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Sample records for normal bacterial flora

  1. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease. Inhibits pathogenic enteric bacteria. Decrease luminal pH; Secrete bacteriocidal proteins; Colonization resistance; Block epithelial binding – induce MUC2. Improves epithelial and mucosal barrier integrity. Produce ...

  2. Normal bacterial flora from vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Nava, Sunny; Boscán-Ocando, Julio; Nava, Jexenia

    2011-02-01

    In order to describe the normal bacterial flora in vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows, 51 healthy multiparous cows, at least 90-day postpartum, were selected. Duplicated swabs (N = 102) were taken from the vaginal fornix of cows to perform aerobic and anaerobic cultures as well as conventional biochemical tests. Out of 102 swabs, bacterial growth was obtained in 55 (53.9%) while the remaining 47 (46.1%) did not exhibited any bacterial growth. Of the 55 bacterial growths, 23 (41.8%) were aerobic whereas 32 (58.1%) were anaerobic. Likewise, 29 (52.72%) of bacterial growths were pure and 26 (47.27%) were mixed. Under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, Gram positive bacteria were predominant (81.82% and 73.08%, respectively) over Gram negative bacteria (18.18% and 26.92%, respectively). Isolated bacteria were Arcanobacterium pyogenes (22.92%), Staphylococcus aureus (15.63%), Staphylococcus coagulase negative (17.71%), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (6.25%), Bacteroides spp. (13.54%), and Peptostreptococcus spp. (7.29%). In conclusion, normal vaginal bacterial flora of Criollo Limonero cows was predominantly Gram positive and included A. pyogenes, S. aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, E. rhusiopathiae, Bacteroides spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. In Criollo Limonero cattle, adaptive aspects such as development of humoral and physical mechanisms for defense, and bacterial adaptation to host deserve research attention.

  3. Conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora in clinically normal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Francesca; Barsotti, Giovanni; Attili, Anna Rita; Mugnaini, Linda; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Preziuso, Silvia; Corazza, Michele; Preziuso, Giovanna; Sgorbini, Micaela

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to identify conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora in clinically normal sheep. Prospective study. Tuscany. 100 eyes from 50 adult Massese female sheep were examined. The sheep included in the study were considered free of anterior ophthalmic abnormalities. Bacteria were identified by morphological assessment, Gram staining, biochemical tests. Identification of filamentous fungi was achieved at the genus level, and Aspergillus species were identified based on keys provided by other authors. Yeast colonies were highlighted, but not identified. Positive cultures were obtained from 100/100 eyes for bacteria, and from 86/100 eyes for fungi. A total of 14 types of bacteria and 5 types of fungi were isolated. Yeasts were isolated from 13/100 eyes. The most frequent fungal isolates were saprophytic fungi. Conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora of clinically normal eyes were reported in sheep. The positivity obtained for conjunctival bacteria was higher compared to findings in the literature by other authors in the same species (100 per cent v 40 per cent), while our results were in line with a recent work performed on mouflons (Ovis Musimon) with a 100 per cent positivity for bacterial conjunctival fornix. In our survey, Gram-positive species were prevalent, as reported by other authors in different species. Few data are available in the literature regarding conjunctival fungal flora in healthy small ruminants. The prevalence of conjunctival fungal flora in this study was higher than findings reported in mouflons (86 per cent v 45 per cent). Differences in fungal prevalence may be due to different methods of managing herds, though further studies are required to verify this hypothesis. The similarities in bacterial and fungal isolates between sheep and mouflons suggest a genera pattern of conjunctival colonisation by bacteria and fungi.

  4. bacterial flora and antibiotic sensitivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purulent pelvic collections are common pathologies observed in contemporary gynaecological practice. They may originate from chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, from abortions or following normal deliveries. This study was designed to compare the bacterial flora in purulent pelvic collections obtained from HIV infected ...

  5. Bacterial flora of sturgeon fingerling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arani, A.S.; Mosahab, R.

    2008-01-01

    The study on microbial populations is a suitable tool to understand and apply control methods to improve the sanitary level of production in fish breeding and rearing centers, ensure health of sturgeon fingerlings at the time of their release into the rivers and also in the conversation and restoration of these valuable stocks in the Caspian Sea, Iran. A laboratory research based on Austin methods (Austin, B., Austin, D.A. 1993) was conducted for bacterial study on 3 sturgeon species naming A. persicus, A. stellatus and A. nudiventris during different growth stages. Bacterial flora of Acinetobacter, Moraxella, Aeromonas, Vibrio, Edwardsiella, Staphylococcus, Proteus, Yersinia, Pseudomonas and Plesiomonas were determined. The factors which may induce changes in bacterial populations during different stages of fife are the followings: quality of water in rearing ponds, different conditions for growth stages, suitable time for colonization of bacterial flora in rearing pond, water temperature increase in fingerlings size and feeding condition. (author)

  6. Conjunctival bacterial flora in diabetic patients

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    Najmun Nahar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctival flora refers to population of microorganisms that dwell within the eyes of healthy individuals and is important in maintaining a healthy ocular surface and normal conjunctival function. Conjunctival flora may be altered by a variety of factors that include age, immunosuppression and geography. Immune function is compromised in diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to see the pattern of conjunctival bacterial flora in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. This cross sectional study was carried out in BSMMU during the period of January 2011 to December 2011. Total 500 conjunctival swabs were collected from both eyes of 50 diabetic patients attending OPD of Endocrinology Department of BSMMU and 200 non-diabetic individuals. Significant number of culture was positive in diabetic patients (64.0% compared to that of non-diabetic individuals (38.0%. Staphylococcus epidermidis was predominant in both study groups (diabetic vs non-diabetic: 41.3% vs 65.26%. Staphylococcus aureus (15.22%, Escherichia coli (6.52% and Enterobacter (8.33% were isolated in diabetic patients. Rate of positive culture in both and single eyes were higher in diabetic (28%, 36.0% than that of non-diabetic individuals (9.5%, 28.5%. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2013; 7(1: 5-8

  7. Incidence and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Profiles of Normal Conjunctiva Bacterial Flora in the Central Area of China: A Hospital-Based Study

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    Hua Tao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the distribution and patterns of resistance to antimicrobial agents of normal conjunctival bacteria.Materials and Methods: Conjunctival specimens were collected from 8,224 patients and then cultured, which underwent antimicrobial susceptibility test following standard methods. Patients with infectious symptoms such as erythema or oedema and those using systemic or topical antibiotics within 1 month were excluded.Results: In this study, the incidence of isolated bacteria was 24.2%. The middle aged group of 41–65 years presented the lowest rate of bacterial isolation which was 19.4%, while the highest isolation rate (83.1% was found in patients in the age range of 0–6 years. In every age group, the incidence of bacterial isolation in men was higher than that in women. The top 3 most commonly isolated micro-organisms were Staphylococcus epidermidis (39.7%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (4.5%, and Staphylococcus aureus (2.7%, of which about 83.1% S. aureus were isolated in the group of 0-6 years. We found that coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS were more resistant to penicillin, macrolides, clindamycin and sulfonamides with the rate ranging from 57.9 to 90.8%, which were highly susceptible to vancomycin, linezolid, rifampin, tetracyclines, and aminoglycosides. Contrasting to CONS, the general resistance rate of S. aureus was significantly lower. Additionally, Streptococcus was susceptible well to the majority of antimicrobial agents, while highly resistant to macrolides and tetracyclines with the rate >80%.Conclusions: In conclusion, our study revealed the incidence and antimicrobial sensitivity profiles of normal conjunctiva bacterial flora in the central area of China, which could be useful in the prevention of ocular infections. Importantly, our data could be used to guide the selection of appropriate prophylactic agents.

  8. Oral associated bacterial infection in horses: studies on the normal anaerobic flora from the pharyngeal tonsillar surface and its association with lower respiratory tract and paraoral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, G D; Love, D N

    1991-02-15

    Two hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were obtained from the pharyngeal tonsillar surface of 12 normal horses and 98 obligatory anaerobic bacteria were characterised. Of these, 57 isolates belonging to 7 genera (Peptostreptococcus (1); Eubacterium (9); Clostridium (6); Veillonella (6); Megasphera (1); Bacteroides (28); Fusobacterium (6)) were identified, and 16 of these were identified to species level (P. anaerobius (1); E. fossor (9); C. villosum (1); B. fragilis (1); B. tectum (2); B. heparinolyticus (2)). Three hundred and twenty isolates were obtained from 23 samples from horses with lower respiratory tract (LRT) or paraoral (PO) bacterial infections. Of the 143 bacteria selected for detailed characterisation, obligate anaerobes accounted for 100 isolates, facultative anaerobes for 42 isolates and obligate aerobes for one isolate. Phenotypic characterisation separated 99 of the isolates into 14 genera. Among the obligately anaerobic species, Gram-positive cocci including P. anaerobius comprised 25% of isolates, E. fossor 11% and other Gram-positive rods (excluding Clostridium sp.) 18% of isolates. The Gram-negative rods comprised B. fragilis 5%, B. heparinolyticus 5%, asaccharolytic pigmented Bacteroides 3% and other Bacteroides 13%, while a so-far unnamed species of Fusobacterium (7%), and Gram-negative corroding rods (3%) were isolated. Among the facultatively anaerobic isolates, S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus accounted for 31% of isolates, followed by Pasteurella spp. 19%, Escherichia coli 17%, Actinomyces spp. 9%, Streptococcus spp. 9%. Incidental facultative isolates were Enterococcus spp. 2%, Enterobacter cloaceae 2%, Actinobacillus spp. 2% and Gram-negative corroding rods 5%. On the basis of the similarities (as determined by DNA hybridization data and/or phenotypic characteristics) of some of the bacterial species (e.g. E. fossor and B. heparinolyticus) isolated from both the normal pharyngeal tonsillar surfaces and LRT and PO diseases of horses, it

  9. Does circumcision alter the periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of periurethral bacterial flora in uncircumcised boys and to evaluate the effect of circumcision on alteration of periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora. Materials and Methods: Pattern of periurethral bacterial flora before and after circumcision was studied ...

  10. Cervicovaginal cytokines, sialidase activity and bacterial load in reproductive-aged women with intermediate vaginal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Greatti, Mariana Morena de Vieira; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães; Ferreira, Carolina Sanitá Tafner; Marconi, Camila

    2016-11-01

    Studies have shown that not only bacterial vaginosis, but also intermediate vaginal flora has deleterious effects for women's reproductive health. However, literature still lacks information about microbiological and immunological aspects of intermediate flora. To characterize intermediate flora regarding levels of Interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-10, sialidase; loads of Gardnerella vaginalis, total bacteria and to verify whether it is closer related to normal flora or bacterial vaginosis. This cross-sectional study enrolled 526 non-pregnant reproductive-aged women distributed in 3 groups according to pattern of vaginal flora using Nugent's system in normal, intermediate and bacterial vaginosis. Cervicovaginal levels of cytokines, sialidases, loads of G. vaginalis and total bacteria were assessed by ELISA, conversion of MUAN and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. A principal component analysis(PCA) using all measured parameters was performed to compare the three different types of flora. Results showed that intermediate flora is associated with increased cervicovaginal IL-1beta in relation to normal flora(Pbacterial vaginosis, intermediate flora has higher IL-8 and IL-10 levels(Pbacterial vaginosis(Pbacterial differed among all groups(Pbacterial vaginosis. PCA showed that normal and intermediate flora were closely scattered, while bacterial vaginosis were grouped separately. Although intermediate flora shows some differences in cytokines, sialidases and bacterial loads in relation to normal flora and bacterial vaginosis, when taken together, general microbiological and immunological pattern pattern of intermediate flora resembles the normal flora. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [The composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, D; Lin, Y; Jiang, X; Lan, L; Zhang, W; Wang, B X

    2017-03-02

    Objective: To explore the composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora. Method: Twenty-four specimens were collected from pregnant Kunming mouse including 8 mice of early embryonic (12-13 days) gastrointestinal tissues, 8 cases of late embryonic (19-20 days)gastrointestinal tissues, 8 of late pregnancy placental tissues.The 24 samples were extracted by DNeasy Blood & Tissue kit for high-throughput DNA sequencing. Result: The level of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actino-bacteria and Firmicutes were predominantin all specimens.The relative content of predominant bacterial phyla in each group: Proteobacteria (95.00%, 88.14%, 87.26%), Bacteroidetes(1.71%, 2.15%, 2.63%), Actino-Bacteria(1.16%, 4.10%, 3.38%), Firmicutes(0.75%, 2.62%, 2.01%). At the level of family, there were nine predominant bacterial families in which Enterobacteriaeae , Shewanel laceae and Moraxellaceae were dominant.The relative content of dominant bacterial family in eachgroup: Enterobacteriaeae (46.99%, 44.34%, 41.08%), Shewanellaceae (21.99%, 21.10%, 19.05%), Moraxellaceae (9.18%, 7.09%, 5.64%). From the species of flora, the flora from fetal gastrointestinal in early pregnancy and late pregnancy (65.44% and 62.73%) were the same as that from placenta tissue in the late pregnancy.From the abundance of bacteria, at the level of family, the same content of bacteria in three groups accounted for 78.16%, 72.53% and 65.78% respectively. Conclusion: It was proved that the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora were colonized. At the same time the bacteria are classified.

  12. Bacterial skin flora of diabetic patients in the Jos University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetics frequently are afflicted with bacterial skin infections because of the high circulating blood sugar. The frequent skin infections in these patients may be a result of change in normal skin flora. This study was carried out to find out the normal skin flora of these patients. Ninety four (50 study and 44 control) consecutive ...

  13. Emerging antibiotic resistant enteric bacterial flora among food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emerging antibiotic resistant enteric bacterial flora among food animals in Abeokuta, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Bacterial resistance to antibiotic in food animals is an emerging public health concern as a result of ...

  14. Bacterial flora of conjunctiva after death

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    Sagili Chandrasekhara Reddy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the frequency of bacterial flora of conjunctiva after death (cadaver eyes which will give information about the bacterial contamination of donor eyes, and the in-vitro sensitivity of isolated bacteria to the commonly used antibiotics in ophthalmic practice.METHODS: Conjunctival swabs were taken from the cadavers (motor vehicle accident deaths and patients who died in the hospital, within 6h after death, and sent for culture and sensitivity test. Conjunctival swabs, taken from the healthy conjunctiva of patients admitted for cataract surgery, were sent for culture and sensitivity as controls (eyes in those of living status. The bacterial isolates were tested against the commonly used antibiotics (chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin in ophthalmology practice.RESULTS: Bacteria were isolated in 41 out of 100 conjunctival swabs (41%, taken from 50 cadavers (study group. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most common bacteria isolated (15%, followed by pseudomonas aeruginosa (5%. Gentamicin was effective against majority of the bacterial isolates (82%. Bacteria were isolated from 7 out of 100 conjunctival swabs taken as control group (eyes in living state. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most common organism (5% isolated in control group; the others were staphylococcus aureus (1% and beta hemolyticus streptococci (1%.CONCLUSION: Bacteria were isolated from 41% of the cadaver eyes. High percentage sensitivity of the bacterial isolates to gentamicin (82% supports the practice of thorough irrigation of the eyes with gentamicin solution before starting the procedure of enucleation followed by immersion of the enucleated eyeballs in gentamycin solution, to prevent the bacterial contamination.

  15. Studies on bacterial flora and biological control agent of Cydia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, in order to find a more effective and safe biological control agent against Cydia pomonella, we investigated the bacterial flora and tested them for insecticidal effects on this insect. According to morphological, physiological and biochemical tests, bacterial flora were identified as Proteus rettgeri (Cp1), ...

  16. Association of sexually transmitted infections, Candida species, gram-positive flora and perianal flora with bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Ali; Tuin, Hellen; Bliekendaal, Harry; Spaargaren, Joke

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterised by depletion of the normal Lactobacillus spp. and overgrowth of commensal anaerobic bacteria. We investigated the composition of vaginal microbiota and their association with BV in women of reproductive age. Vaginal samples from 1197 women were analysed, whereby n=451 patients had normal flora and n=614 were diagnosed with BV, the remaining patients were diagnosed with having either intermediate flora (n=42) or dysbacteriosis (n=90). The reported results show that pathogens are associated with BV. This knowledge will further expand our understanding of events leading to BV, which may lead to more effective prevention and treatment strategies.

  17. Interrelationships Within the Bacterial Flora of the Female Genital Tract

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    Henry J. Carson

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 240 consecutive vaginal swabs using the compatibility profile technique revealed that only 2 bacteria have the ability to be a sole isolate and as such a candidate to be a major aerobic regulator of the bacterial flora of the female genital tract (BFFGT. Compatibility profiles of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella vaginalis have shown that these organisms shared compatibility profiling for the majority of the normal bacterial constituents of the female genital tract. Dominance disruption appears to come from the addition of compatible co-isolates and presumed loss of numerical superiority. These phenomena appear to be the keys to reregulation of BFFGT. Lactobacillus appears to be the major regulator of both G. vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria. When additional organisms are added to the bacterial flora, they may add to or partially negate the inhibitory influence of Lactobacillus on the BFFGT. Inhibitor interrelationships appear to exist between coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus and the group B streptococci (GBS and other beta hemolytic streptococci. Facilitating interrelationships appear to exist between S. aureus and the GBS and selected Enterobacteriaceae.

  18. Does circumcision alter the periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora

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    Mushtaq Ahmad Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of periurethral bacterial flora in uncircumcised boys and to evaluate the effect of circumcision on alteration of periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora. Materials and Methods: Pattern of periurethral bacterial flora before and after circumcision was studied prospectively in 124 boys. The results were analysed to compare change in bacterial colonisation before and after circumcision. Results: The age range was 6 weeks to 96 months. Most (94.3% of the boys had religious indication and 5.7% had medical indication for circumcision. E. coli, Proteus and Klebsiella were most common periurethral bacterial flora in uncircumcised subjects. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus was most common periurethral bacterial flora in circumcised subjects. In 66.1% of circumcised subjects, no bacteria were grown from periurethral region. Conclusion: We conclude that presence of prepuce is associated with great quantity of periurethral bacteria, greater likelihood of the presence of high concentration of uropathogens and high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI. This study provides circumstantial evidence supporting the idea that early circumcision may be beneficial for prevention of UTI.

  19. Bacterial flora of soil after application of oily waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, V

    1975-01-01

    The influence of mineral oils and oily waste on the bacterial flora of soil was studied both in the field and in model experiments by plate counts followed by examination of the composition of the bacterial flora developing on the plates and by enrichment cultures followed by isolation of pure cultures. A strong increase in bacterial numbers after oil application was observed both in field and model experiments, and this increase occurred within all groups of bacteria, except spore formers and streptomycetes. The most important species of oil decomposing bacteria belonged to the genera Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas.

  20. Bacterial and fungal flora of seagull droppings in Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, John; Clayton, Yvonne M.

    1971-01-01

    In Jersey 166 fresh and 122 dried seagull droppings were obtained and studied locally and in London for the presence of bacteria and fungi of potentially pathogenic nature. There were no salmonella or shigella bacteria isolated from the two groups but there was a high proportion of Candida albicans obtained from the fresh material (21·7%) and only 1·6% from the dry faeces. Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum were not found in either the dry or fresh droppings. The normal bacterial and fungal flora of the seagull was established and it is considered that the C. albicans in fresh gull droppings would not materially increase albicans infections in man. PMID:5104846

  1. The isolation and antibiogram of aerobic nasal bacterial flora of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following microorganisms were identified from the normal flora of the grasscutters, they are; Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus sp, Micrococcus sp, Bacillus cerus , E. coli, Serratia sp, Streptococcus sp, Pasteurella multocida, Streptacoccus, sp., Mannheimia heamolytica, Klebsiella sp., ...

  2. Vaginal lactobacilli profile in pregnant women with normal & abnormal vaginal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruva, Thirupathaiah; Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Donugama, Vasundhara

    2017-10-01

    Lactobacilli species that are better adapted to vaginal environment of women may colonize better and offer protection against vaginal pathogenic bacteria. In this study, the distribution of common Lactobacillus species was investigated in pregnant women. Sixty seven pregnant women were included in the study and vaginal samples were collected for Gram staining. Women were classified as normal vaginal flora, intermediate flora and bacterial vaginosis (BV) based on Nugent's score. Vaginal samples were also collected for the identification of Lactobacillus spp. by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) profiling of 16S rDNA amplification method. Lactobacillus crispatus (100%) was the most predominant Lactobacillus spp. present in pregnant women with normal flora, followed by L. iners (77%), L. jensenii (74%) and L. helveticus (60%). While, L. iners was commonly present across groups in women with normal, intermediate or BV flora, L. crispatus, L. jensenii and L. helveticus decreased significantly as the vaginal flora changed to intermediate and BV. In women with BV, except L. iners other species of lactobacilli was less frequently prevalent. Species such as L. rhamnosus, L. fermentum, L. paracasei and L. casei were not detected in any vaginal sample. L. crispatus, L. jensinii and L. helveticus were predominant species in women with normal flora. L. crispatus alone or in combination with L. jensinii and L. helveticus may be evaluated for probiotic properties for the prevention and treatment of BV.

  3. A Prospective Comparative Study of the Bacterial Flora of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative comparative study of the bacterial flora of the vagina and cervix of 90 non-pregnant women of childbearing age (18-35 years) in Calabar was undertaken. The study revealed that both aerobic and microaerophilic organisms as well as the strictly anaerobic bacteria constituted the microflora of the lower genital of ...

  4. Choanal and cloacal aerobic bacterial flora in captive green iguanas: a comparative analysis

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    Silvia Barazorda Romero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to characterize the choanal and cloacal aerobic bacterial flora in healthy captive green iguanas and to compare it with the bacterial flora of the biofilm present in the water container of each terrarium. Samples were collected from the choana and the cloaca of 20 healthy captive adult green iguanas and from the biofilm of 15 water containers. The final identification of aerobic bacteria was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Salmonella positive samples were serotyped. The most common strains observed at each test location were from 1 choanae: Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacter cloacae and Comamonas testosteroni; 2 cloacae: Citrobacter spp., Salmonella spp. and Corynebacterium spp.; and 3 biofilms: Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and Acidovorax spp. We showed that apart from Salmonella spp., the choanal and cloacal bacterial flora differed from the microorganisms present in the biofilm of the animal’s water container. These data revealed that healthy captive adult green iguanas harbored several aerobic bacterial strains that in immunosuppressed reptiles may act as opportunistic pathogens. Also, several of the aerobic bacteria identified in samples are potential zoonotic agents. Characterization of the normal background flora in captive reptiles and their environment can contribute to an understanding of the spread of bacterial contamination and the risk of potential zoonotic diseases for people in contact with these animals.

  5. Normal intestinal flora of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

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    C.J. Lovely

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed from cloacal swabs collected from 29 wild Nile crocodiles, captured in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Sixteen species of bacteria and 6 fungal species were cultured. Individual crocodiles yielded 1-4 bacterial species, and 0-2 fungal species. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Microbacterium, Enterococcus faecalis, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Escherichia coli. No salmonellae were cultured. The most commonly occurring fungus was Cladosporium. Several of the bacterial and fungal species isolated have been implicated in cases of septicaemia in crocodilians. Knowledge of the normal intestinal flora will contribute towards the development of a crocodile-specific probiotic for use in farmed crocodiles.

  6. [Markers of antimicrobial drug resistance in the most common bacteria of normal facultative anaerobic intestinal flora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavsić, Teodora

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria of normal intestinal flora are frequent carriers of markers of antimicrobial drug resistance. Resistance genes may be exchanged with other bacteria of normal flora as well as with pathogenic bacteria. The increase in the number of markers of resistance is one of the major global health problems, which induces the emergence of multi-resistant strains. The aim of this study is to confirm the presence of markers of resistance in bacteria of normal facultative anaerobic intestinal flora in our region. The experiment included a hundred fecal specimens obtained from a hundred healthy donors. A hundred bacterial strains were isolated (the most numerous representatives of the normal facultative-anaerobic intestinal flora) by standard bacteriological methods. The bacteria were cultivated on Endo agar and SS agar for 24 hours at 37 degrees C. Having been incubated, the selected characteristic colonies were submitted to the biochemical analysis. The susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs was tested by standard disc diffusion method, and the results were interpreted according to the Standard of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2010. The marker of resistance were found in 42% of the isolated bacteria. The resistance was the most common to ampicillin (42% of isolates), amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (14% of isolates), cephalexin (14%) and cotrimoxazole (8%). The finding of 12 multiresistant strains (12% of isolates) and resistance to ciprofloxacin were significant. The frequency of resistance markers was statistically higher in Klebsiella pneumoniae compared to Escherichia coli of normal flora. The finding of a large number of markers of antimicrobial drug resistance among bacteria of normal intestinal flora shows that it is necessary to begin with systematic monitoring of their antimicrobial resistance because it is an indicator of resistance in the population.

  7. Decontamination Efficiency of Fish Bacterial Flora from Processing Surfaces

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    Birna Guðbjörnsdóttir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous parameters that can influence bacterial decontamination during washing of machinery and equipment in a food processing establishment. Incomplete decontamination of bacteria will increase the risk of biofilm formation and consequently increase the risk of pathogen contamination or prevalence of other undesirable microorganisms such as spoilage bacteria in the processing line. The efficiency of a typical washing protocol has been determined by testing three critical parameters and their effects on bacterial decontamination. Two surface materials (plastic and stainless steel, water temperatures (7 and 25 °C and detergent concentrations (2 and 4 % were used for this purpose in combination with two types of detergents. Biofilm was prepared on the surfaces with undefined bacterial flora obtained from minced cod fillets. The bacterial flora of the biofilm was characterised by cultivation and molecular analysis of 16S rRNA genes. All different combinations of washing protocols tested were able to remove more than 99.9 % of the bacteria in the biofilm and reduce the cell number from 7 to 0 or 2 log units of bacteria/cm2. The results show that it is possible to use less diluted detergents than recommended with comparable success, and it is easier to clean surface material made of stainless steel compared to polyethylene plastic.

  8. Bacterial flora of spices and its control by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Youssef, Y.A.; Awny, N.M.; Hussein, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    The bacterial contamination was tested in 26 samples of spices. Chili, allspice and paprika were the most contaminated spices by bacteria. Five bacterial genera were isolated, namely bacillus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, micrococcus, and coccobacillus, all being gram-positive. Most isolates have been related to the genus bacillus. The bacterial isolates were identified as B. alvei, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pasteurii, B. pumilus, B. thuringiensis, B. sphaericus, B. incertaesedis, Micrococcus luteus, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus sp. and coccobacillus sp. Irradiation of spices led to a significant decrease in the bacterial count of all samples. The dose required to inhibit completely the natural bacterial flora was 25 KGY. The most radioresistant isolates were staphylococcus aureus and micrococcus luteus which were subjected to sublethal doses of 15 and 20 KGY respectively. The dose response curves of the 2 most radioresistant isolates showed simple exponential relationship. The D 10-value of S. aureus and M. luteus were 0.9 and 1.1 KGY, respectively. The effect of storage period on the bacterial load of, as well as, the antibacterial activity of the tested spices were investigated. (author)

  9. Bacterial flora of spices and its control by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Zawahry, Y A; Youssef, Y A; Awny, N M; Hussein, H A

    1985-01-01

    The bacterial contamination was tested in 26 samples of spices. Chili, allspice and paprika were the most contaminated spices by bacteria. Five bacterial genera were isolated, namely bacillus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, micrococcus, and coccobacillus, all being gram-positive. Most isolates have been related to the genus bacillus. The bacterial isolates were identified as B. alvei, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pasteurii, B. pumilus, B. thuringiensis, B. sphaericus, B. incertaesedis, Micrococcus luteus, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus sp. and coccobacillus sp. Irradiation of spices led to a significant decrease in the bacterial count of all samples. The dose required to inhibit completely the natural bacterial flora was 25 KGY. The most radioresistant isolates were staphylococcus aureus and micrococcus luteus which were subjected to sublethal doses of 15 and 20 KGY respectively. The dose response curves of the 2 most radioresistant isolates showed simple exponential relationship. The D 10-value of S. aureus and M. luteus were 0.9 and 1.1 KGY, respectively. The effect of storage period on the bacterial load of, as well as, the antibacterial activity of the tested spices were investigated.

  10. Conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated prior to cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suto C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikako Suto1,2, Masahiro Morinaga1,2, Tomoko Yagi1,2, Chieko Tsuji3, Hiroshi Toshida41Department of Ophthalmology, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo; 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, JapanObjective: To determine the trends of conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated from patients prior to cataract surgery.Subjects and methods: The study comprised 579 patients (579 eyes who underwent cataract surgery. Specimens were collected by lightly rubbing the inferior palpebral conjunctival sac with a sterile cotton swab 2 weeks before surgery, and then cultured for isolation of bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The bacterial isolates and percentage of drug-resistant isolates were compared among age groups and according to whether or not patients had diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, dialysis therapy, oral steroid use, dry eye syndrome, or allergic conjunctivitis.Results: The bacterial isolation rate was 39.2%. There were 191 strains of Gram-positive cocci, accounting for the majority of all isolates (67.0%, among which methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most frequent (127 strains, 44.5%, followed by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (37 strains, 12.7%. All 76 Gram-positive bacillary isolates (26.7% were from the genus Corynebacterium. Among the 16 Gram-negative bacillary isolates (5.9%, the most frequent was Escherichia coli (1.0%. The bacterial isolation rate was higher in patients >60 years old, and was lower in patients with dry eye syndrome, patients under topical treatment for other ocular disorders, and patients with hyperlipidemia. There was no significant difference in bacterial isolation rate with respect to the presence/absence of diabetes mellitus, steroid therapy, dialysis, or

  11. Fish losses due to bacterial flora and infections of fishes in Kainji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assesses the losses incurred as a result of bacterial flora and infection in captured and cultured fish. The role played by these bacterial flora on the overall quality and health of fish is discussed. Bacteria have been reported to cause diseases in ponds and increase in the spoilage rate of raw and preserved fish in ...

  12. Flora Normal, Probióticos y Salud Humana Flora Normal, Probióticos y Salud Humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Anaya-Velázquez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La microbiota es el conjunto de microorganismos que se localizan de manera normal en distintos sitios del cuerpo humano. Varios factores permiten que se mantenga el equilibrio necesario para conservar la salud. Se ha descrito que una de las funciones más importantes de la flora normal es la resistencia que confi ere a la invasión por agentes patógenos a través de diversos mecanismos como es la producción de bacteriocinas, ácido láctico o peróxido de hidrógeno entre otros. Destacan los lactobacilos (Lactobacillus casei, L. acidophilus y L. bifidus, habitantes del tracto gastrointestinal y vaginal, que inhiben el crecimiento de bacterias y virus como Salmonella y el VIH respectivamente. Los probióticos son microorganismos vivos, no patógenos, los cuales administrados en cantidades adecuadas confieren un beneficio sobre la salud del huésped. La investigación de diversas bacterias resulta alentadora debido a su uso potencial para mantener y restaurar la flora normal lo cual puede ser benéfico para la nutrición, la prevención de enfermedades y en un futuro ser parte de un tratamiento integral. The microbiota is the group of microorganisms that live normally in different parts of the human body. Several factors allow the maintenance of the required equilibrium to preserve health. It has been described that one of the most important functions of the normal flora is the resistance they confer to humans against invasion by pathogenic agents by different mechanisms such as production of bacteriocins, lactic acid or hydrogen peroxide. Among the most noticeable microorganisms are lactobacilli (Lactobacillus casei, L. acidophilus and L. bifidus, inhabitants of gastrointestinal and genital tract which inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and viruses such as Salmonella and VIH, respectively. Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Research conducted with several

  13. Time series analysis of aerobic bacterial flora during Miso fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, T; Yanagida, F; Tsuji, M; Shinohara, T; Yokotsuka, K

    2003-01-01

    This article reports a microbiological study of aerobic mesophilic bacteria that are present during the fermentation process of Miso. Aerobic bacteria were enumerated and isolated from Miso during fermentation and divided into nine groups using traditional phenotypic tests. The strains were identified by biochemical analysis and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. They were identified as Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, Kocuria kristinae, Staphylococcus gallinarum and S. kloosii. All strains were sensitive to the bacteriocins produced by the lactic acid bacteria isolated from Miso. The dominant species among the undesirable species throughout the fermentation process were B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. It is suggested that bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria are effective in the growth prevention of aerobic bacteria in Miso. This study has provided useful information for controlling of bacterial flora during Miso fermentation.

  14. A Prebiotic Formula Improves the Gastrointestinal Bacterial Flora in Toddlers

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    Ya-Ling Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the effect of enriched 3-prebiotic formula (including inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and galactooligosaccharides on toddler gut health by measuring fecal microbiota. Our results revealed that the consumption of 3-prebiotic formula three times per day giving total intake of 1.8 g prebiotic ingredients significantly showed the increased number of probiotic Bifidobacterium spp. colonies and the reduced populations of both C. perfringens and total anaerobic bacteria on the fecal bacterial flora in toddlers at 18~36 months. In addition, total organic acids in the fecal samples significantly increased which improves the utilization of bifidus under acidic conditions after consumption of the 3-prebiotic formula. Therefore, using the formula enriched with prebiotic may maintain gut health in toddlers.

  15. [Bacterial flora in the genital tract the last trimester of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaka, B; Agbèrè, A D; Baeta, S; Kessie, K; Assimadi, K

    2003-10-01

    Very widespread in our clinical setting, early-onset sepsis is due to organisms that commonly colonize or infect the maternal genital tract; identifying such organisms would help improve prevention and treatment. To determine the bacterial ecology and the pathological status of the genital organs during the last trimester of pregnancy, in order to evaluate the risk of materno-fetal infections and to improve the present prophylactic measures based on monitoring bacterial carriage during the first trimester. Vaginal and endocervical samples, usually taken during the first trimester of pregnancy were delayed and taken during the last trimester of pregnancy, in patients with no signs of sepsis and not taking antibiotics. A macroscopic examination described the aspect of the vagina, the cervix uteri, leukorrhea and possible inflammatory lesions or ulcerations. A microscopic examination searched for parasites, epithelial cells, Clue cells and leukocytes. The appropriate bacteriological cultures were performed after reading the Gram stain and scoring the vaginal flora. The clinical and cytobacteriological aspects were used to identify the bacterial ecology and the pathological genital states. Genital samples were collected from 306 pregnant women. Among them 118 were at 29-32 weeks of gestation, 104 at 33-36 and 84 at 37-40. The most frequent germs were C. albicans (33.3%), Enterobacteriaceae (20.3%) including E. coli (10.9%), S. aureus (15.4%), Gardnerella (13.6%), and Trichomonas (10.6%), in monomicrobian (79.2%) or polymicrobian carriage (20.8%). Lower genital tract pathological states such as vaginitis (29.4%), bacterial vaginosis (21.5%) or cervicitis (10.4%) and asymptomatic bacterial carriage (23.5%) and normal genital flora (15%) were identified. This is the first report of genital bacterial carriage in African women during the last trimester of pregnancy. Larger studies are required to evaluate the risk of maternofetal infections and to improve current

  16. Normal conjunctival flora in the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoon (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinard, Chantale L; Brightman, Alan H; Yeary, Teresa J; Everson, Troy D; Cox, Linda K; Chengappa, M M; Davidson, Harriet J

    2002-10-01

    We documented the normal conjunctival bacterial flora from 17 opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor) trapped in Manhattan, Kansas (USA) from November 1999 to January 2000. Both raccoons and opossums were free of apparent ocular disease. The inferior conjunctival sacs of each animal were swabbed for aerobic bacterial and Mycoplasma culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycoplasma and Chlamydia detection. All conjunctival samples were positive for one or more species of aerobic bacteria. The most common isolate from opossums was Staphylococcus spp. Other isolates included Streptococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Corynebacterium spp., and Enterococcus faecalis. The most common isolates in raccoons was Bacillus spp. Other isolates included Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., non-hemolytic Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis. Mycoplasma culture was negative in samples from opossums and raccoons. Evidence of Mycoplasma and Chlamydia presence was detected by PCR.

  17. Studies on mangrove swamps of Goa 1. Heterotrophic bacterial flora from mangrove swamps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P; Mathani, S; Mavinkurve, S

    Heterotrophic bacterial flora from the mangrove swamps of Goa consisted of physiologically active organisms exhibiting cellulolytic, pectinolytic, amylolytic, proteolytic and H2S forming activities, throughout the year. Coryneform and Bacillus were...

  18. Bacterial Flora Changes in Conjunctiva of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Type I Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Fei, Yuda; Qin, Yali; Luo, Dan; Yang, Shufei; Kou, Xinyun; Zi, Yingxin; Deng, Tingting; Jin, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota of both humans and animals plays an important role in their health and the development of disease. Therefore, the bacterial flora of the conjunctiva may also be associated with some diseases. However, there are no reports on the alteration of bacterial flora in conjunctiva of diabetic rats in the literature. Therefore, we investigated the changes in bacterial flora in bulbar conjunctiva of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetes. A high dose of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected into Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to induce type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The diabetic rats were raised in the animal laboratory and at 8 months post-injection of STZ swab samples were taken from the bulbar conjunctiva for cultivation of aerobic bacteria. The bacterial isolates were identified by Gram staining and biochemical features. The identified bacteria from both diabetic and healthy rats were then compared. The diabetic and healthy rats had different bacterial flora present in their bulbar conjunctiva. In total, 10 and 8 bacterial species were found in the STZ and control groups, respectively, with only three species (Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus gallinarum and Escherichia coli) shared between the two groups. Gram-positive bacteria were common in both groups and the most abundant was Enterococcus faecium. However, after the development of T1DM, the bacterial flora in the rat bulbar conjunctiva changed considerably, with a reduced complexity evident. STZ-induced diabetes caused alterations of bacterial flora in the bulbar conjunctiva in rats, with some bacterial species disappearing and others emerging. Our results indicate that the conjunctival bacterial flora in diabetic humans should be surveyed for potential diagnostic markers or countermeasures to prevent eye infections in T1DM patients.

  19. Bacterial flora-typing with targeted, chip-based Pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed Yasser Y

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metagenomic analysis of microbial communities holds the potential to improve our understanding of the role of microbes in clinical conditions. Recent, dramatic improvements in DNA sequencing throughput and cost will enable such analyses on individuals. However, such advances in throughput generally come at the cost of shorter read-lengths, limiting the discriminatory power of each read. In particular, classifying the microbial content of samples by sequencing the Results We describe a method for identifying the phylogenetic content of bacterial samples using high-throughput Pyrosequencing targeted at the 16S rRNA gene. Our analysis is adapted to the shorter read-lengths of such technology and uses a database of 16S rDNA to determine the most specific phylogenetic classification for reads, resulting in a weighted phylogenetic tree characterizing the content of the sample. We present results for six samples obtained from the human vagina during pregnancy that corroborates previous studies using conventional techniques. Next, we analyze the power of our method to classify reads at each level of the phylogeny using simulation experiments. We assess the impacts of read-length and database completeness on our method, and predict how we do as technology improves and more bacteria are sequenced. Finally, we study the utility of targeting specific 16S variable regions and show that such an approach considerably improves results for certain types of microbial samples. Using simulation, our method can be used to determine the most informative variable region. Conclusion This study provides positive validation of the effectiveness of targeting 16S metagenomes using short-read sequencing technology. Our methodology allows us to infer the most specific assignment of the sequence reads within the phylogeny, and to identify the most discriminative variable region to target. The analysis of high-throughput Pyrosequencing on human flora

  20. Bacterial vaginosis, alterations in vaginal flora and HIV genital shedding among HIV-1-infected women in Mozambique

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    Robert D Kirkcaldy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We investigated whether abnormal vaginal flora, including bacterial vaginosis (BV, are associated with detection of cervical HIV-1 RNA among HIV-infected women in Mozambique. Methods. We obtained clinical data and vaginal specimens from HIV-infected women registering for their first visit at one of two HIV care clinics in Mozambique. We compared women with detectable cervical HIV viral load (≥40 copies/ml with women with undetectable cervical HIV. Results. We enrolled 106 women. Women with abnormal vaginal flora (intermediate Nugent scores, 4 - 6 were more likely to have detectable cervical HIV RNA then women with normal vaginal flora (adjusted odds ratio 7.2 (95% confidence interval 1.8 - 29.1, adjusted for CD4 count. Women with BV had a non-significantly higher likelihood of detectable cervical HIV than women with normal flora. Conclusions. Abnormal vaginal flora were significantly associated with cervical HIV expression. Further research is needed to confirm this relationship.

  1. Bioleaching of Arsenic-Rich Gold Concentrates by Bacterial Flora before and after Mutation

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    Xuehui Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the bioleaching efficiency of arsenic-rich gold concentrates, a mixed bacterial flora had been developed, and the mutation breeding method was adopted to conduct the research. The original mixed bacterial flora had been enrichedin acid mine drainage of Dexing copper mine, Jiangxi Province, China. It was induced by UV (ultraviolet, ultrasonic, and microwave, and their combination mutation. The most efficient bacterial flora after mutation was collected for further bioleaching of arsenic-rich gold concentrates. Results indicated that the bacterial flora after mutation by UV 60 s combined with ultrasonic 10 min had the best oxidation rate of ferrous, the biggest density of cells, and the most activity of total protein. During bioleaching of arsenic-rich gold concentrates, the density of the mutant bacterial cells reached to 1.13×108 cells/mL at 15 days, more than 10 times compared with that of the original culture. The extraction of iron reached to 95.7% after 15 days, increased by 9.9% compared with that of the original culture. The extraction of arsenic reached to 92.6% after 12 days, which was increased by 46.1%. These results suggested that optimum combined mutation could improve leaching ability of the bacterial flora more significantly.

  2. Bioleaching of Arsenic-Rich Gold Concentrates by Bacterial Flora before and after Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xuehui; Yuan, Xuewu; Liu, Na; Chen, Xiaoguang; Abdelgadir, Awad; Liu, Jianshe

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the bioleaching efficiency of arsenic-rich gold concentrates, a mixed bacterial flora had been developed, and the mutation breeding method was adopted to conduct the research. The original mixed bacterial flora had been enrichedin acid mine drainage of Dexing copper mine, Jiangxi Province, China. It was induced by UV (ultraviolet), ultrasonic, and microwave, and their combination mutation. The most efficient bacterial flora after mutation was collected for further bioleaching of arsenic-rich gold concentrates. Results indicated that the bacterial flora after mutation by UV 60 s combined with ultrasonic 10 min had the best oxidation rate of ferrous, the biggest density of cells, and the most activity of total protein. During bioleaching of arsenic-rich gold concentrates, the density of the mutant bacterial cells reached to 1.13 × 108 cells/mL at 15 days, more than 10 times compared with that of the original culture. The extraction of iron reached to 95.7% after 15 days, increased by 9.9% compared with that of the original culture. The extraction of arsenic reached to 92.6% after 12 days, which was increased by 46.1%. These results suggested that optimum combined mutation could improve leaching ability of the bacterial flora more significantly. PMID:24381948

  3. Prevention of oral bacterial flora transmission by using mouth-to-mask ventilation during CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydulka, R K; Connor, P J; Myers, T F; Pavza, G; Parker, M

    1991-01-01

    The Emergency Cardiac Care Committee of the American Heart Association has recently recommended utilizing protective barrier precautions during CPR (1,2). We assessed 17 mask and faceshield resuscitation devices for adequacy of barrier protection. Eight of the devices were faceshields (CPR Microshield, Hygenic, MedCare Mask, Resusci, Samaritan, Sealeasy, Portex); 8 were mask devices (Laerdal, Dyna Med, MTM Emergency Lung Ventilator, MTM Emergency Resuscitator, Res-Q-Flo, Rightway Mouth-to-Mask Resuscitation, Trufit), and one of the devices did not meet the criteria for either faceshield or mask (Lifesaver). All masks were disinfected, applied to the investigator's face as directed by the manufacturers' instructions, and then cultured for oral aerobic bacterial flora on the rescuer side. No mask devices cultured positive for oral aerobic bacterial flora, while 6 of 8 faceshield devices cultured positive for oral aerobic bacterial flora (P less than 0.007). The CPR Microshield and the Portex faceshield were the only devices that did not develop a positive culture. We conclude that all ventilation devices with a one-way valve, except the Sealeasy device, provide adequate barrier type protection from oral aerobic bacterial flora when simulating mouth-to-barrier type protection when performing mouth-to-mouth ventilation.

  4. Bacterial flora in the Urinary bladder of apparently healthy cattle in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty apparently healthy adult cattle presented for slaughter at the Maiduguri Metropolitan Abattoir were examined to determine the bacterial flora in the urinary bladder. Isolation and identification of the isolates in the aseptic urine samples from the urinary bladder were done according to standard bacteriological techniques.

  5. Bacterial Flora of the Vagina and Cervix in Non-pregnant Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative comparative study of the bacterial flora of the vagina and cervix of 90 non-pregnant women of reproductive age (18 35 years) Calabar was undertaken. The study revealed that both aerobic and microaerophili organism as well as the strictly anaerobic bacteria constitute the microflora of the lower genital of this ...

  6. Bacterial flora on Cascades frogs in the Klamath Mountains of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Pope

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are experiencing global declines due in part to the infectious disease chytridiomycosis. Some symbiotic bacteria residents on frog skin have been shown to inhibit the growth of Batrachochytrium dendrobatitis (Bd) but few studies have attempted to fully describe the resident bacterial flora of frog skin. We cultured and sequenced 130...

  7. Effect of irradiation upon the bacterial flora in patients with head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, D.H.; Gill, G.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-two consecutive patients with cancer of the head and neck, who were to receive a full tumoricidal dose of irradiation to a field that included the oral cavity and pharynx, were studied to determine the effect of the irradiation on their local bacterial flora. Aerobic cultures were taken prior to, at the completion of, and one month after the completion of their irradiation. The percentage of patients with potentially pathogenic organisms increased dramatically as the effect of the irradiation increased. This change in the local flora has obvious implications concerning the increased incidence of postoperative wound infections in patients who have received prior irradiation

  8. Investigation of the effects of oleuropein rich diet on rat enteric bacterial flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraz, A; Simsek, T; Tekin, S Z; Elmas, S; Tekin, M; Sahin, H; Altinisik, H B; Pala, C

    2016-01-01

    Oleuropein is a phenolic compound of olive leaves. Enteric bacterial flora is very important for human health and diet is a directly affecting factor of enteric bacterial flora composition. In this study, it was hypothesized that oleuropein could reduce total aerobic bacterial count in rat caecal flora. Twenty adult, male, Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into two groups. Group C (n=10) was fed with standard rat chow and water for 30 days. Group O (n=10) received olive leaf extract 20 mg/kg/day by intragastric gavage in addition to standard rat chow and water for 30 days. One gram of caecal content was collected from each rat and then consecutive 10-fold serial dilutions were prepared with a final concentration of 10-8. Then 0.1 ml of each dilution were spread onto the surfaces of Plate Count Agar and Violet Red Bile Glucose Agar to enumerate the aerobic enteric bacteria. Total aerobic bacterial counts of Group O were significantly lower than of Group C in all agar plates inoculated with ceacal samples for every dilution (pbacterial translocation by reducing enteric bacterial counts (Tab. 1, Ref. 32).

  9. Semen bacterial flora of Rhode Island Breeder cocks in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The semen used in this study was collected from 77 Rhode Island Breeder cocks reared in battery cages under intensive management from a private farm in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria using the back massage procedure, 27 of the 77 semen samples (35.1%) contained bacterial isolates. None of the samples grew fungi.

  10. The Bacterial Flora of Incipient Occlusal Lesions in Naval Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    fissures while providing an improved method of studying the microbiota of this aspect of the tooth, creates an artificial environment for bacterial...independent examiner. An oral examination and a radiographic review were performed on all subjects prior to fissure removal to verify the suitability...classification of a lesion as incipient. Teeth requiring cavity preparations deeper than 0.5 mm beyond the DEJ or not requiring penetration of the dentin

  11. Evaluation of conjunctival bacterial flora in patients with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Frizon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the conjunctival bacterial flora present in patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome. METHODS: A prospective study of the conjunctival bacterial flora was performed in 41 eyes of 22 patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome. The information gathered included the patient's sex and age, the duration of disease, the cause of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and treatments. Scrapings of the inferior conjunctival fornix were performed in both eyes. Fourteen days before scraping, the patients were asked to interrupt all topical medication and start using 0.5% nonpreserved methylcellulose. The microbiological evaluation included microorganism identification and determination of antibiotic sensitivity. RESULTS: Of 22 patients (41 eyes, 14 (64% were females, and eight (36% were males. The mean age was 33.2 years, and the mean duration of disease was 15.6 years. Visual acuity ranged from light perception to 20/25 (1.57 logMar. The treatment received by most patients consisted of tear substitutes, topical antibiotics, and contact lenses. Bacterial identification was positive in 39 eyes (95% and negative in two eyes (5%. Gram-positive cocci accounted for 55.5% of the microorganisms, whereas gram-positive bacilli and gram-negative bacilli accounted for 19% and 25.5%, respectively. Half of the patients (54% had multiple bacterial species in their flora, and only one bacterial species was identified in the other half. Resistant bacteria were isolated from four eyes. The antibiotic sensitivity results for the Streptococcus group showed the lowest sensitivity and the highest microbial resistance identified. CONCLUSION: Patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome have a diverse conjunctival flora that includes many pathogenic species.

  12. Isolation and Antibiogram of Aerobic Nasal Bacterial Flora of Apparently Healthy West African Dwarf Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Emikpe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Goats are important in the livestock economy by their adaptability to adverse environmental conditions as they are good sources of protein and income for the rural poor. Studies conducted on the bacterial flora of the respiratory tract in goats focused on the pneumonic lungs, with fewer studies on the apparently normal nasal passage and antibiogram of isolated organisms. This study was carried out on 60 apparently healthy West African Dwarf goats. The nasal swab from each goat was analyzed using standard methods. The disc diffusion technique was used for the antibiotic sensitivity test. Three hundred and twenty-eight isolates were obtained. The most frequently isolated species was Streptococcus spp., while Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the second dominant bacteria. Other species were isolated at relatively lower rates. The isolation of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida from the nasal cavity of apparently healthy goats in this study reflects their possible role in most common respiratory diseases encountered in small ruminants. Most of the bacteria were found to be susceptible to streptomycin, quinolones (perfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin and gentamicin, while they were resistant to tetracycline, augmentin and erythromycin. This study shows the relationship between misuse or unrestricted use of antibiotics and drug resistance. Therefore, there is a need for practitioners and researchers to be informed of the appropriate antibiotics to be used in respiratory infections and during control programs.

  13. Vaginal lactobacilli profile in pregnant women with normal & abnormal vaginal flora

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    Thirupathaiah Yeruva

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: L. crispatus, L. jensinii and L. helveticus were predominant species in women with normal flora. L. crispatus alone or in combination with L. jensinii and L. helveticus may be evaluated for probiotic properties for the prevention and treatment of BV.

  14. The relationship between salivary bacterial flora and adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Many studies have shown that periodontal pathogens are emerging as a risk factor for preterm delivery and low birth weight, but there are few studies about the relationship between other oral bacteria and pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between salivary bacteria and pregnancy outcomes."n"nMethods: This cohort study was performed on 300 pregnant women who were recruited from the prenatal clinic of Zeynab Hospital in Tehran during 2009-2010. The patients' demographic and pregnancy data were recorded. Using samplers, saliva samples were collected about one hour after breakfast. Microbial evaluation was performed by counting the bacteria based on their shape and the Gram reaction. The studied bacteria were composed of gram-positive and negative cocci, gram-positive and negative bacilli, spirilla, spirochetes, yeasts, fusiform bacteria and actinomycetes."n"nResults: The data on the bacteriological profile and pregnancy outcome of 243 out of the 300 eligible participants of the study were completed. Five cases (2% had intra uterine fetal death (IUFD while 238 (98% delivered live infants. There was a significant statistical relationship between the mean of gram-negative cocci and IUFD (P=0.04. 10 cases (4.1% of 243, experienced adverse delivery outcomes and 233 cases (95% had normal delivery. The adverse pregnancy outcomes had a significant relationship with the presence of spirochetes in saliva (P<0.05 but this relationship was not

  15. What causes the spatial heterogeneity of bacterial flora in the intestine of zebrafish larvae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinyou; Shimogonya, Yuji; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2018-06-07

    Microbial flora in the intestine has been thoroughly investigated, as it plays an important role in the health of the host. Jemielita et al. (2014) showed experimentally that Aeromonas bacteria in the intestine of zebrafish larvae have a heterogeneous spatial distribution. Although bacterial aggregation is important biologically and clinically, there is no mathematical model describing the phenomenon and its mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we developed a computational model to describe the heterogeneous distribution of bacteria in the intestine of zebrafish larvae. The results showed that biological taxis could cause the bacterial aggregation. Intestinal peristalsis had the effect of reducing bacterial aggregation through mixing function. Using a scaling argument, we showed that the taxis velocity of bacteria must be larger than the sum of the diffusive velocity and background bulk flow velocity to induce bacterial aggregation. Our model and findings will be useful to further the scientific understanding of intestinal microbial flora. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Conjunctival bacterial flora and antibiotic resistance pattern in patients undergoing cataract surgery

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    Arantes Tiago Eugênio Faria e

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the conjunctival bacterial flora and its antibiotic resistance pattern in eyes of patients undergoing cataract surgery. METHODS: From August to October 2004, 50 patients undergoing cataract surgery in the "Fundação Altino Ventura", Recife, Brazil, were prospectively evaluated. Conjunctival material was obtained on the day of surgery, before the application of topical anesthetic, antibiotic or povidone-iodine. The collected material was inoculated and bacterioscopic analysis was carried out. In the cases where there was bacterial growth, antibiotic susceptibility tests and cultures, for isolation and identification of the bacteria, were performed. RESULTS: Of the 50 eyes, 43 (86.0% had positive cultures. The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS, found in 27 (54.0% eyes, was the most frequent organism. More than 90% of the isolates of this bacterium were susceptible to cephalotin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin and gatifloxacin; 70 to 90% were susceptible to gentamicin, cefotaxime, oxacillin and ciprofloxacin; and less than 70% were sensible to neomycin. Four (10.5% of the bacterial isolates were resistant to four or more antibiotics, two of them were CNS. CONCLUSION: The most frequent bacterium in the conjunctival flora is the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. The isolates of this organism showed low susceptibility rate to neomycin, and high susceptibility rates to cephalotin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin and gatifloxacin.

  17. BACTERIAL FLORA OF HATCHERY ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR IN-VITRO SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Khan, H. Afzal and F. Deeba

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Four hatcheries, located in and around Faisalabad, were sampled a day before hatch out in six batches for environmental bacterial flora. Hatchery air, egg-shell surface, surfaces of selected locations and water supply samples were taken for this purpose. The percent (relative occurrence of various bacterial species recovered from hatchery environment revealed that Bacillus subtilis was the predominant isolate (26.93%. followed by Escherichia coli (24.08%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (16.32%, Staphylococcus aureus (8.16%, Paratyphoid salmonellae (6.93%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.48%, Citrobacter jreundii (4.08%, Enterococcus faecalis (3.26%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.26%, Bordetella avium (1.63% and Proteus vulgaris (0.81%. In second part of the study, bacterial isolates were subjected to in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity to 8 antibiotics of common poultry use. It was found that 98.92, 79.56. 65.59, 61.29, 61.29, 61.29, 53.76 and 38.70 percent of bacterial isolates were sensitive to Norfloxacin, Gentamicin, Neomycin, Chloramphenicol, Doxycycline, Flumequine, Erythromycin, and Ampicillin, respectively. In the final part of the study, bacterial isolates were tested for resistance to 3 commerical hatchery disinfectants (TH4®, Aldekol Des® 0.2, and Bromosept 10% soln. ®. Only 3.22% of the isolates showed resistance at manufacturer's recommended dilution (MRD levels while 11.82% of the isolates showed resistance at concentrations below the MRD levels.

  18. Definition of a type of abnormal vaginal flora that is distinct from bacterial vaginosis: aerobic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Vereecken, Annie; Bosmans, Eugene; Dekeersmaecker, Alfons; Salembier, Geert; Spitz, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    To define an entity of abnormal vaginal flora: aerobic vaginitis. Observational study. University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium. 631 women attending for routine prenatal care or attending vaginitis clinic. Samples were taken for fresh wet mount microscopy of vaginal fluid, vaginal cultures and measurement of lactate, succinate and cytokine levels in vaginal fluid. Smears deficient in lactobacilli and positive for clue cells were considered to indicate a diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Aerobic vaginitis was diagnosed if smears were deficient in lactobacilli, positive for cocci or coarse bacilli, positive for parabasal epithelial cells, and/or positive for vaginal leucocytes (plus their granular aspect). Genital complaints include red inflammation, yellow discharge, vaginal dyspareunia. Group B streptococci, escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus and trichomonas vaginalis are frequently cultured. Vaginal lactate concentration is severely depressed in women with aerobic vaginitis, as in bacterial vaginosis, but vaginal succinate is not produced. Also in contrast to bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis produces a host immune response that leads to high production of interleukin-6, interleukin-1-beta and leukaemia inhibitory factor in the vaginal fluid. Aerobic vaginitis is associated with aerobic micro-organisms, mainly group B streptococci and E. coli. Its characteristics are different from those of bacterial vaginosis and elicit an important host response. The most severe form of aerobic vaginitis equals desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. In theory, aerobic vaginitis may be a better candidate than bacterial vaginosis as the cause of pregnancy complications, such as ascending chorioamnionitis, preterm rupture of the membranes and preterm delivery.

  19. Effects of KN-42 on Growth Performance, Diarrhea and Faecal Bacterial Flora of Weaned Piglets

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    Yuanliang Hu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the effects of different doses of Bacillus subtilis KN-42 on the growth performance, diarrhea incidence, faecal bacterial flora, and the relative number of Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli in faeces of weaned piglets to determine whether the strain can serve as a candidate antimicrobial growth promoter. A total of 360 piglets (initial body weight 7.14±0.63 kg weaned at 26±2 days of age were randomly allotted to 5 treatment groups (4 pens per treatment with 18 pigs per pen for a 28-day trial. Dietary treatments were basal diet without any antimicrobial (negative control; NC, basal diet supplemented with 120 mg/kg feed of neomycin sulfate (positive control; PC and basal diet supplemented with 2×109 (L, 4×109 (M and 20×109 (H CFU/kg feed of B. subtilis KN-42. During the overall period, average daily gain and feed efficiency of piglets were higher in groups PC, M, and H than those in group NC (p<0.05, and all probiotics and antibiotics groups had a lower diarrhea index than group NC (p<0.05. The 16S rDNA gene-based methods were used to analyze faecal bacterial flora on day 28 of experiment. The result of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that supplementation of B. subtilis KN-42 to the diet changed the bacterial communities, with a higher bacterial diversity and band number in group M than in the other four groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the relative number of Lactobacillus were higher in groups PC and H than in group NC (p<0.05, and the supplemented B. subtilis KN-42 to the diet also reduced the relative number of E. coli (p<0.05. These results suggest that dietary addition of B. subtilis KN-42 can improve the growth performance and gastrointestinal health of piglets.

  20. Skin bacterial flora as a potential risk factor predisposing to late bacterial infection after cross-linked hyaluronic acid gel augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netsvyetayeva, Irina; Marusza, Wojciech; Olszanski, Romuald; Szyller, Kamila; Krolak-Ulinska, Aneta; Swoboda-Kopec, Ewa; Sierdzinski, Janusz; Szymonski, Zachary; Mlynarczyk, Grazyna

    2018-01-01

    Cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA) gel is widely used in esthetic medicine. Late bacterial infection (LBI) is a rare, but severe complication after HA augmentation. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients who underwent the HA injection procedure and developed LBI had qualitatively different bacterial flora on the skin compared to patients who underwent the procedure without any complications. The study group comprised 10 previously healthy women with recently diagnosed, untreated LBI after HA augmentation. The control group comprised 17 healthy women who had a similar amount of HA injected with no complications. To assess the difference between the two groups, their skin flora was cultured from nasal swabs, both before and after antibiotic treatment in the study group. A significant increase in the incidence of Staphylococcus epidermidis was detected in the control group ( P =0.000) compared to the study group. The study group showed a significantly higher incidence of Staphylococcus aureus ( P =0.005), Klebsiella pneumoniae ( P =0.006), Klebsiella oxytoca ( P =0.048), and Staphylococcus haemolyticus ( P =0.048) compared to the control group. The bacterial flora on the skin differed in patients with LBI from the control group. The control group's bacterial skin flora was dominated by S. epidermidis . Patients with LBI had a bacterial skin flora dominated by potentially pathogenic bacteria.

  1. THE EFFECT OF CEFTRIAXONE ON THE ANAEROBIC BACTERIAL-FLORA AND THE BACTERIAL ENZYMATIC-ACTIVITY IN THE INTESTINAL-TRACT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WELLING, GW; MEIJERSEVERS, GJ; HELMUS, G; VANSANTEN, E; TONK, RHJ; DEVRIESHOSPERS, HG; VANDERWAAIJ, D

    1991-01-01

    The normal flora of the intestinal tract, mainly consisting of anaerobic bacteria, protects the host against colonization by pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial treatment with ceftriaxone may influence the colonic microflora and as a consequence, the protective effect. Ten healthy volunteers

  2. Response of Intestinal Bacterial Flora to the Long-term Feeding of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiai; Liu, Liangliang; Chen, Jing; Xiao, Aiping

    2017-10-12

    In order to investigate the influence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on intestinal bacterial flora, 24 Kunming mice (KM mice) were randomly placed into four groups, which were labeled as control, low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups. They were fed intragastrically with 0.4 mL of 0 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 4 mg/L, or 10 mg/L of AFB1 solutions, twice a day for 2 months. The hypervariable region V3 + V4 on 16S rDNA of intestinal bacterial flora was sequenced by the use of a high-flux sequencing system on a Miseq Illumina platform; then, the obtained sequences were analyzed. The results showed that, when compared with the control group, both genera and phyla of intestinal bacteria in the three treatment groups decreased. About one third of the total genera and one half of the total phyla remained in the high-dose group. The dominant flora were Lactobacillus and Bacteroides in all groups. There were significant differences in the relative abundance of intestinal bacterial flora among groups. Most bacteria decreased as a whole from the control to the high-dose groups, but several beneficial and pathogenic bacterial species increased significantly with increasing dose of AFB1. Thus, the conclusion was that intragastric feeding with 2.5~10 mg/mL AFB1 for 2 months could decrease the majority of intestinal bacterial flora and induce the proliferation of some intestinal bacteria flora.

  3. Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women

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    Melike Balikoglu-Yilmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women.METHODS: One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55, pregnant (n=51, and postmenopausal (n=52] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI, obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed.RESULTS: The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05. The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women (P >0.05. Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups.CONCLUSION: Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women.

  4. Conjunctival bacterial flora and antibiotic resistance pattern in patients undergoing cataract surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, M.R.; Modani, H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the conjunctival bacterial flora and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern in eyes of patients undergoing cataract surgery. Conjunctival soap was obtained on the day of surgery before the application of topical anesthetic, antibiotic or povidone-iodine. Culture and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed. The data was analysed with X/sup 2/ and T tests. Of the 170 patients 89 cases (52.4%) had positive cultures in the eyes. In 79 eyes (88.8%) found coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS). Eighty two cases (95.3%) of isolated Staphylococcus were susceptible to Amikacin, 86 (100%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and 42 (48.8%) sensitive to Ceftazidime. Average susceptibility and resistancy to antibiotics was 2.6 (+-1.8) antibiotics in women and 1.6(+-1.4) in men (P= 0.009). This study showed that the bacterium most frequently found in the conjunctival flora of the patients undergoing cataract surgery was CoNS. Isolates of this bacterium had low CoNS susceptibility rates to Caftazidime and Vancomycin and high susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin and Amikacin. (author)

  5. Prospective study of vaginal bacterial flora and other risk factors for vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, R Scott; Richardson, Barbra A; Hassan, Wisal M; Graham, Susan M; Kiarie, James; Baeten, Jared M; Mandaliya, Kishorchandra; Jaoko, Walter; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O; Holmes, King K

    2009-06-15

    It has been suggested that vaginal colonization with lactobacilli may reduce the risk of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), but supporting data are limited. Our objective was to determine the relationship between vaginal bacterial flora and VVC. We conducted a prospective cohort analysis that involved 151 Kenyan sex workers. At monthly follow-up visits, VVC was defined as the presence of yeast buds, pseudohyphae, or both on a wet preparation (including potassium hydroxide preparation) of vaginal secretions. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify correlates of VVC. Participants returned for a median of 12 visits (interquartile range, 11-12 visits). VVC was identified at 162 visits, including 26 involving symptomatic VVC. Bacterial vaginosis was associated with fewer episodes of VVC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.29 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.16-0.50]). After excluding women with concurrent bacterial vaginosis, another possible cause of vaginal symptoms, the likelihood of symptomatic VVC was higher among those who had had yeast identified on wet preparation of vaginal secretions during the past 60 days (aOR, 4.06 [95% CI, 1.12-14.74]) and those with concurrent vaginal Lactobacillus colonization (aOR, 3.75 [95% CI, 1.30-10.83]). Contrary to the commonly posited hypothesis that vaginal Lactobacillus colonization has a protective effect, we found that such colonization was associated with a nearly 4-fold increase in the likelihood of symptomatic VVC.

  6. Frequency of β-lactamase enzyme and antibiogram pattern in bacterial flora isolated from staffs hands

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    Shilla Jalalpoor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: β-lactamase is an enzyme that can inactivate β–Lactam family antibiotics. High prevalence of β-lactamase producer bacteria on the staff hands, due to antibiotic resistance and nosocomial infection in hospitalized patients. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of β-lactamase positive bacteria and antibiogram pattern in bacterial flora isolated from staff hands of the Al-Zahra hospital in Isfahan.Materials and Method: This laboratory research was performed during of 2005-2007 in Al-Zahra hospital in Isfahan. According to statistical formula, we randomly selected 80 samples from staff hands. Staff hand samples collected with finger print method. Bacterial identification was performed with microbiological methods and β–lactamase production was performed with Acidometric method and antibiogram pattern was performed with Kirby Bauer method.Results: According to the acidometric test results of 80 isolated staff hands, 61.85% of strains produce β–lactamase. Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae were the most important producers respectively (70.83%, 64.72% and 50%. According to antibiogram test results, penicillin and vancomycin had the highest and lowest resistance. Conclusion: High frequency of β–lactamase in bacterial survey represents colonization of bacteria in staff hands; may be due to facility transmission β–lactamase plasmid genes in bacteria. We suggest better hand washing in hospitals and prescription of β–lactame antibiotics was based only on antibiogram results

  7. Effect of the Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccine on the Aero-Anaerobic Enteric Bacterial Flora of Chickens

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    F. A. Kembi

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The enteric bacterial flora of birds was examined after vaccination with the infectious bursal disease (IBD vaccine via the ocular and oral routes. Throughout the test period, the bacterial loads were higher in the test groups than in the control (p < 0.05. However, significant differences between the two test groups only occurred in the first three weeks postvaccination. The bacteria isolates included Salmonella sp., Edwardsiella sp., Escherichia sp. and Klebsiella sp. in the test and control groups.

  8. Normal flora of conjunctiva and lid margin, as well as its antibiotic sensitivity, in patients undergoing cataract surgery at Phramongkutklao Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnumnoi, Ravee; Keorochana, Narumon; Sontisombat, Chavalit

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the normal flora of conjunctiva and lid margin, as well as its antibiotic sensitivity. This was a prospective cross-sectional study. A prospective study was conducted on 120 patients who underwent cataract surgery at the Phramongkutklao Hospital from September 2014 to October 2014. Conjunctival and lid margin swabs were obtained from patients before they underwent cataract surgery. These swabs were used to inoculate blood agar and chocolate agar plates for culturing. After growth of the normal flora, the antibiotic sensitivity method using tobramycin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and cefazolin was applied. Normal flora of conjunctiva and lid margin, along with its antibiotic sensitivity, from patients who underwent cataract surgery was assessed. A total of 120 eyes were included in this study, and bacterial isolation rates were identified. Five bacteria from the lid margin were cultured, namely, coagulase-negative staphylococcus (58.33%), Streptococcus spp. (2.5%), Corynebacterium (1.67%), Micrococcus spp. (1.67%), and Staphylococcus aureus (0.83%). Two bacteria from the conjunctiva were cultured, namely, coagulase-negative staphylococcus (30%) and Streptococcus spp. (0.83%). Results of antibiotic sensitivity test showed that all isolated bacteria are sensitive to cefazolin 100%, tobramycin 98.67%, levofloxacin 100%, and moxifloxacin 100%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci are the most common bacteria isolated from conjunctiva and lid margin.

  9. Characterization and in-vivo evaluation of potential probiotics of the bacterial flora within the water column of a healthy shrimp larviculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ming; Liang, Huafang; He, Yaoyao; Wen, Chongqing

    2016-05-01

    A thorough understanding of the normal bacterial flora associated with shrimp larviculture systems contributes to probiotic screening and disease control. The bacterial community of the water column over a commercial Litopenaeus vannamei larval rearing run was characterized with both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. A total of 27 phylotypes at the species level were isolated and identified based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the V3-V5 region of 16S rRNA genes showed a dynamic bacterial community with major changes occurred from stages zoea to mysis during the rearing run. The sequences retrieved were affiliated to four phyla, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, with the family Rhodobacteraceae being the most frequently recovered one. Subsequently, 13 representative strains conferred higher larval survival than the control when evaluated in the in-vivo experiments; in particular, three candidates, assigned to Phaeobacter sp., Arthrobacter sp., and Microbacterium sp., significantly improved larval survival ( P < 0.05). Therefore, the healthy shrimp larviculture system harbored a diverse and favorable bacterial flora, which contribute to larval development and are of great importance in exploiting novel probiotics.

  10. Effects of tongue cleaning on bacterial flora in tongue coating and dental plaque: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Miki; Chosa, Naoyuki; Shimoyama, Yu; Minami, Kentaro; Kimura, Shigenobu; Kishi, Mitsuo

    2014-01-14

    The effects of tongue cleaning on reconstruction of bacterial flora in dental plaque and tongue coating itself are obscure. We assessed changes in the amounts of total bacteria as well as Fusobacterium nucleatum in tongue coating and dental plaque specimens obtained with and without tongue cleaning. We conducted a randomized examiner-blind crossover study using 30 volunteers (average 23.7 ± 3.2 years old) without periodontitis. After dividing randomly into 2 groups, 1 group was instructed to clean the tongue, while the other did not. On days 1 (baseline), 3, and 10, tongue coating and dental plaque samples were collected after recording tongue coating score (Winkel tongue coating index: WTCI). After a washout period of 3 weeks, the same examinations were performed with the subjects allocated to the alternate group. Genomic DNA was purified from the samples and applied to SYBR® Green-based real-time PCR to quantify the amounts of total bacteria and F. nucleatum. After 3 days, the WTCI score recovered to baseline, though the amount of total bacteria in tongue coating was significantly lower as compared to the baseline. In plaque samples, the bacterial amounts on day 3 and 10 were significantly lower than the baseline with and without tongue cleaning. Principal component analysis showed that variations of bacterial amounts in the tongue coating and dental plaque samples were independent from each other. Furthermore, we found a strong association between amounts of total bacteria and F. nucleatum in specimens both. Tongue cleaning reduced the amount of bacteria in tongue coating. However, the cleaning had no obvious contribution to inhibit dental plaque formation. Furthermore, recovery of the total bacterial amount induced an increase in F. nucleatum in both tongue coating and dental plaque. Thus, it is recommended that tongue cleaning and tooth brushing should both be performed for promoting oral health.

  11. Easiness of use and validity testing of VS-SENSE device for detection of abnormal vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Marconi, Camila; Bellen, Gert

    2010-01-01

    Accessing vaginal pH is fundamental during gynaecological visit for the detection of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), but use of pH strips may be time-consuming and difficult to interpret. The aim of this study was to evaluate the VS-SENSE test (Common Sense Ltd, Caesarea, Israel) as a tool for the diagnosis of AVF and its correlation with abnormal pH and bacterial vaginosis (BV). The study population consisted of 45 women with vaginal pH ≥ 4.5 and 45 women with normal pH. Vaginal samples were evaluated by VS-SENSE test, microscopy and microbiologic cultures. Comparing with pH strips results, VS-SENSE test specificity was 97.8% and sensitivity of 91%. All severe cases of BV and aerobic vaginitis (AV) were detected by the test. Only one case with normal pH had an unclear result. Concluding, VS-SENSE test is easy to perform, and it correlates with increased pH, AVF, and the severe cases of BV and AV.

  12. Easiness of Use and Validity Testing of VS-SENSE Device for Detection of Abnormal Vaginal Flora and Bacterial Vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert G. G. Donders

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessing vaginal pH is fundamental during gynaecological visit for the detection of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF, but use of pH strips may be time-consuming and difficult to interpret. The aim of this study was to evaluate the VS-SENSE test (Common Sense Ltd, Caesarea, Israel as a tool for the diagnosis of AVF and its correlation with abnormal pH and bacterial vaginosis (BV. The study population consisted of 45 women with vaginal pH ≥ 4.5 and 45 women with normal pH. Vaginal samples were evaluated by VS-SENSE test, microscopy and microbiologic cultures. Comparing with pH strips results, VS-SENSE test specificity was 97.8% and sensitivity of 91%. All severe cases of BV and aerobic vaginitis (AV were detected by the test. Only one case with normal pH had an unclear result. Concluding, VS-SENSE test is easy to perform, and it correlates with increased pH, AVF, and the severe cases of BV and AV.

  13. Characterization of gut bacterial flora of Apis mellifera from north-west Pakistan

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    Syed Ishtiaq Anjum

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has been recognized to play a beneficial role in honey bees (Apis mellifera. Present study was designed to characterize the gut bacterial flora of honey bees in north-west Pakistan. Total 150 aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria from guts of 45 worker bees were characterized using biochemical assays and 16S rDNA sequencing followed by bioinformatics analysis. The gut isolates were classified into three bacterial phyla of Firmicutes (60%, Proteobacteria (26% and Actinobacteria (14%. Most of the isolates belonged to genera and families of Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Enterococcus, Ochrobactrum, Sphingomonas, Ralstonia, Enterobacteriaceae, Corynebacterium and Micrococcineae. Many of these bacteria were tolerant to acidic environments and fermented sugars, hence considered beneficial gut inhabitants and involved the maintenance of a healthy microbiota. However, several opportunistic commensals that proliferate in the hive environment including members Staphylococcus haemolyticus group and Sphingomonas paucimobilis were also identified. This is the first report on bee gut microbiota from north-west Pakistan geographically situated at the crossroads of Indian subcontinent and central Asia.

  14. Nonspecific Bacterial Flora Isolated from the Body Surface and Inside Ixodes ricinus Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okła, Hubert; Sosnowska, Malwina; Jasik, Krzysztof P; Słodki, Jan; Wojtyczka, Robert D

    2012-09-28

    Ixodes ricinus and other representatives of the order Ixodida are vectors of typical pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilium, Babesia spp., a tick-borne encephalitis virus, and other microorganisms which are important from a medical and veterinary point of view. The presented study focuses on the verification of nonspecific bacterial flora of I. ricinus. We analyzed ticks collected in a forest region in Silesia, an industrial district in Poland. Methods of classical microbiology and biochemical assays (API 20 NE test, API Staph test and MICRONAUT System) were used for isolation and identification of microorganisms living on the body surface of I. ricinus and inside ticks. The results show the presence of various bacteria on the surface and inside ticks' bodies. During the study, we isolated Acinetobacter lwoffi, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Achromobacter denitrificans, Alcaligenes faecalis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Micrococcus spp., Kocuria varians, Staphylococcus lentus, Kocuria kristinae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Rhizobium radiobacter, Staphylococcus xylosus. Majority of the isolated species are non-pathogenic environmental microorganisms, but some of the isolated bacterial strains could cause severe infections.

  15. A Prospective Study of Vaginal Bacterial Flora and Other Risk Factors for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, R. Scott; Richardson, Barbra A.; Hassan, Wisal M.; Graham, Susan M.; Kiarie, James; Baeten, Jared M.; Mandaliya, Kishorchandra; Jaoko, Walter; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O.; Holmes, King K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that vaginal lactobacilli may reduce the risk of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), but supporting data are limited. Our objective was to determine the relationship between vaginal bacterial flora and VVC. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort analysis among 151 Kenyan sex workers. At monthly follow-up, VVC was defined as the presence of yeast buds, pseudohyphae, or both on vaginal wet preparation or KOH preparation. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify correlates of VVC. Results: Participants returned for a median of 12 (interquartile range 11-12) visits. Vulvovaginal candidiasis was present at 162 visits, including 26 with symptomatic VVC. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was associated with fewer episodes of VVC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.50). After excluding women with concurrent BV, another possible cause of vaginal symptoms, the likelihood of symptomatic VVC was higher in those with yeast on vaginal wet preparation in the past 60 days (aOR 4.06, 95% CI 1.12-14.74) and those with concurrent vaginal Lactobacillus colonization (aOR 3.75, 95% CI 1.30-10.83). Conclusions: Contrary to a commonly posed hypothesis of a protective effect, we found that vaginal Lactobacillus colonization was associated with a >4-fold increase in the likelihood of symptomatic VVC. PMID:19456235

  16. Antibiotic resistance in conjunctival and enteric bacterial flora in raptors housed in a zoological garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Andrea; Taddei, Simone; Santospirito, Davide; Sandri, Camillo; Magnone, William; Cabassi, Clotilde S

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in a wide range of infectious agents is a growing public health threat. Birds of prey are considered indicators of the presence of AMR bacteria in their ecosystem because of their predatory behaviour. Only few data are reported in the literature on AMR strains isolated from animals housed in zoos and none about AMR in raptors housed in zoological gardens. This study investigated the antibiotic sensitivity profile of the isolates obtained from the conjunctival and cloacal bacterial flora of 14 healthy birds of prey, 6 Accipitriformes , 3 Falconiformes and 5 Strigiformes , housed in an Italian zoological garden. Staphylococcus spp. was isolated from 50% of the conjunctival swabs, with S. xylosus as the most common species. From cloacal swabs, Escherichia coli was cultured from all animals, while Klebsiella spp. and Proteus spp. were isolated from a smaller number of birds. Worthy of note is the isolation of Escherichia fergusonii and Serratia odorifera , rarely isolated from raptors. Staphylococci were also isolated. All the isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). To the author's knowledge, this is the first report regarding the presence of MDR strains within raptors housed in a zoological garden. Since resistance genes can be transferred to other pathogenic bacteria, this represents a potential hazard for the emergence of new MDR pathogens. In conclusion, the obtained data could be useful for ex-situ conservation programmes aimed to preserve the health of the endangered species housed in a zoo.

  17. Changes in the conjunctival bacterial flora of patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit

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    Afsun Sahin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify the changes in aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora and to correlate culture results with physical health and the duration of patients' hospitalization in an intensive care unit (ICU. Methods: Patients hospitalized in the ICU were included in this study. Conjunctival cultures from all patients were obtained using a standard technique on days 1, 3, 7, and 14. Swabs were plated on nonselective (blood agar and enriched (chocolate agar media within one hour. Visible colonies were isolated, and standard microbiological techniques were used to identify the bacteria. The frequency, identity, and correlation of culture results with patients' physical findings and the duration of hospitalization were determined. Results: We obtained 478 cultures (day 1, 270; day 3, 156; day 7, 36; and day 14, 16 from 135 patients; 288 (60.2% cultures were positive, and 331 microorganisms were isolated. The most frequently isolated microorganism from the cultures was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species (n=210/331, 63.5%, and the others were Corynebacterium diphtheriae (n=52/331, 15.7%, S. aureus (n=26/331, 7.9%, gram-negative bacilli other than Pseudomonas (n=14/331, 4.2%, Neisseria species (n=8/331, 2.4%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=6/331, 1.8%, Haemophilus influenzae (n=7/331, 2.1%, Acinetobacter species (n=6/331, 1.8%, and Streptococcus species (n=2/331, 0.6%. The frequency of positive cultures significantly increased (p<0.03 with time. Conclusions: Prolonged hospitalization significantly predisposes to bacterial colonization. The colonization rate of S. aureus and Neisseria spp. increased significantly after one week.

  18. Changes in bacterial flora associated with skin damage on hands of health care personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E L; Hughes, C A; Pyrek, J D; Sparks, S M; Cagatay, E U; Bartkus, J M

    1998-10-01

    In a prospective observational study of 40 nurses (20 with diagnosed hand irritation and 20 without), nurses with damaged hands did not have higher microbial counts (P = .63), but did have a greater number of colonizing species (means: 3.35 and 2.63, P = .03). Although numbers were small, nurses with damaged hands were significantly more likely to be colonized with Staphylococcus hominis (P = .03). Fifty-nine percent of S hominis isolates from nurses with damaged hands were resistant to methicillin compared with 27% of isolates from those with healthy skin (P = .14). Twenty percent of nurses with damaged hands were colonized with Staphylococcus aureus compared with none of the nurses with normal hands (P = .11). Nurses with damaged hands were also twice as likely to have gram-negative bacteria (P = .20), entercocci (P = .13), and Candida (P = .30) present on the hands. Antimicrobial resistance of the coagulase-negative staphylococcal flora (with the exception of S hominis) did not differ between the 2 groups, nor did a trend toward increasing resistance exist when compared with other studies during the past decade. Skin moisturizers and protectant products were used almost universally by nurses at work, primarily products brought from home. Efforts to improve hand condition are warranted because skin damage can change microbial flora. Such efforts should include assessment or monitoring of hand care practices, formal institutional policy adoption and control of use of skin protectant products or lotions, and prudent use of latex gloves or more widespread use of powder-free and nonlatex products.

  19. Comprehensive postmortem analyses of intestinal microbiota changes and bacterial translocation in human flora associated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus M Heimesaat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postmortem microbiological examinations are performed in forensic and medical pathology for defining uncertain causes of deaths and for screening of deceased tissue donors. Interpretation of bacteriological data, however, is hampered by false-positive results due to agonal spread of microorganisms, postmortem bacterial translocation, and environmental contamination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a kinetic survey of naturally occurring postmortem gut flora changes in the small and large intestines of conventional and gnotobiotic mice associated with a human microbiota (hfa applying cultural and molecular methods. Sacrificed mice were kept under ambient conditions for up to 72 hours postmortem. Intestinal microbiota changes were most pronounced in the ileal lumen where enterobacteria and enterococci increased by 3-5 orders of magnitude in conventional and hfa mice. Interestingly, comparable intestinal overgrowth was shown in acute and chronic intestinal inflammation in mice and men. In hfa mice, ileal overgrowth with enterococci and enterobacteria started 3 and 24 hours postmortem, respectively. Strikingly, intestinal bacteria translocated to extra-intestinal compartments such as mesenteric lymphnodes, spleen, liver, kidney, and cardiac blood as early as 5 min after death. Furthermore, intestinal tissue destruction was characterized by increased numbers of apoptotic cells and neutrophils within 3 hours postmortem, whereas counts of proliferative cells as well as T- and B-lymphocytes and regulatory T-cells decreased between 3 and 12 hours postmortem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that kinetics of ileal overgrowth with enterobacteria and enterococci in hfa mice can be used as an indicator for compromized intestinal functionality and for more precisely defining the time point of death under defined ambient conditions. The rapid translocation of intestinal bacteria starting within a few minutes after death will help

  20. Evaluation of bacterial flora during the ripening of Kedong sufu, a typical Chinese traditional bacteria-fermented soybean product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhen; Gao, Wei; Ren, Dan; Chen, Xi; Li, Juan-juan

    2013-04-01

    Kedong sufu is a typical bacteria-fermented sufu in China. Isolation and identification of the autochthonous bacteria involved would allow the design of specific starters for this speciality. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the bacterial flora during the ripening of Kedong sufu using polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and culturing. In terms of bacterial diversity, 22 strains were isolated and identified and 27 strains were detected by DGGE. Regarding bacterial dynamics, the results of culturing and PCR-DGGE exhibited a similar trend towards dominant strains. Throughout the fermentation of sufu, Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus carnosus were the dominant microflora, while the secondary microflora comprised Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus lutetiensis, Kocuria rosea, Kocuria kristinae, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis. This study is the first to reveal the bacterial flora during the ripening of Kedong sufu using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. This information will help in the design of autochthonous starter cultures for the production of Kedong sufu with desirable characteristic sensory profiles and shorter ripening times. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Comparison of Normal Resident Flora on the Face of Medical Students who use and who do not use Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayalaxmi Jeppu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Normal flora of the skin plays a beneficial role in preventing the pathogenic organisms from colonizing the skin and causing infection. It is possible that the facial cosmetics may cause a change in the normal flora disrupting its protective function. Aim: To find out the effect of cosmetics, those that are applied on to the face on resident normal flora of the face. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving medical students aged 19 to 25 years, of whom 42 were regular cosmetic users and another 42 were non cosmetic users. Swabs were taken from the face of the subjects after a face wash with soap and water and eluted in 1 ml sterile peptone water. Tenfold dilutions of the sample were made and 100 ìl of the diluted sample was spread over the surface of Trypticase soy agar, Mac Conkey’s agar and blood agar. The colonies were counted and also identified. Statistical evaluation was done by Chi-square test using SPSS version 16. Results: We isolated Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS, Micrococcus spp. and methicillin sensitive S.aureus, non-fermenting oxidase negative gram negative bacilli and diphtheroids from both the groups. We found that most of the students who were regular cosmetic users 22 (52.38% yielded negligent growth in comparison with non-cosmetic users (16, 38%. CoNS was less frequently isolated from regular cosmetic users 10 (23.8% in comparison with those who do not use cosmetics 17 (40.47%. Conclusion: It is possible that regular use of cosmetics does reduce the normal flora but further studies with larger sample size are required to prove and confirm this finding.

  2. Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

  3. Comparison of Microbiological Flora in the External Auditory Canal of Normal Ear and an Ear with Acute Otitis Externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanpur, Asheesh Dora; Nayak, Dipak Ranjan; Chawla, Kiran; Shashidhar, V; Singh, Rohit

    2017-09-01

    Acute Otitis Externa (AOE) is also known as swimmer's ear. Investigations initiated during World War II firmly established the role of bacteria in the aetiology of Acute Otitis Externa. To culture the microbiological flora of the normal ear and compare it with the flora causing AOE and to know the role of normal ear canal flora and anaerobes in the aetiology. A prospective observational study was conducted on 64 patients clinically diagnosed with unilateral AOE. Ear swabs were taken from both the ears. Microbiological flora was studied considering diseased ear as test ear and the normal ear as the control. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures were done. Severity of the disease was assessed by subjective and objective scores. Effect of topical treatment with ichthammol glycerine pack was assessed after 48 hours and scores were calculated again. Patients with scores < 4 after pack removal were started on systemic antibiotics and were assessed after seven days of antibiotics course. Data was analysed using Paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Chi-square test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33%) was the most common bacteria cultured from the ear followed by Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (18%). Patients with anaerobic organism in the test ear had severe symptoms and needed systemic antibiotic therapy. Most of the cases may respond to empirical antibiotic therapy. In cases with severe symptoms and the ones refractory to empirical treatment, a culture from the ear canal will not be a tax on the patient. This helps in giving a better understanding about the disease, causative organisms and helps in avoiding the use of inappropriate antibiotics that usually result in developing resistant strains of bacteria.

  4. Bacterial imbalance of the vaginal flora: a cytological and biomolecular concept of Gardnerella vaginalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1996 all women aged 30 to 60 years are invited for a cervical smear on a 5 year interval. KOPAC, the Dutch national coding system for cervical smears, introduced for determination of cervical abnormalities also evaluates the inflammatory status of the vaginal flora. In this system

  5. Bacterial flora, protozoal fauna and volatile fatty acids in the nrmen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition of the ruminal flora and the VFA concentra' tion were surveyed in the water buffalo found in tropical Asia. The results showed that the average concentration of VFA in rumen contents was 57 mM and the number of bacteria and protozoaw as 1010a nd 106p er ml, respectivelyA. cetic acid comprised the ...

  6. The effect of povidone–iodine on normal bacteria conjunctival flora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    –iodine on the flora in adult patients at the Guinness Eye Centre Onitsha Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Each randomly recruited new adult patient had conjunctival swab taken from one eye; then a drop of 5% povidone–iodine solution was ...

  7. Uterine bacterial flora in postpartum Danish Holstein dairy cows determined using DNA-based fingerprinting: Correlation to uterine condition and calving management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, K.; Ancker, M.-L.; Gustafsson, H.

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to describe uterine bacterial flora during the postpartum period in Danish Holstein cows using the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. This method produces a pattern of nucleic acid fragments from the microorganisms present, reflect......The overall aim of this study was to describe uterine bacterial flora during the postpartum period in Danish Holstein cows using the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. This method produces a pattern of nucleic acid fragments from the microorganisms present......, reflecting the “fingerprint” of the actual microbial flora. As well as characterizing changes in flora with time from calving and between herds, data were examined for strong relations between uterine bacterial flora, calving management and uterine condition. In total 125 Holstein cows from five herds were...... included, and for each cow calving management was recorded. Cows were clinically examined on average 8 (range 0–19) and 28 (range 22–38) days after calving, and a uterine sample was taken for bacterial identification using T-RFLP. Milk samples were taken weekly for progesterone analysis. Bacteria were...

  8. Microbial flora in orodental infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to compare the normal aerobic and anaerobic bacterial oral flora with flora from deep seated dental caries, gingivitis and adult periodontitis. All the samples belonging to both the control and study groups yielded microbes. Aerobe / Anaerobe ratio was high in normal flora (1.48 as compared to dental caries (0.9, gingivitis (0.72 and periodontitis (0.56. Ninety seven percent of orodental infections were polymicrobial and three or more microbes were found in 84% cases of study group as compared to 28% in controls. Streptococcus mutans and anaerobic lactobacilli were common in dental caries, Actinomyces and Peptostreptococcus spp. in gingivitis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontitis.

  9. Predictive value for preterm birth of abnormal vaginal flora, bacterial vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis during the first trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, G G; Van Calsteren, K; Bellen, G; Reybrouck, R; Van den Bosch, T; Riphagen, I; Van Lierde, S

    2009-09-01

    Abnormal vaginal flora (AVF) before 14 gestational weeks is a risk factor for preterm birth (PTB). The presence of aerobic microorganisms and an inflammatory response in the vagina may also be important risk factors. The primary aim of the study was to investigate the differential influences of AVF, full and partial bacterial vaginosis, and aerobic vaginitis in the first trimester on PTB rate. The secondary aim was to elucidate why treatment with metronidazole has not been found to be beneficial in previous studies. Unselected women with low-risk pregnancies attending the prenatal unit of the Heilig Hart General Hospital in Tienen, Belgium, were included in the study. At the first prenatal visit, 1026 women were invited to undergo sampling of the vaginal fluid for wet mount microscopy and culture, of whom 759 were fully evaluable. Abnormal vaginal flora (AVF; disappearance of lactobacilli), bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV), increased inflammation (more than ten leucocytes per epithelial cell) and vaginal colonisation with Candida (CV) were scored according to standardised definitions. Partial BV was defined as patchy streaks of BV flora or sporadic clue cells mixed with other flora, and full BV as a granular anaerobic-type flora or more than 20% clue cells. Vaginal fluid was cultured for aerobic bacteria, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Outcome was recorded as miscarriage vaginal flora in the first trimester had a 75% lower risk of delivery before 35 weeks compared with women with AVF [odds ratio (OR) 0.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.56]. The absence of lactobacilli (AVF) was associated with increased risks of PTB (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.2-4.8), EPTB (OR 6.2; 95% CI 2.7-14) and miscarriage (OR 4.9; 95% CI 1.4-17). BV was associated with increased risks of PTB (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.1-4.7), EPTB (OR 5.3; 95% CI 2.1-12.9) and miscarriage (OR 6.6; 95% CI 2.1-20.9) and coccoid AV was associated with increased risks of EPTB (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1

  10. Effect of antimicrobial therapy on bowel flora and bacterial infection in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brook, Itzhak; Walker, R.I.; MacVittie, T.J.

    1988-05-01

    Mice exposed to 10 Gy cobalt-60 radiation were given intramuscular antimicrobial therapy of gentamicin, metronidazole, or a combination. Mortality in mice treated with metronidazole alone or in combination with gentamicin occurred earlier than in controls (P < 0.001). Microorganisms were recovered from blood, spleen, and liver of the metronidazole-treated mice earlier than from other groups. Predominant organisms recovered from these animals were Enterobacteriaceae. Quantitative cultures of ileal flora showed decrease in aerobic, facultative anaerobic and strict anaerobic bacteria after irradiation, and a subsequent increase only in the number of strict aerobic bacteria. Compared to untreated mice, a rapid decrease (by 8.8 logs) in anaerobic flora occurred in mice treated with metronidazole 5 days after irradiation, followed by a rapid increase in the number of aerobic organisms which coincided with the earlier mortality in this group. Data suggest that antimicrobial agents decreasing the number of the strict anaerobic component of the gut flora enhance systemic infection by aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria, facilitating post-irradiation mortality.

  11. Effect of antimicrobial therapy on bowel flora and bacterial infection in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, Itzhak; Walker, R.I.; MacVittie, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Mice exposed to 10 Gy cobalt-60 radiation were given intramuscular antimicrobial therapy of gentamicin, metronidazole, or a combination. Mortality in mice treated with metronidazole alone or in combination with gentamicin occurred earlier than in controls (P < 0.001). Microorganisms were recovered from blood, spleen, and liver of the metronidazole-treated mice earlier than from other groups. Predominant organisms recovered from these animals were Enterobacteriaceae. Quantitative cultures of ileal flora showed decrease in aerobic, facultative anaerobic and strict anaerobic bacteria after irradiation, and a subsequent increase only in the number of strict aerobic bacteria. Compared to untreated mice, a rapid decrease (by 8.8 logs) in anaerobic flora occurred in mice treated with metronidazole 5 days after irradiation, followed by a rapid increase in the number of aerobic organisms which coincided with the earlier mortality in this group. Data suggest that antimicrobial agents decreasing the number of the strict anaerobic component of the gut flora enhance systemic infection by aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria, facilitating post-irradiation mortality. (author)

  12. Skin flora: Differences between people affected by Albinism and those with normally pigmented skin in Northern Tanzania - cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprono, Samson K; Masenga, John E; Chaula, Baraka M; Naafs, Bernard

    2012-07-30

    Skin flora varies from one site of the body to another. Individual's health, age and gender determine the type and the density of skin flora. A 1  cm² of the skin on the sternum was rubbed with sterile cotton swab socked in 0.9% normal saline and plated on blood agar. This was cultured at 35 °C. The bacteria were identified by culturing on MacConkey agar, coagulase test, catalase test and gram staining. Swabs were obtained from 66 individuals affected by albinism and 31 individuals with normal skin pigmentation. Those with normal skin were either relatives or staying with the individuals affected by albinism who were recruited for the study. The mean age of the 97 recruited individuals was 30.6 (SD ± 14.9) years. The mean of the colony forming units was 1580.5 per cm2. Those affected by albinism had a significantly higher mean colony forming units (1680  CFU per cm²) as compared with 453.5  CFU per cm² in those with normally pigmented skin (p = 0.023). The skin type and the severity of sun- damaged skin was significantly associated with a higher number of colony forming units (p = 0.038). Individuals affected by albinism have a higher number of colony forming units which is associated with sun- damaged skin.

  13. Uterine bacterial flora in postpartum Danish Holstein dairy cows determined using DNA-based fingerprinting: correlation to uterine condition and calving management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkjær, K; Ancker, M-L; Gustafsson, H; Friggens, N C; Waldmann, A; Mølbak, L; Callesen, H

    2013-04-01

    The overall aim of this study was to describe uterine bacterial flora during the postpartum period in Danish Holstein cows using the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. This method produces a pattern of nucleic acid fragments from the microorganisms present, reflecting the "fingerprint" of the actual microbial flora. As well as characterizing changes in flora with time from calving and between herds, data were examined for strong relations between uterine bacterial flora, calving management and uterine condition. In total 125 Holstein cows from five herds were included, and for each cow calving management was recorded. Cows were clinically examined on average 8 (range 0-19) and 28 (range 22-38) days after calving, and a uterine sample was taken for bacterial identification using T-RFLP. Milk samples were taken weekly for progesterone analysis. Bacteria were found in all cows at both examinations, and the flora was composed of many species, including species not traditionally reported to be present in the bovine uterus. The bacterial composition differed according to days from calving and herd. In all five herds Fusobacterium necrophorum, Pseudomonas/Acinetobacter and Bacteroides/Sphingobacterium/Prevotellaceae were among the most common at both examinations. In four herds there was a percentage decrease of F. necrophorum from first to second examination, and in all herds there was a percentage increase of Pseudomonas/Acinetobacter from first to second examination. No differences in bacterial flora were found between cows with different uterine scores, which were influenced by herd, calving difficulty and retained placenta. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of antimicrobial therapy on the gastrointestinal bacterial flora, infection and mortality in mice exposed to different doses of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brook, I.; Ledney, G.D. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1994-01-01

    The effect of antimicrobial therapy on gut flora, sepsis, and mortality was investigated in C[sub 3]H/HeN female mice irradiated with 7.0, 8.0 or 8.5 Gy or [sup 60]Co. The antimicrobial agents tested were metronidazole, penicillin, imipenem, gentamicin and ofloxacin. In control mice, the greatest reduction of lactose fermenting organisms (1.7-2.8 logs) occurred on day 8 after irradiation and were related directly to radiation doses. After day 8 lactose fermenting organism levels increased and the increases were associated with mortality due to Enterobacteriaceae sepsis. Irradiation reduced the populations of strict anaerobic bacteria in control mice by 2-8 logs, and these remained at low levels. Treatment with either metronidazole or penicillin resulted in greater reductions of strict anaerobic bacteria than occurred in the controls and induced earlier and greater increases in lactose fermenting organisms and associated mortality. Therapies with either gentamicin or ofloxacin resulted in lesser reductions of strict anaerobic bacteria (1.1-2.2 logs) than occurred in controls, and caused greater decreases in lactose fermenting organisms and mortality. The changes in the bacterial flora and mortality following imipenem treatment were similar to controls. These data demonstrate that in animals exposed to irradiation, antimicrobial agents effective against strict anaerobic bacteria can be deleterious, but antimicrobial agents effective against lactose fermenting organsims may be beneficial. (Author).

  15. Effect of antimicrobial therapy on the gastrointestinal bacterial flora, infection and mortality in mice exposed to different doses of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, I.; Ledney, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of antimicrobial therapy on gut flora, sepsis, and mortality was investigated in C 3 H/HeN female mice irradiated with 7.0, 8.0 or 8.5 Gy or 60 Co. The antimicrobial agents tested were metronidazole, penicillin, imipenem, gentamicin and ofloxacin. In control mice, the greatest reduction of lactose fermenting organisms (1.7-2.8 logs) occurred on day 8 after irradiation and were related directly to radiation doses. After day 8 lactose fermenting organism levels increased and the increases were associated with mortality due to Enterobacteriaceae sepsis. Irradiation reduced the populations of strict anaerobic bacteria in control mice by 2-8 logs, and these remained at low levels. Treatment with either metronidazole or penicillin resulted in greater reductions of strict anaerobic bacteria than occurred in the controls and induced earlier and greater increases in lactose fermenting organisms and associated mortality. Therapies with either gentamicin or ofloxacin resulted in lesser reductions of strict anaerobic bacteria (1.1-2.2 logs) than occurred in controls, and caused greater decreases in lactose fermenting organisms and mortality. The changes in the bacterial flora and mortality following imipenem treatment were similar to controls. These data demonstrate that in animals exposed to irradiation, antimicrobial agents effective against strict anaerobic bacteria can be deleterious, but antimicrobial agents effective against lactose fermenting organsims may be beneficial. (Author)

  16. Vaginal bacterial flora of patients with operated endometrial carcinoma prior to and following intracavitary vaginal irradiation (Ir-192, afterloading)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstner, G.; Kucera, H.; Weghaupt, K.; Rotter, M.; Vienna Univ.; Vienna Univ.

    1982-01-01

    In a prospective bacteriological and clinical study the vaginal bacterial flora of 35 patients with endometrial carcinoma, who underwent surgery 4 to 6 weeks earlier, was investigated prior to and following intracavitary vaginal irradiation with 10 Gy in 0,75 cm (Ir-192, afterloading device, Buchler). Bacteriological swabs were taken prior to and following the insertion of a tube applicator. Anaerobic transport-media were used and cultures were performed aerobically and anaerobically. The mean number of aerobic species per patient increased slightly from 3.26 to 3.60 (n.s.), anaerobic species remained constant (1.36 before and 1.30 after irradiation). Also the frequency of isolation of most aerobic and of all anaerobic species was statistically not altered following irradiation. Staphylococcus epidermidis decreased from 51.4% to 22.8% significantly (2p [de

  17. Evaluation of antibiotic resistant bacteria in underground drinking water and transfer of their resistant character to normal flora of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mehboob; Khan, Naqab; Rehman, Khurram; Khan, Samiullah; Niazi, Zahid Rasul; Shah, Kifayatullah; Baloch, Natasha; Khan, Barkat Ali

    2018-03-01

    The untreated surface water for drinking and domestic use is an alarming situation to public health especially in prevalence of antibiotics resistant bacteria. This investigation aimed to isolate and identify the antibiotic resistance bacteria in underground water samples in district Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The underground water samples were collected from four different places using hand pumps (Khyber town, riverside, Gomal University and united town). Cultured on nutrient agar media, identified by Gam staining and biochemical tests. There after antibiotic resistance assay were performed by measuring zone of inhibition of different antibiotics by disc diffusion method. Six different bacterial colonies were isolated and identified as Enterobacteriaceae, Serriata specie, Proteues, Pseudomonas, all these bacterial colonies were 33% resistant to chloramphenicol with and 100% resistant to amoxicillin. Some colonies were also considered as resistant, according to the criteria of National Committee for Clinical Records (NCCL) that less than 10mm zone of inhibition are considered as resistant. Subsequently, the chloramphenicol resistance bacteria were analyzed for their ability to transfer resistant gene to sensitive bacteria. In in-vitro method, an isolate M1b (resistant) was found capable to transfer resistance gene to M1a isolate (sensitive) in nutrient rich environment. It was concluded that antibiotics resistance bacteria found in underground water, moreover capable of transferring the antibiotic resistant character to suitable recipient i.e. normal flora of the body or to other pathogens by conjugation.

  18. [Bacterial and fungal flora in some clinical materials in children with diabetes type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowska, Maria; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława

    2002-01-01

    Children with poorly controlled diabetes are exposed to infections often caused by endogenous flora. To estimate incidence of pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria and fungi of Candida species. The urine, smears from the oral cavity and the pharynx as well as from the urogenital tract were examined in 130 children (62 boys and 68 girls) hospitalised because of newly diagnosed (53 children) or poorly controlled diabetes (77 patients). 29 children with short stature were the control group, in these children only the urine and smears from the oral cavity and the pharynx were only examined. Culture and identification of microorganisms were performed according to the methods used in microbiological diagnosis. Antifungal susceptibility testing was estimated with FUNGITEST Sanofi Pasteur and ATB Fungus bioMérieux. Staphylococcus aureus in 43 diabetic children (33%) was observed. Staphylococcus aureus from different clinical materials was isolated; there was no difference in the frequency of occurrence of S. aureus in flora of the oral cavity and the pharynx in diabetic children in comparison with healthy children. Streptococcus group B in 29 (22.3%) was isolated, among them in 10 children from the pharynx. In healthy children Streptococcus group B was not observed. A significant bacteriuria was observed in 15 diabetic children (11.5%) and in 2 healthy children (6.9%). Fungi in 58 diabetic children (44.6%) were observed. Most often isolated species was Candida albicans (49 children), rarely other species. Candida spp. from different clinical materials was isolated, also in a non significant amount from the urine. Microbial analysis of vagina should be routinely performed in diabetic adolescents. Urine of diabetics should be examined towards fungi.

  19. gamma-Aminobutyric acid production in small and large intestine of normal and germ-free Wistar rats. Influence of food intake and intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berlo, C L; de Jonge, H R; van den Bogaard, A E; van Eijk, H M; Janssen, M A; Soeters, P B

    1987-09-01

    In recent hypotheses concerning the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is claimed to be produced by the colonic flora, although enzymes necessary to generate GABA have been reported to be present in intestinal mucosa. In this study, using normal and germ-free Wistar rats, we determined GABA levels and amino-grams of arterial blood and of venous effluent from small and large bowel. The data indicate that large and small intestinal mucosa significantly contribute to GABA production. In the fasted state GABA concentrations are greater in the venous effluent of the small bowel than in the venous effluent of the large bowel. Feeding increases the arterioportal differences, and uptake in the small bowel is still significantly higher than in the large bowel. This process is not, or can only be to a minor degree, bacterially mediated, because GABA production in the gut both in the fed and fasted state is of similar magnitude in germ-free and normal animals. gamma-Aminobutyric acid release correlates significantly with glutamine uptake in the small bowel of fasted rats. Only a small fraction of the glutamine taken up is needed to account for GABA release, so that conclusions concerning which amino acids may serve as precursors of GABA cannot be drawn. Further studies are needed to delineate the metabolic pathways leading to GABA synthesis.

  20. Linking the Composition of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities to Characteristics of Soil and Flora Composition in the Atlantic Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Perim, Julia Elidia; Romagnoli, Emiliana Manesco; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Durrer, Ademir; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2016-01-01

    The description of microbiomes as intrinsic fractions of any given ecosystem is an important issue, for instance, by linking their compositions and functions with other biotic and abiotic components of natural systems and hosts. Here we describe the archaeal and bacterial communities from soils of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Based on the comparison of three areas located along an altitudinal gradient—namely, Santa Virginia, Picinguaba and Restinga—we detected the most abundant groups of Bacteria (Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria) and Archaea (Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota). The particular composition of such communities in each of these areas was first evidenced by PCR-DGGE patterns [determined for Bacteria, Archaea and ammonia-oxidizing organisms—ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB)]. Moreover, sequence-based analysis provided a better resolution of communities, which indicated distinct frequencies of archaeal phyla and bacterial OTUs across areas. We found, as indicated by the Mantel test and multivariate analyses, a potential effect of the flora composition that outpaces the effect of soil characteristics (either physical and chemical) influencing the assembly of these microbial communities in soils. Our results indicate a collective role of the ecosystem underlying observed differences in microbial communities in these soils. Particularly, we posit that rainforest preservation also needs to take into account the maintenance of the soil biodiversity, as this is prompted to influence major processes that affect ecosystem functioning. PMID:26752633

  1. Linking the Composition of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities to Characteristics of Soil and Flora Composition in the Atlantic Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Perim, Julia Elidia; Romagnoli, Emiliana Manesco; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Durrer, Ademir; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2016-01-01

    The description of microbiomes as intrinsic fractions of any given ecosystem is an important issue, for instance, by linking their compositions and functions with other biotic and abiotic components of natural systems and hosts. Here we describe the archaeal and bacterial communities from soils of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Based on the comparison of three areas located along an altitudinal gradient-namely, Santa Virginia, Picinguaba and Restinga-we detected the most abundant groups of Bacteria (Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria) and Archaea (Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota). The particular composition of such communities in each of these areas was first evidenced by PCR-DGGE patterns [determined for Bacteria, Archaea and ammonia-oxidizing organisms-ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB)]. Moreover, sequence-based analysis provided a better resolution of communities, which indicated distinct frequencies of archaeal phyla and bacterial OTUs across areas. We found, as indicated by the Mantel test and multivariate analyses, a potential effect of the flora composition that outpaces the effect of soil characteristics (either physical and chemical) influencing the assembly of these microbial communities in soils. Our results indicate a collective role of the ecosystem underlying observed differences in microbial communities in these soils. Particularly, we posit that rainforest preservation also needs to take into account the maintenance of the soil biodiversity, as this is prompted to influence major processes that affect ecosystem functioning.

  2. Bacterial flora analysis of coliforms in sewage, river water, and ground water using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Niina, Kouki; Matsuwaki, Tomonori; Nukazawa, Kei; Iguchi, Atsushi

    2018-01-28

    The aim of this study was to rapidly and effectively analyze coliforms, which are the most fundamental indicators of water quality for fecal pollution, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Coliform bacteria were isolated from municipal sewage, river water, and groundwater. For each sample, 100 isolates were determined by MALDI-TOF MS. In addition, these same 100 isolates were also identified via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Obtained MALDI-TOF MS data were compared with the 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, and the validity of MALDI-TOF MS for classification of coliform bacteria was examined. The concordance rate of bacterial identification for the 100 isolates obtained by MALDI-TOF MS analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for sewage, river water, and ground water were 96%, 74%, and 62% at the genus level, respectively. Among the sewage, river water, and ground water samples, the coliform bacterial flora were distinct. The dominant genus of coliforms in sewage, river water, and groundwater were Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Serratia spp., respectively. We determined that MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid and accurate tool that can be used to identify coliforms. Therefore, without using conventional 16S rRNA sequencing, it is possible to rapidly and effectively classify coliforms in water using MALDI-TOF MS.

  3. Effects Of Palm Oil Mill Effluents (Pome) On Soil Bacterial Flora And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sandy loam soil in Egbema, Rivers State was impacted with POME at different levels and analyzed for bacteriological quality and soil enzyme activities. Light application caused significant increase in total heterotrophic, phosphate solibilizing, nitrifying and lipolytic bacterial counts while heavy application caused a decrease ...

  4. Characterisation of the aerobic bacterial flora of boid snakes: application of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenz, Bastian; Schmidt, Volker; Grosse-Herrenthey, Anke; Krüger, Monika; Pees, Michael

    2015-03-14

    The aim of this study was to identify aerobic bacterial isolates from the respiratory tract of boids with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). From 47 boid snakes, swabs from the oral cavity, tracheal wash samples and, in cases in which postmortem examination was performed, pulmonary tissue samples were taken. Each snake was classified as having inflammation of the respiratory tract and/or oral cavity, or without evidence of inflammation based on combination of clinical, cytological and histopathological findings. Samples collected from the respiratory tract and oral cavity were inoculated onto routine media and bacteria were cultured aerobically. All morphologically distinct individual colonies obtained were analysed using MALDI-TOF MS. Unidentified isolates detected in more than three snakes were selected for further 16S rDNA PCR and sequencing. Among all examined isolates (n=243), 49 per cent (n=119) could be sufficiently speciated using MALDI-TOF MS. Molecular biology revealed several bacterial species that have not been previously described in reptiles. With an average of 6.3 different isolates from the respiratory tract and/or oral cavity, boids with inflammatory disease harboured significantly more bacterial species than boids without inflammatory disease (average 2.8 isolates). British Veterinary Association.

  5. Protection of honeybee Apis mellifera by its endogenous and exogenous lactic flora against bacterial infections

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    Irakli Janashia

    2016-09-01

    Three exogenous bacteriocin-producing LAB strains were tested against the same pathogens and against 25 endogenous bacterial isolates representing 11 different LAB species. The screening showed that all the tested exogenous bacteriocin-producing strains inhibited the tested P. larvae strains. The endogenous LAB strains exhibited varied sensitivity profiles when treated with bacteriocin-producing strains. This raises similar challenges to those observed in antibiotic applications leading to dysbacteriosis, even though the efficacy of these bacteriocins against P. larvae in an in vitro system is evident.

  6. Controlling of bacterial flora contaminating animal diet and its components by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Helal, G.A.; El-Hady, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    The total bacterial counts in complete diets were found to range between 10 3 -10 5 cells/g, which they ranged between 10 2 and 10 6 in the main components. One hundred and sixteen bacterial colonies were isolated from the animal diet samples and found to be gram positive belonging to three genera: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Bacillus. The most radioresistant bacteria isolated at 7.5 KGy were identified as B. megaterium, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B.circulans and B.laterosporus. The D 1 0 values for the bacteria contaminated the diet samples ranged between 928 Gy and 2199 Gy. Meanwhile, the D 1 0 values of staph.aureus and Strapt.faecalis artificially contaminated the diet were 400 Gy and 1136 Gy, respectively. It could be recommended from obtained results that dose level of 10 KGy is quite sufficient to eliminate all pathogens from animal diets or their components. In addition, it decreases the microbial count to minimum counts and hence increases the diet shelf life.1 fig.,4 tab

  7. Intestinal Bacterial Flora that Compete on the Haem Precursor Iron Fumarate in Iron Deficiency Anemia Cases

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    Selim, S. A. H.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study focused on finding if there is any possible relation between the intestinal bacterial population quantitative and qualitative and the deficiency of the most important iron compounds as haem precursors. Methodology and Results: Blood complete picture and stool analyses were done to 750 volunteer cases whom were asked for these analyses by their physicians. Analyses proved that 560 cases representing 75.2 % were anemic as the RBC(s based on counts of the total studied cases of less than 263 x 104 and the haemoglobin amount ranged between 7.2 and 11.3 g/dl, while the remainder 24.8 % of the volunteer sample was not anemic. A high male/female ratio ofanemic cases, 1:27 was also documented. Considering that all the studied stool samples should be completely free from any parasites or any other anemia-related diseases was a priority. Bacteriological analysis of stool samples of the anemic cases resulted in the detection of high counts of total viable bacteria, exceeded 42 x 109 cfu/g, while it was never more than 26 x 106 cfu/g and decreased to 4 x 106 cfu/g in many cases in this study. Identifying of the 361 bacterial isolates, were found to belong to 12 genera and 19 species, 6 of them; Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Micrococcus luteus, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus coagulans , were found and in high counts in the stool samples of only anemic cases. The ability of these isolates to compete for iron compounds such as ferrous fumarate alone or with glucose and phytate as activators or inhibitors to these abilities was investigated. Results proved 11 species out of the 19 identified species are capable to use and compete on ferrous fumarate as a haemprecursor. Sensitivity test for the representatives of the 19 species and 6 of the most commonly used antibiotics in the Egyptian pharmacy, using standard disc method, revealed variable susceptibilities of almost all of them to more than one of

  8. Evaluation of efficacy of topical povidone-iodine and different types of fluoroquinolones in the sterilization of bacterial flora on the conjunctiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Mehmet; Altintas, Ayse Gul Kocak; Anayol, Mustafa Alpaslan; Raza, Sabri; Celikbilek, Nevreste; Simsek, Saban

    2011-12-01

    To compare the sterilization effectivity of topical povidone-iodine, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin on the conjunctival bacterial flora. One hundred sixty-four eyes of 164 patients scheduled for cataract surgery were prospectively analyzed. Conjunctival cultures were obtained 1 day before the surgery without any topical application in all patients. Conjunctival flora was examined in 53 eyes of 53 patients (Group I) 15 min after 5% topical povidone-iodine application on the day of the surgery. Fifty-four eyes of 54 patients (Group II) received 1 drop 0.3% ciprofloxacin at 12 pm 1 day before the operation and 4 drops at 15 min intervals on the day of the surgery. Another 57 eyes of 57 patients (Group III) received 0.3% ofloxacin in the same application mode as ciprofloxacin. Conjunctival cultures were taken in all patients 15 min after last drop of topical antibiotic application. Only coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated from 75.4% in Group I, 72.2% in Group II, and 59.6% in Group III on pretreatment culture. Different types of bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp., Micrococcus spp. were identified in other patients. Pretreatment conjunctival flora of Group I and Group II were similar (P>0.05), but it was significantly different in Group III (P0.05), but bacterial eradication effectiveness was significantly higher in Group II than that of other groups (Pflora as pretreatment cultures in 14.9% in Group I, 1.8% in Group II, and 19.2% in Group III. The difference between Group I and Group III was statistically insignificant (P>0.05) and the difference between Group II and other groups was statistically significant (Pflora in Group I, which were seen in 3 eyes (5.5%) in Group II and in 8 eyes (14%) in Group III. The differences between groups were statistically insignificant (P>0.05). Ciprofloxacin seems to be more effective in conjunctival sterilization. In consideration with high variety of bacterial flora in

  9. A study on fungal flora of the normal eye surface in Iranian native cattle

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    tohid nouri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The microflora of the normal ocular surface is one of the sources supplying fungal agents for keratomycosis. This study was conducted to identify fungal isolates of the conjunctiva in clinically healthy Iranian native cattle in Urmia district. Swabs were taken from both eyes of cattle (n=45 and cultured onto Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and malt extract agar. Plates were incubated at 25°C and examined for 7 days. Data were analyzed for the effect of age and sex by fisher’s exact test. Thirteen cattle (28.89% were found to be positive for fungal growth. The isolated fungal genera were Aspergillus spp-7 cases (53.84%, Penicillium spp-6 cases (46.15%, Rhodotorula sp-1 case (7.69% and Candida sp-1 case (7.69%. Yeast genera represented 13.3% of all the isolates. Sex and age of cattle had no significant effect on prevalence of isolates. Incidence of fungal colonization of the eyes compared with similar studies was low which may reflect differences in season and technique of sampling. Unexpected high frequency of Aspergillus may be due to geographic differences.

  10. Isolation and identification of normal conjunctival fungal flora in the Persian Kurd horse

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    saber Mamaghani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the fungi isolated from conjunctival sac of clinically normal Persian Kurd horses of Tabriz, north western Iran and to determine the effect of sex and age variations on the frequency of isolates. Forty horses (17 females and 23 males, aged 2-30 years, without clinical evidence of external ocular inflammation were selected and divided into two age groups (less than 10 years and over 10 years. Samples were taken from both conjunctival sacs of horses and seeded on the sabouraud dextrose agar and malt extract agar. Plates were incubated at 25°C for 7 days. Data were analyzed by Chi-square, Fisher's exact and Kendall Tau tests using SAS 9.1. Filamentous fungi and yeasts comprised 82.35% and 17.65% of total isolates, respectively. The most frequent isolate was Aspergillus species (38.82 % followed by Penicillium spp (14.12%, Fusarium spp (8.24%, Chladosporium, Mucor and Scopulariopsis spp (5.88%, Pseudallescheria, Rhodotorula and Trichoderma spp (1.18 %. Gender had a significant effect on frequency of fungal isolation (p

  11. Bacterial flora of combat wounds from eastern Ukraine and time-specified changes of bacterial recovery during treatment in Ukrainian military hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Kovalchuk P; Viacheslav, Kondratiuk M

    2017-04-07

    Microbiology of modern war wounds is unique for each military conflict. Climatic and geographical features of the theater of war, contemporary warfare as well as wound management affect the microbial flora of wounds. This study was designed to determine time-specific microbial flora of combat wounds of upper and lower extremities obtained during the war in eastern Ukraine. The patients enrolled in study had combat wounds of upper or lower extremities which were treated in the Military Medical Clinical Center of Central Region. The wounds were swab-cultured and measured at each surgical debridement. The recovered microorganisms were identified and their antimicrobial resistance profiles were evaluated by disc diffusion method. Forty-nine patients with battle-field wounds were enrolled in the study from July to November 2014; all patients were male with a mean Injury Severity Score and arrival APACHE II scores of 16.2 ± 10.7 and 7.4 ± 4.2 respectively. Among 128 swab cultures, 100 swab cultures were positive. Swab cultures were obtained from 57 wounds of 49 patients. The results of the test showed that 87.7% of all positive swab cultures contained a single-organism while the rest of the swab-culture results showed polymicrobial growth. Among the isolated microorganisms 65% (76 strains) were Gram-negative rods, 22.2% (26 strains) of Gram-positive cocci, followed by Gram-positive rods (12.8%, 15 strains). We found that epidemiology of wound infection changes with the time after injury. The most common bacterial isolates cultured during the first week were Gram-positive microbes with low pathogenicity. The number of Gram-negative rods increased during the wound healing process. The incidence of Gram-positive microorganisms' growth fell after the first week and increased after third week. During wound healing, bacterial microflora of wounds changes with increasing number of Gram-negative rods with predominance of Acinetobacter species. Predominant microorganisms in

  12. Cooked meat products made of coarsely ground pork: the main bacterial strains of bacterial flora, their heat resistance and effect on spoilage

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    Esko Petäjä

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the bacterial flora of the surface layer and the core of meat products made of coarsely ground pork at the moment of spoilage when stored at 7°C or 4°C. The dominating strains were isolated, their heat resistance was studied in APT-broth, on APT-agar and in coarsely ground cured pork, and their growth after heating and effect on spoilage were followed in coarsely ground cured pork. The first signs of spoilage appeared in the surface layer of the products. The strains were coccoid lactic acid bacteria with counts ranging from 3,5 to 7.8 log cfu (colony forming units/g. They survived only accidentally after heating for 15 minutes at 72°C in APT-broth. The core of the products contained only coccoid lactic acid bacteria or only pseudomonads or both as the main bacterial strains. The counts ranged from 2.6 to 6.0 log cfu/g. Most of the strains isolated from the core survived after heating for 30 minutes at 72°C in APT-broth in at least three tests out of six. The most noticeable result of the study was the occurence of heat-resistant pseudomonads in the core. It must be pointed out that all pseudomonads found survived after heating for 60 minutes at 72°C in APT-broth, and often after heating for 15 minutes at 72°C in coarsely ground cured pork (core 72°C. The cfu number of the two most heat-resistant streptococcus strains decreased only 1 log unit over 15 minutes at 72°C in coarsely ground cured pork. The numbers of inoculated pseudomonads decreased but those of streptococci rose by a maximum of 1 log unit when the experimental porks were kept at 4°C after heating. This indicates that streptococci and pseudomonads probably do not constitute a serious spoilage factor in cooked meat products, but spoilage is generally effected by bacteria which have contaminated the surface layer of the products after heat treatment.

  13. Normal flora of conjunctiva and lid margin, as well as its antibiotic sensitivity, in patients undergoing cataract surgery at Phramongkutklao Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnumnoi,Ravee; Keorochana,Narumon; Sonthisombat,Chavalit

    2017-01-01

    Ravee Ratnumnoi, Narumon Keorochana, Chavalit Sontisombat Department of Ophthalmology, Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the normal flora of conjunctiva and lid margin, as well as its antibiotic sensitivity. Design: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Patients and methods: A prospective study was conducted on 120 patients who underwent cataract surgery at the Phramongkutklao Hospital from September 2014 to October 2014. Conjunctiva...

  14. Bacterial flora of processed broiler chicken skin after successive washings in mixtures of potassium hydroxide and lauric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Arthur; Cason, John A

    2008-08-01

    Changes in the size of populations of different groups of bacteria composing the normal flora of processed broiler skin were examined after each of five consecutive washings in mixtures of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and lauric acid (LA). Portions of skin from commercially processed broiler carcasses were washed in distilled water (control) or in mixtures of 0.25% KOH-0.5% LA or 0.5% KOH-1% LA by using a stomacher laboratory blender to agitate the skin in the solutions. After each wash, skin was transferred to fresh solutions, and washing was repeated to provide samples washed one to five times in each solution. Bacteria in rinsates of the washed skin were enumerated on plate count (PC) agar, Staphylococcus (STA) agar, Levine eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) agar, and Perfringens (PER) agar with TSC supplement. Selected isolates recovered on each medium were identified. Overall, no significant differences were observed in numbers of bacteria recovered on PC, STA, or EMB agars from skin after repeated washing in water, but there were significant reductions in the number of bacteria recovered on LAB and PER agars. Repeated washing of skin in 0.25% KOH-0.5% LA or 0.5% KOH-1% LA generally produced significant reductions in the number of bacteria recovered on all media. Furthermore, no bacteria were recovered on PER agar from skin washed five times in 0.25% KOH-0.5% LA. Likewise, no bacteria were recovered on EMB or LAB agars from skin washed three or more times in 0.5% KOH-1% LA or on PER agar from skin washed four or five times in this solution. Staphylococcus spp. were identified as the skin isolates with the highest degree of resistance to the bactericidal activity of KOH-LA. Findings indicate that although bacteria may be continually shed from poultry skin after repeated washings, bactericidal surfactants can be used to remove and kill several types of bacteria found on the surface of the skin of processed broilers.

  15. Population dynamics of toxic phytoplankton and bacterial flora in the waters of the low Adriatic sea; Dinamica di popolazione di fitoplancton tossico e flora batterica nel basso Adriatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroppo, C.; Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R.A.; Pastore, M. [CNR, Ist. Sperimentale Talassografico Attlio Cerruti, Taranto (Italy); Marchiori, E. [Rome Univ., Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Organica; Bruno, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale, Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The coastal areas of the Southern Adriatic Sea, in particular the Apulian ones, may be considered an example of intact ecosystem and represent an ideal term of comparison to other marine ecosystems having higher levels of pollution (Northern Adriatic Sea). In order to evaluate the sanitary levels of this environment, four transect were investigated during two years monitoring (April 1995-March 1997) along the Otranto Channel coasts, by joint research groups of the Environmental Hygiene Laboratory of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita' and the Istituto Sperimentale Talassografico A. Cerruti of CNR in Taranto. The study underlines the phytoplanktic and bacterial population dynamics, and the detection of the microbiological water quality along the coast tract Brindisi-Lecce-Otranto-S. Maria di Leuca. The results acquired pointed out population dynamics of some potantially toxic species of Dinophysis genus and Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima. These depended on the winter nutrient loads due to the ASW (Adriatic Superficial Waters) and to the LIW (Levantine Intermediate Waters). The bacterial community was mainly constituted by genera Aeromonas, Photobacterium, Cytophaga and Pseudomonas. Also the presence of Enterobacteriaceae family was relevant. Among the pathogenic vibrios the most frequently isolated species were Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. [Italian] Considerando che le zone del basso Adriatico, in particolare quelle pugliesi, costituiscono un biotopo ancora relativamente inalterato, esse sono state oggetto di un'indagine sperimentale condotta in 24 mesi di attivita' (aprile 1995-marzo 1997) lungo le coste del Canale di Otranto, ad opera di un gruppo congiunto del Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita' e dei laboratori dell'Istituto Sperimentale Talassografico A. Cerruti del CNR di Taranto, ai fini di valutare lo stato di salute di questo ambiente, che fornisce, con buona probabilita', un

  16. Vaginal flora alterations and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Fausto; da Silva, Márcia G; Polettini, Jossimara; Tristao, Andréa da R; Peracoli, José C; Witkin, Steven S; Rudge, Marilza V C

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate associations between alterations in vaginal flora and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women. Vaginal specimens from 245 pregnant women were analyzed by microscopy for vaginal flora. Signs and symptoms of vaginal infection were determined by patient interviews and gynecologic examinations. Abnormal vaginal flora was identified in 45.7% of the subjects. The final clinical diagnoses were bacterial vaginosis (21.6%), vaginal candidosis (10.2%), intermediate vaginal flora (5.2%), aerobic vaginitis (2.9%), mixed flora (2.9%) and other abnormal findings (2.9%). The percentage of women with or without clinical signs or symptoms was not significantly different between these categories. The presence of vaginal odor or vaginal discharge characteristics was not diagnostic of any specific flora alteration; pruritus was highly associated with candidosis (p vaginal odor was associated with bacterial vaginosis (p = 0.0026). The prevalence of atypical vaginal flora is common in our low-risk pregnant population and is not always associated with pathology. The occurrence of specific signs or symptoms does not always discriminate between women with different types of atypical vaginal flora or between those with abnormal and normal vaginal flora. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, Shanivarsanthe Leelesh; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Srinivasa Murthy, Kottilingam; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Verghese, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n=13) and adults (n=12) of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%), followed by bacilli (15.4%). Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%), bacilli (16.7%) and flavobacteria (16.7%). Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32μmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus - KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans - KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26μmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanivarsanthe Leelesh Ramya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n = 13 and adults (n = 12 of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%, followed by bacilli (15.4%. Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%, bacilli (16.7% and flavobacteria (16.7%. Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32 µmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus – KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans – KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26 µmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM.

  19. Analysis of bacterial flora associated with peri-implantitis using obligate anaerobic culture technique and 16S rDNA gene sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Naoki; Ochi, Morio; Miyakawa, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Futoshi

    2013-01-01

    To analyze and characterize the predominant bacterial flora associated with peri-implantitis by using culture techniques under obligate anaerobic conditions and 16S rDNA gene sequences. Subgingival bacterial specimens were taken from 30 patients: control (n = 15), consisting of patients with only healthy implants; and test (n = 15), consisting of patients with peri-implantitis. In both groups, subgingival bacterial specimens were taken from the deepest sites. An anaerobic glove box system was used to cultivate bacterial strains. The bacterial strains were identified by 16S rDNA genebased polymerase chain reaction and comparison of the gene sequences. Peri-implantitis sites had approximately 10-fold higher mean colony forming units (per milliliter) than healthy implant sites. A total of 69 different bacterial species were identified in the peri-implantitis sites and 53 in the healthy implant sites. The predominant bacterial species in the peri-implantitis sites were Eubacterium nodatum, E. brachy, E. saphenum, Filifactor alocis, Slackia exigua, Parascardovia denticolens, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Centipeda periodontii, and Parvimonas micra. The predominant bacteria in healthy implant sites apart from Streptococcus were Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, Veillonella species, Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces species, Propionibacterium acnes, and Parvimonas micra. These results suggest that the environment in the depths of the sulcus showing peri-implantitis is well suited for growth of obligate anaerobic bacteria. The present study demonstrated that the sulcus around oral implants with peri-implantitis harbors high levels of asaccharolytic anaerobic gram-positive rods (AAGPRs) such as E. nodatum, E. brachy, E. saphenum, Filifactor alocis, Slackia exigua, and gram-negative anaerobic rods, suggesting that conventional periodontopathic bacteria are not the only periodontal pathogens active in peri-implantitis, and that AAGPRs

  20. The first report: An analysis of bacterial flora of the first voided urine specimens of patients with male urethritis using the 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based clone library method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chunlin; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Ogawa, Midori; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Hachisuga, Toru; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2016-06-01

    To analyse the bacterial flora of urine from patients with male urethritis using the clone library method. Urine specimens from patients with urethritis were used. The bacterial flora was analysed according to the 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based clone library method. In addition, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum or Ureaplasma parvum were detected by the conventional PCR methods (TMA or real-time PCR) and data from the clone library and conventional PCR methods were compared. Among 58 urine specimens, 38 were successfully analysed using the clone library method. From the specimens, 2427 clones were evaluated and 95 bacterial phylotypes were detected. N. gonorrhoeae was detected from 6 specimens and as the predominant bacterial species in 5 specimens. M. genitalium was detected from 5 specimens and as the predominant bacterial species in 3 specimens. C. trachomatis was detected from 15 specimens using the TMA method, but was detected from only 1 specimen using the clone library method. U. parvum was detected from only 2 specimens using the clone library method. In addition, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis were also detected in 8 and 1 specimens, respectively. Gardnerella vaginalis, which is a potential pathogen for bacterial vaginitis in women, was detected in 10 specimens. The clone library method can detect the occupancy rate of each bacteria species among the bacterial flora and may be a new method for bacterial analyses in male urethritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ‘Lactobacillus raoultii’ sp. nov., a new bacterium isolated from the vaginal flora of a woman with bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nicaise

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the isolation of a new bacterium species, ‘Lactobacillus raoultii’ strain Marseille P4006 (CSUR P4006, isolated from a vaginal sample of a 45-year-old woman with bacterial vaginosis. Keywords: Bacterial vaginosis, culturomics, emerging bacteria, human microbiota, Lactobacillus raoultii, vaginal microbiota

  2. Flora Luma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankjær, Raune; Kitel, Maggie

    2016-01-01

    Flora Luma is a plant controlled installation which detects the bioelectrical signals emitted from plants and displays them as animated light on freestanding amorphous objects.......Flora Luma is a plant controlled installation which detects the bioelectrical signals emitted from plants and displays them as animated light on freestanding amorphous objects....

  3. Lipid biomarkers in ooids from different locations and ages provide evidence for a common bacterial flora (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summons, R. E.; Bird, L. R.; Gillespie, A. L.; Pruss, S. B.; Sessions, A. L.

    2010-12-01

    Modern and holocene ooid samples, collected from outcrops and beaches in the Bahamas and in Shark Bay in Western Australia, were examined for their contents of lipid biomarkers. Modern samples from Cat and Andros islands in the Bahamas and from Carbla Beach in Hamelin Pool, Western Australia, showed abundant and surprisingly similar distributions of hydrocarbons, fatty acids and alcohols. A large fraction of these lipids were bound into the carbonate matrix and only released on acid dissolution, which suggests that these lipids were being incorporated continuously during ooid growth. The distributions of hydrocarbons, and their disparate carbon isotopic signatures, were consistent with mixed input from cyanobacteria (C17-C19; δ13C -15 to -24 ‰VPDB) together with small and variable amounts of vascular plant leaf wax (C27-C35; δ13C -25 to -32 ‰VPDB). The fatty acids (FA) comprised a complex mixture of C12-C18 normal and branched short chain isomers with the predominant straight-chained components attributable to bacteria and/or cyanobacteria. Branched FA isomers, and especially the 10-MeC16 and 10-MeC18, together with the prevalence of elemental sulfur in the extracts, indicate an origin from sulfate reducing bacteria. The iso- and anteiso- FA were very variable in their 13C contents suggesting that they come from organisms with diverse physiologies. Hydrogen isotopic compositions may provide further insights into this issue. The most enigmatic lipid assemblage is an homologous series of long-chain (C24-C32) FA with pronounced even carbon number preference. Typically such long-chain FA are thought to come from land plant leaf wax but their heavy C-isotopic signatures (C24-C32; δ13C -18 to -22 ‰VPDB), indicates that a microbial origin in this case. Lastly, we identified homohopanoic acid, bishomohopanol and their 2-methyl analogues as the degradation products of bacterial and/or cyanobacterial hopanoids. The distributions of lipids isolated from Holocene

  4. Aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva in diabetic patients with normal and altered glycated hemoglobin levels in two regions in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pimentel Moreno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva in diabetic patients with regard to the management of diabetes, assessed using glycated hemoglobin levels. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using conjunctival smears of diabetic patients from both sexes and with different ages, residing in two different Brazilian cities (Sorocaba and Rio Branco. A control group of non-diabetic patients was also included. The diabetic patients were considered to have controlled diabetes when their glycated hemoglobin level was ≤7% and blood glucose level was ≤126 mg/dL. Patients with non-controlled diabetes were those with glycated hemoglobin levels >7% and blood glucose levels >126 mg/dL. The samples obtained were inoculated in Brain-Heart Infusion broth and in culture media for aerobic bacteria (blood and chocolate agars; bacterial growth was evaluated in a microbiology laboratory. Results: A total of 120 eyes of 120 patients were included in the present study. The percentage of cultures in which bacterial growth was observed was greater in diabetic patients, although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.103. There was a greater trend toward bacterial growth in the conjunctiva of diabetic patients with altered fasting blood glucose. There was no difference in the frequency of bacterial growth on the conjunctiva between diabetic patients with normal or altered glycated hemoglobin levels. In Sorocaba, conjunctival bacterial growth was similar to that observed in Rio Branco. The microorganism most frequently detected in the present study was Staphylococcus epidermidis, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Escherichia coli. Conclusion: There was no difference between diabetic patients with normal or altered glycated hemoglobin levels. The microorganisms found were similar to those found in studies investigating the conjunctival bacterial flora of diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

  5. Intermediate vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis are associated with the same factors: findings from an exploratory analysis among female sex workers in Africa and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédou, Fernand A; Van Damme, Lut; Deese, Jennifer; Crucitti, Tania; Mirembe, Florence; Solomon, Suniti; Becker, Marissa; Alary, Michel

    2014-03-01

    Several recent studies suggest that intermediate vaginal flora (IVF) is associated with similar adverse health outcomes as bacterial vaginosis (BV). Yet, it is still unknown if IVF and BV share the same correlates. We conducted a cross-sectional and exploratory analysis of data from women screened prior to enrolment in a microbicide trial to estimate BV and IVF prevalence and examine their respective correlates. Participants were interviewed, examined and provided blood and genital samples for the diagnosis of IVF and BV (using Nugent score) and other reproductive tract infections. Polytomous logistic regressions were used in estimating respective ORs of IVF and BV, in relation to each potential risk factor. Among 1367 women, BV and IVF prevalences were 47.6% (95% CI 45.0% to 50.3%) and 19.2% (95% CI 17.1% to 21.2%), respectively. Multivariate polytomous analysis of IVF and BV showed that they were generally associated with the same factors. The respective adjusted ORs were for HIV 1.98 (95% CI 1.37 to 2.86) and 1.62 (95% CI 1.20 to 2.20) (p=0.2248), for gonorrhoea 1.25 (95% CI 0.64 to 2.4) and 2.01 (95% CI 1.19 to 3.49) (p=0.0906), for trichomoniasis 3.26 (95% CI 1.71 to 6.31) and 2.39 (95% CI 1.37 to 4.33) (p=0.2630), for candidiasis 0.52 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.75) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.78) (p=0.5288), and for hormonal contraception 0.65 (95% CI 0.40 to 1.04) and 0.62 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.90) (p=0.8819). In addition, the association between vaginal flora abnormalities and factors such as younger age, HIV, gonorrhoea trichomoniasis and candidiasis were modified by the study site (all p for interaction ≤0.05). IVF has almost the same correlates as BV. The relationship between some factors and vaginal flora abnormalities may be site-specific.

  6. Linking the composition of bacterial and archaeal communities to characteristics of soil and flora composition in the Atlantic rainforest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima-Perim, Julia Elidia; Romagnoli, Emiliana Manesco; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Durrer, Ademir; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2016-01-01

    The description of microbiomes as intrinsic fractions of any given ecosystem is an important issue, for instance, by linking their compositions and functions with other biotic and abiotic components of natural systems and hosts. Here we describe the archaeal and bacterial communities from soils of

  7. Microbial Culturomics Broadens Human Vaginal Flora Diversity: Genome Sequence and Description of Prevotella lascolaii sp. nov. Isolated from a Patient with Bacterial Vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Khoudia; Diop, Awa; Levasseur, Anthony; Mediannikov, Oleg; Robert, Catherine; Armstrong, Nicholas; Couderc, Carine; Bretelle, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Fenollar, Florence

    2018-03-01

    Microbial culturomics is a new subfield of postgenomic medicine and omics biotechnology application that has broadened our awareness on bacterial diversity of the human microbiome, including the human vaginal flora bacterial diversity. Using culturomics, a new obligate anaerobic Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped bacterium designated strain khD1 T was isolated in the vagina of a patient with bacterial vaginosis and characterized using taxonogenomics. The most abundant cellular fatty acids were C 15:0 anteiso (36%), C 16:0 (19%), and C 15:0 iso (10%). Based on an analysis of the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences, phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain khD1 T exhibited 90% sequence similarity with Prevotella loescheii, the phylogenetically closest validated Prevotella species. With 3,763,057 bp length, the genome of strain khD1 T contained (mol%) 48.7 G + C and 3248 predicted genes, including 3194 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes. Given the phenotypical and biochemical characteristic results as well as genome sequencing, strain khD1 T is considered to represent a novel species within the genus Prevotella, for which the name Prevotella lascolaii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is khD1 T ( = CSUR P0109, = DSM 101754). These results show that microbial culturomics greatly improves the characterization of the human microbiome repertoire by isolating potential putative new species. Further studies will certainly clarify the microbial mechanisms of pathogenesis of these new microbes and their role in health and disease. Microbial culturomics is an important new addition to the diagnostic medicine toolbox and warrants attention in future medical, global health, and integrative biology postgraduate teaching curricula.

  8. Bacterial flora and antibiotic resistance from eggs of green turtles Chelonia mydas: An indication of polluted effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bahry, Saif; Mahmoud, Ibrahim; Elshafie, Abdulkader; Al-Harthy, Asila; Al-Ghafri, Sabha; Al-Amri, Issa; Alkindi, Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    Sea turtles migrate to various habitats where they can be exposed to different pollutants. Bacteria were collected from turtle eggs and their resistance to antibiotics was used as pollutant bio-indicators of contaminated effluents. Eggs were collected randomly from turtles when they were laying their eggs. A total of 90 eggs were collected and placed into sterile plastic bags (3 eggs/turtle) during June-December of 2003. The bacteria located in the eggshell, albumen and yolk were examined, and 42% of the eggs were contaminated with 10 genera of bacteria. Pseudomonas spp. were the most frequent isolates. The albumen was found to be the part of the egg to be the least contaminated by bacterial infection. Bacterial isolates tested with 14 antibiotics showed variations in resistance. Resistance to ampicillin was the highest. The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in eggs indicates that the green turtle populations were subjected to polluted effluents during some of their migratory routes and feeding habitats. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Salmonella typhimurium penetrated all eggshell layers.

  9. Effect of radurization on the bacterial flora, safety and keeping quality of rough washed bovine ruminal wall (offal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van den Heever, L W [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Div. Food Hygiene and Public Health

    1977-01-01

    Rough washed bovine ruminal wall is available at low cost in many African countries to traditional consumers of such offal. The consumers consistently oppose any further cleaning or processing which would alter its appearance or elevate its cost. Such offal undoubtedly possesses high nutritional value but is highly perishable product contaminated with numerous bacteria some of which are potential pathogens or toxigens. A preliminary investigation showed that the bacterial counts could be reduced by more that 90% by gamma radiation of such offal with doses of 100-200 krad. Such radiation doubled or trebled the keeping quality of the offal at 4/sup 0/C. Some of the organisms present in offal survive low doses of radiation. They were mainly species of the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and Clostridium, some of which survived 600 krad. Irradiation doses of 600 krad were in any event necessary to numerically reduce experimental contamination of minced ruminal wall with Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella dublin and Clostridium perfringens to a level where these organisms could not be recovered by ordinary cultural procedures (the two strains of S. aureus tested varied in their radiation resistance).

  10. The effect of radurization on the bacterial flora, safety and keeping quality of rough washed bovine ruminal wall (offal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heever, L.W. van den

    1977-01-01

    Rough washed bovine ruminal wall is available at low cost in many African countries to traditional consumers of such offal. The consumers consistently oppose any further cleaning or processing which would alter its appearance or elevate its cost. Such offal undoubtedly possesses high nutritional value but is highly perishable product contaminated with numerous bacteria some of which are potential pathogens or toxigens. A preliminary investigation showed that the bacterial counts could be reduced by more that 90% by gamma radiation of such offal with doses of 100-200 krad. Such radiation doubled or trebled the keeping quality of the offal at 4 0 C. Some of the organisms present in offal survive low doses of radiation. They were mainly species of the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and Clostridium, some of which survived 600 krad. Irradiation doses of 600 krad were in any event necessary to numerically reduce experimental contamination of minced ruminal wall with Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella dublin and Clostridium perfringens to a level where these organisms could not be recovered by ordinary cultural procedures (the two strains of S. aureus tested varied in their radiation resistance). (orig.) [de

  11. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in the bacterial flora of integrated fish farming environments of Pakistan and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Q A; Colquhoun, Duncan J; Nikuli, Hamisi L; Sørum, Henning

    2012-08-21

    The use of a wide variety of antimicrobials in human and veterinary medicine, including aquaculture, has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens. In the present study, bacteria from water, sediments, and fish were collected from fish farms in Pakistan and Tanzania with no recorded history of antibiotic use. The isolates were screened for the presence of resistance genes against various antimicrobials used in aquaculture and animal husbandry. Resistant isolates selected by disk diffusion and genotyped by Southern hybridization were further screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplicon sequencing. The prominent resistance genes identified encoded tetracycline [tetA(A) and tetA(G)], trimethoprim [dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12, and dfrA15], amoxicillin [bla(TEM)], streptomycin [strA-strB], chloramphenicol [cat-1], and erythromycin resistance [mefA]. The int1 gene was found in more than 30% of the bacterial isolates in association with gene cassettes. MAR indices ranged from 0.2 to 1. The bla(NDM-1) gene was not identified in ertapenem resistant isolates. It is hypothesized that integrated fish farming practices utilizing domestic farm and poultry waste along with antibiotic residues from animal husbandry may have contributed to a pool of resistance genes in the aquaculture systems studied.

  12. The effects of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser on subgingival bacterial flora and on cementum: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hatit, Y; Blum, R; Severin, C; Maquin, M; Jabro, M H

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of scaling and Nd:YAG laser treatments with that of scaling alone on cementum and levels of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponema denticola. Study samples consisted of 14 patients, age 30 to 75 years, 8 females and 6 males, with a total of 150 periodontally involved sites with probing depth > or = 5 mm. Group A consisted of 100 pockets that were subdivided into 4 equal groups that were treated with conventional scaling and pulsed Nd:YAG laser using an optic fiber of 300 microns and 4 different power levels as follows: Group 1: P = 0.8 W, f = 10 Hz, E = 100 mJ/pulse; Group 2: P = 1.0 W, f = 1.0 Hz, E = 100 mJ/pulse; Group 3: P = 1.2 W, f = 12 Hz, E = 100 mJ/purse; and Group 4: P = 1.5 W, f = 15 Hz, E = 100 mJ/pulse. The time of each treatment was 60 sec per pocket in all 4 groups. Group B consisted of 50 pockets that were treated by conventional scaling alone and served as a control group. Microbiological samples from group A were collected before scaling; after scaling = before laser, just after laser, 2 weeks later, 6 weeks later, and 10 weeks later. Microbiological samples from group B were collected before scaling, after scaling, 6 weeks later, and 10 weeks later. Microbiological analysis of all samples was done by the Institute Für Angewandte Immunologie (IAI) method. The effects of laser on root surfaces were assessed by SEM examination and the sample consisted of 13 teeth from 5 different patients. Four sets of 3 teeth each were treated with Nd:YAG laser using 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, and 1.5 W, respectively. One tooth was just scaled and not treated with laser to serve as a control. Microbiological analysis of Group A samples indicated posttreatment reduction in levels of all 4 bacterial types tested compared to pretreatment levels and Group B controls. SEM examination of the specimens treated with Nd:YAG laser at different levels exhibited different

  13. Evaluation of nasal and oropharyngeal flora in patients with acne vulgaris according to treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuguz, Pınar; Callioglu, Elif E; Tulaci, Kamil G; Kacar, Seval D; Balta, Ilknur; Asik, Gulsah; Karatas, Serap; Karaca, Semsettin

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in nasal and oropharyngeal flora in patients with acne during treatments with tetracycline and isotretinoin. Swab specimens were taken from the right and left nasal cavities and oropharynx of 55 patients with acne and 20 healthy volunteers who were admitted to the dermatology department (Etlik Educational and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey) before the administration of treatment and in the third month of treatment. Study participants were divided into four groups as follows: patients with acne on topical treatment only, systemic isotretinoin, and systemic tetracycline, and the control group. Of 55 patients with acne, 18 were male and 37 were female. The mean age of the patients and the control group was 22.21 ± 4.22 and 21.95 ± 7.64, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the nasal flora of five patients, normal flora was suppressed in the oropharyngeal cultures of seven patients, and normal flora grew in the cultures of the other 20 patients who were on tetracycline treatment. On the other hand, normal flora grew in the nasal and oropharyngeal cultures of all the patients who were on isotretinoin treatment. Treatment options and follow-up procedures for acne vulgaris may lead to the development of bacterial resistance and damage to flora. In particular, systemic tetracycline treatment leads to changes in flora of the nose and throat in patients with acne with an increased carriage of S. aureus. Therefore, careful attention should be paid to the duration of tetracycline treatment in order to not increase the risk of disturbance of microbial flora. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Efeito de produtos químicos e biológicos sobre a mancha bacteriana, flora microbiana no filoplano e produtividade de pimentão Effects of chemical and biological products on bacterial spot, microbial flora and yield in bell pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora AG da Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de pulverizações semanais com sulfato de estreptomicina + oxitetraciclina (0,8 g ia L-1, oxicloreto de cobre (2,4 g ia L-1, biofertilizante Agrobio (5%, e testemunha (água sobre o controle da mancha-bacteriana, sobre a flora microbiana no filoplano e sobre a produtividade de três cultivares de pimentão (Magda, Cascadura Itaipu e Magali R. Os experimentos foram realizados em campo de maio a outubro de 2002. Adotou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial (4x3, com quatro repetições. Realizaram-se avaliações semanais, durante três meses para altura de plantas (cm; número de hastes; número total de folhas; número de folhas caídas; incidência de folhas lesionadas; severidade da mancha bacteriana e produtividade (t ha-1. Paralelamente, quantificou-se a população microbiana residente no filoplano e nos frutos. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre a produção de frutos, porém, observou-se efeito sobre o desenvolvimento vegetativo das plantas, sobre a mancha bacteriana e sobre a flora microbiana no filoplano. O oxicloreto de cobre inibiu o desenvolvimento vegetativo, a taxa de abscisão foliar e a flora bacteriana no filoplano. O Agrobio favoreceu o desenvolvimento vegetativo e, assim como o sulfato de estreptomicina + oxitetraciclina, reduziu a população de bactérias, exceto de Bacillus sp., e de fungos, exceto Cladosporium sp., no filoplano. O híbrido Magali R foi significativamente superior às demais cultivares quanto ao vigor das plantas, produtividade e resistência à mancha bacteriana. Estes resultados sugerem atividade bactericida do Agrobio em condições de campo.The effect of weekly sprayings with streptomycin sulfate + oxytetracycline (0.8 g ia L-1, copper oxychloride (2.4 g ia L-1 and Agrobio fertilizer (5% plus a control (water was evaluated in the control of bacterial spot, the microbial flora in the phyloplan, and over yield in three bell pepper cultivars (Magda, Cascadura

  15. Ex situ Flora of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of living collections-based research and discovery has been a prominent feature throughout the history of evolution and advance of botanical science: such research is the core and soul of the botanical gardens. Currently, there are c. 162 Chinese botanical gardens, harboring c. 20,000 species in China. As an example of initiatives to utilize the garden cultivated flora to address plant diversity conservation and germplasm discovery for sustainable agriculture and the bio-industries, the Ex situ Flora of China project aims to catalog and document this mega-diversity of plants that are cultivated in the Chinese botanical gardens. The concept of Ex situ Flora of China is a complete new formulation of species, based on garden cultivated individuals and populations, to obtain better morphological descriptions, provide multi-purpose applicability and a fundamental data service that will support national bio-strategies and bio-industries. It emphasises integrative information, accurately collected from living collections across different Chinese botanical gardens, on biology, phenology, cultivation requirements and uses of plant resources, which are normally not available from traditional Floras based on herbarium specimens. The ex situ flora should provide better information coverage for taxonomy, biological and introduction and collection data and color photos of stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seed, as well as useful information of cultivation key points and main use of each plant. In general, the Ex situ Flora of China provides more useful information than the traditional Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. The project of Ex situ Flora of China is planned to be one of the most important initiatives of the plant diversity research platform for sustainable economic and social development in China.

  16. Sialidase activity in aerobic vaginitis is equal to levels during bacterial vaginosis

    OpenAIRE

    Marconi, C.; Donders, G.G.G.; Bellen, G.; Brown, D.R.; Parada, C.M.G.L.; Silva, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate levels of proinflammatory cytokines and sialidase activity in aerobic vaginitis (AV) in relation to normal vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Study design: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 682 consecutive non-pregnant women attending the gynecology service were assessed and 408 women were included. Vaginal rinsing samples were collected from 223 women with microscopic finding of BV (n = 98), aerobic vaginitis (n = 25) and normal flora (n = 100). Sample...

  17. Effects of Continuous Cropping on Bacterial Flora Structure in Soybean Rhizosphere Soil%连作对大豆根际土壤细菌菌群结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷继忠; 李亮; 接伟光; 蔡柏岩

    2018-01-01

    土壤细菌的菌群结构是土壤生态环境质量的重要组成部分.为探明大豆连作种植后根际土壤细菌群落结构变化,试验选取连作0年大豆根际土样与连作2年大豆根际土壤,利用Illumina高通量测序技术对比研究了其中的细菌群落结构.结果表明,连作0年根际土壤中的细菌丰富度和多样性指数均高于连作2年大豆根际土壤中相应值.大豆根际土壤中的噬纤维菌科(Cytophagaceae)、鞘氨纯单胞菌(Sphingomonas)、慢生根瘤菌(Bradyrhizobium)及链霉菌属(Streptomyces)等一些有益菌的相对丰度要变化并不显著.大豆连作会降低土壤的细菌多样性,改变细菌菌群结构.但是在短期连作过程中,不同作物根际微生物类群的变化规律各不相同,难以用来推断作物连作所存在普遍现象.以期试验结果同时为缓解短期大豆连作障碍提高大豆产量提供一定的理论依据.%The flora structure of soil bacteria is an important part of soil ecological environment quality. In order to find out the changes of bacterial flora structure in the rhizosphere soil after continuous cropping of soybean,soybean rhizosphere soil samples of zero- and 2-year of continuous cropping were selected,and their bacterial flora structures were studied using Illumina high-throughput sequencing technique. The results showed that the bacterial abundances and diversity indexes in the rhizosphere soil of zero-year continuous cropping were higher than those of the rhizosphere soil of 2-year continuous cropping. The abundances of these beneficial bacteria Cytophagaceae,Sphingomonas, Bradyrhizobium,and Streptomyces varied insignificantly. Soybean continuous cropping reduced the bacterial diversity of the soil and changed the bacterial flora structure. However,during the short-term continuous cropping process,the variation pattern of rhizosphere microbes in different crops differed,thus it was difficult to infer a common phenomenon resulted

  18. Study of skin and nail Candida species as a normal flora based on age groups in healthy persons in Tehran-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafat, Z; Hashemi, S J; Ahamdikia, K; Daie Ghazvini, R; Bazvandi, F

    2017-12-01

    The skin is the body's largest organ that hosts heterogeneous inhabitants. Until now, the diversity of the cutaneous microbiome was mainly investigated for bacteria and there is a little information about the skin fungal flora. Also, among skin fungal flora, Candida is found as a main member whose distribution is affected by sex, age, climate. In this study, differences in Candida community structure associated with 9 different skin sites of 238 healthy people during 10 months from July to March 2016, are described. These subjects were divided by age into 4 groups: infants, children, adults and geriatrics. The collected samples were examined by culture on Sabouraud Chloramphenicol Agar and CHROM-agar Candida. For precise identification of species ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 rDNA regions were sequenced where needed. The frequency of Candida species was significantly different between age groups. The most Candida isolations were related to the elderly age group and the fewest in the infants. C. parapsilosis virtually, was the predominant isolated species in all age groups. This study showed no statistically significant effect of the subject's sex on Candida population resident on human skin surface. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Does the Vaginal Flora Modify When a Synthetic Mesh is Used for Genital Prolapse Repair in Postmenopausal Women? A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Edilson Benedito; Brito, Luiz Gustavo Oliveria; Giraldo, Paulo César; Teatin Juliato, Cássia Raquel

    2018-01-10

    The vaginal flora from postmenopausal women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is different from younger women. We hypothesized that the decision of a surgical route using a mesh would modify the vaginal flora. The purpose of this study was to analyze the vaginal flora from postmenopausal women that were submitted to abdominal sacrocervicopexy or vaginal sacrospinous fixation. A pilot, randomized controlled study with 50 women aged 55 to 75 years (n = 25; abdominal sacrocervicopexy + subtotal hysterectomy; n = 25 vaginal sacrospinous fixation + vaginal hysterectomy) was performed. A polyvinylidene mesh was used in both arms. The vaginal content analysis was collected before and 60 days after the surgery. The type of flora, the presence of lactobacilli/leukocytes, and the Nugent criteria were analyzed. Most of the women were white (80%), with at least 1 comorbidity (69.9%), did not present sexual activity (60%), and presented advanced stage 4 POP. Two thirds of women presented a type 3 flora, and half of them did not present lactobacilli (48.3%). About the Nugent criteria, 51.7% presented normal flora, 46.6% found altered flora, and 1.7% had bacterial vaginosis. There were no differences about the type of flora (P = 1), number of lactobacilli (P = 0.9187), Nugent criteria (P = 0.4235), inflammation (P = 0.1018), and bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.64) before and after surgery in both groups. In this pilot study, the use of synthetic mesh by vaginal or abdominal route did not affect the vaginal flora in postmenopausal women operated on by POP surgery.

  20. Culturable bacterial flora associated with the dinoflagellate green Noctiluca miliaris during active and declining bloom phases in the Northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Basu, S.; Deobagkar, D.D.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Furtado, I.

    A massive algal bloom of the dinoflagellate Noctiluca miliaris (green) was located in the Northern Arabian Sea by IRS-P4-2 (OCM-II) for microbiological studies, during two consecutive cruises of February-March 2009. Culturable bacterial load during...

  1. Effects of Prolonged Empirical Antibiotic Administration on Post-Surgical Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Local Dogs Undergoing Non-Laparoscopic Gastrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    J.F. Akinrinmade; Gladys O. Melekwe; Adenike A.O. Ogunshe

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged post-surgical antibiotic administration may be of less advantage in prevention of post-surgical infections. This study therefore, aimed at investigating the prolonged effect of empiric administration of three most-prescribed antibiotics (amoxicillin, cefotaxime and oxytetracycline) by veterinary practices in Southwest Nigeria on intestinal bacterial population of dogs undergoing partial, non-laparoscopic gastrectomy. Using conventional quantitative and qualitative microbial culture ...

  2. Sialidase activity in aerobic vaginitis is equal to levels during bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, C; Donders, G G G; Bellen, G; Brown, D R; Parada, C M G L; Silva, M G

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate levels of proinflammatory cytokines and sialidase activity in aerobic vaginitis (AV) in relation to normal vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis (BV). In this cross-sectional study, a total of 682 consecutive non-pregnant women attending the gynecology service were assessed and 408 women were included. Vaginal rinsing samples were collected from 223 women with microscopic finding of BV (n=98), aerobic vaginitis (n=25) and normal flora (n=100). Samples were tested for interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and sialidase activity. Compared to women with normal flora, vaginal levels of IL-1β were highly increased in both BV and AV (pvaginal IL-6 was detected in AV (pvaginal flora types can be harmful to the maintenance of a healthy vaginal environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Predictive value of the composition of the vaginal microbiota in bacterial vaginosis, a dynamic study to identify recurrence-related flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bingbing; Niu, Xiaoxi; Han, Na; Wang, Ben; Du, Pengcheng; Na, Risu; Chen, Chen; Liao, Qinping

    2016-06-02

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a highly prevalent disease in women, and increases the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease. It has been given wide attention because of the high recurrence rate. Traditional diagnostic methods based on microscope providing limited information on the vaginal microbiota increase the difficulty in tracing the development of the disease in bacteria resistance condition. In this study, we used deep-sequencing technology to observe dynamic variation of the vaginal microbiota at three major time points during treatment, at D0 (before treatment), D7 (stop using the antibiotics) and D30 (the 30-day follow-up visit). Sixty-five patients with BV were enrolled (48 were cured and 17 were not cured), and their bacterial composition of the vaginal microbiota was compared. Interestingly, we identified 9 patients might be recurrence. We also introduced a new measurement point of D7, although its microbiota were significantly inhabited by antibiotic and hard to be observed by traditional method. The vaginal microbiota in deep-sequencing-view present a strong correlation to the final outcome. Thus, coupled with detailed individual bioinformatics analysis and deep-sequencing technology, we may illustrate a more accurate map of vaginal microbial to BV patients, which provide a new opportunity to reduce the rate of recurrence of BV.

  4. Endophytic bacterial flora in root and stem tissues of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) genotype: isolation, identification and evaluation against Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, R; Kumar, A; Eapen, S J; Ramana, K V

    2009-01-01

    To isolate and identify black pepper (Piper nigrum L) associated endophytic bacteria antagonistic to Phytophthora capsici causing foot rot disease. Endophytic bacteria (74) were isolated, characterized and evaluated against P. capsici. Six genera belong to Pseudomonas spp (20 strains), Serratia (1 strain), Bacillus spp. (22 strains), Arthrobacter spp. (15 strains), Micrococcus spp. (7 strains), Curtobacterium sp. (1 strain) and eight unidentified strains were isolated from internal tissues of root and stem. Three isolates, IISRBP 35, IISRBP 25 and IISRBP 17 were found effective for Phytophthora suppression in multilevel screening assays which recorded over 70% disease suppression in greenhouse trials. A species closest match (99% similarity) of IISRBP 35 was established as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pseudomonas EF568931), IISRBP 25 as P. putida (Pseudomonas EF568932), and IISRBP 17 as Bacillus megaterium (B. megaterium EU071712) based on 16S rDNA sequencing. Black pepper associated P. aeruginosa, P. putida and B. megaterium were identified as effective antagonistic endophytes for biological control of Phytophthora foot rot in black pepper. This work provides the first evidence for endophytic bacterial diversity in black pepper stem and roots, with biocontrol potential against P. capsici infection.

  5. Chlamydial infection in a high risk population: association with vaginal flora patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, Camila; Donders, Gilbert G G; Martin, Laura F; Ramos, Bruna R A; Duarte, Marli T C; Parada, Cristina M G L; Tristão, Andréa R; Silva, Márcia G

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection among high risk Brazilian women and evaluate its association with vaginal flora patterns. This was a cross-sectional study, performed in an outpatient clinic of Bauru State Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 142 women were included from 2006 to 2008. Inclusion criteria was dyspareunia, pain during bimanual exam, presence of excessive cervical mucus, cervical ectopy or with three or more episodes of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF) in the previous year before enrollment. Endocervical CT testing was performed by PCR. Vaginal swabs were collected for microscopic assessment of the microbial flora pattern. Gram-stained smears were classified in normal, intermediate or bacterial vaginosis (BV), and recognition of Candida sp. morphotypes. Wet mount smears were used for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis and aerobic vaginitis (AV). Thirty-four of 142 women (23.9%) tested positive for CT. AVF was found in 50 (35.2%) cases. The most frequent type of AVF was BV (17.6%). CT was strongly associated with the presence of AV (n = 7, 4.9%, P = 0.018), but not BV (n = 25, 17.6%, P = 0.80) or intermediate flora (n = 18, 12.7%, P = 0.28). A high rate of chlamydial infection was found in this population. Chlamydia infection is associated with aerobic vaginitis.

  6. Protein synthesis and intestinal flora in piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namioka, Shigeo

    1980-01-01

    Utilization of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) by the flora in piglet colon was studied by administration of 15 N-urea and 15 N-ammonium salt to aseptic piglets and to SPF piglets which had been acclimatized to a clean environment after settling of intestinal flora. Administration of 15 N-urea did not result in 15 N uptake by any tissue-constituting protein at any site of the aseptic piglets, almost all 15 N being excreted into the urine. In contrast, the tissue and skeletal muscle of the SPF piglets showed incorporated 15 N from urea. Urea was converted, by urease of the intestinal flora, into NH 3 , which was absorbed from the mucosa of the intestinal tract to reach the liver where it was synthesized into glutamic acid, followed by conversion into various amino acids. 15 N-ammonium administration produced a significant amount of 15 N even in the tissue protein of the aseptic piglets. After NPN administration, the liver protein-constituting amino acid fraction showed 15 N-labeling of almost all essential, as well as non-essential amino acids. Culture of colonic flora with 15 N-urea revealed 15 N-labeling of all amino acids that constituted bacterial cells, indicating the presence of urea recycling mediated by bacterial urease in single rumen animals.(Chiba, N.)

  7. Lichen flora of Derbyshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawksworth, D L

    1969-01-01

    The lichen flora of the central English county of Derbyshire is described and discussed. The distribution of each species is described with reference to 10 km grid squares. In areas where air pollution is severe, very few species are found, even if otherwise suitable habitants are available. Air pollution is therefore considered to be the dominant factor affecting the present lichen flora of the county. The lichen communities have been studied and nineteen unions belonging to eleven federations are recognized. Several species are discussed taxonomically. 182 references, 15 tables.

  8. The Ethiopian Flora Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demissew, Sebsebe; Brochmann, Christian; Kelbessa, Ensermu

    2011-01-01

    The account reviews and analyses the scietific projects derived from activities in connection with the Ethiopian Flora Project, including the [Ethiopian] Monocot Project, the Afro-alpine "Sky-island" project, the Vegetation and Ecological Conditions of Plantations Project, the Fire Ecology Projec...

  9. Flora of Egy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Francis

    L Boulos (Botany Department, Alexandria University) for critically reading the manuscript. REFERENCES. Abdallah M (1983) The vegetation of Gebel Elba. Unpublished report submitted to The Academy of Scientific Research and. Technology, Cairo. Abdallah M & Sa'ad FM (1975) Taxonomical studies in the flora of Egypt.

  10. Vaginal microbial flora and outcome of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Laura; Di Vico, Augusto; Nucci, Marta; Quagliozzi, Lorena; Spagnuolo, Terryann; Labianca, Antonietta; Bracaglia, Marina; Ianniello, Francesca; Caruso, Alessandro; Paradisi, Giancarlo

    2010-04-01

    The vaginal microflora of a healthy asymptomatic woman consists of a wide variety of anaerobic and aerobic bacterial genera and species dominated by the facultative, microaerophilic, anaerobic genus Lactobacillus. The activity of Lactobacillus is essential to protect women from genital infections and to maintain the natural healthy balance of the vaginal flora. Increasing evidence associates abnormalities in vaginal flora during pregnancy with preterm labor and delivery with potential neonatal sequelae due to prematurity and poor perinatal outcome. Although this phenomenon is relatively common, even in populations of women at low risk for adverse events, the pathogenetic mechanism that leads to complications in pregnancy is still poorly understood. This review summarizes the current knowledge and uncertainties in defining alterations of vaginal flora in non-pregnant adult women and during pregnancy, and, in particular, investigates the issue of bacterial vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis. This could help specialists to identify women amenable to treatment during pregnancy leading to the possibility to reduce the preterm birth rate, preterm premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, neonatal, puerperal and maternal-fetal infectious diseases. Vaginal ecosystem study with the detection of pathogens is a key instrument in the prevention of preterm delivery, pPROM, chorioamnionitis, neonatal, puerperal and maternal-fetal infections.

  11. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies and prostatic tissue distribution of fosfomycin tromethamine in bacterial prostatitis or normal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L; Shang, X; Zhu, J; Ma, B; Zhang, Q

    2018-05-02

    In this study, we assessed the therapeutic effects of fosfomycin tromethamine (FT) in a bacterial prostatitis (BP) rat model. The BP model was induced by Escherichia coli and was demonstrated after 7 days microbiologically and histologically. Then, 25 BP rats selected were randomly divided into five treatment groups: model group, positive group, FT-3 day group, FT-7 day group and FT-14 day group. Ventral lobes of prostate from all animals were removed, and the serum samples were collected at the end of the experiments. Microbiological cultures and histological findings of the prostate samples demonstrated reduced bacterial growth and improved inflammatory responses in FT-treatment groups compared with the model group, indicating that FT against prostatic infection induced by E. coli showed good antibacterial effects. Moreover, plasma pharmacokinetics and prostatic distribution of fosfomycin were studied and compared in BP and normal rats. The concentrations of fosfomycin in samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. There were no differences in plasma pharmacokinetic parameters between two groups. But significantly higher penetration of fosfomycin into prostatic tissues was found in BP rats. We therefore suggested that FT had a good therapeutic effect on BP and it might be used in curing masculine reproductive system diseases. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Ethiopian flora project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hedberg

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available After thorough planning, an Ethiopian Flora Project has recently been initiated, financed by the Ethiopian Science and Technology Commission from a Swedish grant. The planning was effected by a working group including representatives of the Biology Department at Addis Ababa University and the Institute of Systematic Botany in Uppsala as well as some international experts selected by AETFAT, and was finalized by an Ethiopian Flora Committee. The project leader is Professor Tewolde Berhan G. Egziabher in Addis Ababa, assisted by an Ethiopian secretariat under the Director of the National Herbarium. A European counterpart secretariat, headed by the author, has also been organized with Dr I. Hedberg as co-ordinator. Collecting expeditions to insufficiently known areas, loans from the Addis Ababa Herbarium to collaborating taxonomists, and other activities inside Ethiopia are organized by the Ethiopian secretariat, whereas the Uppsala secretariat is responsible for the initiation and co-ordination of the taxonomic revisions and family accounts needed for the Flora. Collaborators for several of the roughly 200 families of Ethiopian vascular plants have already been secured, but many more remain to be covered. AETFAT members with specialist knowledge of the remaining families are requested to help fill the gaps in our list of contributors.

  13. Flora bacteriana cloacal y nasal de Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae en el pacífico norte de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Santoro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la flora normal aerobia, cloacal y nasal de la tortuga lora (Lepidochelys olivacea , entre los meses de julio y agosto del 2002,se colectaron muestras bacteriológicas de 45 quelonios aparentemente sanos,durante el desove en Playa Nancite,Parque Nacional Santa Rosa, Costa Rica, a través del uso de hisopos estériles que se introdujeron en la cloaca y en uno de los conductos nasales. De las muestras recolectadas se obtuvieron e identificaron un total de 99 aislamientos, incluyendo 10 grupos de Gram-negativos y 5 de Gram-positivos. De cada tortuga se obtuvo un promedio de 0.7 bacterias de la cloaca y 1.4 de las cavidades nasales. Las bacterias más frecuente halladas fueron Aeromonas spp.(13/45 y Citrobacter freundi (6/45 en la cloaca, y Bacillus spp. (32/45,Staphylococcus aureus (6/45y Corynebacterium spp.(5/45en las cavidades nasales. En este investigación, la flora microbiana de las tortugas lora resultó constituida por microorganismos potencialmente patógenos para el ser humano y las tortugas.Cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae from the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica.The aerobic cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of 45 apparently healthy female olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea was studied at Nancite nesting beach,in Santa Rosa National Park (Costa Rican North Pacificduring July and August 2002.Bacterial samples were obtained by inserting sterile swabs directly into the cloaca and the nasal cavities of the turtles.Ninety-nine aerobic bacterial isolates, including 10 Gram-negative and 5 Gram-positive bacteria, were recovered.The most common bacteria cultured were Aeromonas spp. (13/45 and Citrobacter freundi (6/45from cloacal samples and Bacillus spp.(32/45, Staphylococcus aureus (6/45and Corynebacterium spp.(5/45from nasal ducts.The results of the present study showed that the aerobic bacterial flora of nesting female olive ridleys was composed of

  14. The frequent shift to intermediate flora in preterm delivery cases after abnormal vaginal flora screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Takanori; Akimoto, Yumiko; Tanimoto, Hirotoshi; Teramoto, Mitsue; Teramoto, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The effect of screening and treatment for abnormal vaginal flora on the reduction of preterm deliveries remains controversial. We evaluated whether this screening and treatment reduces the preterm delivery rate for general-population pregnant women. Pregnant women of the Intervention group (n = 574) underwent the screening test and the treatment of vaginal metronidazole during the early second trimester, and those of the Control group (n = 1,161) did not. We compared the preterm delivery rate between these two groups. We also compared the profiles of vaginal flora of the preterm delivery cases with those of the pregnant women with a normal course. There was no significant difference in the preterm delivery rate between these two groups. However, in the preterm delivery cases, a frequent shift to intermediate flora was observed not before but after the screening in the Intervention group. This shift may explain why most of the previous studies failed in regard to the prevention of preterm deliveries. PMID:24762852

  15. Normally Oriented Adhesion versus Friction Forces in Bacterial Adhesion to Polymer-Brush Functionalized Surfaces Under Fluid Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swartjes, Jan J. T. M.; Veeregowda, Deepak H.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion is problematic in many diverse applications. Coatings of hydrophilic polymer chains in a brush configuration reduce bacterial adhesion by orders of magnitude, but not to zero. Here, the mechanism by which polymer-brush functionalized surfaces reduce bacterial adhesion from a

  16. Toothpaste formulation efficacy in reducing oral flora | Okpalugo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the microbial quality as well as the effectiveness of seven brands of toothpaste marketed in Abuja, Nigeria's capital city, for reducing oral bacterial flora. Methods: Seven brands of toothpaste were randomly purchased from the open market in Abuja. Two brands contained triclosan + sodium fluoride as ...

  17. FLORA OF MOLOCHNYI ESTUARY COASTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomiychuk V.P.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Present-day characteristic of the coastal flora of Molochnyi eastury is given, that is one of the largest estuaries in Ukraine, the shores and waters of which in 2009 became a part of the Pryazov’ya National Nature Park. The analysis of the main parameters of the flora is made. Rare component of the estuary coastal flora is characterized, further steps to conserve the nature of Pryazov’ya are proposed.

  18. Systematic Analysis of the Association between Gut Flora and Obesity through High-Throughput Sequencing and Bioinformatics Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Min Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-one stool samples from Taiwanese were collected for analysis of the association between the gut flora and obesity. The supervised analysis showed that the most, abundant genera of bacteria in normal samples (from people with a body mass index (BMI ≤ 24 were Bacteroides (27.7%, Prevotella (19.4%, Escherichia (12%, Phascolarctobacterium (3.9%, and Eubacterium (3.5%. The most abundant genera of bacteria in case samples (with a BMI ≥ 27 were Bacteroides (29%, Prevotella (21%, Escherichia (7.4%, Megamonas (5.1%, and Phascolarctobacterium (3.8%. A principal coordinate analysis (PCoA demonstrated that normal samples were clustered more compactly than case samples. An unsupervised analysis demonstrated that bacterial communities in the gut were clustered into two main groups: N-like and OB-like groups. Remarkably, most normal samples (78% were clustered in the N-like group, and most case samples (81% were clustered in the OB-like group (Fisher’s P  value=1.61E-07. The results showed that bacterial communities in the gut were highly associated with obesity. This is the first study in Taiwan to investigate the association between human gut flora and obesity, and the results provide new insights into the correlation of bacteria with the rising trend in obesity.

  19. Irradiation mucositis and oral flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spijkervet, F.K.L.

    1989-01-01

    This study, which is motivated by the substantial morbidity of local signs of mucositis and generalized symptoms that result from mucositis induced by therapeutic irradiation, has the following objectives: To investigate if it is possible to prevent irradiation mucositis via oral flora elimination, and, if it is true that flora plays a role in irradiation mucositis, what fraction of the oral flora may be involved; to evaluate oral Gram-negative bacillary carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate Gram-negative bacilli from the oral cavity; to evaluate oral yeast carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate yeasts stomatitis and the 'selectivity' of elimination of flora. Two methods are described for monitoring alterations of mucositis of the oral cavity and changes in oral flora. Chlorhexidine has been tested as the commonly used prophylaxis. The effect of chlorhexidine 0.1% rinses on oral flora and mucositis has been studied in a prospective placebo controlled double blind randomized programme. The results of the influence of saliva on the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine and the results of selective elimination of oral flora in irradiated patients who have head and neck cancer are reported. Salivary inactivation of the topical antimicrobials used for selective elimination of oral flora has been studied and the results are reported. Finally, the objectives that have been achieved (or not) are delineated. The significance of the results of the study are discussed in terms of published information and further lines of research are suggested. (author). 559 refs.; 29 figs.; 20 tabs

  20. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    General information about the Flora project, the history of the scientific exploration of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, the natural vegetation, the regional diversity and endemism as reflected in the Flora, the use of wild and cultivated plants in the flora region, important scientific plant...

  1. Diatom flora of Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schoeman, FR

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available identity if the species presented, an illustrating them through the medium of the light, transmission and scanning electron microscopes. The latter is probably the most valuable contribution the Flora makes to diatomists...

  2. Sertula Florae Colombiae, VII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Uribe Lorenzo

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available La preparación de un texto moderno que acompañe la publicación de las láminas de la Flora de la Real expedición Botánica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, ha hecho necesaria la recolección botánica intensiva, en las regiones que exploraron don JOSE CELESTINO MUTlS y sus compañeros.  Indispensable en algunos casos para la correcta interpretación de los icones, cuando los datos gráficos consignados por el artista son insuficientes para la determinación segura de la especie. Sólo el cotejo de la lámina con una planta viva y la posterior clasificación de ésta, ofrece seguridad en la determinación. Por otra parte, se logra así la proyección de nuestro trabajo actual en el ambiente y el medio en que se desarrolló el de Mutis y sus colaboradores.

  3. Incidence and interaction of seed borne micro flora of Cassia fistula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed samples of Cassia fistula from Uttarakhand and Punjab region of North West Himalayas were evaluated for occurrence of seed micro flora. Several fungal strains and bacterial isolates were isolated from seed sources of Uttarakhand and Punjab regions. Different fungal and bacterial species were identified from the ...

  4. Determination of the Normal Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Value in Iraqi Society and its Relation to Bacterial Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, F.H.

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out by radioimmunoassay and immuno radiographic analysis in the Iraqi Ministry of Health, within the research plan of Kurdistan institution for strategic study and scientific research. A total of 793 serum samples were collected in which 50 patient samples have biopsy with positive bacterial UTI. The other 743 samples were obtained from normal healthy volunteers all were over 45 years old. The samples were gathered randomly from three regions in Iraq namely, from north (Sulaymaniyah, Erbil and Dohuk), from the middle (Baghdad and Diyala) and from south (Basra, Missan and Najaf). The total PSA was measured and the results were subjected to statistical analysis based on statistical package social science (SPSS) method. The obtained data showed that the normal PSA values are function of the age of the donors. The results were grouped and clarified that PSA was less than 3.8 ng/ml for the age 45-55 years, while it was less than 4.8 ng/ml for the volunteers from 56-65 years old and the values lower than 5.9 ng/ml for group aged 66-75 years old. On the other hand, the obtained data illustrated that there were non-significant variations in PSA values as a function of the geographic regions. The PSA values for the 50 male positive bacterial UTI samples were within the same grouping previously stated for the normal healthy volunteers. Seven cases of the 743 samples showed abnormal high PSA values (i.e. greater than 9 ng/ml) which represent 0.93% of the healthy collected samples. It could be concluded that the PSA has non-significance relation to the bacterial UTI. In addition, the radioimmunoassay has a sensitivity of about 99.04% for the normal cases and specificity of 0.96% for prostate cancer.

  5. Comparative Study on the Vaginal Flora and Incidence of Asymptomatic Vaginosis among Healthy Women and in Women with Infertility Problems of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Geethavani; Singaravelu, Balamuru Ganvelu; Srikumar, R; Reddy, Sreenivasalu V; Kokan, Afraa

    2017-08-01

    The normal vaginal flora is highly complex, dominated by lactobacilli of doderlein that plays a vital role in maintaining the women's health and inhibits other pathogenic microorganisms. Fluctuation in local environment or exposure to any exogenous and endogenous sources changes the vaginal flora over a period of time. Disruption of the vaginal ecosystem changes the microflora of the healthy vagina, altering the pH and predisposing to lower reproductive tract infections. The change in the microflora of the female genital tract by pathogenic organisms may ascend from vagina to upper genital tract and may cause infertility. Although several studies demonstrate a higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in infertile population. The role of vaginal microbiome in infertility is not clear and need to be explored further. To compare the vaginal flora and analyse the incidence of asymptomatic vaginosis among healthy women and in women with infertility problems. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of six months at Sri Lakshmi Narayana Medical College and Hospital Puducherry, India. A total of 200 high vaginal swabs were collected from Group 1 which included 84 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles without any gynaecological disorder and from Group 2, 116 women with infertility problems attending fertility clinic within the age group of 18 to 45 years. All swabs were subjected to routine aerobic, anaerobic and fungal culture. Saline wet mount was performed for the detection of clue cells and Trichomonas vaginalis , 10% KOH was performed for demonstration of budding yeast cells and pseudo hyphae, Gram's staining to determine the presence of yeast cells, leucocytes and bacterial morphotypes. The smear was also graded using Nugent scoring system. The vaginal flora of Group 1 was dominated by Lactobacillus (40, 27.8 %) followed by Micrococcus (22, 15.3 %), Enterococcus (16, 11.1%), Coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (12, 8.3%). Whereas in Group 2, the

  6. Distribution and diversity of flora and fauna in International Institute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution and diversity of flora and fauna in International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) forest and nature reserve, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. ... was also sighted in the study site and several other birds which normally winter around the lake. Key words: Ecology, Distribution, Diversity, Forest, Nature Reserve, IITA, ...

  7. Assessment of Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus Aureus and Axillar Flora in Patients With Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gen, Ramazan; Horasan, Elif Şahin; Çinkir, Ümit; Sezer, Kerem; Akbay, Esen

    2017-05-01

    Recent study showed that patients with acromegaly have typical skin findings including increased sebum secretion, decreased transepidermal water loss, more alkaline, and colder skin surface correlated with serum growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels. Different anatomic localizations and texture of the skin differ in bacterial concentrations.Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and axillar flora in patients with acromegaly was compared with normal population with regard to duration of acromegaly as well as the growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels. This patient-control prospective study was conducted in university hospitals in Mersin, Turkey. The study consisted of 30 active acromegalic patients and 60 healthy adults who had no previously diagnosed chronic illness as a control group. A total of 90 volunteers were enrolled in this study; nasal and axillar cultures were obtained. Axillar and nasal specimens from anterior nares of the individuals were taken using sterile swabs. Nasal colonization of Staphylococcus aureus was 13.3% in acromegalic patients, but 43.4% in control group. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.004). Patients and control group compared according to axillar cultures, the authors determined proteus colonization 16.7% in patients with acromegaly but no proteus colonization in control group. This result was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Proteus colonization was negatively correlated only with disease duration in acromegalic patients (P = 0.017). The authors demonstrated that compared with healthy subjects, acromegalic patients had low percentage of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and more gram-negative basili in the axillar flora. These nasal and axillar flora changes should be considered for prophylactic antibiotics use before surgery and ampiric antibiotics use after surgery.

  8. Heterotrophic bacterial populations in tropical sandy beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Distribution pattern of heterotrophic bacterial flora of three sandy beaches of the west coast of India was studied. The population in these beaches was microbiologically different. Population peaks of halotolerant and limnotolerant forms were...

  9. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something or ...... have been mapped and it is already possible to recognize the hot-spots of biodiversity as these are linked to the centres of endemism. Determining the centres of diversity is an important and significant contribution to further conservation measures at the global level....

  10. Changes in human gut flora with age: an Indian familial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Nachiket; Shetty, Sudarshan; Lanjekar, Vikram; Ranade, Dilip; Shouche, Yogesh

    2012-09-26

    The gut micro flora plays vital role in health status of the host. The majority of microbes residing in the gut have a profound influence on human physiology and nutrition. Different human ethnic groups vary in genetic makeup as well as the environmental conditions they live in. The gut flora changes with genetic makeup and environmental factors and hence it is necessary to understand the composition of gut flora of different ethnic groups. Indian population is different in physiology from western population (YY paradox) and thus the gut flora in Indian population is likely to differ from the extensively studied gut flora in western population. In this study we have investigated the gut flora of two Indian families, each with three individuals belonging to successive generations and living under the same roof. Denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed age-dependant variation in gut microflora amongst the individuals within a family. Different bacterial genera were dominant in the individual of varying age in clone library analysis. Obligate anaerobes isolated from individuals within a family showed age related differences in isolation pattern, with 27% (6 out of 22) of the isolates being potential novel species based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. In qPCR a consistent decrease in Firmicutes number and increase in Bacteroidetes number with increasing age was observed in our subjects, this pattern of change in Firmicutes / Bacteroidetes ratio with age is different than previously reported in European population. There is change in gut flora with age amongst the individuals within a family. The isolation of high percent of novel bacterial species and the pattern of change in Firmicutes /Bacteroidetes ratio with age suggests that the composition of gut flora in Indian individuals may be different than the western population. Thus, further extensive study is needed to define the gut flora in Indian population.

  11. Annual report Foundation Flora Malesiana 1992

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Second Flora Malesiana Symposium — The highlight of the year was the Second Flora Malesiana Symposium. It was organized under the auspices of the Foundation Flora Malesiana (FFM) by Puslitbang Biologi of the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) and the Fakultas Biologi of the Gadjah Mada

  12. Bacterial vaginosis in pregnant adolescents: proinflammatory cytokine and bacterial sialidase profile. Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Sanitá Tafner Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Bacterial vaginosis occurs frequently in pregnancy and increases susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STI. Considering that adolescents are disproportionally affected by STI, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cervicovaginal levels of interleukin (IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8 and bacterial sialidase in pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at mother and child referral units in Belém, Pará, Brazil. METHODS: Vaginal samples from 168 pregnant adolescents enrolled were tested for trichomoniasis and candidiasis. Their vaginal microbiota was classified according to the Nugent criteria (1991 as normal, intermediate or bacterial vaginosis. Cervical infection due to Chlamydia trachomatisand Neisseria gonorrhoeae was also assessed. Cytokine and sialidase levels were measured, respectively, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and MUAN conversion in cervicovaginal lavages. Forty-eight adolescents (28.6% were excluded because they tested positive for some of the infections investigated. The remaining 120 adolescents were grouped according to vaginal flora type: normal (n = 68 or bacterial vaginosis (n = 52. Their cytokine and sialidase levels were compared between the groups using the Mann-Whitney test (P < 0.05. RESULTS: The pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis had higher levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8 (P < 0.05. Sialidase was solely detected in 35 adolescents (67.2% with bacterial vaginosis. CONCLUSIONS: Not only IL-1 beta and sialidase levels, but also IL-6 and IL-8 levels are higher in pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis, thus indicating that this condition elicits a more pronounced inflammatory response in this population, which potentially increases vulnerability to STI acquisition.

  13. [An analysis of the DNA fingerprinting of intestinal flora in inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Run-mei; Han, Ying; Wang, Ji-heng; Wang, Zhi-hong

    2007-02-01

    DNA fingerprinting for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and healthy subjects was carried out to compare the difference of intestinal flora between the two groups. DNA fingerprinting for IBD patients and healthy persons was set up with enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR) technology and the difference of intestinal flora between the two groups compared. DNA fingerprinting of the IBD patients and healthy subjects was identified and a significant difference was noticed between them. There were lots of bands in the DNA fingerprinting of the healthy subjects but few in that of the IBD patients. Strikingly, same distribution of the principal band of DNA fingerprinting was noticed in IBD patients. The variety of intestinal flora in healthy subjects is more apparent than that in IBD patients. An unique principal band might be the sequence of the presence of specific etiopathogenetic bacterium, or it might be the combined sequence of mixed bacterial flora.

  14. Proton pump inhibitor medication is associated with colonisation of gut flora in the oropharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranberg, A; Thorarinsdottir, H R; Holmberg, A; Schött, U; Klarin, B

    2018-03-08

    The normal body exists in mutualistic balance with a large range of microbiota. The primary goal of this study was to establish whether there is an imbalance in the oropharyngeal flora early after hospital or ICU admittance, and whether flora differs between control, ward and critically ill patients. The secondary goal was to explore whether there are patient characteristics that can be associated with a disturbed oropharyngeal flora. Oropharyngeal cultures were obtained from three different study groups: (1) controls from the community, (2) ward patients and (3) critically ill patients, the two latter within 24 h after admittance. Cultures were obtained from 487 individuals: 77 controls, 193 ward patients and 217 critically ill patients. Abnormal pharyngeal flora was more frequent in critically ill and ward patients compared with controls (62.2% and 10.4% vs. 1.3%, P flora in the oropharynx was more frequent in critically ill patients compared with ward patients or controls (26.3% vs. 4.7% and 1.3%, P flora in the oropharynx in both ward and critically ill patients (P = 0.030 and P = 0.044, respectively). This study indicates that abnormal oropharyngeal flora is an early and frequent event in hospitalised patients and more so in the critically ill, compared to controls. Proton pump inhibitor medication is associated with colonisation of gut flora in the oropharynx. © 2018 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Normalization of test and evaluation of biothreat detection systems: overcoming microbial air content fluctuations by using a standardized reagent bacterial mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchebru, Laurent; Rameil, Pascal; Gaudin, Jean-Christophe; Gausson, Sabrina; Larigauderie, Guilhem; Pujol, Céline; Morel, Yannick; Ramisse, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    Test and evaluation of engineered biothreat agent detection systems ("biodetectors") are a challenging task for government agencies and industries involved in biosecurity and biodefense programs. In addition to user friendly features, biodetectors need to perform both highly sensitive and specific detection, and must not produce excessive false alerts. In fact, the atmosphere displays a number of variables such as airborne bacterial content that can interfere with the detection process, thus impeding comparative tests when carried out at different times or places. To overcome these bacterial air content fluctuations, a standardized reagent bacterial mixture (SRBM), consisting in a collection of selected cultivable environmental species that are prevalent in temperate climate bioaerosols, was designed to generate a stable, reproducible, and easy to use surrogate of bioaerosol sample. The rationale, design, and production process are reported. The results showed that 8.59; CI 95%: 8.46-8.72 log cfu distributed into vials underwent a 0.95; CI 95%: 0.65-1.26 log viability decay after dehydration and subsequent reconstitution, thus advantageously mimicking a natural bioaerosol sample which is typically composed of cultivable and uncultivable particles. Dehydrated SRBM was stable for more than 12months at 4°C and allowed the reconstitution of a dead/live cells aqueous suspension that is stable for 96h at +4°C, according to plate counts. Specific detection of a simulating biothreat agent (e.g. Bacillus atrophaeus) by immuno-magnetic or PCR assays did not display any significant loss of sensitivity, false negative or positive results in the presence of SRBM. This work provides guidance on testing and evaluating detection devices, and may contribute to the establishment of suitable standards and normalized procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Alteration in the endogenous intestinal flora of swiss webster mice by experimental Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandack Nobre

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The association between worm infections and bacterial diseases has only recently been emphasized. This study examined the effect of experimental Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection on endogenous intestinal flora of Swiss Webster mice. Eight mice aging six weeks were selected for this experiment. Four were infected with A. costaricensis and the other four were used as controls. Twenty eight days after the worm infection, all mice in both groups were sacrificed and samples of the contents of the ileum and colon were obtained and cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. In the mice infected with A. costaricensis there was a significant increase in the number of bacteria of the endogenous intestinal flora, accompanied by a decrease in the number of Peptostreptococcus spp. This alteration in the intestinal flora of mice infected by the nematode may help to understand some bacterial infections described in humans.

  17. 16S rDNA analysis of the effect of fecal microbiota transplantation on pulmonary and intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianhao; Yang, Zhongshan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Han, Niping; Yuan, Jiali; Cheng, Yu

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to explore the effect of FMT on regulations of dysbacteriosis of pulmonary and intestinal flora in rats with 16S rDNA sequencing technology. A total of 27 SPF rats (3-4 weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (K), model control group (MX), and fecal microbiota transplantation group (FMT); each group contained nine rats. The OTU values of the pulmonary and intestinal flora of the MX group decreased significantly compared with the normal control group. After FMT, the OTU value of pulmonary flora increased, while the value of OTU in intestinal flora declined. At the phylum level, FMT down-regulated Proteobacteria , Firmicutes , and Bacteroidetes in the pulmonary flora. At the genus level, FMT down-regulated Pseudomonas , Sphingobium , Lactobacillus , Rhizobium , and Acinetobacter , thus maintaining the balance of the pulmonary flora. Moreover, FMT could change the structure and diversity of the pulmonary and intestinal flora by positively regulating the pulmonary flora and negatively regulating intestinal flora. This study may provide a scientific basis for FMT treatment of respiratory diseases.

  18. The intestinal flora is required to support antibody responses to systemic immunization in infant and germ free mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamousé-Smith, Esi S; Tzeng, Alice; Starnbach, Michael N

    2011-01-01

    The presence of a complex and diverse intestinal flora is functionally important for regulating intestinal mucosal immune responses. However, the extent to which a balanced intestinal flora regulates systemic immune responses is still being defined. In order to specifically examine whether the acquisition of a less complex flora influences responses to immunization in the pre-weaning stages of life, we utilize a model in which infant mice acquire an intestinal flora from their mothers that has been altered by broad-spectrum antibiotics. In this model, pregnant dams are treated with a cocktail of antibiotics that alters both the density and microbial diversity of the intestinal flora. After challenge with a subcutaneous immunization, the antibiotic altered flora infant mice have lower antigen specific antibody titers compared to control age-matched mice. In a second model, we examined germ free (GF) mice to analyze how the complete lack of flora influences the ability to mount normal antibody responses following subcutaneous immunization. GF mice do not respond well to immunization and introduction of a normal flora into GF mice restores the capacity of these mice to respond. These results indicate that a gastrointestinal flora reduced in density and complexity at critical time points during development adversely impacts immune responses to systemic antigens.

  19. CULTIVAR RELEASE-BRS 217 Flora: Early-maturing soybean cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plínio Itamar de Mello de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cultivar BRS 217 Flora was developed by Embrapa and released forproduction in the states of Goiás, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Mato Grosso and the Distrito Federal, Brazil. It is resistant to stemcanker, frog-eye leaf spot, bacterial pustule, and partially resistant to powdery mildew.

  20. Evaluation of the vaginal flora in pregnant women receiving opioid maintenance therapy: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Alex; Kiss, Herbert; Hagmann, Michael; Holzer, Iris; Kueronya, Verena; Husslein, Peter W; Petricevic, Ljubomir

    2016-08-05

    Vaginal infections are a risk factor for preterm delivery. In this study, we sought to evaluate the vaginal flora of pregnant women receiving opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) in comparison to non-dependent, non-maintained controls. A total of 3763 women with singleton pregnancies who underwent routine screening for asymptomatic vaginal infections between 10 + 0 and 16 + 0 gestational weeks were examined. Vaginal smears were Gram-stained, and microscopically evaluated for bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and trichomoniasis. In a retrospective manner, data of 132 women receiving OMT (cases) were matched for age, ethnicity, parity, education, previous preterm delivery, and smoking status to the data of 3631 controls. The vaginal flora at antenatal screening served as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures were gestational age and birth weight. In the OMT group, 62/132 (47 %) pregnant women received methadone, 39/132 (29.5 %) buprenorphine, and 31/132 (23.5 %) slow-release oral morphine. Normal or intermediate flora was found in 72/132 OMT women (54.5 %) and 2865/3631 controls [78.9 %; OR 0.49 (95 % CI, 0.33-0.71); p Candidiasis occurred more frequently in OMT women than in controls [OR 2.11 (95 % CI, 1.26-3.27); p candidiasis) and trichomoniasis. Compared to infants of the control group, those of women with OMT had a lower mean birth weight [MD -165.3 g (95 % CI, -283.6 to -46.9); p = 0.006]. Pregnant women with OMT are at risk for asymptomatic vaginal infections. As recurrent candidiasis is associated with preterm delivery, the vulnerability of this patient population should lead to consequent antenatal infection screening at early gestation.

  1. Flora omanikud tülis / Inno Tähismaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tähismaa, Inno, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Valdusfirma AS-i Flora Kommerts kahe vähemusaktsionäri Rita Kulli ja Elar Kruusma tehingutest Flora gruppi kuuluvate AS-i Flora Vara ja AS-i Flora Liit varaga. Diagramm: Vähemusaktsionärid näitasid võimu. Lisa: Flora juhid. Vt. samas: Kalleim osa kinnisvara

  2. Lichen flora of Tomaszow Mazowiecki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydzak, J; Krysiak, K

    1970-01-01

    In Tomaszow Mazowiecki, a small town in Poland with the air highly contaminated with gases (SO/sub 2/, CS/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S), a flora of epiphytic and epilithic lichens is present. Lichens are not indicators of air pollution. They are indicators of a complex of microclimatic conditions that enable them to maintain a positive balance of assimilation and of respiratory processes in a given station within the town as well as in natural habitats. 58 references, 16 figures, 7 tables.

  3. Comparative analysis of the intestinal flora in type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Miura, Takamasa; Hirakata, Satomi; Hosoyama, Akira; Sugino, Sakiko; Umeno, Aya; Murotomi, Kazutoshi; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Koike, Taisuke

    2017-10-30

    A relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and intestinal flora has been suggested since development of analysis technology for intestinal flora. An animal model of T2DM is important for investigation of T2DM. Although there are some animal models of T2DM, a comparison of the intestinal flora of healthy animals with that of T2DM animals has not yet been reported. The intestinal flora of Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mice was compared with that of Tsumura, Suzuki, Non Obesity (TSNO) mice in the present study. The TSOD mice showed typical type 2 diabetes symptoms, which were high-fat diet-independent. The TSOD and the TSNO mouse models were derived from the same strain, ddY. In this study, we compared the intestinal flora of TSOD mice with that if TSNO mice at 5 and 12 weeks of age. We determined that that the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was significantly higher in the cecum of TSOD mice than in that of TSNO mice. The intestinal flora of the cecum and that of the feces were similar between the TSNO and the TSOD strains. The dominant bacteria in the cecum and feces were of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. However, the content of some bacterial species varied between the two strains. The percentage of Lactobacillus spp. within the general intestinal flora was higher in TSOD mice than in TSNO mice. In contrast, the percentages of order Bacteroidales and family Lachnospiraceae were higher in TSNO mice than in TSOD mice. Some species were observed only in TSOD mice, such as genera Turicibacter and SMB53 (family Clostridiaceae), the percentage of which were 3.8% and 2.0%, respectively. Although further analysis of the metabolism of the individual bacteria in the intestinal flora is essential, genera Turicibacter and SMB53 may be important for the abnormal metabolism of type 2 diabetes.

  4. GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COASTAL FLORA OF THE AZOV SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomiychuk V. P.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative indicators of the coastal flora of the Azov Sea are presented. Geographical features of the flora of the region have been analyzed. The major endemic complexes of the flora being investigated are described.

  5. Effect of septoplasty and per-operative antibiotic prophylaxis on nasal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, E; Alimoglu, Y; Aygun, G; Kilic, E; Yagiz, C

    2012-01-01

    Septoplasty is one of the most commonly performed procedures in otolaryngology practice. Prophylactic use of antibiotics is controversial. Disruption of nasal flora may predispose individuals to infection. We investigated the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis and septoplasty on nasal flora. We included 115 consecutive patients who underwent septoplasty because of symptomatic nasal septal deviation. Patients were divided into study and control groups. Study patients received prophylactic parenteral sodium cefazoline twice a day beginning intra-operatively and while the nasal packing remained in the nose for 48 h, and expandable polyvinyl acetate (Merocel) packing covered with antibiotic ointment containing 0.2% nitrofurazone was inserted into each nostril at the end of the operation. Control patients received neither parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis nor antibiotic ointment around the Merocel packs. Both groups received oral prophylactic cefuroxime axetil for 5 d after nasal packing was removed. Nasal flora was determined pre-operatively, post-operatively when nasal packing was removed, and 3 mo after surgery. Study patients were compared to control patients at pack removal and 1 mo after surgery The effect of antibiotic use in septoplasty on nasal flora was as follows: Increased isolation rate of gram-positive rods (p = 0.007), decreased methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci (p = 0.002). Pre-operative and post-operative culture results at 3 mo were compared. The effect of septoplasty on nasal flora was as follows: Decreased coagulase-negative staphylococci (p = 0.05), decreased Klebsiella (p flora. Antibiotics do not protect against S. aureus colonization and contribute to a decrease in normal flora. Antibiotics do not seem to confer benefit in terms of flora changes. Studies investigating flora changes with a longer follow-up should be conducted.

  6. Natural Vegetation of the Flora area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebsebe, Demissew; Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    A review article summarising the recent ideas about the natural vegetation in the area covered by the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea......A review article summarising the recent ideas about the natural vegetation in the area covered by the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea...

  7. Anticancer Drugs from Marine Flora: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sithranga Boopathy, N.; Kathiresan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Marine floras, such as bacteria, actinobacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds, mangroves, and other halophytes are extremely important oceanic resources, constituting over 90% of the oceanic biomass. They are taxonomically diverse, largely productive, biologically active, and chemically unique offering a great scope for discovery of new anticancer drugs. The marine floras are rich in medicinally potent chemicals predominantly belonging to polyphenols and sulphated polysaccharide...

  8. Gut flora profiling and fecal metabolite composition of colorectal cancer patients and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Jianping; Rao, Benqiang; Deng, Li

    2017-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in the world and its morbidity and mortality rates are increasing due to alterations to human lifestyle and dietary habits. The relationship between human gut flora and colorectal cancer has attracted increasing attention. In the present study, a metabolic fingerprinting technique that combined pyrosequencing with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to compare the differences in gut flora profiling and fecal metabolites between healthy individuals and patients with colorectal cancer. The results demonstrated that there were no significant differences in the abundance and diversity of gut flora between healthy individuals and patients with colorectal cancer (P>0.05) and the dominant bacterial phyla present in the gut of both groups included Firmicutes , Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia . At the bacterial strain/genus level, significant differences were observed in the relative abundance of 18 species of bacteria (Pflora profiling and metabolite composition. These findings suggest that gut flora disorder results in the alteration of bacterial metabolism, which may be associated with the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. The results of the present study are useful as a foundation for further studies to elucidate a potential colorectal cancer diagnostic index and therapeutic targets.

  9. Maternal risk factors for abnormal vaginal flora during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaldi, Cecilia; Cappello, Nazario; Latino, Maria A; Polarolo, Giulia; Masuelli, Giulia; Cavallo, Franco; Benedetto, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of abnormal vaginal flora during pregnancy and associated maternal risk factors. A retrospective study was undertaken of cervicovaginal smears performed on pregnant women at a center in Turin, Italy, between 2000 and 2010. Patients were divided into three groups: women with symptoms of genital infections (G1), asymptomatic women at risk of preterm birth (G2), and asymptomatic women with no risk (G3). Logistic regression models identified variables associated with microorganisms. Among 11 219 samples, 4913 (43.8%) were positive, of which 3783 (77.0%) were positive for a single microorganism. Multivariate analysis for G1 showed positive associations between multiple sexual partners and bacterial vaginosis/Ureaplasma urealyticum, and multiparity with preterm birth and U. urealyticum (Paerobic vaginitis, and North African origin and bacterial vaginosis/U. urealyticum (P<0.05 for all). In G3, there were associations between little education (<8 years) and bacterial vaginosis/U. urealyticum, multiple sexual partners and bacterial vaginosis/U. urealyticum, and bacterial vaginosis and Eastern European origin and not being married (P<0.05 for all). Positive cervicovaginal smears were associated with a particular profile. Testing could be advisable for symptomatic women at any stage of pregnancy, during the first trimester for asymptomatic women at risk of preterm birth, and for some asymptomatic women. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intravaginal practices, bacterial vaginosis, and HIV infection in women: individual participant data meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Low

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying modifiable factors that increase women's vulnerability to HIV is a critical step in developing effective female-initiated prevention interventions. The primary objective of this study was to pool individual participant data from prospective longitudinal studies to investigate the association between intravaginal practices and acquisition of HIV infection among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Secondary objectives were to investigate associations between intravaginal practices and disrupted vaginal flora; and between disrupted vaginal flora and HIV acquisition.We conducted a meta-analysis of individual participant data from 13 prospective cohort studies involving 14,874 women, of whom 791 acquired HIV infection during 21,218 woman years of follow-up. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. The level of between-study heterogeneity was low in all analyses (I(2 values 0.0%-16.1%. Intravaginal use of cloth or paper (pooled adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.83, insertion of products to dry or tighten the vagina (aHR 1.31, 95% CI 1.00-1.71, and intravaginal cleaning with soap (aHR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53 remained associated with HIV acquisition after controlling for age, marital status, and number of sex partners in the past 3 months. Intravaginal cleaning with soap was also associated with the development of intermediate vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis in women with normal vaginal flora at baseline (pooled adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47. Use of cloth or paper was not associated with the development of disrupted vaginal flora. Intermediate vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis were each associated with HIV acquisition in multivariable models when measured at baseline (aHR 1.54 and 1.69, p<0.001 or at the visit before the estimated date of HIV infection (aHR 1.41 and 1.53, p<0.001, respectively.This study provides evidence to suggest that some intravaginal practices increase

  11. Bacterial flora of pond reared Penaeus indicus (Milne Edwards)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, I.S.B.; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P.; Chandramohan, D.

    The population size, generic diversity and potential to produce hydrolytic enzymes of heterotrophic bacteria associated with pond reared Penaeus indicus was worked out following standard bacteriological procedures. Chitinoclastic vibrios were found...

  12. Characterization of the bacterial flora of tilapia ( Oreochoromis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the sample preparation to isolate the bacteria, 50 g of sample (gills, intestine and skin of individually fish) were taken using a sterile scalpel. These 50 g were homogenized in 450 ml of sterilised peptone solution. After 18 h of incubation, the homogenate sample was inoculated on thiosulphate citrate bile salt sucrose ...

  13. Characterization of the bacterial flora of tilapia (Oreochoromis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(71), pp. 16016-16023, 14 ... sample preparation to isolate the bacteria, 50 g of sample (gills, intestine and skin of individually fish) were taken using a sterile scalpel. ... Considering these facts, this study was carried out with an objective to provide information on the ...

  14. Bacterial flora of Dona Paula, India using numerical profiles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    ). 4) C. E. Shannon and W. Weaver: The math· ematical theory of communication, 1949 Universi·· ty of Illinois Press. 5) R. Margalef: in "Perspective in Ecological Theory" University of Chicago Press, Chicago,. 1968. 6) E. C. Pielou: J. Theor. Bioi., 13...

  15. Biodegradation of detergents by aquatic bacterial flora from Otamiri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Full Length Research Paper. Biodegradation of detergents by ... releases toxins and decreases oxygen in waterways and decrease in the breeding ... of chemicals to microbial degradation and simulation test, which provide ...

  16. New Perspectives on the Normal Vagina and Noninfectious Causes of Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Anna M; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of how the vaginal flora is influenced by hormonal status is crucial in distinguishing normal from abnormal secretions. New studies exploring the vaginal microbiome with culture-independent techniques have led to the discovery of previously uncultivable bacteria on a species level, and have contributed to a better understanding of disease processes including bacterial vaginosis. It is important to note that not all vaginal discharge is abnormal or infectious in etiology, but a thorough evaluation will help reassure both the patient and the provider.

  17. Novel Antimicrobial Peptides That Inhibit Gram Positive Bacterial Exotoxin Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, Joseph A.; Nemeth, Kimberly A.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, cause serious human illnesses through combinations of surface virulence factors and secretion of exotoxins. Our prior studies using the protein synthesis inhibitor clindamycin and signal transduction inhibitors glycerol monolaurate and α-globin and β-globin chains of hemoglobin indicate that their abilities to inhibit exotoxin production by S. aureus are separable from abilities to inhibit growth of the organism. Additionally, our previous studies suggest that inhibition of exotoxin production, in absence of ability to kill S. aureus and normal flora lactobacilli, will prevent colonization by pathogenic S. aureus, while not interfering with lactobacilli colonization. These disparate activities may be important in development of novel anti-infective agents that do not alter normal flora. We initiated studies to explore the exotoxin-synthesis-inhibition activity of hemoglobin peptides further to develop potential agents to prevent S. aureus infections. We tested synthesized α-globin chain peptides, synthetic variants of α-globin chain peptides, and two human defensins for ability to inhibit exotoxin production without significantly inhibiting S. aureus growth. All of these peptides were weakly or not inhibitory to bacterial growth. However, the peptides were inhibitory to exotoxin production with increasing activity dependent on increasing numbers of positively-charged amino acids. Additionally, the peptides could be immobilized on agarose beads or have amino acid sequences scrambled and still retain exotoxin-synthesis-inhibition. The peptides are not toxic to human vaginal epithelial cells and do not inhibit growth of normal flora L. crispatus. These peptides may interfere with plasma membrane signal transduction in S. aureus due to their positive charges. PMID:24748386

  18. Microbial flora variations in the respiratory tract of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cangemi de Gutierrez

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A stable microbial system in the respiratory tract acts as an important defense mechanism against pathogenic microorganisms. Perturbations in this system may allow pathogens to establish. In an ecological environment such as the respiratory tract, there are many diverse factors that play a role in the establishment of the indigenous flora. In the present work we studied the normal microbial flora of different areas of the respiratory tract of mice and their evolution from the time the mice were born. Our interest was to know which were the dominant groups of microorganisms in each area, which were the first capable of colonizing and which dominated over time to be used as probiotic microorganisms. Our results show that Gram negative facultatively anaerobic bacilli and strict anaerobic microorganisms were the last ones to appear in the bronchia, while aerobic and Gram positive cocci were present in all the areas of the respiratory tract. The number of facultative aerobes and strict anaerobes were similar in the nasal passage, pharynx instilled and trachea, but lower in bronchia. The dominant species were Streptococcus viridans and Staphylococcus saprophyticcus, followed by S. epidermidis, Lactobacilli and S. cohnii I which were present on every studied days but at different proportions. This paper is the first part of a research topic investigating the protective effect of the indigenous flora against pathogens using the mice as an experimental model.

  19. Changes in the predominant human Lactobacillus flora during in vitro fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsum Urban

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signature matching of nucleotide sequences in the V1 and V3 regions 16S rRNA genes using pyrosequencing technology is a powerful tool for typing vaginal Lactobacilli to the species level and has been used for investigating the vaginal microbial niche. Methods This study has characterized the normal cultivable vaginal Lactobacillus flora at varying estradiol levels in plasma; the study comprised 17 patients undergoing ovarian stimulation for In Vitro Fertilization (IVF treatment. The vaginal status of each participant was initially assessed as normal according to Amsel and Nugent criteria. Results L. crispatus, L. gasseri and/or L. jensenii were present in 10 of the patients throughout the study period, and little variation among these three species was encountered in individual patients. The flora of three women was dominated by L. delbrüeckii, L. rhamnosus or L. vaginalis. One woman exhibited a dominance of L. iners. The flora of the remaining three women were initially dominated by L. rhamnosus or L. reuteri, but as their estrogen levels rose, their flora composition altered, to become dominated by one of the three species most common in a normal, healthy vagina. Conclusion Signature matching of nucleotide sequences in the V1 and V3 regions of 16S rRNA genes is a discriminative tool for the study of vaginal Lactobacilli and can be used to track the Lactobacillus flora under a variety of physiological conditions.

  20. Optimise the microbial flora with milk and yoghurt to prevent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, James A

    2018-05-01

    Pathogenic bacteria, which are temporary or permanent members of our microbial flora, cause or contribute to a wide range of human disease at all ages. Conditions include Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer, autoimmunity and psychosis, amongst others. The mechanism of damage is inflammation which can be chronic or acute. An optimal microbial flora includes a wide range of pathogenic bacteria in low dose. This allows specific immunity to be developed and maintained with minimal inflammatory damage. Human milk has evolved to deliver an optimal microbial flora to the infant. Cow's milk has the potential, following appropriate fortification, to maintain an optimal human microbial flora throughout life. Yoghurt is a fermented milk product in which bacteria normally present in milk convert sugars to lactic acid. The acid suppresses the growth of pathogens in the oral cavity, oropharynx and oesophagus. Thus yoghurt can restore an optimal flora in these regions in the short term. Since bacteria are transported between epithelial surfaces, yoghurt will also optimise the flora elsewhere. The judicious use of milk and yogurt could prevent a high proportion of human disease. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Anticancer drugs from marine flora: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithranga Boopathy, N; Kathiresan, K

    2010-01-01

    Marine floras, such as bacteria, actinobacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds, mangroves, and other halophytes are extremely important oceanic resources, constituting over 90% of the oceanic biomass. They are taxonomically diverse, largely productive, biologically active, and chemically unique offering a great scope for discovery of new anticancer drugs. The marine floras are rich in medicinally potent chemicals predominantly belonging to polyphenols and sulphated polysaccharides. The chemicals have displayed an array of pharmacological properties especially antioxidant, immunostimulatory, and antitumour activities. The phytochemicals possibly activate macrophages, induce apoptosis, and prevent oxidative damage of DNA, thereby controlling carcinogenesis. In spite of vast resources enriched with chemicals, the marine floras are largely unexplored for anticancer lead compounds. Hence, this paper reviews the works so far conducted on this aspect with a view to provide a baseline information for promoting the marine flora-based anticancer research in the present context of increasing cancer incidence, deprived of the cheaper, safer, and potent medicines to challenge the dreadful human disease.

  2. Flora asociada a sitios minados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisel Herrero-Hechavarría

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available En Ocujal de Mayarí, provincia Holguín, se realizó una investigación con el objetivo de conocer en qué medida se recupera la biodiversidad y el endemismo por medio de la flora asociada a sitios minados, recultivados después de sustituir plantaciones de Casuarina equisetifolia. Para su ejecución se talaron en áreas minadas parcelas de Casuarina (especie pionera de 4, 6, 7 y 9 años de edad para poner en su lugar Pinus cubensis, la especie autóctona del sitio. Se realizó una medición detallada del sotobosque en las distintas parcelas replicadas de pino, en las cuales se identificaron las especies en los diferentes estratos, así como la cantidad de individuos por especie y familias, al igual que otros datos de interés: endemismo, distribución y forma vital.

  3. The Incidence of Co-occurrence of Chlamydial Cervicitis with Bacterial Vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusefi S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Bacterial vaginosis is caused by an imbalance in normal vaginal bacterial flora mainly caused by the introduction of pathogenic bacteria. Failure to properly treat this condition can not only induce abortion but also increase the chance of acquiring other serious infections such as AIDS, gonorrhea and chlamydiosis. Chlamydia trchomatis is one of the causative agents of cervicitis of which 70% is totally asymptomatic. Untreated cases can lead to salpengititis, pelvic inflammatory diseases, infertility, pelvic area pains and other complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the co-occurrence of these two conditions.Methods: A total of 137 patients were examined for both Chlamydial cervicitis and for bacterial vaginosis. Gram stain was used to detect bacterial vaginosis and anti-chlamydial antibodies were titered by microimmunofluoresence (MIF assay. Results: According to the MIF results, 10 patients(7.3% had elevated anti-chlamydial IgG and 3 patients (2.2% showed high IgM titers. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected in 6 patients(4.7% as the causative agent of vaginosis. There were 3 cases of co-occurrence of chlamydial cervicitis and bacterial vaginosis (30%. Conclusion: Due to the fact that bacterial vaginosis can provide the pre-disposing conditions for cervicitis and its chronicity and the similarity of the cilinical singns of these two conditions, Infections with Chlamydia are often overlooked. It therefore seems necessary to check any patient with bacterial vaginosis for chlamydial co-infection.

  4. Relations between transit time, fermentation products, and hydrogen consuming flora in healthy humans.

    OpenAIRE

    El Oufir, L; Flourié, B; Bruley des Varannes, S; Barry, J L; Cloarec, D; Bornet, F; Galmiche, J P

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate whether transit time could influence H2 consuming flora and certain indices of colonic bacterial fermentation. METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers (four methane excretors and four non-methane excretors) were studied for three, three week periods during which they received a controlled diet alone (control period), and then the same diet with cisapride or loperamide. At the end of each period, mean transit time (MTT) was estimated, an H2 lactulose breath test was p...

  5. [Contamination of human milk with aerobic flora: Evaluation of losses for a human milk bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, C; Courdent, P; Charlet, C; Dumoulin, D; Courcol, R; Pierrat, V

    2015-05-01

    In France, human milk banks pasteurize milk for the mother's own hospitalized baby (personalized milk) and for donation. There is specific legislation regulating the activity of human milk banks with bacterial screening of donor milk before and after pasteurization. Milk should be tested for Staphylococcus aureus and total aerobic flora. Any sample of milk positive for aerobic flora and/or S. aureus before and/or after pasteurization should be discarded. The real pathogenicity of the total aerobic flora is actually debated as well as the usefulness of systematic postpasteurization screening. The aim of this study was to quantify milk losses related to prepasteurization contamination by total aerobic flora in a regional milk bank, to identify losses due to contamination with S. aureus or aerobic flora, and to analyze differences between centers. This was a prospective observational study conducted in the regional human milk bank of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais area in France. Data were collected from six major centers providing 80% of the milk collected between June 2011 and June 2012. Variables were the volumes of personalized milk collected by each center, volumes of contaminated milk, and the type of bacteria identified. During the study period, the regional human milk bank treated 4715 L (liters) of personalized milk and 508 L (10.8%) were discarded due to bacteriological screening. Among these 508 L, 43% were discarded because of a prepasteurization contamination with aerobic flora, 55% because of a prepasteurization contamination with S. aureus, and 2% because of other pathogenic bacteria. Postpasteurization tests were positive in 25 samples (0.5%). Only five of these 25 samples were positive before pasteurization and in all cases with S. aureus. A total of 218 L were destroyed because of prepasteurization contamination with total aerobic flora, while the postpasteurization culture was sterile. There was a great difference between centers in the percentage of

  6. Oral flora of Python regius kept as pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, L; Russo, T P; Calabria, M; De Rosa, L; Capasso, M; Menna, L F; Borrelli, L; Fioretti, A

    2014-05-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the oral bacterial flora of 60 Python regius kept as pets by culture and biochemical methods. All isolates were also submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disc diffusion method. The oral cavity of snakes sampled harboured a wide range of Gram-negative bacteria mainly constituted by Pseudomonas spp., Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, but also by Salmonella spp. Staphylococcus spp. was the commonest Gram-positive isolates, and various anaerobic Clostridium species were also found. The most effective antimicrobial agents were enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, followed by doxycycline and gentamicin. The oral cavity of snakes sampled harboured a wide range of bacteria. Our results suggest that people who come in contact with snakes could be at risk of infection and should follow proper hygiene practices when handling these reptiles. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Tonsillar Surface Micro Flora: Does it Truly Represent Pathological Tonsillar Flora?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Syed Nadeem Ul; Ayub, Zeeshan; Ahmed, Azeema

    2017-01-01

    To determine the best method of identifying core tonsillar flora. Quasi-experimental study. ENT Department, Combined Military Hospital, Lahore, from September 2013 to October 2015. Eighty-seven patients of recurrent tonsillitis undergoing tonsillectomy were included. All the patients, after being anaesthetised, had surface swabs taken from the tonsillar surface followed by tonsillar aspiration with a 5cc syringe. Following tonsillectomy, the tonsils were sent for culture of core flora. All three specimens from each patient were cultured according to established criteria. The patient population had 33 (37%) female and 54 (62%) male patients. Flora of 12 (13.8%) surface swabs and 68 (78.2%) tonsillar aspirates matched the flora cultured from core of the tonsils. Chi-square test showed this difference to be significant (p-value flora as compared to surface swabs.

  8. Composition and characteristics of Libyan flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition, life forms and the distribution of plants in Libya were studied. The results show that in Libya there are 2103 species that belong to 856 genera and 155 families. The distribution among Libyan seed plants was characterized by a high proportion of herbs (annual to perennial, unlike the low number of woody (tree and shrub species; these have an important influence on the structure of floral composition. The geographic element of the flora was predominantly tropical and Mediterranean. The local plants belong to representative tropical desert flora. The presence and distribution characteristics of flora in Libya show that climate, environmental condition, ecological amplitude and adaptive capacity of the plants have a determinative influence on the floristic stock in the area studies.

  9. Changes of flora-information over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2014-01-01

    Changes in Flora-information over time can be divided into three different categories: (1) “Real changes” (species enter the region by natural dispersal or become extinct). (2) “Floristic changes” (species known from elsewhere are discovered). (3) “Taxonomic changes” (species are discovered...... to the Linnaean methods, but these methods were also applied to the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea before the end of the 18th century. An intensive activity involving floristic and taxonomic changes took place in Ethiopia and Eritrea in the 19th century, particularly before ca. 1850, after which a period....... Recent studies of the Orchidaceae family in Scandinavia has demonstrated considerable changes in our information about that family in Scandinavia during the last 50 years, both real, floristic and taxonomic changes. Similar, or even greater, changes are to be expected in the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea...

  10. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gerasimyuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis Keywords: cemeteries, Odessa, flora, plants, ekobiomorphs.

  11. Flora-On: Occurrence data of the vascular flora of mainland Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Júlia; Francisco, Ana; Porto, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The Flora-On dataset currently includes 253,310 occurrence records for the class Embryopsidae (vascular plants), comprising data collated via the platform http://flora-on.pt/ relating to observation records of vascular plants across mainland Portugal. Observations are uploaded directly to the database primarily by experienced botanists and naturalists, typically on a weekly basis, and consist of geo-referenced data points for species (or infraspecific taxa) along with their date of observation and phenological state. The Flora-On project aims to compile and make publicly accessible chorological, ecological, morphological and photographic information for the entire vascular flora of Portugal. The project's website offers powerful query and visualization capabilities, of which we highlight the probabilistic bioclimatic and phenological queries which operate based on the empirical density distributions of species in those variables. Flora-On was created and continues to be maintained by volunteers who are Associate members of Sociedade Portuguesa de Botânica (Botanical Society of Portugal). Given its focus on research-grade and current data, the Flora-On project represents a significant contribution to the knowledge of the present distribution and status of the Portuguese flora.

  12. A Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Different Caries Excavation Techniques in reducing the Cariogenic Flora: An in vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Afrah Fatima; Yadav, Gunjan; Tripathi, Abhay Mani; Mehrotra, Mridul; Saha, Sonali; Garg, Nishita

    2016-01-01

    Caries excavation is a noninvasive technique of caries removal with maximum preservation of healthy tooth structure. To compare the efficacy of three different caries excavation techniques in reducing the count of cariogenic flora. Sixty healthy primary molars were selected from 26 healthy children with occlusal carious lesions without pulpal involvement and divided into three groups in which caries excavation was done with the help of (1) carbide bur; (2) polymer bur using slow-speed handpiece; and (3) ultrasonic tip with ultrasonic machine. Samples were collected before and after caries excavation for microbiological analysis with the help of sterile sharp spoon excavator. Samples were inoculated on blood agar plate and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. After bacterial cultivation, the bacterial count of Streptococcus mutans was obtained. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13 statistical software version. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance, Wilcoxon matched pairs test, and Z test were performed to reveal the statistical significance. The decrease in bacterial count of S. mutans before and after caries excavation was significant (p flora, while ultrasonic tip showed almost comparable results, while polymer bur showed least reduction in cariogenic flora after caries excavation. Hassan AF, Yadav G, Tripathi AM, Mehrotra M, Saha S, Garg N. A Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Different Caries Excavation Techniques in reducing the Cariogenic Flora: An in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):214-217.

  13. Vaginal flora changes on Pap smears after insertion of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Berger, Judith; Heuninckx, Hélène; Bellen, Gert; Cornelis, Ann

    2011-04-01

    The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) combines a uterine foreign body and the continuous release of low-dose levonorgestrel for contraception. Its influence on the rate of vulvovaginal infections and flora disturbance is insufficiently known, but important for contraceptive advice in women, especially those who develop recurrent vaginosis or Candida vulvovaginitis. Slides of 286 women who had a Pap smear taken before and 1 to 2 years after placement of a LNG-IUS were blindly reviewed for the presence of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV) and Candida vaginitis (CV). Prior to insertion, there were no differences in vaginal flora abnormalities between women using different kinds of contraception. LNG-IUS users did not have different rates of AVF, BV, AV or CV, but the general risk to develop any infection was increased. Uterine bleeding after insertion did not seem to predict a different flora type. We found that Pap smears suggested more vaginal infections after 1 year of LNG-IUS use than prior to insertion of the device. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Contributo alla conoscenza della flora lichenica epifitica dell'Umbria

    OpenAIRE

    Ravera, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    CONTRIBUTION TO THE EPIPHYTIC LICHEN FLORA OF UMBRIA (C. ITALY). 47 species of epiphytic lichens are reported as additions to the poorly known lichen flora of Umbria. The ecology and distribution of selected species are discussed.

  15. Mariene flora en fauna te boek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, B.W.; Gittenberger, A.

    2006-01-01

    Het aantal boeken over de Nederlandse flora en fauna neemt gestaag toe. En ook de afgelopen jaren zijn er weer aardig wat nieuwe titels uitgekomen over het Nederlandse zeeleven. Op deze pagina's vier van die boeken. Eerder, in de Onderwatersport van april 2005, is ook al een aantal titels

  16. LACTIC FLORA-LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Colombo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The EC Regulation 2073/2005 (1 requires that food processors evaluate the capability of ready-to-use (RTE products to support the development of Listeria monocytogenes when their pH and aW values are favourable to the growth of this microorganism. It is renown that the lactic flora plays an important role in many different foods, both from a technological and a food safety standpoint. This study was aimed to observe the behaviour and the potential anti-Listeria effect of some natural lactic flora present in Italian liver patè crostini (chicken heart and liver, anchovies, onions, capers, starch, no added preservatives through the Combase Predictor – Max Growth Rate predictive software. The natural lactic flora of the crostini demonstrated a variable capability to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes which depends upon : the concentration of the lactic flora at the beginning of the shelf life period and the subsequent lag phase, the possible release of anti-Listeria substances, and the maximum growth rate.

  17. De flora van het Urbaan district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denters, Ton

    1999-01-01

    The urban areas in the Netherlands can be considered as a separate flora district; the so-called “Urban district”. It consists of large stony areas, with a “steppe”-like environment and a deviant climate. Characteristic for urban areas are often disturbed and trampled communities of ruderals and

  18. Globalization of flora: inviting worldwide ecosystem disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Carey

    2002-01-01

    Meeting the needs of expanding human populations has changed land use worldwide and presented a biodiversity crisis. Emerging related concerns are threats to native species from homogenization of world flora and the spread of exotic species by human activities (Soule 1990, United States Congress, Office of Technology Assessment 1993, Wilcove and others 1998, Soule and...

  19. Microbial Flora of Partially Processed Periwinkles (Tympantotonus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of microbial flora of partially processed periwinkles (Tympanotonus fuscatus) sold in six markets in Port Harcourt was undertaken for twelve weeks. Results show that all samples of periwinkles were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp., Escherichia coil, Staphepidermidis sp., Micrococcus sp., ...

  20. Naturalized alien flora of the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyšek, Petr; Pergl, Jan; Essl, Franz; Lenzner, Bernd; Dawson, Wayne; Kreft, Holger; Weigelt, Patrick; Winter, Marten; Kartesz, John; Nishino, Misako; Antonova, Liubov A.; Barcelona, Julie F.; Cabezas, Francisco J.; Cárdenas, Dairon; Cárdenas-Toro, Juliana; Castaño, Nicolás; Chacón, Eduardo; Chatelain, Cyrille; Dullinger, Stefan; Ebel, Aleksandr L.; Figueiredo, Estrela; Fuentes, Nicol; Genovesi, Piero; Groom, Quentin J.; Henderson, Lesley; Inderjit,; Kupriyanov, Andrey; Masciadri, Silvana; Maurel, Noëlie; Meerman, Jan; Morozova, Olga; Moser, Dietmar; Nickrent, Daniel L.; Nowak, Pauline M.; Pagad, Shyama; Patzelt, Annette; Pelser, Pieter B.; Seebens, Hanno; Shu, Wen Sheng; Thomas, Jacob; Velayos, Mauricio; Weber, Ewald; Wieringa, Jan J.; Baptiste, María P.; Kleunen, Van Mark

    2017-01-01

    Using the recently built Global Naturalized Alien Flora (GloNAF) database, containing data on the distribution of naturalized alien plants in 483 mainland and 361 island regions of the world, we describe patterns in diversity and geographic distribution of naturalized and invasive plant species,

  1. A new way of editing a flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van der W.J.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Akoègninou, A.; Yédomonhan, H.

    2010-01-01

    Modern electronic tools have become common tools of most scientists. Flora writers and other botanists producing large manuscripts with a certain fixed structure may go even further and use the so-called Mail Merge option in a word processor such as Microsoft Word™. This tool allows structuring a

  2. Anticancer Drugs from Marine Flora: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sithranga Boopathy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine floras, such as bacteria, actinobacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds, mangroves, and other halophytes are extremely important oceanic resources, constituting over 90% of the oceanic biomass. They are taxonomically diverse, largely productive, biologically active, and chemically unique offering a great scope for discovery of new anticancer drugs. The marine floras are rich in medicinally potent chemicals predominantly belonging to polyphenols and sulphated polysaccharides. The chemicals have displayed an array of pharmacological properties especially antioxidant, immunostimulatory, and antitumour activities. The phytochemicals possibly activate macrophages, induce apoptosis, and prevent oxidative damage of DNA, thereby controlling carcinogenesis. In spite of vast resources enriched with chemicals, the marine floras are largely unexplored for anticancer lead compounds. Hence, this paper reviews the works so far conducted on this aspect with a view to provide a baseline information for promoting the marine flora-based anticancer research in the present context of increasing cancer incidence, deprived of the cheaper, safer, and potent medicines to challenge the dreadful human disease.

  3. User's manual for the FLORA equilibrium and stability code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freis, R.P.; Cohen, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This document provides a user's guide to the content and use of the two-dimensional axisymmetric equilibrium and stability code FLORA. FLORA addresses the low-frequency MHD stability of long-thin axisymmetric tandem mirror systems with finite pressure and finite-larmor-radius effects. FLORA solves an initial-value problem for interchange, rotational, and ballooning stability

  4. Ocular fungal flora from healthy horses in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, A R; Nikaein, D; Sharifzadeh, A; Gharagozlou, F

    2014-03-01

    This study was carried out in order to isolate and identify the normal conjunctival fungal flora from Caspian miniature, Thoroughbred, Turkmen and Persian Arab breeds in Tehran, Iran. A total of seventy-two adult healthy horses were studied. Ocular samples were collected from right and left eyes by using sterile cotton swabs; samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated at 30°C for 7-10 days. Molds and yeasts were identified using macro and micro-morphological and physiological characteristics. Number of fungal colonies per eye varied between 0 and 123 colony forming units (CFUs). The most predominant fungal isolates were Aspergillus (19.9%), Rhizopus (15.9%) and Penicillium (15.1%). No significant differences were observed between types of eye fungal floras in different breeds. Caspian miniature horses had significantly the highest number of fungal isolates in compare with other breeds (P<0.001), however no significant difference was observed among other breeds under study. The fungal isolates were almost the same as with studies performed in other countries, although differences in species isolated could be related to geographic and climate difference. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis

  6. Evaluation value of intestinal flora detection for intestinal mucosal inflammation and immune response in patients with ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the evaluation value of intestinal flora detection for intestinal mucosal inflammatory response and immune response in patients with ulcerative colitis. Methods: The patients who were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis in Zigong Fifth People’s Hospital between March 2015 and February 2017 were selected as the UC group, and those who were diagnosed with colonic polyps were selected as the control group. Fresh excreta were collected to detect the number of intestinal flora, and the diseased intestinal mucosa tissue was collected to detect the expression of inflammatory response molecules and immune cell transcription factors. Results: enterococcus contents in intestinal tract and TLR4, NF-kB, TNF-α, HMGB-1, T-bet and RORC mRNA expression levels in intestinal mucosa of UC group were significantly higher than those of control group while bifidobacteria contents in intestinal tract and SOCS2, SOCS3, Foxp3 and GATA-3 mRNA expression levels were significantly lower than those of control group; TLR4, NF-kB, TNF-α, HMGB-1, T-bet and RORC mRNA expression levels in intestinal mucosa of UC patients with grade II and grade III flora disturbance were significantly higher than those of UC patients with normal flora and grade I flora disturbance while SOCS2, SOCS3, Foxp3 and GATA-3 mRNA expression levels were significantly lower than those of UC patients with normal flora and grade I flora disturbance; TLR4, NF-kB, TNF-α, HMGB-1, T-bet and RORC mRNA expression levels in intestinal mucosa of UC patients with grade III flora disturbance were significantly higher than those of UC patients with grade II flora disturbance while SOCS2, SOCS3, Foxp3 and GATA-3 mRNA expression levels were significantly lower than those of UC patients with grade II flora disturbance. Conclusion: The intestinal flora disturbance in patients with ulcerative colitis can result in inflammatory response activation and immune response disorder.

  7. The Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Money

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is an extremely common health problem for women. In addition to the troublesome symptoms often associated with a disruption in the balance of vaginal flora, BV is associated with adverse gynecological and pregnancy outcomes. Although not technically a sexually transmitted infection, BV is a sexually associated condition. Diagnostic tests include real-time clinical/microbiological diagnosis, and the current gold standard, the standardized evaluation of morphotypes on Gram stain analysis. The inappropriate use of vaginal culture can be misleading. Future developments into molecular-based diagnostics will be important to further understand this complex endogenous flora disruption.

  8. Bacterial vaginosis - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a type of vaginal infection. The vagina normally contains both healthy bacteria and unhealthy bacteria. BV occurs when more unhealthy bacteria grow than healthy bacteria. No one knows ...

  9. Principal component analysis of normalized full spectrum mass spectrometry data in multiMS-toolbox: An effective tool to identify important factors for classification of different metabolic patterns and bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejnar, Pavel; Kuckova, Stepanka; Prochazka, Ales; Karamonova, Ludmila; Svobodova, Barbora

    2018-06-15

    Explorative statistical analysis of mass spectrometry data is still a time-consuming step. We analyzed critical factors for application of principal component analysis (PCA) in mass spectrometry and focused on two whole spectrum based normalization techniques and their application in the analysis of registered peak data and, in comparison, in full spectrum data analysis. We used this technique to identify different metabolic patterns in the bacterial culture of Cronobacter sakazakii, an important foodborne pathogen. Two software utilities, the ms-alone, a python-based utility for mass spectrometry data preprocessing and peak extraction, and the multiMS-toolbox, an R software tool for advanced peak registration and detailed explorative statistical analysis, were implemented. The bacterial culture of Cronobacter sakazakii was cultivated on Enterobacter sakazakii Isolation Agar, Blood Agar Base and Tryptone Soya Agar for 24 h and 48 h and applied by the smear method on an Autoflex speed MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. For three tested cultivation media only two different metabolic patterns of Cronobacter sakazakii were identified using PCA applied on data normalized by two different normalization techniques. Results from matched peak data and subsequent detailed full spectrum analysis identified only two different metabolic patterns - a cultivation on Enterobacter sakazakii Isolation Agar showed significant differences to the cultivation on the other two tested media. The metabolic patterns for all tested cultivation media also proved the dependence on cultivation time. Both whole spectrum based normalization techniques together with the full spectrum PCA allow identification of important discriminative factors in experiments with several variable condition factors avoiding any problems with improper identification of peaks or emphasis on bellow threshold peak data. The amounts of processed data remain still manageable. Both implemented software utilities are available

  10. The influence of maternal vaginal flora on the intestinal colonization in newborns and 3-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Iwona; Olejek, Anita; Stencel-Gabriel, Krystyna; Wielgoś, Miroslaw

    2018-06-01

    The role of maternal vaginal bacteria on the colonization of neonatal gut is still a matter of discussion. Our aim was to estimate the role of maternal vaginal flora on the development of intestinal flora in neonates and 3-month-old infants. Seventy-nine maternal-neonatal pairs were included in the study. Vaginal swabs were taken before the rupture of membranes after admission to the delivery ward. First neonatal stool (meconium) and stool at 3-month-old infants were collected and cultured. All samples were subjected to microbiological analysis for Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium (including C. difficile), Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Candida. Maternal vagina was colonized mainly by streptococci (67%) followed by lactobacilli (58%) and Candida spp. (39%). Vaginal streptococci influenced the intestinal colonization in infants with staphylococci, C. difficile, and candida. Vaginal lactobacilli influenced colonization with C. difficile, and Candida. Vaginal flora is a potent factor influencing the development of bacterial flora in the neonatal and infantile gut. The extension of the observation period until 3 months of life allow to discover the potential changes in the intestinal flora of children.

  11. Patterns of Gram-stained fecal flora as a quick diagnostic marker in patients with severe SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kentaro; Ogura, Hiroshi; Tomono, Kazunori; Tasaki, Osamu; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Morotomi, Masami; Matsushima, Asako; Nakahori, Yasutaka; Yamano, Shuhei; Osuka, Akinori; Kuwagata, Yasuyuki; Sugimoto, Hisashi

    2011-06-01

    The gut is an important target organ of injury during critically ill conditions. Although Gram staining is a common and quick method for identifying bacteria, its clinical application has not been fully evaluated in critically ill conditions. This study's aims were to identify patterns of Gram-stained fecal flora and compare them to cultured bacterial counts and to investigate the association between the patterns and septic complications in patients with severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Fifty-two patients with SIRS were included whose Gram-stained fecal flora was classified into three patterns. In a diverse pattern, large numbers of multiple kinds of bacteria completely covered the field. In a single pattern, one specific kind of bacteria or fungi predominantly covered the field. In a depleted pattern, most bacteria were diminished in the field. In the analysis of fecal flora, the numbers of total obligate anaerobes in the depleted pattern was significantly lower than those in the diverse pattern and single pattern (p Gram-stained fecal flora can be classified into three patterns and are associated with both cultured bacterial counts and clinical information. Gram-stained fecal bacteria can be used as a quick bedside diagnostic marker for severe SIRS patients.

  12. HortFlora Research Spectrum (HRS)

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. V.K. Umrao, VKU

    2017-01-01

    The HortFlora Research Spectrum (HRS), is an international-peer reviewed, open access journal that serves as a forum for the exchange and dissemination of R & D advances and innovations in all facets of Horticultural Science (Pomology, Olericulture, Floriculture, Post Harvest Technology, Plant Biotechnology, and Medicinal & Aromatic Plants etc.) and its allied branches on an international level. HRS is officially published quarterly (March, June, September and December) every year, in Engl...

  13. Abstracts: HortFlora Res. Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Umrao, Dr. V.K.

    2014-01-01

    Overview The HortFlora Research Spectrum (HRS), is an international-peer reviewed, open access journal that serves as a forum for the exchange and dissemination of R & D advances and innovations in all facets of Horticultural Science (Pomology, Olericulture, Floriculture, Post Harvest Technology, Plant Biotechnology, and Medicinal & Aromatic Plants etc.) and its allied branches on an international level. HRS is officially published quarterly (March, June, September and December) every y...

  14. Distribution of lichen flora on South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Harada, Hiroshi; Oh, Soon-Ok; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Kang, Eui-Sung; Lee, Seung Mi; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2004-06-01

    After an overview on the temporary situation of the lichenology in South Korea, localities of 95 macrolichen taxa are reported for South Korea. In this revised lichen flora of South Korea, 16 species are apparently new to the territory. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and duplicates have also been donated to the National History Museum and Institute, in Chiba, (CBM) Japan.

  15. Aportaciones a la flora de Galicia, VIII

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Vigide, F.; García Martínez, X.R.; Silva Pando, F.J.; González Domínguez, J.; Blanco Dios, J.B.; Rodríguez González, A.; Rial Pousa, S.; Álvarez Graña, D.; Caamaño Portela, J.L.; Pino Pérez, J.J.; Pino Pérez, R.

    2006-01-01

    Se citan 37 plantas de variado interés para la flora gallega. Se incluyen 8 novedades de carácter regional (Pteris incompleta Cav., Potentilla recta L., Myriophyllum spicatum L., Solanum sisymbrifolium Lam., Knautia integrifolia (L.) Bertol., Senecio inaequidens DC. Melica arrecta G. Kunze y Stipa clausa Trab.), 17 novedades provinciales (Vandenboschia speciosa (Willd.) G. Kunkel, Ranunculus bupleuroides Brot., Silene niceensis All., Armeria transmontana (Samp.) Lawr., Alcea rosea...

  16. Hamiguitan Range: A sanctuary for native flora

    OpenAIRE

    Amoroso, Victor B.; Aspiras, Reyno A.

    2010-01-01

    Hamiguitan Range is one of the wildlife sanctuaries in the Philippines having unique biodiversity resources that are at risk due to forest degradation and conversion of forested land to agriculture, shifting cultivation, and over-collection. Thus, it is the main concern of this research to identify and assess the endemic and endangered flora of Hamiguitan Range. Field reconnaissance and transect walk showed five vegetation types namely: agro-ecosystem, dipterocarp, montane, typical mossy and ...

  17. RNA-sequence data normalization through in silico prediction of reference genes: the bacterial response to DNA damage as case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghoff, Bork A; Karlsson, Torgny; Källman, Thomas; Wagner, E Gerhart H; Grabherr, Manfred G

    2017-01-01

    Measuring how gene expression changes in the course of an experiment assesses how an organism responds on a molecular level. Sequencing of RNA molecules, and their subsequent quantification, aims to assess global gene expression changes on the RNA level (transcriptome). While advances in high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technologies allow for inexpensive data generation, accurate post-processing and normalization across samples is required to eliminate any systematic noise introduced by the biochemical and/or technical processes. Existing methods thus either normalize on selected known reference genes that are invariant in expression across the experiment, assume that the majority of genes are invariant, or that the effects of up- and down-regulated genes cancel each other out during the normalization. Here, we present a novel method, moose 2 , which predicts invariant genes in silico through a dynamic programming (DP) scheme and applies a quadratic normalization based on this subset. The method allows for specifying a set of known or experimentally validated invariant genes, which guides the DP. We experimentally verified the predictions of this method in the bacterium Escherichia coli , and show how moose 2 is able to (i) estimate the expression value distances between RNA-seq samples, (ii) reduce the variation of expression values across all samples, and (iii) to subsequently reveal new functional groups of genes during the late stages of DNA damage. We further applied the method to three eukaryotic data sets, on which its performance compares favourably to other methods. The software is implemented in C++ and is publicly available from http://grabherr.github.io/moose2/. The proposed RNA-seq normalization method, moose 2 , is a valuable alternative to existing methods, with two major advantages: (i) in silico prediction of invariant genes provides a list of potential reference genes for downstream analyses, and (ii) non-linear artefacts in RNA-seq data

  18. The flora of Oktibbeha County, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidolf, A.; McDaniel, S.; Nuttle, T.

    2002-01-01

    We surveyed the flora of Oktibbeha County, Mississippi, U.S.A., from February 1994 to 1996. Occupying 118 square kilometers in east-central Mississippi, Oktibbeha County lies among 3 physiographic regions that include, from west to east, Interior Flatwoods, Pontotoc Ridge, and Black Prairie. Accordingly, the county harbors a diverse flora. Based on field work, as well as an extensive review of published literature and herbarium records at IBE and MISSA, we recorded a total of 1,148 taxa (1,125 species, 7 hybrids, 16 infraspecific taxa) belonging to 514 genera in 160 families, over 85% of all taxa documented were native. Compared to 3 other counties in east-central Mississippi, Oktibbeha County has the second largest recorded flora. The number of state-listed (endangered, threatened, or of special concern) taxa (67) documented in this survey far exceeds that reported from any other county in the region. Three introduced species, Ilex cornuta Lindl. & Paxton, Mahonia bealei (Fortune) Carrie??re, and Nandina domestica Thunb., are reported in a naturalized state for the first time from Mississippi. We also describe 16 different plant communities belonging to 5 broad habitat categories: bottomland forests, upland forests and prairies, aquatic habitats, seepage areas, and human-influenced habitats. A detailed description of the vegetation associated with each of these communities is provided.

  19. Rescreening for abnormal vaginal flora in pregnancy and re-treating with clindamycin vaginal cream significantly increases cure and improvement rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamont, R F; Taylor-Robinson, D; Bassett, P

    2012-01-01

    We investigated 199 pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) who received clindamycin vaginal cream (CVC) for three days and compared with 205 women treated with placebo. The vaginal flora was assessed at each visit. At the second visit, 71% in the CVC group were cured/improved, compared...

  20. Radiotherapeutic effect on oropharyngeal flora in patients with head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Shara, K.A.; Ghareeb, M.A.; Zaher, S.; Mobacher, A.; Khalifa, M.Ch.; Saleh, S.Z.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of radiotherapy on oropharyngeal bacterial flora was studied in the hope that this might help in controlling post-operative infections in previously irradiated patients. Eighty patients were included from whom swabs were taken before and at the end of irradiation. Swabs were also taken two weeks after treatment in the last 40 patients. Thirty healthy controls were included. It was found that coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus, β-haemolytic streptococci, Candida albicans, B. proteus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were significantly increased at the end of irradiation, while Klebsiella was increased significantly in the period after irradiation. Culture and sensitivity was performed for the organisms isolated in the last 40 patients. (author)

  1. NEW AND RARE PLANTS FOR THE FLORA OF CENTRAL SIBERIА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kurbatsky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Three species (Ceratophyllum submersum L., Astragalus glycyphyllos L., Centaurea apiculata Ledeb. are reported for the first time for the flora of Central Siberia and two species (Amoria hybrida (L. C. Presl, Thyselium palustre (L. Rafin. for the flora of Khakassia. New localities of four rare species (Hackelia thymifolia (DC. Johnston, Chaenorhinum minus (L. Willk. et Lange, Orobanche uralensis G. Beck, Valeriana alternifolia Ledeb. of the flora of the Republic of Khakassia are also given.

  2. Some relative notes to the diversity of the Colombian flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Piedrahita, Santiago

    2002-01-01

    Although it is impossible to calculate an exact figure, it is calculated in 35.000 the number of species of plants that conform the Colombian flora; apart from applying the concept of species it is necessary to mention the absence of an official politics that favors the investigation. The author makes a journey of the Colombian flora from geologic times until our days, including the climatological changes and the different flora types according to our thermal soils

  3. The Effect of Chronic Alcoholism on the Conjunctival Flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Göksel; Gunduz, Abuzer; Polat, Nihat; Cumurcu, Birgul Elbozan; Yakupogulları, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of alcohol abuse on the conjunctival flora. The cases were evaluated as two groups. The study group consisted of 55 heavy-drinking males diagnosed with alcohol abuse, while the control group consisted of 55 males without a history of alcohol abuse. Samples were taken from the inferior fornix conjunctiva with sterile cotton-tipped swabs (Amies transport medium) for culture. The samples were inoculated into blood agar, chocolate agar, eosine methylene blue agar and Saboraud-Dextrose agar (Oxoid/UK) with the dilution method. The microorganisms that grew in study group subjects were Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CNS) in 30 (54.5%), Staphylococcus aureus in 14 (25.5%), Moraxella spp. in 3 (5.5%), Streptococcus spp. in 3 (5.5), Bacillus spp. in 3 (5.5%), Corynebacterium spp. in 3 (5.5%), Candida spp. in 3 (5.5%), Haemophilus spp. in 2 (3.6%), Acinetobacter spp. in 2 (3.6%), Neisseria spp. in 1 (1.8%) and Micrococcus spp. in 1 (1.8%). The results for control group were CNS in 31 (56.4%), Bacillus spp. in 7 (12.7%), S. aureus in 5 (9.1%), and Corynebacterium spp. in 2 (3.6%). Moraxella spp., Streptococcus spp., Candida spp., Haemophilus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Neisseria spp. and Micrococcus spp. microorganisms grew in the conjunctival flora samples of the study group but not in the control group. S. aureus colonization was significantly higher in the study group than the control group (p chronic alcoholism is different than the normal population.

  4. Anaerobic oral flora in the North American black bear (Ursus americanus) in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Elsburgh O; Stoskopf, Michael K; Minter, Larry J; Stringer, Elizabeth M

    2012-06-01

    Microbial flora can provide insight into the ecology and natural history of wildlife in addition to improving understanding of health risks. This study examines the anaerobic oral flora of hunter killed black bears (Ursus americanus) in eastern North Carolina. Oral swabs from the buccal and lingual supragingival tooth surfaces of the first and second mandibular and maxillary molars of 22 black bears were inoculated onto Brucella Blood Agar plates supplemented with hemin and vitamin K after transport from the field using reduced oxoid nutrient broth. Sixteen anaerobic bacterial species, representing nine genera were identified using the RapID ANA II Micromethod Kit system and a number of organisms grown that could not be identified with the system. The most frequently identified anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus prevotii, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The diversity in the anaerobic oral flora of black bear in eastern North Carolina suggests the importance of including these organisms in basic health risk assessment protocols and suggests a potential tool for assessment of bear/habitat interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Flora of vascular plants of selected Poznań cemeteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Czarna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of 395 species of vascular flora at four rarely used cemeteries within the Poznań city was confirmed in 2010. Apart from naturally occurring species, cultivated species were noted equally. Among species appearing spontaneously between the graves, species new for the flora of Poland: Chionodoxa forbesii, Ch. luciliae, Puschkinia scilloides, new for the flora of Wielkopolska: Bidens ferulifolius, Hyacinthoides hispanica and new for the flora of Poznań: Erigeron ramosus, Lilium bulbiferum, Pimpinella nigra, Poa subcaerulea, Veronica hederifolia s.s., were recorded. Names of taxa originating from cultivation are underlined.

  6. Geographical factors of the abundance of flora in Russian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselkin, D. V.; Tretyakova, A. S.; Senator, S. A.; Saksonov, S. V.; Mukhin, V. A.; Rozenberg, G. S.

    2017-09-01

    An analysis of data on the species abundance of flora in 89 cities (urban flora) of the Russian Federation facilitated determination of its main factors. It has been revealed that the factors determining the abundance of native and alien components of urban flora vary. The city area and population number are the main factors of the total number of species and of the abundance of native species in urban flora. The diversity and participation of alien species increase in parallel with. the urbanization rate, anthropogenic transformation of the regions, and the age of cities and are in adverse correlation with the climate severity.

  7. HELICOBACTER PYLORI EN LA FLORA BACTERIANA ORAL

    OpenAIRE

    Moromi Nakata, Hilda

    2014-01-01

    No hay duda de la relación existente entre enfermedades orales con otras enfermedades sistémicas. En tal contexto, las bacterias de la flora bacteriana oral, que alcanzan alrededor de 350 especies, para la mayoría de tales bacterias no se ha demostrado un rol específico, conociéndose sí una clara relación entre los Estreptococos orales (Streptococcus sanguis, Strecoccus mutans, Streptococcus sobri nus) y Actinobacillus actinomycetencomitans, entre otros, con la endocarditis bacteriana; así co...

  8. Flora y fauna crónica

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Chávez-Silverman

    2004-01-01

    Flora & Fauna Crónica” is from the book, Killer Crónicas, which will be published by the University of Wisconsin Press in 2004. This collection of chronicles began in 2000, after Susana was awarded a fellowship by the US National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) for a project on contemporary Argentine women's poetry. She spent thirteen months in Buenos Aires where, in addition to research and writing on her official (academic) book, she began to send bilingual, punning “letters from the so...

  9. Collectors of botanical specimens from the flora area mentioned in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    Information based on all available sources about full name, nationality, profession, area and period of collection, with whom they are known to have made joint collections, herbaria in which the collections have been deposited etc., for all collectors mentioned in vol. 1-7 of the Flora of Ethiopi...

  10. Oropharyngeal flora in patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit: clinical factors and acid suppressive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandah, Wesam; Colmer-Hamood, Jane; Mojazi Amiri, Hoda; Raj, Rishi; Nugent, Kenneth

    2013-05-01

    Acid suppression therapy in critically ill patients significantly reduces the incidence of stress ulceration and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding; however, recent studies suggest that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) increase the risk of pneumonia. We wanted to test the hypothesis that acid suppressive therapy promotes alteration in the bacterial flora in the GI tract and leads to colonization of the upper airway tract with pathogenic species, potentially forming the biological basis for the observed increased incidence of pneumonia in these patients. This was a prospective observational study on patients (adults 18 years or older) admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) at a tertiary care centre. Exclusion criteria included all patients with a diagnosis of pneumonia at admission, with infection in the upper airway, or with a history of significant dysphagia. Oropharyngeal cultures were obtained on day 1 and days 3 or 4 of admission. We collected data on demographics, clinical information, and severity of the underlying disease using APACHE II scores. There were 110 patients enrolled in the study. The mean age was 49±16 years, 50 were women, and the mean APACHE II score was 9.8 ± 6.5. Twenty per cent of the patients had used a PPI in the month preceding admission. The first oropharyngeal specimen was available in 110 cases; a second specimen at 72-96 h was available in 68 cases. Seventy-five per cent of the patients admitted to the MICU had abnormal flora. In multivariate logistic regression, diabetes mellitus and PPI use were associated with abnormal oral flora on admission. Chronic renal failure and a higher body mass index reduced the frequency of abnormal oral flora on admission. Most critically ill patients admitted to our MICU have abnormal oral flora. Patients with diabetes and a history of recent PPI use are more likely to have abnormal oral flora on admission.

  11. FLORA LICHEN WESTERN MOUNTAINS VRANJE PLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Bogdanović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lichen is a symbiotic plant built by the cells of algae and fungi hyphae. Algae are usually presented - green (Chlorophyta or blue green (Cyanophyta, a mushroom commonly found is ascomycetae and sometimes basidiomycetae. Mushrooms receive oxygen and carbohydrates from algae, and they in turn provide water, CO2 and mineral salts. Lichens are often found on trees and rocks in unpolluted environments and can be used as a bioindicator species. In during 2015-2016. was realized a survey of epiphytic lichen flora of the western mountains in environment of Vranje. Sampling was carried out at 4 locations: Borino brdo, Krstilovica, Markovo Kale and Pljačkovica. Based on the collected and determined samples can be concluded that the study implemented of the area of 25 species of lichens of which: 8 as crust, leafy 12 and 5 shrub. The research results indicate that the lichen flora of the western mountains environments Vranje of a rich and diverse as a result of favorable geographic position, geological and soil composition, climate and plant cover that provide opportunities for the development and survival of lichens.

  12. Flora bacteriana aeróbica del tracto digestivo del vampiro común, Desmodus rotundus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloriana Chaverri

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la flora bacteriana del vampiro común (Desmodus rotundus primordialmente debido a que los datos al respecto están desactualizados, y además por la gran importancia económica de esta especie de murciélago. Veintiún murciélagos fueron recolectados y su flora bacteriana identificada separadamente a nivel de estómago e intestino. Las bacterias fueron identificadas con el Analytical Profile Index (API, y los resultados analizados con el paquete APILAB. Un total de treinta especies fueron aisladas en 16 hembras y cinco machos. Las especies más comunes fueron Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus, aunque otras especies, como Acinetobacter johnsonii, Enterobacter sakazakii, Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. hyicus y S. xylosus también se aislaron con frecuencia. El número de especies identificadas en el estómago y el intestino fue significativamente diferente, siendo el intestino más diverso. Esto ha sido encontrado anteriormente en otros mamíferos, y se atribuye probablemente a la reducción en acidez. Asimismo, la mayoría de las especies identificadas en este estudio forman parte de la flora bacteriana normal del tracto digestivo de mamíferos, aunque también se encontraron otras bacterias comunes en la piel de mamíferos y en ambientes acuáticos Las bacterias de la piel podrían estar colonizando el estómago y/o intestino del vampiro cuando éste tiene contacto con sus presas, lo que sugiere que el hábito alimentario de esta especie facilita su colonización por microorganismos que no se encontrarían comúnmente en su tracto digestivo. Ya que también se identificaron bacterias comunes en ambientes acuáticos, es probable que D. rotundus consuma agua cuando esté disponible, lo que respalda los resultados de otros investigadores, y sugiere que esta podría ser una fuente adicional de invasión microbiana.Aerobic bacterial flora from the digestive tract of the common vampire bat

  13. Changes in the lichen flora following air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skye, E; Hallberg, I

    1969-01-01

    The lichen flora on tree trunks around a shale oil works in southern Sweden has been analyzed with regard to composition and distribution on two different occasions, in 1951/1953 and in 1967/1969. Changes in the distribution have been observed and are regarded as being due to the increase of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere which took place in the area up to 1966, and which resulted in the substrate becoming more and more acid. The changes consist partly of the continued disappearance from the investigated area of lichens which normally grow on moderately acid to nearly neutral substrate and partly in the new colonization of the investigated area by a group of species which normally grow on acid bark. After 1966 the biggest source of pollution was removed from the area and in the summer of 1967 some signs of recovery could be already observed with regard to certain species. This recovery took the form of strong lobe growth leading to a definite difference in appearance between the central and the peripheral parts of single lichens.

  14. Enhancing flora balance in the gastrointestinal tract of mice by lactic acid bacteria from Chinese sourdough and enzyme activities indicative of metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate by the flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Yu, Xiaomin; Wu, Yaoping; Chen, Xingxing; Wei, Hua; Shah, Nagendra P; Xu, Feng

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of administration of 5 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Chinese sourdough on the flora balance of gastrointestinal tract of mice. We specifically measured Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Bacteroides, and Lactobacillus by plate count and real-time PCR methods, and α-glucosidase, lactate dehydrogenase, esterase, and aminopeptidase activities as indicative of metabolism of sugar, fat, and protein from LAB isolated from feces of mice in vitro. The results showed that administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC0201 and Lactobacillus fermentum LFE0302 lowered the uricacid index of serum. Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC0201, L. fermentum LFE0302, as well as Lactobacillus curvatus LCU0401 administration resulted in a reduction in the opportunistic pathogens (i.e., Enterococcus and Enterobacter), meanwhile, administration of L. fermentum LFE0302 and Lactobacillus sp. ULA0104 resulted in an increase in the counts of Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus fermentum LFE0302 administration increased starch digestion of intestinal flora after 4wk of feeding and also resulted in increased α-glucosidase activity in the intestinal flora after 3wk of feeding. We found a similar trend in esterase activity after administration of L. acidophilus LAC0201 for 3wk. Hence, our study suggested that LAB from Chinese sourdough might be used as potential probiotics to strengthen the flora balance in gastrointestinal tract and positively change the metabolism of nutrients through bacterial enzyme activities. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. “Collinsella vaginalis” sp. nov., a new bacterial species cultivated from human female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoudia Diop

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief description of “Collinsella vaginalis” strain P2666 (=CSUR P2666, a new bacterium that was cultivated from the vaginal sample of a 26-year-old woman affected from bacterial vaginosis. Keywords: “Collinsella vaginalis”, Culturomics, Vaginal flora, Bacterial vaginosis, Human microbiota

  16. Bacterial spoilage of meat and cured meat products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borch, E.; Kant-Muermans, M.L.T.; Blixt, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors (product composition and storage conditions) on the selection, growth rate and metabolic activity of the bacterial flora is presented for meat (pork and beef) and cooked, cured meat products. The predominant bacteria associated with spoilage of refrigerated

  17. Conjunctival flora of healthy and diseased eyes of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus): implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, M; Bexton, S

    2016-07-23

    Ocular pathology is relatively common in stranded seals admitted to wildlife rehabilitation hospitals. Some have pre-existing problems, while others develop eye problems in captivity, and in particular ulcerative keratitis, due to factors such as large prominent eyes, suboptimal water quality, trauma and infighting. Despite treatment, corneal ulcerations can rapidly progress to 'melting' ulcers with subsequent rupture of the globe. In this case series, 32 grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) had conjunctival swabs taken on admission to a UK wildlife hospital to identify ocular bacterial flora and nine had subsequent swabs taken after four weeks to see if this changed in captivity. Additionally, nine seals with ocular pathology were also swabbed. Although a wide range of bacteria were cultured on admission, the most common isolates were Gemella haemolysans, Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens All 'melting' ulcers were associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which suggests this bacterial species may be significant in the pathogenesis of progressive stromal ulceration in grey seals. British Veterinary Association.

  18. Fungal flora and deoxynivalenol (DON) level in wheat from Jeddah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to explore the fungal flora along with the DON concentration in the collected wheat samples from Jeddah market to correlate between this flora and the detected DON. Whole grain wheat samples were collected from Jeddah market and this represents imported and locally produced wheat. The results ...

  19. The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. http://www.hewlett.org/. Think Tank Initiative. This initiative is creating high-quality independent research and policy institutions throughout the developing world. View more. Think Tank Initiative. Growth and Economic Opportunities for ...

  20. Flora of St Katherine Protectorate: key to families and genera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An illustrated key to families and genera of the flora of the St Katherine Protectorate is provided to facilitate the identification of the unique flora of the area, based on five years of collecting mainly in the mountains and wadis surrounding the town of St Katherine. The key includes 43 families and 141 genera, the families ...

  1. Regional floras, a significant modern trend in plant taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1959-01-01

    Besides through monographic work plant taxonomy has a second way of framing synthetic attempts and that is by compiling Florulas and Floras, containing a complete account of the flora of parts of the globe, of cities, islets, islands, states, countries, or continents. Irrespective of their style,

  2. Regional Floras: the target groups, usage and feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, F.S.P.

    1989-01-01

    The target groups for regional floras may be generalized for the purpose of this discussion, into four main groups. Firstly, in the Flora Malesiana region – a major producer of tropical hardwoods and other commercial forest products – one large target is the forest industry, consisting of foresters,

  3. New records of Petunia (Solanaceae) for the Argentinean flora

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, Toshio; Soto, Silvina; Suárez, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    Petunia interior and P. guarapuavensis are reported for the first time for the Argentinean flora, and their geographical distributions are updated. Petunia interior y P. guarapuavensis son citadas por pimera vez para la Flora Argentina, con una actualización de su distribución geográfica.

  4. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Karen L.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency. Empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy should be initiated as soon as a single set of blood cultures has been obtained. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, vomiting, photophobia, and an

  5. The scientific study of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea up to the beginning of the Ethiopian Flora Project (1980)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    An account of the history of the scientific exploration of the flora in Ethiopia and Eritrea, mainly based on experience from the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, but with conclusions from the newest literature also taken into account....

  6. The herb flora of Taiwan or How to master a Flora without types and with only a few books

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1967-01-01

    My visit to and trips in Taiwan, in 1966, brought me into close contact with the wonderfully rich and varied flora of this large island which is fairly easily accessible if one speaks Chinese or is accompanied by Chinese companions, as was my privilege. As is well known the woody flora of Taiwan is

  7. Comparison of direct-plating and broth-enrichment culture methods for detection of potential bacterial pathogens in respiratory secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ravinder; Wischmeyer, Jareth; Morris, Matthew; Pichichero, Michael E

    2017-11-01

    We compared the recovery of potential respiratory bacterial pathogens and normal flora from nasopharyngeal specimens collected from children during health and at the onset of acute otitis media (AOM) by selective direct-plating and overnight broth-enrichment. Overall, 3442 nasal wash (NW) samples collected from young children were analysed from a 10-year prospective study. NWs were cultured by (1) direct-plating to TSAII/5 % sheep blood agar and chocolate agar plates and (2) overnight broth-enrichment in BacT/ALERT SA-broth followed by plating. Standard microbiology techniques were applied to identify three dominant respiratory bacterial pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Haemophilus influenzae (Hflu) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) as well as two common nasal flora, Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and alpha-haemolytic Streptococci (AHS).Results/Key findings. Direct-plating of NW resulted in isolation of Spn from 37.8 %, Hflu from 13.6 % and Mcat from 33.2 % of samples. In comparison, overnight broth-enrichment isolated fewer Spn (30.1 %), Hflu (6.2 %) and Mcat (16.2 %) (Penrichment resulted in significant increased isolation of SA (6.0 %) and AHS (30.1 %) (Penrichment when samples were collected from healthy children but not during AOM. In middle ear fluids (MEF) at the onset of AOM, broth-enrichment resulted in higher recovery of Spn (+10.4 %, Penrichment significantly reduces the accurate detection of bacterial respiratory pathogens and increases identification of SA and AHS in NW. Broth-enrichment improves detection of bacterial respiratory pathogens in MEF samples.

  8. Fifty years of mapping the Balkan flora for Atlas Florae Europaeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uotila Pertti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Atlas Florae Europaeae (AFE, a programme for mapping the distribution of vascular plants in Europe, was launched in 1965 as a collaborative effort between European botanists. A historical review of the mapping for AFE in the Balkan countries, cited in the last volume (16 from 2013 as Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic (F. Y. R. of Macedonia, Greece, Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, and Turkey (European part, is presented and achievements and problems discussed. The special challenges facing mapping of the Balkan area during the past 50 years include the extremely rich flora, diverse and mountainous relief, political and economic difficulties, inaccessibility of available data, and scarcity of botanists contributing and collecting data for mapping.

  9. THE FLORA OF HEKIMDAG (BOZDAG, ESKISEHIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ARDIÇ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the flora of Eskişehir Hekimdağ (Bozdağ were investigated. According to Davis's grid system, the research area lies in B3 square. The plant samples collected in this region and determined that there are 59 families, as well as 467 species and subspecies taxa belonging to 219 genera. The phytogeographical distribution is as follows: 49 Mediterranean, 31 Euro-Siberian, 19 Irano-Turanian, 6 Euxin and 362 unknown or other-regional elements. The largest families are Asteraceae (50, Fabaceae (38, Lamiaceae (24, Poaceae (21 and Liliaceae (18 in terms of the number of species and subspecies included. Genera represented by the highest number of species are Centaurea (7, Alyssum (6, Silene, Astragalus, Trifolium, Lathyrus ve Campanula (5 . The number of endemic taxa within the study area is 41 (10.86%. 13 taxa are new records for the B3 square.

  10. Alien species in the Finnish weed flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. HYVÖNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at assessing the invasion of alien weed species in Finland based on a review of their occurrence in the Finnish weed flora. The evaluation was conducted for the three phases of the invasion process, i.e. introduction, naturalization and invasion. The literature review revealed that 815 alien weed species occur in Finland of which 314 are regarded as naturalized. Based on their occurrence in different climate zones, the risk of naturalization of new harmful alien weed species was deemed low for those species not currently found in Finland, but higher for species occurring as casual aliens in Finland. In the latter group, 10 species of concern were detected. Exploration of the distribution patterns of naturalized species within Finland revealed species occupancy to be dependent on the residence time of the species. Established neophytes can be expected to extend their ranges and to increase occupation of agricultural habitats in the future.;

  11. Flora da Paraíba, Brasil: Loganiaceae Flora of Paraíba, Brazil: Loganiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiriaki Nurit

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresenta-se o tratamento taxonômico da família Loganiaceae, como parte do projeto "Flora da Paraíba", que vem sendo realizado com o objetivo de identificar e catalogar as espécies da flora local. Realizouse coletas e observações de campo para as identificações, descrições e ilustrações botânicas que foram efetuadas após estudos morfológicos, com o auxílio da bibliografia especializada, complementados pela análise de fotos de tipos, espécimes dos herbários EAN, JPB e IPA, e comparação com material identificado por especialistas. Registrou-se para a Paraíba quatro espécies: Spigelia anthelmia L., com ampla distribuição, e três espécies de Strychnos, somente coletadas em remanescentes de Mata Atlântica, S. atlantica Krukoff & Barneby, S. parvifolia A. DC. e S. trinervis (Vell. Mart.This work constitutes a taxonomic treatment of the Loganiaceae family as part of the project "Flora da Paraíba", which have been carried out with the objective to identify and catalogue the species of the local flora. The botanical identifications and illustrations were made by morphological studies supported by bibliography, analysis of the types, specimens from herbaria EAN, JPB and IPA, and comparison with samples previously identified by specialists, complemented by field observations. Four species of Loganiaceae belonging two genera were found in State of Paraíba: Spigelia anthelmia L. that has wide distribution and three species of Strychnos, found on remains of Atlantic forest, which are S. atlantica Krukoff & Barneby, S. parvifolia A. DC. and S. trinervis (Vell. Mart.

  12. Consequences of forest energy for flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruuse, A.

    1992-01-01

    The report examines the effects of forest energy on the field layer vegetation, and includes whole-tree harvesting, liming, fertilization, wood ash distribution and the importance of broadleaved trees. Whole-tree harvesting is negative for some of the vascular plant species, and positive for others, and can have a drastically negative effect on lichens, mosses and decomposing fungi. Whole-tree harvesting can be accepted from the viewpoint of the flora if: - between 10 and 30 % of the slash is left on the clearcut area, - hardwood stands or mixed stands with hardwood are excepted from whole-tree harvesting, - dead lying or standing trees, a few broadleaved trees and old trees, are left on the clearcut area. Liming has some effects on the flora, especially a very negative effect on lichens and mosses. Liming can be accepted if; - it only takes place where whole-tree harvesting has been used or where acidification caused by air pollution has been observed, - the amounts are moderate, 2 to 4 tonnes/ha, and the liming material has a rather large grain size, - it is unevenly distributed, and - it is avoided in naturally acid stands with a special vegetation. Fertilization has negative effects on all the considered vegetation groups. It can only be accepted as compensation for whole-tree harvesting, and no more nitrogen must be added than is taken away in the harvest. In southern Sweden even the compensatory fertilization should be avoided. The consequences of wood ash distribution are little known. Until more facts are presented, only enough wood ash as to compensate for the loss through whole-tree harvesting should be distributed. If the use of forest energy would lead to an increase of the broadleaved tree ratio it would be positive. (54 refs.)

  13. The Effect of Topical Ocular Anesthetic Proparacaine on Conjunctival and Nasal Mucosal Flora in Dry Eye Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onerci Celebi, Ozlem; Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk

    2018-04-09

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of topically applied ocular anesthetic proparacaine on conjunctival and nasal bacterial mucosal flora in patients with dry eye disease. A Schirmer test was done with (group 1) and without (group 2) topical anesthetic proparacaine to 40 patients in each group. Conjunctival and nasal cultures were obtained before and 10 min after performing the Schirmer test. The bacterial culture results and the isolated bacteria were recorded in two groups. Patients' mean age was 62 years (70 female, 10 male). Before the application of topical anesthetic, 50 (62.5%) and 62 (77.5%) had positive conjunctival and nasal culture, respectively, with the most commonly isolated organism being coagulase-negative Staphylococcus in each group. In group 1 the conjunctival bacterial culture positivity rate decreased from 26 (65%) to six (15%) eyes ( p 0.05). For the nasal cultures, the bacterial culture positivity rate decreased from 80% to 20% and from 75% to 65% in groups 1 ( p 0.05), respectively. Topical ocular anesthetic proparacaine has antibacterial activity in both conjunctival and nasal flora in patients with dry eye disease.

  14. Alterations in oral microbial flora induced by waterpipe tobacco smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhatreh MAK

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Muhamad Ali K Shakhatreh,1 Omar F Khabour,1 Karem H Alzoubi,2 Majed M Masadeh,3 Emad I Hussein,4 George N Bshara1 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Irbid, Jordan; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 4Department of Biological Sciences, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan Background: Waterpipe smoking is a global health problem and a serious public concern. Little is known about the effects of waterpipe smoking on oral health. In the current study, we examined the alterations of oral microbial flora by waterpipe smoking. Methods: One hundred adult healthy subjects (59 waterpipe smokers and 41 non-smokers were recruited into the study. Swabs were taken from the oral cavity and subgingival regions. Standard culturing techniques were used to identify types, frequency, and mean number of microorganisms in cultures obtained from the subjects. Results: It was notable that waterpipe smokers were significantly associated with a history of oral infections. In subgingiva, Acinetobacter and Moraxella species were present only in waterpipe smokers. In addition, the frequency of Candida albicans was higher in the subgingiva of waterpipe smokers (p = 0.023 while the frequency of Fusobacterium nucleatum was significantly lower in the subgingiva of waterpipe smokers (p = 0.036. However, no change was observed in other tested bacteria, such as Campylobacter species; Viridans group streptococci, Enterobacteriaceae, and Staphylococcus aureus. In oral cavity and when colony-forming units were considered, the only bacterial species that showed significant difference were the black-pigmented bacteria (p < 0.001. Conclusion: This study provides evidence indicating that some of the oral microflora is significantly altered by

  15. Characterization of the vaginal fungal flora in pregnant diabetic women by 18S rRNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, N-N; Guo, X-C; Lv, W; Chen, X-X; Feng, G-F

    2013-08-01

    Pregnancy and diabetes are regarded as individual risk factors for vaginal candidiasis. The high prevalence of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant diabetic women can be explained by disruption of the balance of the vaginal normal flora. However, little is known about the overall structure and composition of the vaginal fungal flora in pregnant diabetic women. In the present study, the diversity and richness of the vaginal fungal flora in healthy non-pregnant women (group HN), healthy pregnant women (group HP), women with gestational diabetes mellitus (group GDM), and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus type I (group T1DM) were investigated using an 18S rRNA gene clone library method. Our data demonstrated that the composition of the vaginal fungal flora in the four groups could be divided into two phyla (Ascomycetes, 20/26, and Basidiomycetes, 6/26). The most predominant vaginal fungal species belonged to the Candida and Saccharomyces genera, uncultured fungi, and a large number of low-abundance taxa that were unrecorded or underrepresented in previous studies using cultivation-dependent methods. Variation in operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between the study cohorts was generally high in the clone libraries, as 9, 13, 17, and 20 phylotypes were identified in groups HN, HP, GDM, and T1DM, respectively. The Shannon indices of groups GDM and T1DM (with poorer glycemic control) were significantly higher compared to groups HN and HP (p flora in pregnant diabetic women and demonstrated that poor glycemic control might be associated with disturbances in the vaginal fungal flora.

  16. The Uruguayan Per mic mega flora. A synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornaglia, L.; Ruiz, F.; Introcaso, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Permian mega floras of Uruguay. A synthesis. An analysis of the impression and fossil wood floras from the Permian of Uruguay is given through a series of Tables. These show : (1) the list of taxa, (2) anatomical characters of the woods, (3) data on the micro floral associations, (4) paleoenvironmental information and (5) comparisons with contemporaneous Gondwana floras. The evolutionary degree of the woods is briefly analyzed where they correspond to the so-called transition xilotaphofloras as they present typical Paleozoic anatomical characters but with secondary xylem of more advanced characteristics. (author)

  17. Microbial flora of odontogenic abscesses in pet guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarikova, A; Hauptman, K; Knotek, Z; Jekl, V

    2016-10-01

    Abscesses of odontogenic origin in guinea pigs pose a serious health problem and need to be treated with a combination of surgical and medical therapy. The aim of this prospective study was to describe the microbial flora of odontogenic abscesses associated with osteomyelitis in 24 pet guinea pigs, to perform antibiotic sensitivity testing, and to make recommendations for practitioners on the antibiotics of first choice. Inclusion criteria for the study included the animal being diagnosed with an odontogenic abscess which underwent surgery and was not pre-treated with an antibiotic. Inclusion criteria matched for 24 guinea pigs. Samples (pus, capsule and affected tooth/bone) for bacteriological examination were collected under sterile conditions during the surgical procedure. The most commonly isolated bacteria from abscesses of odontogenic origin were Bacteroides fragilis in 12.8 per cent (6/47) of cases, Pasteurella multocida in 10.6 per cent (5/47) and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius in 8.5 per cent (4/47). Aerobic bacterial species only were isolated in 29.2 per cent (7/24) of cases, anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 33.3 per cent (8/24), and mixed infection with anaerobic and aerobic bacterial species was seen in 37.5 per cent (9/24). Aerobes (n=20) were sensitive to enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin in 100 per cent of samples, benzylpenicillin potassium (penicillin G, PNCG) in 90 per cent, cephalotin in 85 per cent, amoxicillin-clavulanate in 75 per cent, doxycycline in 70 per cent, gentamicin in 65 per cent and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 55 per cent. Anaerobes (n=27) were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate in 100 per cent of cases, clindamycin in 96.3 per cent, metronidazole in 92.6 per cent, PNCG in 92.6 per cent and cephalotin in 74.1 per cent. As guinea pigs are strictly herbivorous animals, based on the results of this study the recommended antibiotic treatment for odontogenic abscesses is a combination of fluoroquinolones and metronidazole

  18. Charles River altered Schaedler flora (CRASF) remained stable for four years in a mouse colony housed in individually ventilated cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, Matthias; Greweling, Marina C; Tischer, Sabine; Singh, Mahavir; Blöcker, Helmut; Monner, David A; Müller, Werner

    2009-10-01

    As recommendations for specific pathogen-free housing change, mouse facilities need to re-derive their colonies repeatedly in order to eliminate specified bacteria or viruses. This paper describes the establishment of a new mouse facility using as starting point a small colony of CD-1 mice colonized with the Charles River altered Schaedler flora (CRASF) housed in individually ventilated cages (IVCs). The import of new strains was performed exclusively via embryo transfer using CD-1 mice as recipients. The integrity of the CRASF in caecum samples of the original CD-1 colony and of three inbred mouse lines imported into the colony was proven by a quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction approach. Furthermore, we searched for bacterial contaminants in the gut flora using non-specific 16S rRNA primers. The bacterial sequences found were closely related to but not exclusively sequences of altered Schaedler flora (ASF) members, suggesting that the ASF is heterogeneous rather than restricted to the eight defined bacteria. Moreover, no pathogens were found, neither using the non-specific 16S rRNA primers nor in routine quarterly health monitoring. As one effect of this defined gut flora, interleukin-10 knockout mice are devoid of colitis in our facility. In conclusion, our approach building up a mouse facility using foster mothers and embryo transfer as well as a strict barrier system and IVCs is suitable to maintain a colony free from contaminating bacteria over the long term. CRASF remained stable for seven mouse generations and was efficiently transferred to the imported mouse strains.

  19. Microbial background flora in small-scale cheese production facilities does not inhibit growth and surface attachment of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, B C T; Heir, E; Møretrø, T; Skaar, I; Langsrud, S

    2013-10-01

    The background microbiota of 5 Norwegian small-scale cheese production sites was examined and the effect of the isolated strains on the growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes was investigated. Samples were taken from the air, food contact surfaces (storage surfaces, cheese molds, and brine) and noncontact surfaces (floor, drains, and doors) and all isolates were identified by sequencing and morphology (mold). A total of 1,314 isolates were identified and found to belong to 55 bacterial genera, 1 species of yeast, and 6 species of mold. Lactococcus spp. (all of which were Lactococcus lactis), Staphylococcus spp., Microbacterium spp., and Psychrobacter sp. were isolated from all 5 sites and Rhodococcus spp. and Chryseobacterium spp. from 4 sites. Thirty-two genera were only found in 1 out of 5 facilities each. Great variations were observed in the microbial background flora both between the 5 producers, and also within the various production sites. The greatest diversity of bacteria was found in drains and on rubber seals of doors. The flora on cheese storage shelves and in salt brines was less varied. A total of 62 bacterial isolates and 1 yeast isolate were tested for antilisterial activity in an overlay assay and a spot-on-lawn assay, but none showed significant inhibitory effects. Listeria monocytogenes was also co-cultured on ceramic tiles with bacteria dominating in the cheese production plants: Lactococcus lactis, Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus equorum, Rhodococcus spp., or Psychrobacter spp. None of the tested isolates altered the survival of L. monocytogenes on ceramic tiles. The conclusion of the study was that no common background flora exists in cheese production environments. None of the tested isolates inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes. Hence, this study does not support the hypothesis that the natural background flora in cheese production environments inhibits the growth or survival of L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2013 American

  20. [Etiology of bacterial vaginosis (non-specific vaginitis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, J C; Jean, M; Averous, S; Viraben, R; Blanc, C; Bauriaud, R; Lareng, M B

    1985-01-01

    56 women who were diagnosed bioclinically as having a bacterial vaginal infection were studied, as were 35 women as a control group. The study was a semi-quantitative analysis of the vaginal bacterial flora, both aerobic and anaerobic. It shows that Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria such as Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Bacteroïdes, Veillonella and Mobiluncus were associated in a statistically significant way with bacterial vaginitis. On the other hand Lactobacilli were less frequently found (p less than 0.001) than in the control group of women. The way in which the microbial flora is changed has been observed during attacks of vaginitis and is discussed, as is the importance of making the diagnosis and of treating this syndrome.

  1. Pathogenic Gut Flora in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Evasio; Aquilani, Roberto; Testa, Cristian; Baiardi, Paola; Angioletti, Stefania; Boschi, Federica; Verri, Manuela; Dioguardi, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to measure the presence of pathogenic gut flora and intestinal permeability (IP) and their correlations with disease severity, venous blood congestion, and inflammation in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Evidence suggests that translocation of gut flora and/or their toxins from the intestine to the bloodstream is a possible trigger of systemic CHF inflammation. However, the relation between pathogenic gut flora and CHF severity, as well as IP, venous blood congestion as right atrial pressure (RAP), and/or systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]), is still unknown. This study analyzed 60 well-nourished patients in stable condition with mild CHF (New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class I to II; n = 30) and moderate to severe CHF (NYHA functional class III to IV; n = 30) and matched healthy control subjects (n = 20). In all subjects, the presence and development in the feces of bacteria and fungi (Candida species) were measured; IP according to cellobiose sugar test results was documented. The study data were then correlated with RAP (echocardiography) and systemic inflammation. Compared with normal control subjects, the entire CHF population had massive quantities of pathogenic bacteria and Candida such as Campylobacter (85.3 ± 3.7 CFU/ml vs. 1.0 ± 0.3 CFU/ml; p < 0.001), Shigella (38.9 ± 12.3 CFU/ml vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 CFU/ml; p < 0.001), Salmonella (31.3 ± 9.1 CFU/ml vs 0 CFU/ml; p < 0.001), Yersinia enterocolitica (22.9 ± 6.3 CFU/ml vs. 0 CFU/ml; p < 0.0001), and Candida species (21.3 ± 1.6 CFU/ml vs. 0.8 ± 0.4 CFU/ml; p < 0.001); altered IP (10.2 ± 1.2 mg vs. 1.5 ± 0.8 mg; p < 0.001); and increased RAP (12.6 ± 0.6 mm Hg) and inflammation (12.5 ± 0.6 mg/dl). These variables were more pronounced in patients with moderate to severe NYHA functional classes than in patients with the mild NYHA functional class. Notably, IP, RAP, and CRP were mutually interrelated (IP vs. RAP, r = 0.55; p < 0.0001; IP vs

  2. [Influence of probiotics on the establishment of a competitive flora, as well as on antibiotic use and performance parameters in pig breeding farms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dünner, B; Birrer, S; Nathues, C; Hässig, M; Stephan, R; Sidler, X

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Probiotics in Progress (PIP) on the establishment of a competitive flora as well as on antibiotic use and losses of suckling piglets in pig breeding farms. The tested products were PIP AHC® and PIP AHS® produced by "Chrisal AG" in Lommel, Belgium. PIP`s are cleaning products containing Bacillus spores. According to the manufacturer's specifications, they are able to establish a steady non-pathogenic stable flora. In a field trial in 19 pig breeding farms, the use of PIP-products did not lead to any reduction of antibiotic use or improvement of fertility parameters, especially in relation to losses of suckling piglets. In addition, we compared the bacterial flora using PIP products with the flora under conventional management conditions in a farrowing pen by means of swab samples. The use of PIP-products did not lead to any significant effect on the pen flora. Only very few swab samples contained a majority of probiotic Bacillus spp.

  3. Lichen flora and ecology of the roadside trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydzak, J

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of the lichen flora of roadside trees were carried out at 69 sites in eastern Poland in 1966-1969. Conclusive relationships between lichen distributions and air pollution from automobile exhaust gases could not be inferred from the data.

  4. Met flora meer fauna de stad in trekken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffman, M.H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Meer flora en fauna in de stedelijke omgeving begint met de aanplant van gevarieerd groen. Plant Publicity Holland geeft in een overzicht aan welke bomen, heesters en vaste planten daarvoor geschikt zijn.

  5. Analysis of biological spectrum of Divčibare flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential analyses which is performed during the floristic study of a region is the analysis of the biological spectrum. The analysis of the biological spectrum of the flora includes the determination of the type of life form for each taxon described in the flora of the study region. If it is considered that life form is a specific structural-functional response to the environmental effects and the result of the adaptation during the species evolution, it is clear that the basic characteristics of the site are more or less reflected in any life form. This fact is confirmed by the analysis of the biological spectrum of Divčibare flora. The study results are in correlation with the results of the analysis of the biological spectrum of the flora of Serbia and the Balkan Peninsula.

  6. Marine algal flora of submerged Angria Bank (Arabian Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Reddy, C.R.K.; Ambiye, V.

    Submerged Angria Bank was surveyed for the deep water marine algal flora. About 57 species were reported from this bank for the first time. Rhodophyta dominated (30 species) followed by Chlorophyta (18 species) and Phaeophyta (9 species). A few...

  7. study of oral and gingival microbial flora in institutionalized mentally

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    from the mouth and gingiva of 138 institutionalized mentally retarded patients of Sari to culture in specific media to ... Key words: Oral and gingival microbial flora, Mental retardation, D%, Sari ... staphylococcus aureus and, in case of negative.

  8. Nutrients, phytochemicals, fungal flora and aflatoxin in fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ob

    In this study, the effect of salting on the pH, phytochemicals, fungal flora and nutrient composition of. Vernonia .... Vitamin C, β-carotene, carbohydrates, protein and moisture: ..... on rats fed a high cholesterol diet. ... male New Zealand rabbits.

  9. Hamiguitan Range: A sanctuary for native flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Victor B; Aspiras, Reyno A

    2011-01-01

    Hamiguitan Range is one of the wildlife sanctuaries in the Philippines having unique biodiversity resources that are at risk due to forest degradation and conversion of forested land to agriculture, shifting cultivation, and over-collection. Thus, it is the main concern of this research to identify and assess the endemic and endangered flora of Hamiguitan Range. Field reconnaissance and transect walk showed five vegetation types namely: agro-ecosystem, dipterocarp, montane, typical mossy and mossy-pygmy forests. Inventory of plant species revealed 163 endemic species, 35 threatened species, and 33 rare species. Assessment of plants also showed seven species as new record in Mindanao and one species as new record in the Philippines. Noteworthy is the discovery of Nepenthes micramphora, a new species of pitcher plant found in the high altitudes of Hamiguitan Range. This species is also considered site endemic, rare, and threatened. The result of the study also showed that the five vegetation types of Mt. Hamiguitan harbor a number of endangered, endemic, and rare species of plants. Thus, the result of this study would serve as basis for the formulation of policies for the protection and conservation of these species and their habitats before these plants become extinct.

  10. Flora of the Holy Bible part I - fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, G V R

    2002-01-01

    Holy Bible described several plants and the authentication of certain Biblical flora is still in debate. In this present paper, attempts are being made to workout the correct botanical identity of certain plants based on the description mentioned in the Bible. Bible is a genuinely documented book everything mentioned in the Bible has a great significance. Present study is undertaken with a view to evaluate the biblical flora in correlation with the present day knowledge especially with the Ayurvedic system of medicine.

  11. Orchidaceous Additions to the Flora of China and Vietnam (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ormerod

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuing literature and herbarium studies of Chinese and Vietnamese orchids have revealed a variety of new and noteworthy floristic information. One species is newly recorded for the flora of China, one for Yunnan Province, China and one is newly recorded for the flora of Vietnam. One new synonym is proposed in the genus Oberonia. Five new species are proposed, viz. Epigeneium forrestii, Liparis brunnea, L. rockii, L. superposita and L. yuana.

  12. Bacterial spoilage profiles to identify irradiated fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alur, M.D.; Venugopal, V.; Nerkar, D.P.; Nair, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    Effects of low dose gamma-irradiation of fish product on spoilage potentials of bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus megaterium, and Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa) and mixed flora were examined for ability to proliferate in radurized fish and produce volatile acids (TVA) and bases (TVBN). Bacteria proliferated well in unirradiated and irradiated fish, but formation of VA and VB were lower in irradiated than unirradiated counterparts. This was found in Bombay duck, Indian mackerel, white pomfret, seer and shrimp gamma-irradiated at 0 to 5 kGy under ice. TVA and TVBN produced by the organisms or mixed flora from fish were only 30-50% those of controls. A method for identifying radiation-processed fish could evolve based on lower susceptibility of irradiated fish to bacterial spoilage

  13. [Genital bacterial carriage during the last trimester of pregnancy and early-onset neonatal sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaka, B; Agbèrè, A; Dagnra, A; Baeta, S; Kessie, K; Assimadi, K

    2005-05-01

    Bacterial infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. To determine the bacterial ecology and pathological status of the genital organs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the germs of the following early-onset neonatal sepsis, in order to evaluate the risk of materno-foetal infections and to find out a drug prophylaxis. Vaginal and endocervical samples, usually taken during the first trimester of pregnancy were delayed and taken during the last trimester of pregnancy. A macroscopic examination described the aspect of the vagina, the cervix uteri, leukorrhea and of possible inflammatory lesions or ulcerations. A microscopic examination searched for parasites, epithelial cells, clue cells and leukocytes. The appropriate bacteriological cultures were performed after reading the Gram stain and scoring the vaginal flora. The clinical and cytobacteriological aspects were used to identify the bacterial ecology and the pathological genital states. An exploration was carried out in every newborn suspected of infection. Genital samples were collected from 306 pregnant women. Among them, 118 were at 29-32 weeks of gestation, 104 at 33-36, and 84 at 37-40. The most frequent germs were C. albicans (33,5%), Enterbacteriaceae (20.3%) including E. coli (10.9%), S. aureus (15.4%), Gardnerella (13.6%), and Trichomonas (10.6%), in monomicrobian (79.2%) and polymicrobian carriage (20.8%). Lower genital tract pathological states such as vaginitis (29.4%), bacterial vaginosis (21.5%) or endocervicitis (10.4%), asymptomatic bacterial carriage (23.5%) and normal genital flora (15%) were identified. These pregnancies led to 334 live births with 27 cases of early-onset neonatal sepsis to which endocervicitis (25%) and vaginosis (19,7%) were most often linked. Genital samples at the last trimester of pregnancy could evaluate the risk of maternofoetal infections and allow to adapt a drug prophylaxis of Enterobacteriaceae, the most frequent germ of

  14. Observaciones sobre la flora del “Norte Chico” de Chile./ Notes on the flora of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Ulriksen Becker [1952

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde un profundo conocimiento adquirido en sus estudios teóricos y prácticos, Guillermo Ulriksen da una mirada a la flora y fauna encontrada en sus exhaustivos recorridos por el Norte Chico de Chile, y a sus experiencias con ellas en circunstancias de su trabajo −conjunto con Oscar Prager− para efectos del proyecto del llamado “Plan Serena” desde 1947, y de su tesis de título de Arquitecto en 1952-53. En esta última, intenta aportar bases para la planeación regional del Norte Chico, a partir de las carencias que él estima existieron en el mandato del “Plan Serena”. Corresponde el presente escrito a un anexo con observaciones complementarias en la citada tesis./ Guillermo Ulriksen presents a deep study of the flora and fauna of the Norte Chico, as a part of his study for the Plan Serena and for his Graduation Proyect. He also tries to propose the basis for the development plan for the Norte Chico.

  15. Microbial Flora Isolated from Polluted and Non-Polluted Coastal Waters of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, A.; Baig, H. S.; Kazmi, S. U.

    2016-01-01

    Marine pollution has now become worldwide environmental concern. Continuous discharge of untreated industrial effluent, municipal and power plant contaminated wastewater has been a serious threat to marine habitat, aesthetic values and interest of visitors to coastal areas. Karachi is the largest city of Pakistan and industrial hub of the Arabian Sea. In this investigation, samples of sediment, water, flora and fauna were taken from nine selected stations on Karachi coast included three stations represented major creeks i.e. Korangi, Gizri and Chinna Creek. These samples were taken during north-east and south-west monsoonal period in 2014. Bacterial flora isolated and identified from samples collected from these sites by conventional method. Among isolated and identified bacteria e.g. Vibrio alginolyticus, Escherichia coli and Streptococuss anginosus were the most dominant species contributing 21.43, 19.64 and 15.18 percent of total assemblage respectively. Among selected sample stations, Korangi creek station was found to be most polluted with coliform and other pathogenic bacteria. These results clearly indicate that threats from these pathogens are not only to marine life but also to the large number of visitors coming to beaches and residents of surrounding area. Moreover; immediate action should be taken to restrict the growth of these pathogens by taking measures to treat the municipal and industrial effluent to avoid outbreak of any disease in future. (author)

  16. Discovery of a diverse cave flora in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fang

    2018-01-01

    Few studies document plants in caves. Our field observations of a widespread and seemingly angiosperm-rich cave flora in SW China lead us to test the following hypotheses, 1) SW China caves contain a diverse vascular plant flora, 2) that this is a relic of a largely absent forest type lacking endemic species, and 3) that the light environment plants occupy in caves is not distinct from non-cave habitats. To do so we surveyed 61 caves and used species accumulation curves (SAC) to estimate the total diversity of this flora and used a subsample of 14 caves to characterise the light environment. We used regional floras and existing conservation assessments to evaluate the conservation value of this flora. We used observations on human disturbance within caves to evaluate anthropogenic activities. Four-hundred-and-eighteen vascular plant species were documented with SACs predicting a total diversity of 529–846. Ninety-three percent of the species documented are known karst forest species, 7% are endemic to caves and 81% of the species are angiosperms. We demonstrate that the light environment in caves is distinct to that of terrestrial habitats and that a subset of the flora likely grow in the lowest light levels documented for vascularised plants. Our results suggest that the proportion of species threatened with extinction is like that for the terrestrial habitat and that almost half of the entrance caverns sampled showed signs of human disturbance. We believe that this is the first time that such an extensive sample of cave flora has been undertaken and that such a diverse vascular plant flora has been observed in caves which we predict occurs elsewhere in SE Asia. We argue that the cave flora is an extension of the karst forest understory present prior to catastrophic deforestation in the 20thC. We suggest that within SW China caves serve as both refuges and a valuable source of germplasm for the restoration of karst forest. We also propose that caves represent a

  17. Discovery of a diverse cave flora in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Alexandre K; Bystriakova, Nadia; Fu, Longfei; Wen, Fang; Wei, Yigang

    2018-01-01

    Few studies document plants in caves. Our field observations of a widespread and seemingly angiosperm-rich cave flora in SW China lead us to test the following hypotheses, 1) SW China caves contain a diverse vascular plant flora, 2) that this is a relic of a largely absent forest type lacking endemic species, and 3) that the light environment plants occupy in caves is not distinct from non-cave habitats. To do so we surveyed 61 caves and used species accumulation curves (SAC) to estimate the total diversity of this flora and used a subsample of 14 caves to characterise the light environment. We used regional floras and existing conservation assessments to evaluate the conservation value of this flora. We used observations on human disturbance within caves to evaluate anthropogenic activities. Four-hundred-and-eighteen vascular plant species were documented with SACs predicting a total diversity of 529-846. Ninety-three percent of the species documented are known karst forest species, 7% are endemic to caves and 81% of the species are angiosperms. We demonstrate that the light environment in caves is distinct to that of terrestrial habitats and that a subset of the flora likely grow in the lowest light levels documented for vascularised plants. Our results suggest that the proportion of species threatened with extinction is like that for the terrestrial habitat and that almost half of the entrance caverns sampled showed signs of human disturbance. We believe that this is the first time that such an extensive sample of cave flora has been undertaken and that such a diverse vascular plant flora has been observed in caves which we predict occurs elsewhere in SE Asia. We argue that the cave flora is an extension of the karst forest understory present prior to catastrophic deforestation in the 20thC. We suggest that within SW China caves serve as both refuges and a valuable source of germplasm for the restoration of karst forest. We also propose that caves represent a

  18. Flora y fauna crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Chávez-Silverman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available “Flora & Fauna Crónica” is from the book, Killer Crónicas, which will be published by the University of Wisconsin Press in 2004. This collection of chronicles began in 2000, after Susana was awarded a fellowship by the US National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH for a project on contemporary Argentine women's poetry. She spent thirteen months in Buenos Aires where, in addition to research and writing on her official (academic book, she began to send bilingual, punning “letters from the southern [cone] front” to colleagues and friends by email. Susana says: “Living in Buenos Aires, that gorgeous, turn of the century city in a country on the brink of (economic collapse—home to many of the authors and artists I had long admired (Borges, Cortázar, Alfonsina Storni, Alejandra Pizarnik, and before them the foundational Romantics, Sarmiento and Echeverría—brought out a sense of self, dis/placed yet oddly at home, in a cultural, linguistic and even tangible way. In Buenos Aires, the fragmented parts of me, the voices, cultures, and places inside of me, rubbed up against each other and struck fire. I called my email missives “Crónicas,” inspired by the somewhat rough-hewn, journalistic, often fantastic first-hand accounts sent “home” by the early conquistadores, and refashioned by modern-day counterparts such as Carlos Monsiváis, Elena Poniatowska, and Cristina Pacheco.” One of Susana’s crónicas, “Anniversary Crónica,” inspired by the wedding anniversary of Susana’s parents and by the so-called “Soweto Riots” in South Africa, was recently awarded First prize in Personal Memoir in the Chicano Literary Excellence Contest sponsored by the U.S. national literary magazine el Andar.

  19. Bacterial prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bradley C; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2016-02-01

    The review provides the infectious disease community with a urologic perspective on bacterial prostatitis. Specifically, the article briefly reviews the categorization of prostatitis by type and provides a distillation of new findings published on bacterial prostatitis over the past year. It also highlights key points from the established literature. Cross-sectional prostate imaging is becoming more common and may lead to more incidental diagnoses of acute bacterial prostatitis. As drug resistance remains problematic in this condition, the reemergence of older antibiotics such as fosfomycin, has proven beneficial. With regard to chronic bacterial prostatitis, no clear clinical risk factors emerged in a large epidemiological study. However, bacterial biofilm formation has been associated with more severe cases. Surgery has a limited role in bacterial prostatitis and should be reserved for draining of a prostatic abscess or the removal of infected prostatic stones. Prostatitis remains a common and bothersome clinical condition. Antibiotic therapy remains the basis of treatment for both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Further research into improving prostatitis treatment is indicated.

  20. Do Mixed-Flora Preoperative Urine Cultures Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, Michael R; Kawasaki, Amie; Amundsen, Cindy L; Weidner, Alison C; Siddiqui, Nazema Y

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether mixed-flora preoperative urine cultures, as compared with no-growth preoperative urine cultures, are associated with a higher prevalence of postoperative urinary tract infections (UTIs). This was a retrospective cohort study. Women who underwent urogynecologic surgery were included if their preoperative clean-catch urine culture result was mixed flora or no growth. Women were excluded if they received postoperative antibiotics for reasons other than treatment of a UTI. Women were divided into two cohorts based on preoperative urine culture results-mixed flora or no growth; the prevalence of postoperative UTI was compared between cohorts. Baseline characteristics were compared using χ 2 or Student t tests. A logistic regression analysis then was performed. We included 282 women who were predominantly postmenopausal, white, and overweight. There were many concomitant procedures; 46% underwent a midurethral sling procedure and 68% underwent pelvic organ prolapse surgery. Preoperative urine cultures resulted as mixed flora in 192 (68%) and no growth in 90 (32%) patients. Overall, 14% were treated for a UTI postoperatively. There was no difference in the proportion of patients treated for a postoperative UTI between the two cohorts (25 mixed flora vs 13 no growth, P = 0.77). These results remained when controlling for potentially confounding variables in a logistic regression model (adjusted odds ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.43-1.96). In women with mixed-flora compared with no-growth preoperative urine cultures, there were no differences in the prevalence of postoperative UTI. The clinical practice of interpreting mixed-flora cultures as negative is appropriate.

  1. Microbial flora analysis for the degradation of beta-cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhang; Wei, Zhang

    2017-03-01

    In the Xinjiang region of Eurasia, sustained long-term and continuous cropping of cotton over a wide expanse of land is practiced, which requires application of high levels of pyrethroid and other classes of pesticides-resulting in high levels of pesticide residues in the soil. In this study, soil samples were collected from areas of long-term continuous cotton crops with the aim of obtaining microbial resources applicable for remediation of pyrethroid pesticide contamination suitable for the soil type and climate of that area. Soil samples were first used to culture microbial flora capable of degrading beta-cypermethrin using an enrichment culture method. Structural changes and ultimate microbial floral composition during enrichment were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. Four strains capable of degrading beta-cypermethrin were isolated and preliminarily classified. Finally, comparative rates and speeds of degradation of beta-cypermethrin between relevant microbial flora and single strains were determined. After continuous subculture for 3 weeks, soil sample microbial flora formed a new type of microbial flora by rapid succession, which showed stable growth by utilizing beta-cypermethrin as the sole carbon source (GXzq). This microbial flora mainly consisted of Pseudomonas, Hyphomicrobium, Dokdonella, and Methyloversatilis. Analysis of the microbial flora also permitted separation of four additional strains; i.e., GXZQ4, GXZQ6, GXZQ7, and GXZQ13 that, respectively, belonged to Streptomyces, Enterobacter, Streptomyces, and Pseudomonas. Under culture conditions of 37 °C and 180 rpm, the degradation rate of beta-cypermethrin by GXzq was as high as 89.84% within 96 h, which exceeded that achieved by the single strains GXZQ4, GXZQ6, GXZQ7, and GXZQ13 and their derived microbial flora GXh.

  2. Biosynthesis of methylmercury compounds by the intestinal flora of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, I.; Davies, M.; Grasso, P.

    1977-01-01

    The contents of the rat cecum and, to a lesser extent, those of the small intestine, synthesized methylmercury from mercuric chloride labeled with Hg 203 in vitro under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The rate of formation was approximately 18 ng/g cecal contents/20 hr. The synthesis of methylmercury was inhibited by antibiotics and by filtration of the cecal contents through membrane filters, indicating that the bacterial flora of the gut participates in the reaction. Pure cultures of bacteria, isolated from the intestinal tract of the rat, could methylate mercuric chloride. It was estimated that the total amount of methylmercury synthesized from ingested inorganic mercury in man is approximately 400 ng/day

  3. NOTES ON THE PALM FLORA OF CENTRAL SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dransfield

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In July and August 1972, I spent five weeks on an expedition to study rattans and other palms in the provinces of Jambi and West Sumatra. This central area of Sumatra was chosen because expeditions have already been made to South Sumatra in February 1971 and March 1972 and to North Sumatra and Aceh with the Kyoto University Expedition in August 1971, and therefore collections made in this central area would link up collections from the south and north and would hence add considerably to our knowledge of the palm flora of this rich island. After advice from the Department of Nature Conservation in Jambi and from Dr. M. Jacobs in Rijksherbarium (Leiden had been considered, it was decided to work westwards from Berbak Nature Reserve on the east coast near Nipah Panjang, to the Bukit Barisan, the main range of Sumatra, to Gunung Kerinci Nature Reserve and G. Tujuh near Sungai Penuh and from there, across the western part of the Bukit Barisan to Padang and Bukittinggi. From Bukittinggi it was planned to visit the Kafflesia arnoldii Nature Reserve at Batang Palupuh, and then return to Jambi by way of Muara Tebo and Muara Tembesi, where reputedly there still exists lowland forest. By more or less confining our collecting activities to the normally neglected Palmae it was hoped that within the time available a large area could be covered reasonably, and a palm transect for central Sumatra made. Two assistants from Bogor accompanied me to help in the difficult task of collecting rattans: Dedy Darnaedi (Herbarium Bogoriense and Abdul Hanan (Kebun Raya. These assistants were also given individual collecting assignments as part of a scheme for training assistants in field botany. Dedy was to collect Pteridophyta and Hanan to collect material for growing in the Kebun Raya. Soetrisno Soewoko, head of Nature Conservation in Jambi accompanied us throughout tha expedition.

  4. Study of conjunctival flora in patients after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and its correlation with tear secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yi Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human tear film plays an important role in protecting the ocular surface against vari­ous pathogens. Dry eye, the major ocular complication of peripheral blood stem cell trans­plantation (PBSCT, may predispose bacterial colonization to the conjunctiva, and increase the risk of infectious keratitis. The aim of this study is to investigate the con­junctival bacterial flora in patients receiving PBSCT and to stratify the severity of dry eye for comparison. Methods: This cross-sectional study encompassed patients who received PBSCT from 2002 to 2008 in our hospital. At least 1 year after PBSCT, patients were re-evaluated for ocu­lar surface status, and bacterial culture of the conjunctival sac was performed. The eyes of patients were divided into three groups in accordance to the result of the Schirmer Ia test. In the control group, we enrolled dry-eye patients with underlying dis­ease other than hematopoietic stem cell transplantation of which the age range was simi­lar to the study group. Results: Thirty-six patients with 72 eyes were included in our study. The first group (n=36 was defined as having Schirmer Ia test result of 0-5 mm, and the culture of conjuncti­val sac were positive in 8 eyes (22%. The second group (n=20 was defined as having Schirmer Ia result between 6 and 9 mm, and 4 of which were positive for bacterial cul­ture (20%. In the third group (n=16 with Schirmer Ia result of ≧10mm, flora in pa­tients receiving PBSCT were coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Staphylococcus au­reus and Corynebacterium sp. The bacterial colonization rate in the post-PBSCT group was not higher than the control group (22.2% vs. 30.8%, and coagulase-nega­tive Staphylococci was the most common flora in the control group. Conclusion: Despite not having statistical significance, there seems to be a positive correlation be­tween the colonization rate and the severity of dry eye. However, bacterial profile iso­lated in post

  5. Bacterial biofilms with emphasis on coagulase-negative staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their capacity to attach to surfaces, various groups of microorganisms also produce an extracellular polymeric substance known as "slime". This slime forms a thin layer around cells known as biofilm. Thus, biofilm structure comprises bacterial cells and an extracellular polymeric substance. It also presents a defined architecture, providing the microorganisms with an excellent protective environment and favoring the exchange of genetic material between cells as well as intercellular communication. The ability to produce biofilm is observed in a large group of bacteria, including coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS which are the predominant microorganisms of normal skin flora and have been implicated as the causative agents of hospital infections. Bacteremia caused by these agents is common in immunodepressed persons, in patients with cancer, in adult and neonatal intensive care units (ICU and in patients using catheters or other prosthetic devices. The pathogenicity of CNS infections is probably related to the production of slime, which adheres preferentially to plastic and smooth surfaces, forming a biofilm that protects against attacks from the immune system and against antibiotic treatment, a fact hindering the eradication of these infections. The main objective of the present review was to describe basic and genetic aspects of biofilm formation and methods for its detection, with emphasis on biofilm creation by CNS and its relationship with diseases caused by these microorganisms which are becoming increasingly more frequent in the hospital environment.

  6. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ...

  7. Geographical analysis of the Uredinales flora of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the Polish flora of the order Uredinales is based on a simultaneously published descriptive elaboration (M a j e w s k i 1977, ms. The information on the Uredinales flora of Poland has been compared as far as possible with the data obtained from the analysis of the flora of sever al other countries in Europe with a different type of vegetations. In a chapter devoted to the statistics of the flora of Polish rust fungi the number of genera and species of these fungi in Poland is discussed, as well as their life cycles and host plants. The distribution of Uredinales in Poland is analysed on the basis of the A r w i d s s o n - D u r r i e u classification modified by the author, and particular attention is paid to the depedence of the range of the fungus on its life cycle and the occurrence of the host. Changes in the flora a result of its synantropization are also considered. The Polish Uredinales are divided into several groups on the basis of range, and example of their distribution involving historical factors are discussed.

  8. A biogeographical study on tropical flora of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua

    2017-12-01

    The tropical climate in China exists in southeastern Xizang (Tibet), southwestern to southeastern Yunnan, southwestern Guangxi, southern Guangdon, southern Taiwan, and Hainan, and these southern Chinese areas contain tropical floras. I checked and synonymized native seed plants from these tropical areas in China and recognized 12,844 species of seed plants included in 2,181 genera and 227 families. In the tropical flora of southern China, the families are mainly distributed in tropical areas and extend into temperate zones and contribute to the majority of the taxa present. The genera with tropical distributions also make up the most of the total flora. In terms of geographical elements, the genera with tropical Asian distribution constitute the highest proportion, which implies tropical Asian or Indo-Malaysia affinity. Floristic composition and geographical elements are conspicuous from region to region due to different geological history and ecological environments, although floristic similarities from these regions are more than 90% and 64% at the family and generic levels, respectively, but lower than 50% at specific level. These differences in the regional floras could be influenced by historical events associated with the uplift of the Himalayas, such as the southeastward extrusion of the Indochina geoblock, clockwise rotation and southeastward movement of Lanping-Simao geoblock, and southeastward movement of Hainan Island. The similarity coefficients between the flora of southern China and those of Indochina countries are more than 96% and 80% at family and generic levels, indicating their close floristic affinity and inclusion in the same biogeographically floristic unit.

  9. [The microbial flora in the digestive tract and diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svačina, Štěpán

    2015-04-01

    The microbial flora in the digestive tract has been recently studied in relation to metabolic diseases. There are relations to both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. The intestinal flora is affected by diet, physical exercise and it significantly changes after bariatric surgeries. Giving birth by caesarean section affects the gut flora development and increases the risk of type 1 diabetes in further life of the child. Obese patients with type 2 diabetes may lack protective microbes which improve glucoregulation in the experiment or on the contrary their patogenous microbes may grow which have been proven to even be able to penetrate into abdominal adipose tissue and play a role, inter alia, in the hepatic impairment and systemic inflammation. Also vaccination against these microbes is under consideration. Microbiome can be also positively affected by metformin treatment. The transfer of intestinal flora by means of fecal transplantation can improve glucoregulation. The influencing of intestinal flora is likely to become a new mechanism of diabetes treatment.

  10. A Cretaceous origin for fire adaptations in the Cape flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tianhua; Lamont, Byron B; Manning, John

    2016-10-05

    Fire has had a profound effect on the evolution of worldwide biotas. The Cape Floristic Region is one of the world's most species-rich regions, yet it is highly prone to recurrent fires and fire-adapted species contribute strongly to the overall flora. It is hypothesized that the current fire regimes in the Cape could be as old as 6-8 million years (My), while indirect evidence indicates that the onset of fire could have reached 18 million years ago (Ma). Here, we trace the origin of fire-dependent traits in two monocot families that are significant elements in the fire-prone Cape flora. Our analysis shows that fire-stimulated flowering originated in the Cape Haemodoraceae 81 Ma, while fire-stimulated germination arose in the African Restionaceae at least 70 Ma, implying that wildfires have been a significant force in the evolution of the Cape flora at least 60 My earlier than previous estimates. Our results provide strong evidence for the presence of fire adaptations in the Cape from the Cretaceous, leading to the extraordinary persistence of a fire-adapted flora in this biodiversity hotspot, and giving support to the hypothesis that Cretaceous fire was a global phenomenon that shaped the evolution of terrestrial floras.

  11. Diatom flora in subterranean ecosystems: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Falasco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In scarcity of light and primary producers, subterranean ecosystems are generally extremely oligotrophic habitats, receiving poor supplies of degradable organic matter from the surface. Human direct impacts on cave ecosystems mainly derive from intensive tourism and recreational caving, causing important alterations to the whole subterranean environment. In particular, artificial lighting systems in show caves support the growth of autotrophic organisms (the so-called lampenflora, mainly composed of cyanobacteria, diatoms, chlorophytes, mosses and ferns producing exocellular polymeric substances (EPSs made of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. This anionic EPSs matrix mediates to the intercellular communications and participates to the chemical exchanges with the substratum, inducing the adsorption of cations and dissolved organic molecules from the cave formations (speleothems. Coupled with the metabolic activities of heterotrophic microorganisms colonising such layer (biofilm, this phenomenon may lead to the corrosion of the mineral surfaces. In this review, we investigate the formation of biofilms, especially of diatom-dominated ones, as a consequence of artificial lighting and its impacts on speleothems. Whenever light reaches the subterranean habitat (both artificially and naturally a relative high number of species of diatoms may indeed colonise it. Cave entrances, artificially illuminated walls and speleothems inside the cave are generally the preferred substrates. This review focuses on the diatom flora colonising subterranean habitats, summarizing the information contained in all the scientific papers published from 1900 up to date. In this review we provide a complete checklist of the diatom taxa recorded in subterranean habitats, including a total of 363 taxa, belonging to 82 genera. The most frequent and abundant species recorded in caves and other low light subterranean habitats are generally aerophilic and

  12. The effect of microablative fractional CO2 laser on vaginal flora of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, S; Pitsouni, E; Antonopoulou, S; Zacharakis, D; Salvatore, S; Falagas, M E; Grigoriadis, T

    2016-10-01

    To assess the effect of microablative fractional CO2 laser (MFCO2-Laser) therapy on the vaginal microenvironment of postmenopausal women. Three laser therapies at monthly intervals were applied in postmenopausal women with moderate to severe symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause, pH of vaginal fluid >4.5 and superficial epithelial cells on vaginal smear Vaginal fluid pH values, fresh wet mount microscopy, Gram stain and aerobic and anaerobic cultures were evaluated at baseline and 1 month after each subsequent therapy. Nugent score and Hay-Ison criteria were used to evaluate vaginal flora. Fifty-three women (mean age 57.2 ± 5.4 years) participated and completed this study. MFCO2-Laser therapy increased Lactobacillus (p vaginal pH from a mean of 5.5 ± 0.8 (initial value) to 4.7 ± 0.5 (p aerobic vaginitis or candidiasis did not appear in any participant. MFCO2-Laser therapy is a promising treatment for improving the vaginal health of postmenopausal women by helping repopulate the vagina with normally existing Lactobacillus species and reconstituting the normal flora to premenopausal status.

  13. Flora microbiana en elaborados de aceitunas verdes en la región de Murcia. Evolución cualitativa durante la fermentación.

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán Giménez, Ginés; Guevara, L. A.; Laencina Sánchez, José

    1983-01-01

    A lo largo del proceso normal de fermentación en salmuera se estudia en la región de Murcia la flora microbiana de cinco tipos de aceitunas (subvariedades Manzanilla Fina y Carrasqueña, Verdial, Hojiblanca y las variedades Cacereña) sometidas al tratamiento previo de «cocido». La flora heterogénea —que incluye bacterias Gram-negativas, bacterias lácticas y levaduras— con predominio de las poblaciones de bacilos Gram-negativos en los primeros días del proceso fermentati...

  14. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE VASCULAR FLORA OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIOCÂRLAN VASILE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are present and discussed the fact that the legitimate name is Cirsium heterophyllum (L. Hill and the synonime name is Cirsium helenioides auct., non (L. Hill.In the flora of Romania, as well as in Europe, is growing Cirsium heterophyllum (L. Hill; Cirsium helenioides (L. Hill is growing in Central Asia and in Siberie.Follow, it is showed that the taxa Juncus trifidus L. ssp. monanthos (Jacq. Asch. & Graebn. is not growing in the flora of Romania. There is presented an infraspecific taxa, new for the science, namely: Juncus trifidus L. ssp. trifidus var. brevifolia Ciocârlan var. nova., discovered in the Mountains of Cozia (Vâlcea county.Also, in this paper is presented two rare plants in the flora of Romania: Dianthus kladovanus Degen and Thymus longicaulis C. Presl, species listed in the “Red Lists”, discovered by the author in new localities.

  15. Characteristic Flora and Fauna of the Kachin State, Northern Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Yi Win; Cilia Linburt; Yin Yin May

    2005-10-01

    Three biological expeditions was made from June 2003 to June 2004. Altitude is a major factor among the differences of flora and fauna distribution. Hkakaborazi (19296') is a reservoir of glaciers with permanent ice and snow from which rivers. Melikha and Maekha emanate. Ayeyarwaddy river formed from those two rivers and flow beside Myirkyina. Therefore, water quality of each river and their tributaries are cool and fresh. This quality can preserve endemic species. Unknown species of jellyfishes of Ayeyarwaddy river was collected from Myitkyina environ. Also, three different terrestrial habitats namely icy-mountain range, cool temperature and subtropical forest can conserve their characteristic flora and fauna. Flora and fauna distribution is always related to their habitat or environs. Diagnostic features of each species were recorded by photographs. The findings were discussed from conservation point of view.

  16. Androsace septentrionalis (Primulaceae), a new species for the Balkan flora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, V.; Vukojicic, S.; Tan, Kit

    2005-01-01

    Androsace septentrionalis L. (Primulaceae) is recorded as a new species for the Balkan flora on the basis of herbarium material collected several times from Mt. Prokletije, situated near the borders of Serbia (Metochia and Kosovo province), Montenegro and Albania. The locality marks the southernm......Androsace septentrionalis L. (Primulaceae) is recorded as a new species for the Balkan flora on the basis of herbarium material collected several times from Mt. Prokletije, situated near the borders of Serbia (Metochia and Kosovo province), Montenegro and Albania. The locality marks...... the southernmost limit of the species' range in Europe. The existence of A. septentrionalis in the Balkans may be the result of migration of the tundra-steppe flora from central and East Europe towards the mountains of the peninsula during the Ice Age....

  17. Monitoring bacterial community of human gut microbiota reveals an increase in Lactobacillus in obese patients and Methanogens in anorexic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Armougom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of the bacterial communities of the gut microbiota have revealed a shift in the ratio of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in obese patients. Determining the variations of microbial communities in feces may be beneficial for the identification of specific profiles in patients with abnormal weights. The roles of the archaeon Methanobrevibacter smithii and Lactobacillus species have not been described in these studies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed an efficient and robust real-time PCR tool that includes a plasmid-based internal control and allows for quantification of the bacterial divisions Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Lactobacillus as well as the methanogen M. smithii. We applied this technique to the feces of 20 obese subjects, 9 patients with anorexia nervosa, and 20 normal-weight healthy controls. Our results confirmed a reduction in the Bacteroidetes community in obese patients (p<0.01. We found a significantly higher Lactobacillus species concentration in obese patients than in lean controls (p=0.0197 or anorexic patients (p=0.0332. The M. smithii concentration was much higher in anorexic patients than in the lean population (p=0.0171. CONCLUSIONS: Lactobacillus species are widely used as growth promoters in the farm industry and are now linked to obesity in humans. The study of the bacterial flora in anorexic patients revealed an increase in M. smithii. This increase might represent an adaptive use of nutrients in this population.

  18. Changes in Composition of the Gut Bacterial Microbiome after Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in a Pediatric Heart Transplant Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannigan, Kyle L; Rajbar, Taylor; Moffat, Andrew; McKenzie, Leanna S; Dicke, Frank; Rioux, Kevin; Workentine, Matthew L; Louie, Thomas J; Hirota, Simon A; Greenway, Steven C

    2017-01-01

    The microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important influence on human health and many of the comorbidities that affect patients after solid organ transplantation (SOT) have been shown to involve changes in gut bacterial populations. Thus, microbiome changes in an individual patient may have important health implications after SOT but this area remains understudied. We describe changes in the composition of the fecal microbiome from a pediatric heart transplant recipient before and >2.5 years after he underwent repeated fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). With both documented episodes of CDI, there was marked loss of bacterial diversity with overgrowth of Proteobacteria (>98.9% of phyla identified) associated with symptomatic colitis that was corrected after FMT. We hypothesize that a second CDI occurring after FMT was related to incomplete restoration of normal bowel flora post-FMT with relative deficiencies of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and the families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae . Following the second FMT, there was a gradual shift in gut bacterial composition coincident with the recipient developing lymphonodular hyperplasia of the colon and painless hematochezia that resolved with discontinuation of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). This case documents dynamic changes in the bacterial microbiome after FMT and suggests that MMF may influence the gut microbiome with consequences for the patient.

  19. Four neophytes new for the flora of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđije Milanović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During systematic field research carried out in the wider Posavina region, Livanjsko polje, and the environs of Zavidovići (Bosnia and Herzegovina, the following four neophytes new for the flora of the country were recorded: Hypericum majus, Juncus dudleyi, Symphyotrichum lanceolatum and Sisyrinchium montanum. While the last two species have been previously recorded from the region (Symphyotrichum lanceolatum from Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, and Slovenia; Sisyrinchium montanum from Croatia, Hypericum majus and Juncus dudleyi are here registered as new for the neophyte flora of the Balkan Peninsula

  20. New Records To The Vascular Flora Of Kazakhstan (Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebel Aleksandr L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents distributional data for seven species new for the flora of Kazakhstan: Atriplex gardneri var. aptera (A. Nelson S. L. Welsh. & Crompton, Cardamine hirsuta L., Carduus acanthoides L., Galega orientalis Lam., Silene cserei Baumg., Didymophysa fedtschenkoana Regel and Acinos arvensis (Lam. Dandy. Didymophysa fedtschenkoana is a native element in the Kazakh flora; the other species should be treated as alien, expansively spreading or invasive in this part of Asia. A list of localities of the species in Kazakhstan and their habitat preferences are presented.

  1. The Permian mega floras of Uruguay.A synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisafulli, A.; Herbst, R.

    2007-01-01

    The Permian megafloras of Uruguay. A synthesis. An analysis of the impression and fossil wood floras from the Permian of Uruguay is given through a series of Tables. These show : (1) the list of taxa, (2) anatomical characters of the woods, (3) data on the microfloral associations, (4) paleoenvironmental information and (5) comparisons with contemporaneous Gondwana floras. The evolutionary degree of the woods is briefly analyzed where they correspond to the so-called ''transition xilotaphofloras'' as they present typical Paleozoic anatomical characters but with secondary xylem of more advanced characteristics. (author)

  2. Bacterial content in the intestine of frozen common carp Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aalharbi

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... The quantitative and qualitative analyses of bacterial flora associated with the intestine of common carp. Cyprinus carpio in fresh and frozen storage conditions for 16 months was determined. Aerobic plate counts (APC) ranged from 1.8 ± 2.7 × 109 to 1.1 ± 2.9 x 104 colony forming unit (CFU) g-1, 2.0 ± 2.1 x ...

  3. Relationship between lactobacilli and opportunistic bacterial pathogens associated with vaginitis

    OpenAIRE

    Razzak, Mohammad Sabri A.; Al-Charrakh, Alaa H.; AL-Greitty, Bara Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Background: Vaginitis, is an infectious inflammation of the vaginal mucosa, which sometimes involves the vulva. The balance of the vaginal flora is maintained by the Lactobacilli and its protective and probiotic role in treating and preventing vaginal infection by producing antagonizing compounds which are regarded as safe for humans. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of Lactobacilli against common bacterial opportunistic pathogens in vaginitis and study the effec...

  4. BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons like benzen e, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, together known as BTEX, has almost the same chemical structure. These aromatic hydrocarbons are released as pollutants in th e environment. This work was taken up to develop a solvent tolerant bacterial cons ortium that could degrade BTEX compounds as they all share a common chemical structure. We have isolated almost 60 different types of bacterial strains from different petroleum contaminated sites. Of these 60 bacterial strains almost 20 microorganisms were screene d on the basis of capability to tolerate high concentration of BTEX. Ten differe nt consortia were prepared and the compatibility of the bacterial strains within the consortia was checked by gram staining and BTEX tolerance level. Four successful mi crobial consortia were selected in which all the bacterial strains concomitantly grew in presence of high concentration of BTEX (10% of toluene, 10% of benzene 5% ethyl benzene and 1% xylene. Consortium #2 showed the highest growth rate in pr esence of BTEX. Degradation of BTEX by consortium #2 was monitored for 5 days by gradual decrease in the volume of the solvents. The maximum reduction observed wa s 85% in 5 days. Gas chromatography results also reveal that could completely degrade benzene and ethyl benzene within 48 hours. Almost 90% degradation of toluene and xylene in 48 hours was exhibited by consortium #2. It could also tolerate and degrade many industrial solvents such as chloroform, DMSO, acetonitrile having a wide range of log P values (0.03–3.1. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon like BTEX by a solvent tolerant bacterial consortium is greatly significant as it could degrade high concentration of pollutants compared to a bacterium and also reduces the time span of degradation.

  5. Flora tugevdas jaotustegevuse ümberkorraldamisega kaubamärki / Rivo Sarapik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapik, Rivo, 1981-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti : Avtomobili i transport 19. märts lk. 6. Flora logistikakogemus: oma autopargist ja laost loobumine aitas keemiafirmal Flora suurendada tootevalikut, kasvatada klientide arvu ning vähendada kulusid

  6. Bacterial contamination of stethoscope chest pieces and the effect of daily cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, H; Hansen, B; Hanel, R

    2013-01-01

    Stethoscopes are a potential source of nosocomial infection for hospitalized humans, a phenomenon not previously studied in companion animals. To determine if daily cleaning of stethoscope chest pieces reduces bacterial contamination between cleanings. Client-owned dogs and cats. Prospective observational study. In phase 1, bacterial cultures were obtained from the chest pieces of 10 participant stethoscopes once weekly for 3 weeks. In phase 2, stethoscopes were cleaned daily and 2 culture samples were obtained once weekly, immediately before and after cleaning with 70% isopropyl alcohol, for 3 weeks. Daily cleaning eliminated bacteria immediately after each cleaning (P = .004), but did not reduce the rate of positive cultures obtained before cleaning in phase 2. Cultures were positive for 20/30 (67%) samples during phase 1 and 18/30 (60%) obtained before daily cleaning during phase 2. Recovered organisms included normal skin flora, agents of opportunistic infections, and potential pathogens. The only genus that was repeatedly recovered from the same stethoscope for 2 or more consecutive weeks was Bacillus sp. Daily cleaning was highly effective at removing bacteria, but provided no reduction in precleaning contamination. Cleaning stethoscopes after use on dogs or cats infected with pathogenic bacteria and before use on immunocompromised animals should be considered. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus on bacterial vaginal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuccini, Lucia; Russo, Rosario; Iosi, Francesca; Superti, Fabiana

    2017-06-01

    The human vagina is colonized by a variety of microbes. Lactobacilli are the most common, mainly in healthy women; however, the microbiota composition can change rapidly, leading to infection or to a state in which potential pathogenic microorganisms co-exist with other commensals. In premenopausal women, urogenital infections, such as bacterial vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis, remain an important health problem. Treatment of these infections involves different kind of antibiotics; however, the recurrence rate remains high, and it must be also underlined that antibiotics are unable to spontaneously restore normal flora characterized by an abundant community of Lactobacilli. The main limitation is the inability to offer a long-term defensive barrier, thus facilitating relapses and recurrences. We report here the antimicrobial activities of two commercially existing Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus GLA-14 strains and their combination (Respecta® probiotic blend) against four different pathogens responsible for both bacterial vaginosis ( Gardenerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae) and aerobic vaginitis ( Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) by co-culturing assay. The probiotic combination, even if resulting in a different microbicidal activity against the different strains tested, demonstrated the efficacy of combined Lactobacillus strain treatment.

  8. Immunology. Therapeutic manipulation of gut flora.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    In developed countries as many as two individuals in every thousand suffer from inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn\\'s disease). In his Perspective, Shanahan discusses a new therapeutic approach to treating these conditions in which bacteria normally found in the gut are engineered to produce the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and then are fed as probiotics to mice with these disorders (Steidler et al.).

  9. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    , which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly...... tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion...... is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters...

  10. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained,

  11. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation,

  12. Bacterial stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...

  13. The dates of publication of Blume’s Flora Javae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danser, B.H.

    1939-01-01

    The actual dates of publication of the greater part of BLUME’s Flora Javae (lit. 1) appear to be unknown among taxonomists. The title-page of the first volume is dated 1828, and we find the same year at the base of the preface. The volume containing the Orchideae (lit. 2) is dated 1858, but further

  14. A Synoptic Account of Flora of Solapur District, Maharashtra (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushnadeoray Garad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides the first systematic and comprehensive account of the flora of Solapur district of Maharashtra (India. The flora of this region demonstrates a wide range of species diversity and growth forms. The vegetation of the district mainly represents tropical dry deciduous forests, thorny open scrub and vast grasslands. During the present work, a total of 1441 taxa belonging to 699 genera and 125 families of flowering plants were recorded. A new species Crinum solapurense Gaikwad et al. is described. Fabaceae is the dominant family with 210 taxa, followed by Poaceae (157 taxa, Asteraceae (85 taxa, Malvaceae (68 taxa and Euphorbiaceae (48 taxa. Acacia is the largest genus with 25 taxa, followed by Euphorbia (23, Cyperus (22, Crotalaria (19 and Ipomoea (19. The herbaceous flora of the district is notable as it amounts to 56.21% of the whole of flora. The ratio of indigenous woody to herbaceous components is 1:1.28. The proportion of indigenous taxa (978 to the cultivated ones (460 is 1.35: 0.5 in the district.

  15. A synoptic account of flora of solapur district, maharashtra (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garad, Krushnadeoray U; Gore, Ramchandra D; Gaikwad, Sayajirao P

    2015-01-01

    The present paper provides the first systematic and comprehensive account of the flora of Solapur district of Maharashtra (India). The flora of this region demonstrates a wide range of species diversity and growth forms. The vegetation of the district mainly represents tropical dry deciduous forests, thorny open scrub and vast grasslands. During the present work, a total of 1441 taxa belonging to 699 genera and 125 families of flowering plants were recorded. A new species Crinumsolapurense Gaikwad et al. is described. Fabaceae is the dominant family with 210 taxa, followed by Poaceae (157 taxa), Asteraceae (85 taxa), Malvaceae (68 taxa) and Euphorbiaceae (48 taxa). Acacia is the largest genus with 25 taxa, followed by Euphorbia (23), Cyperus (22), Crotalaria (19) and Ipomoea (19). The herbaceous flora of the district is notable as it amounts to 56.21% of the whole of flora. The ratio of indigenous woody to herbaceous components is 1:1.28. The proportion of indigenous taxa (978) to the cultivated ones (460) is 1.35: 0.5 in the district.

  16. Alien flora of Turkey: checklist, taxonomic composition and ecological attributes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uludag, A.; Aksoy, N.; Yazlik, A.; Arslan, Z. F.; Yazmiş, E.; Üremiş, I.; Cossu, T. A.; Groom, Q.; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Brundu, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2017), s. 61-85 ISSN 1619-0033 Grant - others:COST(XE) TD1209; AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:FA; Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : alien flora * Turkey * invasions Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation

  17. Vascular flora and macroscopic fauna on the Fernow Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlene M. Madarish; Jane L. Rodrigue; Mary Beth Adams

    2002-01-01

    This report is the first comprehensive inventory of the vascular flora and macroscopic fauna known to occur within the Fernow Experimental Forest in north-central West Virignia. The compendium is based on information obtained from previous surveys, current research, and the personal observations of USDA Forest Service personnel and independent scientists. More than 750...

  18. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Sipuncula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Edward B.

    This report is part of a subseries entitled "Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States" which is designed for use by biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers and informed laymen. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Key to Sipuncula (Peanut Worms); (3) Annotated Systematic List of Species;…

  19. Native flora rescue program: GASENE project case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [Telsan, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Jacomelli, Junior, Jose Almir [AGF Engenharia, Araucaria, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Concerning the surrounding flora, the implementation of pipelines may cause fragmentation and isolation of the remaining natural vegetation, possibly changing the forest structure; thus raising the border effect; modifying the ratio of species and life forms, decreasing the vegetal diversity and/or causing a lack of connectivity among the remaining indigenous forest resources. In the case of pipelines, the most important environmental measure intended to mitigate the damage caused to the flora is the adoption of Indigenous Flora Rescue Programs. This paper is aimed at analyzing the programs currently applied during the implementation of the GASENE project, by conducting a case study. The main targets of such program are obtaining seeds and fruits with a view to subsidize the potential production of sapling to be further employed in the recovery of areas impacted by the pipeline works; and then relocate the most significant samples of species rescued from the suppressed areas in order to comprise forest areas adjacent to the pipeline's right-of-way. The programs had little differences in their methodology while being implemented, however, we consider that up to the present moment the results obtained in the preservation of species of native flora have been satisfactory. (author)

  20. Enige diatomeeënsoorten, nieuw voor de Nederlandse flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Herman

    1974-01-01

    During an investigation of the epiphyton, growing on the culms of Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, and Glyceria maxima, in the nature-reserve “Het Naardermeer”, ten species of diatoms were discovered which are new for the Dutch flora. These are enumerated together with some notes on their

  1. Notulae to the Italian alien vascular flora: 4

    OpenAIRE

    Galasso,Gabriele; Domina,Gianniantonio; Bonari,Gianmaria; Buono,Sergio; Chianese,Giuseppina; Cortesi,Gloria; Cortesi,Gloria; Iamonico,Duilio; Olivieri,Nicola; Peruzzi,Lorenzo; Pierini,Brunello; Roma-Marzio,Francesco; Scoppola,Anna; Soldano,Adriano; Stinca,Adriano

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, new data concerning the Italian distribution of alien vascular flora are presented. It includes new records and exclusions for Italy or for Italian administrative regions of taxa in the genera Cedrus, Cenchrus, Citrus, Cyrtomium, Diospyros, Elaeagnus, Erigeron, Iris, Oenothera, Pavonia, Phytolacca, Styphnolobium, and Verbena. Furthermore, a new combination in the genus Amaranthus is proposed.

  2. Oral Hygiene and Oral Flora Evaluation in Psychiatric Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The oral hygiene of most patients was insufficient. The presence of Gram‑negative Bacilli growth in the oral flora can be explained by poor hand hygiene. These findings suggest that it is useful to educate individuals about oral hygiene and hand hygiene and to inform the staff and families about this issue.

  3. Native flora rescue program: GASENE project case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [Telsan, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Jacomelli Junior, Jose Almir [AGF Engenharia, Araucaria, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Concerning the surrounding flora, the implementation of pipelines may cause fragmentation and isolation of the remaining natural vegetation, possibly changing the forest structure; thus raising the border effect; modifying the ratio of species and life forms, decreasing the vegetal diversity and/or causing a lack of connectivity among the remaining indigenous forest resources. In the case of pipelines, the most important environmental measure intended to mitigate the damage caused to the flora is the adoption of Indigenous Flora Rescue Programs. This paper is aimed at analyzing the programs currently applied during the implementation of the GASENE project, by conducting a case study. The main targets of such program are obtaining seeds and fruits with a view to subsidize the potential production of sapling to be further employed in the recovery of areas impacted by the pipeline works; and then relocate the most significant samples of species rescued from the suppressed areas in order to comprise forest areas adjacent to the pipeline's right-of-way. The programs had little differences in their methodology while being implemented, however, we consider that up to the present moment the results obtained in the preservation of species of native flora have been satisfactory. (author)

  4. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Brown; Jane Kapler Smith

    2000-01-01

    VOLUME 2: This state-of-knowledge review about the effects of fire on flora and fuels can assist land managers with ecosystem and fire management planning and in their efforts to inform others about the ecological role of fire. Chapter topics include fire regime classification, autecological effects of fire, fire regime characteristics and postfire plant community...

  5. Investigations on ileal microbial flora in weaning piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klüss, J.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Konstantinov, S.R.; Kwella, M.; Kuhla, S.; Souffrant, W.B.

    2003-01-01

    To characterize ileal microbial flora in weaning piglets a slaughter trial was conducted. 224 German Landrace piglets of both genders were allocated to four different feeding regimes (with or without avilamycin, 3 resp. 8 % crude fibre content). At predefined times pre- and postweaning piglets were

  6. Mushroom flora and associated insect fauna in Nsukka Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mushroom flora and associated insect pests of mushrooms in Nsukka urban was studied. The abundance of mushrooms from sampled communites is indicaed with the family, Agaricaceae predominating “out of home” environment yielded more mushrooms (4.62) than the homestead environment (3.26). Insect pests ...

  7. WEED FLORA OF CASSAVA IN WEST NILE ZONES OF UGANDA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Information on weeds of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in eastern Africa is limited. The objective of this study was to establish the status of weed flora in selected cassava growing regions of Uganda. This study was conducted in 2013 at Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute; (AbiZARDI) in Arua, ...

  8. Biological spectrum with some other ecological attributes of the flora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the current available information on the flora and vegetation of the Asir mountain of SW Saudi Arabia, spectra on life form and some other ecological attributes were analyzed and reviewed in different sub-ecosystem of the investigated area. The floristic list of Asir Mountain of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia consists ...

  9. Microbial flora of Clarias Gariepinus in the early stages of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to establish the microbial flora in farmed Clarias gariepinus hatchery systems. Enumeration of total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and fungi, total coliforms, Salmonella spp. Vibrio spp. and Aeromonas hydrophila from eggs (fertilized and unfertilized), larvae, fry, fry feed and tank water showed that ...

  10. Flora of St Katherine Protectorate: key to families and genera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flora of St Katherine Protectorate: key to families and genera. Wafaa Kamel, Magda Gazar, Samy Zalat, Francis Gilbert. Abstract. Egyptian Journal of Natural History Vol.1 1999: 1-39. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  11. ( Allium sativum ) on Salmonella typhi infection, gastrointestinal flora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of garlic (Allium sativum) in treating Salmonella typhi infection and on the gastrointestinal flora and hematological parameters of rats was investigated. Crude garlic extract inhibited the growth of S. typhi on agar plate with a zone of inhibition averaging 23.8 mm in diameter using the agar diffusion ...

  12. Flora White (1860-1948): New Woman, Stark Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, Linda C.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the life of education reformer Flora White, who both represented and deviated from the stereotypical new woman portrayed in popular literature of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. White's decision to reject marriage and children in favor of a career resulted in greater financial insecurity and an unmet desire…

  13. Inventory of Medicinal Flora from Thal Desert, Punjab, Pakistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The whole area was surveyed for inventorying medicinal flora by using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: The people of the study area are extremely knowledgeable, hence reported 120 plants which are being used in treating various human diseases. The detailed inventory including ...

  14. La Fondation William et Flora Hewlett | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La Fondation William et Flora Hewlett. http://www.hewlett.org/ · What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month. Subscribe · Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy ...

  15. Flora of Beyt Shankhodar in the Gul of Kuchchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Ambiye, V.

    Different types of flora of Beyt Shankhodar in the Gulf of Kuchchh have been studied with reference to the abiotic and biotic factors. Major floral groups were both of terrestrial and marine habitats. Most of the terrestrial plants are of xerophytic...

  16. Marine flora of Nicobar group of islands in Anadman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    The marine flora of 4 islands comprised 66 species of marine algae, 7 of seagrasses, and 10 of mangroves. Maximum number of marine algae (6) and mangroves (9) were reported from Great Nicobar Island, whereas more (7) species of seagrasses were...

  17. Microbiological flora and nail polish: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, G M; Flournoy, D J; Schlageter, P

    1994-11-01

    Removing nail polish and prosthetic nails from operating room (OR) personnel prior to scrubbing and from patients prior to hand surgery is recommended but not practiced in many hospitals. There is concern that nail polish can act as a vehicle for the transfer of infectious agents. This study was designed to determine the incidence of microbiological flora of nail polish in a clinical setting.

  18. Flora of Chihuahuan desertscrub on limestone in northeastern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Ana Lilia Reina-Guerrero; J. Jesus. Sanchez-Escalante

    2013-01-01

    Transects were done in desertscrub on limestone to characterize the flora of the westernmost Chihuahuan Desert. Most of the sites (15) were in the Municipios of Agua Prieta and Naco in northeastern Sonora, with single sites near Ascensión, northwestern Chihuahua and east of Douglas in southeastern Arizona. A total of 236 taxa were recorded on transects. Dicot perennial...

  19. Over flora en vegetatie van drie Noorddrentse bosjes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkman, J.J.

    1971-01-01

    This paper deals with the flora and vegetation of two small woods in the northern part of the prov. Drente. These woods are comparatively rich in species for the region in question, probably owing to the richer soil. Wood associations present are: Querco-Betuletum, Violo-Quercetum,

  20. Orchidaceous Additions to the Floras of China and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ormerod

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Literature and herbarium studies of Chinese and Taiwanese orchids has revealed a variety of new and noteworthy data pertinent to the floras of China and Taiwan. Three new combinations are proposed, viz. Anoectochilus baotingensis, Oberonia sinica and Odontochilus nanlingensis.

  1. Evaluation of flora diversity and abundance in Awba Dam Tourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated flora diversity and abundance in Awba Dam Tourism Centre, Ibadan, Nigeria. Complete enumeration of trees (>10cm diameter at breast height (dbh)), saplings, and small trees growing within 50m radius of the Awba dam was carried out. The percentage canopy cover of tree species (to the nearest 5%) ...

  2. The Paleocene and lower Eocene pollen flora of Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leidelmeyer, P.

    1966-01-01

    A description is given of a Paleocene and Lower Eocene pollen flora of two bore-holes in Guana. Some new species are described and some remarks are made on their stratigraphical significance. Pollen diagrams are presented, one probably representing the entire Paleocene and a part of the Eocene.

  3. Origin of the flora of the Malay Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridley, H.N.

    1937-01-01

    In my work on the Malay Peninsula, I included such plants as were known from the districts of North Kedah, Perlis and Setul. Botanically however, the Malayan flora ceases at a line running from a little north of Kedah peak Lat. 6.5, to Kota Bahru in North Kelantan Lat. 6.10. It is in fact

  4. Aanwinsten voor de Nederlandse adventief-flora, 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.; Reichgelt, Th.J.

    1963-01-01

    1. Navarretia squarrosa (Eschsch.) Hook. & Arn. is mentioned here in addition to our last paper on the Netherlands adventitious flora, published in Gorteria 1, no. 10, 1963, p. 113—117. The species was found in 1962 near Joure, prov. Friesland, and was most probably introduced with bird-seed. 2. All

  5. The alpine flora of Mount Wilhelm (New Guinea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, R.D.

    1958-01-01

    The flora of the higher mountains of New Guinea has been the object of several extensive collecting trips in the past forty years. Until quite recently, however, a serious gap in our knowledge was the very scanty information available from the area between Mount Wilhelmina in the West and Mount

  6. Feminizing the Professional: The Government Reports of Flora Annie Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Rebecca J.

    1998-01-01

    Studies Flora Annie Steel, an uneducated woman who nonetheless became an Inspector of Female Schools in Punjab, India, in 1884. Focuses on her reports within the context of British imperialism and late 19th-century report conventions. Concludes that cultural expectations for women in imperialism influenced Steel's response to the genre; and the…

  7. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  8. Overview of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea: The long road to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prior to the initiation of the Ethiopian Flora Project (EFP), there were a number of attempts over the years to write the flora for a particular region/s or areas of Ethiopia and Eritrea. The modern Ethiopian Flora Project was initiated in 1980 as a bilateral agreement between the Ethiopian and Swedish governments through the ...

  9. Composition, Endemism and Phytogeographical Affinities of the Taiwan Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Fu Hsieh

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwan vascular flora is exceptionally interesting not only because it is rich and diversified, but because it is of great phytogeographic significance owing to its geographic location. The flora of Taiwan, including naturalized plants, comprises 233 families and 1389 genera with 4216 species. In terms of major growth forms, there are 588 trees, 426 shrubs, 249 lianas, 177 vines, and 2776 herbs or ferns. Approximately 234 species are exotics typically associated with pastures, road clearings and other human disturbances. An extremely large percentage of these naturalized plants are of tropical New World origin. Among the native flora, the Orchidaceae (331 species, Gramineae (249, Compositae (194, Leguminosae (176, Cyperaceae (174, Rosaceae (105, Rubiaceae (93 and Euphorbiaceae (76 rank highest in numbers of species. Clearly, the greatest part of Taiwan's floristics richness comes from a wealth of species in primarily lowland (0–600 m asl. taxa. A total of 2571 species were recorded in the lowlands, whereas only about 251 species occur between 3100-3950 m. Endemic genera are extremely scarce in Taiwan, with only four, namely Sinopanax (Araliaceae, Hayatella (Rubiaceae, Kudoacanthus (Acanthaceae, and Haraella (Orchidaceae. In contrast to the low percentage of generic endemism, there is a remarkably higher specific endemism. About 1041 species (26.1% of indigenous plants are known only from Taiwan. A detailed examination of these species shows that there is a distinct trend of increasing endemism with increasing altitude (r² = 0.99. A survey of indigenous non-endemic species on the basis of their geographical distribution outside Taiwan shows that they can be classified into 6 major categories: 1. pantropical and palaeotropical species (1029 species; 2. species distributed in eastern Asia, from Himalayas through southern & eastern China to Taiwan, with some extending to the Ryukyus and Japan (1075 species; 3. widespread species extending

  10. Real-time analysis of gut flora in Entamoeba histolytica infected patients of Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Anil Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amebic dysentery is caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica and the ingestion of quadrinucleate cyst of E. histolytica from fecally contaminated food or water initiates infection. Excystation occurs in the lumen of small intestine, where motile and potentially invasive trophozoites germinate from cysts. The ability of trophozoites to interact and digest gut bacteria is apparently important for multiplication of the parasite and its pathogenicity; however the contribution of resident bacterial flora is not well understood. We quantified the population of Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Ruminococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium leptum subgroup, Clostridium coccoides subgroup, Eubacterium, Campylobacter, Methanobrevibacter smithii and Sulphur reducing bacteria using genus specific primers in healthy (N = 22 vs amebic patients (E. histolytica positive, N = 17 stool samples by Real-time PCR. Results Absolute quantification of Bacteroides (p = .001, Closrtridium coccoides subgroup (p = 0.002, Clostridium leptum subgroup (p = 0.0001, Lactobacillus (p = 0.037, Campylobacter (p = 0.0014 and Eubacterium (p = 0.038 show significant drop in their population however, significant increase in Bifdobacterium (p = 0.009 was observed where as the population of Ruminococcus (p = 0.33 remained unaltered in healthy vs amebic patients (E. histolytica positive. We also report high prevalence of nimE gene in stool samples of both healthy volunteers and amebic patients. No significant decrease in nimE gene copy number was observed before and after the treatment with antiamebic drug. Conclusions Our results show significant alteration in predominant gut bacteria in E. histolytica infected individuals. The frequent episodes of intestinal amoebic dysentery thus result in depletion of few predominant genera in gut that may lead to poor digestion and absorption of food in intestine. It further disturbs

  11. Hand hygiene in reducing transient flora on the hands of healthcare workers: an educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, R; Bhavsar, H K; Madan, M

    2015-01-01

    Hand hygiene has now been recognised as one of the most effective intervention to control the transmission of infections in a hospital and education is an important tool to ensure its implementation. In order to convince the users and as a part of education, it is important to generate evidence on the role of hand hygiene in reducing the bacterial flora on their hands. The present study was undertaken in a tertiary care hospital to demonstrate the presence of bacterial flora on the hands of healthcare workers (HCW) in different categories, to teach them proper hand hygiene technique using alcohol-based hand rub and determine the outcome for reduction of bacteria. A total sample size of 60 subjects including resident doctors, medical students, nurses and hospital attendants were included in the study after obtaining informed consent. Each person was educated on the technique of hand hygiene with alcohol-based hand rub and hand impressions were cultured before and after hand hygiene. All the subjects were also given a questionnaire to assess their perception on hand hygiene. The WHO posters on proper hand hygiene were displayed in the appropriate areas of the hospital in addition, as an educational tool. Majority (42 out of 60) of the HCWs had bacterial count up to 100 colonies or more on both hands before the application of hand rub while working in the hospital. After use of alcohol hand rub with a proper hand hygiene technique, it was found that the percentage reduction was 95-99% among doctors and nurses, 70% among hospital attendants and 50% among sanitary attendants. Staphylococcus aureus was present on the hands of eight persons of which three were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The study demonstrates that transient bacteria are present on the hands of HCWs but majority could be removed by proper hand hygiene, which needs continuous education to be effective. It also shows that active education by demonstrating the proper hand hygiene technique

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Intestinal Flora of Uygur and Han Ethnic Chinese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P=0.026 but lower Clostridium (P=0.004, Bifidobacterium spp. (P=0.009, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P=0.008 than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P≤0.05, while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P≤0.05 compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference.

  13. Transformation of trollioside and isoquercetin by human intestinal flora in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ming; Shi, Duo-Zhi; Wang, Teng-Yu; Zheng, Shi-Qi; Liu, Li-Jia; Sun, Zhen-Xiao; Wang, Ru-Feng; Ding, Yi

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to determine the intestinal bacterial metabolites of trollioside and isoquercetin and their antibacterial activities. A systematic in vitro biotransformation investigation on trollioside and isoquercetin, including metabolite identification, metabolic pathway deduction, and time course, was accomplished using a human intestinal bacterial model. The metabolites were analyzed and identified by HPLC and HPLC-MS. The antibacterial activities of trollioside, isoquercetin, and their metabolites were evaluated using the broth microdilution method with berberine as a positive control, and their potency was measured as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Our results indicated that trollioside and isoquercetin were metabolized by human intestinal flora through O-deglycosylation, yielding aglycones proglobeflowery acid and quercetin, respectively The antibacterial activities of both metabolites were more potent than that of their parent compounds. In conclusion, trollioside and isoquercetin are totally and rapidly transformed by human intestinal bacteria in vitro and the transformation favors the improvement of the antibacterial activities of the parent compounds. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tolerance exists towards resident intestinal flora but is broken in active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchmann, R; Kaiser, I; Hermann, E; Mayet, W; Ewe, K; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1995-12-01

    Hyporesponsiveness to a universe of bacterial and dietary antigens from the gut lumen is a hallmark of the intestinal immune system. Since hyperresponsiveness against these antigens might be associated with inflammation, we studied the immune response to the indigenous intestinal microflora in peripheral blood, inflamed and non-inflamed human intestine. Lamina propria monocuclear cells (LPMC) isolated from inflamed intestine but not peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of IBD patients with active inflammatory disease strongly proliferated after co-culture with sonicates of bacteria from autologous intestine (BsA). Proliferation was inhibitable by anti-MHC class II MoAb, suggesting that it was driven by antigen. LPMC from adjacent non-inflamed intestinal areas of the same IBD patients and PBMC or LPMC isolated from non-inflamed intestine of controls and patients with IBD in remission, in contrast, did not proliferate. PBMC or LPMC which had been tolerant to bacteria from autologous intestine, however, strongly proliferated after co-culture with bacterial sonicates from heterologous intestine (BsH). This proliferation was associated with an expansion of CD8+ T cells, increased expression of activation markers on both CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subsets, and production of IL-12, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and IL-10 protein. These results show that tolerance selectively exists to intestinal flora from autologous but not heterologous intestine, and that tolerance is broken in intestinal inflammation. This may be an important mechanism for the perpetuation of chronic IBD.

  15. Vascular flora of Kenya, based on the Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Zhou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Kenya, an African country with major higher plant diversity, has a corresponding diversity of plant associations, because of the wide geographic distribution, diverse climatic conditions and soil types. In this article, all vascular plants of Kenya were counted based on the completed "Flora of Tropical East Africa (FTEA", and all families and genera were revised using recent molecular systematics research, forming a "Synoptic List of Families and Genera of Kenyan Vascular Plants (SLFGKVP". In total, there are 225 families, 1538 genera and 6293 indigenous species and and 62 families, 302 genera and 588 exotic species in Kenya. The Fabaceae with 98 genera and 576 Species is the largest family. Two of the seven plant distribution regions of Kenya, K4 and K7 are the most species-richest areas with regard to both total and endemic species, with 3375 and 3191 total species and 174 and 185 endemic species in K4 and K7 respectively. While, K3 and K5 have the highest density of both total and endemic species. K1 has the lowest density of total species, and K2 has the lowest density of endemic species.

  16. Optimization of serious bacterial infections intensive therapy in children in Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Kurochkin

    2014-08-01

    for modern protected penicillin, such as piperacillin+tazobactam ticarcillin+clavulanic acid. In prolonged stay of newborns in AICU grampositive germs also occurred predominantly (65%, and according to their sensitivity glycopeptides, lincosamides and carbapenems should be used widely in this department, under vital indications oxazolidinones and fluoroquinolones may be prescribed. We recommend discrete plasmapheresis conducting in hard bacterial toxemia cases if the level of fraction I medium molecular peptides is more than 0,5 and fraction II more than 0,3 absorbance units, or if their ratio coefficient is less than 1,5. Discrete plasmapheresis conducting leaded to the regression of level and normalization of relations between the middle molecules, indicating the devolution of intoxication syndrome. Conclusions. 1. Microbiological monitoring in Pediatric AICUs showed that in admission to AICU grampositive and gramnegative flora is defined in equal quantity; in AICU of newborns it was respectively 95% of gram-positive germs.2. Inadmission to AICU of older children good sensitivity to the most of modern antibacterial drugs was detected. At the same time it is inappropriate to use cephalosporins, macrolides, penicillins, including protected, and monobactams in AICU for older children after their long stay there. Most justified is aminoglycosides, carbapenems and kolomycin usage. 3. It was found that in AICU of newborns glycopeptides, III generation cephalosporins and carbapenems should be used widely, under vital indications oxazolidinones and fluoroquinolones may be prescribed. 4. Discrete plasmapheresis conducting leads to the regression of level and normalization of relations between the middle molecular peptides, indicating the devolution of intoxication syndrome.

  17. Biochemical fingerprinting of water coliform bacteria, a new method for measuring phenotypic diversity and for comparing different bacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, I; Allestam, G; Stenström, T A; Möllby, R

    1991-01-01

    A simple, automated microplate system for biochemical characterization of water isolates can be used to obtain fingerprints of the bacterial flora from various water samples. Mathematical models for calculating the diversities and similarities between bacterial populations are described for such fingerprints. The diversity may give information on whether an indigenous or allochthonous flora is present, and the similarities between bacterial populations, as calculated by using a population similarity coefficient (Sp), may indicate contaminations between different water samples. The system was demonstrated on coliform bacterial populations from various water samples, with or without suspected intercontamination. For unrelated water samples, the Sps were close to 0, whereas repeated samples of the same source showed Sps of 0.64 to 0.74. The Sp values from several water samples were also clustered to form a dendrogram, thus indicating the relative similarities between the bacterial populations to confirm suspected common sources of pollution. PMID:1781680

  18. The influence of bacterial vaginosis on gestational week of the completion of delivery and biochemical markers of inflammation in the serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Preterm delivery is one of the most common complications in pregnancy, and it is the major cause (75- 80% of all neonatal deaths. Bacterial vaginosis predisposes to an increased risk of preterm delivery, premature rupture of membrane and miscarriage. In this syndrome normal vaginal lactobacilli, which produce protective H2O2, are reduced and replaced with anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of bacterial vaginosis on the week of delivery and biochemical markers of inflammation in the serum. Methods. A total of 186 pregnant women were included into this study, between the week 16 and 19 of pregnancy. In the study group there were 76 pregnant women with diagnosed bacterial vaginosis by the criteria based on vaginal Gram-stain Nugent score and Amsel criteria. In the control group there were 110 healthy women with normal vaginal flora. Ultrasound examination was performed in both groups. Vaginal fluid and blood samples were taken to determine biochemical markers with colorimetric methods. Results. The week of delivery was statistically significantly shorter in the study group and the levels of biochemical markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen in the serum were statistically significantly higher in women with bacterial vaginosis comparing to the control group. Also the levels of uric acid and white blood cells in the serum were higher in the study group compared to the control one. Conclusion. Our study indicates that the pregnancy complicated with bacterial vaginosis ends much earlier than the pregnancy without it. Also, higher levels of biochemical markers of inflammation in the serum in the study group, similarly to results of other studies, suggest that pathophysiological processes responsible for preterm delivery can begin very early in pregnancy.

  19. The Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea project concluded with a fourth Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium held in Uppsala, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009.......En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009....

  20. Bacterial flora in the sputum and comorbidity in patients with acute exacerbations of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boixeda R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramon Boixeda,1 Pere Almagro,2,3 Jesús Díez-Manglano,4 Francisco Javier Cabrera,5 Jesús Recio,6 Isabel Martin-Garrido,7 Joan B Soriano8On behalf of the COPD and Pluripathological Patients Groups of the Spanish Internal Medicine Society 1Internal Medicine Department, Hospital de Mataró – CSDM, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Mataró, Barcelona, Spain; 2Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Mútua de Terrassa, Terrassa, 3Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 4Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Royo Villanova, Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 5Internal Medicine Department, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain; 6Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Vall d’Hebrón, Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 7Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Quirón San Camilo, Madrid, Madrid, Spain; 8Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario de la Princesa (IISP, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cátedra UAM-Lindel, Madrid, Spain Objective: To determine in patients admitted with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD the association between the isolation of potential pathogens in a conventional sputum culture and comorbidities.Patients and methods: The ESMI study is a multicenter observational study. Patients with AE-COPD admitted to the Internal Medicine departments of 70 hospitals were included. The clinical characteristics, treatments, and comorbidities were gathered. The results of conventional sputum cultures were recorded.Results: A total of 536 patients were included, of which 161 produced valid sputum and a potentially pathogenic microorganism was isolated from 88 subjects (16.4%. The isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30.7% was associated with a greater severity of the lung disease (previous admissions [P= 0.026], dyspnea scale [P=0.047], post-broncodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 [P=0.005], and the BODEx index [P=0.009]; also with higher prevalence of cor pulmonale (P=0.017, heart failure (P=0.048, and cerebrovascular disease (P=0.026. Streptococcus pneumoniae (26.1% was associated with more comorbidity according to number of diseases (P=0.018; notably, peripheral artery disease (P=0.033, hypertension (P=0.029, dyslipidemia (P=0.039, osteoporosis (P=0.0001, and depression (P=0.005.Conclusion: Patients with AE-COPD and P. aeruginosa present higher severity of COPD, while those with S. pneumoniae present greater comorbidity. The potentially pathogenic microorganism obtained in the sputum culture depends on the associated comorbidities. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, comorbidities, hospitalization, sputum culture, etiology of exacerbations

  1. [Influence of the fluoride releasing dental materials on the bacterial flora of dental plaque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płuciennik, Małgorzata; Sakowska, Danuta; Krzemiński, Zbigniew; Piatowska, Danuta

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of influence of silver-free, fluor releasing dental materials on dental plaque bacteria quantity. 17 patients were included into the study. 51 restorations were placed following manufacturers recommendations. Following materials were used: conventional glassionomer Ketac-Molar ESPE, resin modified glassionomer Fuji II LC GC and fluor containing composite Charisma Heraeus Kulzer Class V restorations were placed in following teeth of upper and lower jaw: canines, first bicuspids, second bicuspids. Sound enamel was a control. After 10 weeks the 72 hours old dental plaque was collected from surface of restorations and control using sterile probe. Total amount of 68 dental plaques were investigated. Each plaque was placed on scaled and sterile aluminum foil. The moist weight of dental plaque was scaled. Dental plaque was moved into 7 ml 0.85% NaCl solution reduced by cystein chlorine hydrogen and disintegrated by ultrasounds (power:100 Watt, wave amplitude: 5 micorm). The suspension of dental plaque was serially diluted from 10(-4) to 10(-5) in sterile 0,85% NaCl solution, and seeded with amount of 0.1 ml on appropriate base. In dental plaque trials the amount of cariogenic bacteria was calculated--Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Veillonella and Neisseria, and also total amount of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was measured. Microbiologic studies were performed in Institute of Microbiology, Medical University, Łódź. Statistical analysis of collected data was accomplished. In 72 hours old dental plaques collected from the surfaces of Ketac -Molar, Fuji II LC, Charisma after 10 weeks since being placed into the class V cavity, results show no statistically significant differences in the amount of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Veillonella spp., Neisseria spp, in total amount of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and in the quantity proportion of Streptococcus mutans versus Streptococcus spp. in comparison with control trail. Results show no statistically significant differences in the amount of listed above bacteria and in the proportion of Streptococcus mutans versus Streptococcus spp. in 72 hours old dental plaques collected from surfaces of investigated restorative materials.

  2. Significance of bacterial flora in abdominal irradiation-induced inhibition of lung metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Ando, K.; Koike, S.

    1988-01-01

    We have previously reported that abdominal irradiation prior to i.v. injection of syngeneic tumor cells reduced metastases in lung. Our report described an investigation of the significance of intestinal organisms in the radiation effect. We found that eliminating intestinal organisms with antibiotics totally abolished the radiation effect. Monoassociation of germ-free mice revealed that the radiation effect was observable only for Enterobacter cloacae, never for Streptococcus faecium, Bifidobacterium adlesentis, or Escherichia coli. After abdominal irradiation of regular mice, E. cloacae multiplied in cecal contents, adhered to mucous membranes, invaded the cecal wall, and translocated to mesenteric lymph nodes. Intravenous administration of E. cloacae in place of abdominal irradiation inhibited metastases. E. cloacae-monoassociated mice developed fewer metastases than germ-free mice, and the reduction was further enhanced by abdominal irradiation. We concluded that abdominal irradiation caused the invasion of E. cloacae from the mucous membrane of the intestine and inhibited formation of lung metastases

  3. Phosphogypsum biotransformation by aerobic bacterial flora and isolated Trichoderma asperellum from Tunisian storage piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali, Jihen [Research Unit “Coastal and Urban Environments” National Engineering School of Sfax, BP 1173, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Tunisian Chemical Group, M’Dhilla-Gafsa factory, B.P. 215, 2100 Gafsa (Tunisia); Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja [Research Unit “Coastal and Urban Environments” National Engineering School of Sfax, BP 1173, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Loungou, Mouna [Tunisian Chemical Group, M’Dhilla-Gafsa factory, B.P. 215, 2100 Gafsa (Tunisia); Ammar, Emna, E-mail: ammarenis@yahoo.fr [Research Unit “Coastal and Urban Environments” National Engineering School of Sfax, BP 1173, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • The enrichment culture on PG enabled the development of microorganisms. • The isolated Trichoderma asperellum grew on PG concentration at 200 g L{sup −1}. • At 200 g L{sup −1} PG concentration, the experimented strain reduced COD by 52.32%. • Metals concentrations reduction reached a maximum of 73% for the zinc. • Trichoderma asperellum is an efficient microorganism for PG bioremediation. - Abstract: Aerobic microorganisms able to grow on phosphogypsum (PG), characterized by heavy metals accumulation and high acidity were investigated by enrichment cultures. The PG was used at different concentrations, varying from 20 to 200 g/L in the enrichment culture medium supplemented with compost and Tamarix roots. This treatment reduced COD and heavy metals PG concentration. An efficient isolated fungus, identified by molecular approach as Trichoderma asperellum, was able to grow on PG as the sole carbon and energy sources at the different experimented concentrations, and to increase the culture media pH of the different PG concentrations used to 8.13. This fact would be the result of alkaline compound released during the fungus PG solubilization. Besides, the heavy metals and COD removal exceeded 52% after 7 days culture. At 200 g/L PG concentration, the experimented strain was able to reduce COD by 52.32% and metals concentrations by 73% for zinc, 63.75% for iron and 50% for cadmium. This exhibited the T. asperellum efficiency for heavy metals accumulation and for phosphogypsum bioremediation.

  4. Comparing Cerumen Bacterial Flora in Acute Otitis Externa Patients and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Kiakojori

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In spite of the fact that acute otitis media is a systemic and symptomatic disease with sever otalgia, otitis media with effusion (OME is an asymptomatic and silent disease. OME is the most common cause of conductive hearing loss in children and has adverse effects on speech development and cognitive skills. Results: Among 1001 children under study, 57 subjects (5.7% were diagnosed with OME, more than 50% of which were asymptomatic. Periodic otalgia and turning up television volume were the most common symptoms. Conclusion: Regarding the improved knowledge on diagnosis and treatment of OME especially in younger children, hearing problems or cognitive and linguistic skills retardation may be avoided by promoting general information.

  5. Bacterial flora associated with larval rearing of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Phatarpekar, P.V.; Kenkre, V.D.; Sreepada, R.A.; Desai, U.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    for microbial control in the intensive rearing of marine larvae. Aquaculture 177, 333–343. Sokal, R.R., Rohlf, F.J., 1995. Biometry. The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research. Freeman, New York, 887 pp. Stevenson, L.H., 1978. A case... to the feeding practice adopted. The larvae were fed with Artemia nauplii from day 2, while ()P.V. Phatarpekar et al.rAquaculture 203 2002 279–291 287 egg custard was fed from day 5. Very few bacteria associate internally and externally Ž. with Artemia nauplii...

  6. [Significance of the bacterial flora in the etiology of apical periodontitis. Qualitative, quantitative and topographical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accorsi, S; Lavagnoli, G; Frigeri, S; Fiamminghi, L

    1990-01-01

    In the international literature it is shown the central role of root canal infection in the etiology of periapical lesions. As a matter of fact it has been proved (13) that sterile necrotic pulp tissue is completely unable to cause inflammatory reactions at the periapex. Infection of endodontic origin extends to the supporting tissues of the tooth only in the case of their acute inflammation (e.g. acute apical periodontitis, acute alveolar abscess, phoenix abscess). On the other hand in chronic inflammation bacteria remain confined in the endodontic space. Only few exceptions to this general rule have been experimentally proved. In endodontics we deal with a mixed infection which is composed by obligate anaerobes and by facultative anaerobes. The most frequently found obligate anaerobes are Bacteroides sp. and Fusobacterium sp. (Gram- rods) Anaerobic Diphtheroides (Gram+ rods) Peptostreptococcus sp. (Gram+ cocci) and Veilonella sp. (Gram- cocci). Actinomyces sp., Lactobacillus sp., Streptococcus sp., and Staphilococcus sp. are the facultative anaerobes most frequently found.

  7. Phosphogypsum biotransformation by aerobic bacterial flora and isolated Trichoderma asperellum from Tunisian storage piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Jihen; Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja; Loungou, Mouna; Ammar, Emna

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The enrichment culture on PG enabled the development of microorganisms. • The isolated Trichoderma asperellum grew on PG concentration at 200 g L"−"1. • At 200 g L"−"1 PG concentration, the experimented strain reduced COD by 52.32%. • Metals concentrations reduction reached a maximum of 73% for the zinc. • Trichoderma asperellum is an efficient microorganism for PG bioremediation. - Abstract: Aerobic microorganisms able to grow on phosphogypsum (PG), characterized by heavy metals accumulation and high acidity were investigated by enrichment cultures. The PG was used at different concentrations, varying from 20 to 200 g/L in the enrichment culture medium supplemented with compost and Tamarix roots. This treatment reduced COD and heavy metals PG concentration. An efficient isolated fungus, identified by molecular approach as Trichoderma asperellum, was able to grow on PG as the sole carbon and energy sources at the different experimented concentrations, and to increase the culture media pH of the different PG concentrations used to 8.13. This fact would be the result of alkaline compound released during the fungus PG solubilization. Besides, the heavy metals and COD removal exceeded 52% after 7 days culture. At 200 g/L PG concentration, the experimented strain was able to reduce COD by 52.32% and metals concentrations by 73% for zinc, 63.75% for iron and 50% for cadmium. This exhibited the T. asperellum efficiency for heavy metals accumulation and for phosphogypsum bioremediation.

  8. Large intestine bacterial flora of nonhibernating and hibernating leopard frogs (Rana pipiens).

    OpenAIRE

    Gossling, J; Loesche, W J; Nace, G W

    1982-01-01

    The bacteria in the large intestines of 10 northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were enumerated and partially characterized. Four nonhibernating frogs were collected in the summer, four hibernating frogs were collected in the winter, and two frogs just emerged from hibernation were collected in the spring. All frogs had about 10(10) bacteria per g (wet weight) of intestinal contents and about 10(9) bacteria per g (wet weight) of mucosal scraping, although the counts from the winter frogs wer...

  9. Effects of municipal sewage on the sessile and planctonic bacterial flora of bodies of surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorch, H.J.; Ottow, J.C.G.

    1992-01-01

    For the evaluation of the useability of bacteria as biological indicators of the water state, sections of a flowing body of water (Erms, Schwaebische Alb) with different pollutant levels were investigated between August '82 and July '85. In flowing waves (current biological indicators), the population densities of saprophytes, coliform buds and sporophytes were determined as well as the total number of bacteria number and the morphology of the bacteria. The upgrowth on artificial (glass) and natural (water plants) substrates (integrating biological indicators) was examined with the aid of light microscope and scanning electron microscope in order to measure the long-term influence of different nutrient conditions on the microflora. (orig.) [de

  10. Study of bacterial flora associated with mobile phones of healthcare workers and non-healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morubagal, Raghavendra Rao; Shivappa, Sowmya Govindanahalli; Mahale, Rashmi Padmanabha; Neelambike, Sumana Mhadevaiah

    2017-06-01

    Despite improvements in modern diagnosis and therapies, hospital acquired infections remain a leading problem of global health systems. Healthcare workers mobile phones is a reservoir for potential pathogens. Despite the high possibility of being contaminated, mobile phones are rarely clean and are often touched during or after examination of patients and handling of specimens without proper hand washing. The main objective of the present study was to isolate, identify different types of bacteria and their antibiotic sensitivity from mobile phones of healthcare workers and non-health-care workers. Samples were collected aseptically by rolling over the exposed surfaces of the mobile phones inoculated on the agar plates and incubated aerobically. After incubation, plates were examined for growth. Bacteria were identified and antibiotic sensitivity was tested as per standard microbiological procedures. In this study a total of 175 samples were examined, out of which 125 samples were from healthcare workers (HCWs), 50 samples were from non-healthcare workers (non-HCWs). Among the mobile phones of HCW's from ICUs, Acinetobacter baumannii (36.84%) was the predominant organism isolated followed by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (21.05%). Predominant organism isolated from HCW's in operation theater theater was MRSA (46.66%). Out of 50 worker's non-HCWs mobile phones samples cultured, 23 (46.00%) samples yielded growth of six different types of bacteria. Our study reveals that there is definite colonization of bacteria on mobile phones of the HCWs. It is not only capable of transferring message but also disease-producing microbes. In order to reduce incidence of nosocomial infections, there should be implementation of hand washing practices and regulations around the use of mobile telephones in hospital settings.

  11. Climate change effects on an endemic-rich edaphic flora: resurveying Robert H. Whittaker's Siskiyou sites (Oregon, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Harrison, Susan; Grace, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Species with relatively narrow niches, such as plants restricted (endemic) to particular soils, may be especially vulnerable to extinction under a changing climate due to the enhanced difficulty they face in migrating to suitable new sites. To test for community-level effects of climate change, and to compare such effects in a highly endemic-rich flora on unproductive serpentine soils vs. the flora of normal (diorite) soils, in 2007 we resampled as closely as possible 108 sites originally studied by ecologist Robert H. Whittaker from 1949 to 1951 in the Siskiyou Mountains of southern Oregon, USA. We found sharp declines in herb cover and richness on both serpentine and diorite soils. Declines were strongest in species of northern biogeographic affinity, species endemic to the region (in serpentine communities only), and species endemic to serpentine soils. Consistent with climatic warming, herb communities have shifted from 1949-1951 to 2007 to more closely resemble communities found on xeric (warm, dry) south-facing slopes. The changes found in the Siskiyou herb flora suggest that biotas rich in narrowly distributed endemics may be particularly susceptible to the effects of a warming climate.

  12. Probiotic and lactulose: influence on gastrointestinal flora and pH value in minimal hepatic encephalopathy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Man; Jia, Lin; Zhang, Mei-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the influence on gastrointestinal flora, counts of bifidobacteria and Enterobacterceae in colon and pH value of gastrointestinal after lactulose and probiotic treatment on rat experimental minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) induced by thioactamide (TAA). MHE was induced by intraperitoneal injection of TAA. 48 male MHE models were then randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (n = 12); MHE group (n = 12) received tap water ad libitum only; lactulose group (n = 12) and probiotics group (n = 12) gavaged respectively with 8 ml/kg of lactulose and 1.5 g/kg of probiotic preparation Golden Bifid (highly concentrated combination probiotic) dissolved in 2 ml of normal saline, once a day for 8 days. The latency of Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) I was used as objective index of MHE. Counts of gastrointestinal flora, counts of bifidobacteria and Enterobacterceae in colon and pH value of gastrointestinal were examined respectively. Compared to MHE group, counts of gastrointestinal flora has greatly decreased, ratio of bifidobacteria and Enterobacterceae has greatly increased, pH value of colon has greatly descended (P 0.05). Both lactulose and probiotics can effectively prevent bacteria translocation and overgrowth, intensify CR, improved value of B/E, and acidify intestinal, decreased pH value of colon. Probiotic compound Golden Bifid is as useful as lactulose for the prevention and treatment of MHE. Probiotic therapy may be a safe, natural, well-tolerated therapy appropriate for the long-term treatment of MHE.

  13. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial efficacy of preoperative skin antisepsis and clonal relationship to postantiseptic skin-and-wound flora in patients undergoing clean orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeschlein, G; Napp, M; Layer, F; von Podewils, S; Haase, H; Spitzmueller, R; Assadian, O; Kasch, R; Werner, G; Jünger, M; Hinz, P; Ekkernkamp, A

    2015-11-01

    Nosocomial surgical site infections (SSI) are still important complications in surgery. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the possible role of skin flora surviving preoperative antisepsis as a possible cause of SSI. We conducted a two-phase prospective clinical trial in patients undergoing clean orthopedic surgery at a university trauma center in northern Germany. Quantitative swab samples were taken from pre- and postantiseptic skin and, additionally, from the wound base, wound margin, and the suture of 137 patients. Seventy-four patients during phase I and 63 during phase II were investigated. Microbial growth, species spectrum, and antibiotic susceptibility were analyzed. In phase two, the clonal relationship of strains was additionally analyzed. 18.0 % of the swab samples were positive for bacterial growth in the wound base, 24.5 % in the margin, and 27.3 % in the suture. Only 65.5 % of patients showed a 100 % reduction of the skin flora after antisepsis. The microbial spectrum in all postantiseptic samples was dominated by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Clonally related staphylococci were detected in ten patients [nine CoNS, one methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA)]. Six of ten patients were suspected of having transmitted identical clones from skin flora into the wound. Ethanol-based antisepsis results in unexpected high levels of skin flora, which can be transmitted into the wound during surgery causing yet unexplained SSI. Keeping with the concept of zero tolerance, further studies are needed in order to understand the origin of this flora to allow further reduction of SSI.

  15. A STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS IN SEXUALLY ACTIVE FEMALES- A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, GAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Krishna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vaginal discharge is very common problem among females. Alteration in balance of normal vaginal organisms can cause the overgrowth of the bacteria that creates vaginal discharge. It is common among sexually active women yet there still remain gaps in our knowledge of this infectious disorder. Bacterial Vaginosis (BV also called no-specific vaginitis develops when the normally predominant peroxide producing lactobacillus species in the vagina are replaced by mixed predominantly anaerobic flora consisting of Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mobiluncus species, Bacteroides species, Prevotela species, Peptostreptococcus species, Fusobacterium species and Porphyromonas species. The present study was conducted to know the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in sexually active females coming with the chief complaint of vaginal discharge to Obstetrics and Gynaecological OPD Bihar. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 200 otherwise healthy women of reproductive age group with the complaint of excessive vaginal discharge were included in the study. We exclude the patients who are married, women with known skin disease and post-menopausal. Normal saline wet-mount slide preparations were made for detection of motile trichomonads. Gram stained smear were prepared and scored as per classification developed by Nugent. The presence of pseudohyphae and/or budding yeast cells was considered diagnostic of candidal infection. RESULTS The median age of the study population was 28 years. Most common cause was bacterial vaginosis (positive= 18.5 %; intermediate score= 19.5 %, followed by candidiasis (13.5% and trichomoniasis (0.5%. No etiological diagnosis for vaginal discharge could be established in approximately half of the women. Only one woman was HIV positive; one was reactive by VDRL and TPHA tests. CONCLUSION In addition, the laboratory services network needs to be strengthened to ensure accurate and standardized availability of diagnostic

  16. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  17. Lichen flora of London: effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laundon, J R

    1967-01-01

    There is good, but not conclusive, evidence that sulfur dioxide is the pollutant which deleteriously affects lichens. The distribution of many lichens in London corresponds closely with the concentrations of sulfur dioxide. Low humidity is also a factor. Apart from actually killing lichens, increasing air pollution can render certain species incapable of colonizing new surfaces, although the old thalli themselves are able to survive as relicts. Until the early nineteenth century air pollution affected the lichen flora only in the small built-up area of London. The halting of building around London since 1938 has brought stability to the lichen vegetation of the area, and since then changes have been minor ones. Recent changes in pollution emissions have had little effect on the lichen flora between 1950 and 1967. This is to be expected as sulfur dioxide concentrations have remained fairly constant at ground level.

  18. Fire and explosion hazards to flora and fauna from explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, R

    2000-06-30

    Deliberate or accidental initiation of explosives can produce a range of potentially damaging fire and explosion effects. Quantification of the consequences of such effects upon the surroundings, particularly on people and structures, has always been of paramount importance. Information on the effects on flora and fauna, however, is limited, with probably the weakest area lying with fragmentation of buildings and their effects on different small mammals. Information has been used here to gain an appreciation of the likely magnitude of the potential fire and explosion effects on flora and fauna. This is based on a number of broad assumptions and a variety of data sources including World War II bomb damage, experiments performed with animals 30-40 years ago, and more recent field trials on building break-up under explosive loading.

  19. Flora of the city of Podgorica, Montenegro: Taxonomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stešević Danijela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the taxonomic segment of a floristic study undertaken in the city of Podgorica in the period of 2002-2007. The check-list of spontaneously growing vascular plants includes 1227 species and subspecies belonging to 545 genera and 118 families. The dominant families are Poaceae (11.7%, asteraceae (11.2% and Fabaceae (9.2%. The most abundant genera are Trifolium (2.1%, Euphorbia (1.5%, Carex (1.5%, Bromus (1.3% and Vicia (1.2%. Analysis of the flora of Podgorica in comparison with some other european cities showed that the flora of Podgorica is most similar to that of Rome (Q/S= 0,7.

  20. New Species of Orchids (Orchidaceae in the Flora of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. AVERYANOV

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes results of joint efforts of professional botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese native orchids during years 2013–2016. It provides new original data about the discovery of 1 genus (Grammatophyllum Blume and 29 orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam. Valid name, main synonyms, data on type, ecology, phenology, estimated IUCN Red List status, distribution, studied specimens, as well as brief taxonomic and biological notes are provided for each species and varieties. Eight species (Bidupia khangii, Bulbophyllum striatulum, B. tipula, Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum, Cymbidium repens, Dendrobium congianum, Flickingeria xanthocheila, Podochilus rotundipetala and two varieties (Phreatia densiflora var. vietnamensis, P. formosana var. continentalis are described as new for science. One combination (Bulbophyllum bicolor var. funingense is proposed. An illustrated annotated list of all studied species and varieties is arranged in alphabetical order. Including present data, the known orchid flora of Vietnam comprises currently at least 1210 documented species from 172 genera.

  1. China: a rich flora needed of urgent conservation

    OpenAIRE

    López-Pujol, Jordi; Zhao, A-Man

    2004-01-01

    [EN] China is one of the richest countries in plant biodiversity in the world. Besides to a rich flora, which contains about 33 000 vascular plants (being 30 000 of these angiosperms, 250 gymnosperms, and 2 600 pteridophytes), there is a extraordinary ecosystem diversity. In addition, China also contains a large pool of both wild and cultivated germplasm; one of the eight original centers of crop plants in the world was located there. China is also considered one of the main ce...

  2. Evolutionary history of the angiosperm flora of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li-Min; Mao, Ling-Feng; Yang, Tuo; Ye, Jian-Fei; Liu, Bing; Li, Hong-Lei; Sun, Miao; Miller, Joseph T.; Mathews, Sarah; Hu, Hai-Hua; Niu, Yan-Ting; Peng, Dan-Xiao; Chen, You-Hua; Smith, Stephen A.; Chen, Min; Xiang, Kun-Li; Le, Chi-Toan; Dang, Viet-Cuong; Lu, An-Ming; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Li, Jian-Hua; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2018-02-01

    High species diversity may result from recent rapid speciation in a ‘cradle’ and/or the gradual accumulation and preservation of species over time in a ‘museum’. China harbours nearly 10% of angiosperm species worldwide and has long been considered as both a museum, owing to the presence of many species with hypothesized ancient origins, and a cradle, as many lineages have originated as recent topographic changes and climatic shifts—such as the formation of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the development of the monsoon—provided new habitats that promoted remarkable radiation. However, no detailed phylogenetic study has addressed when and how the major components of the Chinese angiosperm flora assembled to form the present-day vegetation. Here we investigate the spatio-temporal divergence patterns of the Chinese flora using a dated phylogeny of 92% of the angiosperm genera for the region, a nearly complete species-level tree comprising 26,978 species and detailed spatial distribution data. We found that 66% of the angiosperm genera in China did not originate until early in the Miocene epoch (23 million years ago (Mya)). The flora of eastern China bears a signature of older divergence (mean divergence times of 22.04-25.39 Mya), phylogenetic overdispersion (spatial co-occurrence of distant relatives) and higher phylogenetic diversity. In western China, the flora shows more recent divergence (mean divergence times of 15.29-18.86 Mya), pronounced phylogenetic clustering (co-occurrence of close relatives) and lower phylogenetic diversity. Analyses of species-level phylogenetic diversity using simulated branch lengths yielded results similar to genus-level patterns. Our analyses indicate that eastern China represents a floristic museum, and western China an evolutionary cradle, for herbaceous genera; eastern China has served as both a museum and a cradle for woody genera. These results identify areas of high species richness and phylogenetic diversity, and

  3. Noteworthy additions to the flora of Uttarakhand, western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwari D. Rai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During recent botanical explorations, we recorded three interesting plant species from the alpine regions (>3500m of the Uttarakhand State in the western Himalaya.  After a detailed scrutiny of the literature and herbarium specimens, we ascertain their identity and report them as additions to the flora of Uttarakhand.  In this paper descriptions of these species along with their phenology, distribution, photographs, ecology and phytogeographical notes have been presented.

  4. Cross-cultural comparison of medicinal floras used against snakebites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molander, Marianne; Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Jäger, Anna K; Rønsted, Nina

    2012-02-15

    Envenomation causes an estimated 1.8-2.5 million incidences per year with a mortality level of 100-125,000 persons annually and more than 100,000 individuals suffer from severe complications, which may end in amputation of the attacked limb. The use of plants is a major part of the traditional practitioners' treatment of snakebites. A database was created for plants used to treat snakebites worldwide. From this database, we selected five countries with a high number of entries and representing different cultures, geography and floristic zones: Brazil, Nicaragua, Nepal, China and South Africa. The datasets were analysed by regression and binominal analysis to see if any family or genus used against snakebites was overrepresented in the respective traditional medicinal systems relative to the abundance in the local flora. The families from the different geographical areas were compared to ascertain whether the same plant families are preferred by different peoples. Three 'hot' families (Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae and Rubiaceae) were recovered in at least two of the five compared countries in the regression analyses and one 'hot' family (Zingiberaceae) was recovered in two of the compared countries in the binomial analyses. Four out of five floras possess families identified as outliers in both regression and binomial analyses. Eight families were recovered by both the binomial and the regression analysis (40-62% of all highlighted families respectively). At the genus level, only Piper (Piperaceae) was recovered as a 'hot' genus in at least two floras. Seven genera were highlighted by both analyses (25-44% of the highlighted genera). Cross-cultural comparison of medicinal floras used against snakebites appears to be useful for highlighting candidate families and genera for further studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Allamanda schottii (Apocynaceae: nueva cita para la Flora Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Hurrell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo Allamanda schottii Pohl (Apocynaceae es documentada como nueva cita genérica y específica para la Flora Argentina. La especie fue hallada en la ribera del Paraná, en el norte de la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina. Se incluye su sinonimia, descripción, comentarios sobre su distribución, hábitat, fenología, biología reproductiva, nombres vulgares, usos y observaciones.

  6. ABSTRACTS: HortFlora Res. Spectrum, Vol. 4, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Umrao, Dr. V.K.

    2017-01-01

    The HortFlora Research Spectrum (HRS), Website: www.hortflorajournal.com, is an international-peer reviewed, open access journal that serves as a forum for the exchange and dissemination of R & D advances and innovations in all facets of Horticultural Science (Pomology, Olericulture, Floriculture, Post Harvest Technology, Plant Biotechnology, and Medicinal & Aromatic Plants etc.) and its allied branches on an international level. HRS is officially published quarterly (March, June, Septemb...

  7. HortFlora Research Spectrum; NAAS Rating 3.78

    OpenAIRE

    Umrao, Dr. V.K.

    2017-01-01

    The journal HortFlora Research Spectrum (HRS) having International Impact (NAAS Rating: 3.78; ICV: 27.39, GIF: 0.471; IBI Factor: 2.8; NJIF: 2.14; GSCIF: 0.364; OAJI Impact Factor: 0.201), publishes high quality peer reviewed/refereed original research papers, review articles and research notes on all aspects of Horticultural plants' research including agronomic management, plant nutrition, biotechnology, crop improvement, plant protection, plant physiology, cell & molecular biology, medicina...

  8. Nutrients, phytochemicals, fungal flora and aflatoxin in fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effect of salting on the pH, phytochemicals, fungal flora and nutrient composition of Vernonia amygdalina leaves was investigated. There was a decrease in pH from 5.88 for the fresh, to 5.80, 5.73, 5.24, and 5.02 for the light brined, light salted, heavy salted and light brine + vinegar treated leaves, ...

  9. La Fondation William et Flora Hewlett | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La Fondation William et Flora Hewlett. http://www.hewlett.org/. Initiative Think tank. Cette initiative permet d'établir des organismes indépendants qui se consacrent à la recherche et à l'élaboration de politiques dans des pays en développement. Voir davantage. Initiative Think tank. Croissance de l'économie et débouchés ...

  10. Cape plants: corrections and additions to the flora. 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Comprising an area of ± 90 000 km:, less than 5% of the land surface of the southern African subcontinent, the Cape Floristic Region (CFR is one of the world’s richest areas for plant species diversity. A recent synoptic flora for the Region has established a new base line for an accurate assessment of the flora. Here we document corrections and additions to the flora at family, genus and species ranks. As treated in Cape plants, which was completed in 1999. the flora comprised 173 families (five endemic, 988 genera (160 endemic: 16.2%, and 9 004 species (6 192 endemic: 68.8%. Just four years later, a revised count resulting from changes in the circumscriptions of families and genera, and the discovery of new species or range extensions of species, yields an estimate of 172 families (four endemic, 992 genera (162 endemic: 16.3% and 9 086 species (6 226: 68.5% endemic. Of these, 948 genera and 8 971 species are seed plants. The number of species packed into so small an area is remarkable for the temperate zone and compares favourably with species richness for areas of compa­rable size in the wet tropics. The degree of endemism is also remarkable for a continental area. An unusual family compo­sition includes, in descending order of size, based on species number. Asteraceae. Fabaceae. Iridaceae. Ericaceae. Aizoaceae, Scrophulariaceae. Proteaceae. Restionaceae, Rutaceae. and Orchidaceae. Disproportionate radiation has resulted in 59.1% of the species falling in the 10 largest families and 74.6% in the largest 20 families. Thirteen genera have more than 100 species and the 20 largest genera contribute some 31.5% of the total species number.

  11. State of the knowledge of flora of hepaticas of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe M, Jaime; Gradstein, S Rob

    1999-01-01

    The Colombian hepatic flora is a very rich one. About 60% of all the species of tropical America and one sixth of the world's hepaticas occur in Colombia. The country has more species than the whole of Africa south of the Sahara and almost twice as many as Europe. The new catalogue of the hepaticas of Colombia accepts 840 species (in 36 families and 136 genera): 832 species of Hepaticae and 8 species of Anthocerotae

  12. Ecological study of algal flora of Neelum river Azad Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leghari, M.K.; Leghari, M.Y.

    2000-01-01

    First time ecological study of Algal Flora of Neelum River Azad Kashmir was carried out during January 1998 to July 1998. A total of 78 species belonging to 48 genera of 4 Algal groups. Cyanophyceae (16 species 20.5 % belonging to 11 genera), Choloronophycease (23 species 29.5 % belonging to 18 genera), Bacillariophyceae (37 species 47 % belonging to 17 genera), Xanthophyceae (2 species 3 % belonging to 2 genera) and 39 physico - chemical parameters were recorded. (author)

  13. Bacterial mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Borch, Jonas; Dam, Mette

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial DNA segregation takes place in an active and ordered fashion. In the case of Escherichia coli plasmid R1, the partitioning system (par) separates paired plasmid copies and moves them to opposite cell poles. Here we address the mechanism by which the three components of the R1 par system...... act together to generate the force required for plasmid movement during segregation. ParR protein binds cooperatively to the centromeric parC DNA region, thereby forming a complex that interacts with the filament-forming actin-like ParM protein in an ATP-dependent manner, suggesting that plasmid...

  14. La flora vascular de la Sierra de Chiribiquete, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés B. Rocio

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary checklist of Chiribiquete flora has 549 species of vascular plants, which belong to 315 genera and 107 families. The families with the highest species number were: Rubiaceae (32, Melastomataceae (31, Orchidaceae (25 and Bromeliaceae (24; there were 30% of the families represented by one species. The majar tloristic affinities of the Chiribiquete flora are with the Amazonregion and the Guayana central province. Eleven species (including ten new are endemic to Chiribiquete and 167 are endemic to the Guayana region.El catálogo preliminar de la flora de Chiribiquete incluye 549 especies de plantas vasculares, pertenecientes a 315 géneros y a 107 familias. Las familias con mayor número de especies son Rubiaceae (32 Melastomataceae (31, Orchidaceae (25 y Bromeliaceae (24; el 30% de las familias están representadas por una especie. Las afinidades florísticas son mayores con la región amazónica y con la provincia Guayana central. Once especies (incluyendo diez novedades  taxonómicas tienen área de distribución endémica de Chiribiquete y 167 están restringidas a la región Guayana.

  15. Flora of the Kap River Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Cloete

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis ot the flora of the newly proclaimed Kap River Reserve (600 ha is given. The reserve is adjacent to the Fish River and some 5 km from the Fish River Mouth It consists of a coastal plateau up to 100 m a.s.I. which is steeply dissected by the two rivers that partially form the boundary of the reserve. The flora of the reserve was sampled over a period o f three years and plants were collected in all the vegetation types of grassland, thicket and forest. 488 species were collected with a species to family ratio of 4:4. The majority of the taxa recorded represent the major phytochoria of the region. Nineteen species are endemic to the Eastern Cape, two are classed as vulnerable, five are rare, six are protected and a further seventeen are of uncertain status. The flora of the Kap River has closest affinities to that of the Alexandria Forest.

  16. Analysis of weed flora in conventional and organic potato production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić, Lj.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Composition of weed flora is highly dynamic and depends upon great number of factors, of which cultural practices that are applied by humans in certain crops are the most important. One of the most frequently grown plants in the world and in our country is potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanaceae, due to its high biological and nutritive value. Therefore, in the paper was presented taxonomic analysis of weed flora in potato grown conventionally and according to the principles of organic agricultural production, with the intention to point out to eventual differences between present weeds. Of the total number of identified species, from phylum Equisetophyta and class Equisetopsida, in organic potato crop, was determined only one, Equisetum arvense. Of remaining 38 weeds from phylum Magnoliophyta., classified into two classes, Magnoliopsida and Liliopsida. On both of potato growing systems, 39 weed species were found, classified into 16 families and 32 genus. Of the total number, 31 species was identified in conventional potato crop, and only 23 species in potato crop grown according to organic principles, which is for about quarter less. Biological spectrum of weed flora in both potato growing systems is pronouncedly of terrophytic – geophytic type. In the spectrum of area types were recorded differences, i.e. in the conventional potato crop represented are only widely distributed species, while in the organic crop, beside species of wide distribution are also present elements of Pontic group.

  17. Accuracy of the cytopathology, bacterioscopy, and vaginal flora culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, P Q; Pereira, M A P; Palomo, F S; Okazaki, C; Schimidt, M A; Speck, N M G; Ribalta, J C L

    2013-01-01

    An over-population of vaginal microorganisms causing inflammatory processes renders it difficult to properly assess the cytopathological exam that aims to screen precedent cervical lesions. On the contrary, the occurrence of the microbial flora saprophyte does not influence correct cythodiagnosis. To assess the composition of vaginal tract aerobic microorganisms of asymptomatic women in menacme and post-menopause, and to analyze the accuracy of cytopathologic, bacterioscopic exams, and culturing of the flora. The women were first submitted to a focused anamnestic interrogatory and then submitted to gynecological exam. A sample of the vaginal fluid was collected with a culture swab and a smear was made on two glass slides for stained bacterioscopic exam (GRAM). The collection of material was then compiled in a cytopathologic smear analysis. All women signed the free and informed consent letter and the project was approved by the Ethics Research Board of Hospital São Paulo - UNIFESP. Bacterioscopy and culture proved to be better than the cytopathologic exam in featuring the bacilli and cocci. The bacterioscopy provided a better detection of the presence of bacilli (p < 0.001); no statistical difference was seen between both exams with respect to the detected cocci. The beta-hemolytic Streptococcus group was of significance in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). In this study, the bacterioscopic and culture exams of the vaginal fluid were more effective in assessing the vaginal flora and in the detection of bacilli, compared to the cytopathological exam.

  18. The role of calcium utilization of intestinal flora on urinary calcium excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurt Lambrecht, F.; Uenak, P.; Kavukcu, S.; Soylu, A.; Tuerkmen, M.; Kasap, B.; Yucesoy, M.; Esen, N.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether calcium utilization of intestinal flora has any effect on urinary calcium excretion, like oxalate degrading effect of Oxalobacter formigenes. Materials and Methods: The data of urinary calcium excretion examinations were evaluated. 0.1 g/ml of feces samples were implanted in broths. 5 μL of 45 Ca solution was added to the samples and they were incubated for 24 hours at 37 degree C. The amount of bacteriae in the samples was determined as colony forming unit (CFU). 200 μL of the samples were filtrated by 0.45 μm membrane and rinsed by 200 μL pure water. 45 Ca activity ( 45 Ca) of bacteria in the membrane was counted by GM detector for 100 seconds. Then, activity per CFU ( 45 Ca/CFU) was calculated and compared in hypercalciuric (calciuria >4; mg/kg/hour and/or calcium/creatinine ratio>0.21; Group I) and normocalciuric (Group II) patients. Results: Samples of 29 patients with a mean age of 7.50±4.28 (1.5-16) years were evaluated. 11 of them were female (M/F: 18/11). There were 14 patients in Group I and 15 patients in Group II, 45 Ca/CFU was not different for neither aerobic nor anaerobic bacteries between the two groups (p:0.983, p:0.601, respectively). 24-hour urine calcium levels were negatively but not significantly correlated to aerobic and anaerobic 45 Ca/CFU (p:0.079, r:-0.145; p:0.260, r:-0.420, respectively) in hypercalciuric patients. Besides, in normocalciuric patients, 24-hour urine calcium levels were correlated positively to aerobic and negatively to anaerobic 45 Ca/CFU again in an insignificant manner (p:0.509, r: 0.223; p:0623, r:-0.257, respectively). Conclusion: In this, study, similar 45 Ca/CFU levels in both hypercalciuric and normocalciuric patients imply that calcium utilization of intestinal flora does not have a distinct effect on urinary calcium excretion but, although not significant, there was a negative correlation between urine calcium levels and bacterial 45 Ca/CFU levels especially in hypercalciuric

  19. Composition and immuno-stimulatory properties of extracellular DNA from mouse gut flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ce; Li, Ya; Yu, Ren-Qiang; Zhou, Sheng-Li; Wang, Xing-Guo; Le, Guo-Wei; Jin, Qing-Zhe; Xiao, Hang; Sun, Jin

    2017-11-28

    To demonstrate that specific bacteria might release bacterial extracellular DNA (eDNA) to exert immunomodulatory functions in the mouse small intestine. Extracellular DNA was extracted using phosphate buffered saline with 0.5 mmol/L dithiothreitol combined with two phenol extractions. TOTO-1 iodide, a cell-impermeant and high-affinity nucleic acid stain, was used to confirm the existence of eDNA in the mucus layers of the small intestine and colon in healthy Male C57BL/6 mice. Composition difference of eDNA and intracellular DNA (iDNA) of the small intestinal mucus was studied by Illumina sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Stimulation of cytokine production by eDNA was studied in RAW264.7 cells in vitro . TOTO-1 iodide staining confirmed existence of eDNA in loose mucus layer of the mouse colon and thin surface mucus layer of the small intestine. Illumina sequencing analysis and T-RFLP revealed that the composition of the eDNA in the small intestinal mucus was significantly different from that of the iDNA of the small intestinal mucus bacteria. Illumina Miseq sequencing showed that the eDNA sequences came mainly from Gram-negative bacteria of Bacteroidales S24-7. By contrast, predominant bacteria of the small intestinal flora comprised Gram-positive bacteria. Both eDNA and iDNA were added to native or lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Raw267.4 macrophages, respectively. The eDNA induced significantly lower tumor necrosis factor-α/interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-6/IL-10 ratios than iDNA, suggesting the predominance for maintaining immune homeostasis of the gut. Our results indicated that degraded bacterial genomic DNA was mainly released by Gram-negative bacteria, especially Bacteroidales-S24-7 and Stenotrophomonas genus in gut mucus of mice. They decreased pro-inflammatory activity compared to total gut flora genomic DNA.

  20. Effects of probiotics on the recurrence of bacterial vaginosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayouni, Aziz; Bastani, Parvin; Ziyadi, Somayeh; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Ghalibaf, Morad; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad; Mehrabany, Elnaz Vaghef

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common cause of genital discomfort in women in reproductive ages, which causes many complications. Bacterial vaginosis is usually treated by metronidazole and clindamycin. However, this protocol does not prevent its recurrence, which is a main complaint of the patients. The number of lactobacilli in the vagina of women with BV is significantly lower than that in healthy women. Hence, efforts have been made to normalize vaginal flora by oral or vaginal administration of lactobacilli. The objective of the present study was to review clinical evidences available regarding the efficacy of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of BV. Published randomized controlled trials were searched in PubMed, Science Direct, and the Cochrane Database between 1990 and 2011. Search terms included bacterial vaginosis, urinary tract infection, lactobacillus, and probiotics. Orally consumed probiotics are believed to ascend to the vaginal tract after they are excreted from the rectum; vaginal administration allows for direct replacement of the probiotics for unhealthy vaginal microbiota and occupation of specific adhesion sites at the epithelial surface of the urinary tract, which consequently results in maintenance of a low pH and production of antimicrobial substances like acids and hydrogen peroxide. Receiving Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, and Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 at a dose of at least 10 CFU/day for 2 months has been shown to present the patients with better results. Although the results of different studies are controversial, most studies have been in favor of the probiotics in the prevention or treatment of BV, and no adverse effects have been reported. Therefore, it may be helpful to recommend daily consumption of probiotic products to improve public health among women.

  1. Flora of the city of Podgorica, Montenegro: Chorologic structure and comparison with the floras of Rome, Patras, and Salonika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stešević Danijela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the geographical structure of the flora of Podgorica revealed that 85.9% of the species are native, while 14.1% are non-native. This ratio is typical of Mediterranean settlements, where even the most urbanized region reflects the overall character of the surrounding flora. In terms of chorologic groups, the three largest are: eury-Mediterranean (18.2%, cosmopolitan (12.6%, and steno-Mediterranean (8.3%. The percentage of endemic and subendemic plants is also significant (6.8%. Within the group of aliens, species of Asian origin prevail. Comparative analysis of the chorologic spectra of Podgorica, Rome, Patras, and Salonika revealed some similarities.

  2. Role of the normal gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandhyala, Sai Manasa; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Subramanyam, Chivkula; Vuyyuru, Harish; Sasikala, Mitnala; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2015-08-07

    Relation between the gut microbiota and human health is being increasingly recognised. It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Though the gut microbiota in an infant appears haphazard, it starts resembling the adult flora by the age of 3 years. Nevertheless, there exist temporal and spatial variations in the microbial distribution from esophagus to the rectum all along the individual's life span. Developments in genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have now enabled scientists to study these microorganisms and their function and microbe-host interactions in an elaborate manner both in health and disease. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in reservoir of organisms with a multidrug resistant gene pool.

  3. Qualitative Parameters of the Colonic Flora in Patients with HNF1A-MODY Are Different from Those Observed in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozinska, Sandra; Radkowski, Piotr; Gosiewski, Tomasz; Szopa, Magdalena; Bulanda, Malgorzata; Ludwig-Galezowska, Agnieszka H; Morawska, Iwona; Sroka-Oleksiak, Agnieszka; Matejko, Bartlomiej; Kapusta, Przemyslaw; Salamon, Dominika; Malecki, Maciej T; Wolkow, Pawel; Klupa, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Background . Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is determined by genetic and environmental factors. There have been many studies on the relationship between the composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora, T2DM, and obesity. There are no data, however, on the gut microbiome structure in monogenic forms of the disease including Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). Methods . The aim of the investigation was to compare the qualitative parameters of the colonic flora in patients with HNF1A - MODY and T2DM and healthy individuals. 16S sequencing of bacterial DNA isolated from the collected fecal samples using the MiSeq platform was performed. Results . There were significant between-group differences in the bacterial profile. At the phylum level, the amount of Proteobacteria was higher ( p = 0.0006) and the amount of Bacteroidetes was lower ( p = 0.0005) in T2DM group in comparison to the control group. In HNF1A-MODY group, the frequency of Bacteroidetes was lower than in the control group ( p = 0.0143). At the order level, Turicibacterales was more abundant in HNF1A-MODY group than in T2DM group. Conclusions . It appears that there are differences in the gut microbiome composition between patients with HNF1A-MODY and type 2 diabetes. Further investigation on this matter should be conducted.

  4. Qualitative Parameters of the Colonic Flora in Patients with HNF1A-MODY Are Different from Those Observed in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mrozinska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is determined by genetic and environmental factors. There have been many studies on the relationship between the composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora, T2DM, and obesity. There are no data, however, on the gut microbiome structure in monogenic forms of the disease including Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY. Methods. The aim of the investigation was to compare the qualitative parameters of the colonic flora in patients with HNF1A-MODY and T2DM and healthy individuals. 16S sequencing of bacterial DNA isolated from the collected fecal samples using the MiSeq platform was performed. Results. There were significant between-group differences in the bacterial profile. At the phylum level, the amount of Proteobacteria was higher (p=0.0006 and the amount of Bacteroidetes was lower (p=0.0005 in T2DM group in comparison to the control group. In HNF1A-MODY group, the frequency of Bacteroidetes was lower than in the control group (p=0.0143. At the order level, Turicibacterales was more abundant in HNF1A-MODY group than in T2DM group. Conclusions. It appears that there are differences in the gut microbiome composition between patients with HNF1A-MODY and type 2 diabetes. Further investigation on this matter should be conducted.

  5. The Making and Taking of Lipids: The Role of Bacterial Lipid Synthesis and the Harnessing of Host Lipids in Bacterial Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozo, E M; Rucks, E A

    2016-01-01

    In order to survive environmental stressors, including those induced by growth in the human host, bacterial pathogens will adjust their membrane physiology accordingly. These physiological changes also include the use of host-derived lipids to alter their own membranes and feed central metabolic pathways. Within the host, the pathogen is exposed to many stressful stimuli. A resulting adaptation is for pathogens to scavenge the host environment for readily available lipid sources. The pathogen takes advantage of these host-derived lipids to increase or decrease the rigidity of their own membranes, to provide themselves with valuable precursors to feed central metabolic pathways, or to impact host signalling and processes. Within, we review the diverse mechanisms that both extracellular and intracellular pathogens employ to alter their own membranes as well as their use of host-derived lipids in membrane synthesis and modification, in order to increase survival and perpetuate disease within the human host. Furthermore, we discuss how pathogen employed mechanistic utilization of host-derived lipids allows for their persistence, survival and potentiation of disease. A more thorough understanding of all of these mechanisms will have direct consequences for the development of new therapeutics, and specifically, therapeutics that target pathogens, while preserving normal flora. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  6. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    compounds these must first be undergo extracellular hydrolysis. Bacteria have a great diversity with respect to types of metabolism that far exceeds the metabolic repertoire of eukaryotic organisms. Bacteria play a fundamental role in the biosphere and certain key processes such as, for example......, the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity...... biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life....

  7. Bacterial Actins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izoré, Thierry; van den Ent, Fusinita

    2017-01-01

    A diverse set of protein polymers, structurally related to actin filaments contributes to the organization of bacterial cells as cytomotive or cytoskeletal filaments. This chapter describes actin homologs encoded by bacterial chromosomes. MamK filaments, unique to magnetotactic bacteria, help establishing magnetic biological compasses by interacting with magnetosomes. Magnetosomes are intracellular membrane invaginations containing biomineralized crystals of iron oxide that are positioned by MamK along the long-axis of the cell. FtsA is widespread across bacteria and it is one of the earliest components of the divisome to arrive at midcell, where it anchors the cell division machinery to the membrane. FtsA binds directly to FtsZ filaments and to the membrane through its C-terminus. FtsA shows altered domain architecture when compared to the canonical actin fold. FtsA's subdomain 1C replaces subdomain 1B of other members of the actin family and is located on the opposite side of the molecule. Nevertheless, when FtsA assembles into protofilaments, the protofilament structure is preserved, as subdomain 1C replaces subdomain IB of the following subunit in a canonical actin filament. MreB has an essential role in shape-maintenance of most rod-shaped bacteria. Unusually, MreB filaments assemble from two protofilaments in a flat and antiparallel arrangement. This non-polar architecture implies that both MreB filament ends are structurally identical. MreB filaments bind directly to membranes where they interact with both cytosolic and membrane proteins, thereby forming a key component of the elongasome. MreB filaments in cells are short and dynamic, moving around the long axis of rod-shaped cells, sensing curvature of the membrane and being implicated in peptidoglycan synthesis.

  8. ‘Olegusella massiliensis’ strain KHD7, a new bacterial genus isolated from the female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Diop

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the main characteristics of ‘Olegusella massiliensis’ gen. nov., sp. nov., strain KHD7 (= CSUR P2268=DSM 101849, a new member of the Coriobacteriaceae family isolated from the vaginal flora of a patient with bacterial vaginosis.

  9. Interrelations between segetal and ruderal flora in the Olsztyn Lake District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Korniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents differences and similarities between segetal and ruderal flora in the Olsztyn Lake District. The investigation was conducted in rural areas and in areas of small towns. 415 taxa of vascular plants were noted altogether in the flora examined. The segetal flora includes 259 species, and the ruderal flora - 334 ones. A comparison between species of those two florae (table l, figure l, 81 species appear in segetal habitats, and 156 in ruderal habitats. Common species, for those two comparsing florae (segetal and ruderal were 178. The following plants were classified as frequent or common in ruderal habitats of the Olsztyn Lake District, having (under certain conditions a significant influence on the weed infestation of cultivated fields: Amaranthus retroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Atriplex patula, Chamomilla suaveolens, Cirsium arvense, Conyza canadensis, Descurainia sophia, Galinsoga ciliata, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Lapsana communis, Melandrium album, Poa annua, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus, Sisymbrium officinale, Sonchus arvensis, Sonchus asper, Sonchus oleraceus, Tussil farfara.

  10. Effect of Exposure to Hyperoxic, Hypobaric, and Hyperbaric Environments on Concentrations of Selected Aerobic and Anaerobic Fecal Flora of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, James D.; Gordon, Francis B.

    1975-01-01

    Alterations in selected aerobic and anaerobic fecal microflora of the mouse were determined during exposure to hyperoxic and normoxic hypo- and hyperbaric environments. Examination of fecal cultures obtained during exposure for 6 weeks to either 60 or 77% oxygen concentration at 1 atmosphere absolute revealed little alteration in the aerobic or anaerobic flora. There appeared to be only a retardation in the reduction of the Klebsiella-Enterobacter flora which normally occurs after weaning. During exposure to hypobaric environments (100% O2, 0.2 atmosphere absolute), significant alterations in concentrations of Escherichia coli, slow lactose fermenters, Klebsiella-Enterobacter, and enterococci were found in some instances. All alterations were toward increased concentrations. Variations in concentrations of different colony types of obligately anaerobic gram-positive (anGPR) and gram-negative (anGNR) rods cultured during the same experiments also occurred. One colony type of anGPR appeared to decrease while a second type increased in numbers. Concentrations of three colony types of anGNR were generally, but not always, increased. During hyperbaric exposure (2.8% O2, 7.5 atmospheres absolute), increased concentrations of Klebsiella-Enterobacter, E. coli, slow lactose fermenters and enterococci were also noted. Changes in numbers of both colony types of anGPR, when occurring, were in the direction of lower numbers. Alteration in numbers of anGNR were in both directions but were more frequent in the direction of higher numbers. After return to normal air for 4 weeks of either hypo- or hyperbaric exposure, fecal concentrations of all organisms tended to revert toward control values with the exception of the anGPR which remained in lower concentrations after termination of the hyperbaric exposure. These observations indicate that, despite the great variation in the fecal flora among individual mice, it is possible to discover the effects induced by altered gaseous

  11. Learning to Identify Local Flora with Human Feedback (Author’s Manuscript)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-23

    cally tag images with species names of flora or fauna to sup- port content-based retrieval [10]. Detecting and identifying species could help to infer...Learning to Identify Local Flora with Human Feedback Stefan Lee and David Crandall School of Informatics and Computing Indiana University {steflee...applications that use consumer pho- tos to track the distribution of natural phenomena [8]. But flora identification is a very difficult problem, both

  12. Microbial changes in conjunctival flora with 30-day continuous-wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskeleli, Güzin; Bahar, Hrisi; Eroglu, Ebru; Torun, Muzeyyen Mamal; Ozkan, Sehirbay

    2005-05-01

    To determine the effect of 30-day continuous-wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses on the conjunctival flora in asymptomatic wearers. The authors studied 29 eyes of 15 patients wearing Focus NIGHT & DAY silicone hydrogel contact lenses for up to 30 nights of continuous wear. The average age of the patients was 25.54 +/- 8.98 years. Cultures of the inferior cul-de-sac were taken bilaterally from all eyes, before and after lens wear in asymptomatic patients. The isolation and identification of bacteria were made by standard clinical laboratory methods. The number of eyes whose conjunctival cultures were sterile before using the lenses significantly decreased (P = 0.0005), and the number of eyes with a growth of coagulase-negative staphylococci and diphtheroid rods in their conjunctival cultures significantly increased after using these lenses (P = 0.001 and P = 0.031, respectively). Conversely, a statistically significant difference was not found in the number of eyes that carried Propionibacterium acnes and Fusobacterium nucleatum in their conjunctival cultures before and after using the 30-day continuous-wear silicone hydrogel lenses (P = 0.998 and P = 0.488, respectively). The results suggest that the sterility of the conjunctiva significantly decreased after using 30-day continuous-wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses. In addition, the number of bacteria of the normal conjunctival flora significantly increased after the use of these lenses. Contamination by the bacteria of the eyelids may be a possible colonization factor in this study group. Therefore, it is appropriate to examine the patients who wear these lenses more frequently.

  13. CHARLES DARWIN: INMORTALIZADO EN EPÓNIMOS DE GEA, FLORA Y FAUNA RECIENTES DE CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Vicente

    2009-01-01

    Se presentan epónimos de gea, flora y fauna de Chile, erigidos en honor de Charles Darwin, naturalista a bordo del H.M.S. Beagle (1831-1836), para denominar accidentes geográficos de territorio chileno y nuevas especies de flora y fauna descritas de ejemplares recolectados en Chile por él. Eponyms of gea, flora and fauna, erected in honour of Charles Darwin, naturalist on board of the H.M.S. Beagle (1831-1836), for desígnate geographic accidents and new species of flora and fauna described...

  14. [Effect of rat intestinal flora on in vitro metabolic transformation of pumiloside].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hui; Li, Meng-Xuan; Li, Hai-Bo; Liu, Wen-Jun; Meng, Zhao-Qing; Huang, Wen-Zhe; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2016-05-01

    To study the metabolic transformation of pumiloside by rat intestinal flora in vitro and identify its metabolites. Pumiloside was incubated in the rat intestinal flora in vitro. HPLC was used to monitor the metabolic process, and HPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used to identify the structures of biotransformation products. In vitro, pumiloside was easily metabolized by rat intestinal flora, and with the prolongation of metabolic time, pumiloside was transformed into several metabolites. Three metabolites were initially identified in this experiment. The study indicated that pumiloside could be extensively metabolized in the rat intestinal flora in vitro. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Floristic richness and endemism in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa.......An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa....

  16. Flora of fieId plantings and parks and its origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czesław Hołdyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the studies presented in this paper was the flora of field plantings of different origin. The vascular flora ofthe plantings examined comprises 254 taxons, including 53 trees and shrubs, and 201 herbaceous vascular plants. The flora is rich and diverse. In 26,8% of taxons it is presents in all types of plantings. More than half of the registered species occurs once or twice only in all 23 planting groups studied. A detailed analysis of the flora examined shows that field plantings in agricultural landscapes may, in a small number of cases, constitute a source of weeds diaspores propagating in fields.

  17. Bacterial Exposures and Associations with Atopy and Asthma in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valkonen

    Full Text Available The increase in prevalence of asthma and atopic diseases in Western countries has been linked to aspects of microbial exposure patterns of people. It remains unclear which microbial aspects contribute to the protective farm effect.The objective of this study was to identify bacterial groups associated with prevalence of asthma and atopy, and to quantify indoor exposure to some of these bacterial groups.A DNA fingerprinting technique, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, was applied to mattress dust samples of farm children and control children in the context of the GABRIEL Advanced study. Associations between signals in DGGE and atopy, asthma and other allergic health outcomes were analyzed. Quantitative DNA based assays (qPCR for four bacterial groups were applied on the dust samples to seek quantitative confirmation of associations indicated in DNA fingerprinting.Several statistically significant associations between individual bacterial signals and also bacterial diversity in DGGE and health outcomes in children were observed. The majority of these associations showed inverse relationships with atopy, less so with asthma. Also, in a subsequent confirmation study using a quantitative method (qPCR, higher mattress levels of specifically targeted bacterial groups - Mycobacterium spp., Bifidobacteriaceae spp. and two different clusters of Clostridium spp. - were associated with a lower prevalence of atopy.DNA fingerprinting proved useful in identifying bacterial signals that were associated with atopy in particular. These findings were quantitatively confirmed for selected bacterial groups with a second method. High correlations between the different bacterial exposures impede a clear attribution of protective effects to one specific bacterial group. More diverse bacterial flora in mattress dust may link to microbial exposure patterns that protect against development of atopic diseases.

  18. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas Sudhir Chitale

    Full Text Available India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single

  19. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

    2014-01-01

    India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based

  20. China : a rich flora needed of urgent conservation

    OpenAIRE

    López-Pujol, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    China is one of the richest countries in plant biodiversity in the world. Besides to a rich flora, which contains about 33.000 vascular plants (being 30.000 of these angiosperms, 250 gymnosperms, and 2.600 pteridophytes), there is a extraordinary ecosystem diversity. In addition, China also contains a large pool of both wild and cultivated germplasm; one of the eight original centers of crop plants in the world was located there. China is also considered one of the main centers of origin and ...

  1. Usos populares de la flora tipica del oeste de Cartagena

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Madrid, María José; Martínez Madrid, Isabel María

    2011-01-01

    Se recopilan los usos que popularmente se llevan o llevaban a cabo con la flora local del Oeste de Cartagena, para as´ı estudiar los conocimientos que a ´un conserva la poblaci´on y realizar un peque ˜ no sondeo de las plantas m´as utilizadas, atendiendo a su ubicaci´on y uso. Esta recopilaci´on de datos la he realizado mediante una serie de entrevistas abiertas a diversas personas de distintas edades en las que les preguntaba por plantas medicinales, enfermedades q...

  2. [The influence of electromagnetic fields on flora and fauna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochalska, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of natural and artificial electromagnetic fields (EMF) on fauna and flora. The mechanisms of Earth's magnetic field detection and the use of this skill by migratory animals to faultlessly reach the destination of their travel are discussed, as well as the positive effects of electric and magnetic fields on plants relative to their physiology, yielding and health. EMF influence on social insects and animal organisms, including possible DNA damages and DNA repair systems, is presented. The influence of high frequency electromagnetic fields on birds nesting is also discussed.

  3. Pregnancy in HIV-Positive Patients: Effects on Vaginal Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vallone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high proportion of HIV-infected pregnant women present pathogenic organisms in their lower genital tract. This has been associated with the development of postpartum morbility, HIV transmission to the partner and offspring, and other gynaecological conditions, such as cervical dysplasia or cancer. Vaginal flora alterations can range from 47% in Western countries to 89% in Africa in pregnant HIV-positive patients, much higher than about 20% of the general population. Pathogen organism retrieval is high. As peripartum complications due to vaginal infections seem higher in HIV-positive patients, accurate investigation and treatment of such infections are strongly mandatory.

  4. Sertula Florae Colombiae – XV: Nuevas Melastomatáceas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Uribe Lorenzo

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available El notable aumento de las colecciones del Herbario Nacional Colombiano muestran la riqueza de la flora melastomatácea de Colombia. Uno de los géneros más ricos y más bien caracterizados es Blakea. En este artículo describo dos nuevas especies muy interesantes. Dejo consignada mi gratitud para elnotable dibujante, don Silvio Fernández Valencia, a quien se deben las magníficas ilustraciones y muchos datos y mediciones de órganos pequeñísimos, que facilitaron  las descripciones exactas de las plantas.

  5. Rheumatoid arthritis and bacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N L Prokopjeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To study features of bacterial infections course in pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and changes of laboratory measures after focus of infection sanation. Material and methods. 46 pts with definite rheumatoid arthritis were examined at the time of comorbid infection (Cl detection and after infection focus sanation. Bacteriological test with evaluation of flora sensitivity to antibiotics by disco-diffusion method was performed at baseline and after the course of antibacterial therapy to assess its efficacy. Hemogram, serum fibrinogen, rheumatoid factor, circulating immune complexes (CIC, C-reactive protein levels were assessed. Serum interleukin (IL 1(3, IL6 and neopterin concentrations were examined by immune-enzyme assay in a part of pts. Typical clinical features of Cl were present in only 28 (60,9% pts. 13 (28,3% pts had fever, 12 (26,0% — leukocytosis, 15 (32,6% — changes of leucocyte populations. Some laboratory measures (thrombocytes, fibrinogen, CIC, neopterin levels significantly decreased (p<0,05 after infection focus sanation without correction of disease modifying therapy. Cl quite often develop as asymptomatic processes most often in pts with high activity and can induce disturbances promoting appearance of endothelial dysfunction, atherothrombosis and reduction of life duration. So timely detection and proper sanation of infection focuses should be performed in pts with RA

  6. Phytogeography of the vascular páramo flora of Ramal de Guaramacal (Andes, Venezuela) and its ties to other páramo floras

    OpenAIRE

    Cuello, N.L.; Cleef, A.M.; Aymard, G.

    2010-01-01

    Ramal de Guaramacal is an outlier and lower elevation mountain range located at the northeastern end of the Venezuelan Andes. Phytogeographical patterns and affinities of the low altitude and wet vascular páramo flora of Ramal de Guaramacal, have been studied with emphasis in to the analysis of the floristic connections of the Guaramacal páramo flora with the neighboring dry páramos of the Sierra Nevada de Mérida and other páramo floras of the northern Andes and Central America. A total of 25...

  7. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  8. SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION ASSOCIATION WITH THE CHRONIC BACTERIAL PROSTATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Ibishev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study involved 230 patients aged 20 to 45 years with a diagnosis of chronic bacterial prostatitis. The study found that in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis clinical picture, in addition to pain, is a lower urinary tract symptoms, neuro-vegetative and sexual dysfunction. In patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis, recorded various sexual disorders, most of which are normalized after antibiotic therapy. Erectile dysfunction, which are recorded in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis is psychogenic in nature dysfunction.

  9. Medicinal Plants in the Flora of Luhansk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Naumov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To establish a resource base of medicinal plants of Donbass, and to develop methods for their balanced use, it is necessary to conduct an inventory and analysis of the spread of wild species, that recently was not carried out in Luhansk and Donetsk region. These circumstances have served as an incentive to carry out special investigations. Test species belong to 403 genus and 108 families. List of vascular plants of Luhansk region has more than 1,200 species. We have established that in the study area, there are 718 species of medicinal plants, representing 60 % of the total flora of the region, covering so much of the taxonomic diversity of Donbass flora. The family of the Asteraceae (105 species, 50 genuses is different in terms of the greatest number of species of medicinal plants and genus family. The families of Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Poaceae contain more than 40 species, the families of Apiaceae и Rosaceae — over 30 species, Caryophylaceae и Polygonaceae — more than 20 species, a total of 301 species. The remaining 99 families presented a small number of basic taxonomic units. The species Viscum album, Ajuga chia, Salvia nemorosa were found during expeditions. These species have not been previously described for the region.

  10. Spatial phylogenetics of the vascular flora of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherson, Rosa A; Thornhill, Andrew H; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael; Freyman, William A; Pliscoff, Patricio A; Mishler, Brent D

    2017-07-01

    Current geographic patterns of biodiversity are a consequence of the evolutionary history of the lineages that comprise them. This study was aimed at exploring how evolutionary features of the vascular flora of Chile are distributed across the landscape. Using a phylogeny at the genus level for 87% of the Chilean vascular flora, and a geographic database of sample localities, we calculated phylogenetic diversity (PD), phylogenetic endemism (PE), relative PD (RPD), and relative PE (RPE). Categorical Analyses of Neo- and Paleo-Endemism (CANAPE) were also performed, using a spatial randomization to assess statistical significance. A cluster analysis using range-weighted phylogenetic turnover was used to compare among grid cells, and with known Chilean bioclimates. PD patterns were concordant with known centers of high taxon richness and the Chilean biodiversity hotspot. In addition, several other interesting areas of concentration of evolutionary history were revealed as potential conservation targets. The south of the country shows areas of significantly high RPD and a concentration of paleo-endemism, and the north shows areas of significantly low PD and RPD, and a concentration of neo-endemism. Range-weighted phylogenetic turnover shows high congruence with the main macrobioclimates of Chile. Even though the study was done at the genus level, the outcome provides an accurate outline of phylogenetic patterns that can be filled in as more fine-scaled information becomes available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Endemism in the moss flora of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  12. Relations between transit time, fermentation products, and hydrogen consuming flora in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Oufir, L; Flourié, B; Bruley des Varannes, S; Barry, J L; Cloarec, D; Bornet, F; Galmiche, J P

    1996-06-01

    To investigate whether transit time could influence H2 consuming flora and certain indices of colonic bacterial fermentation. Eight healthy volunteers (four methane excretors and four non-methane excretors) were studied for three, three week periods during which they received a controlled diet alone (control period), and then the same diet with cisapride or loperamide. At the end of each period, mean transit time (MTT) was estimated, an H2 lactulose breath test was performed, and stools were analysed. In the control period, transit time was inversely related to faecal weight, sulphate reducing bacteria counts, concentrations of total short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), propionic and butyric acids, and H2 excreted in breath after lactulose ingestion. Conversely, transit time was positively related to faecal pH and tended to be related to methanogen counts. Methanogenic bacteria counts were inversely related to those of sulphate reducing bacteria and methane excretors had slower MTT and lower sulphate reducing bacteria counts than non-methane excretors. Compared with the control period, MTT was significantly shortened (p < 0.05) by cisapride and prolonged (p < 0.05) by loperamide (73 (11) hours, 47 (5) hours and 147 (12) hours for control, cisapride, and loperamide, respectively, mean (SD)). Cisapride reduced transit time was associated with (a) a significant rise in faecal weight, sulphate reducing bacteria, concentrations of total SCFAs, and propionic and butyric acids and breath H2 as well as (b) a significant fall in faecal pH and breath CH4 excretion, and (c) a non-significant decrease in the counts of methanogenic bacteria. Reverse relations were roughly the same during the loperamide period including a significant rise in the counts of methanogenic bacteria and a significant fall in those of sulphate reducing bacteria. Transit time differences between healthy volunteers are associated with differences in H2 consuming flora and certain indices of colonic

  13. Dynamics of Vaginal Bacterial Communities in Women Developing Bacterial Vaginosis, Candidiasis, or No Infection, Analyzed by PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Real-Time PCR▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Beatrice; Pugliese, Ciro; Biagi, Elena; Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Bellen, Gert; Donders, Gilbert G. G.; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2007-01-01

    The microbial flora of the vagina plays a major role in preventing genital infections, including bacterial vaginosis (BV) and candidiasis (CA). An integrated approach based on PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and real-time PCR was used to study the structure and dynamics of bacterial communities in vaginal fluids of healthy women and patients developing BV and CA. Universal eubacterial primers and Lactobacillus genus-specific primers, both targeted at 16S rRNA genes, were used in DGGE and real-time PCR analysis, respectively. The DGGE profiles revealed that the vaginal flora was dominated by Lactobacillus species under healthy conditions, whereas several potentially pathogenic bacteria were present in the flora of women with BV. Lactobacilli were the predominant bacterial population in the vagina for patients affected by CA, but changes in the composition of Lactobacillus species were observed. Real-time PCR analysis allowed the quantitative estimation of variations in lactobacilli associated with BV and CA diseases. A statistically significant decrease in the relative abundance of lactobacilli was found in vaginal fluids of patients with BV compared to the relative abundance of lactobacilli in the vaginal fluids of healthy women and patients with CA. PMID:17644631

  14. Dynamics of vaginal bacterial communities in women developing bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, or no infection, analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Beatrice; Pugliese, Ciro; Biagi, Elena; Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Bellen, Gert; Donders, Gilbert G G; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2007-09-01

    The microbial flora of the vagina plays a major role in preventing genital infections, including bacterial vaginosis (BV) and candidiasis (CA). An integrated approach based on PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and real-time PCR was used to study the structure and dynamics of bacterial communities in vaginal fluids of healthy women and patients developing BV and CA. Universal eubacterial primers and Lactobacillus genus-specific primers, both targeted at 16S rRNA genes, were used in DGGE and real-time PCR analysis, respectively. The DGGE profiles revealed that the vaginal flora was dominated by Lactobacillus species under healthy conditions, whereas several potentially pathogenic bacteria were present in the flora of women with BV. Lactobacilli were the predominant bacterial population in the vagina for patients affected by CA, but changes in the composition of Lactobacillus species were observed. Real-time PCR analysis allowed the quantitative estimation of variations in lactobacilli associated with BV and CA diseases. A statistically significant decrease in the relative abundance of lactobacilli was found in vaginal fluids of patients with BV compared to the relative abundance of lactobacilli in the vaginal fluids of healthy women and patients with CA.

  15. Diversity of bacterial communities on the facial skin of different age-group Thai males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilantho, Alisa; Deekaew, Pamornya; Srisuttiyakorn, Chutika; Tongsima, Sissades; Somboonna, Naraporn

    2017-01-01

    Skin microbiome varies from person to person due to a combination of various factors, including age, biogeography, sex, cosmetics and genetics. Many skin disorders appear to be related to the resident microflora, yet databases of facial skin microbiome of many biogeographies, including Thai, are limited. Metagenomics derived B-RISA and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was utilized to identify the culture-independent bacterial diversity on Thai male faces (cheek and forehead areas). Skin samples were categorized (grouped) into (i) normal ( teenage.hea ) and (ii) acne-prone ( teenage.acn ) young adults, and normal (iii) middle-aged ( middle.hea ) and (iv) elderly ( elderly.hea ) adults. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was successful as the sequencing depth had an estimated >98% genus coverage of the true community. The major diversity was found between the young and elderly adults in both cheek and forehead areas, followed by that between normal and acne young adults. Detection of representative characteristics indicated that bacteria from the order Rhizobiales, genera Sphingomonas and Pseudoalteromonas , distinguished the elderly.hea microbiota, along the clinical features of wrinkles and pores. Prediction of the metabolic potential revealed reduced metabolic pathways involved in replication and repair, nucleotide metabolism and genetic translation in the elderly.hea compared with that in the teenage.hea . For young adults, some unique compositions such as abundance of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis , with a minor diversity between normal and acne skins, were detected. The metabolic potentials of the acne vs. normal young adults showed that teenage.acn was low in many cellular processes (e.g., cell motility and environmental adaptation), but high in carbohydrate metabolism, which could support acne growth. Moreover, comparison with the age-matched males from the US (Boulder, Colorado) to gain insight into the diversity across national biogeography

  16. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Flora sampling in the vicinity of gamma greenhouse: As a flora sampling model for supporting the national nuclear power program (NPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affrida Abu Hassan; Zaiton Ahmad; Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Shakinah Salleh; Norazlina Noordin; Salmah Moosa; Sakinah Ariffin; Salahbiah Abdul Majid; Nur Humaira Lau Abdullah; Mohd Zaidan Kandar; Abdul Rahim Harun

    2012-01-01

    Gamma Green House was used as a model to study radiation effects on flora and ecosystems in supporting the National Nuclear Power Programme (NPP). A task force was formed in BAB which consists of 3 main groups of flora, fauna and microorganisms. For the flora group, two sampling expeditions have been carried out on July 7, 2011 and March 2, 2012 with the assistant of experts from University Putra Malaysia. From these expeditions, a preliminary data on the types and distribution of plants in selected quadrants close to the Gamma Greenhouse has been successfully observed and the collected plant samples have been preserved as part of the herbarium collection. This paper will describe on the sampling activities and sample preservation. Knowledge gained from this study will be very useful as model for flora distribution baseline data at plant site(author)

  18. A note on the flora and fauna in the rumen of steers fed a feedlot bloat-provoking ration and the effect of penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRYANT, M P; ROBINSON, I M; LINDAHL, I L

    1961-11-01

    A study was made of the predominant culturable bacteria and ciliate protozoa present in the rumen of two steers that were regularly bloating on a pelleted ratio containing 22% alfalfa meal, 16% soybean oil meal, 61% barley, and 1% common salt. The ruminal microorganisms in the two animals differed as indicated by a high total culture count of bacteria, an almost complete absence of ciliate protozoa, a low pH, and a difference in the proportions of presumptively identified predominant bacterial groups in one animal (steer 26) as compared with the other (steer 32). The first exposure of the animals to procaine penicillin (75 or 150 mg per day on 2 successive days) resulted in an abnormal ruminal flora 31 hr after the first treatment as indicated by drastic drops in total and cellulolytic bacterial counts and a change in the proportions of predominant bacterial groups. The animals refused feed for 32 to 48 hr after the first treatment. After feed consumption resumed, further treatment with 75 mg penicillin on 4 successive days did not appear to greatly alter the flora and did not result in feed refusal in animal 32. In animal 26, amounts of penicillin progressing from 50 to 200 mg per day did not result in feed refusals and observations on rumen ingesta samples during this period indicated a decrease in total bacterial count, a great increase in numbers of ciliate protozoa, a higher pH, and a change in the proportions of predominant bacterial groups so that the ruminal picture was much more similar to that of animal 32 than to its own during the pre-penicillin period. Bloat was not relieved except during the period of feed refusal. The results indicate that the ruminal flora rapidly adapts to penicillin and that bloat of the feedlot type can occur in animals with widely differing numbers and kinds of bacteria and protozoa. Feedlot bloat does not appear to be correlated with the occurrence or numbers of any of the individual predominant groups of bacteria cultured.

  19. Effect of Clostridium butyricum supplementation on the development of intestinal flora and the immune system of neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Rui-Xue; Zhu, Xin-Xin; Wan, Chao-Min; Wang, Zhi-Ling; Wen, Yang; Li, Yi-Yuan

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine whether Clostridium butyricum supplementation has a role in the regulation of the intestinal flora and the development of the immune system of neonatal mice. A total of 30 pregnant BALB/c mice, including their offspring, were randomly divided into three groups: In the maternal intervention group (Ba), maternal mice were treated with Clostridium butyricum from birth until weaning at postnatal day 21 (PD21) followed by administration of saline to the offspring at PD21-28; in the offspring intervention group (Ab), breast-feeding maternal mice were supplemented with saline and offspring were directly supplemented with Clostridium butyricum from PD21-28; in the both maternal and offspring intervention group (Bb), both maternal mice and offspring were supplemented with Clostridium butyricum at PD 0-21 and at PD21-28. While mice in the control group were given the same volume of normal saline. Stool samples from the offspring were collected at PD14, -21 and -28 to observe the intestinal flora by colony counts of Enterococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. Detection of intestinal secreted immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels and serum cytokine (interferon-γ, and interleukin-12, -4 and -10) levels in offspring was performed to evaluate the effect on their immune system. The results revealed that compared with the control group, offspring in the Ba group displayed significantly decreased stool colony counts of Enterococcus spp. (t=3.123, Pflora balance in their offspring. However, due to insignificant effects on sIgA level and the associated cytokines, Clostridium butyricum had a limited influence on the balance of type 1 vs. type 2 T-helper cells. However, using Clostridium butyricum as an invention may be a safe method for improving the balance of intestinal flora and associated processes in offspring.

  20. Effects of moxifloxacin exposure on the conjunctival flora and antibiotic resistance profile following repeated intravitreal injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ataş

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the effects of moxifloxacin exposure on the conjunctival flora and antibiotic resistance profile following repeated intravitreal injections.METHODS:Seventy-two eyes of 36 patients [36 eyes in control group, 36 eyes in intravitreal injection (IVI group] were enrolled in the study. All the eyes had at least one IVI and had diabetic macular edema (DME or age-related macular degeneration (ARMD. Moxifloxacin was prescribed to all the patients four times a day for five days following injection. Conjunctival cultures were obtained from the lower fornix via standardized technique with every possible effort made to minimize contamination from the lids, lashes, or skin. Before the application of any ophthalmic medication, conjunctival cultures were obtained from both eyes using sterile cotton culture. An automated microbiology system was used to identify the growing bacteria and determine antibiotic sensitivity. RESULTS:The bacterial cultures were isolated from 72 eyes of 36 patients, sixteen of whom patients (44.4% were male and twenty (55.6% were female. Average age was 68.4±9.0 (range 50-86. The average number of injections before taking cultures was 3.1+1.0. Forty-eight (66.7% of 72 eyes had at least one significant organism. There was no bacterial growth in 8 (20.5% of IVI eyes and in 16 (44.4% of control eyes (P=0.03. Of the bacteria isolated from culture, 53.8% of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS in IVI eyes and 47.2% CoNS in control eyes. This difference between IVI eyes and control eyes about bacteria isolated from culture was not statistically significant (P=0.2. Eleven of 25 bacteria (44.0% isolated from IVI eyes and 11 (57.9% of 19 bacteria isolated from control eyes were resistant to oxacillin. The difference in frequency of moxifloxacine resistance between two groups was not statistically significant (12.0% in IVI eyes and 21.1% in control eyes (P=0.44. There were no cases of resistance to vancomycin, teicoplanin and

  1. Distribution of metals in fauna, flora and sediments of wet detention ponds and natural shallow lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, D.A.; Nielsen, A.H.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Fauna, flora, and sediment were collected from 9 wet detention ponds receiving stormwater runoff and 11 small natural shallow lakes. The fauna and flora samples were sorted into species or groups of species and, together with sediments, analyzed for aluminum, copper, iron, zinc, arsenic, cadmium,...

  2. Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak project – progress and future activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H.S.; Nadiah, I.; Eryani, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Tropical forests in Borneo (Brunei Darussalam, Kalimantan, Sabah and Sarawak) are considered as one of the twelve mega biodiversity centres in the world. However, until now, there is no up-to-date or complete documentation on the flora of the island. The Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak Project,

  3. The Rijksherbarium and its contribution to the research on the Netherlands and European flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennema, J.

    1979-01-01

    In the first decades of its existence the interest of the Rijksherbarium was certainly not directed towards the study of the Dutch and European flora. The initiative to embark on research of the flora of the Netherlands was born outside the walls of the institute. In 1845, R. B. van den Bosch

  4. Impact of marine influence and cultivation on the diatom flora of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a limnological and palaeolimnological study of the western part of the Great Coast of Senegal, an analysis of diatoms was carried out in Thiaroye Pond in the suburbs of Dakar. Current diatom flora in the water and on floating plants, and subfossil flora in two cores were sampled in 1996 and 2003. A total of 104 ...

  5. A precursor to the treatment of Dorstenia for the floras of Cameroun and Gabon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C.C.; Hijman, M.E.E.

    1977-01-01

    The present paper is the result of a study of Dorstenia mainly made on behalf of the Floras of Cameroun and Gabon. It presents, as a precursor to the treatment in those Floras, some general remarks on the genus Dorstenia, a key to the species, a survey of the taxa distinguished, new combinations and

  6. Supplementary Material for: The flora phenotype ontology (FLOPO): tool for integrating morphological traits and phenotypes of vascular plants

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert; AlShahrani, Mona; Gkoutos, Georgios; Gosline, George; Groom, Quentin; Hamann, Thomas; Kattge, Jens; Oliveira, Sylvia de; Schmidt, Marco; Sierra, Soraya; Smets, Erik; Vos, Rutger; Weiland, Claus

    2016-01-01

    traits of plant species found in Floras. We used the Plant Ontology (PO) and the Phenotype And Trait Ontology (PATO) to extract entity-quality relationships from digitized taxon descriptions in Floras, and used a formal ontological approach based

  7. Flora og insekter i hegn på økologiske og konventionelle bedrifter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marianne Bruus; Aude, E.; Tybirk, K.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the project was to compare flora and insect fauna of organic and conventional hedgerows, and to study whether the drift of herbicides into hedgerows alone or in combination with differences in fertiliser application may explain any differences. The project consequently consisted of two...... of the most important agricultural conditions having an effect on flora and insect fauna in different agricultural systems. In the experiment flora and insect fauna were studied for three years. In the hedgerows clear differences in the floral composition were found, with more plant species in hedgerows...... at organically grown fields that at conventionally grown fields, on both sandy and loamy soils. The insect fauna was correlated with the flora, but no clear differences were found between the two agricultural systems. Apart from the hedgerow flora, also the type of crop grown on the adjacent fields affected...

  8. [Changes of fecal flora and its correlation with inflammatory indicators in patients with inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Ye; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhou, Youlian; Zhang, Shaoheng; Wang, Pu; Xie, Shan; Jiang, Bo

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the changes in fecal flora and its correlation with the occurrence and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We collected fresh fecal specimens from 167 IBD patients (including 113 with ulcerative colitis and 54 with Crohn's disease) and 54 healthy volunteers. The fecal flora was analyzed by gradient dilution method and the data of inflammatory markers including WBC, PLT, CRP and ESR were collected to assess the association between the fecal flora and the inflammatory markers. The species Enterrococcus (6.60∓0.23, Pflora. The changes in fecal flora did not show a significant correlation with these inflammatory markers. IBD patients have fecal flora imbalance compared with the healthy controls, and this imbalance may contribute to the occurrence and progression of IBD. The decline of Eubacterium contributes to the occurrence and development of IBD.

  9. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  10. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  11. Bacteria: a new player in gastrointestinal motility disorders--infections, bacterial overgrowth, and probiotics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2012-02-03

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may result from a dysfunctional interaction between the indigenous flora and the intestinal mucosa, which in turn leads to immune activation in the colonic mucosa. Some propose that bacterial overgrowth is a common causative factor in the pathogenesis of symptoms in IBS; others point to evidence suggesting that the cause stems from more subtle qualitative changes in the colonic flora. Bacterial overgrowth will probably prove not to be a major factor in what will eventually be defined as IBS. Nevertheless, short-term therapy with either antibiotics or probiotics seems to reduce symptoms among IBS patients. However, in the long term, safety issues will favor the probiotic approach; results of long-term studies with these agents are eagerly awaited.

  12. Bacterial and fungal microflora on the external genitalia of male donkeys (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Carla L; Donahue, J Michael; Marteniuk, Judith V; Sells, Stephen F; Timoney, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the bacterial and fungal microflora on the external genitalia of a population of healthy male donkeys in the state of Michigan, USA. The aim was to identify and determine the frequency of occurrence of these microorganisms using seven different isolation media and standard microbiological procedures. The sites (urethral fossa [fossa glandis], dorsal diverticulum of the urethral sinus, distal urethra, and penile surface) in the distal reproductive tract were cultured and each isolated microorganism identified. Ten different genera of gram-positive bacteria, eight different genera of gram-negative bacteria, and two genera of fungi were isolated from the external genitalia of the 43 donkeys in this study. All 43 donkeys yielded gram-positive bacteria (2-8 species) from all four sites sampled. Arcanobacterium spp., Corynebacterium spp., and Bacillus spp. were the most frequently isolated gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria were cultured from 16 (37.2%) of the 43 donkeys, with Acinetobacterlwoffii (16.3%), Oligella urethralis (11.6%), and Taylorellaasinigenitalis (9.3%), the most frequently isolated. Fungi were cultured from only 5 (11.6%) of the 43 donkeys, with Rhizopus spp. isolated from 3 (7.0%) and Cladosporium spp. from 2 (4.7%) individuals. The testes and epididymides collected from 40 donkeys at time of castration were culture negative. Few differences were found in the bacterial flora between prepubertal and mature intact and castrated donkeys. Of notable interest was the scarcity of known equine pathogens across the population tested and isolation of T. asinigenitalis from normal donkeys, especially prepubertal individuals and previously castrated males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A review of current strategies to reduce intraoperative bacterial contamination of surgical wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Dohmen, Pascal M.; Konertz, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Surgical site infections are a mean topic in cardiac surgery, leading to a prolonged hospitalization, and substantially increased morbidity and mortality. One source of pathogens is the endogenous flora of the patient?s skin, which can contaminate the surgical site. A number of preoperative skin care strategies are performed to reduce bacterial contamination like preoperative antiseptic showering, hair removal, antisepsis of the skin, adhesive barrier drapes, and antimicrobial prophylaxis. Fu...

  14. Wildlife and flora and the perceived attractiveness of green places: A comparison between local and national green places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Akke; Haartsen, Tialda; Buijs, A.E.; Huigen, Paulus P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent decades have seen a growing interest in experiencing wildlife and flora in nature-based tourism destinations, while at the same time it is far less clear whether wildlife and flora also matter in green places near home. This paper examines whether wildlife and flora affect the perceived

  15. Wildlife and flora and the perceived attractiveness of green places : A comparison between local and national green places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Akke; Haartsen, Tialda; Buijs, Arjen; Huigen, Paulus P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent decades have seen a growing interest in experiencing wildlife and flora in nature-based tourism destinations, while at the same time it is far less clear whether wildlife and flora also matter in green places near home. This paper examines whether wildlife and flora affect the perceived

  16. Rare, threatened and relict species in flora of SNR Zasavica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković, M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In group of biodiversity important plant species there are 23 taxa. 20 taxa are mentioned in „Preliminary Red List of flora of Serbia and Montenegro with IUCN 2001 Conservation Statuses“ in following categories: two as critically endangered (Aldrovanda vesiculosa L. and Hottonia palustris L., four as endangered (Hippuris vulgaris L., Lindernia palustris Hartm., Ranunculus lingua L. and Urtica kioviensis Rogow., five as vulnerable (Achillea aspleniifolia Vent., Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill. H. P. Fuchs, Leucojum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum, Stratiotes aloides L. and Thelypteris palustris (Schott subsp.palustris, while 9 are with indefinite categories (CR-VU, due to data deficient (DD. Special Nature Reserve „Zasavica“ is the only habitat in Serbia for Aldrovanda vesiculosa L., which was until 2005. considered as extinct from Serbia.

  17. Brasilien Vervain (Verbena brasiliensis Vell. in Colkheti flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sh. Mikeladze

    2017-06-01

    In this work the current condition, invasive indicators, bio morphological characteristics and growth-development properties of new invasive species, South American origin Verbena Brasiliensis spread in Colkheti flora (Western Georgia's seaside part is given. In Colkheti it is mainly spread in the seaside, along the roads, along the railroad, on the ruderal places, near channels and rivers, deserted building sites, landfills, non-agricultural lands. Verbena Brasiliensis is a perennial, erect, branched, 50–210 cm height. The plant starts flowering in April–May and lasts till November. It is distinguished with high reproductivity. Fully grown plant in the second year develops about 90000–100000 seeds. Consequently the area of plant spread is gradually growing.

  18. Bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora and fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen-Fang; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2012-09-01

    In recent decades, the pharmaceutical application potential of marine natural products has attracted much interest from both natural product chemists and pharmacologists. Our group has long been engaged in the search for bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora (such as mangroves and algae) and fauna (including sponges, soft corals, and mollusks), resulting in the isolation and characterization of numerous novel secondary metabolites spanning a wide range of structural classes and various biosynthetic origins. Of particular interest is the fact that many of these compounds show promising biological activities, including cytotoxic, antibacterial, and enzyme inhibitory effects. By describing representative studies, this review presents a comprehensive summary regarding the achievements and progress made by our group in the past decade. Several interesting examples are discussed in detail.

  19. Notes on the Orchid Flora of Thailand (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Æ. Pedersen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Three orchid species are newly recorded for the flora of Thailand. The discovery of Macodes petola in the southern part of Peninsular Thailand, adjacent to known occurrences across the Malaysian border, was expected. On the other hand, the find of Cheirostylis octodactyla in Thailand considerably extended the known range of this species to the west, as it was previously known only from the northern part of the Philippines, Taiwan and (through a single collection from northern Vietnam. The recent discovery of populations of Zeuxine bidupensis in Thailand suggests that this species, hitherto considered endemic to Vietnam, does not only have morphological, but also geographic affintities to the little known Z. pantlingii from West Bengal.

  20. Genus Sisymbrium L. (Rockets In The Flora Of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rūrāne Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the largest genera in the Cruciferae family in Latvia is Sisymbrium L. The genus includes not only native, but also some alien species. The distributions of the Sisymbrium species were reviewed for the first time in the last 50th years in Latvia. The distribution data were compiled from herbarium material, literature and field surveys. An identification key for the Sisymbrium species in Latvia and detailed scientific nomenclature are presented in the current study. In total, seven species of Sisymbrium were found in Latvia — S. supinum L., S. loeselii L., S. polymorphum (Murray Roth, S. volgense M. Bieb. ex E. Fourn., S. altissimum L., S. orientale L. and S. officinale (L. Scop. The mainly were recorded in railway verges, roadsides, waste dumps and wasteland. Five species of the genus are alien to the flora of Latvia — S. loeselii, S. altissimum, S. polymorphum, S. orientale, and S. volgense; two are native — S. supinum and S. officinale.

  1. NOTES FOR FLORA OF MATO GROSSO STATE: THE ASTERACEAE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cavalheiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The proposed work aimed to survey the Asteraceae species contained in the collection of the Herbarium UFMT for purposes of performing the preliminary version to compose the Flora of Mato Grosso State. Allied to this was held to update the number of species as well as the nomenclatural verification of all scientific names. Were found 150 species in 82 genera of which 33 are new records for the state and 16 are framed in IUCN categories. The species are distributed over all biomes: Cerrado, Pantanal and the Amazon forest, but the forest environment showed low number of samples, probably due to the difficulties of access by researchers. Finally, when we combine the analysis of the collection of UFMT to other herbaria that have herbarium collections in the state, we actually have a very real composition survey of Asteraceae for Mato Grosso State.

  2. Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove, F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain.- Recent fieldwork in Tenerife, especially in September 2010, yielded several interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, “Asian” Cardamine flexuosa, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla and Solanum abutiloides are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, while Eragrostis barrelieri var. pygmaea, Ficus microcarpa, Ipomoea purpurea, Leucaena leucocephala subsp. glabrata, Sechium edule, Tradescantia zebrina and Turnera ulmifolia are new to the flora of the island of Tenerife. New records of Acacia cyclops, Atriplex suberecta, Heliotropium curassavicum, Paspalum dilatatum, P. notatum, Pluchea ovalis, Pulicaria paludosa, Sclerophylax spinescens and Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum confirm their recent expansion on the island of Tenerife. New records are provided for the recently described Sporobolus copei . Finally, Paspalum vaginatum (hitherto possibly confused with P. distichum and Potentilla indica are confirmed from the island of Tenerife.

    Adiciones para la flora de Tenerife (Islas Canarias, España.- Algunos recientes trabajos de campo en Tenerife, especialmente en Septiembre de 2010, trajeron consigo varias nuevas e interesantes adiciones de plantas vasculares no autóctonas. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa “Asiática”, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla y

  3. NEW CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF ALIEN FLORA IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÎRBU CULIŢĂ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a number of seventeen alien plant species are presented, one of them being now for the first time reported in Romania (Sedum sarmentosum Bunge. Some species are mentioned for the first time in the flora of Moldavia (Aster novae-angliae L., Cenchrus incertus M. A. Curtis, Chenopodium pumilio R. Br., Fraxinus americana L., Lindernia dubia (L. Pennell, Petunia × atkinsiana D. Don, Solidago gigantea Aiton, Tagetes erecta L. or Transylvania (Kochia sieversiana (Pallas C. A. Mey., and some are reported from new localities (seven species. For each species, there are presented general data on the geographical origin, its distribution in Europe and worldwide, as well as its invasion history and current distribution in Romania. Some of these species manifest a remarkable spreading tendency, expanding their invasion area in Romania. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iaşi (IASI.

  4. Mold Flora of Traditional Cheeses Produced in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Yalman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In our country, there are many cheese types that are produced traditionally. Cheeses which produced from cows, sheep and goat milk that matured with spontaneous growth of molds present in livestock skins, pots and similar environments are among them. They are produced traditionally in Mediterrian, Central and Eastern Anatolia regions. Molds that grow spontaneously in cheeses could create public health risk because of their secondary metabolites. Penicillium spp. are the most isolated mold from these cheeses and Penicillium roqueforti is determined as the dominant species. Furthermore, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Mucor, Geotrichum, Cladosporium species have been isolated. It is very important to control the ripening conditions and starter strain selection since some strains were reported as mycotoxin producers. In this review, it has been tried to give general information about traditional production of mold-ripened cheese in Turkey and the mold flora found in traditional cheeses. In addition, public health risk of these cheeses is reported.

  5. Flora of vascular plants in the Chilgapsan Provincial Park, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ro-Young Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The flora of Chilgapsan Provincial Park in Cheongyang-gun (Chungcheongnam-do, Korea was surveyed from 2000 to 2014. In 19 field surveys, vascular plants were revealed 490 taxa belonging to 97 families, 309 genera, 433 species, four subspecies, 48 varieties, and five forms. Plants of various categories were discovered in this study. For the Korean endemic plants 15 taxa were recorded, and 11 taxa designated by the Korean Forest Service as rare plants were investigated in this region. The plants above the third degree among the floristic regional indicator plants designated by the Korean Ministry of Environment were 10 taxa. In addition, 33 taxa of naturalized and 73 taxa of cultivated plants were recorded.

  6. Aportes a la Flora de Colombia: Estudios en Compuestas - VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Piedrahíta Santiago

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Bajo este título se han publicado varios artículos en los cuales se han propuesto nuevas especies de asteráceas de los géneros Espeletia, Paragynoxys, Senecio y Verbesina; en esta ocasión se describe una especie de Senecio, novedad surgida en desarrollo de la revisión del material de herbario y preparación de los textos del tratamiento de las Cornpositae de la Flora de la Real Expedición Botánica del Nuevo Reino de Granada.  Se trata de una interesante especie sobresaliente por el color blanco de las flores femeninas y de la cual se conservan en los archivos del Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid, una bella lámina iluminada en color y una diagnosis.

  7. PRIMER REGISTRO DE DENNSTAEDTIA DISSECTA (DENNSTAEDTIACEAE PARA LA FLORA ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Yañez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para la flora argentina a Dennstaedtia dissecta, hallada en la provincia de Misiones. Este nuevo registro surgió del estudio de ejemplares de los herbarios BA y LP, y luego se corroboró con colecciones realizadas en los Parques Provinciales Cruce Caballero y Urugua-í. Además de las características del rizoma y la lámina, las esporas resultaron una importante fuente de información en la identificación de esta especie. Se describen e ilustran los caracteres diagnósticos, y se incluye una clave para identificar a las especies de Dennstaedtia presentes en Misiones.

  8. Oligotyping reveals differences between gut-microbiomes of free-ranging sympatric Namibian carnivores (Acinonyx jubatus, Canis mesomelas on a bacterial species-like level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eMenke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent gut microbiome studies in model organisms emphasize the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the variation of the bacterial composition and its impact on the overall health status of the host. Species occurring in the same habitat might share a similar microbiome, especially if they overlap in ecological and behavioral traits. So far, the natural variation in microbiomes of free-ranging wildlife species has not been thoroughly investigated. The few existing studies exploring microbiomes through 16S rRNA gene reads clustered sequencing reads into operational taxonomic units (OTUs based on a similarity threshold (e.g. 97%. This approach, in combination with the low resolution of target databases, generally limits the level of taxonomic assignments to the genus level. However, distinguishing natural variation of microbiomes in healthy individuals from abnormal microbial compositions that affect host health requires knowledge of the normal microbial flora at a high taxonomic resolution. This gap can now be addressed using the recently published oligotyping approach, which can resolve closely related organisms into distinct oligotypes by utilizing subtle nucleotide variation. Here, we used Illumina MiSeq to sequence amplicons generated from the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate the gut microbiome of two free-ranging sympatric Namibian carnivore species, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus and the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas. Bacterial phyla with proportions > 0.2 % were identical for both species and included Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. At a finer taxonomic resolution, black-backed jackals exhibited 69 bacterial taxa with proportions ≥ 0.1 %, whereas cheetahs had only 42. Finally, oligotyping revealed that shared bacterial taxa consisted of distinct oligotype profiles. Thus, in contrast to 3 % OTUs, oligotyping can detect fine-scale taxonomic differences between

  9. Oligotyping reveals differences between gut microbiomes of free-ranging sympatric Namibian carnivores (Acinonyx jubatus, Canis mesomelas) on a bacterial species-like level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Sebastian; Wasimuddin; Meier, Matthias; Melzheimer, Jörg; Mfune, John K E; Heinrich, Sonja; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Wachter, Bettina; Sommer, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Recent gut microbiome studies in model organisms emphasize the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the variation of the bacterial composition and its impact on the overall health status of the host. Species occurring in the same habitat might share a similar microbiome, especially if they overlap in ecological and behavioral traits. So far, the natural variation in microbiomes of free-ranging wildlife species has not been thoroughly investigated. The few existing studies exploring microbiomes through 16S rRNA gene reads clustered sequencing reads into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on a similarity threshold (e.g., 97%). This approach, in combination with the low resolution of target databases, generally limits the level of taxonomic assignments to the genus level. However, distinguishing natural variation of microbiomes in healthy individuals from "abnormal" microbial compositions that affect host health requires knowledge of the "normal" microbial flora at a high taxonomic resolution. This gap can now be addressed using the recently published oligotyping approach, which can resolve closely related organisms into distinct oligotypes by utilizing subtle nucleotide variation. Here, we used Illumina MiSeq to sequence amplicons generated from the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate the gut microbiome of two free-ranging sympatric Namibian carnivore species, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas). Bacterial phyla with proportions >0.2% were identical for both species and included Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. At a finer taxonomic resolution, black-backed jackals exhibited 69 bacterial taxa with proportions ≥0.1%, whereas cheetahs had only 42. Finally, oligotyping revealed that shared bacterial taxa consisted of distinct oligotype profiles. Thus, in contrast to 3% OTUs, oligotyping can detect fine-scale taxonomic differences between microbiomes.

  10. [Terrestrial flora of Malpelo Island, Colombia, Eastern Tropical Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Román, Rubén D; López-Victoria, Mateo; Silverstone-Sopkin, Philip A

    2014-03-01

    Malpelo Island is located 380km off the mainland continental coast of Colombia, in the Pacific Ocean. Several geological, ecological, and zoological studies, both marine and terrestrial, have been conducted in this island. Despite some marginal comments on some publications, no single specific survey has been devoted to botany so far. In order to make a floristic inventory of the terrestrial flora of this island, three field trips were made in 2010 to collect vascular plants, mosses, and lichens, as well as data on their distribution within the island. We collected and identified 25 species of lichens, two species of vascular plants and one moss. Lichens were the most diverse group found, including records of four new genera (Endocarpon, Fuscidea, Lecanographa and Verrucaria) and 13 new species for Colombia. The high lichen richness on Malpelo might be explained by their efficient form of asexual reproduction (soredia and isidia), that may have facilitated their transport to the island by migrating birds or wind. Once on the island, it is possible that lichens persist by being chemically protected against herbivores. The great number of new generic and species records for Colombia is explained by the low number of studies in saxicolous lichens conducted so far in the country, particularly on coastal areas and remote islands. Only two species of vascular plants were collected, a grass, Paspalum sp., and a fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos, and both of them correspond to new determinations for Malpelo. A moss species previously reported but with no positive identification was collected and identified as Octoblepharum albidum. Other species previously reported, for example, some species of shrubs, were not observed. The low number of vascular plants is probably due to a combination of soil conditions and herbivory by land crabs. This study is the first complete inventory of the flora of Malpelo and is a starting and reference point for future comparisons among islands in

  11. Microbial flora associated with submerged mangrove leaf litter in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanasamy Rajendran

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the microbial flora in decomposing mangrove leaves in relation to changes in nitrogen and tannin levels, and in penaeid prawn assemblages. Senescent leaves of two mangrove species (Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina kept in nylon bags, were separately immersed for 80 days in five tanks full of mangrove water. A known amount of decomposing leaves was collected every ten days from each tank for microorganism counts, total nitrogen and tannin measurement, and juvenile penaeid prawn counts. Five genera of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB, three species of azotobacters and 19 species of fungi were identified. The azotobacters showed a significant peak around 40-50 days after the beginning of of decomposition, similar to the trend for total nitrogen and for prawn assemblages. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 393-400. Epub 2007 June, 29.Se estudió la flora microbiana en hojas en descomposición de mangles, considerando nitrógeno, taninos y camarones peneidos jóvenes. Colocamos hojas viejas de dos especies de mangle (Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina en bolsas de nylon y las sumergimos en agua de manglar durante 80 días usando cinco tanques separados. Cada diez días extrajimos una cantidad conocida de hojas en descomposición de cada tanque. Hallamos cinco géneros de bacterias heterotróficas totales (THB, tres especies de azotobacterias y 19 especies de hongos. Las azotobacterias presentaron un pico significativo de abundancia alrededor de los 40-50 días de descomposición, un patrón similar a los del nitrógeno total y los camarones.

  12. Fire-adapted Gondwanan Angiosperm floras evolved in the Cretaceous

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    Lamont Byron B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fires have been widespread over the last 250 million years, peaking 60−125 million years ago (Ma, and might therefore have played a key role in the evolution of Angiosperms. Yet it is commonly believed that fireprone communities existed only after the global climate became more arid and seasonal 15 Ma. Recent molecular-based studies point to much earlier origins of fireprone Angiosperm floras in Australia and South Africa (to 60 Ma, Paleocene but even these were constrained by the ages of the clades examined. Results Using a molecular-dated phylogeny for the great Gondwanan family Proteaceae, with a 113-million-year evolutionary history, we show that the ancestors of many of its characteristic sclerophyll genera, such as Protea, Conospermum, Leucadendron, Petrophile, Adenanthos and Leucospermum (all subfamily Proteoideae, occurred in fireprone habitats from 88 Ma (83−94, 95% HPD, Mid-Upper Cretaceous. This coincided with the highest atmospheric oxygen (combustibility levels experienced over the past 150 million years. Migration from non-fireprone (essentially rainforest-climate-type environments was accompanied by the evolution of highly speciose clades with a range of seed storage traits and fire-cued seed release or germination mechanisms that was diagnostic for each clade by 71 Ma, though the ant-dispersed lineage (as a soil seed-storage subclade was delayed until 45 Ma. Conclusions Focusing on the widespread 113-million-year-old family Proteaceae, fireproneness among Gondwanan Angiosperm floras can now be traced back almost 90 million years into the fiery Cretaceous. The associated evolution of on-plant (serotiny and soil seed storage, and later ant dispersal, affirms them as ancient adaptations to fire among flowering plants.

  13. Comparison of the effect of topical application of human milk and dry cord care on the bacterial colonization of umbilical cord in newborn infants

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    Fatemeh Abbaszadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk contains significant amounts of compounds that act as natural antimicrobial agents. This study was conducted to compare the effect of topical application of human milk and dry cord care on bacterial colonization in the umbilical cord of newborn infants. Methods: This clinical trial study was carried out on 174 infants in Kashan. The newborns were randomized to mother's milk group and dry cord care group from the birth. In group 1, the mother rubbed her own milk on the cord stump every 12 hours from 3 hours after birth to 2 days after the umbilical cord separation. In group 2, the mother was recommended not to use any material on the cord. Then, the cord samples were taken four times; 3hours after birth, at days 3 and 7, and 2 days after the umbilical cord separation. Results: The findings of the culture two days after umbilical cord separation indicated that low percentage of neonates in the breast milk (23.1% and dry cord care (28.8% groups had bacterial colonization. Moreover, no significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of growth of pathogenic organisms and normal flora of the skin (P>0.05. Conclusion: Given the low prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms in the two groups, it seems using breast milk and dry cord care are equally effective methods of taking care of umbilical cord.

  14. Composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age--sensitive and specific molecular diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is possible?

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    Elena Shipitsyna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common vaginal disorder, characterized by depletion of the normal lactobacillus-dominant microbiota and overgrowth of commensal anaerobic bacteria. This study aimed to investigate the composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age (healthy women and women with BV, with the view of developing molecular criteria for BV diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vaginal samples from 163 women (79 control, 73 BV and 11 intermediate (Lactobacillary grade II flora cases were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing of the hypervariable regions V3-V4 of the 16S rRNA gene and 16 quantitative bacterial species/genus-specific real-time PCR assays. Sensitivities and specificities of potential BV markers were computed using the Amsel criteria as reference standard for BV. The use of quantitative thresholds for prediction of BV, determined for both relative abundance measured with 454 pyrosequencing and bacterial load measured with qPCR, was evaluated. RESULTS: Relative to the healthy women, the BV patients had in their vaginal microbiota significantly higher prevalence, loads and relative abundances of the majority of BV associated bacteria. However, only Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 detected at or above optimal thresholds were highly predictable for BV, with the best diagnostic accuracy shown for A. vaginae. The depletion of Lactobacillus species combined with the presence of either G. vaginalis or A. vaginae at diagnostic levels was a highly accurate BV predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative determination of the presence of G. vaginalis, A. vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 as well as the depletion of Lactobacillus was highly accurate for BV diagnosis. Measurements of abundance of normal and BV microbiota relative to total bacteria in vaginal fluid may provide more accurate BV diagnosis, and be

  15. Composition of the Vaginal Microbiota in Women of Reproductive Age – Sensitive and Specific Molecular Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis Is Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipitsyna, Elena; Roos, Annika; Datcu, Raluca; Hallén, Anders; Fredlund, Hans; Jensen, Jørgen S.; Engstrand, Lars; Unemo, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal disorder, characterized by depletion of the normal lactobacillus-dominant microbiota and overgrowth of commensal anaerobic bacteria. This study aimed to investigate the composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age (healthy women and women with BV), with the view of developing molecular criteria for BV diagnosis. Materials and Methods Vaginal samples from 163 women (79 control, 73 BV and 11 intermediate (Lactobacillary grade II flora) cases) were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing of the hypervariable regions V3–V4 of the 16S rRNA gene and 16 quantitative bacterial species/genus-specific real-time PCR assays. Sensitivities and specificities of potential BV markers were computed using the Amsel criteria as reference standard for BV. The use of quantitative thresholds for prediction of BV, determined for both relative abundance measured with 454 pyrosequencing and bacterial load measured with qPCR, was evaluated. Results Relative to the healthy women, the BV patients had in their vaginal microbiota significantly higher prevalence, loads and relative abundances of the majority of BV associated bacteria. However, only Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 detected at or above optimal thresholds were highly predictable for BV, with the best diagnostic accuracy shown for A. vaginae. The depletion of Lactobacillus species combined with the presence of either G. vaginalis or A. vaginae at diagnostic levels was a highly accurate BV predictor. Conclusions Quantitative determination of the presence of G. vaginalis, A. vaginae, Eggerthella, Prevotella, BVAB2 and Megasphaera type 1 as well as the depletion of Lactobacillus was highly accurate for BV diagnosis. Measurements of abundance of normal and BV microbiota relative to total bacteria in vaginal fluid may provide more accurate BV diagnosis, and be used for test

  16. The effects of lactobacillus suppositories in the recovery and recur-rence of bacterial vaginosis: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

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    Soror Roozafzay

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: The protective effects of lactobacillus in dealing with anaerobic patho-gens as well as the negative impact of metronidazole on lactobacillus of vaginal flora, use of lactobacillus along with metronidazole especially in patients with recurrent infec-tions is recommended. In other words, using lactobacillus with metronidazole for treatment of bacterial vaginosis is more effective than metronidazole alone.

  17. Geographical constraints are stronger than invasion patterns for European urban floras.

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    Carlo Ricotta

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that affect invasion success of alien species is an important prerequisite for the effective management of present and future aliens. To gain insight into this matter we asked the following questions: Are the geographical patterns of species distributions in urban floras different for native compared with alien plant species? Does the introduction of alien species contribute to the homogenization of urban floras? We used a Mantel test on Jaccard dissimilarity matrices of 30 urban floras across the British Isles, Italy and central Europe to compare the spatial distribution of native species with four classes of alien species: archaeophytes, all neophytes, non-invasive neophytes, and invasive neophytes. Archaeophytes and neophytes are species that were introduced into Europe before and after 1500 AD, respectively. To analyze the homogenizing effect of alien species on the native urban floras, we tested for differences in the average dissimilarity of individual cities from their group centroid in ordination space. Our results show that the compositional patterns of native and alien species seem to respond to the same environmental drivers, such that all four classes of alien species were significantly related to native species across urban floras. In this framework, alien species may have an impact on biogeographic patterns of urban floras in ways that reflect their history of introduction and expansion: archaeophytes and invasive neophytes tended to homogenize, while non-invasive neophytes tended to differentiate urban floras.

  18. Flora planctónica de laguna Lagartos, Quintana Roo Planktonic flora from Lagartos Lagoon, Quintana Roo

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    Viridiana Margarita Nava-Ruiz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista de la flora planctónica de la laguna Lagartos, basada en la observación de muestras superficiales obtenidas entre noviembre de 2007 a septiembre de 2008. Las muestras se recolectaron con una botella Van Dorn de 2 litros en la parte central de la laguna; se registraron 67 taxa: 28 Bacillariophyta, 22 Cyanoprokaryota, 7 Chlorophyta, 6 Dinoflagellata, 2 Euglenophyta y 2 Cryptophyta. Las cianofitas dominaron durante todo el periodo de estudio, con una contribución mayor al 80% de la abundancia total del fitoplancton. Son nuevos registros para México 13 especies: Chroococcus pulcherrimus, Coelosphaerium confertum, Cyanodyction iac, Phormidium pachydermaticum, Planktolyngbya contorta, Rhodomonas minuta, Amphidinium massartii, Ensiculifera cf. loeblichii, Heterocapsa cf. pseudotriquetra, Prorocentrum cassubicum, Licmophora normaniana, Fistulifera saprophila y Amphora richardiana. Todos los taxa listados se ilustran con microfotografías.The planktonic flora from Lagartos Lagoon, Quintana Roo, was examined based on the observation of samples collected from November 2007 to September 2008. The superficial samples were collected with a Van Dorn bottle of 2 L, in the core part of the lagoon. A total of 67 taxa were identified: 28 Bacillariophyta, 22 Cyanoprokaryota, 7 Chlorophyta, 6 Dinoflagellata, 2 Euglenophyta and 2 Cryptophyta. Nevertheless, the blue green algae dominated during all study period, with more of 80% to the total abundance of the phytoplankton. The species Chroococcus pulcherrimus, Coelosphaerium confertum, Cyanodyction iac, Phormidium pachydermaticum, Planktolyngbya contorta, Rhodomonas minuta, Amphidinium massartii, Ensiculifera cf. loeblichii, Heterocapsa cf. pseudotriquetra, Prorocentrum cassubicum, Licmophora normaniana, Fistulifera saprophila and Amphora richardiana were recorded for the first time in Mexico. All the taxa are illustrated with microphotographs.

  19. The increase of Lactobacillus species in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks is associated with weight gain.

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    Emmanouil Angelakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A bacterial role in the obesity pandemic has been suspected based on the ingestion of probiotics that can modify the gut flora. The objective of our study was to determine if increased Lactobacillus sp. in the gut flora of newborn broiler chicks and ducks could result in weight gain increase. METHODOLOGY: Female broiler chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus and ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica were separated into one control and two experimental groups, and inoculated once or twice with 4x10(10Lactobacillus spp. per animal in PBS, or with PBS alone. Fecal samples were collected before and at 24 hours, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 30 days after the inoculation. DNA was extracted from the stools, and qPCR assays were performed on a MX3000 system for the detection and quantification of Lactobacillus sp., Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, using a quantification plasmid. Animals were measured and sacrificed 60 days after the beginning of the experiment, and livers were collected and measured. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chicks inoculated once and twice with Lactobacillus weighed 10.2% (p = 0.0162 and 13.5% (p = 0.0064 more than the control group animals, respectively. Similarly, ducks inoculated once and twice weighed 7.7% (p = 0.05 and 14% (p = 0.035 more than those in the control group, respectively. Liver mass was also significantly higher in inoculated animals compared to the control group. Inoculation with Lactobacillus sp. increased the DNA copies of Lactobacillus spp. and Firmicutes in the stools. Bacteroidetes remained stable, and only the second Lactobacillus sp. inoculation significantly decreased its population in chicks. The ratio of DNA copies of Firmicutes to those of Bacteroidetes increased to as much as 6,4 in chicks and 8,3 in ducks. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in the intestinal microbiota may precede weight increase, as we found that an increase of Lactobacillus sp. in newborn ducks and chicks preceded the development of weight gain.

  20. Spatial distribution and environmental analysis of the alpine flora in the Pyrenees

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    D. Gómez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the digital edition of the “Atlas of the vascular flora of the Pyrenees” (www.florapyrenaea. org, the alpine flora of this mountain range is delimited in order to know its diversity and the different patterns of its spatial distribution, along with some other environmental characteristics. The Pyrenean alpine flora is made up of 645 taxa (630 species and 15 subspecies. All the administrative regions harbour more than 60% of the alpine plants, with Catalonia and Aragon reaching the highest values (around 90%. Along the altitudinal gradient, the highest plant diversity is found between 2300 and 2600 m. a. s. l., although 25% of the total alpine flora goes beyond 3000 m. On the other hand, a remarkable number of alpine plants live in the lowlands, and thus more than 300 alpine plants can be found below 1500 m. The average altitude range of the alpine plants is 1369 m, 300 m wider than that observed for the whole Pyrenean flora. Life-forms, habitat distribution and habitat naturalness of alpine plants are significantly different from those of the whole Pyrenean flora. Distribution of abundance categories also shows values of rarity significantly lower among alpine plants than for the whole flora. More than half the Pyrenean endemic plants are present in the alpine flora. High diversity and wide ecological amplitude of the alpine flora must be taken into account either when considering vulnerability of alpine plants facing “global change” or when addressing conservation policies for the whole Pyrenees from a common perspective.