μmol/L. The arterial BD (-0.4 ± 2.2 mEq/L) was not significantly different from the peripheral venous BD (-0.6 ± 2.2 mEq/L). The arterial lactic acid (1.0 ± 0.5 μmol/L) was not significantly different from the peripheral venous lactic acid (1.1 ± 0.6 μmol/L). Pearson correlation coefficients demonstrated a very high correlation between arterial and peripheral venous BD ( r = .88, P lactic acid ( r = .67, P lactic acid corresponded to a 0.9-unit increase in peripheral venous lactic acid (95% CI: 0.6-1.2; P lactic acid and BD values.

  9. Identifying developmental coordination disorder: MOQ-T validity as a fast screening instrument based on teachers' ratings and its relationship with praxic and visuospatial working memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giofrè, David; Cornoldi, Cesare; Schoemaker, Marina M

    2014-12-01

    The present study was devoted to test the validity of the Italian adaptation of the Motor Observation Questionnaire for Teachers (MOQ-T, Schoemaker, Flapper, Reinders-Messelink, & De Kloet, 2008) as a fast screening instrument, based on teachers' ratings, for detecting developmental coordination disorders symptoms and to study its relationship with praxic and visuospatial working memory deficits. In a first study on a large sample of children, we assessed the reliability and structure of the Italian adaptation of the MOQ-T. Results showed a good reliability of the questionnaire and a hierarchical structure with two first-order factors (reflecting motor and handwriting skills), which are influenced by a second-order factor (general motor function) at the top. In a second study, we looked at the external validity of the MOQ-T and found that children with symptoms of Developmental Coordination Disorder (children with high scores on the MOQ-T) also had difficulty reproducing gestures, either imitating others or in response to verbal prompts. Our results also showed that children with high MOQ-T scores had visuospatial WM impairments. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Skull-base foramina of the middle cranial fossa : assessment of normal variation with high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyae Young; Chung, Eun Chul; Suh, Jeong Soo; Choi, Hye Young; Ko, Eun Joo; Lee, Myung Sook

    1997-01-01

    To recognize foraminal variants of the foraminae of the skull base in the middle cranial fossa, and to thus understand and distinguish normal and potentially abnormal structures. We analysed 163 patients without intracranial disease who had undergone CT scanning. These comprised 82 men and 81 women with a mean age of 39 years (range, 4-73 years). HRCT was performed, using a GE 9800 scanner. All CT scans were obtained 6-7 slices at the base of the skull, with 1.5mm collimation at 1.5mm intervals parallel to the infraorbital line. We analysed the foraminae by closesly correlating imaging findings and established anatomic knowledge. In 45 cases (27.6%) the foramen ovale was 5-10mm in diameter and asymmetrical. Deficiency of the medial bony wall including persistent foramen lacerum medius was seen in five cases (3.1%). Confluence of the foramen ovale and the foramen spinosum was seen in 13 cases (8%) and confluence of the foramen ovale and the foramen of Vesalius in 23 (14.1%). Posterolateral groove for the accessory meningeal artery was observed in 36 cases (22%). The foramen spinosum was asymmetrical in 42 cases (25.8%). A small or absent foramen spinosum with a larger ipsilateral foramen ovale was observed in 11 cases (6.7%). Medial bony defect was seen in 16 cases (9.8%). The foramen spinosum was absent in four cases (2.5%). In 74 cases (45.4%), the foramen of Vesalius was absent; it was present unilaterally and bilaterally in 55 (33.7%) and 34 cases (20.9%), respectively. Five cases showed duplicated foramina. Canaliculus innominatus was seen in 14 cases (8.9%) and was present bilaterally in three (1.8%). HRCT clearly delineates bony structure and is well able to display the rich spectrum of anatomic variation found in the base of the skull. The recognition of these normal variants will result in a better understanding of skull base neurovascular anatomy and diminish speculation as to their true nature during the interpretation of CT images

  11. Model-based analysis and control of a network of basal ganglia spiking neurons in the normal and Parkinsonian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbo; Khalil, Hassan K.; Oweiss, Karim G.

    2011-08-01

    Controlling the spatiotemporal firing pattern of an intricately connected network of neurons through microstimulation is highly desirable in many applications. We investigated in this paper the feasibility of using a model-based approach to the analysis and control of a basal ganglia (BG) network model of Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) spiking neurons through microstimulation. Detailed analysis of this network model suggests that it can reproduce the experimentally observed characteristics of BG neurons under a normal and a pathological Parkinsonian state. A simplified neuronal firing rate model, identified from the detailed HH network model, is shown to capture the essential network dynamics. Mathematical analysis of the simplified model reveals the presence of a systematic relationship between the network's structure and its dynamic response to spatiotemporally patterned microstimulation. We show that both the network synaptic organization and the local mechanism of microstimulation can impose tight constraints on the possible spatiotemporal firing patterns that can be generated by the microstimulated network, which may hinder the effectiveness of microstimulation to achieve a desired objective under certain conditions. Finally, we demonstrate that the feedback control design aided by the mathematical analysis of the simplified model is indeed effective in driving the BG network in the normal and Parskinsonian states to follow a prescribed spatiotemporal firing pattern. We further show that the rhythmic/oscillatory patterns that characterize a dopamine-depleted BG network can be suppressed as a direct consequence of controlling the spatiotemporal pattern of a subpopulation of the output Globus Pallidus internalis (GPi) neurons in the network. This work may provide plausible explanations for the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease and pave the way towards a model-based, network level analysis and closed

  12. CT-based attenuation correction and resolution compensation for I-123 IMP brain SPECT normal database: a multicenter phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Yoshitaka; Ichihara, Takashi; Uno, Masaki; Ishiguro, Masanobu; Ito, Kengo; Kato, Katsuhiko; Sakuma, Hajime; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Toyama, Hiroshi

    2018-03-19

    Statistical image analysis of brain SPECT images has improved diagnostic accuracy for brain disorders. However, the results of statistical analysis vary depending on the institution even when they use a common normal database (NDB), due to different intrinsic spatial resolutions or correction methods. The present study aimed to evaluate the correction of spatial resolution differences between equipment and examine the differences in skull bone attenuation to construct a common NDB for use in multicenter settings. The proposed acquisition and processing protocols were those routinely used at each participating center with additional triple energy window (TEW) scatter correction (SC) and computed tomography (CT) based attenuation correction (CTAC). A multicenter phantom study was conducted on six imaging systems in five centers, with either single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or SPECT/CT, and two brain phantoms. The gray/white matter I-123 activity ratio in the brain phantoms was 4, and they were enclosed in either an artificial adult male skull, 1300 Hounsfield units (HU), a female skull, 850 HU, or an acrylic cover. The cut-off frequency of the Butterworth filters was adjusted so that the spatial resolution was unified to a 17.9 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM), that of the lowest resolution system. The gray-to-white matter count ratios were measured from SPECT images and compared with the actual activity ratio. In addition, mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation images were calculated after normalization and anatomical standardization to evaluate the variability of the NDB. The gray-to-white matter count ratio error without SC and attenuation correction (AC) was significantly larger for higher bone densities (p correction. The proposed protocol showed potential for constructing an appropriate common NDB from SPECT images with SC, AC and spatial resolution compensation.

  13. Calculations of atomic magnetic nuclear shielding constants based on the two-component normalized elimination of the small component method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Terutaka; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter

    2017-04-01

    A new method for calculating nuclear magnetic resonance shielding constants of relativistic atoms based on the two-component (2c), spin-orbit coupling including Dirac-exact NESC (Normalized Elimination of the Small Component) approach is developed where each term of the diamagnetic and paramagnetic contribution to the isotropic shielding constant σi s o is expressed in terms of analytical energy derivatives with regard to the magnetic field B and the nuclear magnetic moment 𝝁 . The picture change caused by renormalization of the wave function is correctly described. 2c-NESC/HF (Hartree-Fock) results for the σiso values of 13 atoms with a closed shell ground state reveal a deviation from 4c-DHF (Dirac-HF) values by 0.01%-0.76%. Since the 2-electron part is effectively calculated using a modified screened nuclear shielding approach, the calculation is efficient and based on a series of matrix manipulations scaling with (2M)3 (M: number of basis functions).

  14. Prevalence of parent-rated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated parent-related factors in primary school children of Navi Mumbai--a school based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajinkya, Shaunak; Kaur, Darpan; Gursale, Akshay; Jadhav, Pradeep

    2013-03-01

    To study the prevalence of parent-rated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated parent-related factors in primary school children of Navi Mumbai. One hundred twenty two children including both boys and girls aged between 6 y and 11 y were selected from a school at Navi Mumbai and their parents were given the National Innovative for Children's Healthcare Quality (NICHQ) Vanderbilt Assessment Scale to be filled and returned, which was subsequently analyzed using SPSS (version 16). The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was 12.3 % with boy to girl ratio of 3:2. It was more prevalent in nuclear type of family and in families where a single parent was working especially where the father was the sole breadwinner and doing semi-skilled or unskilled type of work. No significant relation was found between the numbers of work-related hours when parents were away from children and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is prevalent in the primary school-going population of Navi Mumbai, especially in boys. The increased prevalence in nuclear families and families with single working parent should further be explored. Further studies with larger sample size and longer period of follow up may be recommended. The study also recommends screening of school children for symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for early diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Multiscale virtual particle based elastic network model (MVP-ENM) for normal mode analysis of large-sized biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kelin

    2017-12-20

    In this paper, a multiscale virtual particle based elastic network model (MVP-ENM) is proposed for the normal mode analysis of large-sized biomolecules. The multiscale virtual particle (MVP) model is proposed for the discretization of biomolecular density data. With this model, large-sized biomolecular structures can be coarse-grained into virtual particles such that a balance between model accuracy and computational cost can be achieved. An elastic network is constructed by assuming "connections" between virtual particles. The connection is described by a special harmonic potential function, which considers the influence from both the mass distributions and distance relations of the virtual particles. Two independent models, i.e., the multiscale virtual particle based Gaussian network model (MVP-GNM) and the multiscale virtual particle based anisotropic network model (MVP-ANM), are proposed. It has been found that in the Debye-Waller factor (B-factor) prediction, the results from our MVP-GNM with a high resolution are as good as the ones from GNM. Even with low resolutions, our MVP-GNM can still capture the global behavior of the B-factor very well with mismatches predominantly from the regions with large B-factor values. Further, it has been demonstrated that the low-frequency eigenmodes from our MVP-ANM are highly consistent with the ones from ANM even with very low resolutions and a coarse grid. Finally, the great advantage of MVP-ANM model for large-sized biomolecules has been demonstrated by using two poliovirus virus structures. The paper ends with a conclusion.

  16. Brain neurodevelopmental markers related to the deficit subtype of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Nishikawa, Yumiko; Nakamura, Mihoko; Komori, Yuko; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Sasabayashi, Daiki; Noguchi, Kyo; Suzuki, Michio

    2017-08-30

    Deficit schizophrenia is a homogeneous subtype characterized by a trait-like feature of primary and prominent negative symptoms, but the etiologic factors related to this specific subtype remain largely unknown. This magnetic resonance imaging study aimed to examine gross brain morphology that probably reflects early neurodevelopment in 38 patients with deficit schizophrenia, 37 patients with non-deficit schizophrenia, and 59 healthy controls. Potential brain neurodevelopmental markers investigated in this study were the adhesio interthalamica (AI), cavum septi pellucidi (CSP), and surface morphology (i.e., olfactory sulcus depth, sulcogyral pattern, and number of orbital sulci) of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The subtype classification of schizophrenia patients was based on the score of Proxy for the Deficit Syndrome. The deficit schizophrenia group had a significantly shorter AI compared with the non-deficit group and controls. The deficit group, but not the non-deficit group, was also characterized by an altered distribution of the OFC sulcogyral pattern, as well as fewer posterior orbital sulcus compared with controls. Other neurodevelopmental markers did not differentiate the deficit and non-deficit subgroups. These results suggest that the deficit subtype of schizophrenia and its clinical manifestation may be at least partly related to prominent neurodevelopmental pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparison of base deficit and vital signs in the early assessment of patients with penetrating trauma in a high burden setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Mark Peter; Sartorius, Benn; Laing, Grant Llewellyn; Bruce, John Lambert; Clarke, Damian Luiz

    2017-09-01

    An assessment of physiological status is a key step in the early assessment of trauma patients with implications for triage, investigation and management. This has traditionally been done using vital signs. Previous work from large European trauma datasets has suggested that base deficit (BD) predicts clinically important outcomes better than vital signs (VS). A BD derived classification of haemorrhagic shock appeared superior to one based on VS derived from ATLS criteria in a population of predominantly blunt trauma patients. The initial aim of this study was to see if this observation would be reproduced in penetrating trauma patients. The power of each individual variable (BD, heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), shock index(SI) (HR/SBP) and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS)) to predict mortality was then also compared. A retrospective analysis of adult trauma patients presenting to the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service was performed. Patients were classified into four "shock" groups using VS or BD and the outcomes compared. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were then generated to compare the predictive power for mortality of each individual variable. 1863 patients were identified. The overall mortality rate was 2.1%. When classified by BD, HR rose and SBP fell as the "shock class" increased but not to the degree suggested by the ATLS classification. The BD classification of haemorrhagic shock appeared to predict mortality better than that based on the ATLS criteria. Mortality increased from 0.2% (Class 1) to 19.7% (Class 4) based on the 4 level BD classification. Mortality increased from 0.3% (Class 1) to 12.6% (Class 4) when classified based by VS. Area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) curve analysis of the individual variables demonstrated that BD predicted mortality significantly better than HR, GCS, SBP and SI. AUROC curve (95% Confidence Interval (CI)) for BD was 0.90 (0.85-0.95) compared to HR 0

  18. Data-driven identification of intensity normalization region based on longitudinal coherency of 18F-FDG metabolism in the healthy brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiwei; Wu, Ping; Ziegler, Sibylle I; Guan, Yihui; Wang, Yuetao; Ge, Jingjie; Schwaiger, Markus; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Zuo, Chuantao; Förster, Stefan; Shi, Kuangyu

    2017-02-01

    analysis strategies (subject-based and age-cohort averaging). In addition, the proposed new intensity normalization method using the paracentral lobule generates significantly higher differentiation from the age-associated changes than other intensity normalization methods. Proper intensity normalization can enhance the longitudinal coherency of normal brain glucose metabolism. The paracentral lobule followed by the cerebellar tonsil are shown to be the two most stable intensity normalization regions concerning age-dependent brain metabolism. This may provide the potential to better differentiate disease-related changes from age-related changes in brain metabolism, which is of relevance in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding the covariation of tics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: A population-based adult twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rebecca; Monzani, Benedetta; Leckman, James F; Rück, Christian; Serlachius, Eva; Lichtenstein, Paul; Mataix-Cols, David

    2016-10-01

    Chronic tic disorders (TD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently co-occur in clinical and epidemiological samples. Family studies have found evidence of shared familial transmission between TD and OCD, whereas the familial association between these disorders and ADHD is less clear. This study aimed to investigate to what extent liability of tics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms is caused by shared or distinct genetic or environmental influences, in a large population-representative sample of Swedish adult twins (n = 21,911). Tics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms showed modest, but significant covariation. Model fitting suggested a latent liability factor underlying the three phenotypes. This common factor was relatively heritable, and explained significantly less of the variance of attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptom liability. The majority of genetic variance was specific rather than shared. The greatest proportion of total variance in liability of tics, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms was attributed to specific non-shared environmental influences. Our findings suggest that the co-occurrence of tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and to a lesser extent attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms, can be partly explained by shared etiological influences. However, these phenotypes do not appear to be alternative expressions of the same underlying genetic liability. Further research examining sub-dimensions of these phenotypes may serve to further clarify the association between these disorders and identify more genetically homogenous symptom subtypes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Uncertainty analysis of the radiological characteristics of radioactive waste using a method based on log-normal distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigase, Yves

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainty on characteristics of radioactive LILW waste packages is difficult to determine and often very large. This results from a lack of knowledge of the constitution of the waste package and of the composition of the radioactive sources inside. To calculate a quantitative estimate of the uncertainty on a characteristic of a waste package one has to combine these various uncertainties. This paper discusses an approach to this problem, based on the use of the log-normal distribution, which is both elegant and easy to use. It can provide as example quantitative estimates of uncertainty intervals that 'make sense'. The purpose is to develop a pragmatic approach that can be integrated into existing characterization methods. In this paper we show how our method can be applied to the scaling factor method. We also explain how it can be used when estimating other more complex characteristics such as the total uncertainty of a collection of waste packages. This method could have applications in radioactive waste management, more in particular in those decision processes where the uncertainty on the amount of activity is considered to be important such as in probability risk assessment or the definition of criteria for acceptance or categorization. (author)

  1. Gadolinium based contrast agents in current practice: Risks of accumulation and toxicity in patients with normal renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Ranga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being decked as the most prized compounds in the nugget box of contrast agents for clinical radiologists, and carrying an indisputable tag of safety of the US Food and Drug Administration for close to three decades, all may not be seemingly well with the family of gadolinium compounds. If the first signs of violations of primum non nocere in relation to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs appeared in the millennium year with the first published report of skin fibrosis in patients with compromised renal function, the causal relationship between the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF and GBCAs, first proposed by two European groups in 2006, further precluded their use in renocompromised patients. The toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of GBCAs, however, has come under hawk-eyed scrutiny with recent reports that gadolinium tends to deposit cumulatively in the brain of patients with normal hepatobiliary function and intact blood–brain barrier. While the jury on the long-term hazard significance of this critical scientific finding is still out, the use of GBCAs must be guided by due clinical diligence, avoidance of repeated doses, and preferring GBCAs with the best safety profiles.

  2. Use of Non-Normalized, Non-Amplified cDNA for 454-Based RNA Sequencing of Fleshy Melon Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Portnoy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The melon ( L. fruit is an important crop and model system for the genomic study of both fleshy fruit development and the Cucurbitaceae family. To obtain an accurate representation of the melon fruit transcriptome based on expressed sequence tag (EST abundance in 454-pyrosequencing data, we prepared double-stranded complementary DNA (cDNA of melon without the usual amplification and normalization steps. A purification step was also included to eliminate small fragments. Complementary DNAs were obtained from 14 individual fruit libraries derived from two genotypes, separated into flesh and peel tissues, and sampled throughout fruit development. Pyrosequencing was performed using Genome Sequencer FLX (GS FLX technology, resulting in 1,215,359 reads, with mean length of >200 nucleotides. The global digital expression data was validated by comparative reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR of 40 selected genes and expression patterns were similar for the two methods. The results indicate that high-quality, nonbiased cDNA for next-generation sequencing can be prepared from mature, fleshy fruit, which are notorious for difficulties in ribonucleic acid (RNA preparation.

  3. Co-occurring symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a population-based sample of adolescents screened for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Astri J; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Sørensen, Lin; Posserud, Maj-Britt

    2016-02-25

    Depression is common in adolescents, with a gender bias towards girls. Symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to co-occur in depressed adolescents. This may be related to common features between the two symptom domains, but co-occurring ADHD symptoms may also inflate the severity of depression. The present study investigates the frequency and influence of ADHD symptoms co-occurring with depression in a gender balanced population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents. A sample of 9614 adolescents (16-19 years) completed a questionnaire including the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (sMFQ) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), with items reflecting symptoms associated with depression and ADHD, respectively. The sMFQ sum score was used as a proxy for severity of depression, and adolescents with a score equal to or above the 90th percentile were defined as depressed. A high response on any of the ASRS items was used to define the presence of an ADHD symptom, and the number of high scores was used to indicate severity. ADHD symptoms were frequently reported by the adolescents, with a higher frequency in girls than in boys. The gender differences were, however, minor when the analysis was restricted to the adolescents defined as depressed. Each severe symptom reported on the ASRS contributed significantly to increase the sum score on the sMFQ, and more than 20 % of the adolescents defined as depressed reported six or more symptoms within the ASRS inattention subscale. The results emphasize the importance of screening for symptoms associated with ADHD when assessing adolescents presenting symptoms indicating depression. Although girls reported higher frequency of symptoms within both domains, the gender bias was dependent on the overall symptom severity. Awareness of co-occurrence of symptoms and gender biases are of importance for both clinical work and future research on mental health and service use in

  4. The Utility of a Computerized Algorithm Based on a Multi-Domain Profile of Measures for the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Crippa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The current gold standard for diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD includes subjective measures, such as clinical interview, observation, and rating scales. The significant heterogeneity of ADHD symptoms represents a challenge for this assessment and could prevent an accurate diagnosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the ability of a multi-domain profile of measures, including blood fatty acid (FA profiles, neuropsychological measures, and functional measures from near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS, to correctly recognize school-aged children with ADHD. To answer this question, we elaborated a supervised machine-learning method to accurately discriminate 22 children with ADHD from 22 children with typical development by means of the proposed profile of measures. To assess the performance of our classifier, we adopted a nested 10-fold cross validation, where the original dataset was split into 10 subsets of equal size, which were used repeatedly for training and testing. Each subset was used once for performance validation. Our method reached a maximum diagnostic accuracy of 81% through the combining of the predictive models trained on neuropsychological, FA profiles, and deoxygenated-hemoglobin features. With respect to the analysis of a single-domain dataset per time, the most discriminant neuropsychological features were measures of vigilance, focused and sustained attention, and cognitive flexibility; the most discriminating blood FAs were linoleic acid and the total amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Finally, with respect to the fNIRS data, we found a significant advantage of the deoxygenated-hemoglobin over the oxygenated-hemoglobin data in terms of predictive accuracy. These preliminary findings show the feasibility and applicability of our machine-learning method in correctly identifying children with ADHD based on multi-domain data. The present machine-learning classification approach might be helpful

  5. Suicide risk reduction in youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder prescribed methylphenidate: A Taiwan nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sophie Hsin-Yi; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Liao, Yin-To; Lin, Tzu-Chin; Lee, Yena; McIntyre, Roger S; Kelsen, Brent A; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2018-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) youths have increased suicide risk. Nevertheless, the beneficial effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on suicide attempt have received relatively little attention. To investigate the MPH usage and the risk of suicide attempt among ADHD youths. We identified 84,898 youths less than 18 years old with ADHD diagnosis between 1997 and 2013 from National Health Insurance, and examined whether MPH use affected suicide attempt risk using Cox proportional-hazards models. Among ADHD youths, reduction of suicide risk was found in patients prescribed 90-180days of MPH after adjusting for confounding factors (hazard ratio (HR): 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.19-0.90) and a greater reduction in those prescribed more than 180days of MPH (HR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.48). We observed a 59% suicide attempt risk reduction among ADHD youths prescribed between 90 and 180days and a 72% risk reduction in those prescribed more than 180days of MPH. The protective benefit observed by the group prescribed MPH for longer duration underscores the importance of psychoeducation and compliance enhancement as part of ADHD management. Indication bias is identified as a limitation of this study, and future self-case control study to investigate the association between suicide attempt and ADHD medication is suggested. This nationwide population-based cohort study showed that among ADHD youths, reduction of suicide risk was observed in patients prescribed MPH for duration 90days and longer, underscoring the importance of appropriate ADHD pharmacotherapy and enhancing drug compliance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of cerebral palsy with Apgar score in low and normal birthweight infants: population based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøholt, Else-Karin; Eskild, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association of Apgar score 5 minutes after birth with cerebral palsy in both normal weight and low birthweight children, and also the association with the cerebral palsy subdiagnoses of quadriplegia, diplegia, and hemiplegia. Design Population based cohort study. Setting The Medical Birth Registry of Norway was used to identify all babies born between 1986 and 1995. These data were linked to the Norwegian Registry of Cerebral Palsy in Children born 1986-95, which was established on the basis of discharge diagnoses at all paediatric departments in Norway. Population All singletons without malformations born in Norway during 1986-95 and who survived the first year of life (n=543 064). Main outcome measure Cerebral palsy diagnosed before the age of 5 years. Results 988 children (1.8 in 1000) were diagnosed with cerebral palsy before the age of 5 years. In total, 11% (39/369) of the children with Apgar score of less than 3 at birth were diagnosed with cerebral palsy, compared with only 0.1% (162/179 515) of the children with Apgar score of 10 (odds ratio (OR) 53, 95% CI 35 to 80 after adjustment for birth weight). In children with a birth weight of 2500 g or more, those with an Apgar score of less than 4 were much more likely to have cerebral palsy than those who had an Apgar score of more than 8 (OR 125, 95% confidence interval 91 to 170). The corresponding OR in children weighing less than 1500 g was 5 (95% CI 2 to 9). Among children with Apgar score of less than 4, 10-17% in all birthweight groups developed cerebral palsy. Low Apgar score was strongly associated with each of the three subgroups of spastic cerebral palsy, although the association was strongest for quadriplegia (adjusted OR 137 for Apgar score 8, 95% CI 77 to 244). Conclusions Low Apgar score was strongly associated with cerebral palsy. This association was high in children with normal birth weight and modest in children with low birth weight. The strength of the

  7. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  8. Temperament and character as endophenotype in adults with autism spectrum disorders or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizoo, Bram B; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder overlap in several ways, raising questions about the nature of this comorbidity. Rommelse et al. published an innovative review of candidate endophenotypes for autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in cognitive and brain domains. They found that all the endophenotypic impairments that were reviewed in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder were also present in autism spectrum disorder, suggesting a continuity model with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder as "a light form of autism spectrum disorder." Using existing data, 75 adults with autism spectrum disorder and 53 with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder were directly compared on autistic symptoms with the autism spectrum quotient, and on the endophenotypic measure of temperament and character, using the Abbreviated (Dutch: Verkorte) Temperament and Character Inventory. Based on the hypothesis that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder are disorders on a continuous spectrum, autism spectrum quotient scores and abbreviated Temperament and Character Inventory scores were expected to be different from normal controls in both disorders in a similar direction. In addition, the autism spectrum quotient and abbreviated Temperament and Character Inventory scores were expected to be closely correlated. These conditions applied to only two of the seven Abbreviated Temperament and Character Inventory scales (harm avoidance and self-directedness), suggesting that temperament and character as an endophenotype of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder provides only partial support for the continuity hypothesis of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Surgical outcome of motor deficits and neurological status in brainstem cavernous malformations based on preoperative diffusion tensor imaging: a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da; Jiao, Yu-Ming; Wang, Liang; Lin, Fu-Xin; Wu, Jun; Tong, Xian-Zeng; Wang, Shuo; Cao, Yong

    2018-03-16

    OBJECTIVE Surgical management of brainstem lesions is challenging due to the highly compact, eloquent anatomy of the brainstem. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of preoperative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in brainstem cavernous malformations (CMs). METHODS A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was performed by using stratified blocked randomization. The primary eligibility criterion of the study was being a surgical candidate for brainstem CMs (with informed consent). The study enrolled 23 patients who underwent preoperative DTI/DTT and 24 patients who did not (the control group). The pre- and postoperative muscle strength of both limbs and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores were evaluated. Muscle strength of any limb at 12 months after surgery at the clinic visit was the primary outcome; worsened muscle strength was considered to be a poor outcome. Outcome assessors were blinded to patient management. This study reports the preliminary results of the interim analysis. RESULTS The cohort included 47 patients (22 women) with a mean age of 35.7 years. The clinical baselines between these 2 groups were not significantly different. In the DTI/DTT group, the corticospinal tract was affected in 17 patients (73.9%): it was displaced, deformed/partially interrupted, or completely interrupted in 6, 7, and 4 patients, respectively. The surgical approach and brainstem entry point were adjusted in 3 patients (13.0%) based on DTI/DTT data. The surgical morbidity of the DTI/DTT group (7/23, 30.4%) was significantly lower than that of the control group (19/24, 79.2%, p = 0.001). At 12 months, the mean mRS score (1.1, p = 0.034) and percentage of patients with worsened motor deficits (4.3%, p = 0.006) were significantly lower in the DTI/DTT group than in the control group (1.7% and 37.5%). Multivariate logistic regression identified the absence of preoperative DTI/DTT (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01-0.73, p = 0

  10. Are Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Different Manifestations of One Overarching Disorder? Cognitive and Symptom Evidence from a Clinical and Population-Based Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Jolanda M. J.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; van Steijn, Daphne J.; Lappenschaar, Martijn G. A.; de Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occur. Given the heterogeneity of both disorders, several more homogeneous ASD-ADHD comorbidity subgroups may exist. The current study examined whether such subgroups exist, and whether their overlap or distinctiveness in associated…

  11. Distinguishing and Improving Mouse Behavior with Educational Computer Games in Young Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Executive Function-Based Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Baukje; van Geert, Paul L. C.; van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.

    2012-01-01

    In this exploratory multiple case study, it is examined how a computer game focused on improving ineffective learning behavior can be used as a tool to assess, improve, and study real-time mouse behavior (MB) in different types of children: 18 children (3.8-6.3 years) with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder…

  12. Are autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder different manifestations of one overarching disorder? : Cognitive and symptom evidence from a clinical and population-based sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Jolanda M J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; van Steijn, Daphne J; Lappenschaar, Martijn G A; de Sonneville, Leo M J; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occur. Given the heterogeneity of both disorders, several more homogeneous ASD-ADHD comorbidity subgroups may exist. The current study examined whether such subgroups exist, and whether their

  13. Comparison of Parent Education and Functional Assessment-Based Intervention across 24 Months for Young Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J.; Kern, Lee; Volpe, Robert; Caskie, Grace I. L.; Sokol, Natalie; Arbolino, Lauren; Van Brakle, John; Pipan, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Preschool-aged children with or at risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant challenges with behavioral, social, and preacademic skills. Kern et al. (2007) examined 12-month intervention outcomes for 135 children, aged 3-5, with or at risk for ADHD. Two interventions, parent education alone and parent…

  14. Determination of moisture deficit and heat stress tolerance in corn using physiological measurements and a low-cost microcontroller-based monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the southern United States, corn production encounters moisture deficit coupled with high temperature stress, particularly during the reproductive stage of the plant. In evaluating plants for environmental stress tolerance, it is important to monitor changes in their physical environment under na...

  15. Neurocognitive impairment in the deficit subtype of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Agid, Ofer; Foussias, George; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Remington, Gary

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by numerous diverse signs and symptoms. Individuals with prominent, persistent, and idiopathic negative symptoms are thought to encompass a distinct subtype of schizophrenia. Previous work, including studies involving neuropsychological evaluations, has supported this position. The present study sought to further examine whether deficit patients are cognitively distinct from non-deficit patients with schizophrenia. A comprehensive neurocognitive battery including tests of verbal memory, vigilance, processing speed, reasoning, and working memory was administered to 657 patients with schizophrenia. Of these, 144 (22 %) patients were classified as deficit patients using a proxy identification method based on severity, persistence over time, and possible secondary sources (e.g., depression) of negative symptoms. Deficit patients with schizophrenia performed worse on all tests of cognition relative to non-deficit patients. These patients were characterized by a generalized cognitive impairment on the order of about 0.4 standard deviations below that of non-deficit patients. However, when comparing deficit patients to non-deficit patients who also present with negative symptoms, albeit not enduring or primary, no group differences in cognitive performance were found. Furthermore, a discriminant function analysis classifying patients into deficit/non-deficit groups based on cognitive scores demonstrated only 62.3 % accuracy, meaning over one-third of individuals were misclassified. The deficit subtype of schizophrenia is not markedly distinct from non-deficit schizophrenia in terms of neurocognitive performance. While deficit patients tend to have poorer performance on cognitive tests, the magnitude of this effect is relatively modest, translating to over 70 % overlap in scores between groups.

  16. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Sequence analysis of annually normalized citation counts: an empirical analysis based on the characteristic scores and scales (CSS) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornmann, Lutz; Ye, Adam Y; Ye, Fred Y

    2017-01-01

    In bibliometrics, only a few publications have focused on the citation histories of publications, where the citations for each citing year are assessed. In this study, therefore, annual categories of field- and time-normalized citation scores (based on the characteristic scores and scales method: 0 = poorly cited, 1 = fairly cited, 2 = remarkably cited, and 3 = outstandingly cited) are used to study the citation histories of papers. As our dataset, we used all articles published in 2000 and their annual citation scores until 2015. We generated annual sequences of citation scores (e.g., [Formula: see text]) and compared the sequences of annual citation scores of six broader fields (natural sciences, engineering and technology, medical and health sciences, agricultural sciences, social sciences, and humanities). In agreement with previous studies, our results demonstrate that sequences with poorly cited (0) and fairly cited (1) elements dominate the publication set; sequences with remarkably cited (3) and outstandingly cited (4) periods are rare. The highest percentages of constantly poorly cited papers can be found in the social sciences; the lowest percentages are in the agricultural sciences and humanities. The largest group of papers with remarkably cited (3) and/or outstandingly cited (4) periods shows an increasing impact over the citing years with the following orders of sequences: [Formula: see text] (6.01%), which is followed by [Formula: see text] (1.62%). Only 0.11% of the papers ( n  = 909) are constantly on the outstandingly cited level.

  18. Detection of changes in cerebrospinal fluid space in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus using voxel-based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Fumio; Asada, Takashi [University of Tsukuba, Clinical Neuroscience, Medical Sciences for Control of Pathological Process, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Kudo, Kohsuke [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Takahashi, Satoshi; Narumi, Shinsuke; Terayama, Yasuo [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurology, Morioka (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saitama (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    We attempted to detect alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We obtained sagittal volume images of the entire head by three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and compared the regional distribution of CSF in 12 patients with iNPH, 14 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 17 healthy individuals using VBM with automatically extracted CSF objects. VBM demonstrated significant widening at the lateral ventricles and Sylvian fissures and narrowing of the CSF space at the high convexity/midline areas in iNPH patients, compared to the AD patients and healthy controls (p<0.05, after correction with a false-discovery rate). In addition, the ratio of the CSF volume in the lateral ventricle/Sylvian fissure area to that in the high convexity/midline area in iNPH patients (3.9{+-}1.2) was remarkably greater than that in AD patients (1.2{+-}0.3) and controls (0.9{+-}0.3; one-way ANOVA, p <0.001; post hoc Tukey's test, p < 0.001); we could discriminate iNPH patients from those in the other two groups without any overlap, when using a cutoff level of 1.9. VBM using CSF objects can be used to delineate the characteristic alteration of the CSF space in iNPH patients, which has been evaluated by visual interpretation. (orig.)

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by ...

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, other mental health problems, substance use, and driving: examination of a population-based, representative canadian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Mann, Robert E; Erickson, Patricia; Toplak, Maggie; Kolla, Nathan J; Seeley, Jane; Jain, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among self-reported screening measures of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), other psychiatric problems, and driving-related outcomes in a provincially representative sample of adults 18 years and older living in the province of Ontario, Canada. The study examined the results of the Centre for Addictions and Mental Health (CAMH) Ontario Monitor, an ongoing repeated cross-sectional telephone survey of Ontario adults over a 2-year period. Measures included ADHD measures (Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-V1.1 [ASRS-V1.1], previous ADHD diagnosis, ADHD medication use); psychiatric distress measures (General Health Questionnaire [GHQ12], use of pain, anxiety, and depression medication); antisocial behavior measure (The Antisocial Personality Disorder Scale from the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview [APD]); substance use and abuse measures (alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), driving-related outcomes (driving after drinking, driving after cannabis use, street racing, collisions in past year), and sociodemographics (gender, age, vehicle-kilometers traveled). A total of 4,014 Ontario residents were sampled, of which 3,485 reported having a valid driver's license. Overall, 3.22% screened positive for ADHD symptoms on the ASRS-V1.1 screening tool. A greater percentage of those who screened positive were younger, reported previous ADHD diagnosis and medication use, distress, antisocial behavior, anti-anxiety and antidepressant medication use, substance use, and social problems compared to those who screened negative. However, there were no statistically significant differences between those who screened positive or negative for ADHD symptoms on self-reported driving after having 2 or more drinks in the previous hour; within an hour of using cannabis, marijuana, or hash; or in a

  1. The effect of a family-based mindfulness intervention on children with attention deficit and hyperactivity symptoms and their parents: design and rationale for a randomized, controlled clinical trial (Study protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Herman H M; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wong, Janet Y H; Wong, Simpson W L; Yeung, Jerf W K

    2016-03-15

    About 4 % of children in Hong Kong have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The parents of children with ADHD report higher levels of stress and show more negative parenting behavior. Medication and behavior training are evidence-based treatments, but both show significant limitations. In short, medical treatment is not suitable for preschool children and would suppress growth, whereas parents under stress may not be capable of consistently applying behavior management skills. Mindfulness training can improve attention and facilitate cognitive development and overall functioning. It has been widely adopted as a treatment option in health care, but its application in a family context is limited. In this context, a family-based mindfulness intervention (FBMI) has been developed to promote the attention and mental health of children with attention symptoms and to reduce the stress experienced by their parents. This article describes the design and conduct of the trial. A multicenter, 8-week, waitlist, randomized controlled trial of FBMI is currently being conducted in Hong Kong (from mid-2015 to mid-2016). Its effectiveness will be examined by comparing the participants who receive treatment to those in a waitlist control group. The study population consists of one hundred twenty children with ADHD, or with symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity, between 5 and 7 years of age and their parents. To be included in the study, the children are required to meet or exceed the borderline cutoff score of the Chinese version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviors Rating Scale (SWAN-C). The primary outcome measures are the children's ADHD symptoms and behavior and the parents' stress. The secondary outcome measures include the children's overall behavioral problems and performance on the Attention Network Test, the parents' ADHD symptoms, the parents' mindful parenting scores, and heart rate variability of parents. This study is

  2. Effects of different deficit irrigation on sugar accumulation of pineapple during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haiyan; Du, Liqing; Liu, Shenghui; Zhang, Xiumei

    2017-08-01

    The potted pineapple cultivar ‘Comte de paris’ was used to study the influence of deficit irrigation on fruit sugar accumulation in greenhouse during the fruit enlargement period. The study included a control (normal irrigation) and two treatment groups, moderate deficit (50% of the control irrigation) and severe deficit (25% of the control irrigation). The results indicated that the deficit irrigation significantly decreased the sucrose accumulation. The sucrose content in the fruits of moderate deficit irrigation was the lowest. During the mature period, the deficit irrigation decreased the sucrose phosophate synthase activity(SPS) an increased the sucrose synthase (SS) and neutral invertase (NI). The moderate deficit irrigation significantly improved the acid invertase activity(AI). However, it was inhibited by the severe deficit irrigation. In general, the moderate treatment reduced the SPS activity and enhanced the NI and AI activities, while the severe treatment decreased the SPS and AI activities.

  3. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction: description of a RIN-based algorithm for accurate data normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boissière-Michot Florence

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is the gold standard technique for mRNA quantification, but appropriate normalization is required to obtain reliable data. Normalization to accurately quantitated RNA has been proposed as the most reliable method for in vivo biopsies. However, this approach does not correct differences in RNA integrity. Results In this study, we evaluated the effect of RNA degradation on the quantification of the relative expression of nine genes (18S, ACTB, ATUB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT, POLR2L, PSMB6 and RPLP0 that cover a wide expression spectrum. Our results show that RNA degradation could introduce up to 100% error in gene expression measurements when RT-qPCR data were normalized to total RNA. To achieve greater resolution of small differences in transcript levels in degraded samples, we improved this normalization method by developing a corrective algorithm that compensates for the loss of RNA integrity. This approach allowed us to achieve higher accuracy, since the average error for quantitative measurements was reduced to 8%. Finally, we applied our normalization strategy to the quantification of EGFR, HER2 and HER3 in 104 rectal cancer biopsies. Taken together, our data show that normalization of gene expression measurements by taking into account also RNA degradation allows much more reliable sample comparison. Conclusion We developed a new normalization method of RT-qPCR data that compensates for loss of RNA integrity and therefore allows accurate gene expression quantification in human biopsies.

  4. Assessment of a novel multi-array normalization method based on spike-in control probes suitable for microRNA datasets with global decreases in expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewer, Alain; Gubian, Sylvain; Kogel, Ulrike; Veljkovic, Emilija; Han, Wanjiang; Hengstermann, Arnd; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2014-05-17

    High-quality expression data are required to investigate the biological effects of microRNAs (miRNAs). The goal of this study was, first, to assess the quality of miRNA expression data based on microarray technologies and, second, to consolidate it by applying a novel normalization method. Indeed, because of significant differences in platform designs, miRNA raw data cannot be normalized blindly with standard methods developed for gene expression. This fundamental observation motivated the development of a novel multi-array normalization method based on controllable assumptions, which uses the spike-in control probes to adjust the measured intensities across arrays. Raw expression data were obtained with the Exiqon dual-channel miRCURY LNA™ platform in the "common reference design" and processed as "pseudo-single-channel". They were used to apply several quality metrics based on the coefficient of variation and to test the novel spike-in controls based normalization method. Most of the considerations presented here could be applied to raw data obtained with other platforms. To assess the normalization method, it was compared with 13 other available approaches from both data quality and biological outcome perspectives. The results showed that the novel multi-array normalization method reduced the data variability in the most consistent way. Further, the reliability of the obtained differential expression values was confirmed based on a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction experiment performed for a subset of miRNAs. The results reported here support the applicability of the novel normalization method, in particular to datasets that display global decreases in miRNA expression similarly to the cigarette smoke-exposed mouse lung dataset considered in this study. Quality metrics to assess between-array variability were used to confirm that the novel spike-in controls based normalization method provided high-quality miRNA expression data

  5. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  6. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  7. NOMAD-Ref: visualization, deformation and refinement of macromolecular structures based on all-atom normal mode analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Erik; Azuara, Cyril; Koehl, Patrice; Delarue, Marc

    2006-07-01

    Normal mode analysis (NMA) is an efficient way to study collective motions in biomolecules that bypasses the computational costs and many limitations associated with full dynamics simulations. The NOMAD-Ref web server presented here provides tools for online calculation of the normal modes of large molecules (up to 100,000 atoms) maintaining a full all-atom representation of their structures, as well as access to a number of programs that utilize these collective motions for deformation and refinement of biomolecular structures. Applications include the generation of sets of decoys with correct stereochemistry but arbitrary large amplitude movements, the quantification of the overlap between alternative conformations of a molecule, refinement of structures against experimental data, such as X-ray diffraction structure factors or Cryo-EM maps and optimization of docked complexes by modeling receptor/ligand flexibility through normal mode motions. The server can be accessed at the URL http://lorentz.immstr.pasteur.fr/nomad-ref.php.

  8. Beyond the knowledge deficit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus Staffan; Holm, Lotte; Frewer, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    The paper reviews psychological and social scientific research on lay attitudes to food risks. Many experts (scientists, food producers and public health advisors) regard public unease about food risks as excessive. This expert-lay discrepancy is often attributed to a 'knowledge deficit' among la...... in institutions and experts. It suggests that an interdisciplinary, contextualised and psychologically sound approach to the study of risk is needed.......The paper reviews psychological and social scientific research on lay attitudes to food risks. Many experts (scientists, food producers and public health advisors) regard public unease about food risks as excessive. This expert-lay discrepancy is often attributed to a 'knowledge deficit' among lay...... people. However, much research in psychology and sociology suggests that lay risk assessments are complex, situationally sensitive expressions of personal value systems. The paper is organised around four themes: risk perception, the communication of risk, lay handling of risk, and public trust...

  9. NormaCurve: a SuperCurve-based method that simultaneously quantifies and normalizes reverse phase protein array data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Troncale

    Full Text Available MOTIVATION: Reverse phase protein array (RPPA is a powerful dot-blot technology that allows studying protein expression levels as well as post-translational modifications in a large number of samples simultaneously. Yet, correct interpretation of RPPA data has remained a major challenge for its broad-scale application and its translation into clinical research. Satisfying quantification tools are available to assess a relative protein expression level from a serial dilution curve. However, appropriate tools allowing the normalization of the data for external sources of variation are currently missing. RESULTS: Here we propose a new method, called NormaCurve, that allows simultaneous quantification and normalization of RPPA data. For this, we modified the quantification method SuperCurve in order to include normalization for (i background fluorescence, (ii variation in the total amount of spotted protein and (iii spatial bias on the arrays. Using a spike-in design with a purified protein, we test the capacity of different models to properly estimate normalized relative expression levels. The best performing model, NormaCurve, takes into account a negative control array without primary antibody, an array stained with a total protein stain and spatial covariates. We show that this normalization is reproducible and we discuss the number of serial dilutions and the number of replicates that are required to obtain robust data. We thus provide a ready-to-use method for reliable and reproducible normalization of RPPA data, which should facilitate the interpretation and the development of this promising technology. AVAILABILITY: The raw data, the scripts and the normacurve package are available at the following web site: http://microarrays.curie.fr.

  10. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime O. Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered as among the most common yet serious brain disorders significant number of children are subjected to; the seriousness of which manifests in the ability of the disorder to continue to show up even after the childhood years, during the period of adolescence as well as adulthood. Considering the findings delivered by Brain Imaging Studies conducted on youth, it is revealed that people suffering from ADHD experiences del...

  11. Attention deficits and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Geneviève; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2014-09-01

    Building on previous work on the role of attention deficits associated with the regulation of executive control in psychiatric disorders, we examine whether these attention deficits are related to an interpersonal disturbance, the experience of divorce. Attentional capacities of 95 randomly selected couples from the general population were measured with a well-established task, the Attentional Network Task, which assesses the efficiency of 3 attention networks (that is, alerting, orienting, and executive control). Among the 190 participants, 32 had experienced a divorce in the past. ANCOVAs were used to compare divorced people in marital or cohabiting unions with people in first unions in their performance on this purely cognitive task. Our findings indicate that divorced people who are currently living in a cohabiting relationship show significantly lower executive control than other adults living as couples, after controlling for sex, age, income, and education. This subgroup of divorced people not only exhibit greater difficulty in responding to some stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones but also manifest cognitive deficits in conflict resolution. This study highlights the links between attention and the long-term maintenance of intimate relationships. Our results may have important implications for the identification of people at risk for divorce.

  12. Ballistic deficit correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, G.; Moszynski, M.; Curien, D.

    1991-01-01

    The EUROGAM data-acquisition has to handle a large number of events/s. Typical in-beam experiments using heavy-ion fusion reactions assume the production of about 50 000 compound nuclei per second deexciting via particle and γ-ray emissions. The very powerful γ-ray detection of EUROGAM is expected to produce high-fold event rates as large as 10 4 events/s. Such high count rates introduce, in a common dead time mode, large dead times for the whole system associated with the processing of the pulse, its digitization and its readout (from the preamplifier pulse up to the readout of the information). In order to minimize the dead time the shaping time constant τ, usually about 3 μs for large volume Ge detectors has to be reduced. Smaller shaping times, however, will adversely affect the energy resolution due to ballistic deficit. One possible solution is to operate the linear amplifier, with a somewhat smaller shaping time constant (in the present case we choose τ = 1.5 μs), in combination with a ballistic deficit compensator. The ballistic deficit can be corrected in different ways using a Gated Integrator, a hardware correction or even a software correction. In this paper we present a comparative study of the software and hardware corrections as well as gated integration

  13. A Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Population-Based Paediatric Cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Middeldorp, Christel M.; Hammerschlag, Anke R.; Ouwens, Klaasjan G.; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; St. Pourcain, Beate; Greven, Corina U.; Pappa, Irene; Tiesler, Carla M.T.; Ang, Wei; Nolte, Ilja M.; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Bacelis, Jonas; Ebejer, Jane L.; Zhao, Huiying; Davies, Gareth E.

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo elucidate the influence of common genetic variants on childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, to identify genetic variants that explain its high heritability, and to investigate the genetic overlap of ADHD symptom scores with ADHD diagnosis.MethodWithin the EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortium, genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ADHD symptom scores were available for 17,666 children (< 13 years) from nine ...

  14. Knowledge deficit, attitude and behavior scales association to objective measures of sun exposure and sunburn in a Danish population based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køster, Brian; Søndergaard, Jens; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Christensen, Karl Bang; Allen, Martin; Olsen, Anja; Bentzen, Joan

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop new scales measuring knowledge and attitude about UVR and sun related behavior, and to examine their association to sun related behavior objectively measured by personal dosimetry. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week that measured their UVR exposure. Afterwards, they answered a questionnaire on sun-related items. We applied descriptive analysis, linear and logistic regression analysis to evaluate the associations between the questionnaire scales and objective UVR measures. Perceiving protection as routine and important were positively correlated with protective behavior. Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma, perceived benefits and importance of protection behavior was also correlated with use of protection. 'Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma and Perceived barrier towards sun avoidance between 12 and 15' were both associated with increased risk of sunburn. Attitude towards tan was associated to both outdoor time and exposure as well as use of protection, but not to sunburn. The results regarding Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma associated to UVR exposure and Perceived barrier towards sun avoidance between 12 and 15 emphasize the importance of awareness of melanoma risk and the priority of the skin cancer prevention advice. Shifting activities to outside the suns peak-hours could be an approach for structural and campaign preventive measures. Knowledge of items predicting exposure to UVR, use of protection and sunburn are important for planning of preventive interventions and melanoma research.

  15. Increasing Northern Hemisphere water deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A monthly water-balance model is used with CRUTS3.1 gridded monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) data to examine changes in global water deficit (PET minus actual evapotranspiration) for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) for the years 1905 through 2009. Results show that NH deficit increased dramatically near the year 2000 during both the cool (October through March) and warm (April through September) seasons. The increase in water deficit near 2000 coincides with a substantial increase in NH temperature and PET. The most pronounced increases in deficit occurred for the latitudinal band from 0 to 40°N. These results indicate that global warming has increased the water deficit in the NH and that the increase since 2000 is unprecedented for the 1905 through 2009 period. Additionally, coincident with the increase in deficit near 2000, mean NH runoff also increased due to increases in P. We explain the apparent contradiction of concurrent increases in deficit and increases in runoff.

  16. BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) serum levels in schizophrenic patients with cognitive deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, N.; Effendy, E.; Amin, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with cognitive impairment as the main part. BDNF regulates aspects of developmental plasticity in the brain and is involved in cognitive function. Cognitive functions include capabilities such as attention, executive functioning, assessing, monitoring and evaluating. The aim of the study was to know the BDNF levels in schizophrenic patients with cognitive deficits. The study was held in October 2016 - March 2017, and was the first in Indonesia, especially in North Sumatra. The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the University of North Sumatera. The study is descriptive based on a retrospective method with cross-sectional approach. The subject is 40 male schizophrenia. Cognitive deficits were assessed by MoCA-Ina. BDNF serum levels were analyzed using the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The average MoCA-Ina score is 21.03±5.21. This suggests that there is a cognitive function deficit in schizophrenic patients. The mean serum BDNF level was 26629±6762. MoCA-Ina scores in schizophrenic patients <26 who experienced a deficit of 77.5% and serum BDNF levels with normal values ranging from 6.186 to 42.580pg/ml.

  17. Associative (prosop)agnosia without (apparent) perceptual deficits: a case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaki, David; Kaufman, Yakir; Freedman, Morris; Moscovitch, Morris

    2007-04-09

    In associative agnosia early perceptual processing of faces or objects are considered to be intact, while the ability to access stored semantic information about the individual face or object is impaired. Recent claims, however, have asserted that associative agnosia is also characterized by deficits at the perceptual level, which are too subtle to be detected by current neuropsychological tests. Thus, the impaired identification of famous faces or common objects in associative agnosia stems from difficulties in extracting the minute perceptual details required to identify a face or an object. In the present study, we report the case of a patient DBO with a left occipital infarct, who shows impaired object and famous face recognition. Despite his disability, he exhibits a face inversion effect, and is able to select a famous face from among non-famous distractors. In addition, his performance is normal in an immediate and delayed recognition memory for faces, whose external features were deleted. His deficits in face recognition are apparent only when he is required to name a famous face, or select two faces from among a triad of famous figures based on their semantic relationships (a task which does not require access to names). The nature of his deficits in object perception and recognition are similar to his impairments in the face domain. This pattern of behavior supports the notion that apperceptive and associative agnosia reflect distinct and dissociated deficits, which result from damage to different stages of the face and object recognition process.

  18. Velocity Deficits in the Wake of Model Lemon Shark Dorsal Fins Measured with Particle Image Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, K. N.; Turner, V.; Hackett, E.

    2017-12-01

    Aquatic animals' morphology provides inspiration for human technological developments, as their bodies have evolved and become adapted for efficient swimming. Lemon sharks exhibit a uniquely large second dorsal fin that is nearly the same size as the first fin, the hydrodynamic role of which is unknown. This experimental study looks at the drag forces on a scale model of the Lemon shark's unique two-fin configuration in comparison to drag forces on a more typical one-fin configuration. The experiments were performed in a recirculating water flume, where the wakes behind the scale models are measured using particle image velocimetry. The experiments are performed at three different flow speeds for both fin configurations. The measured instantaneous 2D distributions of the streamwise and wall-normal velocity components are ensemble averaged to generate streamwise velocity vertical profiles. In addition, velocity deficit profiles are computed from the difference between these mean streamwise velocity profiles and the free stream velocity, which is computed based on measured flow rates during the experiments. Results show that the mean velocities behind the fin and near the fin tip are smallest and increase as the streamwise distance from the fin tip increases. The magnitude of velocity deficits increases with increasing flow speed for both fin configurations, but at all flow speeds, the two-fin configurations generate larger velocity deficits than the one-fin configurations. Because the velocity deficit is directly proportional to the drag force, these results suggest that the two-fin configuration produces more drag.

  19. Heritability of performance deficit accumulation during acute sleep deprivation in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuna, Samuel T; Maislin, Greg; Pack, Frances M; Staley, Bethany; Hachadoorian, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F; Pack, Allan I

    2012-09-01

    To determine if the large and highly reproducible interindividual differences in rates of performance deficit accumulation during sleep deprivation, as determined by the number of lapses on a sustained reaction time test, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), arise from a heritable trait. Prospective, observational cohort study. Academic medical center. There were 59 monozygotic (mean age 29.2 ± 6.8 [SD] yr; 15 male and 44 female pairs) and 41 dizygotic (mean age 26.6 ± 7.6 yr; 15 male and 26 female pairs) same-sex twin pairs with a normal polysomnogram. Thirty-eight hr of monitored, continuous sleep deprivation. Patients performed the 10-min PVT every 2 hr during the sleep deprivation protocol. The primary outcome was change from baseline in square root transformed total lapses (response time ≥ 500 ms) per trial. Patient-specific linear rates of performance deficit accumulation were separated from circadian effects using multiple linear regression. Using the classic approach to assess heritability, the intraclass correlation coefficients for accumulating deficits resulted in a broad sense heritability (h(2)) estimate of 0.834. The mean within-pair and among-pair heritability estimates determined by analysis of variance-based methods was 0.715. When variance components of mixed-effect multilevel models were estimated by maximum likelihood estimation and used to determine the proportions of phenotypic variance explained by genetic and nongenetic factors, 51.1% (standard error = 8.4%, P performance deficit accumulations on PVT during sleep deprivation.

  20. Attention Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit Disorder with or without Hyperactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Zalsman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to differentiate the attention patterns associated with attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity using continuous performance test (CPT. The diagnoses were based on the DSM-III, III-R, and IV criteria and of the 39 children who participated in the study, 14 had attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADDH and 11 had attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity (ADDWO, while 14 normal children served as a control group. Attention patterns were examined according to the performance of subjects on the CPT and parental scores on the ADHD Rating Scale, the Child Attention Profile, and the Conners Rating Scale. CPT performances were assessed before and after administration of 10 mg methylphenidate. We found as hypothesized that the CPT differentiated between the ADDH and ADDWO groups. However, contrary to our expectations, the ADDH children made more omission errors than the ADDWO children; they also showed more hyperactivity and impulsivity. The performance of both groups improved to an equal degree after the administration of methylphenidate. It is conluded that different subtypes of the attention deficit disorders are characterized by different attention profiles and that methylphenidate improves scores on test of continuous performance.

  1. Pattern visual evoked potentials in dyslexic versus normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Heravian

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The sensitivity of PVEP has high validity to detect visual deficits in children with dyslexic problem. However, no significant difference was found between dyslexia and normal children using high contrast stimuli.

  2. Evidence for deficits in the temporal attention span of poor readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Troy A W

    2014-01-01

    While poor reading is often associated with phonological deficits, many studies suggest that visual processing might also be impaired. In particular, recent research has indicated that poor readers show impaired spatial visual attention spans in partial and whole report tasks. Given the similarities between competition-based accounts for reduced visual attention span and similar explanations for impairments in sequential object processing, the present work examined whether poor readers show deficits in their "temporal attention span"--that is, their ability to rapidly and accurately process sequences of consecutive target items. Poor and normal readers monitored a sequential stream of visual items for two (TT condition) or three (TTT condition) consecutive target digits. Target identification was examined using both unconditional and conditional measures of accuracy in order to gauge the overall likelihood of identifying a target and the likelihood of identifying a target given successful identification of previous items. Compared to normal readers, poor readers showed small but consistent deficits in identification across targets whether unconditional or conditional accuracy was used. Additionally, in the TTT condition, final-target conditional accuracy was poorer than unconditional accuracy, particularly for poor readers, suggesting a substantial cost arising from processing the previous two targets that was not present in normal readers. Mirroring the differences found between poor and normal readers in spatial visual attention span, the present findings suggest two principal differences between the temporal attention spans of poor and normal readers. First, the consistent pattern of reduced performance across targets suggests increased competition amongst items within the same span for poor readers. Second, the steeper decline in final target performance amongst poor readers in the TTT condition suggests a reduction in the extent of their temporal attention

  3. Evidence for deficits in the temporal attention span of poor readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy A W Visser

    Full Text Available While poor reading is often associated with phonological deficits, many studies suggest that visual processing might also be impaired. In particular, recent research has indicated that poor readers show impaired spatial visual attention spans in partial and whole report tasks. Given the similarities between competition-based accounts for reduced visual attention span and similar explanations for impairments in sequential object processing, the present work examined whether poor readers show deficits in their "temporal attention span"--that is, their ability to rapidly and accurately process sequences of consecutive target items.Poor and normal readers monitored a sequential stream of visual items for two (TT condition or three (TTT condition consecutive target digits. Target identification was examined using both unconditional and conditional measures of accuracy in order to gauge the overall likelihood of identifying a target and the likelihood of identifying a target given successful identification of previous items. Compared to normal readers, poor readers showed small but consistent deficits in identification across targets whether unconditional or conditional accuracy was used. Additionally, in the TTT condition, final-target conditional accuracy was poorer than unconditional accuracy, particularly for poor readers, suggesting a substantial cost arising from processing the previous two targets that was not present in normal readers.Mirroring the differences found between poor and normal readers in spatial visual attention span, the present findings suggest two principal differences between the temporal attention spans of poor and normal readers. First, the consistent pattern of reduced performance across targets suggests increased competition amongst items within the same span for poor readers. Second, the steeper decline in final target performance amongst poor readers in the TTT condition suggests a reduction in the extent of their

  4. Predicting the required number of training samples. [for remotely sensed image data based on covariance matrix estimate quality criterion of normal distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayeh, H. M.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    A criterion which measures the quality of the estimate of the covariance matrix of a multivariate normal distribution is developed. Based on this criterion, the necessary number of training samples is predicted. Experimental results which are used as a guide for determining the number of training samples are included. Previously announced in STAR as N82-28109

  5. Communication: Density functional theory model for multi-reference systems based on the exact-exchange hole normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laqua, Henryk; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2018-03-28

    The correct description of multi-reference electronic ground states within Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) requires an ensemble-state representation, employing fractionally occupied orbitals. However, the use of fractional orbital occupation leads to non-normalized exact-exchange holes, resulting in large fractional-spin errors for conventional approximative density functionals. In this communication, we present a simple approach to directly include the exact-exchange-hole normalization into DFT. Compared to conventional functionals, our model strongly improves the description for multi-reference systems, while preserving the accuracy in the single-reference case. We analyze the performance of our proposed method at the example of spin-averaged atoms and spin-restricted bond dissociation energy surfaces.

  6. Performance improvement of two-dimensional EUV spectroscopy based on high frame rate CCD and signal normalization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.M.; Morita, S.; Ohishi, T.; Goto, M.; Huang, X.L.

    2014-01-01

    In the Large Helical Device (LHD), the performance of two-dimensional (2-D) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy with wavelength range of 30-650A has been improved by installing a high frame rate CCD and applying a signal intensity normalization method. With upgraded 2-D space-resolved EUV spectrometer, measurement of 2-D impurity emission profiles with high horizontal resolution is possible in high-density NBI discharges. The variation in intensities of EUV emission among a few discharges is significantly reduced by normalizing the signal to the spectral intensity from EUV_—Long spectrometer which works as an impurity monitor with high-time resolution. As a result, high resolution 2-D intensity distribution has been obtained from CIV (384.176A), CV(2x40.27A), CVI(2x33.73A) and HeII(303.78A). (author)

  7. Communication: Density functional theory model for multi-reference systems based on the exact-exchange hole normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laqua, Henryk; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2018-03-01

    The correct description of multi-reference electronic ground states within Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) requires an ensemble-state representation, employing fractionally occupied orbitals. However, the use of fractional orbital occupation leads to non-normalized exact-exchange holes, resulting in large fractional-spin errors for conventional approximative density functionals. In this communication, we present a simple approach to directly include the exact-exchange-hole normalization into DFT. Compared to conventional functionals, our model strongly improves the description for multi-reference systems, while preserving the accuracy in the single-reference case. We analyze the performance of our proposed method at the example of spin-averaged atoms and spin-restricted bond dissociation energy surfaces.

  8. Complementary-relationship-based 30 year normals (1981-2010) of monthly latent heat fluxes across the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    2015-11-01

    Thirty year normal (1981-2010) monthly latent heat fluxes (ET) over the conterminous United States were estimated by a modified Advection-Aridity model from North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) radiation and wind as well as Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) air and dew-point temperature data. Mean annual ET values were calibrated with PRISM precipitation (P) and validated against United States Geological Survey runoff (Q) data. At the six-digit Hydrologic Unit Code level (sample size of 334) the estimated 30 year normal runoff (P - ET) had a bias of 18 mm yr-1, a root-mean-square error of 96 mm yr-1, and a linear correlation coefficient value of 0.95, making the estimates on par with the latest Land Surface Model results but without the need for soil and vegetation information or any soil moisture budgeting.

  9. WATER DEFICIT EFFECT ON YIELD AND FORAGE QUALITY OF MEDICAGO SATIVA POPULATIONS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS IN MARRAKESH AREA (MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed FARISSI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused the effect of water deficit on agronomic potential and some traits related to forage quality in plants of Moroccan Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. populations (Taf 1, Taf 2, Dem and Tata originated from Oasis and High Atlas of Morocco and an introduced variety from Australia (Siriver. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in experimental station of INRA-Marrakech and under two irrigation treatments. The first treatment was normal irrigation, providing an amount of water corresponding to the potential evapo-transpiration of the crop, and the second treatment was water deficit stress (one irrigation per cut. For each treatment, the experiment was conducted as a split plot based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. The plants were measured and analyzed over three cuts. Some agronomic traits as, plant height, fresh and dry forage yields were measured. The forage quality was evaluated by leaf:stem ratio and the contents of plants in proteins and nitrogen. The results indicated that the water deficit has negatively affected the plant height and forage yield. The decrease in leaf:stem ratio was observed under water deficit conditions. However, the proteins and nitrogen contents were unaffected. The behavior of tested alfalfa genotypes was significantly different. The Moroccan alfalfa populations were more adapted to water deficit conditions comparatively to Siriver variety and the Tata population was the most adapted one.

  10. Bases, Stages and 'Working Your Way Up': Young People's Talk About Non-Coital Practices and 'Normal' Sexual Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Lewis; Cicely Marston; Kaye Wellings

    2013-01-01

    While the symbolic importance of 'losing your virginity' has been described in many settings, meanings of non-coital sexual experiences, such as oral sex and hand-genital contact, are often missing from theorisation of sexual transitions. Drawing on data from a qualitative mixed methods study with young people aged 16-18 in England (the 'sixteen18 project'), we explore normative expectations about non-coital sex and sexual trajectories. Our study demonstrates how gendered talk about a 'normal...

  11. Smoking status and abdominal obesity among normal- and overweight/obese adults: Population-based FINRISK study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeva-Liisa Tuovinen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported direct associations of smoking with body mass index (BMI and abdominal obesity. However, the interplay between them is poorly understood. Our first aim was to investigate the interaction between smoking status and BMI on abdominal obesity (waist circumference, WC. Our second aim was to examine how the association of smoking status with WC varies among normal and overweight/obese men and women. We examined 5833 participants from the National FINRISK 2007 Study. The interactions between smoking and BMI on WC were analyzed. Participants were categorized into eight groups according to BMI (normal weight vs. overweight/obese and smoking status (never smoker, ex-smoker, occasional/light/moderate daily smoker, heavy daily smoker. The associations between each BMI/smoking status -group and WC were analyzed by multiple regressions, the normal-weight never smokers as the reference group. The smoking status by BMI-interaction on WC was significant for women, but not for men. Among the overweight/obese women, ex-smokers (β = 2.73; 1.99, 3.46 and heavy daily smokers (β = 4.90; 3.35, 6.44 had the highest estimates for WC when adjusted for age, BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity. In comparison to never smoking overweight/obese women, the β-coefficients of ex-smokers and heavy daily smokers were significantly higher. Among men and normal weight women the β -coefficients did not significantly differ by smoking status. An interaction between smoking status and BMI on abdominal obesity was observed in women: overweight/obese heavy daily smokers were particularly vulnerable for abdominal obesity. This risk group should be targeted for cardiovascular disease prevention.

  12. The assessment of anthropogenic impact on the environment in East Fennoscandia based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miulgauzen, Daria; Pankratova, Lubov

    2017-04-01

    Being a part of Eurasian "cold sector", ecosystems of East Fennoscandia may fit in the category of the most vulnerable to any external impact, including anthropogenic one. The productivity of plant communities can serve as an indicator representing the state of ecosystems, especially in disturbed areas. The present research is aimed at the environmental impact assessment caused by the Pechenganikel Mining and Metallurgical Plant based on the plant communities' productivity data on the example of ecosystems of East Fennoscandia. Vegetation productivity was assessed on the basis of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) which is often used for screenings to quantify plant canopy. The essence of the method is that of the difference between the spectral reflectance of vegetation in red and near-infrared regions. The index was calculated on the satellite images of Landsat 8 in IDRISI Kilimanjaro (Clark Labs) according to the equation: N DV I = N-IR- RED-; N IR +RED NIR - spectral reflectance measurements in near-infrared region, RED - spectral reflectance measurements in red region. To compare the index calculations with the information on the state of plant communities, the field studies were carried out in the area of 380 km2 in the vicinity of the Pechenganikel Mining and Metallurgical Plant (Kola Peninsula, Nikel urban-type settlement). As a result, there was created a map in MapInfo Professional 12.5 (Pitney Bowes Software) that represents the vegetation damage at a scale of 1:100,000. The field research has revealed the morphogenetic discrepancy between the soil-plant cover of the area in question and the one of "zonal" ecosystems. Plant communities have been widely modified or destroyed because of air pollution and there are numerous disturbances in the soil profile structure. In terms of vegetation productivity, the analysis of the NDVI figures has shown that the closer the pollution source (Pechenganikel Plant) is, the more significant the

  13. Nonlinear spectral imaging of human normal skin, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, S. Y.; Yang, J. G.; Zhuang, J.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we use nonlinear spectral imaging based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) for analyzing the morphology of collagen and elastin and their biochemical variations in basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and normal skin tissue. It was found in this work that there existed apparent differences among BCC, SCC and normal skin in terms of their thickness of the keratin and epithelial layers, their size of elastic fibers, as well as their distribution and spectral characteristics of collagen. These differences can potentially be used to distinguish BCC and SCC from normal skin, and to discriminate between BCC and SCC, as well as to evaluate treatment responses.

  14. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  15. Knowledge deficit, attitude and behavior scales association to objective measures of sun exposure and sunburn in a Danish population based sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Brian; Søndergaard, Jens; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2017-01-01

    12 and 15' were both associated with increased risk of sunburn. Attitude towards tan was associated to both outdoor time and exposure as well as use of protection, but not to sunburn. The results regarding Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma associated to UVR exposure and Perceived barrier...... towards sun avoidance between 12 and 15 emphasize the importance of awareness of melanoma risk and the priority of the skin cancer prevention advice. Shifting activities to outside the suns peak-hours could be an approach for structural and campaign preventive measures. Knowledge of items predicting...

  16. Neural Substrates of Auditory Emotion Recognition Deficits in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrowitz, Joshua T; Hoptman, Matthew J; Leitman, David I; Moreno-Ortega, Marta; Lehrfeld, Jonathan M; Dias, Elisa; Sehatpour, Pejman; Laukka, Petri; Silipo, Gail; Javitt, Daniel C

    2015-11-04

    Deficits in auditory emotion recognition (AER) are a core feature of schizophrenia and a key component of social cognitive impairment. AER deficits are tied behaviorally to impaired ability to interpret tonal ("prosodic") features of speech that normally convey emotion, such as modulations in base pitch (F0M) and pitch variability (F0SD). These modulations can be recreated using synthetic frequency modulated (FM) tones that mimic the prosodic contours of specific emotional stimuli. The present study investigates neural mechanisms underlying impaired AER using a combined event-related potential/resting-state functional connectivity (rsfMRI) approach in 84 schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder patients and 66 healthy comparison subjects. Mismatch negativity (MMN) to FM tones was assessed in 43 patients/36 controls. rsfMRI between auditory cortex and medial temporal (insula) regions was assessed in 55 patients/51 controls. The relationship between AER, MMN to FM tones, and rsfMRI was assessed in the subset who performed all assessments (14 patients, 21 controls). As predicted, patients showed robust reductions in MMN across FM stimulus type (p = 0.005), particularly to modulations in F0M, along with impairments in AER and FM tone discrimination. MMN source analysis indicated dipoles in both auditory cortex and anterior insula, whereas rsfMRI analyses showed reduced auditory-insula connectivity. MMN to FM tones and functional connectivity together accounted for ∼50% of the variance in AER performance across individuals. These findings demonstrate that impaired preattentive processing of tonal information and reduced auditory-insula connectivity are critical determinants of social cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, and thus represent key targets for future research and clinical intervention. Schizophrenia patients show deficits in the ability to infer emotion based upon tone of voice [auditory emotion recognition (AER)] that drive impairments in social cognition

  17. Accuracy and uncertainty analysis of soil Bbf spatial distribution estimation at a coking plant-contaminated site based on normalization geostatistical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Niu, Junjie; Zhang, Chao; Guo, Guanlin

    2015-12-01

    Data distribution is usually skewed severely by the presence of hot spots in contaminated sites. This causes difficulties for accurate geostatistical data transformation. Three types of typical normal distribution transformation methods termed the normal score, Johnson, and Box-Cox transformations were applied to compare the effects of spatial interpolation with normal distribution transformation data of benzo(b)fluoranthene in a large-scale coking plant-contaminated site in north China. Three normal transformation methods decreased the skewness and kurtosis of the benzo(b)fluoranthene, and all the transformed data passed the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test threshold. Cross validation showed that Johnson ordinary kriging has a minimum root-mean-square error of 1.17 and a mean error of 0.19, which was more accurate than the other two models. The area with fewer sampling points and that with high levels of contamination showed the largest prediction standard errors based on the Johnson ordinary kriging prediction map. We introduce an ideal normal transformation method prior to geostatistical estimation for severely skewed data, which enhances the reliability of risk estimation and improves the accuracy for determination of remediation boundaries.

  18. Voxel-based analysis of Tc-99 m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Bora [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dong-Won [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: neuroman@catholic.ac.kr; Shim, Yong-Soo; Chung, Sung-Woo [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Kook-Jin; O, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Sohn, Hyung-Sun; Chung, Soo-Kyo [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong-An [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); East-West Research Institute of Translational Medicine (EWTM), Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, Incheon 403-720 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: nm@catholic.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a reversible dementia characterized by gait disturbance, incontinence and dementia. This study investigates the neuropsychological characteristics and changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with iNPH. Ten patients who met the criteria of probable iNPH and 13 normal control subjects were evaluated. The general cognitive function and detailed neuropsychological functions were measured by K-MMSE and comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimmer (Tc-99m-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed to measure the rCBF and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and statistical probabilistic brain anatomic map (SPAM) was applied to the objective analysis of SPECT data. On the neuropsychological examination, all the patients showed abnormality in memory, psychomotor speed and frontal executive function. SPM analysis of SPECT images revealed that rCBF in bilateral thalami, right prefrontal area, bilateral anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, right caudate nucleus, and left parahippocampal gyrus was significantly decreased in patients with iNPH compared to normal controls (uncorrected P<0.005). In SPAM analysis, rCBF reduction was observed in bilateral prefrontal area, anterior, posterior cingulate gyri and caudate nuclei. We have found that rCBF changes occurred predominantly in prefrontal and subcortical areas, the changes were associated with frontal subcortical circuit, and the affected frontal subcortical circuit may contribute to the cognitive decline seen in the iNPH patients. The reduction of rCBF and clinical cognitive impairment are closely connected in patients with iNPH.

  19. Voxel-based analysis of Tc-99 m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Bora; Yang, Dong-Won; Shim, Yong-Soo; Chung, Sung-Woo; Ahn, Kook-Jin; O, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Sohn, Hyung-Sun; Chung, Soo-Kyo; Chung, Yong-An

    2009-01-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a reversible dementia characterized by gait disturbance, incontinence and dementia. This study investigates the neuropsychological characteristics and changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with iNPH. Ten patients who met the criteria of probable iNPH and 13 normal control subjects were evaluated. The general cognitive function and detailed neuropsychological functions were measured by K-MMSE and comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimmer (Tc-99m-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed to measure the rCBF and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and statistical probabilistic brain anatomic map (SPAM) was applied to the objective analysis of SPECT data. On the neuropsychological examination, all the patients showed abnormality in memory, psychomotor speed and frontal executive function. SPM analysis of SPECT images revealed that rCBF in bilateral thalami, right prefrontal area, bilateral anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, right caudate nucleus, and left parahippocampal gyrus was significantly decreased in patients with iNPH compared to normal controls (uncorrected P<0.005). In SPAM analysis, rCBF reduction was observed in bilateral prefrontal area, anterior, posterior cingulate gyri and caudate nuclei. We have found that rCBF changes occurred predominantly in prefrontal and subcortical areas, the changes were associated with frontal subcortical circuit, and the affected frontal subcortical circuit may contribute to the cognitive decline seen in the iNPH patients. The reduction of rCBF and clinical cognitive impairment are closely connected in patients with iNPH.

  20. Silver nanoparticle based surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy of diabetic and normal rat pancreatic tissue under near-infrared laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H; Shi, H; Chen, W; Yu, Y; Lin, D; Xu, Q; Feng, S; Lin, J; Huang, Z; Li, Y; Chen, R

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the use of high spatial resolution silver nanoparticle based near-infrared surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from rat pancreatic tissue to obtain biochrmical information about the tissue. A high quality SERS signal from a mixture of pancreatic tissues and silver nanoparticles can be obtained within 10 s using a Renishaw micro-Raman system. Prominent SERS bands of pancreatic tissue were assigned to known molecular vibrations, such as the vibrations of DNA bases, RNA bases, proteins and lipids. Different tissue structures of diabetic and normal rat pancreatic tissues have characteristic features in SERS spectra. This exploratory study demonstrated great potential for using SERS imaging to distinguish diabetic and normal pancreatic tissues on frozen sections without using dye labeling of functionalized binding sites. (letter)

  1. SU-C-201-04: Quantification of Perfusion Heterogeneity Based On Texture Analysis for Fully Automatic Detection of Ischemic Deficits From Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Y; Huang, H; Su, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Texture-based quantification of image heterogeneity has been a popular topic for imaging studies in recent years. As previous studies mainly focus on oncological applications, we report our recent efforts of applying such techniques on cardiac perfusion imaging. A fully automated procedure has been developed to perform texture analysis for measuring the image heterogeneity. Clinical data were used to evaluate the preliminary performance of such methods. Methods: Myocardial perfusion images of Thallium-201 scans were collected from 293 patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Each subject underwent a Tl-201 scan and a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within three months. The PCI Result was used as the gold standard of coronary ischemia of more than 70% stenosis. Each Tl-201 scan was spatially normalized to an image template for fully automatic segmentation of the LV. The segmented voxel intensities were then carried into the texture analysis with our open-source software Chang Gung Image Texture Analysis toolbox (CGITA). To evaluate the clinical performance of the image heterogeneity for detecting the coronary stenosis, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compute the overall accuracy, sensitivity and specificity as well as the area under curve (AUC). Those indices were compared to those obtained from the commercially available semi-automatic software QPS. Results: With the fully automatic procedure to quantify heterogeneity from Tl-201 scans, we were able to achieve a good discrimination with good accuracy (74%), sensitivity (73%), specificity (77%) and AUC of 0.82. Such performance is similar to those obtained from the semi-automatic QPS software that gives a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 77%. Conclusion: Based on fully automatic procedures of data processing, our preliminary data indicate that the image heterogeneity of myocardial perfusion imaging can provide useful information for automatic determination

  2. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties.

  3. Assessing colonic anatomy normal values based on air contrast enemas in children younger than 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppen, Ilan J N; Yacob, Desale; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Saps, Miguel; Benninga, Marc A; Cooper, Jennifer N; Minneci, Peter C; Deans, Katherine J; Bates, D Gregory; Thompson, Benjamin P

    2017-03-01

    Contrast enemas with barium or water-soluble contrast agents are sometimes performed in children with severe intractable constipation to identify anatomical abnormalities. However there are no clear definitions for normal colonic size or abnormalities such as colonic dilation or sigmoid redundancy in children. To describe characteristics of colonic anatomy on air contrast enemas in children without constipation to provide normal values for colonic size ratios in children. We performed a retrospective chart review of children aged 0-5 years who had undergone air contrast enemas for intussusception. The primary outcome measures were the ratios of the diameters and lengths of predetermined colonic segments (lengths of rectosigmoid and descending colon; diameters of rectum, sigmoid, descending colon, transverse colon and ascending colon) in relation to the L2 vertebral body width. We included 119 children (median age 2.0 years, range 0-5 years, 68% boys). Colonic segment length ratios did not change significantly with age, although the differences for the rectosigmoid/L2 ratio were borderline significant (P = 0.05). The ratios that involved the rectal and ascending colon diameters increased significantly with age, while diameter ratios involving the other colonic segments did not. Differences by gender and race were not significant. These data can be used for reference purposes in young children undergoing contrast studies of the colon.

  4. Development of PC based Monte Carlo simulations for the calculation of scanner-specific normalized organ doses from CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J. T. M.; Shrimpton, P. C.; Zankl, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the simulation of contemporary computed tomography (CT) scanners using Monte Carlo calculation methods to derive normalized organ doses, which enable hospital physicists to estimate typical organ and effective doses for CT examinations. The hardware used in a small PC-cluster at the Health Protection Agency (HPA) for these calculations is described. Investigations concerning optimization of software, including the radiation transport codes MCNP5 and MCNPX, and the Intel and PGI FORTRAN compilers, are presented in relation to results and calculation speed. Differences in approach for modelling the X-ray source are described and their influences are analysed. Comparisons with previously published calculations at HPA from the early 1990's proved satisfactory for the purposes of quality assurance and are presented in terms of organ dose ratios for whole body exposure and differences in organ location. Influences on normalized effective dose are discussed in relation to choice of cross section library, CT scanner technology (contemporary multi slice versus single slice), definition for effective dose (1990 and 2007 versions) and anthropomorphic phantom (mathematical and voxel). The results illustrate the practical need for the updated scanner-specific dose coefficients presently being calculated at HPA, in order to facilitate improved dosimetry for contemporary CT practice. (authors)

  5. Multiple linear regression approach for the analysis of the relationships between joints mobility and regional pressure-based parameters in the normal-arched foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggi, Paolo; Leardini, Alberto; Giacomozzi, Claudia

    2016-10-03

    Plantar load can be considered as a measure of the foot ability to transmit forces at the foot/ground, or foot/footwear interface during ambulatory activities via the lower limb kinematic chain. While morphological and functional measures have been shown to be correlated with plantar load, no exhaustive data are currently available on the possible relationships between range of motion of foot joints and plantar load regional parameters. Joints' kinematics from a validated multi-segmental foot model were recorded together with plantar pressure parameters in 21 normal-arched healthy subjects during three barefoot walking trials. Plantar pressure maps were divided into six anatomically-based regions of interest associated to corresponding foot segments. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the relationships between pressure-based parameters, joints range of motion and normalized walking speed (speed/subject height). Sagittal- and frontal-plane joint motion were those most correlated to plantar load. Foot joints' range of motion and normalized walking speed explained between 6% and 43% of the model variance (adjusted R 2 ) for pressure-based parameters. In general, those joints' presenting lower mobility during stance were associated to lower vertical force at forefoot and to larger mean and peak pressure at hindfoot and forefoot. Normalized walking speed was always positively correlated to mean and peak pressure at hindfoot and forefoot. While a large variance in plantar pressure data is still not accounted for by the present models, this study provides statistical corroboration of the close relationship between joint mobility and plantar pressure during stance in the normal healthy foot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of an outdoor bicycle-based intervention in healthy rural Indian men with normal and low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, C; Mogensen, P; Thomas, N

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity and low birth weight (LBW) may lead to an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The extent to which LBW individuals may benefit from physical exercise training when compared with those with normal birth weight (NBW) controls is uncertain. We assessed the impact...... of an outdoor exercise intervention on body composition, insulin secretion and action in young men born with LBW and NBW in rural India. A total of 61 LBW and 56 NBW healthy young men were recruited into the study. The individuals were instructed to perform outdoor bicycle exercise training for 45 min every day...... with LBW in rural India benefit metabolically from exercise training to an extent comparable with NBW controls....

  7. Combined T1-based perfusion MRI and MR angiography in kidney: First experience in normals and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dujardin, Martine [Department of Radiology/BEFY, UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: martine.dujardin@gmail.com; Luypaert, Rob [Department of Radiology/BEFY, UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: rluypaer@vub.ac.be; Vandenbroucke, F. [Department of Radiology/BEFY, UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: frederik.vandenbroucke@uzbrussel.be; Van der Niepen, Patricia [Department of Nephrology, UZ Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: hemovnnp@az.vub.ac.be; Sourbron, Steven [Institute of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilian-University Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munchen (Germany)], E-mail: Steven.Sourbron@med.uni-muenchen.de; Verbeelen, Dierik [Department of Nephrology, UZ Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: dierik.verbeelen@uzbrussel.be; Stadnik, T. [Department of Radiology/BEFY, UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: tadeusz.stadnik@uzbrussel.be; Mey, Johan de [Department of Radiology/BEFY, UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: johan.demey@uzbrussel.be

    2009-03-15

    Objectives: To investigate the feasibility of implementing quantitative T1-perfusion in the routine MRA-protocol and to obtain a first experience in normals and pathology. Materials and methods: For perfusion imaging, IR-prepared FLASH (one 4 mm slice at mid-renal level, TR 4.4 ms, TE 2.2 ms, TI 180 ms, FA 50 deg., matrix 128 x 256, bandwidth per pixel 300, 400 dynamics, temporal resolution 0.3 s, total measurement time 2 min) was applied during the injection of 10 ml of standard 0.5 mmol/ml Gadolinium-DTPA solution at 2 ml/s, followed by 3DCE-MRA with bolus tracking (TR 5.4, TE 1.4, FA 40 deg., matrix 192 x 512, NSA 1, slice thickness 1.5 mm), using a second dose of 0.1 mmol Gadolinium-DTPA per kg body weight with a maximum of 20 ml. The T1-weighted signals (perfusion data) were converted to tissue tracer concentrations and deconvolved with an inflow corrected AIF; blood flow, distribution volume, mean transit time and blood flow heterogeneity were derived. Results: MRA quality was uncompromised by the first bolus administered for perfusion purposes. In the normals, average cortical RBF, RVD and MTT were 1.2 ml/min/ml (S.D. 0.3 ml/min/ml), 0.4 ml/ml (S.D. 0.1 ml/ml) and 21 s (S.D. 4 s). These RBF values are lower than those found in the literature, probably due to residual AIF inflow effects. The sensitivity of the technique was sufficient to demonstrate altered perfusion in the examples of pathology. Conclusion: Combined quantitative T1-perfusion and MRA have a potential for noninvasive renovascular screening and may provide an anatomical and physiological evaluation of renal status.

  8. Apparent CBF decrease with normal aging due to partial volume effects: MR-based partial volume correction on CBF SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Ito, Hiroshi; Goto, Ryoi; Nakagawa, Manabu; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Tachio; Sato, Kazunori; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2005-06-01

    Several studies using single photon emission tomography (SPECT) have shown changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) with age, which were associated with partial volume effects by some authors. Some studies have also demonstrated gender-related differences in CBF. The present study aimed to examine age and gender effects on CBF SPECT images obtained using the 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer and a SPECT scanner, before and after partial volume correction (PVC) using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Forty-four healthy subjects (29 males and 15 females; age range, 27-64 y; mean age, 50.0 +/- 9.8 y) participated. Each MR image was segmented to yield grey and white matter images and coregistered to a corresponding SPECT image, followed by convolution to approximate the SPECT spatial resolution. PVC-SPECT images were produced using the convoluted grey matter MR (GM-MR) and white matter MR images. The age and gender effects were assessed using SPM99. Decreases with age were detected in the anterolateral prefrontal cortex and in areas along the lateral sulcus and the lateral ventricle, bilaterally, in the GM-MR images and the SPECT images. In the PVC-SPECT images, decreases in CBF in the lateral prefrontal cortex lost their statistical significance. Decreases in CBF with age found along the lateral sulcus and the lateral ventricle, on the other hand, remained statistically significant, but observation of the spatially normalized MR images suggests that these findings are associated with the dilatation of the lateral sulcus and lateral ventricle, which was not completely compensated for by the spatial normalization procedure. Our present study demonstrated that age effects on CBF in healthy subjects could reflect morphological differences with age in grey matter.

  9. A signal normalization technique for illumination-based synchronization of 1,000-fps real-time vision sensors in dynamic scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Kagami, Shingo; Hashimoto, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    To acquire images of dynamic scenes from multiple points of view simultaneously, the acquisition time of vision sensors should be synchronized. In this paper, an illumination-based synchronization derived from the phase-locked loop (PLL) mechanism based on the signal normalization method is proposed and evaluated. To eliminate the system dependency due to the amplitude fluctuation of the reference illumination, which may be caused by the moving objects or relative positional distance change between the light source and the observed objects, the fluctuant amplitude of the reference signal is normalized framely by the estimated maximum amplitude between the reference signal and its quadrature counterpart to generate a stable synchronization in highly dynamic scenes. Both simulated results and real world experimental results demonstrated successful synchronization result that 1,000-Hz frame rate vision sensors can be successfully synchronized to a LED illumination or its reflected light with satisfactory stability and only 28-μs jitters.

  10. A Signal Normalization Technique for Illumination-Based Synchronization of 1,000-fps Real-Time Vision Sensors in Dynamic Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Hashimoto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To acquire images of dynamic scenes from multiple points of view simultaneously, the acquisition time of vision sensors should be synchronized. In this paper, an illumination-based synchronization derived from the phase-locked loop (PLL mechanism based on the signal normalization method is proposed and evaluated. To eliminate the system dependency due to the amplitude fluctuation of the reference illumination, which may be caused by the moving objects or relative positional distance change between the light source and the observed objects, the fluctuant amplitude of the reference signal is normalized framely by the estimated maximum amplitude between the reference signal and its quadrature counterpart to generate a stable synchronization in highly dynamic scenes. Both simulated results and real world experimental results demonstrated successful synchronization result that 1,000-Hz frame rate vision sensors can be successfully synchronized to a LED illumination or its reflected light with satisfactory stability and only 28-μs jitters.

  11. Widespread auditory deficits in tune deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer L; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Lucker, Jay; Drayna, Dennis

    2009-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate auditory function in individuals with deficits in musical pitch perception. We hypothesized that such individuals have deficits in nonspeech areas of auditory processing. We screened 865 randomly selected individuals to identify those who scored poorly on the Distorted Tunes test (DTT), a measure of musical pitch recognition ability. Those who scored poorly were given a comprehensive audiologic examination, and those with hearing loss or other confounding audiologic factors were excluded from further testing. Thirty-five individuals with tune deafness constituted the experimental group. Thirty-four individuals with normal hearing and normal DTT scores, matched for age, gender, handedness, and education, and without overt or reported psychiatric disorders made up the normal control group. Individual and group performance for pure-tone frequency discrimination at 1000 Hz was determined by measuring the difference limen for frequency (DLF). Auditory processing abilities were assessed using tests of pitch pattern recognition, duration pattern recognition, and auditory gap detection. In addition, we evaluated both attention and short- and long-term memory as variables that might influence performance on our experimental measures. Differences between groups were evaluated statistically using Wilcoxon nonparametric tests and t-tests as appropriate. The DLF at 1000 Hz in the group with tune deafness was significantly larger than that of the normal control group. However, approximately one-third of participants with tune deafness had DLFs within the range of performance observed in the control group. Many individuals with tune deafness also displayed a high degree of variability in their intertrial frequency discrimination performance that could not be explained by deficits in memory or attention. Pitch and duration pattern discrimination and auditory gap-detection ability were significantly poorer in the group with tune deafness

  12. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  13. Smooth quantile normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2018-04-01

    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest. For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available. Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization, referred to as smooth quantile normalization (qsmooth), which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same (or have the same distributional shape) within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. A software implementation is available from https://github.com/stephaniehicks/qsmooth.

  14. The Impact of Financing Surpluses and Large Financing Deficits on Tests of the Pecking Order Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Abe; Verbeek, Marno; Verwijmeren, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the basic pecking order model of Shyam-Sunder and Myers by separating the effects of financing surpluses, normal deficits, and large deficits. Using a panel of US firms over the period 1971-2005, we find that the estimated pecking order coefficient is highest for surpluses (0.90),

  15. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder casts a long shadow: findings from a population-based study of adult women with self-reported ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, E; Lewis, D A; Agbeyaka, S K

    2016-11-01

    To develop a sociodemographic and health profile of women with self-reported attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison to women without. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted on data from the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (2012) comparing 107 women aged 20 to 39 years (inclusive) with ADHD to 3801 without ADHD. Depression, generalized anxiety disorder and substance abuse were measured using the WHO-CIDI. Women with ADHD had triple the prevalence of insomnia, chronic pain, suicidal ideation, childhood sexual abuse and generalized anxiety disorder and double the prevalence of substance abuse, current smoking, depressive disorders, severe poverty and childhood physical abuse in comparison with women without ADHD (all P ADHD had substantially higher odds of a wide range of problems. Our results suggest that women with ADHD are particularly vulnerable to early adversities, health and mental health problems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found

  17. Effectiveness of a telehealth service delivery model for treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a community-based randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kathleen; Vander Stoep, Ann; Zhou, Chuan; McCarty, Carolyn A; Katon, Wayne

    2015-04-01

    To test the effectiveness of a telehealth service delivery model for the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that provided pharmacological treatment and caregiver behavior training. The Children's ADHD Telemental Health Treatment Study (CATTS) was a randomized controlled trial with 223 children referred by 88 primary care providers (PCPs) in 7 communities. Children randomized to the experimental telehealth service model received 6 sessions over 22 weeks of combined pharmacotherapy, delivered by child psychiatrists through videoconferencing, and caregiver behavior training, provided in person by community therapists who were supervised remotely. Children randomized to the control service delivery model received treatment with their PCPs augmented with a telepsychiatry consultation. Outcomes were diagnostic criteria for ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and role performance on the Vanderbilt ADHD Rating Scale (VADRS) completed by caregivers (VADRS-Caregivers) and teachers (VADRS-Teachers) and impairment on the Columbia Impairment Scale-Parent Version (CIS-P). Measures were completed at 5 assessments over 25 weeks. Children in both service models improved. Children assigned to the telehealth service model improved significantly more than children in the augmented primary care arm for VADRS-Caregiver criteria for inattention (χ(2)[4] = 19.47, p ADHD (χ(2)[4] = 14.90, p = .005), ODD (χ(2)[4] = 10.05, p = .04), and VADRS-Caregiver role performance (χ(2) [4] = 12.40, p = .01) and CIS-P impairment (χ(2)[4] = 20.52, p ADHD (χ(2)[4] = 9.72, p = .045). The CATTS trial demonstrated the effectiveness of a telehealth service model to treat ADHD in communities with limited access to specialty mental health services. Clinical trial registration information-Children's Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) Telemental Health Treatment Study; http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00830700. Copyright © 2015 American

  18. Background levels of heavy metals in surficial sediments of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): An approach based on 133Cs normalization and lead isotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussiez, Vincent; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Probst, Jean-Luc; Monaco, Andre

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an attempt to reach natural background levels of heavy metals in surficial sediments of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean). To correct for the grain-size effect, normalization procedures based on a clay mineral indicator element are commonly used, after a first grain size separation by sieving. In our study, we tested the applicability of this method with respect to commonly used normalizer elements, and found that stable Cs shows the best ability to reflect the fine sediment fraction. Background levels were successfully reached for Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb, compared to various literature references. Nevertheless, in the case of lead, the normalized data depicted a general enrichment in all samples, and the natural levels could only be reached when concentrations were corrected for the atmospheric contribution by analysing lead isotope ratios. Also for Zn, a general enrichment was found in our samples, although less important. - Among several potential normalizers, stable Cs ( 133 Cs) depicted the best ability to correct for the grain-size effect of shelf sediments and was used to estimate regional background levels of heavy metals

  19. Normalized STEAM-based diffusion tensor imaging provides a robust assessment of muscle tears in football players: preliminary results of a new approach to evaluate muscle injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, Chiara; Motyka, Stanislav; Weber, Michael; Karner, Manuela; Resinger, Christoph; Feiweier, Thorsten; Trattnig, Siegfried; Bogner, Wolfgang

    2018-02-08

    To assess acute muscle tears in professional football players by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and evaluate the impact of normalization of data. Eight football players with acute lower limb muscle tears were examined. DTI metrics of the injured muscle and corresponding healthy contralateral muscle and of ROIs drawn in muscle tears (ROI tear ) in the corresponding healthy contralateral muscle (ROI hc_t ) in a healthy area ipsilateral to the injury (ROI hi ) and in a corresponding contralateral area (ROI hc_i ) were compared. The same comparison was performed for ratios of the injured (ROI tear /ROI hi ) and contralateral sides (ROI hc_t /ROI hc_i ). ANOVA, Bonferroni-corrected post-hoc and Student's t-tests were used. Analyses of the entire muscle did not show any differences (p>0.05 each) except for axial diffusivity (AD; p=0.048). ROI tear showed higher mean diffusivity (MD) and AD than ROI hc_t (ptear than in ROI hi and ROI hc_t (ptear than in any other ROI (pmuscle tears in athletes especially after normalization to healthy muscle tissue. • STEAM-based DTI allows the investigation of muscle tears affecting professional football players. • Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity differ between injured and healthy muscle areas. • Only normalized data show differences of fibre tracking metrics in muscle tears. • The normalization of DTI-metrics enables a more robust characterization of muscle tears.

  20. Detection of myocardial 123I-BMIPP distribution abnormality in patients with ischemic heart disease based on normal data file in Bull's-eye polar map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobukazu; Ishida, Yoshio; Hirose, Yoshiaki; Kawano, Shigeo; Fukuoka, Syuji; Hayashida, Kohei; Takamiya, Makoto; Nonogi, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    Visual interpretation of 123 I-BMIPP (BMIPP) myocardial images has difficulties in detecting mild reduction in tracer uptake. We studied the significance of the objective assessment of myocardial BMIPP maldistributions at rest by using a Bull's-eye map and its normal data file for detecting ischemic heart disease. Twenty nine patients, 15 with prior myocardial infarction and 14 with effort angina were studied. The initial 15-min BMIPP image was evaluated by visual analysis and by generating the extent Bull's-eye map which exhibits regions with reduced % uptake under mean-2SD of 10 normal controls. The sensitivity for determining coronary lesions in non-infarcted myocardial regions with the extent map was superior to that with visual analysis (67% vs. 33%). In the regions supplied by the stenotic coronary artery, those which showed visually negative but positive in the map and which showed positive in both had higher incidence of wall motion abnormalities and severe coronary stenosis than those with normal findings in both. These results suggest that the objective assessment based on the normal data file in a Bull's-eye polar map is clinically important for improving the limitation or the visual interpretation in 123 I-BMIPP imaging. (author)

  1. CT-based patient modeling for head and neck hyperthermia treatment planning: manual versus automatic normal-tissue-segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaart, René F; Fortunati, Valerio; Verduijn, Gerda M; van Walsum, Theo; Veenland, Jifke F; Paulides, Margarethus M

    2014-04-01

    Clinical trials have shown that hyperthermia, as adjuvant to radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, improves treatment of patients with locally advanced or recurrent head and neck (H&N) carcinoma. Hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) guided H&N hyperthermia is being investigated, which requires patient specific 3D patient models derived from Computed Tomography (CT)-images. To decide whether a recently developed automatic-segmentation algorithm can be introduced in the clinic, we compared the impact of manual- and automatic normal-tissue-segmentation variations on HTP quality. CT images of seven patients were segmented automatically and manually by four observers, to study inter-observer and intra-observer geometrical variation. To determine the impact of this variation on HTP quality, HTP was performed using the automatic and manual segmentation of each observer, for each patient. This impact was compared to other sources of patient model uncertainties, i.e. varying gridsizes and dielectric tissue properties. Despite geometrical variations, manual and automatic generated 3D patient models resulted in an equal, i.e. 1%, variation in HTP quality. This variation was minor with respect to the total of other sources of patient model uncertainties, i.e. 11.7%. Automatically generated 3D patient models can be introduced in the clinic for H&N HTP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CT-based patient modeling for head and neck hyperthermia treatment planning: Manual versus automatic normal-tissue-segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaart, René F.; Fortunati, Valerio; Verduijn, Gerda M.; Walsum, Theo van; Veenland, Jifke F.; Paulides, Margarethus M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Clinical trials have shown that hyperthermia, as adjuvant to radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, improves treatment of patients with locally advanced or recurrent head and neck (H and N) carcinoma. Hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) guided H and N hyperthermia is being investigated, which requires patient specific 3D patient models derived from Computed Tomography (CT)-images. To decide whether a recently developed automatic-segmentation algorithm can be introduced in the clinic, we compared the impact of manual- and automatic normal-tissue-segmentation variations on HTP quality. Material and methods: CT images of seven patients were segmented automatically and manually by four observers, to study inter-observer and intra-observer geometrical variation. To determine the impact of this variation on HTP quality, HTP was performed using the automatic and manual segmentation of each observer, for each patient. This impact was compared to other sources of patient model uncertainties, i.e. varying gridsizes and dielectric tissue properties. Results: Despite geometrical variations, manual and automatic generated 3D patient models resulted in an equal, i.e. 1%, variation in HTP quality. This variation was minor with respect to the total of other sources of patient model uncertainties, i.e. 11.7%. Conclusions: Automatically generated 3D patient models can be introduced in the clinic for H and N HTP

  3. Linguistic coding deficits in foreign language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R; Ganschow, L; Pohlman, J

    1989-01-01

    As increasing numbers of colleges and universities require a foreign language for graduation in at least one of their degree programs, reports of students with difficulties in learning a second language are multiplying. Until recently, little research has been conducted to identify the nature of this problem. Recent attempts by the authors have focused upon subtle but ongoing language difficulties in these individuals as the source of their struggle to learn a foreign language. The present paper attempts to expand upon this concept by outlining a theoretical framework based upon a linguistic coding model that hypothesizes deficits in the processing of phonological, syntactic, and/or semantic information. Traditional psychoeducational assessment batteries of standardized intelligence and achievement tests generally are not sensitive to these linguistic coding deficits unless closely analyzed or, more often, used in conjunction with a more comprehensive language assessment battery. Students who have been waived from a foreign language requirement and their proposed type(s) of linguistic coding deficits are profiled. Tentative conclusions about the nature of these foreign language learning deficits are presented along with specific suggestions for tests to be used in psychoeducational evaluations.

  4. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  5. Dansk standardisering af attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-ratingskalaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Jørgensen, Siv Lykke; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The diagnostic classification is based on developmental anamnesis, objective examination, neuropsychological tests, observation of the child, and evaluation of the symptoms...

  6. Robust Seismic Normal Modes Computation in Radial Earth Models and A Novel Classification Based on Intersection Points of Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, J.; Shi, J.; De Hoop, M. V.

    2017-12-01

    We develop a robust algorithm to compute seismic normal modes in a spherically symmetric, non-rotating Earth. A well-known problem is the cross-contamination of modes near "intersections" of dispersion curves for separate waveguides. Our novel computational approach completely avoids artificial degeneracies by guaranteeing orthonormality among the eigenfunctions. We extend Wiggins' and Buland's work, and reformulate the Sturm-Liouville problem as a generalized eigenvalue problem with the Rayleigh-Ritz Galerkin method. A special projection operator incorporating the gravity terms proposed by de Hoop and a displacement/pressure formulation are utilized in the fluid outer core to project out the essential spectrum. Moreover, the weak variational form enables us to achieve high accuracy across the solid-fluid boundary, especially for Stoneley modes, which have exponentially decaying behavior. We also employ the mixed finite element technique to avoid spurious pressure modes arising from discretization schemes and a numerical inf-sup test is performed following Bathe's work. In addition, the self-gravitation terms are reformulated to avoid computations outside the Earth, thanks to the domain decomposition technique. Our package enables us to study the physical properties of intersection points of waveguides. According to Okal's classification theory, the group velocities should be continuous within a branch of the same mode family. However, we have found that there will be a small "bump" near intersection points, which is consistent with Miropol'sky's observation. In fact, we can loosely regard Earth's surface and the CMB as independent waveguides. For those modes that are far from the intersection points, their eigenfunctions are localized in the corresponding waveguides. However, those that are close to intersection points will have physical features of both waveguides, which means they cannot be classified in either family. Our results improve on Okal

  7. Pure Ethiodized Oil-based Transcatheter Ablative Therapy in Normal Rabbit Kidneys and Kidneys Inoculated with VX-2 Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kónya, András; Stephens, L. Clifton; Wright, Kenneth C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of ablation with selective arterial injection of pure ethiodized oil followed by arterial occlusion with 9:1 ethanol–Ethiodol mixture (EEM) and coil placement in normal rabbit kidneys and kidneys inoculated with VX-2 carcinoma. Materials and Methods: All experiments were conducted with Animal Care and Use Committee approval. In six rabbits (group 1), one kidney was embolized with pure Ethiodol until capillary stasis, followed by injection of 9:1 EEM until arterial stasis and then coil placement into the main renal artery. In 12 other rabbits, one kidney was inoculated with VX-2 tumor. Ethiodol and EEM embolization and coil placement followed 7 days later (group 2, n = 6) or 11–14 days later (group 3, n = 6). Kidneys were evaluated (angiography, computed tomography, macro- and microscopy) 7 days after treatment. Results: Capillary stasis was achieved in groups 1, 2, and 3 with (mean ± standard deviation) 0.47 ± 0.03, 0.53 ± 0.02, and 0.56 ± 0.04 ml of pure Ethiodol, followed by 0.47 ± 0.05, 0.42 ± 0.03, and 0.38 ± 0.04 ml of EEM, respectively, which caused complete arterial occlusion in 17 of 18 kidneys. In group 1, all but one kidney showed at least 95% generalized coagulative necrosis. In group 2, all six kidneys exhibited 100% coagulative necrosis, with no viable tumor present. In group 3, 100% coagulative necrosis was present in all kidneys, with a small viable tumor in one. Conclusion: In the rabbit, selective arterial injection of pure Ethiodol can cause complete renal parenchyma and tumor ablation when it is followed by prompt, contiguous, and permanent occlusion of the arterial compartment.

  8. Registration of FA and T1-weighted MRI data of healthy human brain based on template matching and normalized cross-correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinsky, Milos; Peter, Roman; Hodneland, Erlend; Lundervold, Astri J; Lundervold, Arvid; Jan, Jiri

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we propose a new approach for three-dimensional registration of MR fractional anisotropy images with T1-weighted anatomy images of human brain. From the clinical point of view, this accurate coregistration allows precise detection of nerve fibers that is essential in neuroscience. A template matching algorithm combined with normalized cross-correlation was used for this registration task. To show the suitability of the proposed method, it was compared with the normalized mutual information-based B-spline registration provided by the Elastix software library, considered a reference method. We also propose a general framework for the evaluation of robustness and reliability of both registration methods. Both registration methods were tested by four evaluation criteria on a dataset consisting of 74 healthy subjects. The template matching algorithm has shown more reliable results than the reference method in registration of the MR fractional anisotropy and T1 anatomy image data. Significant differences were observed in the regions splenium of corpus callosum and genu of corpus callosum, considered very important areas of brain connectivity. We demonstrate that, in this registration task, the currently used mutual information-based parametric registration can be replaced by more accurate local template matching utilizing the normalized cross-correlation similarity measure.

  9. Pragmatic communication deficits in children with epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, Mark; Geurts, Hilde; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy have been associated with language deficits. Pragmatic language deficits, however, have seldom been the focus of earlier studies in children with epilepsy. Moreover, it is unknown whether these pragmatic deficits are

  10. A novel normalization method based on principal component analysis to reduce the effect of peak overlaps in two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanwei; Gao, Wenying; Wang, Xiaogong; Yu, Zhiwu

    2008-07-01

    Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) has been widely used to separate overlapped spectroscopic bands. However, band overlap may sometimes cause misleading results in the 2D-COS spectra, especially if one peak is embedded within another peak by the overlap. In this work, we propose a new normalization method, based on principal component analysis (PCA). For each spectrum under discussion, the first principal component of PCA is simply taken as the normalization factor of the spectrum. It is demonstrated that the method works well with simulated dynamic spectra. Successful result has also been obtained from the analysis of an overlapped band in the wavenumber range 1440-1486 cm -1 for the evaporation process of a solution containing behenic acid, methanol, and chloroform.

  11. Reflex control of heart rate in normal subjects in relation to age: a data base for cardiac vagal neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, W.; van Brederode, J. F.; de Rijk, L. G.; Borst, C.; Dunning, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    We examined the heart rate changes induced by forced breathing and by standing up in 133 healthy subjects in the age range 10-65 years in order to establish a data base for studies on parasympathetic heart rate control in autonomic neuropathy. Test results declined with age. Log-transformation was

  12. Effectiveness of zinc supplementation to full term normal infants: a community based double blind, randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Radhakrishna

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to test whether zinc supplementation, if initiated early, can prevent stunting and promote optimum body composition in full term infants. For this, full term pregnant women from low income urban community were enrolled and were followed-up for 24 months postpartum. Body mass index (BMI was calculated from maternal weight and height that were collected one month after delivery. Infants' weight, and length, head, chest and mid upper arm circumferences and skin fold thicknesses at triceps, biceps and subscapular area were collected at baseline (before randomization and once in three months up till 24 months. Three hundred and twenty four infants were randomized and allocated to zinc (163 or placebo (161 groups respectively. Supplementation of zinc was initiated from 4 months of age and continued till children attained 18 months. The control (placebo group of children received riboflavin 0.5 mg/day, whereas the intervention (zinc group received 5 mg zinc plus riboflavin 0.5 mg/day. When infants were 18 months old, dietary intakes (in 78 children were calculated by 24 hour diet recall method and hemoglobin, zinc, copper and vitamin A were quantified in blood samples collected from 70 children. The results showed prevalence of undernutrition (body mass index <18.5 in 37% of the mothers. Mean±SD calorie consumption and zinc intakes from diets in infants were 590±282.8 Kcal/day and 0.97±0.608 mg/day respectively. Multiple linear regression models demonstrated maternal weight as a strong predictor of infants' weight and length at 18 months of age. As expected, diarrhea duration impacted infants' linear growth and weight gain adversely. Zinc supplementation for a mean period of 190 days, starting from 4 months up to 18 months of age, in full term normal infants, consuming an average energy of 590 Kcal/day, had significant effect on the skin fold thicknesses, but not on their linear growth.Clinical Trail Registration India (CTRI CTRI

  13. β2 -microglobulin normalization within 6 months of ibrutinib-based treatment is associated with superior progression-free survival in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Philip A; O'Brien, Susan M; Xiao, Lianchun; Wang, Xuemei; Burger, Jan A; Jain, Nitin; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Estrov, Zeev; Keating, Michael J; Wierda, William G

    2016-02-15

    A high pretreatment β2 -microglobulin (B2M) level is associated with inferior survival outcomes in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. However, to the authors' knowledge, the prognostic and predictive significance of changes in B2M during treatment have not been reported to date. The authors analyzed 83 patients treated with ibrutinib-based regimens (66 with recurrent/refractory disease) and 198 treatment-naive patients who were treated with combined fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) to characterize changes in B2M and their relationship with clinical outcomes. B2M rapidly decreased during treatment with ibrutinib; on multivariable analysis, patients who received FCR (odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.18-0.90 [P = .027]) were less likely to have normalized B2M at 6 months than patients treated with ibrutinib. On univariable analysis, normalization of B2M was associated with superior progression-free survival (PFS) from the 6-month landmark in patients treated with ibrutinib-based regimens and FCR. On multivariable analysis, failure to achieve normalized B2M at 6 months of treatment was associated with inferior PFS (hazard ratio, 16.9; 95% CI, 1.3-220.0 [P = .031]) for patients treated with ibrutinib, after adjusting for the effects of baseline B2M, stage of disease, fludarabine-refractory disease, and del(17p). In contrast, in patients treated with FCR, negative minimal residual disease status in the bone marrow was the only variable found to be significantly associated with superior PFS (hazard ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.12-0.67 [P = .004]). Normalization of B2M at 6 months in patients treated with ibrutinib was found to be a useful predictor of subsequent PFS and may assist in clinical decision-making. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  14. Robotic identification of kinesthetic deficits after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Jennifer A; Herter, Troy M; Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2013-12-01

    Kinesthesia, the sense of body motion, is essential to proper control and execution of movement. Despite its importance for activities of daily living, no current clinical measures can objectively measure kinesthetic deficits. The goal of this study was to use robotic technology to quantify prevalence and severity of kinesthetic deficits of the upper limb poststroke. Seventy-four neurologically intact subjects and 113 subjects with stroke (62 left-affected, 51 right-affected) performed a robot-based kinesthetic matching task with vision occluded. The robot moved the most affected arm at a preset speed, direction, and magnitude. Subjects were instructed to mirror-match the movement with their opposite arm (active arm). A large number of subjects with stroke were significantly impaired on measures of kinesthesia. We observed impairments in ability to match movement direction (69% and 49% impaired for left- and right-affected subjects, respectively) and movement magnitude (42% and 31%). We observed impairments to match movement speed (32% and 27%) and increased response latencies (48% and 20%). Movement direction errors and response latencies were related to clinical measures of function, motor recovery, and dexterity. Using a robotic approach, we found that 61% of acute stroke survivors (n=69) had kinesthetic deficits. Additionally, these deficits were highly related to existing clinical measures, suggesting the importance of kinesthesia in day-to-day function. Our methods allow for more sensitive, accurate, and objective identification of kinesthetic deficits after stroke. With this information, we can better inform clinical treatment strategies to improve poststroke rehabilitative care and outcomes.

  15. Measurement of optic tracts in normal Chinese adults of the Han nationality based on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Changying; Shi Linping; Zhang Yang; Wang Jian; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhuo Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    [(3.33 ± 0.45), (3.34 ± 0.41), ( 3.33 ± 0.36), (3.23 ± 0.38), (3.23 ± 0.39) mm] had statistical differences (F=3.458, 2.735,4.711, P= 0.008, 0.028,0.001). The LSD analysis found that the 50 years old group was the watershed with significant differences (P 0.05). (3) Comparisons of the measurements between left and right optic tracts: TD1 of bilateral optic tracts were (4.52 ± 0.57) and (4.72 ± 0.60) mm respectively; H1 of bilateral optic tracts were (2.56 ± 0.30)and (2.61 ± 0.30) mm respectively; H2 of bilateral optic tracts were (2.66 ± 0.30 )and (2.70 ± 0.30) mm respectively; and L of bilateral optic tracts were (11.14 ± 1.47)and (10.98±1.50)mm respectively. There were significant differences in these measurements between left and right optic tracts (t= 12.460, -6.013,5.595,4.784, P=0.000), while there were no significant differences in TD2, H3, H4 and H5 (P>0.05). Conclusions: With high-resolution MRI and 3D reconstruction, optic tract can be displayed clearly and measured accurately. There are definite differences in anterior segments of optic tracts between sexualities, sides and among ages in normal Chinese Hah adults, while the posterior segments of optic tracts keep stable. Normal reference values of optic tracts in Chinese Han adults are provided to clinical practices and scientific researches, which are valuable for building of Chinese standard brain. (authors)

  16. Normal-Mode Analysis of Circular DNA at the Base-Pair Level. 2. Large-Scale Configurational Transformation of a Naturally Curved Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Atsushi; Tobias, Irwin; Olson, Wilma K

    2005-01-01

    Fine structural and energetic details embedded in the DNA base sequence, such as intrinsic curvature, are important to the packaging and processing of the genetic material. Here we investigate the internal dynamics of a 200 bp closed circular molecule with natural curvature using a newly developed normal-mode treatment of DNA in terms of neighboring base-pair "step" parameters. The intrinsic curvature of the DNA is described by a 10 bp repeating pattern of bending distortions at successive base-pair steps. We vary the degree of intrinsic curvature and the superhelical stress on the molecule and consider the normal-mode fluctuations of both the circle and the stable figure-8 configuration under conditions where the energies of the two states are similar. To extract the properties due solely to curvature, we ignore other important features of the double helix, such as the extensibility of the chain, the anisotropy of local bending, and the coupling of step parameters. We compare the computed normal modes of the curved DNA model with the corresponding dynamical features of a covalently closed duplex of the same chain length constructed from naturally straight DNA and with the theoretically predicted dynamical properties of a naturally circular, inextensible elastic rod, i.e., an O-ring. The cyclic molecules with intrinsic curvature are found to be more deformable under superhelical stress than rings formed from naturally straight DNA. As superhelical stress is accumulated in the DNA, the frequency, i.e., energy, of the dominant bending mode decreases in value, and if the imposed stress is sufficiently large, a global configurational rearrangement of the circle to the figure-8 form takes place. We combine energy minimization with normal-mode calculations of the two states to decipher the configurational pathway between the two states. We also describe and make use of a general analytical treatment of the thermal fluctuations of an elastic rod to characterize the

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Karen L; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lam, Siu M

    2016-04-01

    We examined attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents with epilepsy and the association with seizure-related and sociodemographic variables. Strengths and Weakness of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Normal Behaviors rating scale was administered to 122 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma, aged 10 to 18 years attending mainstream schools. Twenty-nine (23.7%) adolescents with epilepsy compared with five (10%) with asthma had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (P = 0.037). Adolescents with epilepsy had a significantly higher score in the inattention subscale when compared with those with asthma (-0.25 ± 1.2 vs -0.64 ± 1.07, P = 0.049). Combined subtype was most frequent in the epilepsy group. Oppositional defiant disorders were more prevalent in those having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric assistance had only been provided to one third of our patients with epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at the time of study. There was a negative correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores and age of seizure onset. A positive correlation was observed between the number of antiepileptic drugs and the inattentive subscale score. The impact of various correlates on individual subtypes was not identical. Independent risk factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were medical comorbidities (odds ratio = 12.82, 95% confidence interval 4.44, 37.03, P Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is overrepresented in adolescents with epilepsy; screening for its symptoms should be an integral part of management in adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Children's relative age in class and medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A population-based study in a health department in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librero, Julián; Izquierdo-María, Roberto; García-Gil, María; Peiró, Salvador

    2015-12-07

    Previous studies in various countries have shown that the youngest school children in the same class-grade are more likely to be treated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than their older classmates. The aim of this study is to determine in the Spanish setting whether younger relative age children in each grade have a higher prevalence of treatment for ADHD. Population, observational, cross-sectional study in a health department, using prevalence data (November 2013) of treatment for ADHD in children aged 6-12 years. Data was obtained from the information systems of the Valencia Ministry of Health and multivariate models were used to estimate the prevalence ratio of treatment according to the month of birth of children in each grade. Twenty thousand two hundred and thirty-seven children were included of whom 1.73% were treated for ADHD (boys: 2.70%; girls: 0.71%) in October 2013. The prevalence of treatment increased with age, in males, and in youngest children (born in the last months of each year). In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of treatment in the youngest children (born in the months of August to December) was 2.5 to 3 times higher than in their older classmates (born in January). The younger children relative to their classmates are more likely to be treated pharmacologically with methylphenidate and/or atomoxetine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  20. Experimental Detection of Information Deficit in a Photonic Contextuality Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiang; Kurzyński, Paweł; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Wang, Kunkun; Bian, Zhihao; Zhang, Yongsheng; Xue, Peng

    2017-12-01

    Contextuality is an essential characteristic of quantum theory, and supplies the power for many quantum information processes. Previous tests of contextuality focus mainly on the probability distribution of measurement results. However, a test of contextuality can be formulated in terms of entropic inequalities whose violations imply information deficit in the studied system. This information deficit has not been observed on a single local system. Here we report the first experimental detection of information deficit in an entropic test of quantum contextuality based on photonic setup. The corresponding inequality is violated with more than 13 standard deviations.

  1. Usability of a theory of visual attention (TVA) for parameter-based measurement of attention I: evidence from normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finke, Kathrin; Bublak, Peter; Krummenacher, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    four separable attentional components: processing speed, working memory storage capacity, spatial distribution of attention, and top-down control. A number of studies (Duncan et al., 1999; Habekost & Bundesen, 2003; Peers et al., 2005) have already demonstrated the clinical relevance......The present study investigated the usability of whole and partial report of briefly displayed letter arrays as a diagnostic tool for the assessment of attentional functions. The tool is based on Bundesen's (1990, 1998, 2002; Bundesen et al., 2005) theory of visual attention (TVA), which assumes...... of these parameters. The present study was designed to examine whether (a) a shortened procedure bears sufficient accuracy and reliability, (b) whether the procedures reveal attentional constructs with clinical relevance, and (c) whether the mathematically independent parameters are also empirically independent...

  2. Soft X-ray imaging of thick carbon-based materials using the normal incidence multilayer optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyukov, I A; Feschenko, R M; Vinogradov, A V; Bugayev, Ye A; Devizenko, O Y; Kondratenko, V V; Kasyanov, Yu S; Hatano, T; Yamamoto, M; Saveliev, S V

    2010-10-01

    The high transparency of carbon-containing materials in the spectral region of "carbon window" (lambda approximately 4.5-5nm) introduces new opportunities for various soft X-ray microscopy applications. The development of efficient multilayer coated X-ray optics operating at the wavelengths of about 4.5nm has stimulated a series of our imaging experiments to study thick biological and synthetic objects. Our experimental set-up consisted of a laser plasma X-ray source generated with the 2nd harmonics of Nd-glass laser, scandium-based thin-film filters, Co/C multilayer mirror and X-ray film UF-4. All soft X-ray images were produced with a single nanosecond exposure and demonstrated appropriate absorption contrast and detector-limited spatial resolution. A special attention was paid to the 3D imaging of thick low-density foam materials to be used in design of laser fusion targets.

  3. In Silico Neuro-Oncology: Brownian Motion-Based Mathematical Treatment as a Potential Platform for Modeling the Infiltration of Glioma Cells into Normal Brain Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos, Markos; Stamatakos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Intensive glioma tumor infiltration into the surrounding normal brain tissues is one of the most critical causes of glioma treatment failure. To quantitatively understand and mathematically simulate this phenomenon, several diffusion-based mathematical models have appeared in the literature. The majority of them ignore the anisotropic character of diffusion of glioma cells since availability of pertinent truly exploitable tomographic imaging data is limited. Aiming at enriching the anisotropy-enhanced glioma model weaponry so as to increase the potential of exploiting available tomographic imaging data, we propose a Brownian motion-based mathematical analysis that could serve as the basis for a simulation model estimating the infiltration of glioblastoma cells into the surrounding brain tissue. The analysis is based on clinical observations and exploits diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. Numerical simulations and suggestions for further elaboration are provided. PMID:26309390

  4. New sequence-based data on the relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the normal male and female human diploid genomes for radiation molecular cytogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Repin Mikhail V

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this work is to obtain the correct relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the normal male and female human diploid genomes for the use at FISH analysis of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. Results The relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the male and female human diploid genomes have been calculated from the publicly available international Human Genome Project data. New sequence-based data on the relative DNA contents of human chromosomes were compared with the data recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2001. The differences in the values of the relative DNA contents of chromosomes obtained by using different approaches for 15 human chromosomes, mainly for large chromosomes, were below 2%. For the chromosomes 13, 17, 20 and 22 the differences were above 5%. Conclusion New sequence-based data on the relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the normal male and female human diploid genomes were obtained. This approach, based on the genome sequence, can be recommended for the use in radiation molecular cytogenetics.

  5. Influence of water deficit on transpiration and radiation use efficiency of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.; Sri Rama, Y.V.

    1989-01-01

    Information on the relationship between biomass production, radiation use and water use of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is essential to estimate biomass production in different water regimes. Experiments were conducted during three post-rainy seasons on a Vertisol (a typic pallustert) to study the effect of water deficits on radiation use, radiation use efficiency (RUE), transpiration and transpiration efficiency (TE) of chickpea. Different levels of soil water availability were created, either by having irrigated and non-irrigated plots or using a line source. Biomass production was linearly related to both cumulative intercepted solar radiation and transpiration in both well watered and water deficit treatments. Soil water availability did not affect RUE (total dry matter produced per unit of solar radiation interception) when at least 30% of extractable soil water (ESW) was present in the rooting zone, but below 30% ESW, RUE decreased linearly with the decrease in soil water content. RUE was also significantly correlated (R 2 = 0.61, P < 0.01) with the ratio of actual to potential transpiration (T/Tp) and it declined curvilinearly with the decrease in T/Tp. TE decreased with the increase in saturation deficit (SD) of air. Normalization of TE with SD gave a conservative value of 4.8 g kPa kg −1 . To estimate biomass production of chickpea in different environments, we need to account for the effect of plant water deficits on RUE in a radiation-based model and the effect of SD on TE in a transpiration-based model. (author)

  6. Determining the normal range for IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and ALS: new reference data based on current internal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Diana-Alexandra; Gleiss, Andreas; Sagmeister, Susanne; Haeusler, Gabriele

    2014-09-01

    The measurement of insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP-3) often serves as first-line testing in children with growth disorders. The role of acid-labile subunit (ALS) as a screening parameter for homozygous or heterozygous mutations of the ALS gene still has to be determined. IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and ALS were measured in 252 samples from children and adolescents. Reference curves were fitted using generalized additive model for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) models and SD-Scores were calculated. Bootstrap analysis was used to quantify the uncertainty of the estimated percentiles. Bland-Altman plots were used to investigate the discrepancy between our newly estimated standard deviation scores (SDS) and SDS calculated on the basis of previous reference data. We present reference data for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measurements based on recommended internal standard for IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and ALS suitable for calculation of SD-scores. The Bland-Altman plot shows a rough agreement between the previous SDS calculation and our new one only for SDS around 1; for SDS at -2, an average difference of 0.83 SD was noticed. Our IGF-I reference values for the interval of interest in diagnosing growth hormone deficiency (GHD) (prepubertal age) are solid as proved by bootstrap analysis. The difference in calculated SD scores by using data provided previously highlights the importance of using labor and method specific reference data.

  7. The Familial Co-Aggregation of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Intellectual Disability: A Register-Based Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V; Ghirardi, Laura; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik

    2017-02-01

    Although many studies document an association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and intellectual disability (ID), little is known about the etiology of this comorbidity and how it should be addressed in clinical settings. We sought to clarify this issue. All individuals born in Sweden between 1987 and 2006 (n = 2,049,587) were identified using the Medical Birth Register (MBR). From this we selected 7 cohorts of relatives: 1,899,654 parent-offspring pairs, 4,180 monozygotic twin pairs, 12,655 dizygotic twin pairs, 914,848 full sibling pairs, 136,962 maternal half-sibling pairs, 134,502 paternal half-sibling pairs, and 2,790,164 full cousin pairs. We used within-individual and within-family analyses to assess the association between ADHD and ID. Individuals with ID were at increased risk for ADHD compared to those without ID, and relatives of participants with ID were at increased risk of ADHD compared with relatives of those without ID. The magnitude of this association was positively associated with the fraction of the genome shared by the relative pair and was lower for severe compared with mild and moderate ID. Model-fitting analyses demonstrated that 91% of the correlation between the liabilities of ADHD and ID was attributable to genetic factors. These data provide evidence that nearly all of the comorbidity between ADHD and ID can be attributed to genetic factors, which has implications for diagnostic practice. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hazard perception skills of young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be improved with computer based driver training: An exploratory randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, C R; Unsworth, C A; Dillon, M P; Tay, R; Falkmer, T; Bird, P; Carey, L M

    2017-12-01

    Young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of road traffic injuries than their peers. Increased risk correlates with poor hazard perception skill. Few studies have investigated hazard perception training using computer technology with this group of drivers. *Determine the presence and magnitude of the between-group and within- subject change in hazard perception skills in young drivers with ADHD who receive Drive Smart training. *Determine whether training-facilitated change in hazard perception is maintained over time. This was a feasibility study, randomised control trial conducted in Australia. The design included a delayed treatment for the control group. Twenty-five drivers with a diagnosis of ADHD were randomised to the Immediate Intervention or Delayed Intervention group.The Immediate Intervention group received a training session using a computer application entitled Drive Smart. The Delayed Intervention group watched a documentary video initially (control condition), followed by the Drive Smart computer training session. The participant's hazard perception skill was measured using the Hazard Perception Test (HPT). After adjusting for baseline scores, there was a significant betweengroup difference in post-intervention HPT change scores in favour of the Immediate Intervention group. The magnitude of the effect was large. There was no significant within-group delayed intervention effect. A significant maintenance effect was found at 6-week follow-up for the Immediate Intervention group. The hazard perception skills of participants improved following training with large effect size and some maintenance of gain. A multimodal approach to training is indicated to facilitate maintenance. A full-scale trial is feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Distinct loci of lexical and semantic access deficits in aphasia: Evidence from voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Denise Y; Schnur, Tatiana T

    2015-06-01

    Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category negatively affects language production and comprehension. By most accounts, semantic interference arises when accessing lexical representations in naming (e.g., Damian, Vigliocco, & Levelt, 2001) and semantic representations in comprehension (e.g., Forde & Humphreys, 1997). Further, damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), a region implicated in cognitive control, results in increasing semantic interference when items repeat across cycles in both language production and comprehension (Jefferies, Baker, Doran, & Lambon Ralph, 2007). This generates the prediction that the LIFG via white matter connections supports resolution of semantic interference arising from different loci (lexical vs semantic) in the temporal lobe. However, it remains unclear whether the cognitive and neural mechanisms that resolve semantic interference are the same across tasks. Thus, we examined which gray matter structures [using whole brain and region of interest (ROI) approaches] and white matter connections (using deterministic tractography) when damaged impact semantic interference and its increase across cycles when repeatedly producing and understanding words in 15 speakers with varying lexical-semantic deficits from left hemisphere stroke. We found that damage to distinct brain regions, the posterior versus anterior temporal lobe, was associated with semantic interference (collapsed across cycles) in naming and comprehension, respectively. Further, those with LIFG damage compared to those without exhibited marginally larger increases in semantic interference across cycles in naming but not comprehension. Lastly, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, connecting the LIFG with posterior temporal lobe, related to semantic interference in naming, whereas the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), connecting posterior with anterior temporal regions related to semantic interference in

  10. Comparative efficacy and safety of methylphenidate and atomoxetine for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Meta-analysis based on head-to-head trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Hong; Fang, Qingqing; Qin, Lili

    2017-11-01

    Comparative efficacy and safety are important issues for appropriate drug selection for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment. Therefore we conducted a meta-analysis, where we compared atomoxetine (ATX) and methylphenidate (MPH) for ADHD treatment in children and adolescents. Literature retrieval was conducted in relevant databases from their inception to April 2016 to select head-to-head trials that compared ATX and MPH in children and adolescents. Outcomes like response rate, ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) score, and adverse events were compared between ATX and MPH treatments. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and risk ratio (RR) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used as the effect size for continuous data or dichotomous data, respectively. Eleven eligible randomized-controlled trials were included, and two of them were double-blind, while the remaining were open-label. Compared to ATX, MPH showed a higher response rate (RR = 1.14, 95% CI [1. 09, 1.20]), decreased inattention (SMD = -0.13, 95% CI [-0.25, -0.01]) and lower risk of adverse events (drowsiness: RR = 0.17, 95% CI [0.11, 0.26; nausea: RR = 0.49; 95% CI [0.29, 0.85; vomiting: RR = 0.41, 95% CI [0.27, 0.63]). However, MPH presented a higher risk of insomnia than ATX (RR = 2.27, 95% CI [1.63, 3.15], p < .01). Results of the meta-analysis add additional evidence of the effectiveness of both ATX and MPH and suggest that MPH should be a first treatment option in most patients with ADHD.

  11. Mild cognitive impairment and deficits in instrumental activities of daily living: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekel, Katrin; Damian, Marinella; Wattmo, Carina; Hausner, Lucrezia; Bullock, Roger; Connelly, Peter J; Dubois, Bruno; Eriksdotter, Maria; Ewers, Michael; Graessel, Elmar; Kramberger, Milica G; Law, Emma; Mecocci, Patrizia; Molinuevo, José L; Nygård, Louise; Olde-Rikkert, Marcel Gm; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Pasquier, Florence; Peres, Karine; Salmon, Eric; Sikkes, Sietske Am; Sobow, Tomasz; Spiegel, René; Tsolaki, Magda; Winblad, Bengt; Frölich, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that subtle deficits in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) may be present in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it is not clear if there are IADL domains that are consistently affected across patients with MCI. In this systematic review, therefore, we aimed to summarize research results regarding the performance of MCI patients in specific IADL (sub)domains compared with persons who are cognitively normal and/or patients with dementia. The databases PsycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science were searched for relevant literature in December 2013. Publications from 1999 onward were considered for inclusion. Altogether, 497 articles were retrieved. Reference lists of selected articles were searched for potentially relevant articles. After screening the abstracts of these 497 articles, 37 articles were included in this review. In 35 studies, IADL deficits (such as problems with medication intake, telephone use, keeping appointments, finding things at home and using everyday technology) were documented in patients with MCI. Financial capacity in patients with MCI was affected in the majority of studies. Effect sizes for group differences between patients with MCI and healthy controls were predominantly moderate to large. Performance-based instruments showed slight advantages (in terms of effect sizes) in detecting group differences in IADL functioning between patients with MCI, patients with Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls. IADL requiring higher neuropsychological functioning seem to be most severely affected in patients with MCI. A reliable identification of such deficits is necessary, as patients with MCI with IADL deficits seem to have a higher risk of converting to dementia than patients with MCI without IADL deficits. The use of assessment tools specifically designed and validated for patients with MCI is therefore strongly recommended. Furthermore, the development of performance-based assessment instruments

  12. Visual search deficits in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Colpa, Linda; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2018-04-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined as a reduction in visual acuity that cannot be corrected by optical means. It has been associated with low-level deficits. However, research has demonstrated a link between amblyopia and visual attention deficits in counting, tracking, and identifying objects. Visual search is a useful tool for assessing visual attention but has not been well studied in amblyopia. Here, we assessed the extent of visual search deficits in amblyopia using feature and conjunction search tasks. We compared the performance of participants with amblyopia (n = 10) to those of controls (n = 12) on both feature and conjunction search tasks using Gabor patch stimuli, varying spatial bandwidth and orientation. To account for the low-level deficits inherent in amblyopia, we measured individual contrast and crowding thresholds and monitored eye movements. The display elements were then presented at suprathreshold levels to ensure that visibility was equalized across groups. There was no performance difference between groups on feature search, indicating that our experimental design controlled successfully for low-level amblyopia deficits. In contrast, during conjunction search, median reaction times and reaction time slopes were significantly larger in participants with amblyopia compared with controls. Amblyopia differentially affects performance on conjunction visual search, a more difficult task that requires feature binding and possibly the involvement of higher-level attention processes. Deficits in visual search may affect day-to-day functioning in people with amblyopia.

  13. A multi-sample based method for identifying common CNVs in normal human genomic structure using high-resolution aCGH data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihyun Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is difficult to identify copy number variations (CNV in normal human genomic data due to noise and non-linear relationships between different genomic regions and signal intensity. A high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH containing 42 million probes, which is very large compared to previous arrays, was recently published. Most existing CNV detection algorithms do not work well because of noise associated with the large amount of input data and because most of the current methods were not designed to analyze normal human samples. Normal human genome analysis often requires a joint approach across multiple samples. However, the majority of existing methods can only identify CNVs from a single sample. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a multi-sample-based genomic variations detector (MGVD that uses segmentation to identify common breakpoints across multiple samples and a k-means-based clustering strategy. Unlike previous methods, MGVD simultaneously considers multiple samples with different genomic intensities and identifies CNVs and CNV zones (CNVZs; CNVZ is a more precise measure of the location of a genomic variant than the CNV region (CNVR. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We designed a specialized algorithm to detect common CNVs from extremely high-resolution multi-sample aCGH data. MGVD showed high sensitivity and a low false discovery rate for a simulated data set, and outperformed most current methods when real, high-resolution HapMap datasets were analyzed. MGVD also had the fastest runtime compared to the other algorithms evaluated when actual, high-resolution aCGH data were analyzed. The CNVZs identified by MGVD can be used in association studies for revealing relationships between phenotypes and genomic aberrations. Our algorithm was developed with standard C++ and is available in Linux and MS Windows format in the STL library. It is freely available at: http://embio.yonsei.ac.kr/~Park/mgvd.php.

  14. Tremor severity and age: a cross-sectional, population-based study of 2,524 young and midlife normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Hafeman, Danella; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Xinhua; Alcalay, Roy N; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Siddique, Abu Bakar; Patwary, Tazul Islam; Melkonian, Stephanie; Argos, Maria; Levy, Diane; Ahsan, Habibul

    2011-07-01

    Mild action tremor occurs in most normal people. Yet this tremor mainly has been studied within the context of advanced age rather than among the vast bulk of adults who are not elderly. Whether this tremor worsens during young and middle age is unknown. Using cross-sectional data from a large population-based study of young and midlife normal adults (age range, 18-60 years), we assessed whether increasing age is associated with more severe action tremor. Two thousand five hundred and twenty-four adults in Araihazar, Bangladesh, drew an Archimedes spiral with each hand. Tremor in spirals was rated (0-3) by a blinded neurologist, and a spiral score (range, 0-6) was assigned. Spiral score was correlated with age (r = 0.06, P = .004). With each advancing decade, the spiral score increased (P = .002) so that the spiral score in participants in the highest age group (age 60) was approximately twice that of participants in the youngest age group (age 18-19); P = .003. In the regression model that adjusted for potential confounders (sex, cigarettes, medications, asthma inhalers, and tea and betel nut use), spiral score was associated with age (P = .0045). In this cross-sectional, population-based study of more than 2500 young and midlife normal adults, there was a clear association between age and tremor severity. Although the magnitude of the correlation coefficient was modest, tremor severity was higher with each passing decade. These data suggest that age-dependent increase in tremor amplitude is not restricted to older people but occurs in all adult age groups. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  15. NIMROD: a program for inference via a normal approximation of the posterior in models with random effects based on ordinary differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prague, Mélanie; Commenges, Daniel; Guedj, Jérémie; Drylewicz, Julia; Thiébaut, Rodolphe

    2013-08-01

    Models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) are widespread tools for describing dynamical systems. In biomedical sciences, data from each subject can be sparse making difficult to precisely estimate individual parameters by standard non-linear regression but information can often be gained from between-subjects variability. This makes natural the use of mixed-effects models to estimate population parameters. Although the maximum likelihood approach is a valuable option, identifiability issues favour Bayesian approaches which can incorporate prior knowledge in a flexible way. However, the combination of difficulties coming from the ODE system and from the presence of random effects raises a major numerical challenge. Computations can be simplified by making a normal approximation of the posterior to find the maximum of the posterior distribution (MAP). Here we present the NIMROD program (normal approximation inference in models with random effects based on ordinary differential equations) devoted to the MAP estimation in ODE models. We describe the specific implemented features such as convergence criteria and an approximation of the leave-one-out cross-validation to assess the model quality of fit. In pharmacokinetics models, first, we evaluate the properties of this algorithm and compare it with FOCE and MCMC algorithms in simulations. Then, we illustrate NIMROD use on Amprenavir pharmacokinetics data from the PUZZLE clinical trial in HIV infected patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Considerations for potency equivalent calculations in the Ah receptor-based CALUX bioassay: normalization of superinduction results for improved sample potency estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston, David S; Denison, Michael S

    2011-02-15

    The chemically activated luciferase expression (CALUX) system is a mechanistically based recombinant luciferase reporter gene cell bioassay used in combination with chemical extraction and clean-up methods for the detection and relative quantitation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related dioxin-like halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in a wide variety of sample matrices. While sample extracts containing complex mixtures of chemicals can produce a variety of distinct concentration-dependent luciferase induction responses in CALUX cells, these effects are produced through a common mechanism of action (i.e. the Ah receptor (AhR)) allowing normalization of results and sample potency determination. Here we describe the diversity in CALUX response to PCDD/Fs from sediment and soil extracts and not only report the occurrence of superinduction of the CALUX bioassay, but we describe a mechanistically based approach for normalization of superinduction data that results in a more accurate estimation of the relative potency of such sample extracts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Area deficits and the Bel–Robinson tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Ted; Senovilla, José M. M.; Speranza, Antony J.

    2018-04-01

    The first law of causal diamonds relates the area deficit of a small ball relative to flat space to the matter energy density it contains. At second order in the Riemann normal coordinate expansion, this energy density should receive contributions from the gravitational field itself. In this work, we study the second-order area deficit of the ball in the absence of matter and analyze its relation to possible notions of gravitational energy. In the small ball limit, a reasonable expectation for any proposed gravitational energy functional is that it evaluate to the Bel–Robinson energy density W in vacuum spacetimes. A direct calculation of the area deficit reveals a result that is not simply proportional to W. We discuss how the deviation from W is related to ambiguities in defining the shape of the ball in curved space, and provide several proposals for fixing these shape ambiguities.

  18. Mutation Detection in Patients With Advanced Cancer by Universal Sequencing of Cancer-Related Genes in Tumor and Normal DNA vs Guideline-Based Germline Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelker, Diana; Zhang, Liying; Kemel, Yelena; Stadler, Zsofia K; Joseph, Vijai; Zehir, Ahmet; Pradhan, Nisha; Arnold, Angela; Walsh, Michael F; Li, Yirong; Balakrishnan, Anoop R; Syed, Aijazuddin; Prasad, Meera; Nafa, Khedoudja; Carlo, Maria I; Cadoo, Karen A; Sheehan, Meg; Fleischut, Megan H; Salo-Mullen, Erin; Trottier, Magan; Lipkin, Steven M; Lincoln, Anne; Mukherjee, Semanti; Ravichandran, Vignesh; Cambria, Roy; Galle, Jesse; Abida, Wassim; Arcila, Marcia E; Benayed, Ryma; Shah, Ronak; Yu, Kenneth; Bajorin, Dean F; Coleman, Jonathan A; Leach, Steven D; Lowery, Maeve A; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio; Kantoff, Philip W; Sawyers, Charles L; Dickler, Maura N; Saltz, Leonard; Motzer, Robert J; O'Reilly, Eileen M; Scher, Howard I; Baselga, Jose; Klimstra, David S; Solit, David B; Hyman, David M; Berger, Michael F; Ladanyi, Marc; Robson, Mark E; Offit, Kenneth

    2017-09-05

    Guidelines for cancer genetic testing based on family history may miss clinically actionable genetic changes with established implications for cancer screening or prevention. To determine the proportion and potential clinical implications of inherited variants detected using simultaneous sequencing of the tumor and normal tissue ("tumor-normal sequencing") compared with genetic test results based on current guidelines. From January 2014 until May 2016 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 10 336 patients consented to tumor DNA sequencing. Since May 2015, 1040 of these patients with advanced cancer were referred by their oncologists for germline analysis of 76 cancer predisposition genes. Patients with clinically actionable inherited mutations whose genetic test results would not have been predicted by published decision rules were identified. Follow-up for potential clinical implications of mutation detection was through May 2017. Tumor and germline sequencing compared with the predicted yield of targeted germline sequencing based on clinical guidelines. Proportion of clinically actionable germline mutations detected by universal tumor-normal sequencing that would not have been detected by guideline-directed testing. Of 1040 patients, the median age was 58 years (interquartile range, 50.5-66 years), 65.3% were male, and 81.3% had stage IV disease at the time of genomic analysis, with prostate, renal, pancreatic, breast, and colon cancer as the most common diagnoses. Of the 1040 patients, 182 (17.5%; 95% CI, 15.3%-19.9%) had clinically actionable mutations conferring cancer susceptibility, including 149 with moderate- to high-penetrance mutations; 101 patients tested (9.7%; 95% CI, 8.1%-11.7%) would not have had these mutations detected using clinical guidelines, including 65 with moderate- to high-penetrance mutations. Frequency of inherited mutations was related to case mix, stage, and founder mutations. Germline findings led to discussion or initiation of

  19. A Proper Perspective on the Twin Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    deficit twins, the relation between them, and their consanguine parentage. The trade deficit or, to be more accurate, the current account deficit, is...In general, there is a small negative, but statistically significant, relationship between the size of the federal deficit in one year and the

  20. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  1. Subtype assignment of CLL based on B-cell subset associated gene signatures from normal bone marrow – A proof of concept study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Caroline Holm; Jakobsen, Lasse Hjort; Gentles, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    . Our hypothesis is that by segregating CLL according to BAGS, we can identify subtypes with prognostic implications in support of pathogenetic value of BAGS. Microarray-based gene-expression samples from eight independent CLL cohorts (1,024 untreated patients) were BAGS-stratified into pre-BI, pre...... subtype resistance towards rituximab and cyclophosphamide varied for rituximab, whereas all subtypes were sensitive to cyclophosphamide. This study supports our hypothesis that BAGS-subtyping may be of tangible prognostic and pathogenetic value for CLL patients.......Diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) involves blood cell counts, immunophenotyping, IgVH mutation status, and cytogenetic analyses. We generated B-cell associated gene-signatures (BAGS) based on six naturally occurring B-cell subsets within normal bone marrow...

  2. Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint; Nachev, Parashkev

    2014-09-01

    . Positively, we show that novel machine learning techniques employing high-dimensional inference can nonetheless accurately converge on the true locus. We conclude that current inferences about human brain function and deficits based on lesion mapping must be re-evaluated with methodology that adequately captures the high-dimensional structure of lesion data. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  3. The impact of case definition on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder prevalence estimates in community-based samples of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Robert E; Holbrook, Joseph R; Danielson, Melissa L; Cuffe, Steven P; Wolraich, Mark L; Visser, Susanna N

    2015-01-01

    To determine the impact of varying attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnostic criteria, including new DSM-5 criteria, on prevalence estimates. Parent and teacher reports identified high- and low-screen children with ADHD from elementary schools in 2 states that produced a diverse overall sample. The parent interview stage included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (DISC-IV), and up to 4 additional follow-up interviews. Weighted prevalence estimates, accounting for complex sampling, quantified the impact of varying ADHD criteria using baseline and the final follow-up interview data. At baseline 1,060 caregivers were interviewed; 656 had at least 1 follow-up interview. Teachers and parents reported 6 or more ADHD symptoms for 20.5% (95% CI = 18.1%-23.2%) and 29.8% (CI = 24.5%-35.6%) of children respectively, with criteria for impairment and onset by age 7 years (DSM-IV) reducing these proportions to 16.3% (CI = 14.7%-18.0%) and 17.5% (CI = 13.3%-22.8%); requiring at least 4 teacher-reported symptoms reduced the parent-reported prevalence to 8.9% (CI = 7.4%-10.6%). Revising age of onset to 12 years per DSM-5 increased the 8.9% estimate to 11.3% (CI = 9.5%-13.3%), with a similar increase seen at follow-up: 8.2% with age 7 onset (CI = 5.9%-11.2%) versus 13.0% (CI = 7.6%-21.4%) with onset by age 12. Reducing the number of symptoms required for those aged 17 and older increased the overall estimate to 13.1% (CI = 7.7%-21.5%). These findings quantify the impact on prevalence estimates of varying case definition criteria for ADHD. Further research of impairment ratings and data from multiple informants is required to better inform clinicians conducting diagnostic assessments. DSM-5 changes in age of onset and number of symptoms required for older adolescents appear to increase prevalence estimates, although the full impact is uncertain due to the age of our sample. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The effect of magnocellular-based visual-motor intervention on Chinese children with developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi eQian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnocellular(M deficit theory points out that the core deficit of developmental dyslexia (DD is the impairment in M pathway, which has been evidenced in many previous studies. Based on the M deficit, some researchers found that visual intervention focusing on M deficit improved dyslexics’ M function as well as reading abilities. However, the number and reliability of these training studies were limited. Therefore, the present study conducted an M-based visual-motor intervention on Chinese children with DD to investigate the relationship between M deficit and Chinese DD. Intervention programs included coherent motion detection, visual search, visual tracking and juggling, which were related to M function. The results showed that M function and phonological awareness of training dyslexic group were improved to a normal level as age-matched normal children after intervention, while non-training dyslexics did not. It supported M deficit theory, and suggested M deficit might be the core deficit of Chinese DD.

  5. Two Phase Non-Rigid Multi-Modal Image Registration Using Weber Local Descriptor-Based Similarity Metrics and Normalized Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-rigid multi-modal image registration plays an important role in medical image processing and analysis. Existing image registration methods based on similarity metrics such as mutual information (MI and sum of squared differences (SSD cannot achieve either high registration accuracy or high registration efficiency. To address this problem, we propose a novel two phase non-rigid multi-modal image registration method by combining Weber local descriptor (WLD based similarity metrics with the normalized mutual information (NMI using the diffeomorphic free-form deformation (FFD model. The first phase aims at recovering the large deformation component using the WLD based non-local SSD (wldNSSD or weighted structural similarity (wldWSSIM. Based on the output of the former phase, the second phase is focused on getting accurate transformation parameters related to the small deformation using the NMI. Extensive experiments on T1, T2 and PD weighted MR images demonstrate that the proposed wldNSSD-NMI or wldWSSIM-NMI method outperforms the registration methods based on the NMI, the conditional mutual information (CMI, the SSD on entropy images (ESSD and the ESSD-NMI in terms of registration accuracy and computation efficiency.

  6. Heritability of Performance Deficit Accumulation During Acute Sleep Deprivation in Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuna, Samuel T.; Maislin, Greg; Pack, Frances M.; Staley, Bethany; Hachadoorian, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F.; Pack, Allan I.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine if the large and highly reproducible interindividual differences in rates of performance deficit accumulation during sleep deprivation, as determined by the number of lapses on a sustained reaction time test, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), arise from a heritable trait. Design: Prospective, observational cohort study. Setting: Academic medical center. Participants: There were 59 monozygotic (mean age 29.2 ± 6.8 [SD] yr; 15 male and 44 female pairs) and 41 dizygotic (mean age 26.6 ± 7.6 yr; 15 male and 26 female pairs) same-sex twin pairs with a normal polysomnogram. Interventions: Thirty-eight hr of monitored, continuous sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Patients performed the 10-min PVT every 2 hr during the sleep deprivation protocol. The primary outcome was change from baseline in square root transformed total lapses (response time ≥ 500 ms) per trial. Patient-specific linear rates of performance deficit accumulation were separated from circadian effects using multiple linear regression. Using the classic approach to assess heritability, the intraclass correlation coefficients for accumulating deficits resulted in a broad sense heritability (h2) estimate of 0.834. The mean within-pair and among-pair heritability estimates determined by analysis of variance-based methods was 0.715. When variance components of mixed-effect multilevel models were estimated by maximum likelihood estimation and used to determine the proportions of phenotypic variance explained by genetic and nongenetic factors, 51.1% (standard error = 8.4%, P sleep deprivation. Citation: Kuna ST; Maislin G; Pack FM; Staley B; Hachadoorian R; Coccaro EF; Pack AI. Heritability of performance deficit accumulation during acute sleep deprivation in twins. SLEEP 2012;35(9):1223-1233. PMID:22942500

  7. New age- and sex-specific criteria for QT prolongation based on rate correction formulas that minimize bias at the upper normal limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautaharju, Pentti M; Mason, Jay W; Akiyama, Toshio

    2014-07-01

    Existing formulas for rate-corrected QT (QTc) commonly fail to properly adjust the upper normal limits which are more critical than the mean QTc for evaluation of prolonged QT. Age- and sex-related differences in QTc are also often overlooked. Our goal was to establish criteria for prolonged QTc using formulas that minimize QTc bias at the upper normal limits. Strict criteria were used in selecting a study group of 57,595 persons aged 5 to 89 years (54% women) and to exclude electrocardiograms (ECG) with possible disease-associated changes. Two QT rate adjustment formulas were identified which both minimized rate-dependency in the 98 th percentile limits: QTcmod, based on an electrophysiological model (QTcMod = QTx(120 + HR)/180)), and QTcLogLin, a power function of the RR interval with exponents 0.37 for men and 0.38 for women. QTc shortened in men during adolescence and QTcMod became 13 ms shorter than in women at age 20-29 years. The sex difference was maintained through adulthood although decreasing with age. The criteria established for prolonged QTc were: Age < 40 years, men 430 ms, women 440 ms; Age 40 to 69, men 440 ms, women 450 ms; Age ≥ 70 years, men 455 ms, and women 460 ms. Sex difference in QTc originates from shortened QT in adolescent males. Upper normal limits for QTc vary substantially by age and sex, and it is essential to use age- and sex-specific criteria for evaluation of QT prolongation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prefrontal glucose deficits in murderers lacking psychosocial deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, A; Phil, D; Stoddard, J; Bihrle, S; Buchsbaum, M

    1998-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that links between autonomic nervous system functioning and violence are strongest in those who come from benign home backgrounds, but there appears to be no similar research using brain-imaging measures of central nervous system functioning. It was hypothesized that murderers who had no early psychosocial deprivation (e.g., no childhood abuse, family neglect) would demonstrate lower prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with early psychosocial deprivation and a group of normal controls. Murderers from a previous study, which showed prefrontal deficits in murderers, were assessed for psychosocial deprivation and divided into those with and without deprivation. Murderers without any clear psychosocial deficits were significantly lower on prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with psychosocial deficits and controls. These results suggest that murderers lacking psychosocial deficits are characterized by prefrontal deficits. It is argued that among violent offenders without deprived home backgrounds, the "social push" to violence is minimized, and consequently, brain abnormalities provide a relatively stronger predisposition to violence in this group.

  9. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinowich Keri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.

  10. Segmentation and labeling of the ventricular system in normal pressure hydrocephalus using patch-based tissue classification and multi-atlas labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Lotta M.; Roy, Snehashis; Carass, Aaron; Blitz, Ari M.; Pham, Dzung L.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2016-03-01

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) affects older adults and is thought to be caused by obstruction of the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). NPH typically presents with cognitive impairment, gait dysfunction, and urinary incontinence, and may account for more than five percent of all cases of dementia. Unlike most other causes of dementia, NPH can potentially be treated and the neurological dysfunction reversed by shunt surgery or endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), which drain excess CSF. However, a major diagnostic challenge remains to robustly identify shunt-responsive NPH patients from patients with enlarged ventricles due to other neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, radiologists grade the severity of NPH by detailed examination and measurement of the ventricles based on stacks of 2D magnetic resonance images (MRIs). Here we propose a new method to automatically segment and label different compartments of the ventricles in NPH patients from MRIs. While this task has been achieved in healthy subjects, the ventricles in NPH are both enlarged and deformed, causing current algorithms to fail. Here we combine a patch-based tissue classification method with a registration-based multi-atlas labeling method to generate a novel algorithm that labels the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles in subjects with ventriculomegaly. The method is also applicable to other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease; a condition considered in the differential diagnosis of NPH. Comparison with state of the ar