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Sample records for normal adult subjects

  1. Instrument development in the measurement of unsupported arm exercise endurance in normal adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, E H; Adams, E; Lutz, A; Roy, C

    1993-06-01

    Many daily activities, from basic grooming to employment tasks, require adequate unsupported arm endurance (UAE). We developed an electromechanical device to measure UAE endurance. The purpose of this study was to standardize the instrument for two rates of arm motion, moderate and slow, in 18 normal adult subjects (FEVI = 3.7L +/- .78, FVC = 4.2L +/- .74, FEV1/FVC = 1.1 +/- .08). Exercise endurance limits, and the following metabolic, ventilatory, and sensation responses were determined at rest prior to exercise and at end-exercise limits for both rates of UAE:minute ventilation (Ve), tidal volume (VT), respiratory rate (RR), duty cycle (Ti/Ttot), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), inspiratory flow (VT/Ti), heart rate (HR), and visual analog scale measurements (VAS) of dyspnea (D), respiratory effort (RE), and arm fatigue (AF). Significance increases from baseline rest were shown at the endurance limits for both rates of UAE in: VO2, VCO2, Ve, VT, RR, VT/Ti, HR, VAS-D, VAS-RE, and VAS-AF. There were no changes in Ti/Ttot and SaO2 with UAE. Peak VO2, RR, Ve, VT/Ti, and VAS-D with moderate exercise were significantly greater than slow UAE; and there was a trend increase in peak HR for moderate as opposed to slow rate UAE. Despite these differences, the endurance time between the two rates of UAE were similar. These data provide standards against which UAE in COPD can be evaluated.

  2. Digital Pupillometry in Normal Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickmann, Annekatrin; Waizel, Maria; Kazerounian, Sara; Szurman, Peter; Wilhelm, Helmut; Boden, Karl T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the pupil size of normal subjects at different illumination levels with a novel pupillometer. The pupil size of healthy study participants was measured with an infrared-video PupilX pupillometer (MEye Tech GmbH, Alsdorf, Germany) at five different illumination levels (0, 0.5, 4, 32, and 250 lux). Measurements were performed by the same investigator. Ninety images were executed during a measurement period of 3 seconds. The absolute linear camera resolution was approximately 20 pixels per mm. This cross-sectional study analysed 490 eyes of 245 subjects (mean age: 51.9 ± 18.3 years, range: 6–87 years). On average, pupil diameter decreased with increasing light intensities for both eyes, with a mean pupil diameter of 5.39 ± 1.04 mm at 0 lux, 5.20 ± 1.00 mm at 0.5 lux, 4.70 ± 0.97 mm at 4 lux, 3.74 ± 0.78 mm at 32 lux, and 2.84 ± 0.50 mm at 250 lux illumination. Furthermore, it was found that anisocoria increased by 0.03 mm per life decade for all illumination levels (R2 = 0.43). Anisocoria was higher under scotopic and mesopic conditions. This study provides additional information to the current knowledge concerning age- and light-related pupil size and anisocoria as a baseline for future patient studies. PMID:28228832

  3. Tenskinmetric Evaluation of Surface Energy Changes in Adult Skin: Evidence from 834 Normal Subjects Monitored in Controlled Conditions

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    Camilla Dal Bosco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the influence of the skin aging critical level on the adult skin epidermal functional state, an improved analytical method based on the skin surface energetic measurement (TVS modeling was developed. Tenskinmetric measurements were carried out non-invasively in controlled conditions by contact angle method using only a water-drop as reference standard liquid. Adult skin was monitored by TVS Observatory according to a specific and controlled thermal protocol (Camianta protocol in use at the interconnected “Mamma Margherita Terme spa” of Terme Euganee. From June to November 2013, the surface free energy and the epidermal hydration level of adult skin were evaluated on arrival of 265 male and 569 female adult volunteers (51–90 years of age and when they departed 2 weeks later. Sensitive measurements were carried out at 0.1 mN/m. High test compliance was obtained (93.2% of all guests. Very interesting results are obtained. The high sensitivity and discrimination power of tenskinmetry combined with a thermal Camianta protocol demonstrate the possibility to evaluate at baseline level the surface energetic changes and the skin reactivity which occurs on adult skin.

  4. Aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphy in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Osamu; Shimazu, Hideki

    1985-03-01

    We previously reported basic and clinical evaluation of aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-millimicrosphere albumin (milli MISA) and concluded aerosol inhalation scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-milli MISA was useful for routine examination. But central airway deposit of aerosol particles was found in not only the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but also normal subjects. So we performed aerosol inhalation scintigraphy in normal subjects and evaluated their scintigrams. The subjects had normal values of FEVsub(1.0)% (more than 70%) in lung function tests, no abnormal findings in chest X-ray films and no symptoms and signs. The findings of aerosol inhalation scintigrams in them were classified into 3 patterns; type I: homogeneous distribution without central airway deposit, type II: homogeneous distribution with central airway deposit, type III: inhomogeneous distribution. These patterns were compared with lung function tests. There was no significant correlation between type I and type II in lung function tests. Type III was different from type I and type II in inhomogeneous distribution. This finding showed no correlation with %VC, FEVsub(1.0)%, MMF, V radical50 and V radical50/V radical25, but good correlation with V radical25 in a maximum forced expiratory flow-volume curve. Flow-volume curve is one of the sensitive methods in early detection of COPD, so inhomogeneous distribution of type III is considered to be due to small airway dysfunction.

  5. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  6. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence

  7. Ventilation-perfusion distribution in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth C; Johnson, Bruce D; Olson, Thomas P; Wilson, Theodore A

    2012-09-01

    Functional values of LogSD of the ventilation distribution (σ(V)) have been reported previously, but functional values of LogSD of the perfusion distribution (σ(q)) and the coefficient of correlation between ventilation and perfusion (ρ) have not been measured in humans. Here, we report values for σ(V), σ(q), and ρ obtained from wash-in data for three gases, helium and two soluble gases, acetylene and dimethyl ether. Normal subjects inspired gas containing the test gases, and the concentrations of the gases at end-expiration during the first 10 breaths were measured with the subjects at rest and at increasing levels of exercise. The regional distribution of ventilation and perfusion was described by a bivariate log-normal distribution with parameters σ(V), σ(q), and ρ, and these parameters were evaluated by matching the values of expired gas concentrations calculated for this distribution to the measured values. Values of cardiac output and LogSD ventilation/perfusion (Va/Q) were obtained. At rest, σ(q) is high (1.08 ± 0.12). With the onset of ventilation, σ(q) decreases to 0.85 ± 0.09 but remains higher than σ(V) (0.43 ± 0.09) at all exercise levels. Rho increases to 0.87 ± 0.07, and the value of LogSD Va/Q for light and moderate exercise is primarily the result of the difference between the magnitudes of σ(q) and σ(V). With known values for the parameters, the bivariate distribution describes the comprehensive distribution of ventilation and perfusion that underlies the distribution of the Va/Q ratio.

  8. Circulating Levels of Irisin in Hypopituitary and Normal Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Pena-Bello

    Full Text Available The recently identified myokine irisin conveys some of the benefits of exercise. Hypopituitarism with adult growth hormone deficiency (HP is a situation characterized by decreased GH secretion and an altered body composition.Our aim was to study the skeletal muscle hormone irisin in HP, and compare the results with a similar group of normal subjects.Seventeen HP patients and fifty-one normal subjects of similar age and sex were studied. The diagnosis of GH deficiency was confirmed by the presence of pituitary disease and a peak GH secretion below 3 μg/L after an insulin tolerance test. The patients were adequately treated for all pituitary hormone deficits, except for GH. Fasting serum irisin was measured with an enzyme immunoassay, and HOMA-IR, QUICKI and HOMA-β were calculated.Fasting irisin levels (ng/ml were similar in normal [208.42 (168.44-249.23] and HP patients [195.13 (178.44-241.44]. In the control group there were moderate significant positive correlations between irisin and BMI, waist circumference, leptin, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, triglycerides, and cholesterol. In the control group there were moderate significant negative correlations between irisin and IGF-I and QUICKI. In the hypopituitary group there were moderate significant positive correlations between irisin and body fat and HOMA-β.We found similar irisin levels in GH deficiency hypopituitary patients when compared with normal subjects. The correlation between irisin and adiposity related factors suggests that that in the case of this clinical model, irisin is regulated by adiposity and not by GH.

  9. Mast cell distribution in normal adult skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Janssens (Artiena Soe); R. Heide (Rogier); J.C. den Hollander (Jan); P.G.M. Mulder (P. G M); B. Tank (Bhupendra); A.P. Oranje (Arnold)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract__AIMS:__ To investigate mast cell distribution in normal adult skin to provide a reference range for comparison with mastocytosis. __METHODS:__ Mast cells (MCs) were counted in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders in adults.

  10. Subjective Wellbeing Among Adults with Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Browne, Jessica L; Pouwer, Frans

    2016-01-01

    duration, body mass index, number of diabetes-related complications, and depression). Furthermore, adults with type 2 diabetes using insulin to manage their condition report the lowest levels of subjective wellbeing, and are also most likely to report dissatisfaction with their current health....... These findings suggest that living with diabetes, and in particular, living with type 2 diabetes and using insulin, strongly challenges the maintenance of subjective wellbeing.......This study examines the subjective wellbeing of Australian adults with diabetes who completed the Diabetes MILES—Australia survey, investigating by diabetes type and treatment, and by comparing with the subjective wellbeing of the general Australian adult population. In addition, the extent...

  11. Psychosocial Functioning of Adult Epileptic and MS Patients and Adult Normal Controls on the WPSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Siang-Yang

    1986-01-01

    Psychosocial functioning of adult epileptic outpatients as assessed by the Washington Psychosocial Seizure Inventory (WPSI) was compared to that of adult multiple sclerosis (MS) outpatients and normal subjects. When only valid WPSI profiles were considered, the only significant finding was that the epilepsy group and the MS group had more…

  12. Effect of nifedipine on gastric emptying in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, M.; Lange, R.C.; McAllister, R.G.; McCallum, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Nifedipine (N) inhibits calcium entry into smooth muscle cells and relaxes esophageal smooth muscle. The authors studied N's effect on gastric emptying of liquids and solids. Ten normal subjects underwent radionuclide (In-111-DTPA in water and Tc-99m-sulfur colloid tagged to chicken liver) emptying tests with and without 30 mg N given orally 20 min prior to meal ingestion. Peak plasma N levels were either 30 or 60 min after drug dosing and showed a 3-fold variation (low 145 ng/ml, high 434 ng/ml). Both mean N levels and integral concentration time values were twice as high as those obtained after 30 mg sublingual dosing in normals previously studied in our lab. The authors conclude that plasma N levels which are associated with significant esophageal motility effects do not change gastric emptying in normal subjects. The data also show that N levels are greater after oral than sublingual dosing of 30 mg in normal subjects

  13. Mast cell distribution in normal adult skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, A S; Heide, R; den Hollander, J C; Mulder, P G M; Tank, B; Oranje, A P

    2005-03-01

    To investigate mast cell distribution in normal adult skin to provide a reference range for comparison with mastocytosis. Mast cells (MCs) were counted in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders in adults. There was an uneven distribution of MCs in different body sites using the anti-tryptase monoclonal antibody technique. Numbers of MCs on the trunk, upper arm, and upper leg were similar, but were significantly different from those found on the lower leg and forearm. Two distinct groups were formed--proximal and distal. There were 77.0 MCs/mm2 at proximal body sites and 108.2 MCs/mm2 at distal sites. Adjusted for the adjacent diagnosis and age, this difference was consistent. The numbers of MCs in uninvolved skin adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and other dermatological disorders were not different from those in the control group. Differences in the numbers of MCs between the distal and the proximal body sites must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. A pilot study in patients with mastocytosis underlined the variation in the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin, but showed a considerable overlap. The observed numbers of MCs in adults cannot be extrapolated to children. MC numbers varied significantly between proximal and distal body sites and these differences must be considered when MCs are counted for a reliable diagnosis of mastocytosis. There was a considerable overlap between the numbers of MCs in mastocytosis and normal skin.

  14. The interblink interval in normal and dry eye subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston PR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Patrick R Johnston,1 John Rodriguez,1 Keith J Lane,1 George Ousler,1 Mark B Abelson1,21Ora, Inc, Andover, MA, USA; 2Schepens Eye Research Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAPurpose: Our aim was to extend the concept of blink patterns from average interblink interval (IBI to other aspects of the distribution of IBI. We hypothesized that this more comprehensive approach would better discriminate between normal and dry eye subjects.Methods: Blinks were captured over 10 minutes for ten normal and ten dry eye subjects while viewing a standardized televised documentary. Fifty-five blinks were analyzed for each of the 20 subjects. Means, standard deviations, and autocorrelation coefficients were calculated utilizing a single random effects model fit to all data points and a diagnostic model was subsequently fit to predict probability of a subject having dry eye based on these parameters.Results: Mean IBI was 5.97 seconds for normal versus 2.56 seconds for dry eye subjects (ratio: 2.33, P = 0.004. IBI variability was 1.56 times higher in normal subjects (P < 0.001, and the autocorrelation was 1.79 times higher in normal subjects (P = 0.044. With regard to the diagnostic power of these measures, mean IBI was the best dry eye versus normal classifier using receiver operating characteristics (0.85 area under curve (AUC, followed by the standard deviation (0.75 AUC, and lastly, the autocorrelation (0.63 AUC. All three predictors combined had an AUC of 0.89. Based on this analysis, cutoffs of ≤3.05 seconds for median IBI, and ≤0.73 for the coefficient of variation were chosen to classify dry eye subjects.Conclusion: (1 IBI was significantly shorter for dry eye patients performing a visual task compared to normals; (2 there was a greater variability of interblink intervals in normal subjects; and (3 these parameters were useful as diagnostic predictors of dry eye disease. The results of this pilot study merit investigation of IBI

  15. Subjective adult identity and casual sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Heidi Ann

    2015-12-01

    A majority of Americans have a casual sexual experience before transitioning to adulthood. Little research has yet to examine how identity influences causal sexual behavior. The current study fills this gap in the literature by examining if subjective adult identity predicts casual sexual behavior net of life course transitions in a national sample of Americans. To answer this research question, the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is utilized. Structural equation modeling results show the older and more adult-like individuals feel the less likely they are to report a recent casual sexual partner. Once life course factors are included in the model, subjective identity is no longer associated with casual sex. Practitioners who work with adult populations need to consider how life course transitions influence casual sexual behavior.

  16. [Quantification of acetabular coverage in normal adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R M; Yang, C Y; Yu, C Y; Yang, C R; Chang, G L; Chou, Y L

    1991-03-01

    Quantification of acetabular coverage is important and can be expressed by superimposition of cartilage tracings on the maximum cross-sectional area of the femoral head. A practical Autolisp program on PC AutoCAD has been developed by us to quantify the acetabular coverage through numerical expression of the images of computed tomography. Thirty adults (60 hips) with normal center-edge angle and acetabular index in plain X ray were randomly selected for serial drops. These slices were prepared with a fixed coordination and in continuous sections of 5 mm in thickness. The contours of the cartilage of each section were digitized into a PC computer and processed by AutoCAD programs to quantify and characterize the acetabular coverage of normal and dysplastic adult hips. We found that a total coverage ratio of greater than 80%, an anterior coverage ratio of greater than 75% and a posterior coverage ratio of greater than 80% can be categorized in a normal group. Polar edge distance is a good indicator for the evaluation of preoperative and postoperative coverage conditions. For standardization and evaluation of acetabular coverage, the most suitable parameters are the total coverage ratio, anterior coverage ratio, posterior coverage ratio and polar edge distance. However, medial coverage and lateral coverage ratios are indispensable in cases of dysplastic hip because variations between them are so great that acetabuloplasty may be impossible. This program can also be used to classify precisely the type of dysplastic hip.

  17. Oral Topical Doxepin Rinse: Anesthetic Effect in Normal Subjects

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    Joel B Epstein

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral doxepin rinse has been reported to provide pain relief in patients with oral mucosal lesions due to cancer or cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to assess the anesthetic effect of doxepin oral rinse in normal subjects to identify the duration of effect and to contrast the anesthetic effect with reported pain relief in patients with oral mucosal lesions. Normal volunteers were provided a solution of doxepin (5 mg/mL for oral rinsing. Oral numbness and adverse effects were recorded for a period of 4 h after rinsing. Doxepin rinse resulted in mucosal anesthesia in all subjects. Sedation/fatigue was reported in four of seven subjects. There were no taste complaints and no nausea reported. The limited duration of numbness/anesthesia in normal subjects compared with prior studies showing pain relief for more than 3 h in patients with mucosal lesions, suggests that the extended duration of pain relief in patients was due to analgesic effects rather than anesthetic effects. The majority of normal subjects reported sedation after use, but this was less common in patients with mucosal lesions.

  18. Multivariate stochastic simulation with subjective multivariate normal distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. J. Ince; J. Buongiorno

    1991-01-01

    In many applications of Monte Carlo simulation in forestry or forest products, it may be known that some variables are correlated. However, for simplicity, in most simulations it has been assumed that random variables are independently distributed. This report describes an alternative Monte Carlo simulation technique for subjectively assesed multivariate normal...

  19. Tracheobronchial calcification in adult health study subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuya, Tatsuro; Mihara, Futoshi; Kudo, Sho; Russell, W.J.; Delongchamp, R.R.; Vaeth, M.; Hosoda, Yutaka.

    1988-04-01

    Tracheobronchial calcification is reportedly more frequent in women than in men. Ten cases of extensive tracehobronchial calcification were identified on chest radiographs of 1,152 consecutively examined Adult Health Study subjects, for a prevalence of 0.87 %. An additional 51 subjects having this coded diagnosis were identified among 11,758 members of this fixed population sample. Sixty of the 61 subjects were women. The manifestations and extent of this type of calcification and its correlations with clinical and histopathologic features, which have not been previously reported, are described here. (author)

  20. Absorption of orally administered 65Zn by normal human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, R.L.; Rumble, W.F.; Johnston, G.S.; Markley, E.J.; Henkin, R.I.

    1981-01-01

    Despite studies by several investigators of human gastrointestinal 65Zn absorption, implications of these data for evaluation of functional zinc status are unclear because limited numbers of normal subjects have been studied. To evaluated zinc absorption in normal humans, 75 subjects (31 women, 44 men, ages 18 to 84 yr) were given 10 micro Ci carrier-free 65Zn orally after an overnight fast. Absorption calculated from total body retention measured 7, 14, and 21 days after administration of tracer was 65 +/- 11% (mean +/- 1 SD), range from 40 to 86%. Comparison of these results with those for patients with a variety of diseases indicate that patients exhibit a wider range of absorption and, in four of six studies patients exhibit decreased mean zinc absorption. These results of gastrointestinal zinc absorption in a large number of normal humans offer a basis for a clearer comparison with data from patients who exhibit abnormalities of zinc absorption

  1. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion in normal and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurysta, Cedric; Bulur, Nurdan; Oguzhan, Berrin; Satman, Ilhan; Yilmaz, Temel M; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    The present report aims mainly at a reevaluation of salivary glucose concentration and excretion in unstimulated and mechanically stimulated saliva in both normal and diabetic subjects. In normal subjects, a decrease in saliva glucose concentration, an increase in salivary flow, but an unchanged glucose excretion rate were recorded when comparing stimulated saliva to unstimulated saliva. In diabetic patients, an increase in salivary flow with unchanged salivary glucose concentration and glucose excretion rate were observed under the same experimental conditions. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion were much higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. No significant correlation between glycemia and either glucose concentration or glucose excretion rate was found in the diabetic patients, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. In the latter patients, as compared to control subjects, the relative magnitude of the increase in saliva glucose concentration was comparable, however, to that of blood glucose concentration. The relationship between these two variables was also documented in normal subjects and diabetic patients undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test.

  2. Activin receptor subunits in normal and dysfunctional adult human testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, V; Meachem, S; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2008-01-01

    The cellular sites of activin action and its regulation in the normal and dysfunctional adult human testis are unknown.......The cellular sites of activin action and its regulation in the normal and dysfunctional adult human testis are unknown....

  3. Effect of nifedipine on gastric emptying in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traube, M.; Lange, R.C.; McAllister, R.G.; McCallum, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    Nifedipine (N) inhibits calcium entry into smooth muscle cells and relaxes esophageal smooth muscle. The authors studied N's effect on gastric emptying of liquids and solids. Ten normal subjects underwent radionuclide (In-111-DTPA in water and Tc-99m-sulfur colloid tagged to chicken liver) emptying tests with and without 30 mg N given orally 20 min prior to meal ingestion. Peak plasma N levels were either 30 or 60 min after drug dosing and showed a 3-fold variation (low 145 ng/ml, high 434 ng/ml). Both mean N levels and integral concentration time values were twice as high as those obtained after 30 mg sublingual dosing in normals previously studied in our lab. The authors conclude that plasma N levels which are associated with significant esophageal motility effects do not change gastric emptying in normal subjects. The data also show that N levels are greater after oral than sublingual dosing of 30 mg in normal subjects.

  4. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Consumption of 125I labelled fibrinogen in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, B.; Camargo, E.E.; Reis, J.M.M. dos; Carvalho, N.; Leao, L.E.P.

    1978-01-01

    The metabolism of iodine- 125 labeled human fibrinogen is studied by using three different sets of the radiopharmaceutical (0.9, 1.3 and 1.84 iodine atoms/fibrinogen molecule ratios) in 19 normal subjects. An aliquot of 40 μCi of fibrinogem- 125 I is injected in each subject, on normal dietary conditions and blood samples are withdrawn at 30, 60, 180, 36 and 720 minutes after the injection and, thereafter, one daily sample during 10 days. The compartmental distribution of the tracer is defined by plotting plasma and serum sample counts on a semilogarithmic graph paper. A rapid phase and 3 compartments are obtained. A 'rapid' consumption half-life and a 'real' consumption half-life are defined. The fibrinogen clottability is followed up to the last blood sample by checking the ratios of serum and plasma radioactivities [pt

  6. Subjective Oral Health in Dutch Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsbert H.W. Verrips

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine whether the subjective oral health (SOH of the Dutch adult population was associated with clinical and demographic variables. Methods: A clinical examination was conducted in a sample of 1,018 people from the Dutch city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. SOH was measured using the Dutch translation of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-NL14. Results: The average score on the OHIP-NL14 was 2.8 ± 5.9 and 51% of the respondents had a score of 0. Dental status was the most important predictor of SOH. Conclusions:  The SOH in the Dutch adult population was much better than in groups of adults in Australia, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Nevertheless, there were important variations in SOH related to dental and socio-economic status.

  7. Normal Strength Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Explosive Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Alias Yusof; Norazman Norazman; Ariffin Ariffin; Fauzi Mohd Zain; Risby Risby; CP Ng

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the behavior of plain reinforced concrete and Normal strength steel fiber reinforced concrete panels (SFRC) subjected to explosive loading. The experiment were performed by the Blast Research Unit Faculty of Engineering, University Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia A total of 8 reinforced concrete panels of 600mm x 600mm x 100mm were tested. The steel fiber reinforced concrete panels incorporated three different volume fraction, 0...

  8. Quantitative thallium-201 myocardial exercise scintigraphy in normal subjects and patients with normal coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, M.G.; St. Antonius Hospital Nieuwegein; Laarman, G.J.; Lelbach, S.; Cramer, M.J.; Ascoop, C.A.P.L.; Verzijlbergen, J.F.; Wall, E.E. van der; Zwinderman, A.H.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative thallium-201 myocardial exercise scintigraphy was tested in two patient populations representing alternative standards for cardiac normality: group I comprised 18 male uncatherized patients with a low likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD); group II contained 41 patients with normal coronary arteriograms. Group I patients were younger, they achieved a higher rate-pressure product than group II patients; all had normal findings by phisical examination and electrocardiography at rest and exercise. Group II patients comprised 21 females, 11 patients showed abnormal electrocardiography at rest, and five patients showed ischemic ST depression during exercise. Twelve patients had sign of minimal CAD. Twelve patients revealed abnormal visual and quantitative thallium findings, three of these patients had minimal CAD. Profiles of uptake and washout of thallium-201 were derived from both patient groups, and compared with normal limits developed by Maddahi et al. Furthermore, low likelihood and angiographically normal patients may differ substantially, and both sets of normal patients should be considered when establishing criteria of abnormality in exercise thallium imaging. When commercial software containing normal limits for quantitative analysis of exercise thallium-201 imaging is used in clinical practice, it is mandatory to compare these with normal limits of uptake and washout of thallium-201, derived from the less heterogeneous group of low-likelihood subjects, which should be used in selecting a normal population to define normality. (author). 37 refs.; 3 figs; 1 tab

  9. Diurnal levels of immunoreactive erythropoietin in normal subjects and subjects with chronic lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.E.; Garcia, J.F.; Cohen, R.A.; Cronkite, E.P.; Moccia, G.; Acevedo, J.

    1981-10-01

    Serum levels of immunoreactive erythropoietin (Ep) were measured in 48 normal male and female volunteers, ages 20-60 years, to establish a control value for Ep of 18.5 +/- 5.0 (mean +/- SD) mU/ml. Levels of the hormone were also measured sequentially over a 24 h period of time in an additional 17 normal volunteers with no diurnal variation. Diurnal levels of immunoreactive Ep were also measured in 30 subjects, with chronic lung disease. These patients, in contrast to normal subjects exhibited a diurnal variation in the level of immunoreactive Ep with peak levels occurring at midnight. The only variable measured which correlated with the serum immunoreactive Ep level in subjects with chronic lung disease was the level of carboxyhaemoglobin (P less than 0.02).

  10. Functional relationship between the cerebrum and cerebellum in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Arai, Hisayuki; Hatano, Nobuyoshi; Abe, Shinei; Katsunuma, Hideyo

    1991-01-01

    To determine whether a functional relationship between the cerebrum and cerebellum exists in normal subjects, the correlation between asymmetry in cerebral blood flow and asymmetry in cerebellar blood flow was investigated. Twenty-one healthy right-handed subjects were studied using SPECT with N-isopropyl-p-( 123 I)iodoamphetamine while in a resting state. The asymmetry index (AI) for both the cerebral and cerebellar hemisphere was calculated as follows. AI=right side - left side/right side + left side/200 (%). A negative correlation was found between AI in the cerebellum and AI in the cerebrum. Especially, AI in the cerebellar hemisphere was significantly correlated with AIs in the upper frontal cortex (r=-0.58, p<0.01), middle frontal cortex (r=-0.55, p<0.02), lower frontal cortex (r=-0.49, p<0.05), and mean cerebral hemisphere (r=-0.52, p<0.02). These results suggest the existence of a functional relationship between the cerebral hemisphere and the contralateral cerebellar hemisphere in the resting state of normal subjects. We strongly suspect that the frontal cortex exert an influence on the function in the contralateral cerebellum, probably due to a transneuronal mechanism, mainly through the corticopontocerebellar pathway. (author)

  11. Cerebral blood flow and red cell delivery in normal subjects and in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swank, R.L.; Roth, J.G.; Woody, D.C. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined in 77 normal females and 53 normal males of different ages and in 26 men and 45 women with multiple sclerosis by the inhalation of radioactive Xe133 method. In the normal subjects the CBF was relatively high in the teens and fell, at first rapidly and then slowly in both sexes with age. During adult life the flow in females was significantly higher than in males. The delivery of packed red cells (RCD) was determined by multiplying the CBF by the percentage concentration of red cells (HCT). The RCD for both sexes was nearly the same. In the patients with multiple sclerosis there occurred a progressive generalized decrease in CBF and in RCD with age which was significantly greater than observed in normal subjects. The rate of decrease in CBF and RCD correlated directly with the rate of progress of the disease

  12. Amniotic Fluid Cells Proliferation in Normal and Down Syndrome Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honcea Adina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Down Syndrome/Trisomy 21 is the most common chromosomal anomaly, and it represents the most common congenital cause of infants’ intellectual disability. Subjects with this syndrome are affected by degenerative processes caused by accelerated aging or unknown ethyologies. In recent years, accumulating evidence revealed increased potential of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells to be used in regenerative therapy. Our aim was to assess differences in immunophenotype, cell morphology and proliferation of amniotic fluid cells from normal and Down Syndrome pregnancies using a quantitative cytometry approach. Results revealed the emergence of a population of small sized cells in Down Syndrome derived amniotic fluid cells that are readily visible upon microscopic inspection. Hence, the fluorescence–based quantitative image cytometry determinations showed a tendency of decrease in both cell and nuclei size in trisomy, with no significant modification in nuclei circularity, as measured following actin cytoskeleton and nuclei labeling. The propensity of Ki67 positive cells was found to be increased in Down Syndrome derived cells (48.92% as compared to normal specimens (28.68%. However, cells in S and G2/M cell cycle phases decreased from 32.91% to 4.49% in diseased cells. Further studies are devoted to understanding the molecular basis of the observed differences in the proliferation ability of Down Syndrome amniotic cells, in order to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of amniotic fluid stem cells for tissue regeneration in subjects with trisomy and to find correlations between amniotic cells phenotype and patient prognosis.

  13. Frequency of EEG arousals from nocturnal sleep in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, R; Douglas, N J

    1995-06-01

    Brief arousals are clinically important and increasingly scored during polysomnography. However, the frequency of arousals during routine polysomnography in the normal population is unknown. We performed overnight polysomnography in the 55 of 59 control subjects from a family practice list who were approached and agreed to undergo polysomnography. Awakenings were scored according to the criteria of Rechtschaffen and Kales and briefer arousals according to three different criteria, including the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) definition. There was a mean of 4 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1-15) Rechtschaffen and Kales awakenings per hour, whereas the ASDA definition gave 21 (95% CI, 7-56) per hour slept. Arousal frequencies increased significantly (p < 0.001) with age in our subjects, who ranged from the late teens to early 70s. The high upper limit of the frequency of brief arousals was not altered by exclusion of patients who snored or had witnessed apneas or daytime sleepiness. It is important that those scoring arousals on routine polysomnography recognize that high arousal frequencies occur in the normal population on 1-night polysomnography.

  14. CT quantification of lung and airways in normal Korean subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Song Soo; Lee, Jeong Eun; Shin, Hye Soo; Jin, Gong Yong; Li, Yuan Zhe

    2017-01-01

    To measure and compare the quantitative parameters of the lungs and airways in Korean never-smokers and current or former smokers (“ever-smokers”). Never-smokers (n = 119) and ever-smokers (n = 45) who had normal spirometry and visually normal chest computed tomography (CT) results were retrospectively enrolled in this study. For quantitative CT analyses, the low attenuation area (LAA) of LAA_I_-_9_5_0, LAA_E_-_8_5_6, CT attenuation value at the 15th percentile, mean lung attenuation (MLA), bronchial wall thickness of inner perimeter of a 10 mm diameter airway (Pi10), total lung capacity (TLC_C_T), and functional residual capacity (FRC_C_T) were calculated based on inspiratory and expiratory CT images. To compare the results between groups according to age, sex, and smoking history, independent t test, one way ANOVA, correlation test, and simple and multiple regression analyses were performed. The values of attenuation parameters and volume on inspiratory and expiratory quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were significantly different between males and females (p < 0.001). The MLA and the 15th percentile value on inspiratory QCT were significantly lower in the ever-smoker group than in the never-smoker group (p < 0.05). On expiratory QCT, all lung attenuation parameters were significantly different according to the age range (p < 0.05). Pi10 in ever-smokers was significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (r = −0.455, p = 0.003). In simple and multivariate regression analyses, TLC_C_T, FRC_C_T, and age showed significant associations with lung attenuation (p < 0.05), and only TLC_C_T was significantly associated with inspiratory Pi10. In Korean subjects with normal spirometry and visually normal chest CT, there may be significant differences in QCT parameters according to sex, age, and smoking history

  15. CT quantification of lung and airways in normal Korean subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Song Soo; Lee, Jeong Eun; Shin, Hye Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Gong Yong; Li, Yuan Zhe [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To measure and compare the quantitative parameters of the lungs and airways in Korean never-smokers and current or former smokers (“ever-smokers”). Never-smokers (n = 119) and ever-smokers (n = 45) who had normal spirometry and visually normal chest computed tomography (CT) results were retrospectively enrolled in this study. For quantitative CT analyses, the low attenuation area (LAA) of LAA{sub I-950}, LAA{sub E-856}, CT attenuation value at the 15th percentile, mean lung attenuation (MLA), bronchial wall thickness of inner perimeter of a 10 mm diameter airway (Pi10), total lung capacity (TLC{sub CT}), and functional residual capacity (FRC{sub CT}) were calculated based on inspiratory and expiratory CT images. To compare the results between groups according to age, sex, and smoking history, independent t test, one way ANOVA, correlation test, and simple and multiple regression analyses were performed. The values of attenuation parameters and volume on inspiratory and expiratory quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were significantly different between males and females (p < 0.001). The MLA and the 15th percentile value on inspiratory QCT were significantly lower in the ever-smoker group than in the never-smoker group (p < 0.05). On expiratory QCT, all lung attenuation parameters were significantly different according to the age range (p < 0.05). Pi10 in ever-smokers was significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (r = −0.455, p = 0.003). In simple and multivariate regression analyses, TLC{sub CT}, FRC{sub CT}, and age showed significant associations with lung attenuation (p < 0.05), and only TLC{sub CT} was significantly associated with inspiratory Pi10. In Korean subjects with normal spirometry and visually normal chest CT, there may be significant differences in QCT parameters according to sex, age, and smoking history.

  16. A f-MRI study on memory function in normal subjects and patients with partial epilepsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamoda, Sachiko

    2004-01-01

    To investigate cerebral regions concerning a memory function and presence of memory lateralization, activated areas and the difference between the right and left hemisphere in functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI) during verbal and visual memory tasks were examined in normal subjects and, as its clinical application, in patients with partial epilepsies. Subjects were 39 normal adult subjects and 10 adult patients. Of the 39 normal subjects, 30 were right-handed and 9 were left-handed. Further, of the 10 patients, 9 were right-handed and one was left-handed, and 7, 2 and 1 had temporal lobe, frontal lobe and undetermined partial epilepsies, respectively. Following the three type of memory task were designed; verbal memory tasks consisting of covert and overt recall tests of 10 words given auditory and visual memory task of covert recall tasks of 6 figures given visually. Activated cerebral areas were imaged with f-MRI using 1.5 tesla Magnetom Vision taken repeatedly during these tasks and neutral condition. Most of the 30 right-handed normal subjects showed activated areas over the left hemisphere specifically on the anterior cingulate, superior, middle and inferior frontal gyri during the verbal memory tasks of covert recall tests. Left hemisphere dominant activated areas in the precentral gyri were added during the verbal memory tasks of overt recall tests. On the other hand, 4 of the 9 left-handed normal subjects showed the left side-dominantly activated areas in the above-mentioned regions during the verbal memory tasks of covert and overt tests, in common with the right-handed subjects. However, 3 of the 9 left-handed normal subjects had right hemisphere dominant activation during the verbal memory tasks, while none of the 30 right-handed normal subjects showed such right side-dominancy. Further, the bilateral occipital lobes were activated during visual memory tasks. The reproducibility in this activation during these verbal and visual memory tasks

  17. Quantitative computed tomography determined regional lung mechanics in normal nonsmokers, normal smokers and metastatic sarcoma subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwoong Choi

    Full Text Available Extra-thoracic tumors send out pilot cells that attach to the pulmonary endothelium. We hypothesized that this could alter regional lung mechanics (tissue stiffening or accumulation of fluid and inflammatory cells through interactions with host cells. We explored this with serial inspiratory computed tomography (CT and image matching to assess regional changes in lung expansion.We retrospectively assessed 44 pairs of two serial CT scans on 21 sarcoma patients: 12 without lung metastases and 9 with lung metastases. For each subject, two or more serial inspiratory clinically-derived CT scans were retrospectively collected. Two research-derived control groups were included: 7 normal nonsmokers and 12 asymptomatic smokers with two inspiratory scans taken the same day or one year apart respectively. We performed image registration for local-to-local matching scans to baseline, and derived local expansion and density changes at an acinar scale. Welch two sample t test was used for comparison between groups. Statistical significance was determined with a p value < 0.05.Lung regions of metastatic sarcoma patients (but not the normal control group demonstrated an increased proportion of normalized lung expansion between the first and second CT. These hyper-expanded regions were associated with, but not limited to, visible metastatic lung lesions. Compared with the normal control group, the percent of increased normalized hyper-expanded lung in sarcoma subjects was significantly increased (p < 0.05. There was also evidence of increased lung "tissue" volume (non-air components in the hyper-expanded regions of the cancer subjects relative to non-hyper-expanded regions. "Tissue" volume increase was present in the hyper-expanded regions of metastatic and non-metastatic sarcoma subjects. This putatively could represent regional inflammation related to the presence of tumor pilot cell-host related interactions.This new quantitative CT (QCT method for linking

  18. Reference data for normal subjects obtained with an accelerometric device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinet, Bernard; Berrut, Gilles; Touzard, Claude; Moutel, Laurent; Collet, Nadine; Chaleil, Denis; Barrey, Eric

    2002-10-01

    We collected gait analysis data for 282 healthy adults and elderly people (144 women and 138 men aged 20-98) using an accelerometric device, whose reproducibility (intra-tester and inter-testers) has been validated for gait studies. The subjects walked at their own speed along a corridor (40 m). Stride frequency (SF) (after correction for height), step symmetry (Sym), stride regularity (Reg), and vertical harmonic (slope) were all independent of age or gender. The median-lateral harmonic (slope) (MSH) was influenced by gender, but not by age. Other variables (walking speed, stride length (SL), cranial-caudal activity and raw accelerations at heel contact, mid-stance and initial push-off) were dependent on gender and age. They were higher in men than in women, and began to decrease during the sixth decade in men and the seventh decade in women. The raw acceleration at foot flat was independent of gender but was influenced by age. This accelerometric device is easy to use and requires no specialized equipment and could be used to analyze walking in clinical practice.

  19. Safety of the HyperSound® Audio System in subjects with normal hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritvik P. Mehta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess the safety of the HyperSound® Audio System (HSS, a novel audio system using ultrasound technology, in normal hearing subjects under normal use conditions; we considered preexposure and post-exposure test design. We investigated primary and secondary outcome measures: i temporary threshold shift (TTS, defined as >10 dB shift in pure tone air conduction thresholds and/or a decrement in distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs >10 dB at two or more frequencies; ii presence of new-onset otologic symptoms after exposure. Twenty adult subjects with normal hearing underwent a pre-exposure assessment (pure tone air conduction audiometry, tympanometry, DPOAEs and otologic symptoms questionnaire followed by exposure to a 2-h movie with sound delivered through the HSS emitter followed by a post-exposure assessment. No TTS or new-onset otological symptoms were identified. HSS demonstrates excellent safety in normal hearing subjects under normal use conditions.

  20. Safety of the HyperSound® Audio System in Subjects with Normal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ritvik P; Mattson, Sara L; Kappus, Brian A; Seitzman, Robin L

    2015-06-11

    The objective of the study was to assess the safety of the HyperSound® Audio System (HSS), a novel audio system using ultrasound technology, in normal hearing subjects under normal use conditions; we considered pre-exposure and post-exposure test design. We investigated primary and secondary outcome measures: i) temporary threshold shift (TTS), defined as >10 dB shift in pure tone air conduction thresholds and/or a decrement in distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) >10 dB at two or more frequencies; ii) presence of new-onset otologic symptoms after exposure. Twenty adult subjects with normal hearing underwent a pre-exposure assessment (pure tone air conduction audiometry, tympanometry, DPOAEs and otologic symptoms questionnaire) followed by exposure to a 2-h movie with sound delivered through the HSS emitter followed by a post-exposure assessment. No TTS or new-onset otological symptoms were identified. HSS demonstrates excellent safety in normal hearing subjects under normal use conditions.

  1. Distance stereotest using a 3-dimensional monitor for adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongshin; Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Youngmin; Lee, Byoungho; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the validity and test-retest reliability of a contour-based 3-dimensional (3-D) monitor distance stereotest (distance 3-D stereotest) and to measure the maximum horizontal disparity that can be fused with disparity vergence for determining the largest measurable disparity of true stereopsis. Observational case series. Sixty-four normal adult subjects (age range, 23 to 39 years) were recruited. Contour-based circles (crossed disparity, 5000 to 20 seconds of arc; Microsoft Visual Studio C(++) 6.0; Microsoft, Inc, Seattle, Washington, USA) were generated on a 3-D monitor (46-inch stereoscopic display) using polarization glasses and were presented to subjects with normal binocularity at 3 m. While the position of the stimulus changed among 4 possible locations, the subjects were instructed to press the corresponding position of the stimulus on a keypad. The results with the new distance 3-D stereotest were compared with those from the distance Randot stereotest. The results of the distance 3-D stereotest and the distance Randot stereotests were identical in 64% and within 1 disparity level in 97% of normal adults. Scores obtained with the 2 tests showed a statistically significant correlation (r = 0.324, P = .009). The half-width of the 95% limit of agreement was 0.47 log seconds of arc (1.55 octaves) using the distance 3-D stereotest--similar to or better than that obtained with conventional distance stereotests. The maximum binocular disparity that can be fused with vergence was 1828 ± 794 seconds of arc (range, 4000 to 500). The distance 3-D stereotest showed good concordance with the distance Randot stereotest and relatively good test-retest reliability, supporting the validity of the distance 3-D stereotest. The normative data set obtained from the present study can serve as a useful reference for quantitative assessment of a wide range of binocular sensory abnormalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Digital ranges of motion: normal values in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, W J; Brown, H R; Nunley, J A

    1991-09-01

    Analysis of the range of motion of fingers was done in young (eighteen to thirty-five year old) adult volunteers with no history of previous injury to their hands. The data show that there are slight differences between the individual digits. Notably, metacarpophalangeal flexion and total active motion increase linearly in proceeding from the index to the small finger. There were also minor differences in comparing sexes. Women have greater extension at the metacarpophalangeal joint in both active and passive motion and have a greater total active motion at all digits as a result. A significant tenodesis effect was found at the distal interphalangeal joint in normal subjects. No differences were found that could be attributable to handedness.

  3. SSRI treatment suppresses dream recall frequency but increases subjective dream intensity in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, E F; Gersh, T; Silvestri, R; Stickgold, R; Salzman, C; Hobson, J A

    2001-06-01

    Clinical lore and a small number of published studies report that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) intensify dreaming. This study examines the dream effects of paroxetine and fluvoxamine in order to both increase clinical knowledge of these agents and to test an important potential method for probing the relationship between REM sleep neurobiology and dreaming in humans. Fourteen normal, paid volunteers (4 males, 10 females; mean age 27.4 year, range 22--39) free of medical or neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as of psychotropic or sleep affecting drugs completed a 31-day home-based study consisting of: 7 days drug-free baseline; 19 days on either 100 mg fluvoxamine (7 Ss) or 20 mg paroxetine (7 Ss) in divided morning and evening doses; and 5 days acute discontinuation. Upon awakening, subjects wrote dream reports, self-scored specific emotions in their reports and rated seven general dream characteristics using 5-point Likert scales. Dream reports were independently scored for bizarreness, movement and number of visual nouns by three judges. REM sleep-related measures were obtained using the Nightcap ambulatory sleep monitor. Mean dream recall frequency decreased during treatment compared with baseline. Dream report length and judge-rated bizarreness were greater during acute discontinuation compared with both baseline and treatment and this effect was a result of the fluvoxamine-treated subjects. The subjective intensity of dreaming increased during both treatment and acute discontinuation compared with baseline. Propensity to enter REM sleep was decreased during treatment compared with baseline and acute discontinuation and the intensity of REM sleep increased during acute discontinuation compared with baseline and treatment. The decrease in dream frequency during SSRI treatment may reflect serotonergic REM suppression while the augmented report length and bizarreness during acute SSRI discontinuation may reflect cholinergic rebound from

  4. Roentgenographic studies of Korean adults profile with normal occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    A roentgraphic cephalometric study was made on the soft and hard tissue profile of Korean adults. The subject consisted of 52 males and 54 females from 17 to 22 years of age and with normal occlusion and acceptable profile. Twenty one landmarks were plotted and two oriented lines named SnH line and SnV line were drawn on the tracings of all cephalograms. The means and the standard deviations from the subjects were calculated in each measuring category and the means were compared with those of male and female samples. The results were obtained as follow: 1. In depth and height, individual variations and sex differences of the lower facial profile were larger than the upper face. 2. The sex differences of upper facial profile were larger in height than depth. 3. The individual variations and sex differences of the top of nose were the smallest in all measuring points. 4. The thickness of the soft tissue of upper face and upper lip in male sample were larger than those of female, but the same matter were not found in mental region.

  5. Comparison of soft-tissue orbital morphometry in attractive and normal Italian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Chiarella; Dolci, Claudia; Grandi, Gaia; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Laino, Alberto; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2015-01-01

    To identify esthetic characteristics of the orbital soft tissues of attractive Italian adult women and men. Three-dimensional computerized digitizers were used to collect the coordinates of facial landmarks in 199 healthy, normal subjects aged 18 to 30 years (71 women, 128 men; mean age, 22 years) and in 126 coetaneous attractive subjects (92 women, 34 men; mean age, 20 years) selected during beauty competitions. From the landmarks, six linear distances, two ratios, six angles, and two areas were calculated. Attractive subjects were compared with normal ones by computing z-scores. Intercanthal width was reduced while eye fissure lengths were increased in both genders. Orbital heights (os-or) were increased only in attractive women, with a significant gender-related difference. The inclinations of the eye fissure were increased in attractive subjects, while the inclinations of the orbit were reduced. For several of the analyzed measurements, similar patterns of z-scores were observed for attractive men and women (r  =  .883). Attractive women and men had several specific esthetic characteristics in their orbital soft tissues; esthetic reference values can be used to determine optimal goals in surgical treatment.

  6. The Making of Entrepreneurial Subjectivity in Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siivonen, Päivi; Brunila, Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the idea of entrepreneurial subjectivity and the ways in which it is shaped by the entrepreneurial discourse in adult education. As a result, we argue that educational practices related to adults form a particular kind of ideal subjectivity that we refer to as entrepreneurial. In order to understand how this entrepreneurial…

  7. Giftedness and Subjective Well-Being: A Study with Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…

  8. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung

    2002-01-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5±3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis

  9. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5{+-}3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis.

  10. CT identification of bronchopulmonary segments: 50 normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osbourne, D.; Vock, P.; Godwin, J.D.; Silverman, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    A systematic evaluation of the fissures, segmental bronchi and arteries, bronchopulmonary segments, and peripheral pulmonary parenchyma was made from computed tomographic (CT) scans of 50 patients with normal chest radiographs. Seventy percent of the segmental bronchi and 76% of the segmental arteries were identified. Arteries could be traced to their sixth- and seventh-order branches; their orientation to the plane of the CT section allowed gross identification and localization of bronchopulmonary segments

  11. Saturation analysis studies of corticosteroid levels in normal Greek subjects and in subjects with haemolytic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyzantiadis, A.

    1975-07-01

    Between 1970 and 1974 a saturation analysis for cortisol in plasma and free cortisol in urine, and a radioimmunoassay method for aldosterone in plasma and urine were developed. In order to permit a comparative evaluation it was necessary to study corticosteroids, diurnal rhythm and the probable effect of a siesta on this rhythm both in normal subjects and in patients suffering from hemic diseases, in particular from sickle-cell anemia. Saturation assay for cortisol, using serum from pregnant women as source of transcortin, and radioimmunoassay for aldosterone were the basic methods used. Serum cortisol was estimated twice a day (8-9 a.m. and 5-6 p.m.). Cortisol and aldosterone were also estimated in serum and in urine before and after adrenalin stimulation with ACTH. No significant influence of a siesta on the diurnal rhythm of cortisol was observed, nor did the levels of serum cortisol or the diurnal rhythm appear affected in congenital hemolytic anemias, following adrenalin stimulation. The report lists experimental results briefly and refers to a paper in which these are published in more detail

  12. Early Alzheimer-type lesions in cognitively normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsartsalis, Stergios; Xekardaki, Aikaterini; Hof, Patrick R; Kövari, Enikö; Bouras, Constantin

    2018-02-01

    Amyloid deposits and tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles, together with neuronal and synaptic loss, are the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both proteins are present in the normal brain during aging. However, the temporal sequence of their involvement in the onset of AD pathology remains controversial. To define whether amyloid β protein deposits or tau protein lesions appear first during normal brain aging, we performed an immunohistological study on serial sections from 105 autopsy brains (age range: 40-104 years) from patients free of clinical signs of cognitive decline, using anti-tau (AT8) and anti-amyloid (4G8) antibodies in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, inferior temporal cortex (Brodmann area 20), prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), occipital cortex (Brodmann areas 17 and 18), and in the brainstem. All cases older than 48 years displayed at least a few neurofibrillary tangles, which appeared more frequently in the entorhinal than in the transentorhinal cortex. Tau pathology in these areas preceded tau inclusions in the brainstem. Furthermore, the first site of the apparition of tau pathology is inconsistent, being the entorhinal cortex in most cases, and in fewer cases, the transentorhinal region. There was no case presenting with amyloid deposition in the absence of neurofibrillary tangles, lending evidence to the fact that neurofibrillary tangles appear earlier than amyloid plaques during normal brain aging. However, the role of amyloid in promoting tau deposition cannot be excluded in some cases but may not represent the sole mechanism of disease induction and progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Normal isometric strength of rotator cuff muscles in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chezar, A.; Berkovitch, Y.; Haddad, M.; Keren, Y.; Soudry, M.; Rosenberg, N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The most prevalent disorders of the shoulder are related to the muscles of rotator cuff. In order to develop a mechanical method for the evaluation of the rotator cuff muscles, we created a database of isometric force generation by the rotator cuff muscles in normal adult population. We hypothesised the existence of variations according to age, gender and dominancy of limb. Methods A total of 400 healthy adult volunteers were tested, classified into groups of 50 men and women for e...

  14. Radiologic study of patellofemoral congruence in normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diedrichs, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    In order to establish the normal position of the patella, in relation to the intercondilar sulcus, we have evaluated 72 adults patients, making use of the FICAT view in axial radiographys at 30 0 : a simple and accurate technique adopted to measure the congrunce angle in the detection of sub-luxation of the patella. The value of +9 0 was used as the normal pattern for the maximal lateral position of the patella in the intercondilar sulcus. (Author) [pt

  15. Position and width of normal adult optic chiasm as measured in coronal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Soon; Park, Jin Sook

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the position and transverse dimension of the adult optic chiasm in normal Korean adult. The authors analysed 3D coronal volume images (TR/TE=30/13, flip angle=30 .deg. ) of 136 normal adult subjects without known visual abnormality. All MRI examinations were performed using a 0.5T system. MRI was reviewed retrospectively to determine the position (horizontal and tilted) of the potic chiosm and the transverse dimension of the optic chiasm was measured. Seventy- five (55%) of the 136 normal subjects had horizontal position, and sixty-one (45%) had tilted position. Thirty- eight (62%) of 61 with tilted position showed higher position on the right side, and twenty-three (38%) showed higher position on the side. The average transverse dimension(mean SD) was 15.2 ± 0.7mm in men and 14.6 ± 1.0mm in women. The difference of transverse dimension between men and women was statistically significant. Tilted position of the adult optic chiasm on coronal MRI was seen in approximately half of normal adults. The average of transverse dimension of normal optic chiasm was 15mm

  16. Normal stress databases in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy – how many subjects do you need?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trägårdh, Elin; Sjöstrand, Karl; Edenbrandt, Lars

    2012-01-01

    ) for male, NC for female, attenuation‐corrected images (AC) for male and AC for female subjects. 126 male and 205 female subjects were included. The normal database was created by alternatingly computing the mean of all normal subjects and normalizing the subjects with respect to this mean, until...... convergence. Coefficients of variation (CV) were created for increasing number of included patients in the four different normal stress databases. Normal stress databases with ...Commercial normal stress databases in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) commonly consist of 30–40 individuals. The aim of the study was to determine how many subjects are needed. Four normal stress databases were developed using patients who underwent 99mTc MPS: non‐corrected images (NC...

  17. The Nature of Subjective Cognitive Complaints of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Rachel S.; Kemps, Eva B.

    2006-01-01

    The current study investigated the nature of subjective cognitive complaints of older adults in relation to a broad array of individual cognitive functions known to decline with age. A 60-item questionnaire was developed to examine: (1) whether older adults experience problems with these cognitive functions (problems with cognition); (2) the…

  18. Reassessing Subjectivity, Criticality, and Inclusivity: Marcuse's Challenge to Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Although Herbert Marcuse did not write as an adult educator, his analysis of subjectivity, criticality, and inclusivity has implications for adult education. He demonstrated how apparently humanistic tolerance for diversity can be manipulated to reinforce dominant ideology, and he made a case for aesthetic education as a site for critical…

  19. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Hook

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered.

  20. Subjective Evaluation of Sound Quality for Normal-hearing and Hearing-i,paired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Bramsløw

    1992-01-01

    11 hearing-impaired (HI) and 12 normal-hearing (NH) subjects have performed sound quality ratings on 6 perceptual scales (Loudness, Clarity, Sharpness, Fullness, Spaciousness and Overall judgement). The signals for the rating experiment consisted of running speech and music with or without......, but the normal-hearing group was slightly more reliable. There were significant differences between stimuli and between subjects, with stimuli affecting the ratings the most. Normal-hearing and hearing-impaired subjects showed similar trends, but normal-hearing listeners were generally more sensitive, i...

  1. Analysis of the cephalometric pattern of Brazilian achondroplastic adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the position of the cranial base, maxilla, and mandible of Brazilian achondroplastic adult subjects through cephalometric measurements of the cranio-dento-facial complex, and to compare the results to normal patterns established in literature. METHODS: Fourteen achondroplastic adult subjects were evaluated based on their radiographic cephalometric measurements, which were obtained using the tracings proposed by Downs, Steinner, Bjork, Ricketts and McNamara. Statistical comparison of the means was performed with Student's t test. RESULTS: When compared to normal patterns, the cranial base presented a smaller size in both its anterior and posterior portions, the cranial base angle was acute and there was an anterior projection of the porion; the maxilla was found to be smaller in size in both the anteroposterior and transversal directions, it was inclined anteriorly with anterior vertical excess, and retropositioned in relation to the cranial base and to the mandible; the mandible presented a normal-sized ramus, a decreased body and transverse dimension, a tendency towards vertical growth and clockwise rotation, and it was slightly protruded in relation to the cranial base and maxilla. CONCLUSION: Although we observed wide individual variation in some parameters, it was possible to identify significant differences responsible for the phenotypical characteristics of achondroplastic patients.OBJETIVO: avaliar o tamanho e o posicionamento da base do crânio, da maxila e da mandíbula de indivíduos acondroplásicos brasileiros adultos, a partir de medidas cefalométricas do complexo dentoesqueletofacial. Confrontar os dados obtidos aos padrões de normalidade estabelecidos na literatura. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 14 indivíduos acondroplásicos adultos, utilizando algumas grandezas cefalométricas radiográficas obtidas a partir dos traçados preconizados por Downs, Steinner, Björk, Ricketts e Mc

  2. Normal CT characteristics of the thymus in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simanovsky, Natalia, E-mail: natalias@hadassah.org.il [Department of Medical Imaging, Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem (Israel); Hiller, Nurith; Loubashevsky, Natali; Rozovsky, Katya [Department of Medical Imaging, Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2012-11-15

    Background: The thymus changes with age. Its shape and the proportion of solid tissue and fat vary between individuals, yet there is no comprehensive work describing the size and morphology of the normal thymus on CT. As a result, many adults with some preserved soft tissue in the thymus may undergo extensive work-up to exclude mediastinal tumor. Our aim was to quantify CT characteristics of the normal thymus in an adult population. Methods: CT chest scans of 194 trauma patients aged 14-78 years (mean 52.6 years), were retrospectively reviewed. The density, volume, shape and predominant side of the thymus were recorded for 56 patients in whom some solid tissue was preserved. Statistical analysis of these characteristics according to the patient age and gender was performed. Results: Thymic density and volume decreased progressively with age. No solid tissue component was seen in the thymus in patients older than 54 years. In the majority of patients, the thymus had an arrowhead shape, with middle position. However, great variability in thymic shape and border were noted. There was a highly significant relationship between density and patient age (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: We hope that our work will help in the definition of normal thymic CT parameters in adults, help to prevent unnecessary and expensive imaging procedures, and reduce patient exposure to ionizing radiation.

  3. Normal CT characteristics of the thymus in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanovsky, Natalia; Hiller, Nurith; Loubashevsky, Natali; Rozovsky, Katya

    2012-01-01

    Background: The thymus changes with age. Its shape and the proportion of solid tissue and fat vary between individuals, yet there is no comprehensive work describing the size and morphology of the normal thymus on CT. As a result, many adults with some preserved soft tissue in the thymus may undergo extensive work-up to exclude mediastinal tumor. Our aim was to quantify CT characteristics of the normal thymus in an adult population. Methods: CT chest scans of 194 trauma patients aged 14–78 years (mean 52.6 years), were retrospectively reviewed. The density, volume, shape and predominant side of the thymus were recorded for 56 patients in whom some solid tissue was preserved. Statistical analysis of these characteristics according to the patient age and gender was performed. Results: Thymic density and volume decreased progressively with age. No solid tissue component was seen in the thymus in patients older than 54 years. In the majority of patients, the thymus had an arrowhead shape, with middle position. However, great variability in thymic shape and border were noted. There was a highly significant relationship between density and patient age (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: We hope that our work will help in the definition of normal thymic CT parameters in adults, help to prevent unnecessary and expensive imaging procedures, and reduce patient exposure to ionizing radiation.

  4. Digital music exposure reliably induces temporary threshold shift in normal-hearing human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Prell, Colleen G; Dell, Shawna; Hensley, Brittany; Hall, James W; Campbell, Kathleen C M; Antonelli, Patrick J; Green, Glenn E; Miller, James M; Guire, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges for evaluating new otoprotective agents for potential benefit in human populations is the availability of an established clinical paradigm with real-world relevance. These studies were explicitly designed to develop a real-world digital music exposure that reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal-hearing human subjects. Thirty-three subjects participated in studies that measured effects of digital music player use on hearing. Subjects selected either rock or pop music, which was then presented at 93 to 95 (n = 10), 98 to 100 (n = 11), or 100 to 102 (n = 12) dBA in-ear exposure level for a period of 4 hr. Audiograms and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured before and after music exposure. Postmusic tests were initiated 15 min, 1 hr 15 min, 2 hr 15 min, and 3 hr 15 min after the exposure ended. Additional tests were conducted the following day and 1 week later. Changes in thresholds after the lowest-level exposure were difficult to distinguish from test-retest variability; however, TTS was reliably detected after higher levels of sound exposure. Changes in audiometric thresholds had a "notch" configuration, with the largest changes observed at 4 kHz (mean = 6.3 ± 3.9 dB; range = 0-14 dB). Recovery was largely complete within the first 4 hr postexposure, and all subjects showed complete recovery of both thresholds and DPOAE measures when tested 1 week postexposure. These data provide insight into the variability of TTS induced by music-player use in a healthy, normal-hearing, young adult population, with music playlist, level, and duration carefully controlled. These data confirm the likelihood of temporary changes in auditory function after digital music-player use. Such data are essential for the development of a human clinical trial protocol that provides a highly powered design for evaluating novel therapeutics in human clinical trials. Care must be taken to fully inform potential subjects in

  5. Digital music exposure reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal hearing human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Prell, C. G.; Dell, S.; Hensley, B.; Hall, J. W.; Campbell, K. C. M.; Antonelli, P. J.; Green, G. E.; Miller, J. M.; Guire, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives One of the challenges for evaluating new otoprotective agents for potential benefit in human populations is availability of an established clinical paradigm with real world relevance. These studies were explicitly designed to develop a real-world digital music exposure that reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal hearing human subjects. Design Thirty-three subjects participated in studies that measured effects of digital music player use on hearing. Subjects selected either rock or pop music, which was then presented at 93–95 (n=10), 98–100 (n=11), or 100–102 (n=12) dBA in-ear exposure level for a period of four hours. Audiograms and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured prior to and after music exposure. Post-music tests were initiated 15 min, 1 hr 15 min, 2 hr 15 min, and 3 hr 15 min after the exposure ended. Additional tests were conducted the following day and one week later. Results Changes in thresholds after the lowest level exposure were difficult to distinguish from test-retest variability; however, TTS was reliably detected after higher levels of sound exposure. Changes in audiometric thresholds had a “notch” configuration, with the largest changes observed at 4 kHz (mean=6.3±3.9dB; range=0–13 dB). Recovery was largely complete within the first 4 hours post-exposure, and all subjects showed complete recovery of both thresholds and DPOAE measures when tested 1-week post-exposure. Conclusions These data provide insight into the variability of TTS induced by music player use in a healthy, normal-hearing, young adult population, with music playlist, level, and duration carefully controlled. These data confirm the likelihood of temporary changes in auditory function following digital music player use. Such data are essential for the development of a human clinical trial protocol that provides a highly powered design for evaluating novel therapeutics in human clinical trials. Care must be

  6. Moderating Effects of Cortisol on Neural-Cognitive Association in Cognitively Normal Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Way K. W. Lau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cortisol homeostasis is important for healthy brain and cognitive aging. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of serum cortisol levels in the relationship between regional brain volumes and cognitive processing speed in a group of cognitively normal elderly subjects. Forty-one healthy elderly participants were from a parallel longitudinal study. The reported data in this study reflects baseline measurements. Whole-brain anatomical scanning was performed using a 3.0 Tesla Philips Medical Systems Achieva scanner. Cognitive processing speed was assessed by the digit-symbol and symbol search tests, from the Chinese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—third edition (WAIS-III. Serum cortisol levels (sampled in the late morning were measured by ELISA kits. Whole-brain regression analysis revealed that serum cortisol levels positively predicted the white matter volumes (WMV of the right thalamus, the gray matter volumes (GMV of the left thalamus and right cerebellar tonsil, and negatively predicted the WMV and GMV of the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG in 41 healthy elderly participants. Furthermore, serum cortisol significantly moderated the relationship between the GMV of the left MTG and processing speed, as well as the GMV of the left thalamus and processing speed. This study provided the first piece of evidence supporting serum cortisol levels in moderating the relationship between regional brain volumes and processing speed in healthy elderly subjects. This observation enriches our understanding of the role of cortisol in brain morphology and cognitive functioning.

  7. Moderating Effects of Cortisol on Neural-Cognitive Association in Cognitively Normal Elderly Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Way K. W.; Leung, Mei Kei; Law, Andrew C. K.; Lee, Tatia M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Cortisol homeostasis is important for healthy brain and cognitive aging. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of serum cortisol levels in the relationship between regional brain volumes and cognitive processing speed in a group of cognitively normal elderly subjects. Forty-one healthy elderly participants were from a parallel longitudinal study. The reported data in this study reflects baseline measurements. Whole-brain anatomical scanning was performed using a 3.0 Tesla Philips Medical Systems Achieva scanner. Cognitive processing speed was assessed by the digit-symbol and symbol search tests, from the Chinese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—third edition (WAIS-III). Serum cortisol levels (sampled in the late morning) were measured by ELISA kits. Whole-brain regression analysis revealed that serum cortisol levels positively predicted the white matter volumes (WMV) of the right thalamus, the gray matter volumes (GMV) of the left thalamus and right cerebellar tonsil, and negatively predicted the WMV and GMV of the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) in 41 healthy elderly participants. Furthermore, serum cortisol significantly moderated the relationship between the GMV of the left MTG and processing speed, as well as the GMV of the left thalamus and processing speed. This study provided the first piece of evidence supporting serum cortisol levels in moderating the relationship between regional brain volumes and processing speed in healthy elderly subjects. This observation enriches our understanding of the role of cortisol in brain morphology and cognitive functioning. PMID:28596732

  8. Valuation of Normal Range of Ankle Systolic Blood Pressure in Subjects with Normal Arm Systolic Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yi; Cao, Kai-wu; Xu, Jin-song; Li, Ju-xiang; Hong, Kui; Cheng, Xiao-shu; Su, Hai

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a normal range for ankle systolic blood pressure (SBP). A total of 948 subjects who had normal brachial SBP (90-139 mmHg) at investigation were enrolled. Supine BP of four limbs was simultaneously measured using four automatic BP measurement devices. The ankle-arm difference (An-a) on SBP of both sides was calculated. Two methods were used for establishing normal range of ankle SBP: the 99% method was decided on the 99% reference range of actual ankle BP, and the An-a method was the sum of An-a and the low or up limits of normal arm SBP (90-139 mmHg). Whether in the right or left side, the ankle SBP was significantly higher than the arm SBP (right: 137.1 ± 16.9 vs 119.7 ± 11.4 mmHg, P<0.05). Based on the 99% method, the normal range of ankle SBP was 94~181 mmHg for the total population, 84~166 mmHg for the young (18-44 y), 107~176 mmHg for the middle-aged(45-59 y) and 113~179 mmHg for the elderly (≥ 60 y) group. As the An-a on SBP was 13 mmHg in the young group and 20 mmHg in both middle-aged and elderly groups, the normal range of ankle SBP on the An-a method was 103-153 mmHg for young and 110-160 mmHg for middle-elderly subjects. A primary reference for normal ankle SBP was suggested as 100-165 mmHg in the young and 110-170 mmHg in the middle-elderly subjects.

  9. Talker Differences in Clear and Conversational Speech: Perceived Sentence Clarity for Young Adults with Normal Hearing and Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus; Morgan, Shae D.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine talker differences for subjectively rated speech clarity in clear versus conversational speech, to determine whether ratings differ for young adults with normal hearing (YNH listeners) and older adults with hearing impairment (OHI listeners), and to explore effects of certain talker characteristics…

  10. Safety of disclosing amyloid status in cognitively normal older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jeffrey M; Johnson, David K; Liebmann, Edward P; Bothwell, Rebecca J; Morris, Jill K; Vidoni, Eric D

    2017-09-01

    Disclosing amyloid status to cognitively normal individuals remains controversial given our lack of understanding the test's clinical significance and unknown psychological risk. We assessed the effect of amyloid status disclosure on anxiety and depression before disclosure, at disclosure, and 6 weeks and 6 months postdisclosure and test-related distress after disclosure. Clinicians disclosed amyloid status to 97 cognitively normal older adults (27 had elevated cerebral amyloid). There was no difference in depressive symptoms across groups over time. There was a significant group by time interaction in anxiety, although post hoc analyses revealed no group differences at any time point, suggesting a minimal nonsustained increase in anxiety symptoms immediately postdisclosure in the elevated group. Slight but measureable increases in test-related distress were present after disclosure and were related to greater baseline levels of anxiety and depression. Disclosing amyloid imaging results to cognitively normal adults in the clinical research setting with pre- and postdisclosure counseling has a low risk of psychological harm. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tecco, Simona; Saccucci, Matteo; Nucera, Riccardo; Polimeni, Antonella; Pagnoni, Mario; Cordasco, Giancarlo; Festa, Felice; Iannetti, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI), of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs. The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm 3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm 3 in, and was significantly higher (p< 0.001) in the males. The same was observed for the condylar surface, although without statistical significance (406.02 ± 55.22 mm 2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm 2 in females). Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm 3 ) in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm 3 , p < 0.001) as was the condylar surface (411.24 ± 57.99 mm 2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm 2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p < 0.01). The MI is 1.72 ± 0.17 for the whole sample, with no significant difference between males and females or the right and left sides. These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care

  12. A Study on Fasting Serum Gastrin level in Normal Subjects and Various Gastric Diseases by Radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Duck; Lee, Heon Sil; Park, Seung Uk; Park, Sung Hwi; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-09-15

    The fasting serum gastrin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 32 normal healthy subjects without recognized gastrointestinal symptoms and 93 patients with various gastric diseases, who were visited of admitted to National Medical Center from February to June, 1981. The following results were obtained; 1) The fasting mean serum gastrin level in normal subjects was 55.9+-26.3 pg/m1, and there was no difference between male and female. 2) The gastrin levels in gastric and duodenal ulcer were 85.0+-28.4 and 76.0+-43.0 pg/ml respectively, and it's values were elevated as compared with normal subjects. In gastric ulcer, the gastrin level was elevated than that of duodenal ulcer, but no significant difference in each other. 3) The gastrin level in stomach cancer was 89.5+-42.2 pg/ml, and it's values were markedly elevated as compared with values in normal subjects. 4) The gastrin level in gastritis was 73.4+-37. 4 pg/ml, and it's values were elevated as compared with values in normal subjects. 5) The gastrin level in post-gastrectomy state was 50.3+-16.3 pg/ml, and it's values were slightly decreased as compared with values in normal subjects.

  13. A Study on Fasting Serum Gastrin level in Normal Subjects and Various Gastric Diseases by Radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Duck; Lee, Heon Sil; Park, Seung Uk; Park, Sung Hwi; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong

    1981-01-01

    The fasting serum gastrin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 32 normal healthy subjects without recognized gastrointestinal symptoms and 93 patients with various gastric diseases, who were visited of admitted to National Medical Center from February to June, 1981. The following results were obtained; 1) The fasting mean serum gastrin level in normal subjects was 55.9±26.3 pg/m1, and there was no difference between male and female. 2) The gastrin levels in gastric and duodenal ulcer were 85.0±28.4 and 76.0±43.0 pg/ml respectively, and it's values were elevated as compared with normal subjects. In gastric ulcer, the gastrin level was elevated than that of duodenal ulcer, but no significant difference in each other. 3) The gastrin level in stomach cancer was 89.5±42.2 pg/ml, and it's values were markedly elevated as compared with values in normal subjects. 4) The gastrin level in gastritis was 73.4±37. 4 pg/ml, and it's values were elevated as compared with values in normal subjects. 5) The gastrin level in post-gastrectomy state was 50.3±16.3 pg/ml, and it's values were slightly decreased as compared with values in normal subjects.

  14. A Study on Fasting Serum Gastrin level in Normal Subjects and Various Gastric Diseases by Radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Duck; Lee, Heon Sil; Park, Seung Uk; Park, Sung Hwi; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-09-15

    The fasting serum gastrin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 32 normal healthy subjects without recognized gastrointestinal symptoms and 93 patients with various gastric diseases, who were visited of admitted to National Medical Center from February to June, 1981. The following results were obtained; 1) The fasting mean serum gastrin level in normal subjects was 55.9+-26.3 pg/m1, and there was no difference between male and female. 2) The gastrin levels in gastric and duodenal ulcer were 85.0+-28.4 and 76.0+-43.0 pg/ml respectively, and it's values were elevated as compared with normal subjects. In gastric ulcer, the gastrin level was elevated than that of duodenal ulcer, but no significant difference in each other. 3) The gastrin level in stomach cancer was 89.5+-42.2 pg/ml, and it's values were markedly elevated as compared with values in normal subjects. 4) The gastrin level in gastritis was 73.4+-37. 4 pg/ml, and it's values were elevated as compared with values in normal subjects. 5) The gastrin level in post-gastrectomy state was 50.3+-16.3 pg/ml, and it's values were slightly decreased as compared with values in normal subjects.

  15. Neural responses to silent lipreading in normal hearing male and female subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Albers, Frans; van Dijk, Pim; Wit, Hero; Willemsen, Antoon

    In the past, researchers investigated silent lipreading in normal hearing subjects with functional neuroimaging tools and showed how the brain processes visual stimuli that are normally accompanied by an auditory counterpart. Previously, we showed activation differences between males and females in

  16. Performance of brain-damaged, schizophrenic, and normal subjects on a visual searching task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, G; Kyc, F

    1978-06-01

    Goldstein, Rennick, Welch, and Shelly (1973) reported on a visual searching task that generated 94.1% correct classifications when comparing brain-damaged and normal subjects, and 79.4% correct classifications when comparing brain-damaged and psychiatric patients. In the present study, representing a partial cross-validation with some modification of the test procedure, comparisons were made between brain-damaged and schizophrenic, and brain-damaged and normal subjects. There were 92.5% correct classifications for the brain-damaged vs normal comparison, and 82.5% correct classifications for the brain-damaged vs schizophrenic comparison.

  17. Morphometric connectivity analysis to distinguish normal, mild cognitive impaired, and Alzheimer subjects based on brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge; Mysling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates a novel way of looking at the regions in the brain and their relationship as possible markers to classify normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and Alzheimer Disease (AD) subjects. MRI scans from a subset of 101 subjects from the ADNI study at baseline was used...

  18. Sonographic Measurement of Normal Splenic Length in Korean Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Bum; Cheon, Byung Kook; Kim, Jong Min; Oh, Kyung Seoung; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    To establish upper limit of normal splenic length of Korean adults on ultrasonography and to determice the degree of interobserver and intraobserver variation. Ultrasonographic scans were performed to measure the maximum length of spleen in 105 of 150 adults selected by convenience sampling. Remained 45 cases with any conditions that could alter splenic size were excluded from this study. The maximum length of spleen was measured and correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight, age and sex. In 31 of the 105 adults we evaluated the interobserver and intraobserver variations in sonographic measurements of splenic length obtained by three radiologists in blind fashion. The mean splenic length in 105 adults was 8.56cm ({+-} 0.95). The splenic length positively correlated with body surface area, patient height and weight (P <0.001), and negatively correlated with patient age (P < 0.01). Male spleen (8.87 cm {+-} 1.07) was longer than female spleen (8.35 cm {+-} 0.81) (P < 0.05). The following guidelines are proposed for the upper limit of normal splenic length at different groups of body surface area: no longer than 10 cm at 1.20{approx}1.59 m{sup 2}, 11 cm at1.60{approx}1.79 m{sup 2}, and 12 cm at 1.80{approx}1.99 m{sup 2}. The mean interobserver variation between any two radiologists ranged from 0.32 cm ({+-} 0.29) to 0.39 cm ({+-} 0.33) and interobserver variations were within 1 cm in 96%. The mean intraobserver variations were within 0.5 cm in 91%. The splenic length closely correlated with body surface area, patient height, weight and age. Particularly the upper limit of normal splenic length changed according to body surface area. Interobserver variation about 1 cm and intraobserver variation about 0.5 cm should be considered in the measurement of the splenic length on ultrasonography

  19. Evaluation of subject contrast and normalized average glandular dose by semi-analytical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomal, A.; Poletti, M.E.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, two semi-analytical models are described to evaluate the subject contrast of nodules and the normalized average glandular dose in mammography. Both models were used to study the influence of some parameters, such as breast characteristics (thickness and composition) and incident spectra (kVp and target-filter combination) on the subject contrast of a nodule and on the normalized average glandular dose. From the subject contrast results, detection limits of nodules were also determined. Our results are in good agreement with those reported by other authors, who had used Monte Carlo simulation, showing the robustness of our semi-analytical method.

  20. [As opposed to normal subjects, eyelid position doesn't interfere with postural behavior in blind subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, C; Rougier, P

    2009-12-01

    A previous study has shown some behavioral differences in normal subjects depending on the position of the eyelids: the postural behavior was varying if the subject had the eyes open in darkness or the eyes closed. In this study, we explore the possible role of vision on this behavior. The postural behavior of 12 blind and nine visually impaired participants was studied during undisturbed upright stance. In this sample, no difference was found in the conditions eyes open in the dark and eyes closed: the observed behavior in blind and visually impaired subjects is different compared to normal sighted subjects who show a visual preference even in total darkness when the eyes are open. Our two groups (blind and visually impaired) actually show a difference on the median frequency of the centre of gravity displacements. Our results suggest an adaptive mechanism of the central nervous system in healthy individuals to predominantly weigh visual cues when the eyelids remain open. Good visual acuity and time seem to be necessary for this process.

  1. Regulation mechanisms of pituitary-thyroid axis in normal subjects and patients with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Shinko; Yamauchi, Kazuyuki; Mori, Yuichi

    1986-01-01

    The regulatory mechanism of the pituitary-thyroid axis in normal subjects and patients with Graves' disease was investigated using a highly sensitive TSH assay based on the immunoradiometric assay. All of the normal subjects had detectable TSH values within the range 0.35 to 6.0 μU/ml. No negative correlations between TSH and free thyroid hormones existed in normal subjects. Patients with thyroid carcinoma who seemed to have normal pituitary-thyroid function showed a rapid increase of TSH after total thyroidectomy. On the other hand, while untreated patients with Graves' disease all had undetectable TSH values, these patients took 1 to 3.5 months longer to normalize their TSH values than to normalize free thyroid hormones on antithyroid drug therapy. During the recovery phase by the treatment with decrease of antithyroid drug or supplement of T 4 from iatrogenic hypothyroid state after treatment for Graves' disease and thyroid carcinoma, normalization of TSH levels was delayed than that of free thyroid hormones. Patients with Graves' disease in remission showed an extremely positive correlation between basal and peak TSH levels in TRH test, and a negative correlation between basal TSH and FT 4 . In conclusion, an individual patient may have a different set point concerning the regulatory mechanism of the pituitary-thyroid axis, and the persistence of the hyperthyroid state would seem to have caused some reversible dysfunction of the pituitary gland. (author)

  2. Dichotic and dichoptic digit perception in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawfield, Angela; McFarland, Dennis J; Cacace, Anthony T

    2011-06-01

    Verbally based dichotic-listening experiments and reproduction-mediated response-selection strategies have been used for over four decades to study perceptual/cognitive aspects of auditory information processing and make inferences about hemispheric asymmetries and language lateralization in the brain. Test procedures using dichotic digits have also been used to assess for disorders of auditory processing. However, with this application, limitations exist and paradigms need to be developed to improve specificity of the diagnosis. Use of matched tasks in multiple sensory modalities is a logical approach to address this issue. Herein, we use dichotic listening and dichoptic viewing of visually presented digits for making this comparison. To evaluate methodological issues involved in using matched tasks of dichotic listening and dichoptic viewing in normal adults. A multivariate assessment of the effects of modality (auditory vs. visual), digit-span length (1-3 pairs), response selection (recognition vs. reproduction), and ear/visual hemifield of presentation (left vs. right) on dichotic and dichoptic digit perception. Thirty adults (12 males, 18 females) ranging in age from 18 to 30 yr with normal hearing sensitivity and normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity. A computerized, custom-designed program was used for all data collection and analysis. A four-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated the effects of modality, digit-span length, response selection, and ear/visual field of presentation. The ANOVA revealed that performances on dichotic listening and dichoptic viewing tasks were dependent on complex interactions between modality, digit-span length, response selection, and ear/visual hemifield of presentation. Correlation analysis suggested a common effect on overall accuracy of performance but isolated only an auditory factor for a laterality index. The variables used in this experiment affected performances in the auditory modality to a

  3. Static and dynamic postural control in low-vision and normal-vision adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomomitsu, Mônica S V; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Morimoto, Eurica; Bobbio, Tatiana G; Greve, Julia M D

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of reduced visual information on postural control by comparing low-vision and normal-vision adults in static and dynamic conditions. Twenty-five low-vision subjects and twenty-five normal sighted adults were evaluated for static and dynamic balance using four protocols: 1) the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance on firm and foam surfaces with eyes opened and closed; 2) Unilateral Stance with eyes opened and closed; 3) Tandem Walk; and 4) Step Up/Over. The results showed that the low-vision group presented greater body sway compared with the normal vision during balance on a foam surface (p≤0.001), the Unilateral Stance test for both limbs (p≤0.001), and the Tandem Walk test. The low-vision group showed greater step width (p≤0.001) and slower gait speed (p≤0.004). In the Step Up/Over task, low-vision participants were more cautious in stepping up (right p≤0.005 and left p≤0.009) and in executing the movement (p≤0.001). These findings suggest that visual feedback is crucial for determining balance, especially for dynamic tasks and on foam surfaces. Low-vision individuals had worse postural stability than normal-vision adults in terms of dynamic tests and balance on foam surfaces.

  4. Normal isometric strength of rotatorcuff muscles in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chezar, A; Berkovitch, Y; Haddad, M; Keren, Y; Soudry, M; Rosenberg, N

    2013-01-01

    The most prevalent disorders of the shoulder are related to the muscles of rotator cuff. In order to develop a mechanical method for the evaluation of the rotator cuff muscles, we created a database of isometric force generation by the rotator cuff muscles in normal adult population. We hypothesised the existence of variations according to age, gender and dominancy of limb. A total of 400 healthy adult volunteers were tested, classified into groups of 50 men and women for each decade of life. Maximal isometric force was measured at standardised positions for supraspinatus, infraspinatus and subscapularis muscles in both shoulders in every person. Torque of the force was calculated and normalised to lean body mass. The profiles of mean torque-time curves for each age and gender group were compared. Our data showed that men gradually gained maximal strength in the fifth decade, and showed decreased strength in the sixth. In women the maximal strength was gained in the fourth decade with gradual decline to the sixth decade of life. The dominant arm was stronger in most of the tested groups. The torque profiles of the rotator cuff muscles in men at all ages were significantly higher than that in women. We found previously unrecognised variations of rotator cuff muscles' isometric strength according to age, gender and dominancy in a normal population. The presented data may serve as a basis for the future studies for identification of the abnormal patterns of muscle isometric strength in patients with pathology of the rotator cuff muscles. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:214-19.

  5. Effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on coronary flow in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Fuminobu; Beppu, Shintaro; Ueda, Hiroaki; Nehra, Ajay; Khandheria, Bijoy K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on coronary function in normal subjects. The study assessed mean blood pressure, left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) flow, and echocardiographic variables before and 30 and 60 minutes after taking 50 mg of sildenafil citrate. The mean velocity of LAD flow was assessed with Doppler flow imaging. The study subjects were 6 healthy male volunteers (mean age 37 years). The mean velocity of LAD flow increased 60 minutes after taking sildenafil citrate, but there were no other changes. Two volunteers felt mild flashing and one had mild headache during the study. Sildenafil citrate caused vasodilatation in a normal coronary artery without systemic pressure drops. These results suggest that the agent itself did not have negative effects on the heart in normal subjects.

  6. Cerebrocerebellar relationships in normal subjects and patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type; A SPECT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Arai, Hisayuki; Abe, Shin' e; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Takasaki, Masaru; Katsunuma, Hideyo; Suzuki, Takanari; Abe, Kimihiko; Amino, Saburo [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1993-02-01

    The relationships bewteen blood flow in the cerebrum and the cerebellum was investigated in 21 normal subjects and 21 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). In normal subjects, only asymmetry in the frontal cortical blood flow was significantly correlated with asymmetry in the contralateral cerebellar blood flow. However, a significant correlation between asymmetry in the cerebral cortical blood flow in many areas and the blood flow in the contralateral cerebellum in DAT patients was observed. These results suggest the existence of a functional relationship between the cerebrum and the cerebellum in both normal and DAT groups, mediated by neuronal mechanisms through crossed fiber pathways. However, there are regional differences in the cerebrocerebellar relationship in normal resting and pathological states. (author).

  7. Cerebrocerebellar relationships in normal subjects and patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Arai, Hisayuki; Abe, Shin'e; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Takasaki, Masaru; Katsunuma, Hideyo; Suzuki, Takanari; Abe, Kimihiko; Amino, Saburo

    1993-01-01

    The relationships bewteen blood flow in the cerebrum and the cerebellum was investigated in 21 normal subjects and 21 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). In normal subjects, only asymmetry in the frontal cortical blood flow was significantly correlated with asymmetry in the contralateral cerebellar blood flow. However, a significant correlation between asymmetry in the cerebral cortical blood flow in many areas and the blood flow in the contralateral cerebellum in DAT patients was observed. These results suggest the existence of a functional relationship between the cerebrum and the cerebellum in both normal and DAT groups, mediated by neuronal mechanisms through crossed fiber pathways. However, there are regional differences in the cerebrocerebellar relationship in normal resting and pathological states. (author)

  8. Kidney function and size in normal subjects before and during growth hormone administration for one week

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Orskov, H; Andersen, A R

    1981-01-01

    Kidney function and size were studied in seven normal male subjects before and after administration of highly purified human growth hormone for 1 week. Glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow (steady-state infusion technique with urinary collections using 125I-iothalamate and 131I-hippuran)......Kidney function and size were studied in seven normal male subjects before and after administration of highly purified human growth hormone for 1 week. Glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow (steady-state infusion technique with urinary collections using 125I-iothalamate and 131I...

  9. Estimation of serum ferritin for normal subject living in Khartoum area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, E.A; Khangi, F.A.; Satti, G.M.; Abu Salab, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted with a main objective; the estimation of serum ferritin level in normal subjects in Khartoum area.To fulfil this objective, two hundred and sixty symptoms-free subjects were included in the study, 103 males with 15 to 45 years. serum ferritin was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). It was found that the mean concentration of males' serum ferritin was much higher than that of the females' (p<0.001). (Author)

  10. Blink patterns and lid-contact times in dry-eye and normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousler GW 3rd

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available George W Ousler 3rd,1 Mark B Abelson,1,2 Patrick R Johnston,1 John Rodriguez,1 Keith Lane,1 Lisa M Smith11Ora, Andover, MA, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAPurpose: To classify blinks in dry eye and normal subjects into six subtypes, and to define the blink rate and duration within each type of blink, as well as the total lid-contact time/minute.Materials and methods: This was a single-centered, prospective, double-blind study of eleven dry-eye and ten normal subjects. Predefined subjects watched a video while blinks were recorded for 10 minutes. Partial blinks were classified by percentage closure of maximal palpebral fissure opening: 25%, 50%, 75%. Complete blinks were characterized as full (>0 seconds, extended (>0.1 seconds, or superextended (>0.5 seconds. The mean duration of each type of blink was determined and standardized per minute as total lid-contact time.Results: Total blinks observed were 4,990 (1,414 normal, 3,756 dry eye: 1,809 (50.59% partial and 1,767 (49.41% complete blinks among dry-eye subjects versus 741 (52.90% partial and 673 (47.60% complete blinks among normal subjects. Only superextended blinks of ≥0.5-second duration were significantly more frequent in dry-eye subjects than normals (2.3% versus 0.2%, respectively; P=0.023. Total contact time was seven times higher in dry-eye subjects than normals (0.565 versus 0.080 seconds, respectively; P<0.001. Isolating only extended blinks (>0.1 second, the average contact time (seconds was four times longer in dry-eye versus normal subjects (2.459 in dry eye, 0.575 in normals; P=0.003. Isolating only superextended blinks (>0.5 seconds, average contact time was also significantly different (7.134 in dry eye, 1.589 in normals; P<0.001. The contact rate for all full closures was 6.4 times longer in dry-eye (0.045 versus 0.007, P<0.001 than normal subjects.Conclusion: Dry-eye subjects spent 4.5% of a

  11. [Relationship between the Mandarin acceptable noise level and the personality traits in normal hearing adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Chen, Jian-yong; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Man-hua; Chen, Jing; Li, Yu-ling; Zhang, Hua

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the Mandarin acceptable noise level (ANL) and the personality trait for normal-hearing adults. Eighty-five Mandarin speakers, aged from 21 to 27, participated in this study. ANL materials and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) questionnaire were used to test the acceptable noise level and the personality trait for normal-hearing subjects. SPSS 17.0 was used to analyze the results. ANL were (7.8 ± 2.9) dB in normal hearing participants. The P and N scores in EPQ were significantly correlated with ANL (r = 0.284 and 0.318, P 0.05). Listeners with higher ANL were more likely to be eccentric, hostile, aggressive, and instabe, no ANL differences were found in listeners who were different in introvert-extravert or lying.

  12. The factorial reliability of the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, C

    1980-03-01

    The internal reliability of the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire and its component subscales has been checked by means of principal components analyses of data on 256 normal subjects. The subscales (with the possible exception of Hysteria) were found to contribute to the general underlying factor of psychoneurosis. In general, the principal components analysis points to the reliability of the subscales, despite some item overlap.

  13. Distortion-Product Otoacoustic Emission Measured Below 300 Hz in Normal-Hearing Human Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    , a custom-built low-frequency acoustic probe was put to use in 21 normal-hearing human subjects (of 34 recruited). Distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) was measured in the enclosed ear canal volume as the response to two simultaneously presented tones with frequencies f1 and f2. The stimulus...

  14. an extended pancreatic normal subjects and ~in pancreatItIs In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    function . . patIents. N. H. GILlNSKY, A. S. MEE, I. N. MARKS. Summary. Exocrine pancreatic response was evaluated in patients with varying degrees of pancreatic damage and in control subjects by ... hormones, the Lundh meal and an oral pancreatic function test .... is any different from that of the cells in me normal gland.

  15. ASSESSMENT AND COMPARISION OF CERVICAL JOINT POSITION SENSE IN SUBJECTS WITH CHRONIC NECK PAIN vs NORMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberoi Mugdha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The abundance of mechanoreceptors in the cervical spine and their central and reflex afferent connections to the vestibular, visual and postural control system suggests that the cervical proprioceptive information provides important somatosensory information influencing postural stability, head orientation and eye movement control. Disturbances to the afferent input from the cervical region is thought to underlie symptoms of dizziness, unsteadiness, visual disturbances and signs of altered postural stability, cervical proprioception and head and eye movement control in people with chronic neck pain. This study aimed to assess and compare cervical joint position sense in subjects with chronic neck pain vs normals. Methods: Total 60 subjects, divided into two groups chronic neck pain group (n=30 (12 males and 18 females with mean age of 40.7 years and control group (n=30 with age and gender matched normal individuals were assessed for baseline data and demographic variables. Head repositioning accuracy test was used to assess cervical joint position sense in degrees. Results: The difference in the head repositioning error values were found to be extremely significant (p<0.0001 for all the neck movements for subjects with chronic neck pain as compared to normals. Conclusion: Cervical joint position sense in subjects with chronic neck pain is found to be altered as compared to age and gender matched normals.

  16. Esophageal Clearance Patterns in Normal Older Adults as Documented with Videofluoroscopic Esophagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Jou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal esophageal bolus transport in asymptomatic healthy older adults has not been well defined, potentially leading to ambiguity in differentiating esophageal swallowing patterns of dysphagic and healthy individuals. This pilot study of 24 young (45–64 years and old (65+years men and women was designed to assess radiographic esophageal bolus movement patterns in healthy adults using videofluoroscopic recording. Healthy, asymptomatic adults underwent videofluoroscopic esophagram to evaluate for the presence of ineffective esophageal clearance, namely, intraesophageal stasis and intraesophageal reflux. Intraesophageal stasis and intraesophageal reflux were visualized radiographically in these normal subjects. Intraesophageal stasis occurred significantly more frequently with semisolid (96% compared with liquid (16% barium, suggesting that a variety of barium consistencies, as opposed to only the traditional fluids, would better define the spectrum of esophageal transport. Intraesophageal reflux was observed more frequently in older males than in their younger counterparts. The rates of intraesophageal stasis and intraesophageal reflux were potentially high given that successive bolus presentations were spaced 10 seconds apart. These findings suggest a need for a more comprehensive definition regarding the range of normal esophageal bolus transport to (a prevent misdiagnosis of dysphagia and (b to enhance generalization to functional eating, which involves solid foods in addition to liquids.

  17. Size of corpus callosum in normal subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumihito; Duara, R.

    1989-01-01

    The area of the corpus callosum (CC) on midsagittal spin-echo sequence magnetic resonance (MR) scans was measured in 64 normal subjects and 12 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The normal subjects consisted of 32 males and 32 females, aged 25 to 83 years old. There was no significant age difference between males and females. Fifty-five out of the 64 subjects were right-handed (RH) and 9 were left-handed or ambidextrous (NRH). Among patients with AD, 5 were males and 7 were females, aged 53 to 79 years old. Diagnosis of AD was performed mainly based on clinical history, magnetic resonance image (MRI) and positron emission tomographic findings. The outline of the CC on midsagittal MR film was traced and the total callosal sectional area (CCT) as well as the anterior half (CCA), posterior half (CCP) and posterior 5th or splenium (CCS) area measurements were performed using a planimeter. In either normal males or females, the CCA showed a significant negative correlation with age, but the CCP and the CCS did not correlate with age. Total CC (CCT) area was 691.2±91.0 sq. mm for the whole group and no difference was found between males and females. When the CC area was normalized with respect to the midsagittal area of the supratentorial portion of the brain (MSB), females were found to have a large CC than males. No portion of the CC area was significantly different between RH and NRH subjects in absolute or normalized measures. Compared with 36 age-matched normals, patients with AD had smaller MSB and each portion of the CC, with significant reduction in the CCA and the CCT. In conclusion, relationships between age, sex and the size of the CC have been found, providing some insights into the connectivity of the human brain. Characteristics of white matter loss in AD were also clarified in this study. (author)

  18. Quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG Spectrum Analysis of Patients with Schizoaffective Disorder Compared to Normal Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Moeini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of schizoaffective disorder. Therefore, we obtained electroencephalogram (EEG signals from patients with schizoaffective disorder and analyzed them in comparison to normal subjects.Forty patients with schizoaffective disorder and 40 normal subjects were selected randomly and their electroencephalogram signals were recorded based on 10-20 international system by 23 electrodes in open- and closed-eyes while they were sitting on a chair comfortably. After preprocessing for noise removal and artifact reduction, we took 60- second segments from each recorded signals. Then, the absolute and relative powers of these segments were evaluated in all channels and in 4 frequency bands (i.e., delta, theta, alpha and beta waves. Finally, Data were analyzed by independent t-test using SPSS software.A significant decrease in relative power in the alpha band, a significant decrease in power spectra in the alpha band and a significant increase in power spectra in the beta band were found in patients compared to normal subjects (P < 0.05. The predominant wave in the centro-parietal region was the beta wave in patients, but it was the alpha band in normal subjects (P = 0.048. Also, the predominant wave of the occipital region in patients was the delta wave, while it was the alpha wave in normal subjects (P = 0.038.Considering the findings, particularly based on the significant decrease of the alpha waves in schizoaffective patients, it can be concluded that schizoaffective disorder can be seen in schizophrenia spectrum.

  19. [Performance of normal young adults in two temporal resolution tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidan, Elena; Garcia, Adriana Pontin; Tedesco, Maria Lucy Fraga; Baran, Jane A

    2008-01-01

    temporal auditory processing is defined as the perception of sound or of sound alteration within a restricted time interval and is considered a fundamental ability for the auditory perception of verbal and non verbal sounds, for the perception of music, rhythm, periodicity and in the discrimination of pitch, duration and of phonemes. to compare the performance of normal Brazilian adults in two temporal resolution tests: the Gaps-in-Noise Test (GIN) and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT), and to analyze potential differences of performance in these two tests. twenty-five college students with normal hearing (11 males and 14 females) and no history of educational, neurological and/or language problems, underwent the GIN and RGDT at 40dB SL. statistically significant gender effects for both tests were found, with female participants showing poorer performance on both temporal processing tests. In addition, a comparative analysis of the results obtained in the GIN and RGDT revealed significant differences in the threshold measures derived for these two tests. In general, significantly better gap detection thresholds were observed for both male and female participants on the GIN test when compared to the results obtained for the RGDT. male participants presented better performances on both RGDT and GIN, when compared to the females. There were no differences in performance between right and left ears on the GIN test. Participants of the present investigation, males and females, performed better on the GIN when compared to the RGDT. The GIN presented advantages over the RGDT, not only in terms of clinical validity and sensibility, but also in terms of application and scoring.

  20. Gut microbiota, microinflammation, metabolic profile, and zonulin concentration in obese and normal weight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak-Gołąb, Agnieszka; Kocełak, Piotr; Aptekorz, Małgorzata; Zientara, Maria; Juszczyk, Lukasz; Martirosian, Gayane; Chudek, Jerzy; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The association between gut microbiota and circulating zonulin level, a marker of intestinal permeability, has not been studied yet. The aim of the study is the assessment of plasma zonulin, haptoglobin and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF- α and IL-6) levels in relation to composition of gut microbiota in obese and normal weight subjects. Circulating inflammation markers, such as TNF- α , sTNFR1, sTNFR2, IL-6, zonulin, and haptoglobin levels were measured and semiquantitative analysis of gut microbiota composition was carried out in 50 obese and 30 normal weight subjects without concomitant diseases. Higher circulating zonulin, TNF- α , sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and IL-6 levels were found in the obese subjects. Plasma zonulin level correlated positively with age (r = 0.43, P zonulin (r = 0.26, P zonulin level was proportional to daily energy intake (r = 0.27, P zonulin level, a potential marker of interstitial permeability.

  1. Speech Recognition in Real-Life Background Noise by Young and Middle-Aged Adults with Normal Hearing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Jin Tae; Heo, Hye Jeong; Choi, Chul-Hee; Choi, Seong Hee; Lee, Kyungjae

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives People usually converse in real-life background noise. They experience more difficulty understanding speech in noise than in a quiet environment. The present study investigated how speech recognition in real-life background noise is affected by the type of noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and age. Subjects and Methods Eighteen young adults and fifteen middle-aged adults with normal hearing participated in the present study. Three types of noise [subway noise, vacu...

  2. [Music therapy in adults with cochlear implants : Effects on music perception and subjective sound quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, E; Grapp, M; Argstatter, H

    2016-12-01

    People with severe hearing impairments and deafness can achieve good speech comprehension using a cochlear implant (CI), although music perception often remains impaired. A novel concept of music therapy for adults with CI was developed and evaluated in this study. This study included 30 adults with a unilateral CI following postlingual deafness. The subjective sound quality of the CI was rated using the hearing implant sound quality index (HISQUI) and musical tests for pitch discrimination, melody recognition and timbre identification were applied. As a control 55 normally hearing persons also completed the musical tests. In comparison to normally hearing subjects CI users showed deficits in the perception of pitch, melody and timbre. Specific effects of therapy were observed in the subjective sound quality of the CI, in pitch discrimination into a high and low pitch range and in timbre identification, while general learning effects were found in melody recognition. Music perception shows deficits in CI users compared to normally hearing persons. After individual music therapy in the rehabilitation process, improvements in this delicate area could be achieved.

  3. Comparison between Humphrey Field Analyzer and Micro Perimeter 1 in normal and glaucoma subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Ratra

    2012-01-01

    Results: The mean light thresholds of 21 matching points in control group with MP1 and HFA were 14.97 ± 2.64 dB and 30.90 ± 2.08 dB, respectively. In subjects with glaucoma, the mean values were MP1: 11.73 ± 4.36 dB and HFA: 27.96 ± 5.41 dB. Mean difference of light thresholds among the two instruments was 15.86 ± 3.25 dB in normal subjects (P < 0.001 and 16.22 ± 2.77 dB in glaucoma subjects (P < 0.001. Pearson correlation analysis of the HFA and MP1 results for each test point location in both cases and control subjects showed significant positive correlation (controls, r = 0.439, P = 0.047; glaucoma subjects, r = 0.812, P < 0.001. There was no difference between nasal and temporal points but a slight vertical asymmetry was observed with MP1. Conclusion: There are significant and reproducible differences in the differential light threshold in MP1 and HFA in both normal and glaucoma subjects. We found a correction factor of 17.271 for comparison of MP1 with HFA. MP1 appeared to be more sensitive in predicting loss in glaucoma.

  4. 'Normal' and 'failing' mothers: Women's constructions of maternal subjectivity while living with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Chloe; Katz, Terri; Ussher, Jane M

    2017-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis causes physical and cognitive impairment that can impact women's experiences of motherhood. This study examined how women construct their maternal subjectivities, or sense of self as a mother, drawing on a framework of biographical disruption. A total of 20 mothers with a multiple sclerosis diagnosis took part in semi-structured interviews. Transcripts were analysed using thematic decomposition to identify subject positions that women adopted in relation to cultural discourses of gender, motherhood and illness. Three main subject positions were identified: 'The Failing Mother', 'Fear of Judgement and Burdening Others' and 'The Normal Mother'. Women's sense of self as the 'Failing Mother' was attributed to the impact of multiple sclerosis, contributing to biographical disruption and reinforced through 'Fear of Judgement and Burdening Others' within social interactions. In accounts of the 'Normal Mother', maternal subjectivity was renegotiated by adopting strategies to manage the limitations of multiple sclerosis on mothering practice. This allowed women to self-position as 'good' mothers. Health professionals can assist women by acknowledging the embodied impact of multiple sclerosis on maternal subjectivities, coping strategies that women employ to address potential biographical disruption, and the cultural context of mothering, which contributes to women's experience of subjectivity and well-being when living with multiple sclerosis.

  5. Effect of ground cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose concentration in normal-weight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrelli, Ashley; Chezem, Jo Carol

    2012-11-01

    In healthy normal-weight adults, cinnamon reduces blood glucose concentration and enhances insulin sensitivity. Insulin resistance, resulting in increased fasting and postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, is commonly observed in obese individuals. The objective of the study was to compare declines in postprandial glycemic response in normal-weight and obese subjects with ingestion of 6 g ground cinnamon. In a crossover study, subjects consumed 50 g available carbohydrate in instant farina cereal, served plain or with 6 g ground cinnamon. Blood glucose concentration, the main outcome measure, was assessed at minutes 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120. Repeated-measures analysis of variance evaluated the effects of body mass index (BMI) group, dietary condition, and time on blood glucose. Paired t-test assessed blood glucose at individual time points and glucose area under the curve (AUC) between dietary conditions. Thirty subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 years, 15 with BMIs between 18.5 and 24.9 and 15 with BMIs of 30.0 or more, completed the study. There was no significant difference in blood glucose between the two BMI groups at any time point. However, in a combined analysis of all subjects, the addition of cinnamon to the cereal significantly reduced 120-minute glucose AUC (P=0.008) and blood glucose at 15 (P=0.001), 30 (Pblood glucose was significantly higher with cinnamon consumption (Pglucose response in normal weight and obese adults. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Subtle imitation behaviour in convenience samples of normal, demented, and currently depressed elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gunten, Armin; Duc, René

    2007-06-01

    The clinical significance of imitation behaviour (IB) is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of subtle naïve and obstinate IB in convenience samples of normal elderly, demented, and depressed subjects. Subtle IB was assessed using a protocol constructed ad hoc in 146 patients, consecutively referred to a memory clinic having received an ICD-10 diagnosis of either dementia or depression, and in 241 healthy subjects. The prevalence of IB in the three groups was determined and the association with possible demographic, cognitive, and non-cognitive variables analysed. Subtle naïve IB was frequent in the elderly with dementia, intermediate in the depressed, and rare in the normal elderly except that the latter frequently stretched out their arms. Obstinate IB never occurred in the normal elderly. IB was predicted by none of the variables used. The groups included were convenience samples with the depressed being a small group precluding further distinction of depressive subtypes. Although naïve IB is a frequent clinical feature in the demented, it also accompanies depressive disorders in the elderly. It can be observed as context-specific IB in the normal elderly. Obstinate IB does not occur in the normal elderly. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Comparison of hematocrit/hemoglobin ratios in subjects with alpha-thalassemia, with subjects having chronic kidney disease and normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insiripong, Somchai; Supattarobol, Tanarat; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee

    2013-07-04

    The ratio of hematocrit (Hct) to hemoglobin (Hb) in the people with normal red blood cell (RBC) morphology is generally three to one. We studied Hct/Hb ratios among patients with alpha-thalassemias (Hb H, H-CS, AEBart, AEBart-CS, EFBart and EFBart-CS diseases) diagnosed by high performance liquid chromatography, and compared them with normal subjects and with patients having anemia due to chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Hct and Hb levels were derived by automated analyzer. The means +/- SD of the Hct/Hb ratios were 3.5 +/- 0.2 (range 3.3 - 4.1), 3.0 +/- 0.1 (range 2.9 - 3.2) and 3.0 +/- 0.1 (range 2.8 - 3.2) in the alpha-thalassemia, normal and CKD groups, respectively. The mean Hct/Hb ratio in subjects with alpha-thalassemia was higher than the mean in normal subjects and in those with CKD. The Hct/Hb ratios for each genotype of the alpha-thalassemia were not different from each other. The underlying mechanisms for the higher Hct/Hb ratio among those with alpha-thalassemia are theorized to be less density and/or more hydration of a-thalassemia RBCs, more entrapment of plasma in the spun RBC, the high percent of nucleated RBC and WBC interference. A ratio of 3.5 +/- 0.2 may be helpful in cases of moderate anemia when typing only shows Hb A and E, to consider investigation for alpha-thalassemia, or in cases of alpha-thalassemia with acute blood loss, if the Hct is less than 35%, in the decision to transfuse.

  8. Increased intensity discrimination thresholds in tinnitus subjects with a normal audiogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Bastian; Hots, J.; Verhey, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent auditory brain stem response measurements in tinnitus subjects with normal audiograms indicate the presence of hidden hearing loss that manifests as reduced neural output from the cochlea at high sound intensities, and results from mice suggest a link to deafferentation of auditory nerve...... fibers. As deafferentation would lead to deficits in hearing performance, the present study investigates whether tinnitus patients with normal hearing thresholds show impairment in intensity discrimination compared to an audiometrically matched control group. Intensity discrimination thresholds were...... significantly increased in the tinnitus frequency range, consistent with the hypothesis that auditory nerve fiber deafferentation is associated with tinnitus....

  9. Molar height and dentoalveolar compensation in adult subjects with skeletal open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Josef; Marek, Ivo; Tycova, Hana; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the skeletal and dentoalveolar components in adult subjects with skeletal open bite in the presence or absence of dental compensation. The study sample included 69 adult female subjects who belonged to three groups according to skeletal vertical relationships and overbite. A total of 15 variables (5 angular, 10 linear) were evaluated. Values in the dentally compensated open bite group (COBG), the dentally noncompensated open bite group (NCOBG), and the control group with normal vertical skeletal relationships and overbite (CG) were compared by means of parametric statistics. The COBG and the NCOBG showed significantly greater incisor and molar heights in both jaws than the CG. No significant difference in upper or lower molar height was found between COBG and NCOBG. Incisor height was significantly greater in COBG than in NCOBG. Elongation in the incisor region was accompanied by significant narrowing of the lower anterior alveolar process in both skeletal open bite groups. Proclination of the upper incisors was significantly smaller in the COBG than in the other groups. Dentoalveolar components consisting of incisor elongation and inclination play a significant role in compensating for skeletal open bite configuration in adult subjects. Increased molar height is a common finding in adults with skeletal open bite.

  10. 15N nitrogen-balance studies in patients with testicular feminization, their relatives, and in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachman, M.; Zagalak, M.; Voellmin, J.A.; Prader, A.

    1975-01-01

    Fourteen subjects (4 with testicular feminization, 2 mothers, 1 aunt and 1 father of these patients, 2 normal women, 2 normal men and 2 normal prepubertal boys) were given 0.1 to 0.2 g/kg of 50 percent 15 N-labeled NH 4 Cl before and after 6 daily injections of testosterone (T) 15 mg/m 2 ). In 24-hour urine specimens collected on the test days, 15 N was calculated from total N (Kjeldahl) and the percentage of 15 N (mass spectrometry or 15 N-analyzer Isocommerz). In all normal subjects, urinary 15 N-balance was influenced positively by T (+31.3 +- 8.4 percent), in prepubertal boys more (+43 to +66 percent) than in women (+20 to +30 percent) and men (+6 to +23). In testicular feminization, 15 N-balance not only failed to become more positive, but was even reduced (-24.7 +- 17.6 percent). The father of a patient had only a slight response (+7 percent) as one of the normal males, probably because of higher endogenous T-levels in adult males. One mother and the aunt had no response (-7.4 to + 1.5 percent). In the mother, the balance became slightly positive (+10 percent) on oral contraceptives. The other mother, who was on estrogen treatment prior to and during the test, had a positive but insufficient change of balance (+17 percent). It is concluded that this test allows detection of patients with testicular feminization and possibly also healthy female carriers. In these cases, estrogen treatment appears to positively influence the response to T

  11. Evaluation of myocardial distribution of iodine-123 labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimochi, Shinsaku; Tamaki, Nagara; Shirakawa, Seishi; Fujita, Toru; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Konishi, Junji; Nohara, Ryuji; Sasayama, Shigetake; Nishioka, Kenya

    1994-01-01

    The normal pattern of the myocardial sympathetic innervation was studied in 15 subjects using gamma camera scintigraphy with iodine-123 labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 123 I-MIBG). Seven younger subjects (mean age 24.6±3.6) and eight older patients (mean age 60.9±8.4) with normal cardiac function were studied. Planar imaging was obtained at 15 minutes and 3 hours, and SPECT was also performed 3 hours after injection of 111 MBq (3 mCi) of MIBG. The younger subjects showed higher the heart to mediastinum count ratio (2.91±0.25 vs. 2.67±0.34; p<0.05) and higher inferior to anterior count ratio (1.19±0.15 vs. 0.97±0.13; p<0.05) on the late scan. The bull's-eye polar map also differences in counts in the mid-inferior (p<0.005), basal-inferior (p<0.005) and mid-lateral sectors (p<0.01). But there was no significant difference in MIBG washout rate from myocardium between two groups. These data suggest that there is a difference of the cardiac sympathetic innervation, with older subjects having fewer sympathetic nerve terminals, especially in inferior than younger subjects. We conclude that the age difference in sympathetic nerve function should be considered in the interpretation of MIBG scan. (author)

  12. Psychiatric and psychosocial problems in adults with normal-intelligence autism spectrum disorders

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    Herbrecht Evelyn

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs often display symptoms from other diagnostic categories. Studies of clinical and psychosocial outcome in adult patients with ASDs without concomitant intellectual disability are few. The objective of this paper is to describe the clinical psychiatric presentation and important outcome measures of a large group of normal-intelligence adult patients with ASDs. Methods Autistic symptomatology according to the DSM-IV-criteria and the Gillberg & Gillberg research criteria, patterns of comorbid psychopathology and psychosocial outcome were assessed in 122 consecutively referred adults with normal intelligence ASDs. The subjects consisted of 5 patients with autistic disorder (AD, 67 with Asperger's disorder (AS and 50 with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS. This study group consists of subjects pooled from two studies with highly similar protocols, all seen on an outpatient basis by one of three clinicians. Results Core autistic symptoms were highly prevalent in all ASD subgroups. Though AD subjects had the most pervasive problems, restrictions in non-verbal communication were common across all three subgroups and, contrary to current DSM criteria, so were verbal communication deficits. Lifetime psychiatric axis I comorbidity was very common, most notably mood and anxiety disorders, but also ADHD and psychotic disorders. The frequency of these diagnoses did not differ between the ASD subgroups or between males and females. Antisocial personality disorder and substance abuse were more common in the PDD NOS group. Of all subjects, few led an independent life and very few had ever had a long-term relationship. Female subjects more often reported having been bullied at school than male subjects. Conclusion ASDs are clinical syndromes characterized by impaired social interaction and non-verbal communication in adulthood as well as in childhood. They also

  13. Dimensions of the cleft nasal airway in adults: a comparison with subjects without cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairfield, W M; Warren, D W

    1989-01-01

    The prevalence of mouthbreathing among individuals with cleft lip and palate is significantly higher than in the normal population. This has been attributed to nasal deformities that tend to reduce nasal airway size. The purpose of the present study was to determine how a heterogeneous adult group with cleft lip and palate differs in terms of nasal airway cross-sectional area from an adult group without cleft during the inspiratory and expiratory phases of breathing. The pressure-flow technique was used to estimate nasal airway size in 15 adults without cleft (15 years or older) and 37 adults with cleft lip, cleft palate, or both. Mean areas and standard deviations for subjects without cleft were 0.63 cm2 +/- 0.17 during inspiration and 0.56 cm2 +/- 0.14 during expiration. This difference is statistically significant (p less than 0.01). Mean areas and standard deviations for all subjects with cleft were 0.37 cm2 +/- 0.18 during inspiration and 0.40 cm2 +/- 0.20 during expiration. This difference is not statistically significant (p greater than 0.15). Twenty-two of the subjects with cleft had nasal areas considered to be impaired (below 0.40 cm2) as compared with only three of the subjects without cleft. A two factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that area changes during respiration are different for subjects with and without cleft (p less than 0.005), and that cleft nasal areas are smaller than noncleft areas for both phases of breathing (p less than 0.001). Inspiratory-expiratory differences between subjects with and without cleft are probably the result of developmental defects, reparative surgery or both.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Gastric emptying time in normal subjects using /sup 51/Cr and a gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claure, H [Hospital del Salvador, Santiago de Chile; Calderon, C; Braunschweig, T; Diaz, G

    1974-12-01

    Gastric emptying time of a meal consisting of 2 eggs, 50 g of white bread, and 300 ml of milk, was measured in 10 normal subjects, 5 males and 5 females, with an average age of 34.7 years. 200 uCi of Cr-51 were added to the meal and external counting was performed using a ..gamma.. camera. The rate of gastric emptying was estimated by the decrease in radiation counts over the gastric area. In 68.6 percent of the subjects the mean gastric emptying time was 60 min. The average curve showed a complex exponential slope with 2 distinct phases: a fast one between 0 and 35 min and a slow one between 40 and 60 min. These results suggest that a normal gastric emptying time consists of 2 different rate phases when a meal of mixed consistency (liquid and solid) is ingested.

  15. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A; Sanmiguel, Claudia P; Van Horn, John D; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the hedonic component of ingestive behaviors have been implicated as a possible risk factor in the pathophysiology of overweight and obese individuals. Neuroimaging evidence from individuals with increasing body mass index suggests structural, functional, and neurochemical alterations in the extended reward network and associated networks. To apply a multivariate pattern analysis to distinguish normal weight and overweight subjects based on gray and white-matter measurements. Structural images (N = 120, overweight N = 63) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) (N = 60, overweight N = 30) were obtained from healthy control subjects. For the total sample the mean age for the overweight group (females = 32, males = 31) was 28.77 years (SD = 9.76) and for the normal weight group (females = 32, males = 25) was 27.13 years (SD = 9.62). Regional segmentation and parcellation of the brain images was performed using Freesurfer. Deterministic tractography was performed to measure the normalized fiber density between regions. A multivariate pattern analysis approach was used to examine whether brain measures can distinguish overweight from normal weight individuals. 1. White-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 17 regional connections, achieved 97% accuracy in discriminating overweight individuals from normal weight individuals. For both brain signatures, greater connectivity as indexed by increased fiber density was observed in overweight compared to normal weight between the reward network regions and regions of the executive control, emotional arousal, and somatosensory networks. In contrast, the opposite pattern (decreased fiber density) was found between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula, and between thalamus and executive control network regions. 2. Gray-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 42 morphological features, achieved 69

  16. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A.; Sanmiguel, Claudia P.; Van Horn, John D.; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alterations in the hedonic component of ingestive behaviors have been implicated as a possible risk factor in the pathophysiology of overweight and obese individuals. Neuroimaging evidence from individuals with increasing body mass index suggests structural, functional, and neurochemical alterations in the extended reward network and associated networks. Aim To apply a multivariate pattern analysis to distinguish normal weight and overweight subjects based on gray and white-matter measurements. Methods Structural images (N = 120, overweight N = 63) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) (N = 60, overweight N = 30) were obtained from healthy control subjects. For the total sample the mean age for the overweight group (females = 32, males = 31) was 28.77 years (SD = 9.76) and for the normal weight group (females = 32, males = 25) was 27.13 years (SD = 9.62). Regional segmentation and parcellation of the brain images was performed using Freesurfer. Deterministic tractography was performed to measure the normalized fiber density between regions. A multivariate pattern analysis approach was used to examine whether brain measures can distinguish overweight from normal weight individuals. Results 1. White-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 17 regional connections, achieved 97% accuracy in discriminating overweight individuals from normal weight individuals. For both brain signatures, greater connectivity as indexed by increased fiber density was observed in overweight compared to normal weight between the reward network regions and regions of the executive control, emotional arousal, and somatosensory networks. In contrast, the opposite pattern (decreased fiber density) was found between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula, and between thalamus and executive control network regions. 2. Gray-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 42

  17. Effect of short-term fasting on lipolytic responsiveness in normal and obese human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.R.; Peters, E.J.; Klein, S.; Holland, O.B.; Rosenblatt, J.; Gary, H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the rate of lipolysis (fatty acid and glycerol release into blood) has been quantified in both normal weight and obese volunteers after both 15 and 87 h of fasting. In each study, the basal rate and subsequent response to epinephrine infusion were determined. The rate of appearance (R/sub a/) of free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol were quantified by infusion of [1- 13 C]palmitate and D-5-glycerol, respectively. Substrate flux rates per unit of body fat mass and lean body mass were calculated from total body water measurements using H 2 18 O dilution. In normal volunteers, the basal R/sub a/ FFA and R/sub a/ glycerol rose markedly with 87 h of fasting, whereas the increases were more modest in the obese subjects. However, the rate of mobilization of fat, in relation to the lean body mass, was higher in the obese subjects than in the normal subjects after 15 h of fasting, and the values were similar in both groups after 87 h of fasting. There was an increased lipolytic response to epinephrine after fasting in both groups. This increased sensitivity may have resulted from the enhancement of fatty acid-triglyceride substrate cycling that occurred after fasting

  18. Cognitive functions in methamphetamine induced psychosis compared to schizophrenia and normal subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ezzatpanah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the cognitive functions in patients with methamphetamine-induced psychosis (MIP in comparison with schizophrenia patients and normal subjects.This was a cross-sectional study, 30 patients with MIP, 30 patients with schizophrenia and 30 normal individuals were selected via convenient sampling and were matched on age, sex and education. Wisconsin Cards Sorting, Stroop, Visual Search and Attention and Wechsler Memory Tests were used to assess the subjects.The study showed that patients with MIP and schizophrenia have more deficits in executive functions, selective attention, sustained attention and memory than normal subjects. There were no significant differences in cognitive functions between patients with MIP and schizophrenia except for visual search and attention that showed more impairment in patients with schizophrenia.Although, cognitive dysfunctions of patients with MIP are mostly similar to patients with schizophrenia, some differences seem to exist, especially in those functions that are not primarily dependent on frontal lobe.

  19. Quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) Spectrum Analysis of Patients with Schizoaffective Disorder Compared to Normal Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeini, Mahdi; Khaleghi, Ali; Amiri, Nasrin; Niknam, Zahra

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of schizoaffective disorder. Therefore, we obtained electroencephalogram (EEG) signals from patients with schizoaffective disorder and analyzed them in comparison to normal subjects. Forty patients with schizoaffective disorder and 40 normal subjects were selected randomly and their electroencephalogram signals were recorded based on 10-20 international system by 23 electrodes in open- and closed-eyes while they were sitting on a chair comfortably. After preprocessing for noise removal and artifact reduction, we took 60- second segments from each recorded signals. Then, the absolute and relative powers of these segments were evaluated in all channels and in 4 frequency bands (i.e., delta, theta, alpha and beta waves). Finally, Data were analyzed by independent t-test using SPSS software. A significant decrease in relative power in the alpha band, a significant decrease in power spectra in the alpha band and a significant increase in power spectra in the beta band were found in patients compared to normal subjects (P schizoaffective patients, it can be concluded that schizoaffective disorder can be seen in schizophrenia spectrum.

  20. Expression of Peroxisomes-Proliferate Activated Receptors-γ in Diabetics, Obese and Normal Subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current research in type 2 diabetes mellitus focuses on the role of Peroxisome-Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPARs) in the pathogenesis of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (IRS), which are pre-diabetic lesion and the hallmark of fully developed type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study aims at identifying the abnormal status of the PPAR-g in adipose tissues of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, when compared with matched normal controls. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad, from 2012 to 2014. Sample included three equal groups of patients. Group-1 with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged 40-65 years, acting as the test group, Group-2 included non-diabetic obese, and Group-3 with normal subjects. Transcription Factor Assay for Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (gamma PPAR) was done on ELISA Technique from Nuclear Extract procured from Adipose Tissue of the subjects. Results: Mean age of enrolled participants was 48.93 SD±6.52.years. Patients ranged between ages of 40 years to 67 years. The mean values of PPAR in normal, obese and diabetic group were 1.72 SD±0.28, 1.282 SE±0.18 and 1.283 SE±0.18 respectively. The difference in mean values of PPAR was significant ρ<0.05. Conclusion: The levels of PPAR-g in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obese cases are significantly lower than normal controls. (author)

  1. Positioning effects on lung ventilation in older normal subjects: a technegas study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, S.; McCarren, B.; Alison, J.; Cowell, S.F.; Leiper, C.; Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital, Sydney, NSW; El Zein, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: While the effects of positioning on the distribution of ventilation in the lungs of younger subjects has been relatively well investigated, this is not so in the older age group. Known age-associated changes in the respiratory system are proposed to alter the distribution of ventilation in the lungs of older people. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the effects of positioning on the distribution of ventilation in the lungs of older normal subjects. The distribution of ventilation in upright sitting and right side lying was measured in ten subjects using Technegas lung ventilation during tidal breathing. In the upright sitting position ventilation was preferentially distributed to the middle and basal regions (dependent regions). Right side lying ventilation was preferentially distributed to the right lung (dependent region). These results suggest that preferential distribution of ventilation to the dependent lung regions in older subjects is mainly due to the gravity-dependent gradient in pleural pressure. It is proposed that this distribution may partly result from loss of elasticity in the lungs with ageing. Predominantly, the distribution of ventilation in the lungs of older normal subjects in our study is similar to that previously described in younger subjects (Amis et al., 1984, Kaneko et al, 1966, Milic-Emili et al, 1966. This suggests that a similar pleural pressure gradient may exist in the lungs of older and younger subjects. This is an important implication as the majority of patients that physiotherapists treat with cardiopulmonary dysfunction are in the older age group. Further research is required to determine the effects of positioning on the distribution of ventilation in older patients with cardiopulmonary dysfunction to enable direct clinical implications to be made. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  2. Subjective Experiences of Older Adults Practicing Taiji and Qigong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a qualitative study following a 6-month Taiji (T'ai Chi/Qigong (Ch'i Kung intervention for older adults. The researchers conducted in-depth interviews of eight selected participants who elected to continue practicing Taiji after the intervention ended, in order to explore their subjective experiences of Taiji's effects and their motivations for continuing to practice. We created a Layers Model to capture the significance and meaning of the multidimensionality of their reported experiences. Participants not only reported simple benefits along five dimensions of experience (physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual but also described complex multidimensional experiences. Overall findings indicate that participants derived a very wide variety of perceived benefits, the most meaningful being a felt sense of body-mind-spirit integration. Our results support the important role of qualitative studies in researching the effects of Taiji and Qigong.

  3. Age-related changes of diffusional anisotropy in the cerebral white matter in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Asano, Tetsuichi; Ogawa, Kimikazu; Takasaki, Masaru; Shindo, Hiroaki; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko

    1997-01-01

    To investigate age-related changes of diffusional anisotropy in the cerebral white matter, we performed diffusion-weighted MRI studies in 21 normal subjects aged 25 to 96 years. The anisotropic rations (ARs), defined as the apparent diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the nerve fibers to those parallel to the nerve fibers, were significantly higher in elderly than in young subjects in the anterior and posterior white matter surrounding the lateral ventricle. Moreover, significant correlation between age and AR was found in the anterior white matter. The ventricular index (VI) measured on MRI, as a quantitative indicator of brain atrophy, was significantly higher in elderly than younger subjects, and significantly correlated with AR in the anterior white matter. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the VI showed the highest correlation for AR. On the other hand, there was no significant correlations between ARs in the corpus callosum and age. These results suggest that morphological changes in the myelin and axon in the white matter occur in elderly normal subjects, probably due to neuronal loss with aging. (author)

  4. Effect of Low-Level Laser Stimulation on EEG Power in Normal Subjects with Closed Eyes

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    Jih-Huah Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we found that the low-level laser (LLL stimulation at the palm with a frequency of 10 Hz was able to induce significant brain activation in normal subjects with opened eyes. However, the electroencephalography (EEG changes to LLL stimulation in subjects with closed eyes have not been studied. In the present study, the laser array stimulator was applied to deliver insensible laser stimulations to the palm of the tested subjects with closed eyes (the laser group. The EEG activities before, during, and after the laser stimulation were collected. The EEG amplitude powers of each EEG frequency band at 19 locations were calculated. These power data were then analyzed by SPSS software using repeated-measure ANOVAs and appropriate posthoc tests. We found a pronounced decrease in the EEG power in alpha-bandwidth during laser simulation and then less decrease in the EEG power in delta-bandwidth in normal subjects with laser stimulation. The EEG power in beta-bandwidth in the right occipital area also decreased significantly in the laser group. We suggest that LLL stimulation might be conducive to falling into sleep in patients with sleep problems.

  5. Metabolic profile of normal glucose-tolerant subjects with elevated 1-h plasma glucose values

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    Thyparambil Aravindakshan Pramodkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic profiles of subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT with and without elevated 1-h postglucose (1HrPG values during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Methodology: The study group comprised 996 subjects without known diabetes seen at tertiary diabetes center between 2010 and 2014. NGT was defined as fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dl (5.5 mmol/L and 2-h plasma glucose <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L after an 82.5 g oral glucose (equivalent to 75 g of anhydrous glucose OGTT. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical investigations were done using standardized methods. The prevalence rate of generalized and central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MS was determined among the NGT subjects stratified based on their 1HrPG values as <143 mg/dl, ≥143-<155 mg/dl, and ≥155 mg/dl, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking, and family history of diabetes. Results: The mean age of the 996 NGT subjects was 48 ± 12 years and 53.5% were male. The mean glycated hemoglobin for subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl was 5.5%, for those with 1HrPG ≥143-<155 mg/dl, 5.6% and for those with 1HrPG ≥155 mg/dl, 5.7%. NGT subjects with 1HrPG ≥143-<155 mg/dl and ≥155 mg/dl had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL ratio, triglyceride/HDL ratio, leukocyte count, and gamma glutamyl aminotransferase (P < 0.05 compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl. The odds ratio for MS for subjects with 1HrPG ≥143 mg/dl was 1.84 times higher compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl taken as the reference. Conclusion: NGT subjects with elevated 1HrPG values have a worse metabolic profile than those with normal 1HrPG during an OGTT.

  6. Lung sound intensity in patients with emphysema and in normal subjects at standardised airflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreur, H J; Sterk, P J; Vanderschoot, J; van Klink, H C; van Vollenhoven, E; Dijkman, J H

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A common auscultatory finding in pulmonary emphysema is a reduction of lung sounds. This might be due to a reduction in the generation of sounds due to the accompanying airflow limitation or to poor transmission of sounds due to destruction of parenchyma. Lung sound intensity was investigated in normal and emphysematous subjects in relation to airflow. METHODS: Eight normal men (45-63 years, FEV1 79-126% predicted) and nine men with severe emphysema (50-70 years, FEV1 14-63% predicted) participated in the study. Emphysema was diagnosed according to pulmonary history, results of lung function tests, and radiographic criteria. All subjects underwent phonopneumography during standardised breathing manoeuvres between 0.5 and 2 1 below total lung capacity with inspiratory and expiratory target airflows of 2 and 1 l/s respectively during 50 seconds. The synchronous measurements included airflow at the mouth and lung volume changes, and lung sounds at four locations on the right chest wall. For each microphone airflow dependent power spectra were computed by using fast Fourier transformation. Lung sound intensity was expressed as log power (in dB) at 200 Hz at inspiratory flow rates of 1 and 2 l/s and at an expiratory flow rate of 1 l/s. RESULTS: Lung sound intensity was well repeatable on two separate days, the intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.77 to 0.94 between the four microphones. The intensity was strongly influenced by microphone location and airflow. There was, however, no significant difference in lung sound intensity at any flow rate between the normal and the emphysema group. CONCLUSION: Airflow standardised lung sound intensity does not differ between normal and emphysematous subjects. This suggests that the auscultatory finding of diminished breath sounds during the regular physical examination in patients with emphysema is due predominantly to airflow limitation. Images PMID:1440459

  7. Responsiveness of cardiodynamics to exercise loading in normal subjects and in patients with idiopathic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Yukie; Matsuda, Takeshi

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the responses of the left ventricular systolic function and diastolic function to exertion by cardiac blood pool scintigraphy using 99mTc in reference to changes with aging and changes in the cases of idiopathic cardiomyopathy. In order to study the functional response with aging to exertion, 38 normal subjects were divided by age. Subsequently, 28 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy cases (Group H), 13 dilated cardiomyopathy cases (Group D) and 14 normal cases (Group N) were studied. Ejection Fraction (EF) and Peak Ejection Rate (PER) were used as the indicators for the systolic function. Peak Filling Rate (PER), 1/3 Filling Rate (1/3FR) and Time to Peak Filling (TPF) were used as the indicators for the diastolic function. When comparison was made among the normal subjects by age, the systolic function and diastolic function at rest, varied as they were, showed no significant change with aging. The %delta EF and %delta PER tended to decrease linearly with aging (Y=-4E-X+28, p<0.0001; Y=-X+57, p<0.0001). As to the %delta PFR, %delta 1/3FR and %delta TPF, however, correlation with aging was not found. In comparing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy, Group D showed significantly lower values before exertion and after maximum exertion than the other two groups. A difference in the response of the systolic function and diastolic function to exertion was noted in both the comparative study on aging of the normal subjects and the study of cases of cardiomyopathy. The presence of the compensatory mechanism due to elevation of the left atrial pressure and an increase in the left atrial contractile power may be mentioned as a reservoir of blood and also as a booster pump. Particularly, the effect of the latter compensates for the decline in the left ventricular compliance, which may lead to the maintenance of the diastolic function. (K.H.)

  8. Preliminary study of diffusion tensor MR on the cervical spinal cord in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Kuihong; Ma Lin; Guo Xinggao; Liang Li

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a simplified and practical strategy for MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the cervical spinal cord and acquire the normal values of DTI parameters in normal subjects, and to offer the basis for the research of the cervical spinal cord disorders. Methods: DTI examinations were performed in 36 consecutive healthy subjects by using SE-EPI sequence on the cervical spinal cord. The values of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), λ 1 , λ 2 , and λ 3 were measured in regions of interest positioned in the normal cervical cords. Results: All 36 subjects completed the examinations. The cervical spinal cords were clearly demonstrated on the postprocessing images, and there were no obvious artifacts on the diffusion tensor images. The average value of ADC was (914.44±82.61) x 10 -6 mm 2 /s and FA was (593.84±52.22) x 10 -3 . The diffusivity components parallel (λ 1 ) and orthogonal (λ 2 and λ 3 ) to the longitudinal axes of the spinal cord were (1585.10±130.07) x 10 -6 mm 2 /s, (559.84±66.49) x 10 -6 mm 2 /s, and (613.28±128.71) x 10 -6 mm 2 /s, respectively. The value of λ 1 was significantly higher than that of λ 2 and λ 3 (P 2 and λ 3 (P>0.05). The value of 2λ 1 /(λ 2 +λ 3 ) was 2.74± 0.32. Conclusion: The normal cervical spinal cord can be well demonstrated in vivo by using DTI with SE-EPI sequence, and various parameters acquired on DTI are stable. The water diffusivity in the direction parallel to the longitudinal axes of the spinal cord is found to be higher than that in directions perpendicular to the longitudinal axes of the spinal cord, thus suggesting the cylindrical anisotropic characteristics in the cervical spinal cord. (authors)

  9. Acceptance of background noise, working memory capacity, and auditory evoked potentials in subjects with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Zunic, Edita; Borovac, Aida; Ibertsson, Tina

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test is a method for quantifying the amount of background noise that subjects accept when listening to speech. Large variations in ANL have been seen between normal-hearing subjects and between studies of normal-hearing subjects, but few explanatory variables have been identified. To explore a possible relationship between a Swedish version of the ANL test, working memory capacity (WMC), and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). ANL, WMC, and AEP were tested in a counterbalanced order across subjects. Twenty-one normal-hearing subjects participated in the study (14 females and 7 males; aged 20-39 yr with an average of 25.7 yr). Reported data consists of age, pure-tone average (PTA), most comfortable level (MCL), background noise level (BNL), ANL (i.e., MCL - BNL), AEP latencies, AEP amplitudes, and WMC. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated between the collected variables to investigate associations. A principal component analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation was conducted on the collected variables to explore underlying factors and estimate interactions between the tested variables. Subjects were also pooled into two groups depending on their results on the WMC test, one group with a score lower than the average and one with a score higher than the average. Comparisons between these two groups were made using the Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. A negative association was found between ANL and WMC but not between AEP and ANL or WMC. Furthermore, ANL is derived from MCL and BNL, and a significant positive association was found between BNL and WMC. However, no significant associations were seen between AEP latencies and amplitudes and the demographic variables, MCL, and BNL. The PCA identified two underlying factors: One that contained MCL, BNL, ANL, and WMC and another that contained latency for wave Na and amplitudes for waves V and Na-Pa. Using the variables in the first factor

  10. Commingling effect of gynoid and android fat patterns on cardiometabolic dysregulation in normal weight American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okosun, I S; Seale, J P; Lyn, R

    2015-05-18

    To determine the independent and commingling effect of android and gynoid percent fat (measured using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry) on cardiometabolic dysregulation in normal weight American adults. The 2005-2006 data (n=1802) from the United States National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used in this study. Associations of android percent fat, gynoid percent fat and their joint occurrence with risks of cardiometabolic risk factors were estimated using prevalence odds ratios from logistic regression analyses. Android-gynoid percent fat ratio was more highly correlated with cardiometabolic dysregulation than android percent fat, gynoid percent fat or body mass index. Commingling of android and gynoid adiposities was associated with much greater odds of cardiometabolic risk factors than either android or gynoid adiposities. Commingling of android and gynoid adiposities was associated with 1.75 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.42-2.93), 1.48 (95% CI=1.32-1.91), 1.61 (95% CI=1.50-1.89), 3.56 (95% CI=2.91-4.11) and 1.86 (95% CI=1.49-1.96) increased odds of elevated glucose, elevated blood pressure, elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, elevated triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, respectively. Normal weight subjects who present with both android and gynoid adiposities should be advised of the associated health risks. Both android and gynoid fat accumulations should be considered in developing public health strategies for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in normal weight subjects.

  11. Comparison of Hyoid Bone Position Among Cleft Lip Palate and Normal Subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahaj, A.; Erum, G.; Ahmed, I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the hyoid bone position between cleft lip/palate and normal patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences (DIEKIOHS), Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, from March 2012 to February 2013. Methodology: The sample for this study consisted of total 68 subjects among which Group 1 consisted of 34 nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (both unilateral and bilateral) and Group 2 included 34 subjects with normal facial morphology. Both groups included males and females with mean age 14.3 +- 0.1 year. Analysis was done on lateral cephalometric radiographs of patients including angulations taken as Hp-Mp, Hp-Ol, Hp-Sn, Cvt-Evt, Opt-Cvt, Nke, Sn-Vert, Cvt-Vert, Sn-Vert and linear distance of hyoid bone measured as C3-H, C3-RGN, and H-RGN. Results: Statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) in C3-H, C3-Rgn, H-Rgn, and Sn-Cvt were found between cleft lip/palate group and normal group. Conclusion: Hyoid bone is located anteriorly and caudally in cleft lip and palate group. (author)

  12. Classifying depression patients and normal subjects using machine learning techniques and nonlinear features from EEG signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinifard, Behshad; Moradi, Mohammad Hassan; Rostami, Reza

    2013-03-01

    Diagnosing depression in the early curable stages is very important and may even save the life of a patient. In this paper, we study nonlinear analysis of EEG signal for discriminating depression patients and normal controls. Forty-five unmedicated depressed patients and 45 normal subjects were participated in this study. Power of four EEG bands and four nonlinear features including detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), higuchi fractal, correlation dimension and lyapunov exponent were extracted from EEG signal. For discriminating the two groups, k-nearest neighbor, linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression as the classifiers are then used. Highest classification accuracy of 83.3% is obtained by correlation dimension and LR classifier among other nonlinear features. For further improvement, all nonlinear features are combined and applied to classifiers. A classification accuracy of 90% is achieved by all nonlinear features and LR classifier. In all experiments, genetic algorithm is employed to select the most important features. The proposed technique is compared and contrasted with the other reported methods and it is demonstrated that by combining nonlinear features, the performance is enhanced. This study shows that nonlinear analysis of EEG can be a useful method for discriminating depressed patients and normal subjects. It is suggested that this analysis may be a complementary tool to help psychiatrists for diagnosing depressed patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Social support and subjective burden in caregivers of adults and older adults: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Pino-Casado, Rafael; Frías-Osuna, Antonio; Palomino-Moral, Pedro A; Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Ramos-Morcillo, Antonio J

    2018-01-01

    Despite the generally accepted belief that social support improves caregiver adjustment in general and subjective burden in particular, the literature shows mixed findings, and a recent review concluded that the predictive strength of caregiver social support in determining caregiver burden is less evident, due to the conceptual diversity of this determinant. The purpose of this review is to analyse the relationship of perceived and received social support with subjective burden among informal caregivers of an adult or older adult. A systematic search was carried out up to September 2017 in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO), Scopus and ISI Proceedings, and a meta-analysis was performed with the results of the selected and included studies. Fifty-six studies were included in the meta-analysis, which provided 46 independent comparisons for perceived support and 16 for received support. Most of these studies were cross-sectional. There was a moderate, negative association of perceived social support on subjective burden (r = -0.36; CI 95% = -0.40, -0.32) and a very small, negative association of received support on subjective burden (r = -0.05; CI 95% = -0.095, -0.001). 1) perceived and received support are not redundant constructs, 2) the relationships between social support and subjective burden depend on whether the social support is measured as perceived or received, 3) the relationship of perceived social support with subjective burden has a bigger effect size than that of received social support, the relation between received support and subjective burden being clinically irrelevant, 4) perceived social support may be a good predictor of subjective burden. Our findings broadly support interventions promoting social support in caregivers to prevent or alleviate subjective burden, and specifically, to intervene on the promotion of perceived social support more than on the promotion of received social support when preventing or

  14. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll, Jorge; Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo de

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  15. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, Jorge [LABS and Rede D' Or Hospitais, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Neuroimagem e Neurologia do Comportamento; Eslinger, Paul J. [Pensylvania State Univ. (United States). College of Medicine. Div. of Neurology and Behavioral Science; The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PN (United States); Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo de [Universidade do Rio de Janeiro (UNI-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Gaffree e Guinle]. E-mail: neuropsychiatry@hotmail.com

    2001-09-01

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  16. Pulmonary epithelial permeability in normal subjects and patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anazawa, Yoshiki; Isawa, Toyoharu; Teshima, Takeo; Miki, Makoto; Motomiya, Masakichi

    1991-01-01

    99m Tc-DTPA is a low molecular weight substance, which is believed to pass through the pulmonary epithelium when it is inhaled as an aerosol. We performed 99m Tc-DTPA inhalation studies in 10 nonsmoking normal subjects and 10 patients with biopsy proven idiopathic interstitial pneumonia prior to therapy. 99m Tc-DTPA aerosol was inhaled for 3 min with the subject in the supine position and radioactivity was measured anteriorly with a gamma camera and recorded on computer. Measurements were performed for 3 min with the subject inhaling aerosol and for the subsequent 30 min with the subject in the same position. Time activity curves from the five regions of interest (ROIs) including the entire left lung, the entire right lung, and the upper, middle and lower third of the right lung were separately fitted to a single exponential function for the initial 7 min following cessation of inhalation, and the respective clearance half life (t1/2) in min was calculated. Lung function data, arterial blood gas tensions and blood chemistry were also obtained for comparison with the t1/2 values. The t1/2 values were significantly smaller in all ROIs in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia than in normal subjects, indicating an increased pulmonary epithelial permeability in these patients. There was no relationship between t1/2 and %DL co , %DL co /V A , PaO 2 , or LDH. Although the true pathophysiologic significance of t1/2 measured using 99m Tc-DTPA aerosol is still not known, we consider that this measurement may be an important indicator of nonrespiratory lung function, in particular the degree of alveolar epithelial damage. (author)

  17. A radioimmunoassay for erythropoietin: serum levels in normal human subjects and patients with hemopoietic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rege, A.B.; Brookins, J.; Fisher, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    An RIA for Ep has been developed that is highly sensitive and specific. A homogeneous Ep preparation was labeled with 125 I by the chloramine-T method to a specific activity of 90 to 136 micro Ci/microgram and immunoreactivity of 80%. Ep antiserum, which was produced to a human urinary Ep preparation (80 U/mg of protein), was adsorbed with normal human urinary and serum proteins without any loss in sensitivity of the RIA to increase the specificity of the assay. A good correlation was seen between the RIA and the exhypoxic polycythemic mouse assay (corr. coef. 0.967; slope 1.05 and y intercept 0.75). Ep titers in sera from 175 hematologically normal human subjects exhibited a normal frequency distribution and ranged between 5.8 and 36.6 mU/ml with a mean of 14.9 +/- 4.7 (S.D.) and median of 14.3 Serum Ep titers were markedly elevated in seven patients with aplastic anemia and one patient with pure red cell aplasia (1350 to 20,640 mU/ml) and were lower than normal in two patients with polycythemia vera (8.1 and 9.4 mU/ml). The serum Ep titers in a prenephrectomy patient with chronic glomerulonephritis (32.1 mU/ml) decreased to below normal levels (9.04 mU/ml) after nephrectomy. The cord serum erythropoietin titers in 10 IDM [90.82 +/- 134.1 (S.D.) mu/ml] returned to values within the normal range (13.86 +/- 5.55) on day 3 after birth, suggesting the utility of the RIA in elucidating the role of hypoxia and/or insulin in increased erythropoiesis in IDM. The serum Ep titers in patients with anemias and polycythemias were compared to those of normal human subjects and agreed well with pathophysiologic mechanisms of these hemopoietic disorders, confirming the validity of the RIA

  18. A radioimmunoassay for erythropoietin: serum levels in normal human subjects and patients with hemopoietic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rege, A.B.; Brookins, J.; Fisher, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    An RIA for Ep has been developed that is highly sensitive and specific. A homogeneous Ep preparation was labeled with 125 I by the chloramine-T method to a specific activity of 90 to 136 μCi/μg and immunoreactivity of 80%. Ep antiserum, which was produced to a human urinary Ep preparation (80 U/mg of protein), was adsorbed with normal human urinary and serum proteins without any loss in sensitivity of the RIA to increase the specificity of the assay. A good correlation was seen between the RIA and the exhypoxic polycythemic mouse assay (corr. coef. 0.967; slope 1.05 and ''y'' intercept 0.75). Ep titers in sera from 175 hematologically normal human subjects exhibited a normal frequency distribution and ranged between 5.8 and 36.6 mU/ml with a mean of 14.9 +/- 4.7 (S.D.) and median of 14.3. Serum Ep titers were markedly elevated in seven patients with aplastic anemia and one patient with pure red cell aplasia (1350 to 20,640 mU/ml) and were lower than normal in two patients with polycythemia vera (8.1 and 9.4 mU/ml). The serum Ep titers in a prenephrectomy patient with chronic glomerulonephritis (31.1 mU/ml) decreased to below normal levels (9.04 mU/ml) after nephrectomy. The cord serum erythropoietin titers in 10 IDM [90.82 +/- 134.1 (S.D.) mu/ml] returned to values within the normal range (13.86 +/- 5.55) on day 3 after birth, suggesting the utility of the RIA in elucidating the role of hypoxia and/or insulin in increased erythropoiesis in IDM. The serum Ep titers in patients with anemias and polycythemias were compared to those of normal human subjects and agreed well with pathophysiologic mechanisms of these hemopoietic disorders, confirming the validity of the RIA

  19. Kinetics of the human thyroid trap: experience in normal subjects and in thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, M.T.

    1979-03-01

    Kinetics of the thyroid pertechnetate trap were assessed in 39 normal subjects, five untreated patients with Graves' disease (two before and after treatment), two hypothyroid patients, and in one patient each with Hashimoto's thyroiditis of recent onset, subacute thyroiditis, and massive anaplastic carcinoma. In normal subjects, the effects of sex, time of day, and order of experimental sessions were studied. A three-compartment model was assumed for all studies. Data on thyroidal and neck-background pertechnetate were collected with a multicrystal camera during 40 min after iv injection. The two thyroidal compartments in the model - the follicular cell, v/sub 2/, and the colloidal plasma-equivalent space, V/sub 3/ - is a multi-exponential function of plasma radioactivity, V/sub 1/. None of the model parameters was systematically affected by sex and order of session did not consistently alter any parameter, except for V/sub 3/, which was greater in session 2 than in session 1. That increase was not consistent and is believed to be spurious. Time of day affected only the exit rate constant from the colloid ..lambda../sub 23/, which was increased later in the day (P < 0.02). Distribution of the normal parameters was more log-normal than normal. After 5% were excluded at the high end and at the low end, the range for a parameter, p, was found empirically to be: antiln (mean ln p - 1.7 s.d. ln p), and antiln (mean ln p + 1.5 s.d. ln p). In Graves' disease, V/sub 2/ is increased (P < 0.02), but the increases in V/sub 3/ and in ..lambda../sub 21/ (the clearance into the thyroid from serum) are more dramatic (P < 10/sup -8/). After treatment, V/sub 3/ and ..lambda../sub 21/ fell toward normal. The hypothyroid patients showed no trap activity, and the trap was normal in the patient with early Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The patients with subacute thyroiditis and anaplastic carcinoma had increases in V/sub 2/, V/sub 3/, and ..lambda../sub 21/, but the

  20. Observations on intestinal secretions of calcium by strontium-85 in normal Indian subjects and patients of nutritiond osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, S.N.A.; Sumesh Chandra; Vaishnava, H.

    1979-01-01

    Fifty cases of nutritional osteomalacia were studied and compared with 25 adult subjects of comparable age, sex and socio-economic status without any suspicion of metabolic bone disease. The diagnosis of nutritional osteomalacia was established by clinical, biochemical, radiological and histopathological studies. 15 of the 50 patients were restudied after treatment with vitamin D. Total digestive juice calcium (TDJCa), true absorption of calcium and endogenous faecal calcium (EFCa) were measured in all by the intravenous administration of strontium 85 and balance studies for the stable calcium were carried out simultaneously. In nutritional osteomalacia there was no evidence of more active secretions of calcium into the intestines and endogenous loss of calcium was not high. It was interesting to note that absorption of calcium from the gut was normal even with relative vitamin D deficiency. It was also observed that vitamin D increased the bidirectional (absorption and secretion) permeability of calcium into the gut. (author)

  1. Comparison between β-thalassemia minor and normal individuals using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangiabadi, Nasser; Yarahmadi, Fahimeh; Darekordi, Ali; Shabani, Mohammad; Dadgar, Mehrak Memaran

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating and comparing patients suffering from β-thalassemia (β-thal) minor with normal individuals in regard to their performances in the short version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) test. Patients with β-thal minor are carriers of β-thal genes. They have mild microcytic and hypochromic anemia and are usually asymptomatic. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 60 individuals were divided into two equal groups of β-thal minor and normal subjects; they were then studied by the WAIS subscales. The mean performance scores of the normal group in the subtests of arithmetic and vocabulary (p <0.01) and picture completion (p <0.05) were higher than those of the thalassemia group. The mean performance score and ability of the normal group on the verbal scale was higher in comparison to the thalassemia group (p <0.05), while on the non verbal scale, there was no significant difference between the two groups. It can be concluded that β-thal minor negatively influences verbal fluency, reasoning and conceptualization, and sequencing tasks, perceptual skill, prediction of social situations and abstract thinking.

  2. The experience of weight management in normal weight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cheri Ann; Hernandez, David A; Wellington, Christine M; Kidd, Art

    2016-11-01

    No prior research has been done with normal weight persons specific to their experience of weight management. The purpose of this research was to discover the experience of weight management in normal weight individuals. Glaserian grounded theory was used. Qualitative data (focus group) and quantitative data (food diary, study questionnaire, and anthropometric measures) were collected. Weight management was an ongoing process of trying to focus on living (family, work, and social), while maintaining their normal weight targets through five consciously and unconsciously used strategies. Despite maintaining normal weights, the nutritional composition of foods eaten was grossly inadequate. These five strategies can be used to develop new weight management strategies that could be integrated into existing weight management programs, or could be developed into novel weight management interventions. Surprisingly, normal weight individuals require dietary assessment and nutrition education to prevent future negative health consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intra- and inter-subject variation in lower limb coordination during countermovement jumps in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2016-01-01

    -subject variability. Based on these results, it was concluded that the same movement solutions were available to both age groups, but the children were less able to consistently utilize the individually chosen coordination pattern. Thus, this ability appears to be developed through normal ontogenesis.......The purpose of the present study was to investigate the coordination pattern and coordination variability (intra-subject and inter-subject) in children and adults during vertical countermovement jumps. Ten children (mean age: 11.5±1.8years) and ten adults (mean age: 26.1±4.9years) participated...... in the experiment. Lower body 3D-kinematics and kinetics from both legs were obtained during 9 vertical jumps of each subject. Coordination pattern and coordination variability of intra-limb and inter-limb coupling were established by modified vector coding and continuous relative phase. The adult group jumped...

  4. Ocular Axial Length Measurement Among Normal Adults Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-07-26

    Jul 26, 2017 ... eye is the AL and report from previous studies suggest that in an adult, the average ... 2017 Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow ..... Parel JM, Gelender H, Trefers WF, Norton EW.

  5. Classification of Normal Subjects and Pulmonary Function Disease Patients using Tracheal Respiratory Sound Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jae Joong; Yi, Young Ju; Jeon, Young Ju [Chonbuk National University (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    A new auscultation system for the detection of breath sound from trachea was developed in house. Small size microphone(panasonic pin microphone) was encapsuled in a housing for resonant effect, and hardware for the sound detection was fabricated. Pulmonary function test results were compared with the parameters extracted from frequency spectrum of breath sound obtained from the developed system. Results showed that the peak frequency and relative ratio of integral values between low(80-400Hz) and high(400-800Hz) frequency ranges revealed the significant differences. Developed system could be used for distinguishing normal subject and the patients who have pulmonary disease. (author). 13 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Brain parenchymal density measurements by CT in demented subjects and normal controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, M.; Danziger, W.L.; Chi, D.; Hughes, C.P.; Coben, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Parachymal density measurements of 14 regions of gray and white matter from each cerebral hemisphere were made from CT scans of 25 subjects who had varying degrees of dementia as measured by a global Clinical Dementia Rating, and also from CT scans of 33 normal control subjects. There were few significant differences between the two groups in the mean density value for each of the regions examined, although several individual psychometric tests did correlate with density changes. Moreover, for six regions in the cerebral cortex, and for one region in the thalamus of each hemisphere, we found no significant correlation between the gray-white matter density difference and dementia. There was, however, a loss of the discriminability between the gray and white matter with an increase in the size of the ventricles. These findings may be attributed to the loss of white matter volume

  7. Survey of Saccadic Parameters Using Videonystagmography in Patients with Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease and Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hosseinabadi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Patients with Parkinson’s disease manifest oculomotor abnormalities. This is the consequence of basal ganglia impairment. The most common abnormalities include increased saccade latency, hypometric saccades and decreased saccade velocity. The purpose of this study was comparison of saccadic parameters using videonystagmography in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease and normal subjects.Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, saccadic movements were investigated in thirty patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease and thirty age matched subjects were 35-70 years old. Saccade latency, velocity and accuracy were quantitatively analyzed. Results: Results of this study indicated increased saccade latency, reduction of saccade velocity and accuracy in patients with Parkinson’s disease(P<0.001.Conclusion: This study showed that patients with Parkinson’s disease manifest saccadic deficits. This suggests dopaminergic control of these ocular movements.

  8. Spouse's subjective social status predicts older adults' prospective cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Fung, Helene; Kwok, Timothy

    2017-12-06

    The current study aims to investigate the association between subjective social status (SSS) and prospective cognitive functioning of older adults and their spouses, and to explore the potential mediating roles of health habits and physical activities in this association. Using the longitudinal data of 512 pairs of community-dwelling older couples aged 65-91 years (M = 72.2 ± 4.6), we tested the effects of SSS in cognitive functioning using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. SSS was measured by a self-anchoring social ladder, and cognitive functioning was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Socioeconomic status (i.e. education) was tested as a moderator, and physical activity (measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly) as well as health habits (i.e. tobacco and alcohol consumption) were included as potential mediators. A partner effect of SSS was found only in the low-education group, in which the wife's higher level of SSS in the community was associated with the husband's better cognitive functioning in the follow-up. A small proportion of this effect was found to be partially mediated by participation in housework, such that the wife's higher SSS was associated with the husband's increased housework activity, which was related to higher prospective cognitive functioning. By examining the dyadic effects of SSS with a longitudinal design, our findings extended the understanding on how subjective social status influenced older couples' cognitive health, and provided evidence-based insights for future studies on cognitive health in later life.

  9. Serum ferritin in normal subjects and assessment of iron status during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, Ahmed Eltayeb

    1997-12-01

    This study was conducted with two main objectives;the estimation of serum ferritin level in normal subjects in khartoum area and the assessment of iron status during pregnancy at second and third trimesters. To fulfill the first objective,two hundred and sixty symptoms-free subjects were included in the study,103 males with ages ranging from 15 to 36 years and 157 females with ages ranging from 15 to 45 years.Serum ferritin was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). It was found that the mean concentration of male serum ferritin was much higher than that of the females. For the assessment of iron status during pregnancy,eighty five normal pregnant women were included in the study at the start of the second trimester.Two blood samples were taken during the second trimester and two blood samples during the third trimester. The height of all subjects was measured.The weights of the subjects were measured with each sample. All subjects were under iron-supplementations throughout the gestation period.Sixty four normal non pregnant women were included in the study to serve as controls. No significant difference was observed in the mean haemoglobin concentrations but the PCV of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation. MCV, MCH and MCHC values of the non-pregnant women were lower than those of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation. Serum iron and transferrin saturation of the non-pregnant women were higher than those of the pregnant women,this difference was statistically significant at weeks (16 -18) and weeks (22-24). Serum ferritin of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women and decreased continously during the prgnancy, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Iron deficiency anaemia was observed in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. The best parameter which could be used as a marker for iron deficiency is serum ferritin. Iron supplementations corrected for

  10. Serum ferritin in normal subjects and assessment of iron status during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltayeb, Ahmed Eltayeb [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1997-12-01

    This study was conducted with two main objectives;the estimation of serum ferritin level in normal subjects in khartoum area and the assessment of iron status during pregnancy at second and third trimesters. To fulfill the first objective,two hundred and sixty symptoms-free subjects were included in the study,103 males with ages ranging from 15 to 36 years and 157 females with ages ranging from 15 to 45 years.Serum ferritin was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). It was found that the mean concentration of male serum ferritin was much higher than that of the females. For the assessment of iron status during pregnancy,eighty five normal pregnant women were included in the study at the start of the second trimester.Two blood samples were taken during the second trimester and two blood samples during the third trimester. The height of all subjects was measured.The weights of the subjects were measured with each sample. All subjects were under iron-supplementations throughout the gestation period.Sixty four normal non pregnant women were included in the study to serve as controls. No significant difference was observed in the mean haemoglobin concentrations but the PCV of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation. MCV, MCH and MCHC values of the non-pregnant women were lower than those of the pregnant women at different stages of gestation. Serum iron and transferrin saturation of the non-pregnant women were higher than those of the pregnant women,this difference was statistically significant at weeks (16 -18) and weeks (22-24). Serum ferritin of the non-pregnant women was higher than that of the pregnant women and decreased continously during the prgnancy, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Iron deficiency anaemia was observed in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. The best parameter which could be used as a marker for iron deficiency is serum ferritin. Iron supplementations corrected for

  11. Influence of age on left ventricular performance during exercise in normal Japanese subject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tokuji; Koyama, Takao; Aoki, Toshikazu; Makino, Katsutoshi; Yamamuro, Masashi; Nakai, Kyudayu; Nakamura, Masayuki; Nakano, Takeshi.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the effects of age on left ventricular performance, multistage supine ergometer exercise radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was performed in 92 normal subjects. The subjects ranged in age from 24 to 86 years and were free of cardiopulmonary disease and diabetes. Age-related changes in exercise duration, left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), cardiac output (CO) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular dv/dt, systolic and diastolic time indexes of dv/dt, and peak systolic pressure/left ventricular end-systolic volume (PSP/LVESV) were analyzed at rest and during the peak exercise stage. Age-related decrease in LVEDV and peak diastolic dv/dt were significant at rest. The time indexes of ECG R to peak systolic dv/dt and time of end-systole to peak diastolic dv/dt also were prolonged with age. Both maximum heart rate and exercise duration were shown to decline with age. No age-related difference was observed in LVESV, LVEF or PSP/LVESV either at rest or during exercise. However, the change of LVEF and LVESV during exercise was less in subjects aged 60 or more. These results indicate decreased left ventricular function during exercise in elderly subjects. (author)

  12. Uricosuric effect of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in normal and renal-stone former subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasongwatana, Vitoon; Woottisin, Surachet; Sriboonlue, Pote; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2008-05-22

    The Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) was investigated for its uricosuric effect. A human model with nine subjects with no history of renal stones (non-renal stone, NS) and nine with a history of renal stones (RS) was used in this study. A cup of tea made from 1.5 g of dry Roselle calyces was provided to subjects twice daily (morning and evening) for 15 days. A clotted blood and two consecutive 24-h urine samples were collected from each subject three times: (1) at baseline (control); (2) on days 14 and 15 during the tea drinking period; and (3) 15 days after the tea drinking was stopped (washout). Serum and 24-h urinary samples were analyzed for uric acid and other chemical compositions related to urinary stone risk factors. All analyzed serum parameters were within normal ranges and similar; between the two groups of subjects and among the three periods. Vis-à-vis the urinary parameters, most of the baseline values for both groups were similar. After taking the tea, the trend was an increase in oxalate and citrate in both groups and uric acid excretion and clearance in the NS group. In the RS group, both uric acid excretion and clearance were significantly increased (pRoselle calyces. Since the various chemical constituents in Roselle calyces have been identified, the one(s) exerting this uricosuric effect need to be identified.

  13. NORMAL AXIAL ANGLES OF THE KNEE JOINT IN ADULT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-08-01

    Aug 1, 2003 ... Conclusion: Our study has demonstrated comparative variations in means and ranges of normal axial angles .... population was significantly different from the mean ... case, however, the angle also exhibits racial variations.

  14. Normal values for quantitative muscle ultrasonography in adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.M.P.; Pillen, S.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Overeem, S.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonography can detect structural muscle changes caused by neuromuscular disease. Quantitative analysis is the preferred method to determine if ultrasound findings are within normal limits, but normative data are incomplete. The purpose of this study was to provide normative muscle

  15. Ocular axial length measurement among normal adults using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , as visual compromise is a major consequence if they are not diagnosed and managed appropriately. Aim and Objectives: To use magnetic resonance imaging, to determine the normal AL of the eyeball and to establish the association, if any, ...

  16. Orbital phlebography in patients with Tolosa-Hunt's syndrome in comparison with normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannerz, J.; Ericson, K.; Bergstrand, G.; Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm

    1984-01-01

    Orbital phlebography has been reported to be pathologic in some patients with Tolosa-Hunt's syndrome (recurrent painful ophthalmoplegia). A systematic study of the phlebographic findings in Tolosa-Hunt's syndrome in comparison with a normal material seems not to have been performed. In this investigation, orbital phlebography was performed in 19 patients with Tolosa-Hunt's syndrome and in a reference group of 23 persons without the disease. In 13 of 19 patients (68%) with Tolosa-Hunt's syndrome, the phlebography was pathologic (narrowing or occlusion of particularly the third segment of the superior ophthalmic vein, partial occlusion of the cavernous sinus). Orbital phlebography was normal in all but one of the subjects in the reference group. The medical history of this subject in retrospect revealed symptoms other than painful ophthalmoplegia commonly found in patients with Tolosa-Hunt's syndrome, suggesting that he suffered from a variant of the disease causing the syndrome. In one patient with recurrent painful ophthalmoplegia a biopsy from an eye muscle showed venous vasculitis, probably indicating the basic pathology behind the phlebographic changes in patients with Tolosa-Hunt's syndrome. (orig.)

  17. Regional deposition of saline aerosols of different tonicities in normal and asthmatic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, P.R.; Gonda, I.; Anderson, S.D.; Bailey, D.; Bautovich, G.

    1994-01-01

    Nonisotonic aerosols are frequently used in the diagnosis and therapy of lung disease. The purpose of this work was to study the difference in the pattern of deposition of aerosols containing aqueous solutions of different tonicities. 99m Technetium-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid ( 99m Tc-DTPA)-labelled saline aerosols, with mass median aerodynamic diameter 3.7-3.8 μm and geometric standard deviation 1.4, were inhaled under reproducible breathing conditions on two occasions. Hypotonic and hypertonic solutions were used in 11 normals subjects, isotonic and hypertonic solutions in 9 asthmatics. The regional deposition was quantified by a penetration index measured with the help of a tomographic technique. There was a small but significant increase (6.7%) in the penetration index of the hypotonic as compared to the hypertonic aerosols in the normal subjects. The region that was markedly affected was the trachea. The differences in the penetration of the isotonic and hypertonic aerosols in the asthmatics appeared to be strongly dependent on the state of the airways at the time of the study. These findings can be interpreted in terms of effects of growth or shrinkage of nonisotonic aerosols, as well as of airway narrowing, on regional deposition of aerosols. Tonicity of aerosols appears to affect their deposition both through physical and physiological mechanisms. This should be taken into account when interpreting the effects of inhaled aqueous solutions of various tonicities in patients in vivo. (au) (44 refs.)

  18. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Segmentation on FD-OCT Scans of Normal Subjects and Glaucoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Markus A; Hornegger, Joachim; Mardin, Christian Y; Tornow, Ralf P

    2010-11-08

    Automated measurements of the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness on circular OCT B-Scans provide physicians additional parameters for glaucoma diagnosis. We propose a novel retinal nerve fiber layer segmentation algorithm for frequency domain data that can be applied on scans from both normal healthy subjects, as well as glaucoma patients, using the same set of parameters. In addition, the algorithm remains almost unaffected by image quality. The main part of the segmentation process is based on the minimization of an energy function consisting of gradient and local smoothing terms. A quantitative evaluation comparing the automated segmentation results to manually corrected segmentations from three reviewers is performed. A total of 72 scans from glaucoma patients and 132 scans from normal subjects, all from different persons, composed the database for the evaluation of the segmentation algorithm. A mean absolute error per A-Scan of 2.9 µm was achieved on glaucomatous eyes, and 3.6 µm on healthy eyes. The mean absolute segmentation error over all A-Scans lies below 10 µm on 95.1% of the images. Thus our approach provides a reliable tool for extracting diagnostic relevant parameters from OCT B-Scans for glaucoma diagnosis.

  19. Effect of knowledge of APOE genotype on subjective and objective memory performance in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineweaver, Tara T; Bondi, Mark W; Galasko, Douglas; Salmon, David P

    2014-02-01

    The knowledge that one carries the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele risk factor for Alzheimer's disease was recently found to have little short-term psychological risk. The authors investigated the impact of knowledge of carrying the risk allele on subjective ratings of memory and objective memory test performance of older adults. Using a nested case-control design, the authors administered objective verbal and visual memory tests and self-rating scales of memory function to 144 cognitively normal older adults (ages 52-89) with known APOE genotype who knew (ε4+, N=25; ε4-, N=49) or did not know (ε4+, N=25; ε4-, N=45) their genotype and genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease prior to neuropsychological evaluation. Significant genotype-by-disclosure interaction effects were observed on several memory rating scales and tests of immediate and delayed verbal recall. Older adults who knew their ε4+ genotype judged their memory more harshly and performed worse on an objective verbal memory test than did ε4+ adults who did not know. In contrast, older adults who knew their ε4- genotype judged their memory more positively than did ε4- adults who did not know, but these groups did not differ in objective memory test performance. Informing older adults that they have an APOE genotype associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease can have adverse consequences on their perception of their memory abilities and their performance on objective memory tests. The patient's knowledge of his or her genotype and risk of Alzheimer's disease should be considered when evaluating cognition in the elderly.

  20. Reproducibility of corticospinal diffusion tensor tractography in normal subjects and hemiparetic stroke patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chao-Chun; Tsai, Miao-Yu; Lo, Yu-Chien; Liu, Yi-Jui; Tsai, Po-Pang; Wu, Chiao-Ying; Lin, Chia-Wei; Shen, Wu-Chung; Chung, Hsiao-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The reproducibility of corticospinal diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) for a guideline is important before longitudinal monitoring of the therapy effects in stroke patients. This study aimed to establish the reproducibility of corticospinal DTT indices in healthy subjects and chronic hemiparetic stroke patients. Materials and methods: Written informed consents were obtained from 10 healthy subjects (mean age 25.8 ± 6.8 years), who underwent two scans in one session plus the third scan one week later, and from 15 patients (mean age 47.5 ± 9.1 years, 6–60 months after the onset of stroke, NIHSS scores between 9 and 20) who were scanned thrice on separate days within one month. Diffusion-tensor imaging was performed at 3 T with 25 diffusion directions. Corticospinal tracts were reconstructed using fiber assignment by continuous tracking without and with motion/eddy-current corrections. Intra- and inter-rater as well as intra- and inter-session variations of the DTT derived indices (fiber number, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA)) were assessed. Results: Intra-session and inter-session coefficients of variations (CVs) are small for FA (1.13–2.09%) and ADC (0.45–1.64%), but much larger for fiber number (8.05–22.4%). Inter-session CVs in the stroke side of patients (22.4%) are higher than those in the normal sides (18.0%) and in the normal subjects (14.7%). Motion/eddy-current correction improved inter-session reproducibility only for the fiber number of the infarcted corticospinal tract (CV reduced from 22.4% to 14.1%). Conclusion: The fiber number derived from corticospinal DTT shows substantially lower precision than ADC and FA, with infarcted tracts showing lower reproducibility than the healthy tissues

  1. Effect of laryngeal anesthesia on pulmonary function testing in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuna, S T; Woodson, G E; Sant'Ambrogio, G

    1988-03-01

    Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were performed on 11 normal subjects before and after topical anesthesia of the larynx. The PFT consisted of flow volume loops and body box determinations of functional residual capacity and airway resistance, each performed in triplicate. After the first set of tests, cotton pledgets soaked in 4% lidocaine were held in the pyriform sinuses for 2 min to block the superior laryngeal nerves. In addition, 1.5 ml of 10% cocaine was dropped on the vocal cords via indirect laryngoscopy. PFT were repeated 5 min after anesthesia. Besides routine analysis of the flow volume loops, areas under the inspiratory (Area I) and expiratory (Area E) portions of the loops were calculated by planimetry. Area I, peak inspiratory flow (PIF), as well as forced inspiratory flow at 25, 50, and 75% forced vital capacity (FVC), decreased after anesthesia. Peak expiratory flow decreased after anesthesia, but Area E and forced expiratory flow at 25, 50, and 75% FVC were unchanged. This protocol also was performed in 12 normal subjects with isotonic saline being substituted for the lidocaine and cocaine. In this group, no significant differences were observed when flow volume loop parameters were compared before and after topical application of saline. In 5 spontaneously breathing anesthetized dogs, posterior cricoarytenoid muscle and afferent superior laryngeal nerve activity were recorded before and after laryngeal anesthesia performed with the same procedure used in the human subjects. Laryngeal anesthesia resulted in a substantial decrease or a complete disappearance of afferent SLN activity recorded during unobstructed and obstructed respiration. The data suggest that laryngeal receptors help modulate upper airway patency in man.

  2. Gut Microbiota, Microinflammation, Metabolic Profile, and Zonulin Concentration in Obese and Normal Weight Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Żak-Gołąb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between gut microbiota and circulating zonulin level, a marker of intestinal permeability, has not been studied yet. The aim of the study is the assessment of plasma zonulin, haptoglobin and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 levels in relation to composition of gut microbiota in obese and normal weight subjects. Circulating inflammation markers, such as TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, IL-6, zonulin, and haptoglobin levels were measured and semiquantitative analysis of gut microbiota composition was carried out in 50 obese and 30 normal weight subjects without concomitant diseases. Higher circulating zonulin, TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and IL-6 levels were found in the obese subjects. Plasma zonulin level correlated positively with age (r=0.43, P<0.001, body mass (r=0.30, P<0.01, BMI (r=0.33, P<0.01, fat mass and fat percentage (r=0.31, P<0.01 and r=0.23, P<0.05, resp.. Positive correlations between bacterial colony count and sTNFR1 (r=0.33, P<0.01 and plasma zonulin (r=0.26, P<0.05 but not haptoglobin levels were found. Additionally, plasma zonulin level was proportional to daily energy intake (r=0.27, P<0.05 and serum glucose concentration (r=0.18, P<0.05 and inversely proportional to diet protein percentage (r=-0.23, P<0.05. Gut microbiota-related systemic microinflammation in the obese is reflected by circulating zonulin level, a potential marker of interstitial permeability.

  3. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  4. Determinants of dynamic hyperinflation during metronome-paced tachypnea in COPD and normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C B; Calligaro, G L; Quinn, M M; Eshaghian, P; Coskun, F; Abrazado, M; Bateman, E D; Raine, R I

    2014-01-01

    In COPD, dynamic hyperinflation (DH) occurs during exercise and during metronome-paced tachypnea (MPT). We investigated the relationship of DH with breathing pattern and ventilation (V˙E) in COPD and normal subjects (NS). In 35 subjects with moderate COPD and 17 younger healthy volunteers we measured inspiratory capacity (IC), breathing frequency (fR), expiratory time (TE), ventilation (V˙E) and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PETCO2) at baseline and after 30s of MPT at 40breaths/min with metronome-defined I:E ratios of 1:1 and 1:2. A reduction in IC (ΔIC) was taken to indicate DH. In COPD subjects, DH correlated with TE but not with V˙E or PETCO2, and was best predicted by total lung capacity. NS also showed DH (although less than in COPD), which correlated with PETCO2 but not with fR, TE or V˙E. We conclude that MPT evokes DH in both NS and patients with COPD. TE is the most important determinant of DH during MPT in patients with COPD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between eye dominance and pattern electroretinograms in normal human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Umit; Gunduz, Kemal; Okudan, Nilsel; Gokbel, Hakki; Bodur, Sait; Tan, Uner

    2005-02-01

    The authors conducted a study in 100 non-smoker healthy normal human subjects to find a relationship between eye dominance and macular function as tested by using transient stimulus and electroretinography. Eye preference procedure was carried out using two reference points and pattern electroretinograms (PERGs) were recorded using black and white checks, each check subtending 23'. Trace averager was retriggered every 300 milliseconds (ms) with data collection time of 150 ms. The difference in PERG P50 amplitudes between right and left eyes was analyzed using Student's t test. There was no significant difference in PERG P50 amplitudes between the right and left eye dominant subjects as well as no significant differences between the right and left eyes in right eye dominants and left eye dominants, but in the left-eye dominant group the left eye PERG P50 amplitudes were significantly higher in females than males. Although pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials of healthy subjects provide electrophysiological evidence of lateralization in the nervous system, sensory eye dominance seems to have no correlation with macular function.

  6. Impact of Insulin Resistance on Silent and Ongoing Myocardial Damage in Normal Subjects: The Takahata Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Narumi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Insulin resistance (IR is part of the metabolic syndrome (Mets that develops after lifestyle changes and obesity. Although the association between Mets and myocardial injury is well known, the effect of IR on myocardial damage remains unclear. Methods and Results. We studied 2200 normal subjects who participated in a community-based health check in the town of Takahata in northern Japan. The presence of IR was assessed by homeostasis model assessment ratio, and the serum level of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP was measured as a maker of silent and ongoing myocardial damage. H-FABP levels were significantly higher in subjects with IR and Mets than in those without metabolic disorder regardless of gender. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that the presence of IR was independently associated with latent myocardial damage (odds ratio: 1.574, 95% confidence interval 1.1–2.3 similar to the presence of Mets. Conclusions. In a screening of healthy subjects, IR and Mets were similarly related to higher H-FABP levels, suggesting that there may be an asymptomatic population in the early stages of metabolic disorder that is exposed to myocardial damage and might be susceptible to silent heart failure.

  7. Intelligence or years of education: which is better correlated with memory function in normal elderly Japanese subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Norio; Iseki, Eizo; Tagaya, Hirokuni; Ota, Kazumi; Kasanuki, Koji; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Arai, Heii; Sato, Kiyoshi

    2013-03-01

    We compared differences in intelligence and memory function between normal elderly Japanese subjects with more years of education and those with fewer years of education. We also investigated clinical and neuropsychological factors that are strongly correlated with memory function. There were 118 normal elderly subjects who underwent the Mini-Mental State Examination, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edition (WAIS-III), and Wechsler Memory Scale Revised. Subjects with at least 13 years of education were categorized as the H group, and those with 12 years of education or less were categorized as the L group. Age and Mini-Mental State Examination scores were not significantly different between the two groups. On the WAIS-III, there were significant differences between the two groups in Verbal IQ and Full Scale IQ. On the Wechsler Memory Scale Revised, there were significant differences between the two groups in Visual Memory, General Memory, and Delayed Recall. Correlation coefficients between memory function and the other factors demonstrated significant but weak correlations between years of education and General Memory (R = 0.22) and between years of education and Delayed Recall (R = 0.20). Strong correlations were found between Verbal IQ and Verbal Memory (R = 0.45), between Verbal IQ and General Memory (R = 0.49), between Full Scale IQ and General Memory (R = 0.50) and between Full Scale IQ and Delayed Recall (R = 0.48). In normal elderly Japanese subjects, years of education weakly correlated with memory function while Verbal IQ, Full Scale IQ and Verbal Comprehension on WAIS-III had stronger correlations with memory function. Verbal IQ and Verbal Comprehension on WAIS-III were found to be insusceptible to the cognitive decline characteristic of Alzheimer's disease or amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Therefore, verbal intelligence, as measured by Verbal IQ and Verbal Comprehension, may be the most useful factor for inferring premorbid memory function

  8. Normal range values for thromboelastography in healthy adult volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Scarpelini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Thromboelastography (TEG® provides a functional evaluation of coagulation. It has characteristics of an ideal coagulation test for trauma, but is not frequently used, partially due to lack of both standardized techniques and normal values. We determined normal values for our population, compared them to those of the manufacturer and evaluated the effect of gender, age, blood type, and ethnicity. The technique was standardized using citrated blood, kaolin and was performed on a Haemoscope 5000 device. Volunteers were interviewed and excluded if pregnant, on anticoagulants or having a bleeding disorder. The TEG® parameters analyzed were R, K, α, MA, LY30, and coagulation index. All volunteers outside the manufacturer’s normal range underwent extensive coagulation investigations. Reference ranges for 95% for 118 healthy volunteers were R: 3.8-9.8 min, K: 0.7-3.4 min, α: 47.8-77.7 degrees, MA: 49.7-72.7 mm, LY30: -2.3-5.77%, coagulation index: -5.1-3.6. Most values were significantly different from those of the manufacturer, which would have diagnosed coagulopathy in 10 volunteers, for whom additional investigation revealed no disease (81% specificity. Healthy women were significantly more hypercoagulable than men. Aging was not associated with hypercoagulability and East Asian ethnicity was not with hypocoagulability. In our population, the manufacturer’s normal values for citrated blood-kaolin had a specificity of 81% and would incorrectly identify 8.5% of the healthy volunteers as coagulopathic. This study supports the manufacturer’s recommendation that each institution should determine its own normal values before adopting TEG®, a procedure which may be impractical. Consideration should be given to a multi-institutional study to establish wide standard values for TEG®.

  9. Adult opossums (Didelphis virginiana) demonstrate near normal locomotion after spinal cord transection as neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X M; Basso, D M; Terman, J R; Bresnahan, J C; Martin, G F

    1998-05-01

    When the thoracic spinal cord of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is transected on postnatal day (PD) 5, the site of injury becomes bridged by histologically recognizable spinal cord and axons which form major long tracts grow through the lesion. In the present study we asked whether opossums lesioned on PD5 have normal use of the hindlimbs as adults and, if so, whether that use is dependent upon axons which grow through the lesion site. The thoracic spinal cord was transected on PD5 and 6 months later, hindlimb function was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale. All animals supported their weight with the hindlimbs and used their hindlimbs normally during overground locomotion. In some cases, the spinal cord was retransected at the original lesion site or just caudal to it 6 months after the original transection and paralysis of the hindlimbs ensued. Surprisingly, however, these animals gradually recovered some ability to support their weight and to step with the hindlimbs. Similar recovery was not seen in animals transected only as adults. In order to verify that descending axons which grew through the lesion during development were still present in the adult animal, opossums subjected to transection of the thoracic cord on PD5 were reoperated and Fast blue was injected several segments caudal to the lesion. In all cases, neurons were labeled rostral to the lesion in each of the spinal and supraspinal nuclei labeled by comparable injections in unlesioned, age-matched controls. The results of orthograde tracing studies indicated that axons which grew through the lesion innervated areas that were appropriate for them. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  10. Assessment of gastric emptying in normal subjects with sucralfate (Carafate) and Amphojel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, A.R.; Prokop, E.K.; Caride, V.J.; McCallum, R.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum-containing antacids (e.g Amphojel) and aluminum-containing compounds such as sucralfate (Carafate) have been shown in animal and human studies to delay gastric emptying, and are one proposed mechanism of action for healing of duodenal ulcers. Therefore, the authors designed a study to study the effects of Carafate and Amphojel on gastric emptying. Ten normal volunteers of mean age 27 years with no previous history of upper gastrointestinal diseases were studied. For each test the subject ingested a meal composed of 30gm of cooked chicken liver injected with lmCi of 99m-Tc-S-C, mixed with 7.5 oz. of beef stew, and eaten with 4 oz. of water labeled with 100μCi of 111-In-DTPA. Immediately after ingestion of the meal, the subject was placed supine under a gamma camera. Gastric emptying (GE) was expressed as percent emptied. On separate days the subject was given either lgm of Carafate (190mg Al/gm) or placebo in a double blind fashion one hour prior to the test meal. On the third day, each subject was given 30cc of Amphojel (105mg Al/5cc) followed 30 minutes later by the test meal. GE at 2 hours for the solid meal was 60%, 69%, and 54% and 79%, 86% and 68% at 3 hours for placebo, Carafate, and Amphojel respectively. A small but not significant difference in gastric emptying between Amphojel and placebo was seen from 2 to 3 hours. For the liquid meal approximately 90% emptying was present at 1 hour for all three studies. Further studies are needed to determine whether these medications administered in the standard doses given here may affect gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients

  11. Assessment of gastric emptying in normal subjects with sucralfate (Carafate) and Amphojel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, A.R.; Prokop, E.K.; Caride, V.J.; McCallum, R.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum-containing antacids (e.g Amphojel) and aluminum-containing compounds such as sucralfate (Carafate) have been shown in animal and human studies to delay gastric emptying, and are one proposed mechanism of action for healing of duodenal ulcers. Therefore, the authors designed a study to study the effects of Carafate and Amphojel on gastric emptying. Ten normal volunteers of mean age 27 years with no previous history of upper gastrointestinal diseases were studied. For each test the subject ingested a meal composed of 30gm of cooked chicken liver injected with lmCi of 99m-Tc-S-C, mixed with 7.5 oz. of beef stew, and eaten with 4 oz. of water labeled with 100..mu..Ci of 111-In-DTPA. Immediately after ingestion of the meal, the subject was placed supine under a gamma camera. Gastric emptying (GE) was expressed as percent emptied. On separate days the subject was given either lgm of Carafate (190mg Al/gm) or placebo in a double blind fashion one hour prior to the test meal. On the third day, each subject was given 30cc of Amphojel (105mg Al/5cc) followed 30 minutes later by the test meal. GE at 2 hours for the solid meal was 60%, 69%, and 54% and 79%, 86% and 68% at 3 hours for placebo, Carafate, and Amphojel respectively. A small but not significant difference in gastric emptying between Amphojel and placebo was seen from 2 to 3 hours. For the liquid meal approximately 90% emptying was present at 1 hour for all three studies. Further studies are needed to determine whether these medications administered in the standard doses given here may affect gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients.

  12. Nonrandom distribuion of chromosome breaks in cultured lymphocytes of normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayme, S.; Mattei, J.F.; Mattei, M.G.; Aurran, Y.; Giraud, F.

    1976-02-29

    Breakpoint distribution was studied from cultured lymphocytes on 7653 metaphases from 524 subjects whose karyotypes were normal. The mean break rate was 5% in both sexes. The frequency increased significantly after 40 years and varied during the year. The location of the breaks was very different from the expected random distribution. The break frequency for each chromosome was different according to the type of break (chromatid, simple chromosomal and chromosomal involving rearrangements). The location of the breaks was also studied according to the type of band and with respect to the centromere. A comparison between spontaneous breaks, x-ray induced breaks, breaks in Fanconi's anemia and in congenital rearrangements, show very significant differences.

  13. Long-range correlations of serial FEV1 measurements in emphysematous patients and normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, A; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Madsen, F

    1998-01-01

    are autocorrelated. The purpose of this study was to describe the correlation structure in time series of FEV1 measurements. Nineteen patients with severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (phenotype PiZ) and moderate to severe emphysema and two subjects with normal lungs were followed for several years with daily self......In obstructive lung disease the annual change in lung function is usually estimated from serial measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). Frequent measurements in each patient may not improve this estimate because data are not statistically independent; i.e., the measurements...... measurements show long-range correlations. The practical implication is that FEV1 need not be measured more often than once every 3 mo in studies of the long-term trends in lung function....

  14. Dichotomous Effect of Caffeine, Curcumin, and Naringenin on Genomic DNA of Normal and Diabetic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarati Chattopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutraceutical compounds show antioxidant and prooxidant properties under stress conditions like cancer, diabetes, and other diseases. The objective of this study is to find the dichotomic behavior of caffeine, curcumin, and naringenin on DNA of diabetic and normal subjects in the presence and absence of copper, hydrogen peroxide, and complex of copper-hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide releases hydroxyl free radicals (•OH on oxidation of Cu (I to Cu (II through Fenton-type reaction to cause DNA damage. In the results, agarose gel electrophoretic pattern speculates the prooxidant effect of caffeine and antioxidant effect of curcumin on DNA in the presence of copper and hydrogen peroxide. UV-Vis spectral analysis shows hyperchromism on addition of DNA to caffeine, hypochromism with curcumin, and subtle changes with naringenin. The chosen nutraceuticals act as inducers and quenchers of oxidative free radicals arising from diabetes.

  15. Lack of effect of laboratory-provoked anxiety on plasma homovanillic acid concentration in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemishlany, Z; Davidson, M

    1996-08-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate if acute anxiety can affect plasma concentrations of homovanillic acid (pHVA). Since elevated pHVA levels have been associated with severity of schizophrenic symptoms, the results of this study will help determine if the pHVA elevations are directly related to psychosis or if anxiety is also a contributory factor. Anxiety was provoked in 10 young normal subjects by a combined paradigm of mental arithmetic task and threat of electrical shock. A significant increase in self-ratings of anxiety, blood pressure, and plasma levels of norepinephrine, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol and growth hormone indicated that the paradigm used was effective in provoking anxiety; however, anxiety did not affect pHVA concentrations. The results may support the notion that increased pHVA levels in severely ill schizophrenic patients are related to the schizophrenic pathophysiology rather than to anxiety.

  16. Human paraoxonase and HDL-cholesterol in pakistan patients with acute myocardial infarction and normal healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, I.P.; Khan, A.H.; Mehboobali, N.

    2007-01-01

    Human serum paraoxonase is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound enzyme exhibiting antiatherogenic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate any relationship between serum paraoxonase activity and serum levels of HDL-cholesterol in Pakistani patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to normal healthy subjects and to examine possible association between serum paraoxonase activity and AMI in Pakistani population. In a case-control study, serum paraoxonase activity and serum levels of HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were monitored in 164 Pakistani patients with AMI and 106 normal healthy adults matched for gender, BMI and age within 10 years. Mean serum concentration of HDL-cholesterol and mean serum paraoxonase activity in AMI patients were not significantly different from the corresponding values in normal healthy subjects. Mean serum paraoxonase activity value was significantly lower in normal healthy subjects with low HDL-cholesterol (serum levels < 40mg/dl) compared to the value in those with normal levels of HDL-cholesterol (P=0.04). In AMI patients, paraoxonase activity was lower in subjects with low HDL-cholesterol compared to those with normal levels of HDL-cholesterol, however, the decrease was not statistically significant. Correlation analyses of the data revealed a moderate association of paraoxonase activity with HDL-cholesterol (Pearson's r= 0.225, P<0.01 for AMI patients and r=0.281, P<0.01 for normal healthy controls). Seventy three percent of normal healthy subjects and 65% of AMI patients in this study had low HDL-cholesterol. Low serum paraoxonase activity and high prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol in Pakistani population could be contributing to the high rates of coronary heart disease in this population. (author)

  17. Reference Clinical Database for Fixation Stability Metrics in Normal Subjects Measured with the MAIA Microperimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marco U; Saker, Saker; Wilde, Craig; Pellizzari, Carlo; Pallikaris, Aristophanes; Notaroberto, Neil; Rubinstein, Martin; Rui, Chiara; Limoli, Paolo; Smolek, Michael K; Amoaku, Winfried M

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a normal reference database for fixation stability measured with the bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA) in the Macular Integrity Assessment (MAIA) microperimeter. Subjects were 358 healthy volunteers who had the MAIA examination. Fixation stability was assessed using two BCEA fixation indices (63% and 95% proportional values) and the percentage of fixation points within 1° and 2° from the fovea (P1 and P2). Statistical analysis was performed with linear regression and Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient. Average areas of 0.80 deg 2 (min = 0.03, max = 3.90, SD = 0.68) for the index BCEA@63% and 2.40 deg 2 (min = 0.20, max = 11.70, SD = 2.04) for the index BCEA@95% were found. The average values of P1 and P2 were 95% (min = 76, max = 100, SD = 5.31) and 99% (min = 91, max = 100, SD = 1.42), respectively. The Pearson's product moment test showed an almost perfect correlation index, r = 0.999, between BCEA@63% and BCEA@95%. Index P1 showed a very strong correlation with BCEA@63%, r = -0.924, as well as with BCEA@95%, r = -0.925. Index P2 demonstrated a slightly lower correlation with both BCEA@63% and BCEA@95%, r = -0.874 and -0.875, respectively. The single parameter of the BCEA@95% may be taken as accurately reporting fixation stability and serves as a reference database of normal subjects with a cutoff area of 2.40 ± 2.04 deg 2 in MAIA microperimeter. Fixation stability can be measured with different indices. This study originates reference fixation values for the MAIA using a single fixation index.

  18. Influence of insulin on beta-endorphin plasma levels in obese and normal weight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunani, A; Pincelli, A I; Pasqualinotto, L; Tibaldi, A; Baldi, G; Scacchi, M; Fatti, L M; Cavagnini, F

    1996-08-01

    To establish the possible role of hyperinsulinemia in the elevation of plasma beta-endorphin (beta-EP) levels observed in obese patients after an oral glucose load. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Two groups of six (age: 22-39 y, BMI: 30-48 kg/m2) and eight obese men (age: 18-37 y, BMI: 35-45 kg/m2), respectively, and five normal weight healthy men (age: 22-30 y, BMI 22-23 kg/m2). Glucose, insulin and beta-EP levels at baseline and every 30 min until 180 min during the OGTT; glucose, insulin, C-peptide and beta-EP concentrations at baseline and in steady state condition (i.e. during the last 30 min of insulin infusion) in the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. In the six obese patients undergoing the OGTT a significant elevation of beta-EP plasma levels was observed between 60 and 90 min after glucose ingestion. In the clamp studies no significant differences in beta-EP plasma levels, blood glucose and serum insulin were observed between obese and normal weight subjects both at baseline and at steady state. A markedly diminished insulin sensitivity along with a lower inhibition of C-peptide during insulin infusion was observed in obese patients compared to control subjects. A rise in serum insulin levels unaccompanied by a concomitant increase in blood glucose concentration is unable to elicit a beta-EP response in obese patients.

  19. CT appearance of the normal appendix in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamburrini, Stefania; Brunetti, Arturo; Brown, Michele; Sirlin, Claude B.; Casola, Giovanna

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify (1) the normal range of the appendix on computed tomography (CT), (2) the correlation of patient age and sex with the visibility and appearance of the appendix on CT, and (3) the normal variations in wall thickness, intraluminal content, and location of the appendix. Three hundred seventy-two outpatients underwent abdominopelvic CT. The scans were reviewed on the picture archiving and communication system and appendiceal outer-to-outer wall diameter, wall thickness, location, content and its correlation with appendix diameter were analyzed. The appendix was visualized in 305/372 patients. Its location relative to the cecum was highly variable. The diameter range was 3-10 mm; in 42% of cases the diameter was greater than 6 mm. When the intraluminal content (185/305) was visualized, the diameter was slightly superior to the mean (p=0.0156). In 329 CT scans in which oral contrast material was given, the appendix was filled by contrast material in 74/329 patients. The appendix wall thickness was measurable in 22/305 patients (average 0.15 cm). There is significant overlap between the normal and abnormal CT appearance of the appendix. Consequently the diagnosis of acute appendicitis should be based not only on the appearance of the appendix but also on the presence of secondary signs. (orig.)

  20. Measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) in normal and diabetic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giampetro, O.; Clerico, A.; Cruschelli, L.; Miccoli, R.; Dipalma, L.; Navalesi, R.

    1987-01-01

    The chemico-clinical characteristics of two commercial RIA kits for the measurement of urinary albumin excretion in normal and diabetic subjects were compared. The chief difference between the two methods concerns the bound/free separation of the antigen, since one employs the second antybody plus PEG (Sclavo Kit), while the other uses the solid phase [antiserum bound to sepharose (Pharmacia kit)]. The two RIA methods have demonstrated a similar degree of sensitivity, feasibility and cost. The precision of the two RIAs was also similar, although the Sclavo kit has shown a better precision for lower albumin concentrations and the Pharmacia kit for higher values. In diabetic patients, elevated urinary albumin concentrations (>60 mg/L) have been found more frequently than low values (<5 mg/L); hence the Pharmacia kit seems to be preferable, because it less frequently needs dilution of urinary sample for measuring with a better precision supranormal urinary albumin values. A significant bias (about 15%) was found between the two RIAs. Bias between different albumin RIA methods could partially explain the differences of normal values previously reported in the literature

  1. Comparison of range of motion and function of subjects with reverse anatomy Bayley-Walker shoulder replacement with those of normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjedi, Milad; Lovell, Cara; Johnson, Garth R

    2011-12-01

    Patients with rotator cuff tear and degenerative shoulder joint disease commonly experience severe pain and reduced performance during activities of daily living. A popular way to treat these patients is by means of reverse anatomy shoulder prosthesis. Studying the kinematics of subjects with reverse anatomy implant would be useful in order to gain knowledge about functionality of different designs. It is hypothesized that the kinematics of these subjects, in the absence of rotator cuff muscles, differs from that of normal subjects. In this study the upper limb kinematics of 12 subjects with a Bayley-Walker reverse anatomy shoulder prosthesis while performing tasks common in everyday activities and those that represent the range of motion was analyzed and compared to that of 12 normal subjects. Each patient also completed an Oxford Shoulder Score. Substantial reduction in the Bayley-Walker subjects' ranges of motion was observed compared to normal subjects. The mean abduction angle decreased from 109° (±20) for normal subjects to 64° (±25). A similar trend was observed during flexion and axial rotation tasks. Furthermore, the normal group showed less variable ranges of motion performing the standard tasks, whereas for the prosthetic group this varied greatly, which is likely to be dependent on muscle strength. Although the decreased range of motion was prominent, subjects were able to complete most of the tasks by compensating with their elbow and trunk. The most challenging task for Bayley-Walker subjects was lifting an object to head height. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of familiarity and complexity on appraisal of complex songs by cochlear implant recipients and normal hearing adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Christ, Aaron; Knutson, John; Witt, Shelley; Mehr, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to develop a test of complex song appraisal that would be suitable for use with adults who use a cochlear implant (assistive hearing device) and (b) to compare the appraisal ratings (liking) of complex songs by adults who use cochlear implants (n = 66) with a comparison group of adults with normal hearing (n = 36). The article describes the development of a computerized test for appraisal, with emphasis on its theoretical basis and the process for item selection of naturalistic stimuli. The appraisal test was administered to the 2 groups to determine the effects of prior song familiarity and subjective complexity on complex song appraisal. Comparison of the 2 groups indicates that the implant users rate 2 of 3 musical genres (country western, pop) as significantly more complex than do normal hearing adults, and give significantly less positive ratings to classical music than do normal hearing adults. Appraisal responses of implant recipients were examined in relation to hearing history, age, performance on speech perception and cognitive tests, and musical background.

  3. SSRI effects on pyschomotor performance: assessment of citalopram and escitalopram on normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Michel A; Gray, Gary W; Love, Ryan J; Lange, Marvin

    2007-07-01

    Standard aeromedical doctrine dictates that aircrew receiving treatment for depression are grounded during treatment and follow-up observation, generally amounting to at least 1 yr. The Canadian Forces has initiated a program to return selected aircrew being treated for depression to restricted flying duties once stabilized on an approved antidepressant with resolution of depression. The currently approved medications are sertraline (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and bupropion (noradrenaline and dopamine reuptake inhibitor). This study was undertaken to determine whether or not citalopram or escitalopram affect psychomotor performance. In a double-blind crossover protocol with counter-balanced treatment order, 24 normal volunteer subjects (14 men and 10 women) were assessed for psychomotor performance during placebo, citalopram (40 mg), and escitalopram (20 mg) treatment. Each treatment arm lasted 2 wk, involving a daily morning ingestion of one capsule. There was a 1-wk washout period between medication courses. Subjects completed a drug side-effect questionnaire and were tested on three psychomotor test batteries once per week. Neither citalopram nor escitalopram affected serial reaction time, logical reasoning, serial subtraction, multitask, or MacWorth clock task performance. While we found some of the expected side effects due to citalopram and escitalopram, there was no impact on psychomotor performance. These findings support the possibility of using citalopram and escitalopram for returning aircrew to restricted flight duties (non-tactical flying) under close observation as a maintenance treatment after full resolution of depression.

  4. The effects of frequency-encoding gradient upon detectability of the margins and height measurements of normal adult pituitary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, A.; Sato, N.; Aoki, J.; Endo, K.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of frequency-encoding gradient (FEG) upon detectability and height measurements of the normal adult pituitary gland. We obtained two sets of T1-weighted sagittal images of the pituitary gland from 70 adult subjects without known pituitary dysfunction using 1.5 tesla imagers; one with an inferior-superior FEG, and one with an anterior-posterior FEG. We classified the subjects into three types according to the distribution of fatty marrow in the clivus. Each set of images was assessed for pituitary height on midline sagittal images, and detectability of pituitary margins. Height measurements and detectability scores were evaluated for significant difference between the two FEGs. In subjects with fatty marrow in the clivus, there was significant difference between pituitary height measurements (P<0.005) and pituitary margin detectability (P<0.001). Care should be taken to image the pituitary gland using an anterior-posterior FEG. (orig.)

  5. The cerebral functional location in normal subjects with Chinese classical national music auditory stimulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Da; Xu Wei; Zhan Hongwei; Liu Hongbiao

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To detect the cerebral functional location in normal subjects with Chinese classical national music auditory stimulus. Methods: 10 normal young students of the medical collage of Zhejiang University,22-24 years old,5 male and 5 female. The first they underwent a 99mTc-ECD brain imaging during a rest state using a dual detectors gamma camera with fan beam collimators. After 2-4 days they were asked to listen a Chinese classical national music that was played by Erhu and Guzheng for 20 minters. They were also asked to pay special attention to the name of the music, what musical instruments they played and what imagination was opened out in the music. 99mTc-ECD was administered in the first 3 minutes during thy listened the music. The brain imaging was performed in 30-60 minutes after the tracer was administered. Results: To compare the rest state, during listening the Chinese classical national music and paying special attention to the imagination of music the right midtemporal in 6 cases, left midtemporal in 2 cases, right superior temporal in 2 cases, left superior temporal in 6 cases, and right inferior temporal in 2 cases were activated. Among them, dual temporal were activated in 6 cases, right temporal in 3 cases and left temporal in 1 case. It is very interesting that the inferior frontal and/or medial frontal lobes were activated in all 10 subjects, and the activity was markedly higher in frontal than in temporal. Among them dual frontal lobes were activated in 9 subjects, and only right frontal in 1 case. The right superior frontal lobes were activated in 2 cases. The occipital lobes were activated in 4 subjects, and dual occipital in 3 cases, right occipital in 1 case. These 4 subjects stated after listening that they imagined the natural landscape and imagination that was opened out in the music follow the music. Other regions that were activated included parietal lobes (right and left in 1 respectively), pre-cingulated gyms (in 2 cases), and left

  6. The cerebral functional location in normal subjects when they listened to a story in unfamiliar Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Da; Xu Wei; Zhang Hongwei; Liu Hongbiao; Liu Qichang

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To detect the cerebral functional location when normal subjects listened to a story in unfamiliar Japanese. Methods: 7 normal young students of the medical collage of Zhejiang University, 22-24 years old, 4 male and 3 female. The first they underwent a 99mTc-ECD brain imaging at rest using a dual-head gamma camera with fan beam collimators. After 2-4 days they were asked to listen a story in unfamiliar Japanese carefully on a tap for 20 minters. 99mTc-ECD was administered in the first 3 minutes during they listened the story. The brain imaging was performed in 30-60 minutes after the tracer was administered. Results: To compare the rest state, during listen to the story in unfamiliar Japanese the right superior temporal in 5 cases, left superior temporal in 2 cases, right inferior temporal in 2 cases, and left inferior temporal in 1 case were activated. Among them, dual temporal were activated in 2 cases, only right temporal in 4 cases and left temporal in 1 case. Although they were no asked to remember the plot of the story, the frontal lobes were activated lightly in all 9 subjects. Among them dual inferior frontal and/or medial frontal lobes (3 cases), right inferior frontal and/or medial frontal lobes (2 cases), left inferior frontal (5 cases), right inferior frontal (1 case), right superior frontal (3 cases) were activated. The were activated in 6 subjects, and dual occipital in 5 cases, left occipital in 1 case. Other regions that were activated included parietal lobes (right in 2 cases and left in 1 case), and left occipital lobes (in 1 case) were activated. Conclusion: During listened to the story in unfamiliar Japanese the auditory association cortex in the superior temporal and some right midtemporal (it is more in right than in left) were activated. The frontal lobes were activated widely too, and mainly in left inferior frontal lobes (Broca's area), and in the frontal eye fields and the superolateral prefrontal cortex. It is consistent with the

  7. Bowman Capsule Volume and Related Factors in Adults With Normal Renal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaya Sasaki

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: In the normal adult kidney, there may be an optimal BV to GV ratio for maintaining effective filtration in a variety of clinical situations, including advanced age, obesity, and hypertension.

  8. Effects of Propranolol on the Left Ventricular Volume of Normal Subjects During CT Coronary Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Yuan Heng; Jaw, Fu Shan; Wang, Yung Cheng; Jeng, Chin Ming; Peng, Shinn Forng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of propranolol on the left ventricular (LV) volume during CT coronary angiography. The LV volume of 252 normal Chinese subjects (126 subjects with propranolol medication and 126 age- and gender-matched Chinese subjects without medication) was estimated using 64 slices multi-detector CT (MDCT). The heart rate difference was analyzed by the logistic linear regression model with variables that included gender, age, body height, body weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and the dosage of propranolol. The following global LV functional parameters were calculated: the real-end diastolic volume (EDV), the real-end systolic volume (ESV) and the real-ejection fraction (EF). The female subjects had a greater decrease of heart rate after taking propranolol. The difference of heart rate was negatively correlated with the dosage of propranolol. The real-EDV, the real-ESV and the real-EF ranged from 48.1 to 109 mL/m2, 6.1 to 57.1 mL/m2 and 41% to 88%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the SBP and DBP between the groups without and with propranolol medication (123 ± 17 and 80 ± 10 mmHg; 120 ± 14 and 80 ± 11 mmHg, respectively). The real-EDV showed no significant difference between these two groups, but the real-ESV and real-EF showed significant differences between these two groups (69.4 ± 9.3 and 70.6 ± 8.9 mL/m2; 23.5 ± 5.7 and 25.6 ± 3.7 mL/m2, 66.5 ± 5.1% and 63.5 ± 4.6%, respectively). The difference of heart rate is significantly influenced by gender and the dosage of propranolol. Propranolol will also increase the ESV, which contributes to a decreased EF, while the SBP, DBP and EDV are not statistically changed.

  9. Alzheimer’s disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarker in cognitively normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Jon B.; Zetterberg, Henrik; van Harten, Argonde C.; Glodzik, Lidia; Martinez-Lage, Pablo; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella; Rami, Lorena; Hansson, Oskar; Sperling, Reisa; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Osorio, Ricardo S.; Vanderstichele, Hugo; Vandijck, Manu; Hampel, Harald; Teipl, Stefan; Moghekar, Abhay; Albert, Marilyn; Hu, William T.; Monge Argilés, Jose A.; Gorostidi, Ana; Teunissen, Charlotte E.; De Deyn, Peter P.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Molinuevo, Jose L.; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Linazasoro, Gurutz; de Leon, Mony J.; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Scheltens, Philip; Blennow, Kaj; Shaw, Leslie M.

    2015-01-01

    In a large multicentre sample of cognitively normal subjects, as a function of age, gender and APOE genotype, we studied the frequency of abnormal cerebrospinal fluid levels of Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers including: total tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β1-42. Fifteen cohorts from 12 different centres with either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays or Luminex® measurements were selected for this study. Each centre sent nine new cerebrospinal fluid aliquots that were used to measure total tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β1-42 in the Gothenburg laboratory. Seven centres showed a high correlation with the new Gothenburg measurements; therefore, 10 cohorts from these centres are included in the analyses here (1233 healthy control subjects, 40–84 years old). Amyloid-β amyloid status (negative or positive) and neurodegeneration status (negative or positive) was established based on the pathological cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer’s disease cut-off values for cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β1-42 and total tau, respectively. While gender did not affect these biomarker values, APOE genotype modified the age-associated changes in cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers such that APOE ε4 carriers showed stronger age-related changes in cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau, total tau and amyloid-β1-42 values and APOE ε2 carriers showed the opposite effect. At 40 years of age, 76% of the subjects were classified as amyloid negative, neurodegeneration negative and their frequency decreased to 32% at 85 years. The amyloid-positive neurodegeneration-negative group remained stable. The amyloid-negative neurodegeneration-positive group frequency increased slowly from 1% at 44 years to 16% at 85 years, but its frequency was not affected by APOE genotype. The amyloid-positive neurodegeneration-positive frequency increased from 1% at 53 years to 28% at 85 years. Abnormally low cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β1-42 levels were already frequent in midlife and APOE genotype

  10. Using virtual reality to distinguish subjects with multiple- but not single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment from normal elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Kargar, Mahmoud; Hesami, Ehsan

    2018-03-01

    Spatial disorientation is a hallmark of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease. Our aim was to use virtual reality to determine the allocentric and egocentric memory deficits of subjects with single-domain aMCI (aMCIsd) and multiple-domain aMCI (aMCImd). For this purpose, we introduced an advanced virtual reality navigation task (VRNT) to distinguish these deficits in mild Alzheimer's disease (miAD), aMCIsd, and aMCImd. The VRNT performance of 110 subjects, including 20 with miAD, 30 with pure aMCIsd, 30 with pure aMCImd, and 30 cognitively normal controls was compared. Our newly developed VRNT consists of a virtual neighbourhood (allocentric memory) and virtual maze (egocentric memory). Verbal and visuospatial memory impairments were also examined with Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, respectively. We found that miAD and aMCImd subjects were impaired in both allocentric and egocentric memory, but aMCIsd subjects performed similarly to the normal controls on both tasks. The miAD, aMCImd, and aMCIsd subjects performed worse on finding the target or required more time in the virtual environment than the aMCImd, aMCIsd, and normal controls, respectively. Our findings indicated the aMCImd and miAD subjects, as well as the aMCIsd subjects, were more impaired in egocentric orientation than allocentric orientation. We concluded that VRNT can distinguish aMCImd subjects, but not aMCIsd subjects, from normal elderly subjects. The VRNT, along with the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, can be used as a valid diagnostic tool for properly distinguishing different forms of aMCI. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  11. Motivation to Address Self-Reported Hearing Problems in Adults with Normal Hearing Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea, Carly C. M.; Doherty, Karen A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the motivation to change in relation to hearing problems in adults with normal hearing thresholds but who report hearing problems and that of adults with a mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Factors related to their motivation were also assessed. Method: The motivation to change in…

  12. Social network types among older Korean adults: Associations with subjective health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung Yun; Joo, Won-Tak; Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Se Joo; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Park, Yeong-Ran; Lee, Eun

    2017-01-01

    With population aging now a global phenomenon, the health of older adults is becoming an increasingly important issue. Because the Korean population is aging at an unprecedented rate, preparing for public health problems associated with old age is particularly salient in this country. As the physical and mental health of older adults is related to their social relationships, investigating the social networks of older adults and their relationship to health status is important for establishing public health policies. The aims of this study were to identify social network types among older adults in South Korea and to examine the relationship of these social network types with self-rated health and depression. Data from the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project were analyzed. Model-based clustering using finite normal mixture modeling was conducted to identify the social network types based on ten criterion variables of social relationships and activities: marital status, number of children, number of close relatives, number of friends, frequency of attendance at religious services, attendance at organized group meetings, in-degree centrality, out-degree centrality, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between the identified social network types and self-rated health and depression. The model-based clustering analysis revealed that social networks clustered into five types: diverse, family, congregant, congregant-restricted, and restricted. Diverse or family social network types were significantly associated with more favorable subjective mental health, whereas the restricted network type was significantly associated with poorer ratings of mental and physical health. In addition, our analysis identified unique social network types related to religious activities. In summary, we developed a comprehensive social network typology for older Korean adults. Copyright © 2016

  13. Analysis of serum and cerebrospinal fluid in clinically normal adult miniature donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, A A; Samadieh, H

    2013-09-01

    To establish reference intervals for serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters in clinically healthy adult miniature donkeys. Experiments were conducted on 10 female and 10 male clinically normal adult miniature donkeys, randomly selected from five herds. Lumbosacral CSF collection was performed with the sedated donkey in the standing position. Cell analysis was performed immediately after the samples were collected. Blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein immediately after CSF sample collection. Sodium, potassium, glucose, urea nitrogen, total protein, calcium, chloride, phosphorous and magnesium concentrations were measured in CSF and serum samples. A paired t-test was used to compare mean values between female and male donkeys. The CSF was uniformly clear, colourless and free from flocculent material, with a specific gravity of 1.002. The range of total nucleated cell counts was 2-4 cells/μL. The differential white cell count comprised only small lymphocytes. No erythrocytes or polymorphonuclear cells were observed on cytological examination. Reference values were obtained for biochemical analysis of serum and CSF. Gender had no effect on any variables measured in serum or CSF (p>0.05). CSF analysis can provide important information in addition to that gained by clinical examination. CSF analysis has not previously been performed in miniature donkeys; this is the first report on the subject. In the present study, reference intervals for total nucleated cell count, total protein, glucose, urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorous and magnesium concentrations of serum and CSF were determined for male and female miniature donkeys.

  14. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A.; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. Objective To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Design Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). Results In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (− 2 to 2). Conclusions Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered. PMID:27014577

  15. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-03-01

    Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (- 2 to 2). Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered.

  16. Obese adults with primary growth hormone resistance (Laron Syndrome) have normal endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, M; Ginsberg, S; Scheinowitz, M; Feinberg, M S; Laron, Z

    2007-04-01

    Classic Laron Syndrome (LS) is a recessive disease of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) deficiency and primary growth hormone insensitivity, clinically characterized by dwarfism and marked obesity. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of long-term IGF-I deficiency on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 11 non-IGF-I-treated LS adults with long-term IGF-I deficiency who on stress echocardiography were found to have reduced cardiac dimensions and output, but normal left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction at rest and LV contractile reserve following stress. Following an overnight fast we assessed percent improvement in endothelium-dependent FMD (%FMD) and endothelium-independent nitroglycerin (%NTG)-mediated vasodilation non-invasively in the brachial artery, using high resolution ultrasound in 11 non-treated adult patients with LS without known coronary artery disease, and compared them to 11 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent symptom-limited exercise testing (Bruce protocol). LS patients had a significantly higher body mass index (29+/-6 vs. 25+/-2 kg/m(2), p=0.04), lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (142+/-28 vs. 176+/-12 mg/dl, p=0.03) and a smaller mean brachial artery diameter (4.63+/-0.72 vs. 5.70+/-1.06 mm, p=0.01) compared to controls. However, brachial artery %FMD and %NTG were not significantly different between the LS patients and controls (13.1+/-6.2% vs. 15.4+/-5.2%, p=0.28 and 22.3+/-6.0% vs. 18.9+/-6.2%, p=0.30; respectively). Cardiac performance, assessed by exercise duration time and metabolic equivalents (METs), was significantly greater in control subjects than in LS patients (10.3+/-2.0 vs. 6.0+/-1.4 min, p<0.01 and 10.2+/-2.0 vs. 7.2+/-1.4 METs, p<0.01; respectively). FMD was found to be within normal limits in non-IGF-I-treated adult patients with LS, despite congenital absence of IGF-I and obesity.

  17. Studies of osmotic diarrhea induced in normal subjects by ingestion of polyethylene glycol and lactulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, H F; Santa Ana, C A; Schiller, L R; Fordtran, J S

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of these studies was to gain insight into the pathophysiology of pure osmotic diarrhea and the osmotic diarrhea caused by carbohydrate malabsorption. Diarrhea was induced in normal volunteers by ingestion of polyethylene glycol (PEG), which is nonabsorbable, not metabolized by colonic bacteria, and carries no electrical charge. In PEG-induced diarrhea, (a) stool weight was directly correlated with the total mass of PEG ingested; (b) PEG contributed 40-60% of the osmolality of the fecal fluid, the remainder being contributed by other solutes either of dietary, endogenous, or bacterial origin; and (c) fecal sodium, potassium, and chloride were avidly conserved by the intestine, in spite of stool water losses exceeding 1,200 g/d. Diarrhea was also induced in normal subjects by ingestion of lactulose, a disaccharide that is not absorbed by the small intestine but is metabolized by colonic bacteria. In lactulose-induced diarrhea, (a) a maximum of approximate 80 g/d of lactulose was metabolized by colonic bacteria to noncarbohydrate moieties such as organic acids; (b) the organic acids were partially absorbed in the colon; (c) unabsorbed organic acids obligated the accumulation of inorganic cations (Na greater than Ca greater than K greater than Mg) in the diarrheal fluid; (d) diarrhea associated with low doses of lactulose was mainly due to unabsorbed organic acids and associated cations, whereas with larger doses of lactulose unmetabolized carbohydrates also played a major role; and (e) the net effect of bacterial metabolism of lactulose and partial absorption of organic acids on stool water output was done dependent. With low or moderate doses of lactulose, stool water losses were reduced by as much as 600 g/d (compared with equimolar osmotic loads of PEG); with large dose, the increment in osmotically active solutes within the lumen exceeded the increment of the ingested osmotic load, and the severity of diarrhea was augmented.

  18. The cerebral functional location in normal subjects when they listened to story in Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Da; Zhan Hongwei; Xu Wei; Liu Hongbiao; Bao Chengkan

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To detect the cerebral functional location when normal subjects listened to a story in Chinese. Methods: 9 normal young students of the medical collage of Zhejiang University, 23-24 years old, 5 male and 4 female. The first they underwent a 99m Tc-ECD brain imaging at rest using a dual-head gamma camera with fan beam collimators. After 2-4 days they were asked to listen a story in Chinese on a tap for 20 minters. The related an emotional story about a young president of a radio station and his girlfriend as well as his audience and fan, a young girl. They were also asked to pay special attention to the name of the personage in the story, what time and site did the story open out. They were also asked to imagine the imagination of the story. 99m Tc-ECD was administered in the first 3 minutes during they listened the story. The brain imaging was performed in 30-60 minutes after the tracer was administered. Results: To compare the rest state, during listen to the story in Chinese and asked to remember the imagination of story the right superior temporal in 5 cases, left superior temporal in 3 cases, right mid temporal in 2 cases were activated. Among them, dual temporal were activated in l case, only right temporal in 6 cases and left temporal in 2 cases. It is very interesting that the inferior frontal and/or medial frontal lobes were activated lightly in all 9 subjects. Among them dual frontal lobes were activated in 5 subjects, and only right frontal in 3 cases and left frontal in 1 case. The occipital lobes were activated in 6 subjects, and dual occipital in 5 cases, left occipital in 1 case. Other regions that were activated included pre-cingulated gyrus (in 1 case), and left thalamic (in 1 case). Conclusion: During listened to the story in Chinese and asked remember the plot of the story the auditory association cortex in the superior temporal (it is more in right than in left) and some right mid temporal were activated. The inferior frontal and

  19. A study of several normal values of Korean healthy adults on chest roentgenograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Byung Chull [Choong Nam University College of Medicine, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-06-15

    Determination of several normal values were carried out healthy 1805 cases of Korean adults, 1436 cases of male and 369 cases of female, by the drawing and calculation on chest roentgenograms. In many instances, the change of normal values provides an important clinical values, and often is decisive to evaluate the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of pulmonary, cardiac and mediastinal disease.

  20. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects......, serotonin function may also be low. Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios have been measured only at single time points in obese subjects; it is not known whether low values for these 2 variables persist throughout a 24-h period. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether plasma tryptophan...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects are lower than those in normal-weight subjects throughout a 24-h period and whether they increase when body weight is reduced. DESIGN: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios were examined in obese subjects before and after weight loss and in nonobese control...

  1. Measurement of cerebral blood flow in normal subjects by phase contrast MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Yusuke; Osada, Hisato

    1994-01-01

    Global cerebral blood flow (CBF) was quantitatively measured with a two-dimensional phase contrast cine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique in 24 normal subjects (mean age, 38.6 years; range, 12-70 years). Cine transverse images of the upper cervical region (32 phases/cardiac cycle) were acquired with a 1.5 Tesla MR imaging unit. In five subjects, measurement of CBF was performed before and after intravenous administration of acetazolamide (DIAMOX, 15 mg/kg). Inter- and intra-observer variations in flow volume measurement were small (r=0.970, standard error of the estimate (SEE)=2.9 ml/min, n=8; r=0.963, SEE=4.6 ml/min, n=40, respectively). In measuring flow velocity, they were inferior to those of flow volume measurement. On a visually determined setting of region of interest (ROI), reproducibility of the measurement of flow velocity was not satisfactory in this study. Thus only the results of flow volume measurement are presented. Mean summed vertebral flow volume (171 ml/min, SD=40.6) was significantly less than mean summed internal carotid flow volume (523 ml/min, SD=111). Total blood flow volume showed a significant decline with age (r=-0.45, p<0.05). The mean proportions of carotid and vertebral flow volume to total flow volume were 75.3% and 24.7%, respectively, and showed no significant change with age. The left-to-right ratio of vertebral flow volume (1.39) was significantly higher than that of internal carotid flow volume (0.99, r=0.05). After DIAMOX i.v., the mean rate of increase in total flow volume was 157%. Mean rates of increase in carotid and vertebral flow volume were 154% and 166%, respectively, which were not significantly different. In conclusion, this method is useful for estimating carotid and vertebral flow volume. (author)

  2. Normal anatomy and histology of the adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Aswin L; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Wolterbeek, Andre P M; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2011-08-01

    The zebrafish has been shown to be an excellent vertebrate model for studying the roles of specific genes and signaling pathways. The sequencing of its genome and the relative ease with which gene modifications can be performed have led to the creation of numerous human disease models that can be used for testing the potential and the toxicity of new pharmaceutical compounds. Many pharmaceutical companies already use the zebrafish for prescreening purposes. So far, the focus has been on ecotoxicity and the effects on embryonic development, but there is a trend to expand the use of the zebrafish with acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity studies that are currently still carried out with the more conventional test animals such as rodents. However, before we can fully realize the potential of the zebrafish as an animal model for understanding human development, disease, and toxicology, we must first greatly advance our knowledge of normal zebrafish physiology, anatomy, and histology. To further this knowledge, we describe, in the present article, location and histology of the major zebrafish organ systems with a brief description of their function.

  3. Subjective wellbeing among adults with diabetes : Results from Diabetes MILES—Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes-truscott, Elizabeth; Browne, Jessica L.; Pouwer, F.; Speight, Jane; Cummins, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the subjective wellbeing of Australian adults with diabetes who completed the Diabetes MILES—Australia survey, investigating by diabetes type and treatment, and by comparing with the subjective wellbeing of the general Australian adult population. In addition, the extent to which

  4. On- and off-response ERGs elicited by sawtooth stimuli in normal subjects and glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangeni, Gobinda; Lämmer, Robert; Tornow, Ralf P; Horn, Folkert K; Kremers, Jan

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the on- and off-responses and their response asymmetries elicited by sawtooth stimuli in normal subjects and glaucoma patients. Furthermore, the correlation between the ERGs and other functional and structural parameters are investigated. Full-field stimuli were produced using a Ganzfeld bowl with Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) as light sources. On- and off-response ERGs were recorded from 17 healthy subjects, 12 pre-perimetric and 15 perimetric glaucoma patients using 4-Hz luminance rapid-on and rapid-off sawtooth stimuli (white light; mean luminance 55 cd/m(2)) at 100% contrast. The on- and off-responses were added to study response asymmetries. In addition, flash ERGs were elicited by red stimuli (200 cd/m(2)) on a blue background (10 cd/m(2)). The mean deviations (MD) of the visual field defects were obtained by standard automated perimetry. The retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT) was measured with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT). We studied the correlation between ERG response amplitudes, visual field mean deviation (MDs) and RNFLT values. The on-responses showed an initial negative (N-on) followed by a positive (P-on), a late positive (LP-on) and a late negative responses (LN-on). The off-responses showed an initial positive (P-off) a late positive (LP-off) and a late negative response (LN-off). The addition of on- and off-responses revealed an initial positive (P-add) and a late negative response (LN-add). The on-response components (N-on, P-on and LN-on) in the glaucoma patients were relatively similar to those of the control subjects. However, the LP-on was significantly elevated (p = 0.03) in perimetric patients. The LP-off was significantly elevated (p < 0.001), and the amplitude of LN-off was significantly reduced in perimetric patients (p = 0.02). The LN-add amplitude was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) and delayed (p = 0.03) in perimetric patients. The amplitudes of the LN-off and LN

  5. Comparison of fMRI on the cortical organization using two language tasks in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhen; Zhang Caiyuan; Cai Wu; Shen Junkang; Gong Zhigang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To comparatively study the cortical organization using two different language tasks by BOLD-fMRI in normal subjects: Methods: BOLD-fMRI scan was performed in 8 healthy volunteers with right handiness during executing the two language tasks: picture-naming and word-generation. The AFNI software was used to analyze the functional data and to generate the statistical parametric maps for comparatively studying the activation areas of each task. Results: Both activation patterns for two language tasks shared a common brain network dispersed in frontal, parietal, and occipital lobe. The activation areas of occipital lobe for picture-naming was more obvious than those for word-generation. By contraries, the areas related to language processing for word-generation was more active than picture-imaging. Compared with picture naming, the activation patterns for word-generation was mainly left-lateralized. Conclusion: Both of two tasks can activate the brain network which dedicate to language processing, but each of them has its own characteristics according to the processing patterns. (authors)

  6. The effects of increasing liquid calories on gastric emptying in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, P.; Cook, D.; Horowitz, M.; Shearman, D.; Harding, P.

    1982-01-01

    Radionuclide methods are the simplest and potentially the most accurate techniques for the measurement of gastric emptying, but there are methodological problems which may limit the sentivity and specificity of these tests. A significant source of error is photon attenuation, due to the changing depth of radionuclides in the stomach during the study. This error can be eliminated by adding counts obtained in both anterior and posterior views or by applying attenuation correction factors to the data. Radionuclides were used to study the effect of increasing the calorie content of the liquid component of a mixed solid-liquid meal on gastric emptying in normal subjects, using a single detector system, and assessed the reproductibility of the technique. The solid meal comprised 1-1.5 mCi ''in vivo'' sup(99m)Tc-labelled chicken liver which was added to 100 g of ground beef and the resultant ''hamburger'' grilled. The liquids studied were 0.5 mCi sup(113m)In-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) added to 100 ml of either water, 10% dextrose or 25% dextrose. In this study the progressive increase in caloric content of the liquid meal from 0 to 0.4 to 1 kcal/ml resulted in a corresponding delay in both solid and liquid emptying. For liquids a generalised slowing of the entire emptying curve was evident, while the delay in solid emptying reflected a lengthening of the lag period, with no alteraction in the rate of linear emptying

  7. Multifocal electroretinogram in normal emmetropic subjects: Correlation with optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvardhan Azad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: To establish the normative database for multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG parameters in a normal emmetropic population. To correlate the data so obtained with the central macular thickness obtained using the optical coherence tomography (OCT scan. Materials and Methods: mfERG data were obtained from 222 eyes of 111 emmetropic subjects. The amplitude (nv/deg 2 and implicit times (ms of the first-order kernel mfERG responses (N1, P1, and N2 waves were obtained and grouped into five rings (Ring 1: Central 2°, Ring 2: 2-5°, Ring 3: 5-10°, Ring 4: 10-15°, Ring 5: >15°. The central macular thickness (CMT was obtained using the macular thickness scan protocol of the OCT. Results: The mfERG data obtained were used to create a normative database. The amplitudes of the mfERG waves were maximum in the fovea and progressively decreased with increasing eccentricity (P = 0.0001. The latencies of the P1 and N2 waves were longest in the central ring and progressively shortened with eccentricity (P = 0.0001. No statistically significant correlations were observed between central ring 1 parameters and the CMT. Conclusion: This study establishes normative database for mfERG parameters in an emmetropic population. No statistically significant correlation was noted between CMT and mfERG parameters.

  8. Attenuation correction of myocardial SPECT by scatter-photopeak window method in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Koichi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Matsuo, Shinro; Kinuya, Seigo; Motomura, Nobutoku; Kubota, Masahiro; Yamaki, Noriyasu; Maeda, Hisato

    2009-01-01

    Segmentation with scatter and photopeak window data using attenuation correction (SSPAC) method can provide a patient-specific non-uniform attenuation coefficient map only by using photopeak and scatter images without X-ray computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of attenuation correction (AC) by the SSPAC method on normal myocardial perfusion database. A total of 32 sets of exercise-rest myocardial images with Tc-99m-sestamibi were acquired in both photopeak (140 keV±10%) and scatter (7% of lower side of the photopeak window) energy windows. Myocardial perfusion databases by the SSPAC method and non-AC (NC) were created from 15 female and 17 male subjects with low likelihood of cardiac disease using quantitative perfusion SPECT software. Segmental myocardial counts of a 17-segment model from these databases were compared on the basis of paired t test. AC average myocardial perfusion count was significantly higher than that in NC in the septal and inferior regions (P<0.02). On the contrary, AC average count was significantly lower in the anterolateral and apical regions (P<0.01). Coefficient variation of the AC count in the mid, apical and apex regions was lower than that of NC. The SSPAC method can improve average myocardial perfusion uptake in the septal and inferior regions and provide uniform distribution of myocardial perfusion. The SSPAC method could be a practical method of attenuation correction without X-ray CT. (author)

  9. Acute effects of ethanol and acetate on glucose kinetics in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yki-Jaervinen, H.; Koivisto, V.A.; Ylikahri, R.; Taskinen, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors compared the effects of two ethanol doses on glucose kinetics and assessed the role of acetate as a mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance. Ten normal males were studied on four occasions, during which either a low or moderate ethanol, acetate, or saline dose was administered. Both ethanol doses similarly inhibited basal glucose production. The decrease in R a was matched by a comparable decrease in glucose utilization (R d ), resulting in maintenance of normoglycemia. During hyperinsulinemia glucose disposal was lower in the moderate than the low-dose ethanol or saline studies. During acetate infusion, the blood acetate level was comparable with those in the ethanol studies. Acetate had no effect on glucose kinetics. In conclusion, (1) in overnight fasted subjects, ethanol does not cause hypoglycemia because its inhibitory effect on R a is counterbalanced by equal inhibition of R d ; (2) basal R a and R d are maximally inhibited already by small ethanol doses, whereas inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal requires a moderate ethanol dose; and (3) acetate is not the mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance

  10. Plasma clearance of noradrenaline does not change with age in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S

    1985-01-01

    Noradrenaline kinetics (plasma concentrations, plasma clearance and appearance rates) were investigated in seven elderly healthy subjects and in six young healthy subjects. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline concentrations were higher in the elderly subjects compared with the young subjects. Pla....... Plasma clearance of noradrenaline was identical in the two groups. The increase in plasma noradrenaline concentration, with age, probably reflects an increased sympathetic nervous activity.......Noradrenaline kinetics (plasma concentrations, plasma clearance and appearance rates) were investigated in seven elderly healthy subjects and in six young healthy subjects. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline concentrations were higher in the elderly subjects compared with the young subjects...

  11. Cutoff Values of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) in Normal Korean Adults and Factors Influencing Serum CEA Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Soon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    1994-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic Antigen is one of most frequently checked tumor markers in cancer management. We performed statistical analysis with serum CEA data of 2626 persons who received regular health examination and were thought to be free of active disease to determine the cutoff values of serum CEA level in normal Korean adults and to study the factors influencing serum CEA levels in normal subjects. 1) The cutoff values of serum CEA in normal Korean adults in general were 9.28 ng/ml for men, 5.90 ng/ml for women. 2) Serum CEA level was influenced by age, present smoking history, sex, and abnormal findings in chest X ray. 3) Serum CEA level had no correlation with the history of amount of alcohol consumption or obesity. 4) Cutoff values of serum CEA in normal Korean adults were tabulated according to age, sex, and smoking history. Serum CEA level was influenced by age, sex, present smoking history and abnormal findings in chest X ray and cutoff values of serum CEA were tabulated according to age, sex, and smoking history.

  12. The effect of halo-vest length on stability of the cervical spine. A study in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G J; Moskal, J T; Albert, T; Pritts, C; Schuch, C M; Stamp, W G

    1988-03-01

    In order to study how the efficiency of the halo vest is affected by different lengths of the vest, an experimental headband was devised that allowed the head of a normal person to be held securely in the halo attachment. The vest was then modified to allow it to be adjusted to three different lengths (Fig. 2): a full vest extended to the iliac crests, a short vest extended to the twelfth ribs, and a half vest extended to the level of the nipples. Twenty normal, healthy adult men participated in the study. For each vest length, radiographs were made of each subject demonstrating rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral bending of the cervical spine. There was no rotation of the cervical spine, regardless of the length of the vest. There was a variable degree of motion in flexion or extension of the upper part of the cervical spine with all vest lengths, but this was not statistically significant. There was definite increase of motion caudad to the level of the fifth cervical vertebra regardless of the length of the vest. We concluded that a lesion of the upper part of the cervical spine can be treated effectively by halo traction with a half vest. This will improve the comfort and care of the patient and avoid the necessity of removing the vest if emergency cardiovascular resuscitation is needed. In the treatment of lesions of the lower part of the cervical spine (caudad to the level of the fourth cervical vertebra), the use of a halo vest that extends caudad to the level of the twelfth ribs does provide additional stability.

  13. Fructose intake at current levels in the United States may cause gastrointestinal distress in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Peter L; Caviar, Elena M; McCallum, Richard W

    2005-10-01

    Fructose intake has increased considerably in the United States, primarily as a result of increased consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, fruits and juices, and crystalline fructose. The purpose was to determine how often fructose, in amounts commonly consumed, would result in malabsorption and/or symptoms in healthy persons. Fructose absorption was measured using 3-hour breath hydrogen tests and symptom scores were used to rate subjective responses for gas, borborygmus, abdominal pain, and loose stools. The study included 15 normal, free-living volunteers from a medical center community and was performed in a gastrointestinal specialty clinic. Subjects consumed 25- and 50-g doses of crystalline fructose with water after an overnight fast on separate test days. Mean peak breath hydrogen, time of peak, area under the curve (AUC) for breath hydrogen and gastrointestinal symptoms were measured during a 3-hour period after subjects consumed both 25- and 50-g doses of fructose. Differences in mean breath hydrogen, AUC, and symptom scores between doses were analyzed using paired t tests. Correlations among peak breath hydrogen, AUC, and symptoms were also evaluated. More than half of the 15 adults tested showed evidence of fructose malabsorption after 25 g fructose and greater than two thirds showed malabsorption after 50 g fructose. AUC, representing overall breath hydrogen response, was significantly greater after the 50-g dose. Overall symptom scores were significantly greater than baseline after each dose, but scores were only marginally greater after 50 g than 25 g. Peak hydrogen levels and AUC were highly correlated, but neither was significantly related to symptoms. Fructose, in amounts commonly consumed, may result in mild gastrointestinal distress in normal people. Additional study is warranted to evaluate the response to fructose-glucose mixtures (as in high-fructose corn syrup) and fructose taken with food in both normal people and those with

  14. Interaction between corticosteroid and beta-agonist drugs. Biochemical and cardiovascular effects in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D R; Wilkins, G T; Herbison, G P; Flannery, E M

    1992-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the administration of prednisone potentiates any of the acute biochemical and cardiovascular effects of high-dose inhaled beta-agonist drugs. These agents are known to cause dose-related changes in plasma potassium and glucose, as well as ECG changes in heart rate, corrected QT interval (QTc), T wave, and U wave. On theoretical grounds, the concomitant use of systemic corticosteroids might enhance these actions. Twenty-four healthy subjects were randomized to receive one of three treatments: salbutamol 5 mg or fenoterol 5 mg or normal saline solution. Each drug was administered twice, 30 min apart by nebulizer, and the procedure was repeated after each subject had received prednisone 30 mg daily for one week. Plasma potassium and glucose levels were measured, and ECGs were obtained after each treatment, together with 12-h Holter monitoring for arrhythmias. Changes in plasma potassium and glucose following nebulized beta-agonist were significantly greater after treatment with prednisone. Baseline potassium level fell from 3.75 mmol/L (95 percent CI 3.61, 3.89) to 3.50 mmol/L (95 percent CI 3.36, 3.64), and thereafter all values were significantly lower at each time point (p = 0.003). The lowest mean plasma potassium was obtained 90 min after fenoterol administration with prednisone pretreatment: 2.78 mmol/L (95 percent CI 2.44, 3.13). Increases in heart rate and QTc interval following both beta-agonist drugs were significant, but T-wave amplitude reductions did not reach significance. Prednisone treatment did not significantly alter the cardiovascular responses. Supraventricular and ventricular ectopic activity was related to beta-agonist use, but no potentiating effect was noted following steroid treatment. We conclude that the acute biochemical effects of beta-agonist administration are augmented by prior treatment with prednisone, but this is not the case for ECG effects. However, the degree of hypokalemia noted as

  15. Glycaemic index of different coconut (Cocos nucifera)-flour products in normal and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Valdez, Divinagracia H; Loyola, Anacleta S; Mallillin, Aida C; Askali, Faridah C; Castillo, Joan C; Masa, Dina B

    2003-09-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) of commonly consumed bakery products supplemented with increasing levels of coconut (Cocos nucifera) flour was determined in ten normal and ten diabetic subjects. Using a randomized crossover design, the control and test foods were fed in random order on separate occasions after an overnight fast. Blood samples were collected through finger prick before and after feeding and were analysed for glucose levels using a clinical chemistry analyser. The significantly low-GI (cake (GI 51.8 (sem 3.3)), with 200-250 g coconut flour/kg (Pflour/kg had GI ranging from 61.3 to 71.4. Among the test foods, pan de sal (GI 87.2 (sem 5.5)) and multigrain loaf (GI 85.2 (sem 6.8)) gave significantly higher GI with 50 and 100 g coconut flour/kg respectively (Pflour/kg respectively gave a GI ranging from 62.7 to 71.6 and did not differ significantly from the test foods with 150 g coconut flour/kg (Pflour. In conclusion, the GI of coconut flour-supplemented foods decreased with increasing levels of coconut flour and this may be due to its high dietary fibre content. The results of the present study may form a scientific basis for the development of coconut flour as a functional food. However, the fat content of coconut flour-supplemented food should always be considered to optimize the functionality of coconut fibre in the proper control and management of diabetes mellitus.

  16. Stuttering adults' lack of pre-speech auditory modulation normalizes when speaking with delayed auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliri, Ayoub; Max, Ludo

    2018-02-01

    Auditory modulation during speech movement planning is limited in adults who stutter (AWS), but the functional relevance of the phenomenon itself remains unknown. We investigated for AWS and adults who do not stutter (AWNS) (a) a potential relationship between pre-speech auditory modulation and auditory feedback contributions to speech motor learning and (b) the effect on pre-speech auditory modulation of real-time versus delayed auditory feedback. Experiment I used a sensorimotor adaptation paradigm to estimate auditory-motor speech learning. Using acoustic speech recordings, we quantified subjects' formant frequency adjustments across trials when continually exposed to formant-shifted auditory feedback. In Experiment II, we used electroencephalography to determine the same subjects' extent of pre-speech auditory modulation (reductions in auditory evoked potential N1 amplitude) when probe tones were delivered prior to speaking versus not speaking. To manipulate subjects' ability to monitor real-time feedback, we included speaking conditions with non-altered auditory feedback (NAF) and delayed auditory feedback (DAF). Experiment I showed that auditory-motor learning was limited for AWS versus AWNS, and the extent of learning was negatively correlated with stuttering frequency. Experiment II yielded several key findings: (a) our prior finding of limited pre-speech auditory modulation in AWS was replicated; (b) DAF caused a decrease in auditory modulation for most AWNS but an increase for most AWS; and (c) for AWS, the amount of auditory modulation when speaking with DAF was positively correlated with stuttering frequency. Lastly, AWNS showed no correlation between pre-speech auditory modulation (Experiment II) and extent of auditory-motor learning (Experiment I) whereas AWS showed a negative correlation between these measures. Thus, findings suggest that AWS show deficits in both pre-speech auditory modulation and auditory-motor learning; however, limited pre

  17. External validation of equations to estimate resting energy expenditure in 14952 adults with overweight and obesity and 1948 adults with normal weight from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, Giorgio; Bertoli, Simona; Leone, Alessandro; De Amicis, Ramona; Lucchetti, Elisa; Agosti, Fiorenza; Marazzi, Nicoletta; Battezzati, Alberto; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2017-11-24

    We cross-validated 28 equations to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) in a very large sample of adults with overweight or obesity. 14952 Caucasian men and women with overweight or obesity and 1498 with normal weight were studied. REE was measured using indirect calorimetry and estimated using two meta-regression equations and 26 other equations. The correct classification fraction (CCF) was defined as the fraction of subjects whose estimated REE was within 10% of measured REE. The highest CCF was 79%, 80%, 72%, 64%, and 63% in subjects with normal weight, overweight, class 1 obesity, class 2 obesity, and class 3 obesity, respectively. The Henry weight and height and Mifflin equations performed equally well with CCFs of 77% vs. 77% for subjects with normal weight, 80% vs. 80% for those with overweight, 72% vs. 72% for those with class 1 obesity, 64% vs. 63% for those with class 2 obesity, and 61% vs. 60% for those with class 3 obesity. The Sabounchi meta-regression equations offered an improvement over the above equations only for class 3 obesity (63%). The accuracy of REE equations decreases with increasing values of body mass index. The Henry weight & height and Mifflin equations are similarly accurate and the Sabounchi equations offer an improvement only in subjects with class 3 obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Technegas - A new radiopharmaceutical for the measurement of gastric emptying in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, M.A.; Jones, K.L.; Horowitz, M.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Scintigraphy is now used widely to measure gastric emptying in humans. Both solid and liquid emptying should ideally be measured - most techniques employ test meals of minced beef and eggs. These meals are not always suitable for patients, especially those observing strict dietary regimens or vegetarians, in whom a vegetable-based meal such as rice is likely to be more acceptable. A previous study attempted to label rice with pertechnetate, but label stability was inadequate. The aim of this study was to determine whether Technegas could be used as a radioisotopic marker to assess gastric emptying of rice and liquids. The stability of Technegas rice was evaluated for three brands of rice by incubation in 0.9% saline, 1M HCI and simulated gastric fluid (3.2g/l pepsinogen, pH 2-4). The labelling stability of each type of rice after four hours was greater than 80%. Gastric emptying of 200g (370kcal) rice and 300ml (300kcal) dextrose drink, both labelled with approximately 20MBq of Technegas, was measured in eight normal subjects (6M, 2F) on two separate days. Venous blood samples were obtained for three hours after ingestion of the meal to quantify intestinal absorption of the radiolabel. Gastric emptying of rice was characterised by a lag phase followed by a linear emptying phase, while emptying of dextrose approximated a linear pattern after a short lag phase. The lag phase was longer for rice than dextrose (25±7min vs 4±2min; P<0.05), but there was no difference in the post lag emptying rate (2.1±0.3kca/min vs 1.7±0.2kcal/min; P=0.2), between the two meals. Intestinal absorption of the radiolabel increased over time, with a plateau after two hours; the total amount absorbed (5.3±13% rice and 6.7±1.8% dextrose) was small. These observations indicate that Technegas labelled rice and dextrose are suitable test meals for measurement of gastric emptying of solids and nutrient containing liquids

  19. Technegas - A new radiopharmaceutical for the measurement of gastric emptying in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatek, M.A.; Jones, K.L. [University of South Australia, SA (Australia). School of Medical Radiation; Burch, W. [Tetley Medical, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Horowitz, M.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Scintigraphy is now used widely to measure gastric emptying in humans. Both solid and liquid emptying should ideally be measured - most techniques employ test meals of minced beef and eggs. These meals are not always suitable for patients, especially those observing strict dietary regimens or vegetarians, in whom a vegetable-based meal such as rice is likely to be more acceptable. A previous study attempted to label rice with pertechnetate, but label stability was inadequate. The aim of this study was to determine whether Technegas could be used as a radioisotopic marker to assess gastric emptying of rice and liquids. The stability of Technegas rice was evaluated for three brands of rice by incubation in 0.9% saline, 1M HCI and simulated gastric fluid (3.2g/l pepsinogen, pH 2-4). The labelling stability of each type of rice after four hours was greater than 80%. Gastric emptying of 200g (370kcal) rice and 300ml (300kcal) dextrose drink, both labelled with approximately 20MBq of Technegas, was measured in eight normal subjects (6M, 2F) on two separate days. Venous blood samples were obtained for three hours after ingestion of the meal to quantify intestinal absorption of the radiolabel. Gastric emptying of rice was characterised by a lag phase followed by a linear emptying phase, while emptying of dextrose approximated a linear pattern after a short lag phase. The lag phase was longer for rice than dextrose (25{+-}7min vs 4{+-}2min; P<0.05), but there was no difference in the post lag emptying rate (2.1{+-}0.3kca/min vs 1.7{+-}0.2kcal/min; P=0.2), between the two meals. Intestinal absorption of the radiolabel increased over time, with a plateau after two hours; the total amount absorbed (5.3{+-}13% rice and 6.7{+-}1.8% dextrose) was small. These observations indicate that Technegas labelled rice and dextrose are suitable test meals for measurement of gastric emptying of solids and nutrient containing liquids

  20. Masking release with changing fundamental frequency: Electric acoustic stimulation resembles normal hearing subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auinger, Alice Barbara; Riss, Dominik; Liepins, Rudolfs; Rader, Tobias; Keck, Tilman; Keintzel, Thomas; Kaider, Alexandra; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Gstoettner, Wolfgang; Arnoldner, Christoph

    2017-07-01

    It has been shown that patients with electric acoustic stimulation (EAS) perform better in noisy environments than patients with a cochlear implant (CI). One reason for this could be the preserved access to acoustic low-frequency cues including the fundamental frequency (F0). Therefore, our primary aim was to investigate whether users of EAS experience a release from masking with increasing F0 difference between target talker and masking talker. The study comprised 29 patients and consisted of three groups of subjects: EAS users, CI users and normal-hearing listeners (NH). All CI and EAS users were implanted with a MED-EL cochlear implant and had at least 12 months of experience with the implant. Speech perception was assessed with the Oldenburg sentence test (OlSa) using one sentence from the test corpus as speech masker. The F0 in this masking sentence was shifted upwards by 4, 8, or 12 semitones. For each of these masker conditions the speech reception threshold (SRT) was assessed by adaptively varying the masker level while presenting the target sentences at a fixed level. A statistically significant improvement in speech perception was found for increasing difference in F0 between target sentence and masker sentence in EAS users (p = 0.038) and in NH listeners (p = 0.003). In CI users (classic CI or EAS users with electrical stimulation only) speech perception was independent from differences in F0 between target and masker. A release from masking with increasing difference in F0 between target and masking speech was only observed in listeners and configurations in which the low-frequency region was presented acoustically. Thus, the speech information contained in the low frequencies seems to be crucial for allowing listeners to separate multiple sources. By combining acoustic and electric information, EAS users even manage tasks as complicated as segregating the audio streams from multiple talkers. Preserving the natural code, like fine-structure cues in

  1. Angiotensin infusion effects on left ventricular function. Assessment in normal subjects and in patients with coronary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, J A; Laskey, W K; Makey, D G; Shafer, R B

    1980-02-01

    Radionuclide multigating of the cardiac cycle was employed to assess effects of angiotensin infusion on left ventricular function. In six normal subjects, angiotensin infusion decreased heart rate (HR) from 72 +/- SEM 2 to 57 +/- 2 beats/min (P less than 0.001); while systolic blood pressure (BP) increased from 119 +/- 2 to 178 +/- 1 mm Hg (P less than 0.001), and ejection fraction (EF) declined from 58 +/- 1 to 47 +/- 2 percent (P less than 0.05). In contrast, in 11 normal subjects, supine exercise increased HR and systolic BP by 55 and 49 percent, whereas EF increased from 64 +/- 1 to 71 +/- 1 (P less than 0.001). In ten patients with CAD, angiotensin infusion produced no change in HR, increased systolic BP by 34 percent, and decreased EF by 11 percent. Angiotensin infusion induced left ventricular depression in normal subjects and in patients with CAD. It cannot substitute for exercise in intervention radionuclide ventriculography.

  2. Normal weight obesity among young adults in Trinidad and Tobago: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsaran, Cherrita; Maharaj, Rohan G

    2017-04-01

    Patients with normal weight obesity (NWO) have a normal body mass index (BMI) but elevated body fat percentage (BF%), thereby increasing their risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of NWO and its associated factors in a sample of young adults in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). A cross sectional study involving a convenience non-voluntary sample of participants with a normal BMI of 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 was conducted. The following information was collected: history, basic anthropometric measurements, including BF% via the Tanita Ironman Body Composition Analyzer (BC554), physical examination and basic blood investigations. Participants were divided into two groups; normal BF% (young adult population was found to have NWO. Long-term studies are recommended to study the full implications of these findings.

  3. Validation of endogenous normalizing genes for expression analyses in adult human testis and germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, T; Jørgensen, Anne; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2014-01-01

    to define suitable normalizing genes for specific cells and tissues. Here, we report on the performance of a panel of nine commonly employed normalizing genes in adult human testis and testicular pathologies. Our analyses revealed significant variability in transcript abundance for commonly used normalizers......, highlighting the importance of selecting appropriate normalizing genes as comparative measurements can yield variable results when different normalizing genes are employed. Based on our results, we recommend using RPS20, RPS29 or SRSF4 when analysing relative gene expression levels in human testis...... and associated testicular pathologies. OCT4 and SALL4 can be used with caution as second-tier normalizers when determining changes in gene expression in germ cells and germ cell tumour components, but the relative transcript abundance appears variable between different germ cell tumour types. We further...

  4. Application of cine cardiac MR imaging in normal subjects and patients with valvular, coronary artery, and aortic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddahi, J.; Ostrzega, E.; Crues, J.; Honma, H.; Siegel, R.; Charuzi, Y.; Berman, D.

    1987-01-01

    Cine MR imaging was performed on 15 normal subjects and 27 patients with cardiac disease. In normal subjects, high signal intensity of flowing blood contrasted with that of the myocardium. In 16 patients with valvular regurgitation, signal void jet due to turbulence was visualized across the diseased valves. In three IHSS patients, thickened LV myocardium, mitral regurgitant jets, and systolic LV outflow jets were noted. Five patients with myocardial infarction (MI) showed thinning and/or hypokinesis of MI regions. In three patients with Marfan syndrome, aortic dilatation, insufficiency, and flap (one pt) were identified. Cine MR imaging is potentially useful for evaluation of a variety of cardiac diseases

  5. Inter-subject FDG PET Brain Networks Exhibit Multi-scale Community Structure with Different Normalization Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Megan M; Kartha, Sonia; Granquist, Eric J; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2018-07-01

    Inter-subject networks are used to model correlations between brain regions and are particularly useful for metabolic imaging techniques, like 18F-2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Since FDG PET typically produces a single image, correlations cannot be calculated over time. Little focus has been placed on the basic properties of inter-subject networks and if they are affected by group size and image normalization. FDG PET images were acquired from rats (n = 18), normalized by whole brain, visual cortex, or cerebellar FDG uptake, and used to construct correlation matrices. Group size effects on network stability were investigated by systematically adding rats and evaluating local network connectivity (node strength and clustering coefficient). Modularity and community structure were also evaluated in the differently normalized networks to assess meso-scale network relationships. Local network properties are stable regardless of normalization region for groups of at least 10. Whole brain-normalized networks are more modular than visual cortex- or cerebellum-normalized network (p network resolutions where modularity differs most between brain and randomized networks. Hierarchical analysis reveals consistent modules at different scales and clustering of spatially-proximate brain regions. Findings suggest inter-subject FDG PET networks are stable for reasonable group sizes and exhibit multi-scale modularity.

  6. Gender differences in nigrostriatal dopaminergic innervation are present at young-to-middle but not at older age in normal adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, K.K.; Muller, M.L.; Kuwabara, H.; Studenski, S.A.; Bohnen, N.I.

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in brain dopaminergic activity have been variably reported in the literature. We performed an evaluation for gender effects on striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in a group of normal subjects. Community-dwelling adults (n = 85, 50F/35M, mean age 62.7 +/- 16.2 SD, range

  7. Subjective memory complaints are associated with poorer cognitive performance in adults with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkwalala, Asante; Hulgan, Todd; Newhouse, Paul

    2017-05-01

    With successful antiretroviral therapy in the US, HIV-positive adults now routinely survive into old age. However, increased life expectancy with HIV introduces the added complication of age-related cognitive decline. Aging with HIV has been associated with poorer cognitive outcomes compared to HIV-negative adults. While up to 50% of older HIV-positive adults will develop some degree of cognitive impairment over their lifetime, cognitive symptoms are often not consistently monitored, until those symptoms are significant enough to impair daily life. In this study we found that subjective memory complaint (SMC) ratings correlated with measurable memory performance impairments in HIV-positive adults, but not HIV-negative adults. As the HIV-positive population ages, structured subjective cognitive assessment may be beneficial to identify the early signs of cognitive impairment, and subsequently allow for earlier interventions to maintain cognitive performance as these adults continue to survive into old age.

  8. Do Social Networks Improve Chinese Adults' Subjective Well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population-the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants-happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, frequency of contacts, and whether and value gifts given and received; total number and time spent in social activities, and engagement in organizations including the communist party, religious groups, and other types. We find that giving and receiving gifts has a larger impact on SWB than either just giving or receiving them. Similarly the number of friends is more important than number of relatives, and marriage is associated with higher levels of SWB. Time spent in social activities and varieties of activities both matter for SWB but varieties matter more. Participation in organizations is associated with higher SWB across such diverse groups as being a member of the communist party or a religious organization. China represents an interesting test since it is simultaneously a traditional society with long-established norms about appropriate social networks and a rapidly changing society due to substantial economic and demographic changes. We find that it is better to both give and receive, to engage in more types of social activities, and that participation in groups all improve well-being of Chinese people.

  9. Individualisation in Swedish Adult Education and the Shaping of Neo-Liberal Subjectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejes, Andreas; Olson, Maria; Rahm, Lina; Dahlstedt, Magnus; Sandberg, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    In this article we have analysed the ways a discourse on individualisation is taking shape within adult education in Sweden, how it operates, and what effects it has in terms of shaping student subjectivity. Drawing on a post-structural theorisation we analyse interviews with teachers and students in municipal adult education and folk high schools…

  10. Assessment of various hilar measurements on PA chest of Korean normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyun; Kang, Si Won; Park, Seog Hee; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Appreciation of the normal position of the hila is essential in screening and diagnosis of the diseases of the chest. Many authors assessed the hilar position in normal adults using PA chest roentgenograms. However there have been no previous publication regarding consolidated assessment of various measurements. The authors carried out the present study to evaluate various hilar measurements including hilar points, hilar distances, difference between both hilar heights, hilar height ratio, and the relationship between the level of the clavicle and hila on the 500 normal PA chest roentgenograms

  11. Human studies of prepulse inhibition of startle: normal subjects, patient groups, and pharmacological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, D L; Geyer, M A; Swerdlow, N R

    2001-07-01

    Since the mid-1970s, cross-species translational studies of prepulse inhibition (PPI) have increased at an astounding pace as the value of this neurobiologically informative measure has been optimized. PPI occurs when a relatively weak sensory event (the prepulse) is presented 30-500 ms before a strong startle-inducing stimulus, and reduces the magnitude of the startle response. In humans, PPI occurs in a robust, predictable manner when the prepulse and startling stimuli occur in either the same or different modalities (acoustic, visual, or cutaneous). This review covers three areas of interest in human PPI studies. First, we review the normal influences on PPI related to the underlying construct of sensori- (prepulse) motor (startle reflex) gating. Second, we review PPI studies in psychopathological disorders that form a family of gating disorders. Third, we review the relatively limited but interesting and rapidly expanding literature on pharmacological influences on PPI in humans. All studies identified by a computerized literature search that addressed the three topics of this review were compiled and evaluated. The principal studies were summarized in appropriate tables. The major influences on PPI as a measure of sensorimotor gating can be grouped into 11 domains. Most of these domains are similar across species, supporting the value of PPI studies in translational comparisons across species. The most prominent literature describing deficits in PPI in psychiatrically defined groups features schizophrenia-spectrum patients and their clinically unaffected relatives. These findings support the use of PPI as an endophenotype in genetic studies. Additional groups of psychopathologically disordered patients with neuropathology involving cortico-striato-pallido-pontine circuits exhibit poor gating of motor, sensory, or cognitive information and corresponding PPI deficits. These groups include patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, Tourette's syndrome

  12. Comparison of plasma endothelin levels between osteoporotic, osteopenic and normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biçimoğlu Ali

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that endothelins (ET have significant roles in bone remodeling, metabolism and physiopathology of several bone diseases. We aimed to investigate if there was any difference between the plasma ET levels of osteoporotic patients and normals. Methods 86 patients (70 women and 16 men with a mean age of 62.6 (ranges: 51–90 years were included in this study. Patients were divided into groups of osteoporosis, osteopenia and normal regarding reported T scores of DEXA evaluation according to the suggestions of World Health Organization. According to these criteria 19, 43 and 24 were normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic respectively. Then total plasma level of ET was measured in all patients with monoclonal antibody based sandwich immunoassay (EIA method. One-way analysis of variance test was used to compare endothelin values between normals, osteopenics and osteoporotics. Results Endothelin total plasma level in patients was a mean of 98.36 ± 63.96, 100.92 ± 47.2 and 99.56 ± 56.6 pg/ml in osteoporotic, osteopenic and normal groups respectively. The difference between groups was not significant (p > 0.05. Conclusion No significant differences in plasma ET levels among three groups of study participants could be detected in this study.

  13. Attitudes of Overweight and Normal Weight Adults Regarding Exercise at a Health Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne C.; Miller, Todd A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare attitudes of overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) adults regarding health club exercise. Design: A 46-item survey (23 pairs of attitude/value statements) measured attitudes toward exercising at a health club 30 minutes, twice a week, for a month. Setting: Survey posted on surveymonkey.com. Respondents (men = 730, women =…

  14. Body composition in normal subjects: relation to lipid and glucose variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Gotfredsen, A

    1996-01-01

    -sectional study. SUBJECTS: 173 (84 male and 89 female) healthy subjects, BMI mineral content (TBMC), total bone mineral density (TBMD), lean body soft tissue mass (LTM), total and regional fat mass (FM) were estimated in all......-cholesterol, S-triglyceride, and in males S-insulin was found. CONCLUSION: The present study gives coherent data on bone mineral content, lean body soft tissue mass total and regional fat mass for 173 healthy subjects with a BMI below 30 kg/m2. Total body fat mass increases, and lean mass decreases with age...

  15. The subject of exemption: through discourses of normalization and individualization in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamre, Bjørn Frithiof; Fristrup, Tine; Christensen, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the constructions of the deviant subject in Danish Foucauldian educational research. Following the work of Foucault, we argue that the deviant subject, on the one hand, could be considered as a subject of exemption. In this case, exemption is deduced from Foucault’s understa...... discourses of general education. Thus, this article argues that Foucauldian disability studies could benefit from taking into account Foucauldian research in the field of general education. Until recently, the two research fields have been mutually isolated....

  16. Normal sweat secretion despite impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M

    2011-01-01

    Adults with GH deficiency are known to exhibit reduced sweating. Whether sweating capacity is impacted in obese subjects with impaired GH secretion have not previously been investigated. The main objective was to investigate sweat secretion rate and the GH-IGF-I axis in obese subjects before...... and after weight loss. Sixteen severely obese women (BMI, 40.6 ± 1.1 kg/m(2)) were investigated before and after a diet-induced weight loss. Sixteen age-matched nonobese women served as controls. The obese subjects presented the characteristic decreased GH release, hyperinsulinaemia, increased FFA levels......, and impaired insulin sensitivity, which all were normalised after diet-induced weight loss of 30 ± 5 kg. Sweat secretion rates were similar comparing obese and nonobese subjects (78 ± 10 versus 82 ± 9 mg/30 minutes) and sweat secretion did not change after a diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects. We...

  17. Effect of a Modest Weight Loss in Normalizing Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects on Antihypertensive Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Gilardini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effect of a lifestyle intervention in lowering/normalizing blood pressure (BP levels in hypertensive (controlled or not obese patients. Methods: In this prospective observational study, 490 obese hypertensive patients, 389 controlled (BP Results: 18.9% of CH and 20.0% of UH were on ≥ 3 antihypertensive drugs. Weight change (average -4.9 ± 2.7% was independent of the antihypertensive drugs employed. Systolic BP (SBP decreased by 23 mm Hg and diastolic BP (DBP by 9 mm Hg, in patients with UH most of whom (89% normalized BP levels (in 49% after a weight loss Conclusion: Lifestyle interventions are useful for all obese hypertensive patients in most of whom a modest weight loss is sufficient to normalize BP levels avoiding the aggressive use of multiple antihypertensive drugs.

  18. Mandibular dimensions of subjects with asymmetric skeletal class III malocclusion and normal occlusion compared with cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HyoYeon; Bayome, Mohamed; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Ki Beom; Behrents, Rolf G; Kook, Yoon-Ah

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to use cone-beam computed tomography to compare mandibular dimensions in subjects with asymmetric skeletal Class III malocclusion and those with normal occlusion. Cone-beam computed tomography scans of 38 subjects with normal occlusion and 28 patients with facial asymmetry were evaluated and digitized with Invivo software (Anatomage, San Jose, Calif). Three midsagittal and 13 right and left measurements were taken. The paired t test was used to compare the right and left sides in each group. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the midsagittal variables and the differences between the 2 sides of the group with normal occlusion with those of asymmetry patients. The posterior part of the mandibular body showed significant differences between the deviated and nondeviated sides in asymmetric Class III patients. The difference of the asymmetry group was significantly greater than that of the normal occlusion group for the mediolateral ramal and the anteroposterior condylar inclinations (P = 0.007 and P = 0.019, respectively). The asymmetric skeletal Class III group showed significant differences in condylar height, ramus height, and posterior part of the mandibular body compared with the subjects with normal occlusion. These results might be useful for diagnosis and treatment planning of asymmetric Class III patients. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of font size and type on reading performance with Arabic words in normally sighted and simulated cataract subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z

    2007-05-01

    Previous investigations have shown that reading is the most common functional problem reported by patients at a low vision practice. While there have been studies investigating effect of fonts in normal and low vision patients in English, no study has been carried out in Arabic. Additionally, there has been no investigation into the use of optimum print sizes or fonts that should be used in Arabic books and leaflets for low vision patients. Arabic sentences were read by 100 normally sighted volunteers with and without simulated cataract. Subjects read two font types (Times New Roman and Courier) in three different sizes (N8, N10 and N12). The subjects were asked to read the sentences aloud. The reading speed was calculated as number of words read divided by the time taken, while reading rate was calculated as the number of words read correctly divided by the time taken. There was an improvement in reading performance of normally sighted and simulated visually impaired subjects when the print size increased. There was no significant difference in reading performance between the two types of font used at small print size, however the reading rate improved as print size increased with Times New Roman. The results suggest that the use of N12 print in Times New Roman enhanced reading performance in normally sighted and simulated cataract subjects.

  20. Stimulus-Dominance Effects and Lateral Asymmetries for Language in Normal Subjects and in Patients with a Single Functional Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Marirosa; Marano, Elena; Viti, Marzia

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of language laterality by the dichotic fused-words test may be impaired by interference effects revealed by the dominant report of one member of the stimuli-pair. Stimulus-dominance and ear asymmetry were evaluated in normal population (48 subjects of both sex and handedness) and in 2 patients with a single functional hemisphere.…

  1. Response of growth hormone (GH), FFA, blood sugar and insulin to exercise in obese patients and normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, F.; Haar, D.J. ter; Riet, H.G. van; Thijssen, J.H.H.

    1969-01-01

    Ergometer tests with a constant workload of 600 Kg./min. during 30 minutes were done on eight normal subjects, eight severely obese patients, and two women who had formerly been obese. Arterial blood was sampled three times before, four times during and three times after exercise. The incidence and

  2. Intra-arterial infusion of prostaglandin E1 in normal subjects and patients with peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P E; Nielsen, S L; Holstein, P

    1976-01-01

    Acute vasodilatation was produced by infusion of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) in the femoral artery in 6 patients with occlusive arterial disease of the legs and in 3 normal subjects. The effect on blood flow and on blood pressure was measured at different segments of the leg with the strain gauge...

  3. Reaffirming normal: the high risk of pathologizing healthy adults when interpreting the MMPI-2-RF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odland, Anthony P; Lammy, Andrew B; Perle, Jonathan G; Martin, Phillip K; Grote, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to determine the proportion of the normal population expected to have scale elevations on the MMPI-2-RF when multiple scores are interpreted. Results showed that when all 40 MMPI-2-RF scales are simultaneously considered, approximately 70% of normal adults are likely to have at least one scale elevation at or above 65 T, and as many as 20% will have five or more elevated scales. When the Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales are under consideration, 34% of normal adults have at least one elevated score. Interpretation of the Specific Problem Scales and Personality Psychopathology Five Scales--Revised also yielded higher than expected rates of significant scores, with as many as one in four normal adults possibly being miscategorized as having features of a personality disorder by the latter scales. These findings are consistent with the growing literature on rates of apparently abnormal scores in the normal population due to multiple score interpretation. Findings are discussed in relation to clinical assessment, as well as in response to recent work suggesting that the MMPI-2-RF's multiscale composition does not contribute to high rates of elevated scores.

  4. In vivo P-31 MR spectroscopic studies of liver in normal adults and cirrhotic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, N.; Moriyasu, F.; Tamada, T.

    1986-01-01

    The author performed in vivo P-31 MR spectroscopic studies of normal and diseased human liver using an experimental 2.0-T whole-body MR imager. Then normal adults and ten cirrhotic patients in the fasting state were studied. Spatially localized in vivo P-31 MR spectra of human liver were obtained in combination with the use of a surface coil and gradient magnetic field. Six spectral peaks were observed in both groups and were assigned, from left to right, to phosphomonoester, inorganic phosphate, phosophodiester, γ-ATP, α-ATP, and β-ATP, on the basis of the chemical shifts. There were no definite differences between the spectral patterns of normal adults and those of cirrhotic patients in the fasting state

  5. Occlusal risk factors associated with temporomandibular disorders in young adults with normal occlusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Yin, Xinmin

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize occlusal stability in young adults with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Thirty-one patients (aged 19-31 years) with complete natural dentition and Angle class I occlusion who exhibited TMD were compared with 31 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The occlusal registrations were performed using the T-Scan II occlusal imaging and analysis system. Center of occlusal force, asymmetry index of occlusal force, maximal movement of COF, premature contacts, clusion time, and disclusion time were recorded. Compared with control subjects, TMD subjects had a significantly higher frequency of premature contacts (16/32, 50.0%) and greater bilateral asymmetry in the occlusal force. Furthermore, prolonged clusion time and disclusion time also were observed in TMD subjects. These results suggest that a significant association exists between occlusal stability and TMD in young adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  7. Association between individual fat depots and cardio-metabolic traits in normal- and overweight children, adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübers, M; Geisler, C; Plachta-Danielzik, S; Müller, M J

    2017-05-08

    To determine age-related associations between fat mass (FM), regional fat depots and cardiometabolic traits in normal- and overweight children, adolescents and adults. Detailed body composition (regional subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue; SAT, VAT) by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), FM and fat-free mass by air-displacement plethysmography, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), plasma glucose and plasma insulin were measured in 433 subjects (BMI: 23.6 (21.0-27.7); 151 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, 150 young adults, aged 18-30 years and 132 adults, aged 30-60 years). Data were derived from pooled data of the 'Reference Center for Body Composition' in Kiel, Germany. Insulin resistance was determined by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Partial correlations and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between body composition and cardiometabolic traits. A descriptive approach was used to demonstrate age-dependent differences in associations between body fat depots and insulin resistance, independent of BMI. FM, SAT, and VAT increased from childhood to adulthood with low VAT in children and adolescents. When compared to children, TG was higher in adults. HDL and DBP did not differ between age groups. Insulin resistance was highest in male adolescents and female young adults. Associations between body fat depots and cardiometabolic traits were seen after puberty with no associations in pre- and intrapubertal children. When compared to FM, SAT and VAT had the strongest association with insulin resistance in adults. This association was independent of BMI. Associations between individual body fat depots and most cardiometabolic traits became evident after puberty only. The strongest associations were observed between insulin resistance and abdominal fat in adults. The impact of VAT was independent

  8. Nitroglycerin provocation in normal subjects is not a useful human migraine model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, J F; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Olesen, J

    2010-01-01

    Provoking delayed migraine with nitroglycerin in migraine sufferers is a cumbersome model. Patients are difficult to recruit, migraine comes on late and variably and only 50-80% of patients develop an attack. A model using normal volunteers would be much more useful, but it should be validated...... aspirin 1000 mg, zolmitriptan 5 mg or placebo to normal healthy volunteers. The design was double-blind, placebo-controlled three-way crossover. Our hypothesis was that these drugs would be effective in the treatment of the mild constant headache induced by long-lasting GTN infusion. The headaches did...... experiment suggests that headache caused by direct nitric oxide (NO) action in the continued presence of NO is very resistance to analgesics and to specific acute migraine treatments. This suggests that NO works very deep in the cascade of events associated with vascular headache, whereas tested drugs work...

  9. A review of shear strength models for rock joints subjected to constant normal stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivanathan Thirukumaran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The typical shear behaviour of rough joints has been studied under constant normal load/stress (CNL boundary conditions, but recent studies have shown that this boundary condition may not replicate true practical situations. Constant normal stiffness (CNS is more appropriate to describe the stress–strain response of field joints since the CNS boundary condition is more realistic than CNL. The practical implications of CNS are movements of unstable blocks in the roof or walls of an underground excavation, reinforced rock wedges sliding in a rock slope or foundation, and the vertical movement of rock-socketed concrete piles. In this paper, the highlights and limitations of the existing models used to predict the shear strength/behaviour of joints under CNS conditions are discussed in depth.

  10. Phosphoglycolate phosphatase and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in red cells of normal and anemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, R; Beutler, E

    1983-10-01

    Red cell phosphoglycolate phosphatase (PGP) and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) were investigated in normal and anemic patients and rabbits. In hemolytic anemia and blood-loss anemia, characterized by a young red cell population, there was an increase in both phosphoglycolate phosphatase activity and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels. In aplastic anemia, the phosphoglycolate phosphatase activity was normal, but the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate values were nonetheless increased. Thus, no relationship was found between phosphoglycolate phosphatase activity and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels. The lack of correlation between the activity of phosphoglycolate phosphatase and 2,3-DPG levels suggests that modulation of phosphoglycolate phosphatase activity does not control the level of 2,3-DPG in erythrocytes.

  11. Studies of osmotic diarrhea induced in normal subjects by ingestion of polyethylene glycol and lactulose.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, H F; Santa Ana, C A; Schiller, L R; Fordtran, J S

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to gain insight into the pathophysiology of pure osmotic diarrhea and the osmotic diarrhea caused by carbohydrate malabsorption. Diarrhea was induced in normal volunteers by ingestion of polyethylene glycol (PEG), which is nonabsorbable, not metabolized by colonic bacteria, and carries no electrical charge. In PEG-induced diarrhea, (a) stool weight was directly correlated with the total mass of PEG ingested; (b) PEG contributed 40-60% of the osmolality of the ...

  12. Effect of a Modest Weight Loss in Normalizing Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects on Antihypertensive Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Gilardini, Luisa; Redaelli, Gabriella; Croci, Marina; Conti, Antonio; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Invitti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of a lifestyle intervention in lowering/normalizing blood pressure (BP) levels in hypertensive (controlled or not) obese patients. Methods In this prospective observational study, 490 obese hypertensive patients, 389 controlled (BP < 140/90 mm Hg; CH) and 101 uncontrolled (BP ≥ 140/90 mm Hg; UH) attended a 3-month lifestyle intervention. Before and after the intervention we assessed weight, waist circumference, fat mass, BP, metabolic and renal variables, and ph...

  13. Pathways of sphingomyelin metabolism in cultured fibroblasts from normal and sphingomyelin lipidosis subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, M W; Clarke, J T; Cook, H W

    1983-07-25

    The metabolism of endogenous sphingomyelin labeled with 32P or [methyl-3H]choline and of exogenous [choline-methyl-3H], [32P]-, or [N-acyl-1-14C]sphingomyelin was studied in normal and Niemann-Pick Type A (NP-A) cultured fibroblasts. Despite a greater than 96% decrease in lysosomal sphingomyelinase activity in the NP-A cells, they were able to degrade endogenously produced [32P]- or [methyl-3H]sphingomyelin at normal or near normal rates. Exogenous [methyl-3H]-, [methyl-3H, 32P]-, and [methyl-3H, N-acyl-1-14C] sphingomyelin was taken up intact by normal and NP-A cells, with NP-A cells accumulating 4-8 times more lipid. By 20 h, 50% of the control cell-associated 3H and 32P was recovered in lecithin, and the ratio of activities (3H/32P) indicated most of the phosphorylcholine derived from sphingomyelin had been transferred intact. By comparison in NP-A cells, after a 40-h incubation only 20% of the labeled phosphorylcholine derived from sphingomyelin was recovered in lecithin. With both cell lines, 20 to 50 times more sphingomyelin was hydrolyzed than was taken up by the cells; the reaction products in the medium were ceramide and a mixture of water-soluble compounds such as phosphorylcholine and choline. These results indicate that there are at least two metabolic pathways for sphingomyelin modification in cultured fibroblasts in addition to degradation by the lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase. One route is hydrolysis by a cellular sphingomyelinase. The second is the hydrolysis and/or transfer of phosphorylcholine from sphingomyelin and results in the synthesis of lecithin.

  14. The location of the mandibular canal in prognathic patients compared to subjects with normal occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Nah, Kyung Soo; Cho, Bong Hae [Pusan National Univ. College of Dentistry, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the location of the mandibular canal in Class {iota}{iota}{iota} patients and 26 normal patients were observed. Four measurements were taken on cross sectional tomography between the first and second molars: the distance from the mandibular canal to the inner surface of both the buccal and lingual cortices, the distance from the mandibular canal to the inferior border of the mandible, and the buccolingual width of the mandible. The buccolingual location of the canals was classified as lingual, central, of buccal. Each measurement was analyzed with an independent test to compare Class {iota}{iota}{iota} malocclusion to normal occlusion. Compared to the control group, the prognathic group had a shorter distance from the canal to the inner surface of the lingual cortex and to the base of the mandible. A higher percentage of the canals were located lingually in the prognathic group. This study showed that the mandibular canal was located more lingually and interiorly in prognathic patients than in patients with normal occlusion. These results could help surgeons to reduce injuries to the inferior alveolar nerve.

  15. Analysis of AHWR downcomer piping supported on elastoplastic dampers and subjected to normal and earthquake loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, P.N.; Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2010-05-01

    Three layouts have been considered for AHWR downcomer for codal qualification in order to ensure its structural integrity under normal and occasional loads. In addition to codal qualification a good piping layout should have less number of bends and weld joints in order to reduce the in-service inspection cost. Less number of bends will reduce the pressure drop in natural circulation and lesser number of weld joints will reduce the total time of in-service inspection that finally reduces the radiation dose to the workers. Conventional seismic design approach of piping with snubbers leads to high cost, maintenance and possible locking causing undue higher thermal stress during normal operation. New seismic supports in the form of Elasto-Plastic Damper (EPD) are the best suited for nuclear piping because of their simple design, low cost, passive nature and ease in installation. In this report the characteristics of EPD obtained from theory, finite element analysis and tests have been presented and comparison has also been made among the three. Analysis method and code qualification of AHWR downcomer piping considering the loadings due to normal operating and occasional loads such as earthquake have been discussed in detail. This report also explains the concept of single support and multi-support response spectrum analysis methods. The results obtained by using both types of supports i.e. conventional and EPD supports have been compared and use of EPD supports in AHWR downcomer pipe is recommended. (author)

  16. Nocturnal variations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in lower leg of normal human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B

    1991-01-01

    in central and local postural sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. During sleep, characteristic variations in subcutaneous blood flow were disclosed. The 133Xe washout curve could be divided into three segments with significantly different slopes. Approximately 90 min after the subject went to sleep...

  17. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: 1. An increased BMI (i.e., overweight subjects is associated with distinct changes in gray-matter and fiber density of the brain. 2. Classification algorithms based on white-matter connectivity involving regions of the reward and associated networks can identify specific targets for mechanistic studies and future drug development aimed at abnormal ingestive behavior and in overweight/obesity.

  18. Estabilidade dos potenciais evocados auditivos em indivíduos adultos com audição normal Stability of auditory evoked potentials in adults with normal hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gentile Matas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a estabilidade dos parâmetros dos potenciais evocados auditivos em adultos normais. MÉTODOS: Foram submetidos à avaliação audiológica e eletrofisiológica (potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico - PEATE, potencial evocado auditivo de média latência - PEAML e potencial cognitivo - P300 49 indivíduos normais, de 18 a 40 anos (25 do gênero feminino e 24 do gênero masculino. Realizou-se reavaliação três meses após a avaliação. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas diferenças entre os gêneros na avaliação para as latências das ondas III e V e interpicos I-III e I-V do PEATE e amplitude N2-P3 do P300. Não foram verificadas diferenças significativas para os parâmetros do PEATE, PEAML (latência das ondas Na, Pa e amplitude Na - Pa e P300 (latência da onda P300 entre os resultados obtidos na avaliação e reavaliação. CONCLUSÃO: Exceção feita à amplitude N2-P3, observou-se estabilidade dos parâmetros de PEATE, PEAML e P300 em adultos normais após período de três meses.PURPOSE: To evaluate the stability of parameters of auditory evoked potentials in normal adults. METHODS: Forty-nine normal subjects with ages from 18 to 40 years (25 females and 24 males were submitted to audiological and electrophysiological hearing evaluation (auditory brainstem response - ABR, middle latency response - MLR, and cognitive potential - P300. Subjects were reassessed three months after the initial evaluation. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between genders regarding the wave latencies III and V and the interpeaks I-III and I-IV of ABR, and the amplitude N2-P3 of the P300. No differences were found between the results of initial and final assessments for the parameters of the ABR, MLR (Na, Pa latencies and Na-Pa amplitude and P300 (P300 latency. CONCLUSION: Except for the N2-P3 amplitude, it was observed stability of the parameters of ABR, MLR and P300 in normal adults after a period of three months.

  19. Normal and obsessional jealousy: a study of a population of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Di Nasso, Elena; Masala, Irene; Baroni, Stefano; Abelli, Marianna; Mengali, Francesco; Mungai, Francesco; Rucci, Paola

    2003-05-01

    Jealousy is a heterogenous emotion ranging from normality to pathology. Several problems still exist in the distinction between normal and pathological jealousy. With the present study, we aimed to contribute to the definition of the boundary between obsessional and normal jealousy by means of a specific self-report questionnaire developed by us. The questionnaire called "Questionnaire on the Affective Relationships" (QAR) and consisting of 30 items, was administered to 400 university students of both sexes and to 14 outpatients affected by obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) whose main obsession was jealousy. The total scores and single items were analysed and compared. Two hundred and forty-five, approximately 61% of the questionnaires, were returned. The statistical analyses showed that patients with OCD had higher total scores than healthy subjects; in addition, it was possible to identify an intermediate group of subjects, corresponding to 10% of the total, who were concerned by jealousy thoughts around the partner, but at a lower degree than patients, and that we called "healthy jealous subjects" because they had no other psychopathological trait. Significant differences were also observed for single items in the three groups. Our study showed that 10% of a population of university students, albeit normal, have jealousy thoughts around the partner, as emerged by the specific questionnaire developed by us. This instrument permitted to clearly distinguish these subjects from patients with OCD and healthy subjects with no jealousy concern.

  20. Abdominal obesity is a common finding in normal and overweight subjects of Chile and is associated with increased frequency of cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Villanueva

    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity (AO is associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular diseases; however, this association is less clear for non-obese people. We estimated the association of AO and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF and disease in non-obese adult individuals from Chile.5248 adults (15 years of age or older of both sexes from the Chilean National Health Survey (October 2009 -September 2010, response rate 85%. were included. Information on myocardial infarction and stroke was self-reported. BMI, waist circumference (WC, arterial pressure, plasma glucose, and cholesterol levels were measured. Predictive accuracy of WC was evaluated by area under curve of receiver operating characteristic analysis and cut off points were established by Youden Index. Relationship between AO and CVRF was analyzed by Chi-squared tests.Normal weight/overweight/obesity were present in 34.4%/45.2%/18.1% of men and 33.4%/33.6%/27.5% of women. Predictive accuracy of WC to identify at least one CVRF was 0.70/0.67 and optimal cutoff points for WC in non-obese subjects were 91/83 cm in men/women, respectively. AO was present in 98.2%/99.1% of obese, 70.5%/77.4% of overweight and 12.4%/16.4% of normal weight men/women. AO was associated with increased frequency of CVRF in overweight men (6/8 and stroke and women (4/8 and higher frequency in normal weight men (8/8 and myocardial infarction/stroke and women (6/8 and myocardial infarction.WC cutoff points calculated for non-obese chilean population discriminate more differences in CVRF in normal weight woman. AO significantly increases the frequency of CVRF and diseases in overweight and especially normal weight individuals. WC can be used as a low cost, feasible and reproducible predictor for CVRF in non-obese individuals in most clinical settings.

  1. Enhancement of in vitro interleukin-2 production in normal subjects following a single spinal manipulative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Glen M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence supports somato-visceral effects of manual therapies. We have previously demonstrated that a single spinal manipulative treatment (SMT accompanied by audible release has an inhibitory effect on the production of proinflammatory cytokines in asymptomatic subjects. The purpose of this study is to report on SMT-related changes in the production of the immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin 2 (IL-2 and to investigate whether such changes might differ with respect to the treatment approach related to the presence or absence of an audible release (joint cavitation. Methods Of 76 asymptomatic subjects, 29 received SMT with cavitation (SMT-C, 23 were treated with SMT without cavitation (SMT-NC and 24 comprised the venipuncture control (VC group. The SMT-C and SMT-NC subjects received a single, similar force high velocity low amplitude manipulation, in the upper thoracic spine. However, in SMT-NC subjects, positioning and line of drive were not conducive to cavitation. Blood and serum samples were obtained before and then at 20 and 120 min post-intervention. The production of IL-2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures was induced by activation for 48 hr with Staphylococcal protein A (SPA and, in parallel preparations, with the combination of phorbol ester (TPA and calcium ionophore. The levels of IL-2 in culture supernatants and serum were assessed by specific immunoassays. Results Compared with VC and their respective baselines, SPA-induced secretion of IL-2 increased significantly in cultures established from both SMT-C and SMT-NC subjects at 20 min post-intervention. At 2 hr post-treatment, significant elevation of IL-2 synthesis was still apparent in preparations from SMT-treated groups though it became somewhat attenuated in SMT-NC subjects. Conversely, IL-2 synthesis induced by TPA and calcium ionophore was unaltered by either type of SMT and was comparable to that in VC group at all time points. No

  2. Reexamining the validity and reliability of the clinical version of the Iowa gambling task: Evidence from a normal subject group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung eLin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Over past decade, the Iowa gambling task (IGT has been utilized to test various decision deficits induced by neurological damage or psychiatric disorders. The IGT has recently been standardized for identifying 13 different neuropsychological disorders. Neuropsychological patients choose bad decks frequently, and normal subjects prefer good EV decks. However, the IGT has several validity and reliability problems. Some research groups have pointed out that the validity of IGT is influenced by the personality and emotional state of subjects. Additionally, several other studies have proposed that the prominent deck B phenomenon (PDB phenomenon – that is, normal subjects preferring bad deck B – may be the most serious problem confronting IGT validity. Specifically, deck B offers a high frequency of gains but negative EV. In the standard IGT administration, choice behavior can be understood with reference to gain-loss frequency (GLF rather than inferred future consequences (EV, the basic assumption of IGT. Furthermore, using two different criteria (basic assumption vs. professional norm results in significantly different classification results. Therefore, we recruited 72 normal subjects to test the validity and reliability of IGT. Each subject performed three runs of the computer-based clinical IGT version. The PDB phenomenon has been observed to a significant degree in the first and second stages of the clinical IGT version. Obviously, validity, reliability and the practice effect were unstable between two given stages. The present form of the clinical IGT version has only one stage, so its use should be reconsidered for examining normal decision makers; results from patient groups must also be interpreted with great care. GLF could be the main factor to be considered in establishing the constructional validity and reliability of the clinical IGT version.

  3. Effect of a Modest Weight Loss in Normalizing Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects on Antihypertensive Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardini, Luisa; Redaelli, Gabriella; Croci, Marina; Conti, Antonio; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Invitti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of a lifestyle intervention in lowering/normalizing blood pressure (BP) levels in hypertensive (controlled or not) obese patients. In this prospective observational study, 490 obese hypertensive patients, 389 controlled (BP < 140/90 mm Hg; CH) and 101 uncontrolled (BP ≥ 140/90 mm Hg; UH) attended a 3-month lifestyle intervention. Before and after the intervention we assessed weight, waist circumference, fat mass, BP, metabolic and renal variables, and physical activity. A multivariate regression model was used to determine the predictors of BP changes. 18.9% of CH and 20.0% of UH were on ≥ 3 antihypertensive drugs. Weight change (average -4.9 ± 2.7%) was independent of the antihypertensive drugs employed. Systolic BP (SBP) decreased by 23 mm Hg and diastolic BP (DBP) by 9 mm Hg, in patients with UH most of whom (89%) normalized BP levels (in 49% after a weight loss < 5%). Age, gender, whole and central obesity, concomitance of type 2 diabetes, chronic renal disease, physical activity intensification, and pharmacological therapy did not affect BP lowering. In the regression analysis with SBP change as dependent variable, weight reduction (β = 0.523, p = 0.005) and group (UH vs. CH, β = -19.40, p = 0.0005) remained associated with SBP reduction. When DBP change was entered as dependent variable, baseline uric acid remained associated with DBP reduction (β = 0.824, p < 0.05). Lifestyle interventions are useful for all obese hypertensive patients in most of whom a modest weight loss is sufficient to normalize BP levels avoiding the aggressive use of multiple antihypertensive drugs. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  4. Studies on the kinetics of unconjugated [14C]bilirubin metabolism in normal subjects and patients with compensated cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, D.; Jones, E.A.; Carson, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    The kinetics of unconjugated 14 C-bilirubin metabolism have been investigated and analysed in terms of a three-pool model in a group of seven normal subjects and in a group of eight cirrhotic patients who had appreciable impairment of liver cell function. The results indicate that, in patients with compensated cirrhosis, the efficiency of the liver in extracting unconjugated bilirubin from plasma against a concentration gradient is impaired, even though the liver's capacity to conjugate bilirubin may be normal. As a consequence of the increased volume of distribution, the absolute hepatic clearance of unconjugated bilirubin is relatively well maintained. (author)

  5. Effect of Colour of Object on Simple Visual Reaction Time in Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita B. Kalyanshetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The measure of simple reaction time has been used to evaluate the processing speed of CNS and the co-ordination between the sensory and motor systems. As the reaction time is influenced by different factors; the impact of colour of objects in modulating the reaction time has been investigated in this study. 200 healthy volunteers (female gender 100 and male gender100 of age group 18-25 yrs were included as subjects. The subjects were presented with two visual stimuli viz; red and green light by using an electronic response analyzer. Paired‘t’ test for comparison of visual reaction time for red and green colour in male gender shows p value<0.05 whereas in female gender shows p<0.001. It was observed that response latency for red colour was lesser than that of green colour which can be explained on the basis of trichromatic theory.

  6. Ouabain-binding and 86rubidium-uptake in lymphocytes of normal and borderline hypertensive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Pedersen, K E; Johansen, Torben

    1983-01-01

    activity were studied in lymphocytes of nine borderline hypertensives (27 (20-36) years) and nine controls (28 (20-36) years). Maximum 3H-ouabain binding and 86Rb-uptake were taken as measures of the number of pump sites and cation pump activity, respectively. The median number of sodium/potassium pump...... to increased cation pump activity in lymphocytes of BH subjects in vitro may be interpreted as an adaptive change possibly induced by a circulating natriuretic substance....

  7. Comparison of plantar pressure distribution in subjects with normal and flat feet during gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluisio Otavio Vargas Avila

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the possible relationship between loss of thenormal medial longitudinal arch measured by the height of the navicular bone in a static situationand variables related to plantar pressure distribution measured in a dynamic situation. Elevenmen (21 ± 3 years, 74 ± 10 kg and 175 ± 4 cm participated in the study. The Novel Emed-ATSystem was used for the acquisition of plantar pressure distribution data (peak pressure, meanpressure, contact area, and relative load at a sampling rate of 50 Hz. The navicular drop testproposed by Brody (1982 was used to assess the height of the navicular bone for classificationof the subjects. The results were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test, with the level of significanceset at p ≤ 0.05. Differences were observed between the two groups in the mid-foot regionfor all variables studied, with the observation of higher mean values in subjects with flat feet.There were also significant differences in contact area, relative load, peak pressure, and meanpressure between groups. The present study demonstrates the importance of paying attentionto subjects with flat feet because changes in plantar pressure distribution are associated withdiscomfort and injuries.

  8. Effects of synthetic TRH on plasma human prolactin levels in normal subjects and in patients with various endocrine disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Norio; Miyoshi, Masanori; Suzuki, Shinya; Ofuji, Tadashi; Furuno, Katsushi

    1974-01-01

    HPRL was iodinated a modification of the enzymatic method using lactoperoxidase. By solid-phase RIA using antibody-coated disposable plastic microtiter trays, it was confirmed that the second peak consisted of the immunoreactive material that was used for RIA. For the measurement of plasma hPRL levels, the double antibody technique was used to separate bound from free labeled hormones. Basal plasma hPRL levels in normal subjects were less than 20 ng/ml. The mean basal hPRL levels were 10.2 +- 4.9 (Mean+-SD) ng/ml in 13 normal men and 9.6+-5.4 ng/ml in 8 normal women; no statistically significant sex difference was observed. When synthetic TRH was administered intravenously to a normal male subject, the maximum increase in plasma hPRL above the baseline level increased linearly as a function of the log of the TRH dose between 25 and 100 μg of TRH. Intravenous administration of 500 μg of TRH caused a significant increase in plasma hPRL in all of the 10 normal subjects tested. Plasma hPRL levels in 2 patients with Sheehan's syndrome and in a patient with operated-irradiated chromophobe adenoma tended to be low, and they showed no significant increase in plasma hPRL after TRH injection. Basal plasma hPRL levels in most of the patients with hypothalamopituitary tumor tended to be high. Plasma hPRL levels were normal in most patients with pituitary dwarfism. Plasma hPRL levels in 2 patients with hyperthyroidism tended to be low, and they showed no significant hPRL response to TRH, while patients with hypothyroidism showed normal or rather exaggerated hPRL response to TRH. Plasma hPRL levels were normal in most of the patients with Cushing's syndrome and plasma hPRL responses to TRH in these patients were normal. TRH-induced hPRL secretion tended to be impaired in patients receiving long-term and high doses of glucocorticoid. (auth.)

  9. Clinical significance of normal exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in subjects with abnormal exercise electrocardiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Takeshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Chiba, Hiroshi; Mitani, Isao; Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between exercise thallium-201 scintigraphic findings and clinical features (chest pain, risk factors, resting electrocardiography, exercise electrocardiography and prognosis) was studied in the 234 patients with profound ST-segment depression (J 80 ≥ -2 mm) or negative U wave in exercise electrocardiography. We classified these cases into two groups by exercise thallium perfusion; (I) normal thallium-201 perfusion (n = 24), (II) abnormal thallium-201 perfusion (n = 210). The incidence of female in group I was larger than that in group II. In resting electrocardiography, left ventricular hypertrophy was found more frequent in group I. In exercise electrocardiography, most of ST-segment depression in group I revealed up-slope type and a rapid recovery to baseline. Group I had lower incidence of cardiac events (cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass grafting). In conclusion, normal thallium-201 perfusion in exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy was more useful indicator for prognosis, even if the patients had the findings of profound ST-segment depression or negative U wave in exercise electrocardiography. (author)

  10. Proprietary tomato extract improves metabolic response to high-fat meal in healthy normal weight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Deplanque

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lycopene and tomato-based products have been described as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with a carotenoid-rich tomato extract (CRTE standardized for a 1:1 ratio of lycopene and phytosterols, on post-prandial LDL oxidation after a high-fat meal. Design: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled study, 146 healthy normal weight individuals were randomly assigned to a daily dose of CRTE standardized for tomato phytonutrients or placebo during 2 weeks. Oxidized LDL (OxLDL, glucose, insulin, and triglyceride (TG responses were measured for 8 h after ingestion of a high-fat meal before and at the end of intervention. Results: Plasma lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene were increased throughout the study period in the CRTE group compared to placebo. CRTE ingestion significantly improved changes in OxLDL response to high-fat meal compared to placebo after 2 weeks (p<0.0001. Changes observed in glucose, insulin, and TG responses were not statistically significant after 2 weeks of supplementation, although together they may suggest a trend of favorable effect on metabolic outcomes after a high-fat meal. Conclusions: Two-week supplementation with CRTE increased carotenoids levels in plasma and improved oxidized LDL response to a high-fat meal in healthy normal weight individuals.

  11. What Limits Cardiac Performance during Exercise in Normal Subjects and in Healthy Fontan Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André La Gerche

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is an important determinant of health but is significantly reduced in the patient with a univentricular circulation. Normal exercise physiology mandates an increase in pulmonary artery pressures which places an increased work demand on the right ventricle (RV. In a biventricular circulation with pathological increases in pulmonary vascular resistance and/or reductions in RV function, exercise-induced augmentation of cardiac output is limited. Left ventricular preload reserve is dependent upon flow through the pulmonary circulation and this requires adequate RV performance. In the Fontan patient, the reasons for exercise intolerance are complex. In those patients with myocardial dysfunction or other pathologies of the circulatory components, it is likely that these abnormalities serve as a limitation to cardiac performance during exercise. However, in the healthy Fontan patient, it may be the absence of a sub-pulmonary pump which limits normal increases in pulmonary pressures, trans-pulmonary flow requirements and cardiac output. If so, performance will be exquisitely dependent on pulmonary vascular resistance. This provides a potential explanation as to why pulmonary vasodilators may improve exercise tolerance. As has recently been demonstrated, these agents may offer an important new treatment strategy which directly addresses the physiological limitations in the Fontan patient.

  12. Reference equations for handgrip strength: Normative values in young adult and middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Jordão; Grams, Samantha Torres; da Silva, Edy Floriano; de Medeiros, Luana Adriano; de Brito, Christina May Moran; Yamaguti, Wellington Pereira

    2018-06-01

    Handgrip strength (HS) has been widely used as a functionality parameter of the upper limbs (UL) and general health. The measurement of HS by dynamometry is a low cost, non-invasive method of simple applicability, widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation and in critical care units. However, there are no reports in the literature of reference equations for the Brazilian population involving young and middle-aged adults. The aim of this study was to establish reference equations to predict normal HS for young and middle-aged adults through demographic and anthropometric data. This is a cross-sectional study with a sample of 80 healthy subjects (40 men and 40 women), aged 20-60 years. Inclusion criteria were: 1) BMI between 18.5 and 30 kg/m 2 ; 2) presence of dominant hand; 3) no cardiac, pulmonary, metabolic, or neurologic diseases; 4) lack of musculoskeletal disorders; 5) no history of fractures or trauma of the UL. Anthropometric measurements of the UL were obtained by a tape (hand length and width, forearm circumference and length). The dominance of hands was defined by the Dutch Handedness Questionnaire. HS measures were obtained by a manual hydraulic dynamometer, according to the recommendations of the American Association of Hand Therapists. Data were analyzed with SPSS for Windows, version 17.0, and treated with descriptive and inferential analysis. Normality was evaluated by Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Pearson or Spearman coefficients and multiple regression analysis were also used. HS was significantly higher for men compared to women, and also higher for the dominant hand (HSD) compared to the non-dominant hand (HSND) (p  0.05). No correlation was found between HS and age. A weak correlation was found between HS and BMI. A moderate correlation of HS was observed with weight and height. Finally, moderate and high correlations were found between HS and anthropometric variables of UL. The best reference equations with R 2 , adjusted to 0.71 and 0.70, were

  13. Analysis of visual appearance of retinal nerve fibers in high resolution fundus images: a study on normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Radim; Tornow, Ralf P; Laemmer, Robert; Odstrcilik, Jan; Mayer, Markus A; Gazarek, Jiri; Jan, Jiri; Kubena, Tomas; Cernosek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The retinal ganglion axons are an important part of the visual system, which can be directly observed by fundus camera. The layer they form together inside the retina is the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). This paper describes results of a texture RNFL analysis in color fundus photographs and compares these results with quantitative measurement of RNFL thickness obtained from optical coherence tomography on normal subjects. It is shown that local mean value, standard deviation, and Shannon entropy extracted from the green and blue channel of fundus images are correlated with corresponding RNFL thickness. The linear correlation coefficients achieved values 0.694, 0.547, and 0.512 for respective features measured on 439 retinal positions in the peripapillary area from 23 eyes of 15 different normal subjects.

  14. Analysis of Visual Appearance of Retinal Nerve Fibers in High Resolution Fundus Images: A Study on Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Kolar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The retinal ganglion axons are an important part of the visual system, which can be directly observed by fundus camera. The layer they form together inside the retina is the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL. This paper describes results of a texture RNFL analysis in color fundus photographs and compares these results with quantitative measurement of RNFL thickness obtained from optical coherence tomography on normal subjects. It is shown that local mean value, standard deviation, and Shannon entropy extracted from the green and blue channel of fundus images are correlated with corresponding RNFL thickness. The linear correlation coefficients achieved values 0.694, 0.547, and 0.512 for respective features measured on 439 retinal positions in the peripapillary area from 23 eyes of 15 different normal subjects.

  15. TNF-alpha and antibodies to periodontal bacteria discriminate between Alzheimer's disease patients and normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamer, Angela R; Craig, Ronald G; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Dasanayake, Ananda P; Norman, Robert G; Boylan, Robert J; Nehorayoff, Andrea; Glodzik, Lidia; Brys, Miroslaw; de Leon, Mony J

    2009-11-30

    The associations of inflammation/immune responses with clinical presentations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain unclear. We hypothesized that TNF-alpha and elevated antibodies to periodontal bacteria would be greater in AD compared to normal controls (NL) and their combination would aid clinical diagnosis of AD. Plasma TNF-alpha and antibodies against periodontal bacteria were elevated in AD patients compared with NL and independently associated with AD. The number of positive IgG to periodontal bacteria incremented the TNF-alpha classification of clinical AD and NL. This study shows that TNF-alpha and elevated numbers of antibodies against periodontal bacteria associate with AD and contribute to the AD diagnosis.

  16. Disrupted functional and structural networks in cognitively normal elderly subjects with the APOE ɛ4 allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaojing; Chen, Kewei; Zhang, Junying; Li, Xin; Shu, Ni; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhanjun; Reiman, Eric M

    2015-03-13

    As the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele is a major genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has been suggested as a disconnection syndrome manifested by the disruption of white matter (WM) integrity and functional connectivity (FC), elucidating the subtle brain structural and functional network changes in cognitively normal ɛ4 carriers is essential for identifying sensitive neuroimaging based biomarkers and understanding the preclinical AD-related abnormality development. We first constructed functional network on the basis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and a structural network on the basis of diffusion tensor image. Using global, local and nodal efficiencies of these two networks, we then examined (i) the differences of functional and WM structural network between cognitively normal ɛ4 carriers and non-carriers simultaneously, (ii) the sensitivity of these indices as biomarkers, and (iii) their relationship to behavior measurements, as well as to cholesterol level. For ɛ4 carriers, we found reduced global efficiency significantly in WM and marginally in FC, regional FC dysfunctions mainly in medial temporal areas, and more widespread for WM network. Importantly, the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG.R) was the only region with simultaneous functional and structural damage, and the nodal efficiency of PHG.R in WM network mediates the APOE ɛ4 effect on memory function. Finally, the cholesterol level correlated with WM network differently than with the functional network in ɛ4 carriers. Our results demonstrated ɛ4-specific abnormal structural and functional patterns, which may potentially serve as biomarkers for early detection before the onset of the disease.

  17. Studies by radioiodination of normal adult, fetal and leukemic cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannourakis, G; Cauchi, M N [Department of Pathology and Immunology, Monash Medical School, Melbourne, Australia

    1978-01-01

    A comparison was made between cord blood lymphocytes, normal adult lymphocytes and leukemic cells after membrane iodination with lactoperoxidase. A double-labeling technique using lactoperoxidase iodination with /sup 125/I and /sup 131/I followed by analysis on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a number of membrane differences between leukemic, normal and fetal cells. There was a reduction in the 70,000 molecular weight component in cord blood cells compared to adult lymphocytes, and an increase in membrane peptides with molecular weights of 35,000, 20,000, 9,000 and 4,000. Although smaller molecular weight peptides were also present in chronic lymphatic leukemia as well as acute myeloid leukemia, these were shown to be distinct from fetal type membrane components.

  18. Studies on immunoproteasome in human liver. Part I: Absence in fetuses, presence in normal subjects, and increased levels in chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasuri, Francesco; Capizzi, Elisa; Bellavista, Elena; Mishto, Michele; Santoro, Aurelia; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Capri, Miriam; Cescon, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca; Grigioni, Walter Franco; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Franceschi, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Despite the central role of proteasomes in relevant physiological pathways and pathological processes, this topic is unexpectedly largely unexplored in human liver. Here we present data on the presence of proteasome and immunoproteasome in human livers from normal adults, fetuses and patients affected by major hepatic diseases such as cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis. Immunohistochemistry for constitutive (α4 and β1) and inducible (LMP2 and LMP7) proteasome subunits, and for the PA28αβ regulator, was performed in liver samples from 38 normal subjects, 6 fetuses, 2 pediatric cases, and 19 pathological cases (10 chronic active hepatitis and 9 cirrhosis). The immunohistochemical data have been validated and quantified by Western blotting analysis. The most striking result we found was the concomitant presence in hepatocyte cytoplasm of all healthy subjects, including the pediatric cases, of constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome subunits, as well as PA28αβ. At variance, immunoproteasome was not present in hepatocytes from fetuses, while a strong cytoplasmic and nuclear positivity for LMP2 and LMP7 was found in pathological samples, directly correlated to the histopathological grade of inflammation. At variance from other organs such as the brain, immunoproteasome is present in livers from normal adult and pediatric cases, in apparent absence of pathological processes, suggesting the presence of a peculiar regulation of the proteasome/immunoproteasome system, likely related to the physiological stimuli derived from the gut microbiota after birth. Other inflammatory stimuli contribute in inducing high levels of immunoproteasome in pathological conditions, where its role deserve further attention.

  19. Studies on immunoproteasome in human liver. Part I: Absence in fetuses, presence in normal subjects, and increased levels in chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasuri, Francesco; Capizzi, Elisa [Pathology Unit of the ' F. Addarii' Institute of Oncology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Bellavista, Elena [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy); Mishto, Michele [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy); Institute of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty Charite, Berlin (Germany); Santoro, Aurelia [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy); Fiorentino, Michelangelo [Pathology Unit of the ' F. Addarii' Institute of Oncology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Capri, Miriam [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy); Cescon, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca [Unit of General and Transplantation Surgery, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Grigioni, Walter Franco; D' Errico-Grigioni, Antonia [Pathology Unit of the ' F. Addarii' Institute of Oncology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Franceschi, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.franceschi@unibo.it [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy)

    2010-06-25

    Despite the central role of proteasomes in relevant physiological pathways and pathological processes, this topic is unexpectedly largely unexplored in human liver. Here we present data on the presence of proteasome and immunoproteasome in human livers from normal adults, fetuses and patients affected by major hepatic diseases such as cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis. Immunohistochemistry for constitutive ({alpha}4 and {beta}1) and inducible (LMP2 and LMP7) proteasome subunits, and for the PA28{alpha}{beta} regulator, was performed in liver samples from 38 normal subjects, 6 fetuses, 2 pediatric cases, and 19 pathological cases (10 chronic active hepatitis and 9 cirrhosis). The immunohistochemical data have been validated and quantified by Western blotting analysis. The most striking result we found was the concomitant presence in hepatocyte cytoplasm of all healthy subjects, including the pediatric cases, of constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome subunits, as well as PA28{alpha}{beta}. At variance, immunoproteasome was not present in hepatocytes from fetuses, while a strong cytoplasmic and nuclear positivity for LMP2 and LMP7 was found in pathological samples, directly correlated to the histopathological grade of inflammation. At variance from other organs such as the brain, immunoproteasome is present in livers from normal adult and pediatric cases, in apparent absence of pathological processes, suggesting the presence of a peculiar regulation of the proteasome/immunoproteasome system, likely related to the physiological stimuli derived from the gut microbiota after birth. Other inflammatory stimuli contribute in inducing high levels of immunoproteasome in pathological conditions, where its role deserve further attention.

  20. Effect of physical activity on pulse wave velocity in elderly subjects with normal glucose, prediabetes or Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsämarttila, Erja; Rodilla, Enrique; Jokelainen, Jari; Herrala, Sauli; Leppäluoto, Juhani; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2018-05-23

    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity ((cf)PWV) is a measure of arterial stiffness, predicting cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that the amount of physical activity (PA) is correlated with reduced arterial stiffness in Type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects. 570 subjects from the 1945 Oulu birth cohort were included in the analysis. (cf)PWV was determined by a non-invasive applanation tonometry. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and LDL and HDL cholesterol analyzed. PA was registered daily with a wrist-worn acceleration meter for two weeks. (cf)PWV values in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and T2D were higher than in normal glycemic subjects (P < 0.001). PA, fasting and 2 h glucose and HbA1c correlated significantly with (cf)PWV, but HDL or LDL cholesterol did not. The 2 h glucose, heart rate and alcohol consumption in T2D subjects had independent effects on (cf)PWV in multiple regression analysis. T2D and IGM were significantly associated to (cf)PWV. Interestingly, lipids did not have an additional effect on (cf)PWV. Subjects walking more than 10 000 steps/day had 0.2 m/s lower (cf)PWV than those walking less than 6000 steps/day. Presence of T2D, elevated heart rate and alcohol consumption in males were associated with increased aortic stiffening in elderly subjects.

  1. Cerebellar activation in verb generation. Activation study with positron emission tomography in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Eriko [Inst. for Rehabilitation and Mental Health, Kyowa, Akita (Japan); Kanno, Iwao; Sadato, Norihiro; Senda, Michio; Fujita, Hideaki; Nagata, Ken

    1999-06-01

    To investigate the role of cerebellum in language function, we used the silent verb generation task in PET activation study. Subjects were 11 right-handed, healthy men with the mean age of 24.3. We used two experimental conditions, resting state and verb generation, and measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) alternately and repeatedly, three times for each condition. In the verb generation task, the subject was asked to silently think of as many verbs associated with auditorily given noun as he could. The subtraction image between verb generation and resting state showed activation foci at the left inferior to middle frontal lobe as well as temporal lobe in the supratentorium, consistent with previous studies. In the infratentorium, there were significant foci at bilateral cerebellar hemisphere and brain stem, which was predominantly seen over the right cerebellum. Activations were seen in the superior-lateral part of the right cerebellar hemisphere including the right dentate nucleus, and in the inferior-lateral part of the left cerebellar hemisphere. The amount of CBF increase by the task as compared with the resting condition in the upper cerebellum showed an increasing trend from the first to the third measurement. The present results suggest specific roles of the cerebellum in word retrieval as well as the practice-related changes during verbal learning. (author)

  2. Cerebellar activation in verb generation. Activation study with positron emission tomography in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Eriko; Kanno, Iwao; Sadato, Norihiro; Senda, Michio; Fujita, Hideaki; Nagata, Ken

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the role of cerebellum in language function, we used the silent verb generation task in PET activation study. Subjects were 11 right-handed, healthy men with the mean age of 24.3. We used two experimental conditions, resting state and verb generation, and measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) alternately and repeatedly, three times for each condition. In the verb generation task, the subject was asked to silently think of as many verbs associated with auditorily given noun as he could. The subtraction image between verb generation and resting state showed activation foci at the left inferior to middle frontal lobe as well as temporal lobe in the supratentorium, consistent with previous studies. In the infratentorium, there were significant foci at bilateral cerebellar hemisphere and brain stem, which was predominantly seen over the right cerebellum. Activations were seen in the superior-lateral part of the right cerebellar hemisphere including the right dentate nucleus, and in the inferior-lateral part of the left cerebellar hemisphere. The amount of CBF increase by the task as compared with the resting condition in the upper cerebellum showed an increasing trend from the first to the third measurement. The present results suggest specific roles of the cerebellum in word retrieval as well as the practice-related changes during verbal learning. (author)

  3. Biliary scanning with /sup 99m/Tc pyridoxylideneglutamate. The effect of food in normal subjects: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.J.; Marion, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    Technetium-99m pyridoxylideneglutamate biliary scans were performed in 19 normal subjects in both the fasted and nonfasted state. The effect of eating was to reduce visualization of the gallbladder from 100% (fasted) to 47% (nonfasted). The common bile duct was seen in 84% on both occasions but intrahepatic and cystic ducts were seen less frequently in the nonfasted group. Preparation of patients by fasting is essential if information concerning gallbladder function is sought

  4. Effect of chloroquine on insulin and glucose homoeostasis in normal subjects and patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, G D; Amos, T A; Mahler, R; Peters, T J

    1987-01-01

    Plasma glucose, insulin, and C peptide concentrations were determined after an oral glucose load in normal subjects and in a group of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus before and during a short course of treatment with chloroquine. In the control group there was a small but significant reduction in fasting blood glucose concentration but overall glucose tolerance and hormone concentrations were unaffected. In contrast, the patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes melli...

  5. Investigation of cytokines, oxidative stress, metabolic, and inflammatory biomarkers after orange juice consumption by normal and overweight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace K. Z. S. Dourado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal adiposity has been linked to metabolic abnormalities, including dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, and low-grade inflammation. Objective: To test the hypothesis that consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ would improve metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory biomarkers and cytokine levels in normal and overweight subjects with increased waist circumference. Design: Subjects were divided into two groups in accordance with their body mass index: normal and overweight. Both groups of individuals consumed 750 mL of OJ daily for 8 weeks. Body composition (weight, height, percentage of fat mass, and waist circumference; metabolic biomarkers (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and glycated hemoglobin; oxidative biomarkers (malondialdehyde and DPPH•; inflammatory biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]; cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, and IFN-γ; and diet were evaluated before and after consumption of OJ for 8 weeks. Results: The major findings of this study were: 1 no alteration in body composition in either group; 2 improvement of the lipid profile, evidenced by a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL-C; 3 a potential stimulation of the immune response due to increase in IL-12; 4 anti-inflammatory effect as a result of a marked reduction in hsCRP; and 5 antioxidant action by the enhancement of total antioxidant capacity and the reduction of lipid peroxidation, in both normal and overweight subjects. Conclusions: OJ consumption has a positive effect on important biomarkers of health status in normal and overweight subjects, thereby supporting evidence that OJ acts as functional food and could be consumed as part of a healthy diet to prevent metabolic and chronic diseases.

  6. Gender Dependence in Mouth Opening Dimensions in Normal Adult Malaysians Population

    OpenAIRE

    Shaari, Ramizu; Hwa, Teoh Eng; Rahman, Shaifulizan Abdul

    2011-01-01

    While measurement of mouth opening is an important clinica examination in diagnosis and management of oral disease, data on non-Western populations are limited. This study was therefore conducted to determine the range of mouth opening in normal Malaysian male and female adults. A total of 34 dental students of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) were chosen randomly and their maximum mouth opening was measured after being asked to open their mouth sufficiently to accommodate three fingers. Measu...

  7. Normal spectrum of pulmonary parametric response map to differentiate lung collapsibility: distribution of densitometric classifications in healthy adult volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Mario; Nemec, Stefan F.; Dufresne, Valerie; Occhipinti, Mariaelena; Heidinger, Benedikt H.; Bankier, Alexander A.; Chamberlain, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary parametric response map (PRM) was proposed for quantitative densitometric phenotypization of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known about this technique in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to describe the normal spectrum of densitometric classification of pulmonary PRM in a group of healthy adults. 15 healthy volunteers underwent spirometrically monitored chest CT at total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC). The paired CT scans were analyzed by PRM for voxel-by-voxel characterization of lung parenchyma according to 4 densitometric classifications: normal lung (TLC ≥ -950 HU, FRC ≥ -856 HU); expiratory low attenuation area (LAA) (TLC ≥ -950 HU, FRC < -856 HU); dual LAA (TLC<-950 HU, FRC < -856 HU); uncharacterized (TLC < -950 HU, FRC ≥ -856 HU). PRM spectrum was 78 % ± 10 % normal lung, 20 % ± 8 % expiratory LAA, and 1 % ± 1 % dual LAA. PRM was similar between genders, there was moderate correlation between dual LAA and spirometrically assessed TLC (R = 0.531; p = 0.042), and between expiratory LAA and Vol Exp/Insp ratio (R = -0.572; p = 0.026). PRM reflects the predominance of normal lung parenchyma in a group of healthy volunteers. However, PRM also confirms the presence of physiological expiratory LAA seemingly related to air trapping and a minimal amount of dual LAA likely reflecting emphysema. (orig.)

  8. Is early adulthood a critical developmental stage for psychosis proneness? A survey of delusional ideation in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoux, H; van Os, J; Maurice-Tison, S; Gay, B; Salamon, R; Bourgeois, M

    1998-02-09

    It has been hypothesized that late adolescence and early adulthood might be a brain developmental stage favoring the clinical expression of psychotic symptoms in psychiatric or neurological diseases. The aim of the present survey was to examine the relationship between age and delusional ideation in a sample of subjects with no psychiatric disorder. The survey was carried out with the Aquitaine Sentinel Network of general practitioners. Consecutive practice attenders were invited to complete the PDI-21 (Peters Delusional Inventory 21 items), a self-report questionnaire designed to measure delusional ideation in the normal population. The study concerned 444 patients who had no lifetime history of psychiatric disorder and who completed the PDI-21. A principal component analysis of the PDI-21 items was performed in order to identify delusional dimensions. An age-related decrease in the likelihood to report delusional ideas was found, younger subjects scoring higher on most dimensions of delusional ideation, such as 'persecution', 'thought disturbance', 'grandiosity' and 'paranormal beliefs'. 'Religiosity' was the only dimension positively associated with age. The results suggest that there may be a physiological neurodevelopmental stage favouring the expression of psychosis proneness in normal subjects, and support the hypothesis that the association between age and positive psychotic symptoms in functional and organic psychoses may be linked to the interaction between normal brain maturational processes and cerebral abnormalities involved in the aetiology of functional and organic psychoses.

  9. Sonographic determination of normal spleen size in an adult African population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustapha, Zainab; Tahir, Abdulrahman [Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Tukur, Maisaratu [Department of Human Physiology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Bukar, Mohammed [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State (Nigeria); Lee, Wai-Kit, E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.co [Department of Medical Imaging, St. Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, 41 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the normal range of spleen size in an adult African population, and compare the findings to published data to determine any correlation with ethnicity. Materials and methods: Three hundred and seventy-four African adults without conditions that can affect the spleen or splenic abnormalities were evaluated with ultrasonography. Spleen length, width and thickness were measured and spleen volume calculated. Spleen size was correlated with age, gender, height, weight, and body mass index. Results: The mean spleen volume was 120 cm{sup 3}. Spleen volume correlated with spleen width (r = 0.85), thickness (r = 0.83) and length (r = 0.80). Men had a larger mean spleen volume than women. No correlation was found between spleen volume and age, weight, height, or body mass index. Conclusion: Mean spleen volume in African adults is smaller than data from Western sources, and cannot be explained by difference in body habitus.

  10. Ghrelin modulates testicular germ cells apoptosis and proliferation in adult normal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheradmand, Arash; Dezfoulian, Omid; Alirezaei, Masoud; Rasoulian, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. ► Numerous studies have documented the direct action of ghrelin in the modulation of apoptosis in different cell types. ► Ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats. ► Ghrelin may be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors. -- Abstract: Under normal condition in the most mammals, spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. The present study was designed to determine the effects of ghrelin treatment on in vivo quality and quantity expression of apoptosis and proliferation specific indices in rat testicular germ cells. Twenty eight adult normal rats were subdivided into equal control and treatment groups. Treatment group received 3 nmol of ghrelin as subcutaneous injection for 30 consecutive days or vehicle to the control animals. The rats from each group (n = 7) were killed on days 10 and 30 and their testes were taken for immunocytochemical evaluation and caspase-3 assay. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the accumulations of Bax and PCNA peptides are generally more prominent in spermatocytes and spermatogonia of both groups. Likewise, the mean percentage of immunoreactive spermatocytes against Bax increased (P 0.05). Upstream of Bax substance parallel to down-regulation of PCNA demonstrate that ghrelin may prevent massive accumulation of germ cells during normal spermatogenesis. These observations also indicate that ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats and could be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors.

  11. Assessment of Eustachian tube function in patients with tympanic membrane retraction and in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Inesângela; Petersen Schmidt Rosito, Letícia; Siliprandi, Bruno; Giugno, Cláudia; Selaimen da Costa, Sady

    The diagnosis of Eustachian tube dysfunctions is essential for better understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media. A series of tests to assess tube function are described in the literature; however, they are methodologically heterogeneous, with differences ranging from application protocols to standardization of tests and their results. To evaluate the variation in middle ear pressure in patients with tympanic membrane retraction and in normal patients during tube function tests, as well as to evaluate intra-individual variation between these tests. An observational, contemporary, cross-sectional study was conducted, in which the factor under study was the variation in middle ear pressure during tube function tests (Valsalva maneuver, sniff test, Toynbee maneuver) in healthy patients and in patients with mild and moderate/severe tympanic retraction. A total of 38 patients (76 ears) were included in the study. Patients underwent tube function tests at two different time points to determine pressure measurements after each maneuver. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, version 18.0, considering p-values <0.05 as statistically significant. Mean (standard deviation) age was 11 (2.72) years; 55.3% of patients were male and 44.7% female. The prevalence of type A tympanogram was higher among participants with healthy ears and those with mild retraction, whereas type C tympanograms were more frequent in the moderate/severe retraction group. An increase in middle ear pressure was observed during the Valsalva maneuver at the first time point evaluated in all three groups of ears (p=0.012). The variation in pressure was not significant either for the sniff test or for the Toynbee maneuver at the two time points evaluated (p≥0.05). Agreement between measurements obtained at the two different time points was weak to moderate for all tests in all three groups of ears, and the variations in discrepancy between measurements were higher in ears

  12. Aspirin effects on lymphocyte cyclic AMP levels in normal human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, D E; Parker, C W

    1976-01-01

    In purified lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of healthy human subjects who had ingested therapeutic doses of aspirin, there was a significant decrease in resting cyclic AMP levels as well as a partial inhibition of the rise in cyclic AMP with isoproterenol or prostaglandin E1. These changes were seen as early as 30 min after aspirin ingestion and did not appear to result from aspirin effects on lymphocyte recovery, purity, viability, or relative number of thymus- or bone marrow-derived lymphocytes. In contrast, the direct addition of aspirin to suspensions of purified peripheral lymphocytes did not significantly alter their cyclic AMP levels. However, an effect of aspirin could be obtained in vitro if aspirin was added to unprocessed whole blood during the dextran sedimentation phase of the cell purification. Thus the effect of aspirin on lymphocyte cyclic AMP metabolism, may be indirect, through other cells present in the peripheral blood. PMID:182720

  13. The effects of diet and physical activity on plasma homovanillic acid in normal human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Mohs, R C; Davis, K L

    1983-03-01

    This study examines the effect of diet and moderate physical activity on plasma levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in healthy young males. At weekly intervals, subjects were fed four isocaloric meals: polycose (pure carbohydrate), sustecal, low monoamine, and high monoamine. Moderate physical activity consisted of 30 minutes of exercise on a bicycle ergometer. The effect of diet on plasma HVA (pHVA) was highly significant. Compared to the polycose meal, the high monoamine meal significantly increased pHVA. Moderate physical activity also significantly increased pHVA. Future clinical studies using pHVA in man as an index of brain dopamine function should control for the effects of both diet and physical activity.

  14. Hyperdynamic circulatory changes in liver cirrhosis: Comparative evaluation by doppler ultrasonography with normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Dae Wook; Baik, Soon Koo; Suh, Jung In; Kim, Jae Woo; Park, Yong Soon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Dong Ki; Kwon, Sang Ok

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the cardiovascular and splanchnic hemodynamic changes in patients with liver cirrhosis and to compare with those of the normal controls using doppler ultrasonography. A total of 129 patients including 23 of Child-Pugh class A, 24 of class A, 24 of class B, 30 of class C, and 52 of the control group were included. Cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), and blood flow and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were evaluated and compared among each groups. CO and SMA blood flow in the cirrhotic group were significantly higher than those in the control group, and the increase in CO and SMA blood flow showed a statistically significant correlation with the degree of liver dysfunction (p 2 =0.230). Hyperdynamic circulatory changes such as increases in CO and splanchnic blood flow were present in patients with liver cirrhosis. These changes may contribute to the development and maintenance of the portal hypertension due to an increase in portal blood flow an increase in portal blood flow.

  15. Hyperdynamic circulatory changes in liver cirrhosis: Comparative evaluation by doppler ultrasonography with normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Dae Wook; Baik, Soon Koo; Suh, Jung In; Kim, Jae Woo; Park, Yong Soon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Dong Ki; Kwon, Sang Ok [Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    To evaluate the cardiovascular and splanchnic hemodynamic changes in patients with liver cirrhosis and to compare with those of the normal controls using doppler ultrasonography. A total of 129 patients including 23 of Child-Pugh class A, 24 of class A, 24 of class B, 30 of class C, and 52 of the control group were included. Cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), and blood flow and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were evaluated and compared among each groups. CO and SMA blood flow in the cirrhotic group were significantly higher than those in the control group, and the increase in CO and SMA blood flow showed a statistically significant correlation with the degree of liver dysfunction (p<0.01). SVRI and SMA PI reflecting vascular resistance in the cirrhotic group were significantly lower than those in the control group, and the decrease in SVRI and SMA PI also showed a statistically significant correlation with the degree of liver dysfunction (p<0.01). SMA blood flow showed a statistically significant inverse relationship with SMA PI (R{sup 2}=0.230). Hyperdynamic circulatory changes such as increases in CO and splanchnic blood flow were present in patients with liver cirrhosis. These changes may contribute to the development and maintenance of the portal hypertension due to an increase in portal blood flow an increase in portal blood flow.

  16. Feasibility studies on design of steel containment for AHWR subjected to normal and seismic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Rajeev; Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Kumar, Ajay

    2011-01-01

    Reactor Containments in nuclear power plants are the final leak tight harriers preventing release of radioactive material during the accident to the environment. It should provide containment against fission product release, passive containment cooling and should be economical. In the world various configurations have been adopted depending on the accident pressures, temperatures, leak rate requirements and radius of exclusion zones. economy, speed of construction etc. Some of the containments arc of Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC), Prestressed Cement Concrete (PCC), RCC with the liner, PCC with the liner and Steel. The design concepts and the choice of containment depend on the country practices. The main objective of this paper is to design, analyze and characterize the effectiveness of steel containment for AHWR and compare it with other type of containments. The paper discusses the literature regarding various types of existing containments in the world. In depth study of design practice for cylinder and various types of heads have been discussed. Also discusses the finite element modeling of the containment, analysis for normal and accidental loads and the design qualification as per the ASME and IS-800 codes. In the conclusion the advantage of steel containment is highlighted with the small discussion on the newer trends of construction. (author)

  17. Validation of endogenous normalizing genes for expression analyses in adult human testis and germ cell neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svingen, T; Jørgensen, A; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2014-08-01

    The measurement of gene expression levels in cells and tissues typically depends on a suitable point of reference for inferring biological relevance. For quantitative (or real-time) RT-PCR assays, the method of choice is often to normalize gene expression data to an endogenous gene that is stably expressed across the samples analysed: a so-called normalizing or housekeeping gene. Although this is a valid strategy, the identification of stable normalizing genes has proved challenging and a gene showing stable expression across all cells or tissues is unlikely to exist. Therefore, it is necessary to define suitable normalizing genes for specific cells and tissues. Here, we report on the performance of a panel of nine commonly employed normalizing genes in adult human testis and testicular pathologies. Our analyses revealed significant variability in transcript abundance for commonly used normalizers, highlighting the importance of selecting appropriate normalizing genes as comparative measurements can yield variable results when different normalizing genes are employed. Based on our results, we recommend using RPS20, RPS29 or SRSF4 when analysing relative gene expression levels in human testis and associated testicular pathologies. OCT4 and SALL4 can be used with caution as second-tier normalizers when determining changes in gene expression in germ cells and germ cell tumour components, but the relative transcript abundance appears variable between different germ cell tumour types. We further recommend that such studies should be accompanied by additional assessment of histology and cellularity of each sample. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Relative activity of cerebral subcortical gray matter in varying states of attention and awareness in normal subjects and patient studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Levy, J.; Wagner, N.; Spire, J.P.; Jacobsen, J.; Meltzer, H.; Metz, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    An important aspect of the study of brain function involves measurement of the relationships; between activities in the subcortical gray matter of the caudate and of the thalamus; and between these structures and functional cortical areas. The authors have studied these relationships in 22 subjects under different conditions of activation, sleep and sensory deprivation using a PET VI system and F-18-2DG to determine regional cerebral metabolism. Subject activating conditions were maintained throughout the period of equilibration of F-18-2DG and E.E.G.'s were monitored. Multiple tomographic slices of 1-2 million counts were obtained simultaneously with slice separation of 14mm and each plane parallel to the cantho-meatal line. In activated and non-activated awake conditions for normal subjects, left and right thalmus-to-caudate ratios were similar and greater than unity. This relationship was maintained in non-REM sleep, but was reversed and divergent in REM sleep and sensory deprivation; this was also evident in 3/4 narcoleptics awake and asleep in non-REM and REM and 2/3 schizophrenics and affective disorder, subjects. This approach appears to have potential for characterizating normal and disordered regional cerebral function

  19. The normalization of data in the Constant-Murley score for the shoulder. A study conducted on 563 healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, F A; Tajana, M S

    2003-01-01

    The study was conducted in order to evaluate the theoretical design of the Constant-Murley system and to reveal any difficulties in obtaining data when it is used in 563 subjects not affected with shoulder pathology. The total mean score for the subjects examined was 85.2 points (minimum 75, maximum 100 points). Values revealed a decreasing trend beginning at 50 years of age for men and 30 for women. Only 4 subjects achieved a maximum score of 100. The measurements taken allowed us to elaborate a reference table based on sex and age, which was required to calculate the correct score. These values differ from those reported by the inventors of the system and they reveal the need to compile personal tables for the normalization of scores.

  20. Plasma progranulin and relaxin levels in PCOS women with normal BMI compared to control healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is the most commonly encountered endocrine gland disease affecting 5-10 present of women at their reproductive age. This syndrome is associated with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Progranulin and relaxin are adipokins that are related with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Due to limited data about progranulin and relaxin plasma levels´ in women with PCOS and normal BMI, this study was conducted. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional. During the study 39 women with PCOS and BMI< 25 on the basis of Rotterdam criteria were chosen as the patient group and 38 healthy women were selected as the control group. The concentration of progranulin and relaxin were measured by ELISA technique. Results: The difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin, and also some of the biochemical parameters in the patient group versus to the control group was not significant, but there was significant difference in the concentrations of VLDL, triglyceride (p=0.046, insulin (p=0.016, HOMA-IR (p=0.015, testosterone (p=0.01, and DHEAS (p=0.034 in the patients group compared to the control group. Conclusion: In this study, the difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin in the patient group compared to the control group was not significant. It could be inferred that lack of change in plasma level of progranulin and relaxin in women with PCOS is related to BMI<25 and FBS<110. Moreoverestosterones, insulin, DHEAS and HOMA-IR changes could be better predictors of PCOS and its associated diabetes.

  1. Normal magnetic resonance appearances of the temporomandibular joints in children and young adults aged 2-18 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angenete, Oskar W.; Augdal, Thomas A.; Jellestad, Stig; Rygg, Marite; Rosendahl, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of normal appearances of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is paramount when assessing the joint for disease in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Reliable features defining normal TMJs in children are limited. To establish reliable normal standards for the TMJ at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We included children and young adults aged 2-18 years undergoing a head MRI for reasons not believed to affect the TMJs. We assessed TMJ anatomy and contrast enhancement using a high-resolution 3-D T1-weighted sequence. We noted joint fluid and bone marrow oedema based on a T2-weighted sequence. Three experienced radiologists read all examinations twice in consensus and defined intraobserver consensus agreement. We evaluated the TMJs in 101 children and young adults (45 female), mean age 10.7 years (range 2-18 years). The intraobserver consensus agreement for the assessment of anterior condylar inclination in the sagittal/oblique plane was moderate to good (Cohen κ=0.7 for the right side). Cohen κ for intraobserver consensus agreement for condylar shape in the coronal plane on a 0-2 scale was 0.4 for the right and 0.6 for the left. Intraobserver agreement for measurement of joint space height and assessment of bone marrow oedema was poor. There was a statistically significant increase in anterior inclination by age in the sagittal plane on a 0-2 scale (P<0.0001). Eighty percent of the condyles showed a rounded shape in the coronal plane while 20% showed mild flattening. Thirty-five of 36 right TMJs showed contrast enhancement (mild enhancement in 32 joints, moderate in 3 joints). Subjective assessment of the anterior condylar inclination in the sagittal/oblique plane and condylar flattening in the coronal plane can be considered precise features for describing TMJ anatomy in healthy children. There is an increasing anterior inclination by age. Mild contrast enhancement of the TMJs should be considered a normal finding. (orig.)

  2. Frataxin mRNA Isoforms in FRDA Patients and Normal Subjects: Effect of Tocotrienol Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provvidenza Maria Abruzzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA is caused by deficient expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin involved in the formation of iron-sulphur complexes and by consequent oxidative stress. We analysed low-dose tocotrienol supplementation effects on the expression of the three splice variant isoforms (FXN-1, FXN-2, and FXN-3 in mononuclear blood cells of FRDA patients and healthy subjects. In FRDA patients, tocotrienol leads to a specific and significant increase of FXN-3 expression while not affecting FXN-1 and FXN-2 expression. Since no structural and functional details were available for FNX-2 and FXN-3, 3D models were built. FXN-1, the canonical isoform, was then docked on the human iron-sulphur complex, and functional interactions were computed; when FXN-1 was replaced by FXN-2 or FNX-3, we found that the interactions were maintained, thus suggesting a possible biological role for both isoforms in human cells. Finally, in order to evaluate whether tocotrienol enhancement of FXN-3 was mediated by an increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG, PPARG expression was evaluated. At a low dose of tocotrienol, the increase of FXN-3 expression appeared to be independent of PPARG expression. Our data show that it is possible to modulate the mRNA expression of the minor frataxin isoforms and that they may have a functional role.

  3. Joint dynamics and intra-subject variability during countermovement jumps in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated lower limb joint work, lower limb joint energy transport and intra-subject variation of the joint dynamics during countermovement jumps in children and adults. Twelve healthy men and eleven healthy boys performed ten maximal countermovement jumps. Three dimensional...... kinematics and kinetics were recorded in synchrony. Hip, knee and ankle joint eccentric and concentric work, joint energy transfer, intra-subject variation of joint moment, joint power and joint moment components were calculated. The children had lower eccentric and concentric hip work and lower eccentric...... work, hip joint moment and hip and knee joint power. Higher intra-subject variation was observed in horizontal joint reaction force components for the children and higher intra-subject variation in the segment angular inertia components was observed for the adults. The joint dynamics of children during...

  4. Subjective memory impairment and well-being in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Krystle E; Mackenzie, Michael J; Kramer, Arthur; McAuley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between subjective memory impairment (SMI), future cognitive decline, and negative health status provides an opportunity for interventions to reduce memory complaints in high-risk groups. This study aimed to examine the relationship between SMI and indicators of well-being in older adults enrolled in an exercise trial. Additionally, the study examined whether two different modes of exercise training, aerobic walking and non-aerobic flexibility, toning, and balance, differentially influenced subjective memory across the trial. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 179, mean age = 66.4 years) were randomly assigned to a walking or flexibility, toning, and balance group for 12 months. Subjective memory, happiness, perceived stress, and symptom reporting were measured at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A main effect of subjective memory indicated that individuals with the fewest memory complaints had lower perceived stress (P happiness levels (P memory complaints in high-risk groups. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  5. ERP C250 shows the elderly (cognitively normal, Alzheimer's disease) store more stimuli in short-term memory than Young Adults do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert M; Gardner, Margaret N; Mapstone, Mark; Klorman, Rafael; Porsteinsson, Anton P; Dupree, Haley M; Antonsdottir, Inga M; Kamalyan, Lily

    2016-06-01

    To determine how aging and dementia affect the brain's initial storing of task-relevant and irrelevant information in short-term memory. We used brain Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to measure short-term memory storage (ERP component C250) in 36 Young Adults, 36 Normal Elderly, and 36 early-stage AD subjects. Participants performed the Number-Letter task, a cognitive paradigm requiring memory storage of a first relevant stimulus to compare it with a second stimulus. In Young Adults, C250 was more positive for the first task-relevant stimulus compared to all other stimuli. C250 in Normal Elderly and AD subjects was roughly the same to relevant and irrelevant stimuli in Intratrial Parts 1-3 but not 4. The AD group had lower C250 to relevant stimuli in part 1. Both normal aging and dementia cause less differentiation of relevant from irrelevant information in initial storage. There was a large aging effect involving differences in the pattern of C250 responses of the Young Adult versus the Normal Elderly/AD groups. Also, a potential dementia effect was obtained. C250 is a candidate tool for measuring short-term memory performance on a biological level, as well as a potential marker for memory changes due to normal aging and dementia. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Avaliação da vertical visual subjetiva em indivíduos brasileiros normais Subjective visual vertical evaluation in normal Brazilian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline M. Kozoroski Kanashiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A função otolítica pode ser avaliada pela Vertical Visual Subjetiva (VVS que determina a capacidade de um indivíduo julgar se objetos estão na posição vertical na ausência de outras referências visuais. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a VVS em indivíduos brasileiros normais usando um aparelho portátil. As medidas da VVS foram realizadas em 160 indivíduos (16 a 85 anos. O valor médio da VVS foi obtido após dez ajustes. A VVS teve valores médios entre -2,0º e +2,4º (média=0,18º, e DP=0,77º. Não houve diferença entre as médias da VVS em relação à idade (teste de Kruskal-Wallis; p=0,40, mas as faixas etárias maiores tiveram variância maior (teste de Levene; p=0,016. Os valores da VVS encontrados neste estudo foram semelhantes aos registrados na literatura. Não houve diferença nas médias das inclinações da VVS de acordo com a idade, mas foi encontrada maior variância entre indivíduos mais idosos.Otolith function can be evaluated by subjective visual vertical (SVV that determine the capacity of a subject to judge if the objects are on vertical position with absence of any visual reference. The aim of this study was to evaluate the SVV in a sample of normal Brazilian subjects using a portable device. Measurements of SVV were performed in 160 normal subjects (aged from 16 to 85. SVV mean value was obtained after ten adjustments. SVV mean values ranged from -2.0º to +2.4º (mean=0.18º, and SD=0.77. Considering all age groups, there was no difference of SVV mean values (Kruskal-Wallis test; p=0.40, but older groups had a greater variance (Levene test; p=0.016. SVV values observed in this study are comparable to those described in previous studies. Although there was no difference in mean SVV-inclination according to age, there was a greater variance in older subjects.

  7. Social support and subjective burden in caregivers of adults and older adults: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    del-Pino-Casado, Rafael; Frías-Osuna, Antonio; Palomino-Moral, Pedro A.; Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Ramos-Morcillo, Antonio J.

    2018-01-01

    Background Despite the generally accepted belief that social support improves caregiver adjustment in general and subjective burden in particular, the literature shows mixed findings, and a recent review concluded that the predictive strength of caregiver social support in determining caregiver burden is less evident, due to the conceptual diversity of this determinant. Objective The purpose of this review is to analyse the relationship of perceived and received social support with subjective...

  8. Controlled cross-over study in normal subjects of naloxone-preceding-lactate infusions; respiratory and subjective responses: relationship to endogenous opioid system, suffocation false alarm theory and childhood parental loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preter, M; Lee, S H; Petkova, E; Vannucci, M; Kim, S; Klein, D F

    2011-02-01

    The expanded suffocation false alarm theory (SFA) hypothesizes that dysfunction in endogenous opioidergic regulation increases sensitivity to CO2, separation distress and panic attacks. In panic disorder (PD) patients, both spontaneous clinical panics and lactate-induced panics markedly increase tidal volume (TV), whereas normals have a lesser effect, possibly due to their intact endogenous opioid system. We hypothesized that impairing the opioidergic system by naloxone could make normal controls parallel PD patients' response when lactate challenged. Whether actual separations and losses during childhood (childhood parental loss, CPL) affected naloxone-induced respiratory contrasts was explored. Subjective panic-like symptoms were analyzed although pilot work indicated that the subjective aspect of anxious panic was not well modeled by this specific protocol. Randomized cross-over sequences of intravenous naloxone (2 mg/kg) followed by lactate (10 mg/kg), or saline followed by lactate, were given to 25 volunteers. Respiratory physiology was objectively recorded by the LifeShirt. Subjective symptomatology was also recorded. Impairment of the endogenous opioid system by naloxone accentuates TV and symptomatic response to lactate. This interaction is substantially lessened by CPL. Opioidergic dysregulation may underlie respiratory pathophysiology and suffocation sensitivity in PD. Comparing specific anti-panic medications with ineffective anti-panic agents (e.g. propranolol) can test the specificity of the naloxone+lactate model. A screen for putative anti-panic agents and a new pharmacotherapeutic approach are suggested. Heuristically, the experimental unveiling of the endogenous opioid system impairing effects of CPL and separation in normal adults opens a new experimental, investigatory area.

  9. Controlled cross-over study in normal subjects of naloxone-preceding-lactate infusions; respiratory and subjective responses: relationship to endogenous opioid system, suffocation false alarm theory and childhood parental loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preter, M.; Lee, S. H.; Petkova, E.; Vannucci, M.; Kim, S.; Klein, D. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The expanded suffocation false alarm theory (SFA) hypothesizes that dysfunction in endogenous opioidergic regulation increases sensitivity to CO2, separation distress and panic attacks. In panic disorder (PD) patients, both spontaneous clinical panics and lactate-induced panics markedly increase tidal volume (TV), whereas normals have a lesser effect, possibly due to their intact endogenous opioid system. We hypothesized that impairing the opioidergic system by naloxone could make normal controls parallel PD patients' response when lactate challenged. Whether actual separations and losses during childhood (childhood parental loss, CPL) affected naloxone-induced respiratory contrasts was explored. Subjective panic-like symptoms were analyzed although pilot work indicated that the subjective aspect of anxious panic was not well modeled by this specific protocol. Method Randomized cross-over sequences of intravenous naloxone (2 mg/kg) followed by lactate (10 mg/kg), or saline followed by lactate, were given to 25 volunteers. Respiratory physiology was objectively recorded by the LifeShirt. Subjective symptomatology was also recorded. Results Impairment of the endogenous opioid system by naloxone accentuates TV and symptomatic response to lactate. This interaction is substantially lessened by CPL. Conclusions Opioidergic dysregulation may underlie respiratory pathophysiology and suffocation sensitivity in PD. Comparing specific anti-panic medications with ineffective anti-panic agents (e.g. propranolol) can test the specificity of the naloxone + lactate model. A screen for putative anti-panic agents and a new pharmacotherapeutic approach are suggested. Heuristically, the experimental unveiling of the endogenous opioid system impairing effects of CPL and separation in normal adults opens a new experimental, investigatory area. PMID:20444308

  10. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: Associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Daniel B.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement rep...

  11. Effects of Indoor Horseback Riding and Virtual Reality Exercises on the Dynamic Balance Ability of Normal Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effect of indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises on the dynamic balance ability of normal adults. [Subjects] This study enrolled 24 normal adults and divided them into two groups: an indoor horseback riding exercise group (IHREG, n = 12) and a virtual reality exercise group (VREG, n = 12). [Methods] IHREG exercised on indoor horseback riding equipment and VREG exercised using the Nintendo Wii Fit three times a week for six weeks. The Biodex Balance System was used to analyze dynamic balance as measured by the overall stability index (OSI), anteroposterior stability index (APSI), and mediolateral stability index (MLSI). [Results] In the within-group comparison, IHREG and VERG both showed significant decreases in the dynamic balance indexes of OSI, APSI, and MLSI after the intervention, but no significant difference was found between the groups. [Conclusion] Both indoor horseback riding and virtual reality exercises were effective at improving the subjects’ dynamic balance ability as measured by OSI, APSI, and MLSI, and can be used as additional exercises for patients with conditions affecting postural control. PMID:25540494

  12. Recombinant DNA derived monomeric insulin analogue: comparison with soluble human insulin in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, J P; Owens, D R; Dolben, J; Atiea, J A; Dean, J D; Kang, S; Burch, A; Brange, J

    1988-11-12

    To compare the rate of absorption from subcutaneous tissue and the resulting hypoglycaemic effect of iodine-125 labelled soluble human insulin and a monomeric insulin analogue derived by recombinant DNA technology. Single blind randomised comparison of equimolar doses of 125I labelled soluble human insulin and insulin analogue. Study in normal people at a diabetes research unit and a university department of medical physics. Seven healthy male volunteers aged 20-39 not receiving any other drugs. After an overnight fast and a basal period of one hour two doses (0.05 and 0.1 U/kg) of 125I labelled soluble human insulin and insulin analogue were injected subcutaneously into the anterior abdominal wall on four separate days. To find a fast acting insulin for meal related requirements in insulin dependent diabetics. MEASUREMENTS and main results--Residual radioactivity at the injection site was measured continuously for the first two hours after injection of the 125I labelled preparations and thereafter for five minutes simultaneously with blood sampling. Frequent venous blood samples were obtained over six hours for determination of plasma immunoreactive insulin, insulin analogue, glucose, and glucagon values. Time to 50% of initial radioactivity at the injection site for the insulin analogue compared with soluble insulin was 61 v 135 minutes (p less than 0.05) with 0.05 U/kg and 67 v 145 minutes (p less than 0.001) with 0.1 U/kg. Concentrations in plasma increased faster after the insulin analogue compared with soluble insulin, resulting in higher plasma concentrations between 10 and 150 minutes (0.001 less than p less than 0.05) after 0.05 U/kg and between 40 and 360 minutes (0.001 less than p less than 0.05) after 0.1 U/kg. The hypoglycaemic response to insulin analogue was a plasma glucose nadir at 60 minutes with both doses compared with 90 and 120 minutes with soluble insulin at 0.5 and 0.1 U/kg respectively. The response of glucagon substantiated the earlier and

  13. A comparative study of intraocular pressure measurement by three tonometers in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, S K; Mahesh, B S; Shanthamallappa, M

    2013-01-01

    Contact Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) is gold standard for measuring intraocular pressure; however its routine use is limited by its non-portability and the need for a Slit Lamp Microscope. The Portable Perkins tonometer is also considered gold standard because it is based on the same principles as the GAT. The iCare is a newly introduced, portable, non-contact tonometer (NCT) that measures intraocular pressure (IOP) using a thin metallic probe. To evaluate reliability and accuracy of IOP measurements using iCare and Keeler Pulsair tonometers against Perkins tonometer. A comparative, randomized, prospective clinical study conducted on 166 eyes of 83 (n=83) subjects in the age group 14 to 71 years. The pressures were first recorded by iCare and Pulsair and then by Perkins. The SPSS 11.00 version was used for analysis. Mean pressures and standard deviation (+/-SD) for iCare, Pulsair and Perkins were 14.62(+/- 2.47), 14.53(+/-3.36) and 13.06(+/-2.69) and the Standard Error of the Mean (SEM) was 0.27, 0.36 and 0.30 respectively. There was a good correlation between iCare and Perkins with statistically significant difference (r=0.610, p less than 0.05). Regression analysis was performed. Using the Bland-Altman analysis 95% Limits of Agreement (LoA) for iCare and Pulsair were determined as -6.1 to 2.9 and -4.5 to 7.5 respectively. Although both tonometers overestimated the Perkins values, Pulsair showed a better agreement with Perkins tonometer than iCare tonometer. © NEPjOPH.

  14. The odontoid process invagination in normal subjects, Chiari malformation and Basilar invagination patients: Pathophysiologic correlations with angular craniometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jânio A; Botelho, Ricardo V

    2015-01-01

    Craniometric studies have shown that both Chiari malformation (CM) and basilar invagination (BI) belong to a spectrum of malformations. A more precise method to differentiate between these types of CVJM is desirable. The Chamberlain's line violation (CLV) is the most common method to identify BI. The authors sought to clarify the real importance of CLV in the spectrum of craniovertebral junction malformations (CVJM) and to identify possible pathophysiological relationships. We evaluated the CLV in a sample of CVJM, BI, CM patients and a control group of normal subjects and correlated their data with craniocervical angular craniometry. A total of 97 subjects were studied: 32 normal subjects, 41 CM patients, 9 basilar invagination type 1 (BI1) patients, and 15 basilar invagination type 2 (BI2) patients. The mean CLV violation in the groups were: The control group, 0.16 ± 0.45 cm; the CM group, 0.32 ± 0.48 cm; the BI1 group, 1.35 ± 0.5 cm; and the BI2 group, 1.98 ± 0.18 cm. There was strong correlation between CLV and Boogard's angle (R = 0.82, P = 0.000) and the clivus canal angle (R = 0.7, P = 0.000). CM's CLV is discrete and similar to the normal subjects. BI1 and BI2 presented with at least of 0.95 cm CLV and these violations were strongly correlated with a primary cranial angulation (clivus horizontalization) and an acute clivus canal angle (a secondary craniocervical angle).

  15. Recognition of "real-world" musical excerpts by cochlear implant recipients and normal-hearing adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Olszewski, Carol; Rychener, Marly; Sena, Kimberly; Knutson, John F; Witt, Shelley; Macpherson, Beth

    2005-06-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to compare recognition of "real-world" music excerpts by postlingually deafened adults using cochlear implants and normal-hearing adults; (b) to compare the performance of cochlear implant recipients using different devices and processing strategies; and (c) to examine the variability among implant recipients in recognition of musical selections in relation to performance on speech perception tests, performance on cognitive tests, and demographic variables. Seventy-nine cochlear implant users and 30 normal-hearing adults were tested on open-set recognition of systematically selected excerpts from musical recordings heard in real life. The recognition accuracy of the two groups was compared for three musical genre: classical, country, and pop. Recognition accuracy was correlated with speech recognition scores, cognitive measures, and demographic measures, including musical background. Cochlear implant recipients were significantly less accurate in recognition of previously familiar (known before hearing loss) musical excerpts than normal-hearing adults (p genre. Implant recipients were most accurate in the recognition of country items and least accurate in the recognition of classical items. There were no significant differences among implant recipients due to implant type (Nucleus, Clarion, or Ineraid), or programming strategy (SPEAK, CIS, or ACE). For cochlear implant recipients, correlations between melody recognition and other measures were moderate to weak in strength; those with statistically significant correlations included age at time of testing (negatively correlated), performance on selected speech perception tests, and the amount of focused music listening following implantation. Current-day cochlear implants are not effective in transmitting several key structural features (i.e., pitch, harmony, timbral blends) of music essential to open-set recognition of well-known musical selections. Consequently, implant

  16. Age-related changes in brain perfusion of normal subjects detected by 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausz, Y.; Karger, H.; Chisin, R.; Bonne, O.; Gorfine, M.; Lerer, B.

    1998-01-01

    Previous functional imaging data generally show impairment in global cerebral blood flow (CBF) with age. Conflicting data, however, concerning age-related changes in regional CBF (rCBF) have been reported. We examined the relative rCBF in a sample of healthy subjects of various ages, to define and localize any age-related CBF reduction. Twenty-seven healthy subjects (17 male, 10 female; mean age 49 ± 15, range 26-71, median 47 years) were studied by 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT. The younger age group consisted of subjects below, the older group above 47 years of age, respectively. Analysis was performed by applying three preformed templates, each containing delineated regions of interest (ROIs), to three transaxial brain slices at approximately 4, 6, and 7 cm above the orbitomeatal line (OML). The average number of counts for each ROI was normalized to mean uptake of the cerebellum and of the whole brain slice. Globally, 99m Tc-HMPAO uptake ratio normalized to cerebellum was significantly decreased in older subjects, affecting both hemispheres. A slight left-to-right asymmetry was observed in HMPAO uptake of the whole study group. It did not, however, change with age. Regionally, both cortical and subcortical structures of older subjects were involved: uptake ratio to cerebellum was significantly lower (after correction for multiple testing) in the left basal ganglia and in the left superior temporal, right frontal and bilateral occipital cortices at 4 cm above the OML. At 6 cm above the OML, reduced uptake ratios were identified in the left frontal and bilateral parietal areas. At 7 cm, reduced uptake was detected in the right frontal and left occipital cortices. Most of these differences were reduced when uptake was normalized to whole slice, whereas an increase in uptake ratios was observed in the cingulate cortex of the elderly. An inverse correlation between age and HMPAO uptake ratios normalized to cerebellum was observed in a number of brain regions. These

  17. Neuroimaging Characteristics of Small-Vessel Disease in Older Adults with Normal Cognition, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mimenza-Alvarado

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD represents the most frequent type of vascular brain lesions, often coexisting with Alzheimer disease (AD. By quantifying white matter hyperintensities (WMH and hippocampal and parietal atrophy, we aimed to describe the prevalence and severity of SVD among older adults with normal cognition (NC, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and probable AD and to describe associated risk factors. Methods: This study included 105 older adults evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging and clinical and neuropsychological tests. We used the Fazekas scale (FS for quantification of WMH, the Scheltens scale (SS for hippocampal atrophy, and the Koedam scale (KS for parietal atrophy. Logistic regression models were performed to determine the association between FS, SS, and KS scores and the presence of NC, MCI, or probable AD. Results: Compared to NC subjects, SVD was more prevalent in MCI and probable AD subjects. After adjusting for confounding factors, logistic regression showed a positive association between higher scores on the FS and probable AD (OR = 7.6, 95% CI 2.7–20, p < 0.001. With the use of the SS and KS (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 3.5–58, p = 0.003 and OR = 8.9, 95% CI 1–72, p = 0.04, respectively, the risk also remained significant for probable AD. Conclusions: These results suggest an association between severity of vascular brain lesions and neurodegeneration.

  18. Diurnal Variations in Serum Glucose, Insulin and C-Peptide of Normal Korean Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Du Hyok; Chung, June Key; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Hong, Kee Suk

    1983-01-01

    It is already well known that many factors are involved in maintaining normal blood glucose level. The amount and components of meal are also thought to be some of the factors which affect the blood glucose and insulin levels. It is reported that as for Koreans sugar takes up over 75% out of 2,098 kcal, the average daily calorie intake per adult. It implies that Koreans take a high-sugar diet compared with Westerners who take 40-50% of sugar out of their total average daily calorie. For the purpose of studying diurnal variations in serum glucose, insulin and C-peptide of normal Koreans adults based on ordinary Korean diet, we selected 13 normal Korean male adults and divided them into two groups, Group I (7 persons) and Group II (6 persons). We put Group I on 3,100 kcal and 75% sugar diet, and Group II on 2,100 kcal and 69% sugar diet per day for over 4 days. Serum glucose, insulin and C-peptide were checked every 30 minutes or every hour throughout 2 hour. Results are as follows: 1. As for serum glucose level, in the preprandial fasting state in the morning, mean±S.D. of Group I was 91.1±3.2 mg%, while that of Group II is 82.5±4.4 mg%. Both groups showed peaks of increased glucose level t postprandial 1 hour after each meal. The peak returned to the level shown during the fasting state at postprandial 1 hour after breakfast while the relatively high glucose levels were maintained respectively even for 2 or 3 hours after lunch and dinner. 2. As for serum insults level, Group I showed mean±S.D. of 14.7±3.0 μU/ml while Group II shows that of 7.0±2.6 μU/ml in the fasting state. Group I particularly showed the largest peak from preprandial a half or one and half an hour to postprandial one hour of lunch, and made relatively small peaks (47.7±10.8 μU/ml) at postprandial 1 hour after breakfast and dinner. No such large peak was marked in Group II, though it showed relatively similar patterns of peak after each meal. 3. As for C-peptide, in the fasting state

  19. Diurnal Variations in Serum Glucose, Insulin and C-Peptide of Normal Korean Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Du Hyok; Chung, June Key; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Kee Suk [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    It is already well known that many factors are involved in maintaining normal blood glucose level. The amount and components of meal are also thought to be some of the factors which affect the blood glucose and insulin levels. It is reported that as for Koreans sugar takes up over 75% out of 2,098 kcal, the average daily calorie intake per adult. It implies that Koreans take a high-sugar diet compared with Westerners who take 40-50% of sugar out of their total average daily calorie. For the purpose of studying diurnal variations in serum glucose, insulin and C-peptide of normal Koreans adults based on ordinary Korean diet, we selected 13 normal Korean male adults and divided them into two groups, Group I (7 persons) and Group II (6 persons). We put Group I on 3,100 kcal and 75% sugar diet, and Group II on 2,100 kcal and 69% sugar diet per day for over 4 days. Serum glucose, insulin and C-peptide were checked every 30 minutes or every hour throughout 2 hour. Results are as follows: 1. As for serum glucose level, in the preprandial fasting state in the morning, mean+-S.D. of Group I was 91.1+-3.2 mg%, while that of Group II is 82.5+-4.4 mg%. Both groups showed peaks of increased glucose level t postprandial 1 hour after each meal. The peak returned to the level shown during the fasting state at postprandial 1 hour after breakfast while the relatively high glucose levels were maintained respectively even for 2 or 3 hours after lunch and dinner. 2. As for serum insults level, Group I showed mean+-S.D. of 14.7+-3.0 muU/ml while Group II shows that of 7.0+-2.6 muU/ml in the fasting state. Group I particularly showed the largest peak from preprandial a half or one and half an hour to postprandial one hour of lunch, and made relatively small peaks (47.7+-10.8 muU/ml) at postprandial 1 hour after breakfast and dinner. No such large peak was marked in Group II, though it showed relatively similar patterns of peak after each meal. 3. As for C-peptide, in the fasting state

  20. False Memories in Children and Adults: Age, Distinctiveness, and Subjective Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information, and subjective experience of true/false memories. Found that 5-year-olds recalled more false memories than adults but no age differences in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false…

  1. Help-Seeking Response to Subjective Memory Complaints in Older Adults: Toward a Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Aysha; Whitley, Rob; Banerjee, Sube; Matthews, David; Stewart, Robert; Morgan, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Subjective memory complaint is a term used to refer older adults who report memory problems. Extensive literature exists on its etiology and impact on long-term cognitive decline, and some physicians consider it important in the early detection of dementia. Despite the salient features reported by both patients and clinicians, few people…

  2. Subjective Organization in Free Recall as a Function of Adult Age and Type of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, David Fries

    This study focused on adult age differences in the organizational processes of memory as measured by performance (number of words recalled) and subject imposed organization (SO) of information. Thirty males in each of three age groups (16-19, 30-39, 45-54) underwent 16 inspection trials and 16 recall trails on an experimental list of 22 unrelated…

  3. Objective and subjective need for cosmetic dentistry in the Dutch adult population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgersdijk, R.; Truin, G.J.; Kalsbeek, H.; Hof, M. van 't; Mulder, J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to assess the objective and subjective need for cosmetic dentistry in the Dutch adult population in 1986 a stratified sample of 2784 dentate persons, aged 15-74 yr, participated in the study. The aesthetics of anterior teeth and first premolars in the maxillary mandibular arch were

  4. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  5. Subjective Social Status and Positive Indicators of Well-Being among Emerging Adult College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorotovich, Jennifer; Johnson, Elizabeth I.; Linn, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    The current study extends research on social status and well-being among young people by examining whether subjective social status (SSS) is related to life satisfaction and happiness. Emerging adults (n = 383) between 18 and 29 provided data on demographic characteristics, SSS, life satisfaction, and happiness via an online survey. Regression…

  6. MRI Volumetry of Hippocampus and Amygdala in Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease Subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suphaphong, S.; Tritanon, O.; Laothamatas, J.; Sungkarat, W.

    2012-01-01

    The Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can affect memory and daily living. Non- invasive diagnostic tools such as MRI can be useful to discriminate the patients from normal group.This study aims to compare the relative volumes of hippocampus and amygdala, to suggest the relative normal volumes, and to evaluate MRI automatic volumetry as a diagnostic tool. The MRI images of 130 subjects were retrospectively studied (Turbo field echo (TFE), acquired with a 3-Tesla Philips scanner). The image data were processed with Free Surfer (automatic segmentation and volumetry). The resultant volumes were corrected for brain size differences with intracranial volumes (ICV), and then analysed with SPSS (v. 17.0). There are differences of hippocampus and amygdala relative volumes between normal, MCI, and AD subjects at p < 0.001. The volume reductions of hippocampus in MCI and AD groups compared to normal group are about 8 % and 28 %, while those of amygdala are about 10 % and 34 %, respectively. The relative volumes of hippocampus (compared to ICV) in normal aging are 0.002617 ± 0.000278 (right) and 0.002553 ± 0.000257 (left), while those of amygdala are 0.001231 ± 0.000165 (right) and 0.001096 ± 0.000144 (left). There are no differences of relative volumes affected by gender in normal, MCI, and AD. There is a highly significant difference of relative volume affected by brain side in normal group (p < 0.001) but not in MCI (p = 0.119 and 0.077) and AD (p = 0.713 and 0.250), for hippocampus and amygdala, respectively. These results demonstrate that there are volume losses of hippocampus and amygdala in both diseases. Automatically measured hippocampus and amygdala volumes can be used as a measure indicating MCI and AD. The abnormal disturbance of volume affected by brain side may indicate the progression of both diseases. The hippocampus and amygdala volumes can be used as one of diagnostic tools to confirm the diagnosis of MCI or AD. The volume

  7. A study on normal value of eyeball protrusion in Korean adult using CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chi Sung; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1984-01-01

    CT may be valuably used in determination of proptosis. Normal value of eyeball protrusion was measured in normal Koreans using CT. Among 86 Koreans, 26 have normal both eyes, but 60 have one normal eye with one abnormal eye (chiefly, proptosis and and eyeball tumor). The results of 112 eyes are as follows: Absolute measurement of 'a', that is, the distance between cornea and IZL (interzygomatic line) is 16.0±3.4 mm in male (for 63 eye), 15.7±4.0 mm in female for 49 eyes. Ratio of 'a' over 'A' (A-P diameter of eyeball) is 57±12% is male (for 63 eye), 57±14% in female (for 49 eye) Discrepancy of eyeball protrusion between both eyes is 0.67±1.5 mm (for 26 adults). Practically, normal range of eyeball prtotrusion ('a') is 12.6 mm < male < 19.4 mm, 11.7 mm < female < 19.7 mm. 'a/A' ratio over 70% and over 2mm discrepancy between both eyes are also suggested as genuine exophthalmos

  8. Performance in normal subjects on a novel battery of driving-related sensory-motor and cognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Carrie R H; Jones, Richard D; Anderson, Tim J; Hollobon, Susan G; Dalrymple-Alford, John C

    2009-05-01

    Currently, there is no international standard for the assessment of fitness to drive for cognitively or physically impaired persons. A computerized battery of driving-related sensory-motor and cognitive tests (SMCTests) has been developed, comprising tests of visuoperception, visuomotor ability, complex attention, visual search, decision making, impulse control, planning, and divided attention. Construct validity analysis was conducted in 60 normal, healthy subjects and showed that, overall, the novel cognitive tests assessed cognitive functions similar to a set of standard neuropsychological tests. The novel tests were found to have greater perceived face validity for predicting on-road driving ability than was found in the equivalent standard tests. Test-retest stability and reliability of SMCTests measures, as well as correlations between SMCTests and on-road driving, were determined in a subset of 12 subjects. The majority of test measures were stable and reliable across two sessions, and significant correlations were found between on-road driving scores and measures from ballistic movement, footbrake reaction, hand-control reaction, and complex attention. The substantial face validity, construct validity, stability, and reliability of SMCTests, together with the battery's level of correlation with on-road driving in normal subjects, strengthen our confidence in the ability of SMCTests to detect and identify sensory-motor and cognitive deficits related to unsafe driving and increased risk of accidents.

  9. Changes in radiation dose with variations in human anatomy: larger and smaller normal-stature adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine, Patrick M; Stabin, Michael G; Fernald, Michael J; Brill, Aaron B

    2010-05-01

    A systematic evaluation has been performed to study how specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) vary with changes in adult body size, for persons of different size but normal body stature. A review of the literature was performed to evaluate how individual organ sizes vary with changes in total body weight of normal-stature individuals. On the basis of this literature review, changes were made to our easily deformable reference adult male and female total-body models. Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport were performed; SAFs for photons were generated for 10th, 25th, 75th, and 90th percentile adults; and comparisons were made to the reference (50th) percentile SAF values. Differences in SAFs for organs irradiating themselves were between 0.5% and 1.0%/kg difference in body weight, from 15% to 30% overall, for organs within the trunk. Differences in SAFs for organs outside the trunk were not greater than the uncertainties in the data and will not be important enough to change calculated doses. For organs irradiating other organs within the trunk, differences were significant, between 0.3% and 1.1%/kg, or about 8%-33% overall. The differences are interesting and can be used to estimate how different patients' dosimetry might vary from values reported in standard dose tables.

  10. Relationship of tumor necrosis factor alpha genotypes with various biochemical parameters of normal, over weight and obese human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, M.; Chaudhary, B.; Shakoori, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-alpha) is expressed primarily in adipocytes and elevated levels of this cytokine have been associated with obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to test whether the TNF-alpha -308 polymorphism were associated with insulin resistance or obesity related traits in non-diabetic and diabetic patients visiting Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, Fatima Hospital and Irfan Clinic in Sargodha. In non diabetic subjects the AA allele carriers, compared with homozygous G allele carriers had significantly lower (28%) triglyceride values and 15% higher HDL yal ues, whereas other parameters tested 81id not show any significant variation. In diabetic patients the AA allele carriers, compared with GG allele carriers, besides having 31 % higher FBS and 26% higher creatinine, had 20% higher cholesterol and 34% higher triglycerides. The HDL values were 14% less, compared to GG allele carriers. In normal subjects (BMI 22.85:1:0.25 kgim2), the AA allele carriers showed 132%, 125%, 65% and 112% higher triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL values compared with GG allele carriers. The HDL and creatinine did not show any significant change. In the overweight subjects (BMI: 27.17+-0.17 kgim/sup 2/) all these values were lower than in AA allele carriers compared with GG allele carriers. The AA allele carries had FBS, triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL 28%, 48%, 14% and 14% lower than in the GG allele' carriers, respectively. In obese subjects, (BMI: 36.73+-0.78kgm/sup 2/), however, the FBS, triglycerides, cholesterol and creatinine values were 5%, 8%, 7% and 14% higher in AA allele carries compared to GG allele carriers, respectively. The LDL content was 8% lower in AA allele carrier as compared with the respective GG allele carriers, It is concluded that replacement of G at -308 with A leads to reduced risk for cardiovascular disease in non-diabetic subject, whereas in diabetic patients this mutation-increases the risk of CVD. Using BMI as index of obesity, it was

  11. An obesity provoking behaviour negatively influences young normal weight subjects' health related quality of life and causes depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernersson, Asa; Frisman, Gunilla Hollman; Sepa Frostell, Anneli; Nyström, Fredrik H; Lindström, Torbjörn

    2010-12-01

    In many parts of the world the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in combination with high consumption of food has increased, which contributes to increased risk for becoming overweight. Our primary aim was, in an intervention, to examine the influence on health related quality of life (HRQoL) and mood in young normal weight subjects of both sexes, when adopting an obesity provoking behaviour by increasing the energy intake via fast food and simultaneously adopting a sedentary lifestyle. A secondary aim was to follow-up possible long-term effects on HRQoL and mood 6 and 12 months after this short-term intervention. In this prospective study, 18 healthy normal weight subjects (mean age 26±6.6 years), mainly university students were prescribed doubled energy intake, and maximum 5000 steps/day, during 4 weeks. An age and sex matched control group (n=18), who were asked to have unchanged eating habits and physical activity, was recruited. Before and after the intervention questionnaires including Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety Depression scale, Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, Sense of Coherence and Mastery scale were completed by the subjects in the intervention group and by the controls with 4 weeks interval. Six and 12 months after the intervention the subjects underwent the same procedure as at baseline and the controls completed the same questionnaires. During the intervention, subjects in the intervention group increased their bodyweight and developed markedly lower physical and mental health scores on Short Form-36 as well as depressive symptoms while no changes appeared in the controls. The increase of depressive symptoms was associated with increases of energy intake, body weight and body fat. When followed up, 6 and 12 months after the intervention, physical and mental health had returned completely to baseline values, despite somewhat increased body weight. In conclusion, adopting obesity provoking behaviour for 4 weeks decreases HRQo

  12. Quantification of the right ventricular wall using stress myocardial emission computed tomography with thallium-201 in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akanabe, Hiroshi; Oshima, Motoo; Sakuma, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Kawai, Naoki; Sotobata, Iwao

    1985-01-01

    Although many studies of quantitative analysis of left ventricular myocardial wall (LVMW) have been reported using stress thallium-201 (Tl-201), few reports of right ventricular myocardial wall (RVMW) have been estimated. In this study we determined whether single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Tl-201 could accurately define normal range of RVMW in normal subjects. Twelve persons who have no valvular disease, nor coronary artery disease were included in this study. Stress SPECT study was reconstructed to make a short axial images of ventricles. RVMW and LVMW were flagged by mamual. Each ventricle was divided into 36 parts at every 10 degree. Relative activity counts in each ventricle were calculated as a percent counts of maximum counts in left ventricle. The normal range of RVMW with stress SPECT was as follows: anterior wall (33.2 +- 11.4 %, mean +- 2 standard deviation, -62.7 +- 18.4 %), free wall (30.1 +- 12.4 % - 38.5 +- 8.8 %), inferior wall (40.4 +- 7.8 % - 60.0 +- 21.4 %), septal wall (65.2 +- 17.2 % - 71.1 +- 14.2 %). Above the results, SPECT with Tl-201 can accurately define the normal range of RVMW, and this method is usefull to quantify the degree of ischemia and hypertrophy in RVMW. (author)

  13. Cardio-respiratory response of young adult Indian male subjects to stress: Effects of progressive muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunima Chaudhuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress and anxiety have become an integral part of our lives. Of late, this has resulted in the increase in incidence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. Objectives: To assess the effect of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR on young adult males and its role in the modulation of cardio-respiratory response on exposure to stress. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care referral hospital. Undergraduate male students under stress were chosen for the study. Fasting blood samples were drawn to analyze sugar and lipid profile, followed by anthropometric measurements and ECG. In the resting condition, blood pressure, pulse rate, and spirometric parameters; forced vital capacities (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV 1 % were measured. Then, they were made to exercise with bicycle ergometer and post exercise, the vital parameters were recorded. All subjects were given a training of Jacobson′s Progressive Muscular Relaxation and asked to practice this technique for 3 months. All parameters were re-evaluated. Results: Significant decreases in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol levels of subjects were seen after PMR training. Exercise-induced rise in heart rate and blood pressure were also significantly less in subjects following PMR training. Conclusion: Progressive muscle relaxation helps in modulation of heart rate, blood pressure, and lipid profile in healthy normal adult male individuals.

  14. Reduction in reactive oxygen species production by mitochondria from elderly subjects with normal and impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sangeeta; Lertwattanarak, Raweewan; Lefort, Natalie; Molina-Carrion, Marjorie; Joya-Galeana, Joaquin; Bowen, Benjamin P; Garduno-Garcia, Jose de Jesus; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad; Richardson, Arlan; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Mandarino, Lawrence; Van Remmen, Holly; Musi, Nicolas

    2011-08-01

    Aging increases the risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes. It has been proposed that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by dysfunctional mitochondria could play a role in the pathogenesis of these metabolic abnormalities. We examined whether aging per se (in subjects with normal glucose tolerance [NGT]) impairs mitochondrial function and how this relates to ROS generation, whether older subjects with IGT have a further worsening of mitochondrial function (lower ATP production and elevated ROS generation), and whether exercise reverses age-related changes in mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial ATP and ROS production were measured in muscle from younger individuals with NGT, older individuals with NGT, and older individuals with IGT. Measurements were performed before and after 16 weeks of aerobic exercise. ATP synthesis was lower in older subjects with NGT and older subjects with IGT versus younger subjects. Notably, mitochondria from older subjects (with NGT and IGT) displayed reduced ROS production versus the younger group. ATP and ROS production were similar between older groups. Exercise increased ATP synthesis in the three groups. Mitochondrial ROS production also increased after training. Proteomic analysis revealed downregulation of several electron transport chain proteins with aging, and this was reversed by exercise. Old mitochondria from subjects with NGT and IGT display mitochondrial dysfunction as manifested by reduced ATP production but not with respect to increased ROS production. When adjusted to age, the development of IGT in elderly individuals does not involve changes in mitochondrial ATP and ROS production. Lastly, exercise reverses the mitochondrial phenotype (proteome and function) of old mitochondria.

  15. Somatostatin and serum gastrin in normal subjects and in patients with pernicious anaemia, chronic liver and renal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roith, D; Vinik, A I; Epstein, S; Baron, P; Olkenitzky, M N; Pimstone, B L

    1975-09-13

    The effects of somatostatin (growth hormone release inhibiting hormone) on basal gastrin were studied in patients suffering from pernicious anaemia and chronic renal and liver disease, and during sequential arginine/insulin-stimulated gastrin release in normal subjects. When basal gastrin concentrations were normal (10-50 pg/ml) in controls and in patients who were in renal and liver failure, somatostatin had no effect on gastrin levels. Raised basal gastrin levels in pernicious anaemia and in 2 cases of chronic renal disease, were significantly inhibited by somatostatin with a half-life (T-half) of 3 to 4 minutes. Arginine infusion caused an insignificant rise in serum gastrin which was unaffected by somatostatin, whereas insulin hypoglycaemia significantly stimulated gastrin release, which was inhibited by somatostatin.

  16. Study of the muscular metabolism using Phosphorus 31 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P-MRS) in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, T.S.; Salmon, C.E.G.; Santos, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorus 31 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRS) is a powerful technique for evaluating human muscular metabolism. Some reports indicated the behavior of phosphorylated metabolites (PCr, ADP and Pi) and other indirect parameters (intracellular pH and [Mg 2+ ]) in muscles at rest and after an exercise load. The aim of this work is a quantitative study of the phosphorylated metabolite levels in the calf muscle of normal subjects at rest and post-exercise, in order to create a normal control database. 31 P spectra of seven volunteers were acquired in both conditions. Firstly, different quantification methodologies were evaluated to use the more reliable. The P Cr metabolite was the more stable at rest and it had mono-exponential behavior after exercise. The Pi was the more sensible indicator of the physical activities. The time constants of the recuperation process are report for all the evaluated metabolites and parameters. Finally, the temporal behavior of phospho monoesters was quantified. (author)

  17. Hyperglycaemia attenuates the gastrokinetic effect of erythromycin and affects the perception of postprandial hunger in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.L.; Berry, M.; Kong, M.F.; Kwiatek, M.; Samsom, M.; Horowitz, M.; Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Recent studies have demonstrated that acute changes in the blood glucose concentration may affect gastrointestinal motor function and the perception of sensations arising from the gastrointestinal tract. Erythromycin has been shown to accelerate gastric emptying in both normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus. The major aims of this study were to determine in normal subjects whether the effects of erythromycin on gastric emptying, and perceptions of hunger and fullness are modified by the blood glucose concentration. 10 normal subjects (aged 20-39 yr) underwent concurrent measurement of gastric emptying, blood glucose, hunger and fullness on four separate occasions: twice during euglycaemia (∼4 mmol/L) and twice during hyperglycaemia (∼15 mmol/L). Either erythromycin (3 mg/kg) or saline (0.9%) was administered intravenously immediately before ingestion of a radioisotopically labelled solid meal. Gastric emptying was slower (P<0.0001) during hyperglycaemia when compared to euglycaemia after both erythromycin and saline administration. Erythromycin accelerated the post-lag emptying rate during euglycaemia (P<0.05), but not hyperglycaemia. Hunger decreased (P<0.001) and fullness increased (P<0.001) after the meal Postprandial hunger was less (P<0.05) and fullness greater (P<0.05 during hyperglycaemia after saline infusion, but not after erythromycin. Hunger was greater after erythromycin when compared to saline during both hyperglycaemia and euglycaemia (P<0.05). In conclusion, at a blood glucose concentration of ∼15 mmol/L when compared to euglycaemia: (i) after administration of erythromycin (3 mg/kg IV) gastric emptying of a solid meal is much slower, (ii) the effect of erythromycin on gastric emptying of a solid meal is attenuated and (iii) the perception of postprandial hunger is reduced and that of fullness increased

  18. Hyperglycaemia attenuates the gastrokinetic effect of erythromycin and affects the perception of postprandial hunger in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.L.; Berry, M.; Kong, M.F.; Kwiatek, M.; Samsom, M.; Horowitz, M. [University of South Australia, SA (Australia). School of Medicine Radiation]|[Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Medicine

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Recent studies have demonstrated that acute changes in the blood glucose concentration may affect gastrointestinal motor function and the perception of sensations arising from the gastrointestinal tract. Erythromycin has been shown to accelerate gastric emptying in both normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus. The major aims of this study were to determine in normal subjects whether the effects of erythromycin on gastric emptying, and perceptions of hunger and fullness are modified by the blood glucose concentration. 10 normal subjects (aged 20-39 yr) underwent concurrent measurement of gastric emptying, blood glucose, hunger and fullness on four separate occasions: twice during euglycaemia ({approx}4 mmol/L) and twice during hyperglycaemia ({approx}15 mmol/L). Either erythromycin (3 mg/kg) or saline (0.9%) was administered intravenously immediately before ingestion of a radioisotopically labelled solid meal. Gastric emptying was slower (P<0.0001) during hyperglycaemia when compared to euglycaemia after both erythromycin and saline administration. Erythromycin accelerated the post-lag emptying rate during euglycaemia (P<0.05), but not hyperglycaemia. Hunger decreased (P<0.001) and fullness increased (P<0.001) after the meal Postprandial hunger was less (P<0.05) and fullness greater (P<0.05) during hyperglycaemia after saline infusion, but not after erythromycin. Hunger was greater after erythromycin when compared to saline during both hyperglycaemia and euglycaemia (P<0.05). In conclusion, at a blood glucose concentration of {approx}15 mmol/L when compared to euglycaemia: (i) after administration of erythromycin (3 mg/kg IV) gastric emptying of a solid meal is much slower, (ii) the effect of erythromycin on gastric emptying of a solid meal is attenuated and (iii) the perception of postprandial hunger is reduced and that of fullness increased

  19. A preliminary investigation into the effects of ocular lubricants on higher order aberrations in normal and dry eye subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnigle, Samantha; Eperjesi, Frank; Naroo, Shehzad A

    2014-04-01

    To study the effects of ocular lubricants on higher order aberrations in normal and self-diagnosed dry eyes. Unpreserved hypromellose drops, Tears Again™ liposome spray and a combination of both were administered to the right eye of 24 normal and 24 dry eye subjects following classification according to a 5 point questionnaire. Total ocular higher order aberrations, coma, spherical aberration and Strehl ratios for higher order aberrations were measured using the Nidek OPD-Scan III (Nidek Technologies, Gamagori, Japan) at baseline, immediately after application and after 60 min. The aberration data were analyzed over a 5mm natural pupil using Zernike polynomials. Each intervention was assessed on a separate day and comfort levels were recorded before and after application. Corneal staining was assessed and product preference recorded after the final measurement for each intervention. Hypromellose drops caused an increase in total higher order aberrations (p=dry eyes) and a reduction in Strehl ratio (normal eyes: p=dry eyes p=0.01) immediately after instillation. There were no significant differences between normal and self-diagnosed dry eyes for response to intervention and no improvement in visual quality or reduction in higher order aberrations after 60 min. Differences in comfort levels failed to reach statistical significance. Combining treatments does not offer any benefit over individual treatments in self-diagnosed dry eyes and no individual intervention reached statistical significance. Symptomatic subjects with dry eye and no corneal staining reported an improvement in comfort after using lubricants. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Learning Modality and Auditory Feedback on Word Memory: Cochlear-Implanted versus Normal-Hearing Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taitelbaum-Swead, Riki; Icht, Michal; Mama, Yaniv

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, the effect of cognitive abilities on the achievements of cochlear implant (CI) users has been evaluated. Some studies have suggested that gaps between CI users and normal-hearing (NH) peers in cognitive tasks are modality specific, and occur only in auditory tasks. The present study focused on the effect of learning modality (auditory, visual) and auditory feedback on word memory in young adults who were prelingually deafened and received CIs before the age of 5 yr, and their NH peers. A production effect (PE) paradigm was used, in which participants learned familiar study words by vocal production (saying aloud) or by no-production (silent reading or listening). Words were presented (1) in the visual modality (written) and (2) in the auditory modality (heard). CI users performed the visual condition twice-once with the implant ON and once with it OFF. All conditions were followed by free recall tests. Twelve young adults, long-term CI users, implanted between ages 1.7 and 4.5 yr, and who showed ≥50% in monosyllabic consonant-vowel-consonant open-set test with their implants were enrolled. A group of 14 age-matched NH young adults served as the comparison group. For each condition, we calculated the proportion of study words recalled. Mixed-measures analysis of variances were carried out with group (NH, CI) as a between-subjects variable, and learning condition (aloud or silent reading) as a within-subject variable. Following this, paired sample t tests were used to evaluate the PE size (differences between aloud and silent words) and overall recall ratios (aloud and silent words combined) in each of the learning conditions. With visual word presentation, young adults with CIs (regardless of implant status CI-ON or CI-OFF), showed comparable memory performance (and a similar PE) to NH peers. However, with auditory presentation, young adults with CIs showed poorer memory for nonproduced words (hence a larger PE) relative to their NH peers. The

  1. In vivo kinetics of 123I-labelled insulin: studies in normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, A.J.; Signore, A.; Bomanji, J.; Britton, K.E.; Pozzilli, P.; Gale, E.A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radioactive tracer techniques using 131 I- and 125 I-insulin have been applied to study insulin metabolism. A simple method to label human insulin with 123 I to a high specific activity is described. We have used this radiotracer to study insulin kinetics in vivo in normal subjects and in two groups of diabetic patients. The rate of decline in plasma radioactivity was shown to be significantly reduced in patients with diabetes. There were no significant differences in the time -activity profiles of liver and kidneys between the groups studied. This technique may provide insight into the mechanism of some forms of insulin resistance. (author)

  2. Quality of life in glaucoma patients and normal subjects related to the severity of damage in each eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol Carreras, O; Anton, A; Mora, C; Pastor, L; Gudiña, S; Maull, R; Vega, Z; Castilla, M

    2017-11-01

    To assess the quality of life in glaucoma patients and normal subjects, and to assess its relationship with the severity of damage in each eye. A cross-sectional study was conducted with prospective selection of cases. The study included 464 subjects and were distributed into 4categories. Subjects included in group 1 had both eyes normal, that is with a normal intraocular pressure (IOP), optic disk and visual fields (VF), or mild glaucoma, defined as untreated IOP>21mmHg and abnormal VF with mean defect (MD) over -6dB. Group 2 consisted of patients with both eyes with mild or moderate glaucoma, defined as untreated IOP>21mmHg and abnormal VF with MD between -6 and -12dB. Group 3 included patients with moderate to severe glaucoma, that is, untreated IOP>21mmHg and abnormal VF with MD of less than -12dB in both eyes. Group 4 consisted of patients with asymmetric glaucoma damage, that is, they had one eye with severe glaucoma and the other eye normal or with mild glaucoma. All subjects completed 3 different questionnaires. Global quality of life was evaluated with EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D). Vision related quality of life was assessed with Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25). Quality of life related to ocular surface disease was measured with Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). VFQ-25 showed that group 3 had significantly lower scores than group 1 in mental health (P=.006), dependence (P=.006), colour vision (P=.002), and peripheral vision (P=.002). EQ-5D showed no significant differences between any group, but a trend was found to greater difficulty in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2, and in all dimensions. OSDI showed a higher score, or which was the same as a major disability, in groups 2 and 3 than group 1 (P=.021 and P=.014, respectively). VFQ-25 only found significant differences between group 1 and group 4. Dimensions with significant differences were found between group 1 and 3 (both eyes with advanced or moderate glaucoma). These were not found between group 1 and

  3. Effects of indomethacin on plasma homovanillic acid concentration in normal subjects: a study of prostaglandin-dopamine interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, R S; Davidson, M; Kanof, P; McQueeney, R T; Singh, R R; Davis, K L

    1991-01-01

    In laboratory animals, prostaglandins have been shown to act as endogenous neuromodulators of central dopamine (DA) activity. To examine the interaction between prostaglandins and DA in man, the effect of a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, indomethacin, was studied on plasma concentrations of the DA metabolite, homovanillic acid (pHVA). Indomethacin (150 mg PO) as compared to placebo significantly elevated mean pHVA concentrations in eight normal subjects. Results of this study support the hypothesis that, as in animals, inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis increases central DA turnover in man.

  4. Simultaneous estimation of liquid and solid gastric emptying using radiolabelled egg and water in supine normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kris, M G; Yeh, S D; Gralla, R J; Young, C W

    1986-01-01

    To develop an additional method for the measurement of gastric emptying in supine subjects, 10 normal subjects were given a test meal containing 99Tc-labelled scrambled egg as the "solid" phase marker and 111In in tapwater as the marker for the "liquid" phase. The mean time for emptying 50% of the "solid" phase (t1/2) was 85 min and 29 min for the "liquid" phase. Three individuals were restudied with a mean difference between the two determinations of 10.8% for the "solid" phase and 6.5% for the "liquid" phase. Twenty-six additional studies attempted have been successfully completed in symptomatic patients with advanced cancer. This method provides a simple and reproducible procedure for the determination of gastric emptying that yields results similar to those reported for other test meals and can be used in debilitated patients.

  5. Exploring the Factor Structure of Financial Capacity in Cognitively Normal and Impaired Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Triebel, Kristen; Eakin, Amanda; Martin, Roy; Marson, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the factor structure of financial capacity using a direct-performance measure of financial skills (The Financial Capacity Instrument [FCI]) as a proxy for the financial capacity construct. The study sample was composed of 440 older adults who represented the cognitive spectrum from normal cognitive aging to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to mild dementia: 179 healthy older adults, 149 participants with MCI, and 112 participants with mild Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Both Velicer's Minimum Average Partial test and Horn's parallel analysis supported a four-factor solution which accounted for 46% of variance. The four extracted factors were interpreted as: (1) Basic Monetary Knowledge and Calculation Skills, (2) Financial Judgment, (3) Financial Conceptual Knowledge, and (4) Financial Procedural Knowledge. The study findings represent an important first step in empirically articulating the financial capacity construct in aging. The four identified factors can guide both clinical practice and future instrument utilization and development. Cognitively impaired older adults with MCI and mild AD dementia are likely to show financial changes in one or more of the four identified financial factors. Clinicians working with older adults should routinely examine for potential changes in these four areas of financial function.

  6. Telomere erosion varies during in vitro aging of normal human fibroblasts from young and adult donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, R; Lindenmaier, H; Hergenhahn, M; Nielsen, K V; Boukamp, P

    2000-06-01

    The life span of normal fibroblasts in vitro (Hayflick limit) depends on donor age, and telomere shortening has been proposed as a potential mechanism. By quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization and Southern blot analysis, we show progressive telomere loss to about 5 kb mean telomere restriction fragment length in fibroblasts from two adult donors within 40 population doublings, whereas in fibroblasts from two infant donors, telomere erosion is reduced, leaving a mean telomere restriction fragment length of approximately 7 kb at senescence (after approximately 60 population doublings). Aging of fibroblasts from both infant and adult donors was not accompanied by chromosomal abnormalities but was correlated with increased telomere repeat-binding factor 2 expression at both the protein and transcriptional level.

  7. [Colorimetric investigation of normal tongue and lip colors from 516 healthy adults by visible reflection spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chang-chun; Yang, Li; Xu, Ying; Liu, Pei-pei; Guo, Shi-jun; Liu, Song-hao

    2011-09-01

    Using the data from normal tongue and lip colors of normal people which were collected by the visible reflection spectrum, we analyzed the colorimetric parameters of tongue and lip colors. In this study, 516 healthy students aging from 19 to 26 from the colleges and universities of Guangdong Province of China were taken as research subjects. After collecting the data of tongue and lip colors of the 516 subjects using visible reflectance spectroscopy, CIE XYZ tristimulus values as defined by the International Commission on Illumination in 1964 were calculated, and the colorimetric parameters of the normal tongue and lip colors were obtained, such as the CIE 1964 chromaticity coordinate, brightness, dominant wavelength and excitation purity. The results of CIE 1964 chromaticity diagram calculated on the visible reflection spectrum showed that the normal tongue color chromaticity coordinate x(10) was 0.341 3±0.008 5 and y(10) was 0.332 6±0.005 1, and the normal lip color chromaticity coordinate x(10) was 0.357 7±0.009 2 and y(10) was 0.338 3±0.005 7; the brightness Y values of the normal tongue color and lip colors were 17.96±3.78 and 19.78±3.72, the dominant wavelength values of the normal tongue color and lip color were (626.3±51.6) nm and (600.4±18.2) nm, and the excitation purity values of the normal tongue color and lip color were 0.083±0.031 and 0.144±0.036, respectively. Application of the visible reflection spectrum is a standard way to collect colorimetric data for inspection of the complexion. The investigation of chromaticity coordinates, brightness, dominant wavelength and excitation purity of the normal tongue and lip colors may offer the basic reference for diagnosing morbid complexion on the tongue and lip colors in traditional Chinese medicine.

  8. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Baghban Khojasteh, Nasrin

    2012-01-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: ► Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. ► Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. ► Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. ► Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. ► The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  9. The effect of glutamine administration on urinary ammonium excretion in normal subjects and patients with renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbourne, T; Weber, M; Bank, N

    1972-07-01

    The effect of acute changes in the delivery rate of glutamine to the kidney on urinary ammonium excretion was studied in man. Healthy subjects and patients with intrinsic renal disease were studied under three different acid-base conditions: unaltered acid-base balance; NH(4)Cl-induced acidosis; and NaHCO(3)-induced alkalosis. Anhydrous L-glutamine was administered orally in a single dose of 260 mmoles during each of these three acid-base states. We found that endogenous venous plasma glutamine concentration fell during acidosis and rose during alkalosis in both healthy subjects and patients with renal disease. In healthy subjects, orally administered glutamine raised plasma glutamine concentration markedly over a 2-3 hr period. This was accompanied by an increase in urinary ammonium excretion and a rise in urine pH under normal acid-base conditions and during metabolic acidosis. No increase in ammonium excretion occurred when glutamine was administered during metabolic alkalosis in spite of an equivalent rise in plasma glutamine concentration. In patients with renal disease, endogenous venous plasma glutamine concentration was lower than in healthy subjects, perhaps as a result of mild metabolic acidosis. Acute oral glutamine loading failed to increase urinary ammonium excretion significantly during either unaltered acid-base conditions or after NH(4)Cl-induced acidosis, even though plasma glutamine rose as high as in healthy subjects. We conclude from these observations that glutamine delivery to the kidney is a rate-limiting factor for ammonium excretion in healthy subjects, both before and after cellular enzyme adaptation induced by metabolic acidosis. In contrast, in patients with renal disease, glutamine delivery is not rate-limiting for ammonium excretion. Presumably other factors, such as surviving renal mass and the activity of intracellular enzymes necessary for ammonia synthesis limit ammonium excretion in these patients.

  10. Normal reference values for vertebral artery flow volume by color Doppler sonography in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Joh, Joon Hee; Park, Jai Soung; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Ahn, Hyun Cheol [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    Vertebrobasilar ischemia has been attributed to a reduction of net vertebral artery flow volume. This study was to establish the reference values for the flow volume of the vertebral artery using color Doppler sonography in the normal Korea adults. Thirty five normal Korea adults without any underlying disease including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, heart disease, obesity (body mas index>30), or carotid artery stenosis was included. There were 17 males and 18 females, age ranged from 20 to 53 years (average=32.86 years). Flow velocities and vessel diameters were recorded in the intertransverse (V2) segment, usually at C5-6 level, bilaterally. The flow volume (Q) was calculated. (Q=time averaged mean velocity x cross sectional area of vessel) A lower Flow velocity and smaller vessel diameter were measured on the right side compared to those of the left side, resulting in a lower flow volume. The calculated flow volumes using the equation were 77.0 +- 39.7 ml/min for the right side and 127.6 +- 71.0 ml/min for the left side (p=0.0001) while the net vertebral artery flow volume was 204.6 +- 81.8 ml/min. Decrease in the vertebral artery flow volume was statistically significant with advanced age. (r=-0.36, p=0.032). Vertebral artery blood flow volume was 191.20 +- 59.19 ml/min in male, and 217.28 +- 98.67 ml/min in female (p=0.6). The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume defined by the 5th to 95th percentiles was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. Vertebral artery flow volume decreased with the increase of age. However, gender did not affect the blood flow volume.

  11. Childhood Trauma Associated with Enhanced High Frequency Band Powers and Induced Subjective Inattention of Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hwan Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Childhood trauma can lead to various psychological and cognitive symptoms. It has been demonstrated that high frequency electroencephalogram (EEG powers could be closely correlated with inattention. In this study, we explored the relationship between high frequency EEG powers, inattention, symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and childhood traumatic experiences. A total of 157 healthy Korean adult volunteers were included and divided into two groups using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ score. The subjective inattention scores, ADHD scale, and anxiety and depression symptom were evaluated. EEG was recorded and quantitative band powers were analyzed. The results were as follows: (1 the high CTQ group showed significantly increased delta, beta1, beta2, beta3 and gamma, and significantly decreased low alpha power compared to the low CTQ group; (2 the high CTQ group had higher inattention score compared to the low CTQ group; (3 the high CTQ group had higher adult ADHD scores; (4 CTQ scores showed significant positive correlations with inattention scores, and adult ADHD scores; (5 unexpectedly, the inattention scores showed significant positive correlations with beta powers and a negative correlation with low alpha power; and (6 the moderated mediation model was confirmed: the depression fully mediated the path from state anxiety to inattention, and the CTQ significantly moderated the pathway between anxiety and depression. Our results show the possibility that childhood adversity may cause subjective inattention and adult ADHD symptoms. Depressive symptoms fully mediated the path from anxiety to inattention, especially in those who report severe childhood traumatic experiences.

  12. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Ghrelin modulates testicular germ cells apoptosis and proliferation in adult normal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheradmand, Arash, E-mail: arashkheradmand@yahoo.com [Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, P.O. Box: 465, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dezfoulian, Omid [Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alirezaei, Masoud [Division of Biochemistry, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, P.O. Box: 465, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rasoulian, Bahram [Razi Herbal Medicine Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorram Abad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerous studies have documented the direct action of ghrelin in the modulation of apoptosis in different cell types. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ghrelin may be considered as a modulator of spermatogenesis in normal adult rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ghrelin may be potentially implicated for abnormal spermatogenesis in some testicular germ cell tumors. -- Abstract: Under normal condition in the most mammals, spermatogenesis is closely associated with the balance between germ cells proliferation and apoptosis. The present study was designed to determine the effects of ghrelin treatment on in vivo quality and quantity expression of apoptosis and proliferation specific indices in rat testicular germ cells. Twenty eight adult normal rats were subdivided into equal control and treatment groups. Treatment group received 3 nmol of ghrelin as subcutaneous injection for 30 consecutive days or vehicle to the control animals. The rats from each group (n = 7) were killed on days 10 and 30 and their testes were taken for immunocytochemical evaluation and caspase-3 assay. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the accumulations of Bax and PCNA peptides are generally more prominent in spermatocytes and spermatogonia of both groups. Likewise, the mean percentage of immunoreactive spermatocytes against Bax increased (P < 0.01) in the ghrelin-treated group on day 10, while despite of 30% increment in the Bax level of spermatocytes in the treated rats on day 30, however, it was not statistically significant. During the experimental period, only a few spermatogonia represented Bax expression and the changes of Bax immunolabling cells were negligible upon ghrelin treatment. Likewise, there were immunostaining cells against Bcl-2 in each germ cell neither in the control nor in the treated animals. In fact

  14. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  15. A longitudinal analysis of salivary flow in control subjects and older adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, E M; Borrell, L N; Taylor, G W; Ship, J A

    2001-02-01

    Many diabetics complain of xerostomia, a condition that can affect oral health, nutritional status, and diet selection. This study's purposes were (1) to investigate the effect on salivary flow of type 2 diabetes and change in glycemic control in a group of older adults over time and (2) to compare flow rates with subjective complaints of xerostomia. A total of 39 older adults, 24 with type 2 diabetes and 15 who were nondiabetic (controls), aged 54-90 years, participated in a 1-year follow-up study. Diabetic status was determined by means of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and 2-hour glucose tolerance tests. Poor glycemic control was defined as HbA1c > 9%. Unstimulated whole, unstimulated parotid, and stimulated parotid saliva flow rates were measured for all subjects by a single examiner at baseline and 1 year later. Each subject completed a standardized xerostomia questionnaire at every visit. Age, sex, and duration of diabetes did not adversely affect salivary flow rates. Subjects with poorly controlled diabetes had significantly lower stimulated parotid saliva flow rates at both visits. There were no significant changes in flow rates over time on the basis of diabetic status or glycemic control. Subjects with diabetes reported significantly more complaints of thirst but not of xerostomia at 1 year. These results suggest that older adults with poorly controlled diabetes may have impaired salivary flow in comparison with subjects with better controlled diabetes and nondiabetic subjects, yet they may not have concomitant xerostomic complaints. There were no significant changes in salivary flow rates or glycemic control over the 1-year period.

  16. The acute effects of ethanol on acetanilide disposition in normal subjects, and in patients with liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, J; Rawlings, M D; Cobden, I; James, O F

    1982-10-01

    1 The effects of single doses (25 g and 50 g) oral ethanol on the disposition of acetanilide (50 mg/kg metabolic active mass) has been studied in normal subjects, and in patients with chronic non-alcoholic liver disease. 2 In normal subjects, ethanol produced a dose-dependent increase in acetanilide half-life, and a decrease in acetenilide clearance. There was a significant correlation (rs = 0.71, P less than 0.01) between the 90 min blood ethanol concentration and the reduction in acetanilide clearance. 3 In patients with liver disease, ethanol produced a similar proportional change in acetanilide half-life and clearance, but these were less consistent. Moreover, liver disease itself was associated with an increase in acetenilide half-life, and a reduction in clearance. 4 It is concluded that single oral doses of ethanol, comparable to those consumed during social drinking, may inhibit some forms of microsomal oxidation and thus have important clinical implications.

  17. Benazepril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor: drug interaction with salbutamol and bronchial response to histamine in normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K. G.; Brunel, P.; Nell, G.; Quinn, G.; Kaik, G. A.

    1997-01-01

    Aims To investigate the effect of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, benazepril, on pulmonary function. Methods We investigated the influence of benazepril, on lung function and the interaction with inhaled salbutamol (0.1 to 6.6 mg) and histamine (0.03 to 30.69 g l−1 ) in normal subjects. Benazepril 20 mg, salbutamol 8 mg, propranolol 160 mg, and placebo were given orally once daily over 10 days. Results On day 8, there was no difference in the area under the salbutamol dose-response curves between benazepril, placebo and oral salbutamol (P >0.05), propranolol shifted the curves to the right (Pbenazepril 1.04 (0.99–1.08), salbutamol 1.19 (1.13–1.25), propranolol 0.57 (0.50–0.65). Conclusions Benazepril had no influence on baseline lung function, caused no interaction with inhaled salbutamol and the bronchial response to histamine was similar to placebo. However, our findings in normal subjects cannot be extrapolated automatically to asthmatics. PMID:9431834

  18. A study of diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rates in healthy adult female subjects in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Jayapal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR reflects the strength and condition of respiratory muscles and the degree of airflow limitation in large airways. PEFR shows hour to hour variation that follows a specific pattern in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Adequate data is not available for the diurnal variation in normal individuals who are students in professional courses and had a sedentary life style. Hence, this study was undertaken to study the diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rates in healthy adult female subjects in South India. Materials and Methods: Peak expiratory flow rate was recorded in 50 adult healthy female students aged 18-23 years and studying in professional courses. Mini Wright′s peak flow meter was used to measure the peak expiratory flow rate. PEFR were recorded at 7-8 a.m., 10-11 a.m., 1-2 p.m., 4-5 p.m., and 7-8 p.m. for two consecutive days. Results: On analysis of PEFR records of individual subjects, it was seen that there was an overall dip in the morning at 7-8 h PEFR, which increased in the daytime, peaking in the afternoon at 1-2 p.m. and eventually decreased in the night. Subjects did not show the peak PEFR values at the same time point, 10% of subjects had a rise in PEFR in the early morning, afternoon (1-2 p.m. peak was observed in 48% subjects and evening (4-5 p.m. peak was observed in 16% subjects. 14% subjects showed a peak in the night time (7-8 p.m. PEFR values. Conclusion: This study provided the preliminary reference data of diurnal variation of peak expiratory flow rate in healthy adults. Since, there is a variation in the peak expiratory flow rate recorded during different time points of the day; hence, to compare the PEFR between individuals it is advisable to record the PEFR at the same time point.

  19. Enhanced removal of 241Am by DTPA chelation therapy in an adult and teenage subject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasso, T.L.; Cohen, N.

    1975-01-01

    A series of Na 3 (Ca-DTPA) chelation treatments were carried out on two human subjects, an adult man and a teenage boy, who have long-term body burdens of 241 Am. The in vivo whole-body counting, bioassay of urine and feces, and various blood chemistry measurements were coordinated to coincide with this therapy schedule. Decreases in total body burdens for this treatment period were measured as 5 percent in the adult and 30 percent in the youth. High concentrations of zinc in urine and a corresponding decrease of activity of the zinc-dependent erythropoietic enzyme, ALAD, were also observed. (U.S.)

  20. [Statistical (Poisson) motor unit number estimation. Methodological aspects and normal results in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle of healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga Oporto, L; Menéndez-de León, C; Bauzano Poley, E; Núñez-Castaín, M J

    Among the differents techniques for motor unit number estimation (MUNE) there is the statistical one (Poisson), in which the activation of motor units is carried out by electrical stimulation and the estimation performed by means of a statistical analysis based on the Poisson s distribution. The study was undertaken in order to realize an approximation to the MUNE Poisson technique showing a coprehensible view of its methodology and also to obtain normal results in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB) from a healthy population. One hundred fourteen normal volunteers with age ranging from 10 to 88 years were studied using the MUNE software contained in a Viking IV system. The normal subjects were divided into two age groups (10 59 and 60 88 years). The EDB MUNE from all them was 184 49. Both, the MUNE and the amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) were significantly lower in the older age group (page than CMAP amplitude ( 0.5002 and 0.4142, respectively pphisiology of the motor unit. The value of MUNE correlates better with the neuromuscular aging process than CMAP amplitude does.

  1. Normally occurring intersexuality and testosterone induced plasticity in the copulatory system of adult leopard geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Melissa M; Putz, Oliver; Crews, David; Wade, Juli

    2005-04-01

    The copulatory neuromuscular system of lizards is highly sexually dimorphic. Adult males possess bilateral penises called hemipenes, which are independently controlled by two muscles, the retractor penis magnus (RPM) and transversus penis (TPN). These structures are not obvious in adult females. However, in adult female leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius), testosterone induces hemipene growth. We investigated whether these structures develop de novo in adulthood or are histologically present as rudimentary structures in the female leopard gecko. We also investigated the extent of sexual dimorphisms and plasticity in the associated neuromuscular components. To do this, we compared copulatory morphology (sizes of hemipenes, RPM and TPN muscle fibers, and associated motoneurons, as well as motoneuron and RPM fiber number) in adult females treated with testosterone, control females, and control males. All of the geckos possessed hemipenes, RPMs and TPNs, but these structures were indeed vestigial in control females. Testosterone induced striking increases in hemipene and copulatory muscle fiber size in females, but not to levels equivalent to control males. In parallel, males with increased levels of androgenic activity had larger hemipenes, suggesting naturally occurring steroid-induced plasticity. Copulatory motoneurons were not sexually dimorphic in size or number, and these measures did not respond to testosterone. The data demonstrate that the copulatory system of leopard geckos, in which gonadal sex is determined by egg incubation temperature, differs from that of many species (both reptilian and mammalian) with genotypic sex determination. Indeed, the system is remarkable in that adult females have normally occurring intersex characteristics and they exhibit substantial steroid-induced morphological plasticity in adulthood.

  2. Registration-based assessment of regional lung function via volumetric CT images of normal subjects vs. severe asthmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sanghun; Hoffman, Eric A.; Wenzel, Sally E.; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Yin, Youbing; Castro, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the use of image registration-derived variables associated with computed tomographic (CT) imaging of the lung acquired at multiple volumes. As an evaluation of the utility of such an imaging approach, we explored two groups at the extremes of population ranging from normal subjects to severe asthmatics. A mass-preserving image registration technique was employed to match CT images at total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC) for assessment of regional air volume change and lung deformation between the two states. Fourteen normal subjects and thirty severe asthmatics were analyzed via image registration-derived metrics together with their pulmonary function test (PFT) and CT-based air-trapping. Relative to the normal group, the severely asthmatic group demonstrated reduced air volume change (consistent with air trapping) and more isotropic deformation in the basal lung regions while demonstrating increased air volume change associated with increased anisotropic deformation in the apical lung regions. These differences were found despite the fact that both PFT-derived TLC and FRC in the two groups were nearly 100% of predicted values. Data suggest that reduced basal-lung air volume change in severe asthmatics was compensated by increased apical-lung air volume change and that relative increase in apical-lung air volume change in severe asthmatics was accompanied by enhanced anisotropic deformation. These data suggest that CT-based deformation, assessed via inspiration vs. expiration scans, provides a tool for distinguishing differences in lung mechanics when applied to the extreme ends of a population range. PMID:23743399

  3. Gray matter network disruptions and amyloid beta in cognitively normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Betty M; Kate, Mara Ten; Wink, Alle Meije; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Ecay, Mirian; Clerigue, Montserrat; Estanga, Ainara; Garcia Sebastian, Maite; Izagirre, Andrea; Villanua, Jorge; Martinez Lage, Pablo; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Sanz Arigita, Ernesto; Barkhof, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Gray matter networks are disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is unclear when these disruptions start during the development of AD. Amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ42) is among the earliest changes in AD. We studied, in cognitively healthy adults, the relationship between Aβ42 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and single-subject cortical gray matter network measures. Single-subject gray matter networks were extracted from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in a sample of cognitively healthy adults (N = 185; age range 39-79, mini-mental state examination >25, N = 12 showed abnormal Aβ42 level and for 90 anatomical areas. Associations between continuous Aβ42 CSF levels and single-subject cortical gray matter network measures were tested. Smoothing splines were used to determine whether a linear or nonlinear relationship gave a better fit to the data. Lower Aβ42 CSF levels were linearly associated at whole brain level with lower connectivity density, and nonlinearly with lower clustering values and higher path length values, which is indicative of a less-efficient network organization. These relationships were specific to medial temporal areas, precuneus, and the middle frontal gyrus (all p levels can be related to gray matter networks disruptions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasma melatonin circadian rhythms during the menstrual cycle and after light therapy in premenstrual dysphoric disorder and normal control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, B L; Berga, S L; Mostofi, N; Klauber, M R; Resnick, A

    1997-02-01

    The aim of this study was to replicate and extend previous work in which the authors observed lower, shorter, and advanced nocturnal melatonin secretion patterns in premenstrually depressed patients compared to those in healthy control women. The authors also sought to test the hypothesis that the therapeutic effect of bright light in patients was associated with corrective effects on the phase, duration, and amplitude of melatonin rhythms. In 21 subjects with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and 11 normal control (NC) subjects, the authors measured the circadian profile of melatonin during follicular and luteal menstrual cycle phases and after 1 week of light therapy administered daily, in a randomized crossover design. During three separate luteal phases, the treatments were either (1) bright (> 2,500 lux) white morning (AM; 06:30 to 08:30 h), (2) bright white evening (PM; 19:00 to 21:00 h), or (3) dim (compressed, and area under the curve, amplitude, and mean levels were decreased. In NC subjects, melatonin rhythms did not change significantly during the menstrual cycle. After AM light in PMDD subjects, onset and offset times were advanced and both duration and midpoint concentration were decreased as compared to RED light. After PM light in PMDD subjects, onset and offset times were delayed, midpoint concentration was increased, and duration was decreased as compared to RED light. By contrast, after light therapy in NC subjects, duration did not change; onset, offset, and midpoint concentration changed as they did in PMDD subjects. When the magnitude of advance and delay phase shifts in onset versus offset time with AM, PM, or RED light were compared, the authors found that in PMDD subjects light shifted offset time more than onset time and that AM light had a greater effect on shifting melatonin offset time (measured the following night in RED light), whereas PM light had a greater effect in shifting melatonin onset time. These findings replicate the

  5. An anatomical study of normal variations of circle of Willis in 132 fetus, newborn and adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bateni F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Several studies have investigated the variations in the anatomy of each segment of circle of Willis whereas a few have addressed the variations of this arterial circle as a whole. In this study the entire circle of Willis and its variations were studied in a cohort of Iranian people and compared with previous reports."n"nMethods: Anatomical variations of the circle of Willis in 132 brains of Iranian cadavers (102 male adults and 30 fetuses and infants were studied. The dissection process was digitally filmed for further studies. Using computer software the external diameters of the vessels were measured and the circle variations were classified. The variations of the circle as a whole and segmental variations were compared with previous studies. "n"nResults: Uni-and bilateral hypoplasia of posterior communicating arteries (PcoAs constituted the most common variation in our study which was similar to previous works. Aplasia of the anterior cerebral artery (A1 and the posterior cerebral artery (P1 were not observed. In 3.3% of fetuses and infants and 3% of adult instances both right and left posterior communicating arteries were absent. There was one case of anterior communicating artery (AcoA aplasia in

  6. Serum Amino Acid Profiles in Normal Subjects and in Patients with or at Risk of Alzheimer Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Gaetano; Cristofano, Adriana; Sapere, Nadia; la Marca, Giancarlo; Angiolillo, Antonella; Vitale, Michela; Fratangelo, Roberto; Lombardi, Teresa; Porcile, Carola; Intrieri, Mariano; Di Costanzo, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Abnormalities in the plasma amino acid profile have been reported in Alzheimer disease (AD), but no data exist for the prodromal phase characterized by subjective memory complaint (SMC). It was our aim to understand if serum amino acid levels change along the continuum from normal to AD, and to identify possible diagnostic biomarkers. Serum levels of 15 amino acids and 2 organic acids were determined in 4 groups of participants - 29 with probable AD, 18 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 24 with SMC, and 46 cognitively healthy subjects (HS) - by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Glutamate, aspartate, and phenylalanine progressively decreased, while citrulline, argi-ninosuccinate, and homocitrulline progressively increased, from HS over SMC and MCI to AD. The panel including these 6 amino acids and 4 ratios (glutamate/citrulline, citrulline/phenylalanine, leucine plus isoleucine/phenylalanine, and arginine/phenylalanine) discriminated AD from HS with about 96% accuracy. Other panels including 20 biomarkers discriminated SMC or MCI from AD or HS with an accuracy ranging from 88 to 75%. Amino acids contribute to a characteristic metabotype during the progression of AD along the continuum from health to frank dementia, and their monitoring in elderly individuals might help to detect at-risk subjects.

  7. Immunohistochemical Study of Expression of Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 in Normal Adult Human Tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhang

    Full Text Available The expression pattern of Sohlh1 (spermatogenesis and oogenesis specific basic helix-loop-helix 1 and Sohlh2 in mice has been reported in previous studies. Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 are specifically expressed in spermatogonia, prespermatogonia in male mice and oocytes of primordial and primary follicles in female mice. In this report, we studied the expression pattern of Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 in human adult tissues. Immunohistochemical staining of Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 was performed in 5 samples of normal ovaries and testes, respectively. The results revealed that Sohlh genes are not only expressed in oocytes and spermatogonia, but also in granular cells, theca cells, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells, and in smooth muscles of blood vessel walls. To further investigate the expression of Sohlh genes in other adult human tissues, we collected representative normal adult tissues developed from three embryonic germ layers. Compared with the expression in mice, Sohlhs exhibited a much more extensive expression pattern in human tissues. Sohlhs were detected in testis, ovary and epithelia developed from embryonic endoderm, ectoderm and tissues developed from embryonic mesoderm. Sohlh signals were found in spermatogonia, Sertoli cells and also Leydig cells in testis, while in ovary, the expression was mainly in oocytes of primordial and primary follicles, granular cells and theca cells of secondary follicles. Compared with Sohlh2, the expression of Sohlh1 was stronger and more extensive. Our study explored the expression of Sohlh genes in human tissues and might provide insights for functional studies of Sohlh genes.

  8. Amyloid burden and incident depressive symptoms in cognitively normal older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Karra D; Gould, Emma; Lim, Yen Ying; Ames, David; Pietrzak, Robert H; Rembach, Alan; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie; Martins, Ralph N; Salvado, Olivier; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Masters, Colin L; Maruff, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have reported that non-demented older adults with clinical depression show changes in amyloid-β (Aβ) levels in blood, cerebrospinal fluid and on neuroimaging that are consistent with those observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease. These findings suggest that Aβ may be one of the mechanisms underlying the relation between the two conditions. We sought to determine the relation between elevated cerebral Aβ and the presence of depression across a 54-month prospective observation period. Cognitively normal older adults from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle study who were not depressed and had undergone a positron emission tomography scan to classify them as either high Aβ (n = 81) or low Aβ (n = 278) participated. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale - Short Form at 18-month intervals over 54 months. Whilst there was no difference in probable depression between groups at baseline, incidence was 4.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-16.4) times greater within the high Aβ group (9%) than the low Aβ group (2%) by the 54-month assessment. Results of this study suggest that elevated Aβ levels are associated with a 4.5-fold increased likelihood of developing clinically significant depressive symptoms on follow-up in preclinical Alzheimer's disease. This underscores the importance of assessing, monitoring and treating depressive symptoms in older adults with elevated Aβ. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Subjective memory complaints, cognitive performance, and psychological factors in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susanne I; Negash, Selamawit; Sammel, Mary D; Bogner, Hillary; Harel, Brian T; Livney, Melissa G; McCoubrey, Hannah; Wolk, David A; Kling, Mitchel A; Arnold, Steven E

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are associated with performance on objective cognitive measures and psychological factors in healthy, community-dwelling older adults. The cohort was composed of adults, 65 years and older with no clinical evidence of cognitive impairment (n = 125). Participants were administered: CogState computerized neurocognitive battery, Prospective Retrospective Memory Questionnaire, personality and meaning-in-life measures. SMCs were associated with poorer performance on measures of executive function (p = 0.001). SMCs were also associated with impaired delayed recall (p = 0.006) but this did not remain significant after statistical adjustment for multiple comparisons. SMCs were inversely associated with conscientiousness (p = 0.004) and directly associated with neuroticism (p cognitive changes and are associated with personality traits and meaning-in-life in healthy, older adults.

  10. False memories in children and adults: age, distinctiveness, and subjective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S

    2002-09-01

    This study investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information in false-memory formation, and participants' subjective experience of true and false memories. Children (5- and 7-year-olds) and adults studied lists of semantically associated words. Half of the participants studied words alone, and half studied words accompanied by pictures. There were significant age differences in recall (5-year-olds evinced more false memories than did adults) but not in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false memory for all age groups. Younger children provided with distinctive information, and older children and adults regardless of whether they viewed distinctive information, expressed higher levels of confidence in true than in false memories. Source attributions did not significantly differ between true and false memories. Implications for theories of false memory and memory development are discussed.

  11. The influences of silent cerebral infarction and hypertension on brain atrophy in normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhefeng, Quan; Bokura, Hirokazu; Iijima, Kenichi; Oguro, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Shuhei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the influences of silent brain infarction (SBI) and hypertension on brain atrophy and its longitudinal progression in healthy adults. MRI scans were performed on 109 neurologically normal adults (mean age, 58.6±5.8 years), with follow-up at an average of 4.9 years later. Patient histories of hypertension, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption were examined. We evaluated brain atrophy using the brain atrophy index (BAI; the ratio of the brain area to the intracranial area) and the ventricular atrophy index (VAI; the ratio of the ventricular area to the brain area) on MRI T1-weighted images at the levels of the basal ganglia and lateral ventricle in horizontal sections. There were no differences in age, sex, dyslipidemia, body mass index (BMI), smoking habit, and alcohol consumption between the normal group and the SBI or hypertension group. The BAI was significantly lower at entry for the SBI (+) group than for the SBI (-) group at both the basal ganglia and lateral ventricle levels (basal ganglia level, p=0.02; and lateral ventricle level, p=0.05). Moreover, the VAI was significantly higher at entry for the SBI (+) group than for the SBI (-) group at the lateral ventricle level (p=0.03). Furthermore, the BAI was significantly lower at entry for the hypertensive group than for the non-hypertensive group at the basal ganglia level (p=0.007). There were no significant differences in the annual variations of the BAI and VAI between the normal group and the SBI (+) or hypertensive group. The present results suggest that the SBI and hypertension are accelerating factors for brain atrophy and ventricular dilatation. (author)

  12. The influences of silent cerebral infarction and hypertension on brain atrophy in normal adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhefeng, Quan; Bokura, Hirokazu; Iijima, Kenichi; Oguro, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Shuhei [Shimane Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, Shimane (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    We studied the influences of silent brain infarction (SBI) and hypertension on brain atrophy and its longitudinal progression in healthy adults. MRI scans were performed on 109 neurologically normal adults (mean age, 58.6{+-}5.8 years), with follow-up at an average of 4.9 years later. Patient histories of hypertension, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption were examined. We evaluated brain atrophy using the brain atrophy index (BAI; the ratio of the brain area to the intracranial area) and the ventricular atrophy index (VAI; the ratio of the ventricular area to the brain area) on MRI T1-weighted images at the levels of the basal ganglia and lateral ventricle in horizontal sections. There were no differences in age, sex, dyslipidemia, body mass index (BMI), smoking habit, and alcohol consumption between the normal group and the SBI or hypertension group. The BAI was significantly lower at entry for the SBI (+) group than for the SBI (-) group at both the basal ganglia and lateral ventricle levels (basal ganglia level, p=0.02; and lateral ventricle level, p=0.05). Moreover, the VAI was significantly higher at entry for the SBI (+) group than for the SBI (-) group at the lateral ventricle level (p=0.03). Furthermore, the BAI was significantly lower at entry for the hypertensive group than for the non-hypertensive group at the basal ganglia level (p=0.007). There were no significant differences in the annual variations of the BAI and VAI between the normal group and the SBI (+) or hypertensive group. The present results suggest that the SBI and hypertension are accelerating factors for brain atrophy and ventricular dilatation. (author)

  13. Association between subjective actual sleep duration, subjective sleep need, age, body mass index, and gender in a large sample of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalak, Nadeem; Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Wollmer, M Axel

    2015-01-01

    Poor sleep is a major health concern, and there is evidence that young adults are at increased risk of suffering from poor sleep. There is also evidence that sleep duration can vary as a function of gender and body mass index (BMI). We sought to replicate these findings in a large sample of young adults, and also tested the hypothesis that a smaller gap between subjective sleep duration and subjective sleep need is associated with a greater feeling of being restored. A total of 2,929 university students (mean age 23.24±3.13 years, 69.1% female) took part in an Internet-based survey. They answered questions related to demographics and subjective sleep patterns. We found no gender differences in subjective sleep duration, subjective sleep need, BMI, age, or feeling of being restored. Nonlinear associations were observed between subjective sleep duration, BMI, and feeling of being restored. Moreover, a larger discrepancy between subjective actual sleep duration and subjective sleep need was associated with a lower feeling of being restored. The present pattern of results from a large sample of young adults suggests that males and females do not differ with respect to subjective sleep duration, BMI, or feeling of being restored. Moreover, nonlinear correlations seemed to provide a more accurate reflection of the relationship between subjective sleep and demographic variables.

  14. Seeing the Talker's Face Improves Free Recall of Speech for Young Adults with Normal Hearing but Not Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mary; Mishra, Sushmit; Stenfelt, Stefan; Lunner, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Seeing the talker's face improves speech understanding in noise, possibly releasing resources for cognitive processing. We investigated whether it improves free recall of spoken two-digit numbers. Method: Twenty younger adults with normal hearing and 24 older adults with hearing loss listened to and subsequently recalled lists of 13…

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and chronically injured adult rat spinal cord in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizar-Sahagun, G.; Rivera, F.; Babinski, E.; Berlanga, E.; Madrazo, M.; Franco-Bourland, R.; Grijalva, I.; Gonzalez, J.; Contreras, B.; Madrazo, I.

    1994-01-01

    We assessed the capacity of MRI to show and characterise the spinal cord (SC) in vivo in normal and chronically injured adult rats. In the chronically injured animals the SC was studied by MRI and histological examination. MRI was performed at 1.5 T, using gradient-echo and spin-echo (SE) sequences, the latter with and without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Several positions were tried for good alignment and to diminish interference by respiratory movements. Images of the SC were obtained in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. Normal SC was observed as a continuous intensity in both sequences, although contrast resolution was better using SE; it was not possible to differentiate the grey and white matter. Low signal was seen in the damaged area in chronically injured rats, which corresponded to cysts, trabeculae, mononuclear infiltrate, and fibroglial wall on histological examination. Gd-DTPA failed to enhance the SC in normal or chronically injured rats. It did, however, cause enhancement of the lesion after acute SC injury. (orig.)

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and chronically injured adult rat spinal cord in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizar-Sahagun, G [Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Inst. Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City (Mexico); Rivera, F [Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico); Babinski, E [Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico); Berlanga, E [Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico); Madrazo, M [Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico); Franco-Bourland, R [Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Biochemistry, Inst. Nacional de la Nutricion, Mexico City (Mexico); Grijalva, I [Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo

    1994-08-01

    We assessed the capacity of MRI to show and characterise the spinal cord (SC) in vivo in normal and chronically injured adult rats. In the chronically injured animals the SC was studied by MRI and histological examination. MRI was performed at 1.5 T, using gradient-echo and spin-echo (SE) sequences, the latter with and without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Several positions were tried for good alignment and to diminish interference by respiratory movements. Images of the SC were obtained in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. Normal SC was observed as a continuous intensity in both sequences, although contrast resolution was better using SE; it was not possible to differentiate the grey and white matter. Low signal was seen in the damaged area in chronically injured rats, which corresponded to cysts, trabeculae, mononuclear infiltrate, and fibroglial wall on histological examination. Gd-DTPA failed to enhance the SC in normal or chronically injured rats. It did, however, cause enhancement of the lesion after acute SC injury. (orig.)

  17. The whole-brain N-acetylaspartate correlates with education in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glodzik, Lidia; Wu, William E; Babb, James S; Achtnichts, Lutz; Amann, Michael; Sollberger, Marc; Monsch, Andreas U; Gass, Achim; Gonen, Oded

    2012-10-30

    N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is an index of neuronal integrity. We hypothesized that in healthy subjects its whole brain concentration (WBNAA) may be related to formal educational attainment, a common proxy for cognitive reserve. To test this hypothesis, 97 middle aged to elderly subjects (51-89 years old, 38% women) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and non-localizing proton spectroscopy. Their WBNAA was obtained by dividing their whole-head NAA amount by the brain volume. Intracranial volume and fractional brain volume, a metric of brain atrophy, were also determined. Each subject's educational attainment was the sum of his/her years of formal education. In the entire group higher education was associated with larger intracranial volume. The relationship between WBNAA and education was observed only in younger (51-70 years old) participants. In this group, education explained 21% of the variance in WBNAA. More WBNAA was related to more years of formal education in adults and younger elders. Prospective studies can determine whether this relationship reflects a true advantage from years of training versus innate characteristics predisposing a subject to higher achievements later in life. We propose that late-life WBNAA may be more affected by other factors acting at midlife and later. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Increase in circulating holotranscobalamin after oral administration of cyanocobalamin or hydroxocobalamin in healthy adults with low and normal cobalamin status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Eva; Mahalle, Namita; Bhide, Vijayshri

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the absorption of synthetic cyanocobalamin and natural occurring hydroxocobalamin in populations with low and normal cobalamin (vitamin B12) status. METHODS: We included adults with low (n = 59) and normal (n = 42) cobalamin status and measured the change in serum holotran...

  19. Effect of chloroquine on insulin and glucose homoeostasis in normal subjects and patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G D; Amos, T A; Mahler, R; Peters, T J

    1987-01-01

    Plasma glucose, insulin, and C peptide concentrations were determined after an oral glucose load in normal subjects and in a group of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus before and during a short course of treatment with chloroquine. In the control group there was a small but significant reduction in fasting blood glucose concentration but overall glucose tolerance and hormone concentrations were unaffected. In contrast, the patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus showed a significant improvement in their glucose tolerance, which paralleled the severity of their diabetes. This response seems to reflect decreased degradation of insulin rather than increased pancreatic output. These observations suggest that treatment with chloroquine or suitable analogues may be a new approach to the management of diabetes. PMID:3103729

  20. Use of memory strategies among younger and older adults: Results from objective and subjective measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Teixeira Fabricio

    Full Text Available Abstract Memory plays a fundamental role in the identity of people and in human life, as it enables us to interpret our surroundings and make decisions. It is known that the aging process can be accompanied by cognitive decline in some memory sub systems. However, the use of memory strategies can help encoding and retrieval of new information. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify and compare, using objective and subjective measures, which recall strategies are used spontaneously by young and older adults. Methods: Twenty-six first-year college students, and thirty-three seniors enrolled at the Third Age University of the same campus, completed a visual memory test including 18 black and white pictures, memorized a short story, and completed an open question about memory strategies, a memory check list to indicate strategies used, and a memory self-efficacy scale. The Bousfield categorization measure was also calculated from the recall protocol. Results: Young adults demonstrated better performance than the older adults on the memory tasks, and were also more confident. Both groups reported using similar strategies. Conclusion: Young and older adults seem to tackle memory tasks in similar ways but young adults outperform seniors.

  1. Use of memory strategies among younger and older adults: Results from objective and subjective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricio, Aline Teixeira; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches

    2011-01-01

    Memory plays a fundamental role in the identity of people and in human life, as it enables us to interpret our surroundings and make decisions. It is known that the aging process can be accompanied by cognitive decline in some memory sub systems. However, the use of memory strategies can help encoding and retrieval of new information. The aim of this study was to identify and compare, using objective and subjective measures, which recall strategies are used spontaneously by young and older adults. Twenty-six first-year college students, and thirty-three seniors enrolled at the Third Age University of the same campus, completed a visual memory test including 18 black and white pictures, memorized a short story, and completed an open question about memory strategies, a memory check list to indicate strategies used, and a memory self-efficacy scale. The Bousfield categorization measure was also calculated from the recall protocol. Young adults demonstrated better performance than the older adults on the memory tasks, and were also more confident. Both groups reported using similar strategies. Young and older adults seem to tackle memory tasks in similar ways but young adults outperform seniors.

  2. Effect of virtual reality exercise using the nintendo wii fit on muscle activities of the trunk and lower extremities of normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungseo; Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to determine the effect of virtual reality exercise using the Nintendo Wii Fit on the muscle activities of the trunk and lower extremities of normal adults. [Subjects] The subjects of the study were 24 normal adults who were divided into a virtual reality exercise group (VREG, n=12) and a stable surface exercise group (SEG, n=12). [Methods] The exercises of the VREG using the Nintendo Wii Fit and the SEG using a stable surface were conducted three times a week for six weeks. Electromyography was used to measure the muscle activities of the tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), erector spinae (ES), and rectus abdominal (RA) muscles. [Results] VREG showed significant within group differences in TA and MG muscle activities, while the SEG showed a significant difference in the muscle activity of the MG. [Conclusion] Virtual reality exercise using the Nintendo Wii Fit was an effective intervention for the muscle activities of the TA and MG of normal adults.

  3. Normal reference values for vertebral artery flow volume by color Doppler sonography in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Joh, Joon Hee; Park, Jai Soung; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Ahn, Hyun Cheol

    2003-01-01

    Vertebrobasilar ischemia has been attributed to a reduction of net vertebral artery flow volume. This study was to establish the reference values for the flow volume of the vertebral artery using color Doppler sonography in the normal Korea adults. Thirty five normal Korea adults without any underlying disease including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, heart disease, obesity (body mas index>30), or carotid artery stenosis was included. There were 17 males and 18 females, age ranged from 20 to 53 years (average=32.86 years). Flow velocities and vessel diameters were recorded in the intertransverse (V2) segment, usually at C5-6 level, bilaterally. The flow volume (Q) was calculated. (Q=time averaged mean velocity x cross sectional area of vessel) A lower Flow velocity and smaller vessel diameter were measured on the right side compared to those of the left side, resulting in a lower flow volume. The calculated flow volumes using the equation were 77.0 ± 39.7 ml/min for the right side and 127.6 ± 71.0 ml/min for the left side (p=0.0001) while the net vertebral artery flow volume was 204.6 ± 81.8 ml/min. Decrease in the vertebral artery flow volume was statistically significant with advanced age. (r=-0.36, p=0.032). Vertebral artery blood flow volume was 191.20 ± 59.19 ml/min in male, and 217.28 ± 98.67 ml/min in female (p=0.6). The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume defined by the 5th to 95th percentiles was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. Vertebral artery flow volume decreased with the increase of age. However, gender did not affect the blood flow volume.

  4. Who does well in life? Conscientious adults excel in both objective and subjective success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela L. Duckworth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates how personality and cognitive ability relate to measures of objective success (income and wealth and subjective success (life satisfaction, positive affect, and lack of negative affect in a representative sample of 9,646 American adults. In cross-sectional analyses controlling for demographic covariates, cognitive ability, and other Big Five traits, conscientiousness demonstrated beneficial associations of small-to-medium magnitude with all success outcomes. In contrast, other traits demonstrated stronger, but less consistently beneficial, relations with outcomes in the same models. For instance, emotional stability demonstrated medium-to-large associations with life satisfaction and affect but a weak association with income and no association with wealth. Likewise, extraversion demonstrated medium-to-large associations with positive affect and life satisfaction but small-to-medium associations with wealth and (lack of negative affect and no association with income. Cognitive ability showed small-to-medium associations with income and wealth but no association with any aspect of subjective success. More agreeable adults were worse off in terms of objective success and life satisfaction, demonstrating small-to-medium inverse associations with those outcomes, but they did not differ from less agreeable adults in positive or negative affect. Likewise, openness to experience demonstrated small-to-medium inverse associations with every success outcome except positive affect, in which more open adults were slightly higher. Notably, in each of the five models predicting objective and subjective success outcomes, individual differences other than conscientiousness explained more variance than did conscientiousness. Thus, the benefits of conscientiousness may be remarkable more for their ubiquity than for their magnitude.

  5. Who does well in life? Conscientious adults excel in both objective and subjective success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L; Weir, David; Tsukayama, Eli; Kwok, David

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates how personality and cognitive ability relate to measures of objective success (income and wealth) and subjective success (life satisfaction, positive affect, and lack of negative affect) in a representative sample of 9,646 American adults. In cross-sectional analyses controlling for demographic covariates, cognitive ability, and other Big Five traits, conscientiousness demonstrated beneficial associations of small-to-medium magnitude with all success outcomes. In contrast, other traits demonstrated stronger, but less consistently beneficial, relations with outcomes in the same models. For instance, emotional stability demonstrated medium-to-large associations with life satisfaction and affect but a weak association with income and no association with wealth. Likewise, extraversion demonstrated medium-to-large associations with positive affect and life satisfaction but small-to-medium associations with wealth and (lack of) negative affect and no association with income. Cognitive ability showed small-to-medium associations with income and wealth but no association with any aspect of subjective success. More agreeable adults were worse off in terms of objective success and life satisfaction, demonstrating small-to-medium inverse associations with those outcomes, but they did not differ from less agreeable adults in positive or negative affect. Likewise, openness to experience demonstrated small-to-medium inverse associations with every success outcome except positive affect, in which more open adults were slightly higher. Notably, in each of the five models predicting objective and subjective success outcomes, individual differences other than conscientiousness explained more variance than did conscientiousness. Thus, the benefits of conscientiousness may be remarkable more for their ubiquity than for their magnitude.

  6. High-density lipoprotein apolipoproteins in urine: I. Characterization in normal subjects and in patients with proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomo, Z A; Henderson, L O; Myrick, J E

    1988-09-01

    A high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoretic method for protein, with silver staining, has been used to characterize and identify urinary high-density-lipoprotein apolipoproteins (HDL-Apos) and their isoforms in healthy subjects and in patients with kidney disease. Analytical techniques based on both molecular mass and ultracentrifugal flotation properties were used to isolate urinary lipoprotein particles with characteristics identical to those of HDL in plasma. HDL-Apos identified in urine of normal subjects and patients with glomerular proteinuria were Apos A-I, A-II, and C. Five isoforms of Apo A-I were present. Immunostaining of electroblotted proteins further confirmed the presence of HDL-Apos in urine. Creatinine clearance rate was decreased in the patients with proteinuria, and ranged from 32.5 to 40 mL/min. Concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides in serum were greater in the patients' group, whereas mean HDL-cholesterol (0.68, SD 0.10 mmol/L) and Apo A-I (0.953, SD 0.095 g/L) were significantly (each P less than 0.01) lower. Results of this study suggest that measurement of urinary Apo A-I will reflect excretion of HDL in urine.

  7. The effects of psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomé, F; Boyer, P; Fayol, M

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this survey is to present an overview of research into psychopharmacology as regards the effects of different psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics (NL) on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients. Eighteen studies that have investigated the effects of different drugs (alcohol, amphetamines, secobarbital, L-dopa, psilocybin, ketamine, fenfluramine) and neuroleptics (conventional and atypical) on language are reviewed. There are no studies concerning the effects of neuroleptics on language in healthy subjects. The results of the effects of other molecules indicate that language production can be increased (alcohol, amphetamine, secobarbital), rendered more complex (d-amphetamine), more focused (L-dopa) or more unfocused (psilocybin) and clearly impaired (ketamine). For schizophrenic patients, most studies show that conventional neuroleptic treatments, at a therapeutic dosage and in acute or chronic mode, reduce language disorders at all levels (clinic, linguistic, psycholinguistic). In conjunction with other molecules, the classical NL, when administered at a moderate dosage and in chronic mode, modify language in schizophrenia, either by improving the verbal flow and reducing pauses and positive thought disorder (NL + amphetamine) or by inducing an impairment in the language measurements (NL + fenfluramine). Clinical, methodological and theoretical considerations of results are debated in the framework of schizophrenic language disorders.

  8. Pediatric and adult MRI atlas of bone marrow. Normal appearances, variants and diffuse disease states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic Department of Radiology, OH (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive atlas is unique in being devoted to the MRI appearances of bone marrow in the axial and appendicular skeleton of adults and children. Normal MRI findings, including common variants and degenerative changes, are first documented. MRI appearances in the entire spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic infiltrative marrow disorders are then presented, with accompanying explanatory text. Among the conditions considered are multiple myeloma, the acute and chronic leukemias, diffuse metastases, diffuse lymphomas, the anemias, polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis, storage disorders, and infections. Characteristic changes to bone marrow following various forms of treatment are also displayed and discussed. The selected images reflect the use of a variety of sequences and techniques, such as fat suppression, and contrast-enhanced imaging.

  9. A high-glycemic diet is associated with cerebral amyloid burden in cognitively normal older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew K; Sullivan, Debra K; Swerdlow, Russell H; Vidoni, Eric D; Morris, Jill K; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2017-12-01

    Background: Little is known about the relation between dietary intake and cerebral amyloid accumulation in aging. Objective: We assessed the association of dietary glycemic measures with cerebral amyloid burden and cognitive performance in cognitively normal older adults. Design: We performed cross-sectional analyses relating dietary glycemic measures [adherence to a high-glycemic-load diet (HGLDiet) pattern, intakes of sugar and carbohydrates, and glycemic load] with cerebral amyloid burden (measured by florbetapir F-18 positron emission tomography) and cognitive performance in 128 cognitively normal older adults who provided eligibility screening data for the University of Kansas's Alzheimer's Prevention through Exercise (APEX) Study. The study began in November 2013 and is currently ongoing. Results: Amyloid was elevated in 26% ( n = 33) of participants. HGLDiet pattern adherence ( P = 0.01), sugar intake ( P = 0.03), and carbohydrate intake ( P = 0.05) were significantly higher in participants with elevated amyloid burden. The HGLDiet pattern was positively associated with amyloid burden both globally and in all regions of interest independently of age, sex, and education (all P ≤ 0.001). Individual dietary glycemic measures (sugar intake, carbohydrate intake, and glycemic load) were also positively associated with global amyloid load and nearly all regions of interest independently of age, sex, and educational level ( P ≤ 0.05). Cognitive performance was associated only with daily sugar intake, with higher sugar consumption associated with poorer global cognitive performance (global composite measure and Mini-Mental State Examination) and performance on subtests of Digit Symbol, Trail Making Test B, and Block Design, controlling for age, sex, and education. Conclusion: A high-glycemic diet was associated with greater cerebral amyloid burden, which suggests diet as a potential modifiable behavior for cerebral amyloid accumulation and subsequent Alzheimer

  10. Cartilage T2 assessment: differentiation of normal hyaline cartilage and reparative tissue after arthroscopic cartilage repair in equine subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lawrence M; Sussman, Marshall S; Hurtig, Mark; Probyn, Linda; Tomlinson, George; Kandel, Rita

    2006-11-01

    To prospectively assess T2 mapping characteristics of normal articular cartilage and of cartilage at sites of arthroscopic repair, including comparison with histologic results and collagen organization assessed at polarized light microscopy (PLM). Study protocol was compliant with the Canadian Council on Animal Care Guidelines and approved by the institutional animal care committee. Arthroscopic osteochondral autograft transplantation (OAT) and microfracture arthroplasty (MFx) were performed in knees of 10 equine subjects (seven female, three male; age range, 3-5 years). A site of arthroscopically normal cartilage was documented in each joint as a control site. Joints were harvested at 12 (n = 5) and 24 (n = 5) weeks postoperatively and were imaged at 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) with a 10-echo sagittal fast spin-echo acquisition. T2 maps of each site (21 OAT harvest, 10 MFx, 12 OAT plug, and 10 control sites) were calculated with linear least-squares curve fitting. Cartilage T2 maps were qualitatively graded as "organized" (normal transition of low-to-high T2 signal from deep to superficial cartilage zones) or "disorganized." Quantitative mean T2 values were calculated for deep, middle, and superficial cartilage at each location. Results were compared with histologic and PLM assessments by using kappa analysis. T2 maps were qualitatively graded as organized at 20 of 53 sites and as disorganized at 33 sites. Perfect agreement was seen between organized T2 and histologic findings of hyaline cartilage and between disorganized T2 and histologic findings of fibrous reparative tissue (kappa = 1.0). Strong agreement was seen between organized T2 and normal PLM findings and between disorganized T2 and abnormal PLM findings (kappa = .92). Quantitative assessment of the deep, middle, and superficial cartilage, respectively, showed mean T2 values of 53.3, 58.6, and 54.9 msec at reparative fibrous tissue sites and 40.7, 53.6, and 61.6 msec at hyaline cartilage sites. A

  11. Differences of Sagittal Lumbosacral Parameters between Patients with Lumbar Spondylolysis and Normal Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jin; Peng, Bao-Gan; Li, Yong-Chao; Zhang, Nai-Yang; Yang, Liang; Li, Duan-Ming

    2016-05-20

    Recent studies have suggested an association between elevated pelvic incidence (PI) and the development of lumbar spondylolysis. However, there is still lack of investigation for Han Chinese people concerning the normal range of spinopelvic parameters and relationship between abnormal sagittal parameters and lumbar diseases. The objective of the study was to investigate sagittal lumbosacral parameters of adult lumbar spondylolysis patients in Han Chinese population. A total of 52 adult patients with symptomatic lumbar spondylolysis treated in the General Hospital of Armed Police Force (Beijing, China) were identified as the spondylolysis group. All the 52 patients were divided into two subgroups, Subgroup A: 36 patients with simple lumbar spondylolysis, and Subgroup B: 16 patients with lumbar spondylolysis accompanying with mild lumbar spondylolisthesis (slip percentage spondylolysis group and the control group with independent-sample t- test. There were no statistically significant differences of all seven sagittal lumbosacral parameters between Subgroup A and Subgroup B. PI, PT, SS, and LL were higher (P spondylolysis group than those in the control group, but STA was lower (P spondylolysis group. Current study results suggest that increased PI and decreased STA may play important roles in the pathology of lumbar spondylolysis in Han Chinese population.

  12. Age-related changes in normal adult pancreas: MR imaging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomohiro; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Sone, Teruki; Noda, Yasufumi; Higaki, Atsushi; Kanki, Akihiko; Tanimoto, Daigo; Higashi, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate age-related changes in normal adult pancreas as identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: We examined 115 patients without pancreatic diseases (21–90 years) who underwent upper abdominal MRI to evaluate the normal pancreatic MRI findings related to aging. The parameters examined were the pancreatic anteroposterior (AP) diameter, pancreatic lobulation, pancreatic signal intensity (SI), depiction of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), grade of the visual SI decrease on the opposed-phase T1-weighted images compared with in-phase images, and enhancement effect of the pancreas in the arterial phase of dynamic imaging. Results: The pancreatic AP diameter significantly reduced (head, p = 0.0172; body, p = 0.0007; tail, p < 0.0001), and lobulation (p < 0.0001) and parenchymal fatty change (p < 0.0001) became more evident with aging. No significant correlation was observed between aging and pancreatic SI, however the SI on the in-phase T1-weighted images tended to decrease with aging. No significant correlation was observed between aging and the depiction of the MPD as well as aging and contrast enhancement. Conclusion: MRI findings of pancreatic atrophy, lobulation, and fatty degeneration are characteristic changes related to aging, and it is necessary to recognize these changes in the interpretation of abdominal MRI in patients with and without pancreatic disease

  13. Regular-, irregular-, and pseudo-character processing in Chinese: The regularity effect in normal adult readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Kai Yan Lau

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Unlike alphabetic languages, Chinese uses a logographic script. However, the pronunciation of many character’s phonetic radical has the same pronunciation as the character as a whole. These are considered regular characters and can be read through a lexical non-semantic route (Weekes & Chen, 1999. Pseudocharacters are another way to study this non-semantic route. A pseudocharacter is the combination of existing semantic and phonetic radicals in their legal positions resulting in a non-existing character (Ho, Chan, Chung, Lee, & Tsang, 2007. Pseudocharacters can be pronounced by direct derivation from the sound of its phonetic radical. Conversely, if the pronunciation of a character does not follow that of the phonetic radical, it is considered as irregular and can only be correctly read through the lexical-semantic route. The aim of the current investigation was to examine reading aloud in normal adults. We hypothesized that the regularity effect, previously described for alphabetical scripts and acquired dyslexic patients of Chinese (Weekes & Chen, 1999; Wu, Liu, Sun, Chromik, & Zhang, 2014, would also be present in normal adult Chinese readers. Method Participants. Thirty (50% female native Hong Kong Cantonese speakers with a mean age of 19.6 years and a mean education of 12.9 years. Stimuli. Sixty regular-, 60 irregular-, and 60 pseudo-characters (with at least 75% of name agreement in Chinese were matched by initial phoneme, number of strokes and family size. Additionally, regular- and irregular-characters were matched by frequency (low and consistency. Procedure. Each participant was asked to read aloud the stimuli presented on a laptop using the DMDX software. The order of stimuli presentation was randomized. Data analysis. ANOVAs were carried out by participants and items with RTs and errors as dependent variables and type of stimuli (regular-, irregular- and pseudo-character as repeated measures (F1 or between subject

  14. Effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral blood flow in normal adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Takao [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    To elucidate the pharmacological effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral function and blood flow in normal adults, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in 10 right-handed male healthy volunteers with a smoking habit after 12-hour abstinence. By the oxygen-15 intravenous injection method, quantitative CBF was measured repeatedly 6 times; during normal breathing (baseline), 5% CO{sub 2} inhalation and cigarette smoking. Sham smoking was performed during baseline and CO{sub 2} inhalation. To eliminate the effects from PaCO{sub 2}, CBF was adjusted based on the vascular reactivity to CO{sub 2} and PaCO{sub 2} during smoking. Pulse rate, systemic blood pressure and arterial nicotine level were increased during smoking. In the overall comparison, there was no significant change in the mean CBF during smoking as compared with baseline. Out of 19 sessions, CBF increased significantly in 7 sessions, while CBF decreased in 7 sessions and was unchanged in 5 sessions. The arterial concentration of nicotine correlated inversely with CBF. When the baseline CBF was relatively low, CBF increased during smoking, while it decreased when the baseline value was high. In the 3-dimensional statistical analysis of normalized CBF, a significant increase was seen in the nucleus accumbens, which is assumed to be related to the drug habits or addiction in previous studies. In the first smoking after abstinence, CBF increased in the orbitofrontal gyri, and this can be linked to reward or relaxation. By contrast, a significant decrease was observed in the occipital lobes and paracentral areas. (author)

  15. Effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral blood flow in normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Takao

    1997-01-01

    To elucidate the pharmacological effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral function and blood flow in normal adults, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in 10 right-handed male healthy volunteers with a smoking habit after 12-hour abstinence. By the oxygen-15 intravenous injection method, quantitative CBF was measured repeatedly 6 times; during normal breathing (baseline), 5% CO 2 inhalation and cigarette smoking. Sham smoking was performed during baseline and CO 2 inhalation. To eliminate the effects from PaCO 2 , CBF was adjusted based on the vascular reactivity to CO 2 and PaCO 2 during smoking. Pulse rate, systemic blood pressure and arterial nicotine level were increased during smoking. In the overall comparison, there was no significant change in the mean CBF during smoking as compared with baseline. Out of 19 sessions, CBF increased significantly in 7 sessions, while CBF decreased in 7 sessions and was unchanged in 5 sessions. The arterial concentration of nicotine correlated inversely with CBF. When the baseline CBF was relatively low, CBF increased during smoking, while it decreased when the baseline value was high. In the 3-dimensional statistical analysis of normalized CBF, a significant increase was seen in the nucleus accumbens, which is assumed to be related to the drug habits or addiction in previous studies. In the first smoking after abstinence, CBF increased in the orbitofrontal gyri, and this can be linked to reward or relaxation. By contrast, a significant decrease was observed in the occipital lobes and paracentral areas. (author)

  16. Effect of simvastatin on CSF Alzheimer disease biomarkers in cognitively normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ge; Mayer, Cynthia L; Morelli, Daniel; Millard, Steven P; Raskind, Wendy H; Petrie, Eric C; Cherrier, Monique; Fagan, Anne M; Raskind, Murray A; Peskind, Elaine R

    2017-09-19

    To examine potential disease-modifying effects of statin drugs, we conducted a 12-month randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of simvastatin in cognitively normal adults using change in CSF Alzheimer disease biomarkers as primary outcome measure. Participants were 45-64 years old and statin-naive with normal cognition and normal or mildly elevated cholesterol. Forty-six participants completed the 1-year study per protocol (25 in the simvastatin and 21 in the placebo group). Simvastatin was titrated to 40 mg/d. CSF Aβ 42 , total tau, and p-tau 181 were measured at baseline and after 12 months of treatment using the INNO-BIA AlzBio3 assay. We used analysis of covariance to assess differences in biomarker change from baseline between treatment groups, adjusting for age, sex, and APOE ε4 status. Changes from baseline did not differ significantly between treatment groups for any CSF biomarker, with p values of 0.53, 0.36, and 0.25 for CSF Aβ 42 , total tau, and p-tau 181 , respectively. There was no significant modifying effect of sex, APOE ε4, or baseline high-density lipoprotein or triglycerides on treatment group for any of the biomarkers (all p > 0.18). However, a significant interaction between treatment group and baseline low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was observed for p-tau 181 ( p = 0.003), where greater decreases from baseline in CSF p-tau 181 concentrations were associated with higher baseline LDL level for the simvastatin group. Simvastatin-related reductions in CSF p-tau 181 concentrations may be modulated by LDL cholesterol. The potential disease-modifying effects of simvastatin on CSF phospho-tau should be further investigated in persons with hypercholesterolemia. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. CT measurement of normal pericardial thickness in adults on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Woo; Park, Chan Sup; Jeon, Yong Sun; Bae, In Young; Choi, Sung Gyu; Koo, Jin Hoe; Chung, Won Kyun

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish, using computed tomography, the normal thickness of the pericardium in adults. Materials and Methods: CT scans of 50 patients, including sections through the level of the heart, were reviewed. Patients were excluded if there were any suspicions of pericardial abnormality such as infectious or neoplastic diseases. Twenty-four of the 50 were men and 26 were women; their mean age was 47.0(range,18-76) years. We measured pericardial thickness at the level of the right ventricle, interventricular septum and left ventricle, and also compared pericardial thickness in terms of age and sex. Results: In all patients, the pericardium was observed in the right ventricular region; in 41 (82%) at the interventricular septum; and in 41 (82%) along the left ventricle. The mean thickness of normal pericardium at the level of the right ventricle, interventricular septum, and left ventricle was 1.8 mm ± 0.5 mm, 1.8 mm ± 0.4 mm, and 1.7 mm ± 0.5 mm, respectively. No statistically significant correlation was apparent between pericardial thickness and age group (p > 0.63, ANOVA test). Mean pericardial thickness was 1.9 mm ± 0.6 mm in males and 1.7 mm ± 0.4 mm in females; thus, no statistically significant correlation was apparent between pericardial thickness and sex (p >0.29, Student's t-test). Conclusion: The pericardium was best visualized in sections through the right ventricle.The mean thickness of normal pericardium was 1.8 mm ± 0.5 mm and pericardial thickness did not differ according to age or sex

  18. Contrast sensitivity measured by two different test methods in healthy, young adults with normal visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Baste, Valborg; Roumes, Corinne; Høvding, Gunnar

    2015-03-01

    This study reports contrast sensitivity (CS) reference values obtained by two different test methods in a strictly selected population of healthy, young adults with normal uncorrected visual acuity. Based on these results, the index of contrast sensitivity (ICS) is calculated, aiming to establish ICS reference values for this population and to evaluate the possible usefulness of ICS as a tool to compare the degree of agreement between different CS test methods. Military recruits with best eye uncorrected visual acuity 0.00 LogMAR or better, normal colour vision and age 18-25 years were included in a study to record contrast sensitivity using Optec 6500 (FACT) at spatial frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd in photopic and mesopic light and CSV-1000E at spatial frequencies of 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd in photopic light. Index of contrast sensitivity was calculated based on data from the three tests, and the Bland-Altman technique was used to analyse the agreement between ICS obtained by the different test methods. A total of 180 recruits were included. Contrast sensitivity frequency data for all tests were highly skewed with a marked ceiling effect for the photopic tests. The median ICS for Optec 6500 at 85 cd/m2 was -0.15 (95% percentile 0.45), compared with -0.00 (95% percentile 1.62) for Optec at 3 cd/m2 and 0.30 (95% percentile 1.20) FOR CSV-1000E. The mean difference between ICSFACT 85 and ICSCSV was -0.43 (95% CI -0.56 to -0.30, p<0.00) with limits of agreement (LoA) within -2.10 and 1.22. The regression line on the difference of average was near to zero (R2=0.03). The results provide reference CS and ICS values in a young, adult population with normal visual acuity. The agreement between the photopic tests indicated that they may be used interchangeably. There was little agreement between the mesopic and photopic tests. The mesopic test seemed best suited to differentiate between candidates and may therefore possibly be useful for medical selection purposes.

  19. Genetic Influences on Physiological and Subjective Responses to an Aerobic Exercise Session among Sedentary Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karoly, H. C.; Stevens, C.; Harlaar, N.; Hutchison, K. E.; Bryan, A. D.; Magnan, R. E.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective responding were taken before, during, and after exercise. 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been previously associated with various exercise phenotypes were tested for associations with physiological and subjective response to exercise phenotypes. Results. We found that two SNPs in the FTO gene (rs8044769 and rs3751812) were related to positive affect change during exercise. Two SNPs in the CREB1 gene (rs2253206 and 2360969) were related to change in temperature during exercise and with maximal oxygen capacity (VO 2 max). The SLIT2 SNP rs1379659 and the FAM5C SNP rs1935881 were associated with norepinephrine change during exercise. Finally, the OPRM1 SNP rs1799971 was related to changes in norepinephrine, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise. Conclusion. Genetic factors influence both physiological and subjective responses to exercise. A better understanding of genetic factors underlying physiological and subjective responses to aerobic exercise has implications for development and potential tailoring of exercise interventions.

  20. Relationship Between Social Support and Subjective Well-Being in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Goudarz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between social support and subjective well-being in the elderly referring to rehabilitation day centers in Tehran Province. Methods & Materials: This is a cross-sectional and correlational study. The study population was all the elderly referring to the rehabilitation day centers in Tehran Province. The sample size was 147 people, which were selected by random cluster sampling. To gather the data, Norbeck social support questionnaire, Philadelphia morale scale and a socio-demographic questionnaire were use. The Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, Chi-square, Independent t-test, Kruskal-Wallis, and ANOVA used for data analysis. Results: A total of 80 (54.4% of sample were male. The mean (SD age of older adults was 71.9(5.09 years and mean of subjective wellbeing was 8.65(2.28. The relationship between social support and subjective wellbeing was statistically significant (P=0.002, r=0.273. Conclusion: The findings showed significant relationship between social support and subjective well-being. It seems that having high social support will lead to better subjective well-being.

  1. Esophageal contractions, bolus transit and perception of transit after swallows of liquid and solid boluses in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciléia Dalmazo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal dysphagia is the sensation that the ingested material has a slow transit or blockage in its normal passage to the stomach. It is not always associated with motility or transit alterations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in normal volunteers the possibility of perception of bolus transit through the esophagus after swallows of liquid and solid boluses, the differences in esophageal contraction and transit with these boluses, and the association of transit perception with alteration of esophageal contraction and/or transit. METHODS: The investigation included 11 asymptomatic volunteers, 4 men and 7 women aged 19-58 years. The subjects were evaluated in the sitting position. They performed swallows of the same volume of liquid (isotonic drink and solid (macaroni boluses in a random order and in duplicate. After each swallow they were asked about the sensation of bolus passage through the esophagus. Contractions and transit were evaluated simultaneously by solid state manometry and impedance. RESULTS: Perception of bolus transit occurred only with the solid bolus. The amplitude and area under the curve of contractions were higher with swallows of the solid bolus than with swallows of the liquid bolus. The difference was more evident in swallows with no perception of transit (n = 12 than in swallows with perception (n = 10. The total bolus transit time was longer for the solid bolus than for the liquid bolus only with swallows followed by no perception of transit. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the perception of esophageal transit may be the consequence of inadequate adaptation of esophageal transit and contraction to the characteristics of the swallowed bolus.

  2. Age-related deposition of brain iron in normal adults: an in vivo susceptibility weighted imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qidong; Xu Xiaojun; Zhang Minming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of age on the iron concentration of the human brain. Methods: The brain iron level was evaluated in vivo in 78 healthy adult volunteers using a noninvasive magnetic resonance method termed susceptibility weighted imaging. The subjects were divided intothree groups due to different ages: young (22-35 years old, n=27), middle- aged (36-55 years old, n=35), and aged (56-78 years old, n=16). The phase values were measured on the corrected phase images in the globus pallidus, putamen, caudate, substantia nigra, red nucleus, thalamus and frontal white matter. The phase values of those regions measured from the subjects over than 30 years old were correlated with published values of brain iron concentration in normal adults to check the validity of the data. Then, the phase values of the three groups were tested for significant age-related differences using one-way ANOVA, followed by post hoc testing using least significant difference (LSD) procedure. Regression analysis was used to further examine age-related effects revealed by group comparisons, and to estimate the rates of age-related changes. Results: A strong negative correlation was found between the phase values and the published values of the brain iron concentration (r=-0.796, P= 0.032), which indicated that the higher the iron deposition level, the greater the negative phase values. In the putamen (F=20.115, P<0.01) and frontal white matter (F=3.536, P=0.034), significant differences were detected in the phase values of the three age groups. Linear regression analysis showed that phase values of the putamen, frontal white matter, and red nucleus decreased with age (The regression coefficients were -0.001, -0.001, and < -0.001 respectively, and the P value were all < 0.05), which indicated that the iron concentration of those brain structures increased with age. No significant age- related changes of the iron concentration were found in the

  3. The cerebral functional location in normal subjects during listening to a story in Chinese, English or Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Da; Zhan Hongwei; Xu Wei; Liu Hongbiao; Bao Chengkan

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the cerebral functional location in normal subjects during listening to a story in Chinese (native language), English (learned language) or Japanese (unfamiliar language). Methods: 9, 14,7 normal young students were asked to listen an emotional story in Chinese, the deeds of life of Aiyinsitan in English, and a dialogue in unfamiliar Japanese on a tap for 20 minters respectively. They were also asked to pay special attention to the name of the personage, time and site during listening Chinese or English story. 99mTc-ECD was administered in the first 3 minutes during they listened the story. The brain imaging was performed in 30 60 minutes after the tracer was administered. The results were compared with their brain imaging at rest respectively. Results: During listened to the story in Chinese, learned English, and unfamiliar Japanese, the auditory association cortex in the dual superior temporal and some midtemporal were activated. The inferior frontal and/or medial frontal lobes were activated too, special during listening to familiar language, and asked to remember the plot of the story, such as Chinese and English. But to compare with listening English, the activity in right frontal lobe was higher than in left during listened to the Chinese. During listened to unfamiliar Japanese, the frontal lobes were activated widely too. Conclusions: The results of our study shows that besides the auditory association cortex in the superior temporal and midtemporal, language can activates, the left inferior frontal (Broca s area), and in right and left frontal eye field, midtemporal, and superior frontal lobes were activated by language too. These regions in frontal have a crucial role in the decoding of familiar spoken language. And the attempt to decode unfamiliar spoken languages activates more auditory association areas. The left hemisphere is dominance hemisphere for language. But in our study, right temporal and frontal lobes were activated more

  4. Relationship of metabolic and endocrine parameters to brain glucose metabolism in older adults: do cognitively-normal older adults have a particular metabolic phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, S; Castellano, C A; Bocti, C; Dionne, I; Fulop, T; Cunnane, S C

    2016-02-01

    Our primary objective in this study was to quantify whole brain and regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRg) in young and older adults in order to determine age-normalized reference CMRg values for healthy older adults with normal cognition for age. Our secondary objectives were to--(i) report a broader range of metabolic and endocrine parameters including body fat composition that could form the basis for the concept of a 'metabolic phenotype' in cognitively normal, older adults, and (ii) to assess whether medications commonly used to control blood lipids, blood pressure or thyroxine affect CMRg values in older adults. Cognition assessed by a battery of tests was normal for age and education in both groups. Compared to the young group (25 years old; n = 34), the older group (72 years old; n = 41) had ~14% lower CMRg (μmol/100 g/min) specifically in the frontal cortex, and 18% lower CMRg in the caudate. Lower grey matter volume and cortical thickness was widespread in the older group. These differences in CMRg, grey matter volume and cortical thickness were present in the absence of any known evidence for prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Percent total body fat was positively correlated with CMRg in many brain regions but only in the older group. Before and after controlling for body fat, HOMA2-IR was significantly positively correlated to CMRg in several brain regions in the older group. These data show that compared to a healthy younger adult, the metabolic phenotype of a cognitively-normal 72 year old person includes similar plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and TSH, higher hemoglobin A1c and percent body fat, lower CMRg in the superior frontal cortex and caudate, but the same CMRg in the hippocampus and white matter. Age-normalization of cognitive test results is standard practice and we would suggest that regional CMRg in cognitively healthy older adults should also be age-normalized.

  5. Abdominal Adipose Tissue was Associated with Glomerular Hyperfiltration among Non- Diabetic and Normotensive Adults with a Normal Body Mass Index.

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    Jeonghwan Lee

    Full Text Available Glomerular hyperfiltration is recognized as an early marker of progressive kidney dysfunction in the obese population. This study aimed to identify the relationship between glomerular hyperfiltration and body fat distribution measured by computed tomography (CT in healthy Korean adults. The study population included individuals aged 20-64 years who went a routine health check-up including an abdominal CT scan. We selected 4,378 individuals without diabetes and hypertension. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the CKD-EPI equation, and glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as the highest quintile of glomerular filtration rate. Abdominal adipose tissue areas were measured at the level of the umbilicus using a 16-detector CT scanner, and the cross-sectional area was calculated using Rapidia 2.8 CT software. The prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration increased significantly according to the subcutaneous adipose tissue area in men (OR = 1.74 (1.16-2.61, P for trend 0.016, for the comparisons of lowest vs. highest quartile and visceral adipose tissue area in women (OR = 2.34 (1.46-3.75, P for trend < 0.001 in multivariate analysis. After stratification by body mass index (normal < 23 kg/m2, overweight ≥ 23 kg/m2, male subjects with greater subcutaneous adipose tissue, even those in the normal BMI group, had a higher prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration (OR = 2.11 (1.17-3.80, P for trend = 0.009. Among women, the significance of visceral adipose tissue area on glomerular hyperfiltration resulted from the normal BMI group (OR = 2.14 (1.31-3.49, P for trend = 0.002. After menopause, the odds ratio of the association of glomerular hyperfiltration with subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue increased (OR = 2.96 (1.21-7.25, P for trend = 0.013. Subcutaneous adipose tissue areas and visceral adipose tissue areas are positively associated with glomerular hyperfiltration in healthy Korean adult men and women, respectively. In post

  6. Detection of normal plantar fascia thickness in adults via the ultrasonographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul, Kadir; Ozer, Devrim; Sakizlioglu, Secil Sezgin; Buyuk, Abdul Fettah; Kaygusuz, Mehmet Akif

    2015-01-01

    Heel pain is a prevalent concern in orthopedic clinics, and there are numerous pathologic abnormalities that can cause heel pain. Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain, and the plantar fascia thickens in this process. It has been found that thickening to greater than 4 mm in ultrasonographic measurements can be accepted as meaningful in diagnoses. Herein, we aimed to measure normal plantar fascia thickness in adults using ultrasonography. We used ultrasonography to measure the plantar fascia thickness of 156 healthy adults in both feet between April 1, 2011, and June 30, 2011. These adults had no previous heel pain. The 156 participants comprised 88 women (56.4%) and 68 men (43.6%) (mean age, 37.9 years; range, 18-65 years). The weight, height, and body mass index of the participants were recorded, and statistical analyses were conducted. The mean ± SD (range) plantar fascia thickness measurements for subgroups of the sample were as follows: 3.284 ± 0.56 mm (2.4-5.1 mm) for male right feet, 3.3 ± 0.55 mm (2.5-5.0 mm) for male left feet, 2.842 ± 0.42 mm (1.8-4.1 mm) for female right feet, and 2.8 ± 0.44 mm (1.8-4.3 mm) for female left feet. The overall mean ± SD (range) thickness for the right foot was 3.035 ± 0.53 mm (1.8-5.1 mm) and for the left foot was 3.053 ± 0.54 mm (1.8-5.0 mm). There was a statistically significant and positive correlation between plantar fascia thickness and participant age, weight, height, and body mass index. The plantar fascia thickness of adults without heel pain was measured to be less than 4 mm in most participants (~92%). There was no statistically significant difference between the thickness of the right and left foot plantar fascia.

  7. Effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Asteracanthus longifolia on glucose tolerance in normal human subjects and in maturity-onset diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, M R; Wickramasinghe, N; Thabrew, M I; Ariyananda, P L; Karunanayake, E H

    1991-03-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the effects of hot-water extracts of Artocarpus heterophyllus leaves and Asteracanthus longifolia whole plant material on the glucose tolerance of normal human subjects and maturity-onset diabetic patients. The extracts of both Artocarpus heterophyllus and Asteracanthus longifolia significantly improved glucose tolerance in the normal subjects and the diabetic patients when investigated at oral doses equivalent to 20 g/kg of starting material.

  8. Pancreatic α- and β-Cell Function and Metabolic Changes during Oral L-Alanine and Glucose Administration: Comparative Studies between Normal, Diabetic and Cirrhotic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    HATTORI, TADAKAZU; HOTTA, NIGISHI; OHARA, KIYOJI; SHINODA, HIROSHI; KUNIEDA, TAKEHIDE; NOMURA, TAKAHIDE; KAKUTA, HIRONOBU; TAMAGAWA, TATSUO; SAKAMOTO, NOBUO

    1989-01-01

    The present study investigated whether or not, in addition to the oral glucose tolerance test, oral alanine loading was a useful diagnostic tool for hormonal and metabolic diseases. Fifty g of L-alanine was administered orally in 14 normal, 12 diabetic, and 8 liver cirrhotic subjects. The influence of oral alanine loading on hormones and metabolites was compared with the results of 100g oral glucose loading. The results obtained were as follows: 1) In the normal subjects and cirrhotics, lacta...

  9. Adipokine pattern in subjects with impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in comparison to normal glucose tolerance and diabetes.

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    Anke Tönjes

    Full Text Available AIM: Altered adipokine serum concentrations early reflect impaired adipose tissue function in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. It is not entirely clear whether these adipokine alterations are already present in prediabetic states and so far there is no comprehensive adipokine panel available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess distinct adipokine profiles in patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT or T2D. METHODS: Based on 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests, 124 individuals were divided into groups of IFG (n = 35, IGT (n = 45, or NGT (n = 43. Furthermore, 56 subjects with T2D were included. Serum concentrations of adiponectin, chemerin, fetuin-A, leptin, interleukin (IL-6, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, vaspin, progranulin, and soluble leptin receptor (sOBR were measured by ELISAs. RESULTS: Chemerin, progranulin, fetuin-A, and RBP4, IL-6, adiponectin and leptin serum concentrations were differentially regulated among the four investigated groups but only circulating chemerin was significantly different in patients with IGT compared to those with IFG. Compared to T2D the IFG subjects had higher serum chemerin, progranulin, fetuin-A and RBP4 levels which was not detectable in the comparison of the T2D and IGT group. CONCLUSION: Alterations in adipokine serum concentrations are already detectable in prediabetic states, mainly for chemerin, and may reflect adipose tissue dysfunction as an early pathogenetic event in T2D development. In addition, distinct adipokine serum patterns in individuals with IFG and IGT suggest a specific role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of these prediabetic states.

  10. The effect of a daily facial cleanser for normal to oily skin on the skin barrier of subjects with acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2006-07-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder that affects many people every year, especially the teenaged population. People with acne find the condition especially difficult to manage because of the disease's chronicity and variability in response to treatment. Acne is the result of pores clogged with shed skin cells combined with sebum in the hair follicle. Successful treatment of acne is important because acne has the potential to result in lasting physical and emotional scarring. For many years, physicians have agreed that although cleansing is not effective on its own, effective cleansing is an important part of any acne treatment regimen. However, patients have not been satisfied with the types of cleansers available. In addition to containing dyes and perfumes that can irritate and exacerbate acne, these cleansers often are too harsh and can result in excessive drying of the skin, which leads to overcompensation by the oil glands and ultimately to more oil on the surface of the skin. This study examined the use of a daily facial cleanser formulated for normal to oily skin in subjects with mild facial acne. The cleanser was studied for 2 weeks in the absence of additional treatments to eliminate the confounding effects of various treatments. Subjects were monitored for skin barrier function through transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneometry, sebum level, and lesion counts. The results of the study indicate that the facial cleanser is gentle and does not damage the skin barrier or result in sebum overcompensation; additionally, the cleanser is effective at deep-pore cleansing, which may help to manage some acne-associated symptoms.

  11. [The influence of musical rhythms on the perception of subjective states of adult patients on dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminha, Leandro Bechert; da Silva, Maria Júlia Paes; Leão, Eliseth Ribeiro

    2009-12-01

    Being submitted to dialysis four hours a day, three times a week can mean experiencing boredom, besides discomfort. Patients often report that the time seems to take longer to go by. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of two different musical rhythms in the states of mind and perception of adult patients undergoing dialysis, since the literature on this subject is scarce. The study was performed at a private hospital with 43 patients, who participated in two sessions of musical improvisation with a keyboard. The subjective states and perception were evaluated before and after the intervention. Over 80% of the patients felt that time went by faster after the interventions in both rhythms. However, the pace was a decisive factor in the kind of emotional experience that the patients had.

  12. Application of the Oral Minimal Model to Korean Subjects with Normal Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Min Hyuk Lim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe oral minimal model is a simple, useful tool for the assessment of β-cell function and insulin sensitivity across the spectrum of glucose tolerance, including normal glucose tolerance (NGT, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in humans.MethodsPlasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured during a 180-minute, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in 24 Korean subjects with NGT (n=10 and T2DM (n=14. The parameters in the computational model were estimated, and the indexes for insulin sensitivity and β-cell function were compared between the NGT and T2DM groups.ResultsThe insulin sensitivity index was lower in the T2DM group than the NGT group. The basal index of β-cell responsivity, basal hepatic insulin extraction ratio, and post-glucose challenge hepatic insulin extraction ratio were not different between the NGT and T2DM groups. The dynamic, static, and total β-cell responsivity indexes were significantly lower in the T2DM group than the NGT group. The dynamic, static, and total disposition indexes were also significantly lower in the T2DM group than the NGT group.ConclusionThe oral minimal model can be reproducibly applied to evaluate β-cell function and insulin sensitivity in Koreans.

  13. Reproducibility of isometric shoulder protraction and retraction strength measurements in normal subjects and individuals with winged scapula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae-Seop; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Dvir, Zeevi

    2016-11-01

    The strength of the shoulder protractors and retractors may be compromised in individuals with winged scapula (IwWS). However, no standard approach to measuring the strength of these muscles has been described. The aim of this study was to study the intra-rater and inter-rater reproducibility of a fixed-base isometric dynamometer and to describe cutoff scores for clinically meaningful change for protraction and retraction isometric strength. Twice during a week, 20 normal subjects and 20 IwWS were tested by 2 independent raters. IwWS were significantly weaker (P isometric strength. Excellent intra-rater and inter-rater correlations were obtained in most combinations, leading to low cutoff scores for meaningful change expressed in terms of the smallest real difference. When it is properly used, the technique described in this paper is recommended as an effective clinical tool for the quantitative assessment of protraction and retraction isometric strength, both for status determination and for monitoring of change in IwWS during and after rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of radioisotope methods for the measurement of phosphate absorption in normal subjects and in patients with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, K.; Mohammed, M.N.; Newman, S.P.; Varghese, Z.; Moorhead, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Intestinal phosphate absorption was measured in normal subjects, in patients with chronic renal failure, and in post-transplant patients, by a double isotope technique involving oral administration of 32 P and simultaneous intravenous injection of 33 P with subsequent deconvolution analysis. By this technique intestinal phosphate absorption has been shown to have two components: an initial rapid phase, which is completed by 3 h, and a slower more prolonged phase, which continues beyond 71/2 h. Phosphate malabsorption has been demonstrated in chronic renal failure and transplant patients, which is accounted for by impairment of the initial phase of absorption. Results obtained by deconvolution analysis have been compared with other estimates of phosphate absorption obtained from analysis of 32 P radioactivity curves alone. The fractional hourly rate of absorption and the plasma 32 P radioactivity at 60 min corrected for extracellular fluid volume provided the best approximations to the result obtained by deconvolution analysis, with respect to both the maximal rate of phosphate absorption and cumulative percentage phosphate absorption. (author)

  15. Thin-section spiral CT evaluation of morphologic effects of aging lung in asymptomatic adult subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kuncheng; Liu Jian; Yang Yanhui; Yao Xinyu; Yin Jianguo; Wang Shiwen; He Zuoxiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the imaging signs of aging lung in asymptomatic adult subjects by using thin-section spiral CT, and analyze the correlation between the signs and the age of examined cases, as well as probe their clinical application value. Methods: One hundred and six healthy adult subjects were divided into 3 groups: 30 to 44 years (n=31), 45 to 59 years (n=30), and over 60 years (n=45), and all the subjects underwent thin-section spiral CT scans in the upper lung field, the middle lung field and the lower lung field. The evaluation indices included the lung interstitium changes, emphysematous changes, mosaic perfusion, dependent density difference, and pleural thickenning. According to the relative score standard, the above-mentioned indices were totally calculated and converted into the score value. The data were statistically processed with SPSS for Windows. Results: Among the three groups, there were remarkable differences in the indices including the lung interstitium changes, emphysematous changes, and mosaic perfusion, respectively (χ 2 =8.10, 9.73, 15.54, P 2 =3.66, 3.24, P> 0.05). The score values had a significant positive correlation with the age (r=0.709, P<0.01). Conclusion: The signs including the lung interstitium changes, emphysematous changes, mosaic perfusion, the dependent density difference, and pleural thickenning can be found in asymptomatic subjects, and they become prominent as the age increases. HRCT is one of the most important methods for evaluating the early signs of the senile lung. (authors)

  16. Binaural Hearing Ability With Bilateral Bone Conduction Stimulation in Subjects With Normal Hearing: Implications for Bone Conduction Hearing Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitooni, Mehrnaz; Mäki-Torkko, Elina; Stenfelt, Stefan

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate binaural hearing ability in adults with normal hearing when bone conduction (BC) stimulation is bilaterally applied at the bone conduction hearing aid (BCHA) implant position as well as at the audiometric position on the mastoid. The results with BC stimulation are compared with bilateral air conduction (AC) stimulation through earphones. Binaural hearing ability is investigated with tests of spatial release from masking and binaural intelligibility level difference using sentence material, binaural masking level difference with tonal chirp stimulation, and precedence effect using noise stimulus. In all tests, results with bilateral BC stimulation at the BCHA position illustrate an ability to extract binaural cues similar to BC stimulation at the mastoid position. The binaural benefit is overall greater with AC stimulation than BC stimulation at both positions. The binaural benefit for BC stimulation at the mastoid and BCHA position is approximately half in terms of decibels compared with AC stimulation in the speech based tests (spatial release from masking and binaural intelligibility level difference). For binaural masking level difference, the binaural benefit for the two BC positions with chirp signal phase inversion is approximately twice the benefit with inverted phase of the noise. The precedence effect results with BC stimulation at the mastoid and BCHA position are similar for low frequency noise stimulation but differ with high-frequency noise stimulation. The results confirm that binaural hearing processing with bilateral BC stimulation at the mastoid position is also present at the BCHA implant position. This indicates the ability for binaural hearing in patients with good cochlear function when using bilateral BCHAs.

  17. Association between childhood maltreatment and normal adult personality traits: exploration of an understudied field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; Cohen, Lisa J; Rodgers, Stephanie; Müller, Mario; Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2015-02-01

    We assessed normal personality traits and childhood trauma in approximately 1170 subjects from a general population-based community sample. In bivariate analyses emotional abuse was most pervasively related to personality, showing significant detrimental associations with neuroticism, extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness. Neuroticism was significantly related to emotional abuse and neglect, physical abuse and neglect, and sexual abuse. Emotional abuse was related to neuroticism in men more profoundly than in women (β = 0.095). Adjusting for the covariance between childhood maltreatment variables, neuroticism was mainly related to emotional abuse (β = 0.193), extraversion to emotional neglect (β = -0.259), openness to emotional abuse (β = 0.175), conscientiousness to emotional abuse (β = -0.110), and agreeableness to emotional neglect (β = -0.153). The proportion of variance explained was highest in neuroticism (5.6%) and lowest in openness (1.9%) and conscientiousness (1.8%). These findings help to understand the complex association between childhood maltreatment and both normal and pathological personality.

  18. A study on brain ventricle measurements of normal Korean adults using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ung Jin; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the ventricular system of the brain in normal Korean adults on the base of computed tomography. The computerized tomographic examinations of 334 Korean adults between ages of 15 to 50 years, performed at Seoul National University Hospital, were evaluated. The cerebro- or cerebello-ventricular ratio, between ventricular size and brain parenchyme width, has been known to be reliable indicator of the ventricular size. This ratio was measured at the level of the lateral, third and fourth ventricles respectively. The shape of the quardigeminal and suprasellar cistern was analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. The cerebroventricular ratios of the lateral ventricle at the level of the widest bifrontal and bicaudate diameters were 0.30 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.02, respectively. The lateral ventricle was asymmetric in 12.6%, of which the left side was usually larger than the right. 2. There was correlation between the cerebroventricular ratio and age, i.e., with increase of age, the C-V ratio increased slightly. 3. The cerebrocventricular ratio of the third ventricle was 0.03 ± 0.01. 4. The cerebroventricular ratio of the fourth ventricle in width and height was 0.14 ± 0.02 and 0.10 ± 0.03, respectively. The anteroposterior position index of the fourth ventricle was 0.42 ± 0.04. 5. The quadrigeminal cistern showed W-shape in 76.6% and U-shaped in 23.4%. 6. The suprasellar cistern showed pentagonal shape in 61.1%, round in 28.4% and hexagonal in 10.5%. 7. There was no significant difference between male and female according to the above results

  19. A study on brain ventricle measurement of normal Korean adults using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ung Jin; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the ventricular system of the brain in normal Korean adults on the base of computed tomography. The computerized tomographic examinations of 334 Korean adults between ages of 15 to 50 years, performed at Seoul National University Hospital, were evaluated. The cerebro- or cerebello-ventricular ratio, between ventricular size and brain parenchyme width, has been known to be a reliable indicator of the ventricular size. This ratio was measured at the level of the lateral, third and fourth ventricles respectively. The shape of the quardigeminal and suprasellar cistern was analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. The cerebroventricular ratios of the lateral ventricle at the level of the widest bifrontal and bicaudate diameters were 0.30 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.02, respectively. The lateral ventricle was asymmetric in 12.6%, of which the left side was usually larger than the right. 2. There was correlation between the cerebroventricular ratio and age, i.e., with increase of age, the C-V ratio increased slightly. 3. The cerebroventricular ratio of the third ventricle was 0.03 ± 0.01. 4. The cerebroventricular ratio of the fourth ventricle in width and height was 0.14± 0.02 and 0.10 ± 0.03, respectively. The anteroposterior position index of the fourth ventricle was 0.42 ± 0.04. 5. The quadrigeminal cistern showed W-shape in 76.6% and U-shape in 23.4%. 6. The suprasellar cistern showed pentagonal shape in 61.1%, round in 28.4% and hexagonal in 10.5%. 7. There was no significant difference between male and female according to the above results

  20. Effects of noise exposure on young adults with normal audiograms I: Electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Garreth; Guest, Hannah; Munro, Kevin J; Kluk, Karolina; Léger, Agnès; Hall, Deborah A; Heinz, Michael G; Plack, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    Noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy has been demonstrated in numerous rodent studies. In these animal models, the disorder is characterized by a reduction in amplitude of wave I of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) to high-level stimuli, whereas the response at threshold is unaffected. The aim of the present study was to determine if this disorder is prevalent in young adult humans with normal audiometric hearing. One hundred and twenty six participants (75 females) aged 18-36 were tested. Participants had a wide range of lifetime noise exposures as estimated by a structured interview. Audiometric thresholds did not differ across noise exposures up to 8 kHz, although 16-kHz audiometric thresholds were elevated with increasing noise exposure for females but not for males. ABRs were measured in response to high-pass (1.5 kHz) filtered clicks of 80 and 100 dB peSPL. Frequency-following responses (FFRs) were measured to 80 dB SPL pure tones from 240 to 285 Hz, and to 80 dB SPL 4 kHz pure tones amplitude modulated at frequencies from 240 to 285 Hz (transposed tones). The bandwidth of the ABR stimuli and the carrier frequency of the transposed tones were chosen to target the 3-6 kHz characteristic frequency region which is usually associated with noise damage in humans. The results indicate no relation between noise exposure and the amplitude of the ABR. In particular, wave I of the ABR did not decrease with increasing noise exposure as predicted. ABR wave V latency increased with increasing noise exposure for the 80 dB peSPL click. High carrier-frequency (envelope) FFR signal-to-noise ratios decreased as a function of noise exposure in males but not females. However, these correlations were not significant after the effects of age were controlled. The results suggest either that noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy is not a significant problem in young, audiometrically normal adults, or that the ABR and FFR are relatively insensitive to this disorder in

  1. Association of Higher Cortical Amyloid Burden With Loneliness in Cognitively Normal Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Nancy J; Okereke, Olivia I; Vannini, Patrizia; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Rentz, Dorene M; Marshall, Gad A; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A

    2016-12-01

    Emotional and behavioral symptoms in cognitively normal older people may be direct manifestations of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiology at the preclinical stage, prior to the onset of mild cognitive impairment. Loneliness is a perceived state of social and emotional isolation that has been associated with cognitive and functional decline and an increased risk of incident AD dementia. We hypothesized that loneliness might occur in association with elevated cortical amyloid burden, an in vivo research biomarker of AD. To determine whether cortical amyloid burden is associated with greater loneliness in cognitively normal older adults. Cross-sectional analyses using data from the Harvard Aging Brain Study of 79 cognitively normal, community-dwelling participants. A continuous, aggregate measure of cortical amyloid burden, determined by Pittsburgh Compound B-positron emission tomography (PiB-PET), was examined in association with loneliness in linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOEε4), socioeconomic status, depression, anxiety, and social network (without and with the interaction of amyloid and APOEε4). We also quantified the association of high amyloid burden (amyloid-positive group) to loneliness (lonely group) using logistic regression, controlling for the same covariates, with the amyloid-positive group and the lonely group, each composing 32% of the sample (n = 25). Loneliness, as determined by the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale (possible range, 3-12, with higher score indicating greater loneliness). The 79 participants included 43 women and 36 men with a mean (SD) age of 76.4 (6.2) years. Mean (SD) cortical amyloid burden via PiB-PET was 1.230 (0.209), and the mean (SD) UCLA-3 loneliness score was 5.3 (1.8). Twenty-two (28%) had positive APOEε4 carrier status, and 25 (32%) were in the amyloid-positive group with cortical PiB distribution volume ratio greater than 1.2. Controlling for age, sex, APOEε4, socioeconomic

  2. Cerebral Blood Flow and Amyloid-β Interact to Affect Memory Performance in Cognitively Normal Older Adults

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    Katherine J. Bangen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral blood flow (CBF alterations and amyloid-β (Aβ accumulation have been independently linked to cognitive deficits in older adults at risk for dementia. Less is known about how CBF and Aβ may interact to affect cognition in cognitively normal older adults. Therefore, we examined potential statistical interactions between CBF and Aβ status in regions typically affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD within a sample of older adults from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI study. Sixty-two cognitively normal participants (mean age = 72 years underwent neuroimaging and memory testing. Arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify CBF and florbetapir PET amyloid imaging was used to measure Aβ deposition. Aβ status (i.e., positivity versus negativity was determined based on established cutoffs (Landau et al., 2013. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test was used to assess memory. Linear regression models adjusted for age, education, and sex, demonstrated significant interactions between CBF and Aβ status on memory performance. Among Aβ positive older adults, there were significant negative associations between higher CBF in hippocampus, posterior cingulate, and precuneus and poorer memory performance. In contrast, among Aβ negative older adults, there were no significant associations between CBF and cognition. Our findings extend previous CBF studies of dementia risk by reporting interactions between Aβ status and CBF on memory performance in a sample of well-characterized, cognitively normal older adults. Results suggest that differential CBF-cognition associations can be identified in healthy, asymptomatic Aβ positive older adults relative to Aβ negative individuals. Associations between higherCBF and poorer memory among Aβ positive older adults may reflect a cellular and/or vascular compensatory response to pathologic processes whereby higher CBF is needed to maintain normal memory

  3. Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmus, Micha Mm; Hay, Justin L; Zuiker, Rob Gja; Okkerse, Pieter; Perdrieu, Christelle; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Schmitt, Jeroen; van Gerven, Joop Ma; Silber, Beata Y

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine induces positive effects on sustained attention, although studies assessing the acute effects of low caffeine dose (caffeine on sustained attention in tests lasting up to 45 minutes using 82 low or non-caffeine-consuming healthy male ( n=41) and female ( n=41) adults aged between 40 and 60 years. Vigilance was measured using Mackworth Clock test, Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, adaptive tracking test, saccadic eye movement and attention switch test. Effects on mood and fatigue were analysed using Bond and Lader and Caffeine Research visual analogue scales, and Samn-Perelli questionnaire. Saliva sampling was performed for both compliance and caffeine pharmacokinetic analysis. Administration of a 60 mg caffeine dose resulted in a significant improvement in sustained attention compared with the placebo. Also a significantly improved peak saccadic velocity and reaction time performance was found, and decreased error rate. Significantly increased feelings of alertness, contentment and overall mood after caffeine treatment compared with placebo were observed. This study demonstrated that in healthy adult subjects oral administration of a single 60 mg caffeine dose elicited a clear enhancement of sustained attention and alertness, measured both in multiple objective performances and in subjective scales.

  4. EFFECTS OF GREEN COFFEE BEAN EXTRACT IN SOME BIOMARKERS OF ADULT BRAZILIAN SUBJECTS

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    Mirza Adriana de Assis JÁCOME

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the acute effects of the green coffee extracts consumption in some biomarkers of adult Brazilian subjects. Twenty healthy adult subjects between 18 and 35 years old of different sex and ethnic groups took part in the present study. All participants were submitted a 12 hours overnight fast before experiments. Plasma and serum biochemical parameters were measured in distinct intervals after a breakfast standard ingestion and 0.6 L of green coffee been extract consumption. No statistically differences (Wilcoxon test on serum lipid profi le and plasmatic homocysteine concentration were noted after green coffee beverage intake. Caffeine has been associated with increase of the glycaemia in roasted coffee consumers. In the present study, a signifi cant increase (p= 0.03 in glycaemia was observed thirty minutes after the green coffee beverage ingestion and, then, there was a tendency of glycaemia maintenance. The low amount of free caffeine found in green coffee matrix could explain the quick stabilization of the glycaemia. The ingestion of green coffee beverage also signifi cantly reduced uricaemia (p= 0.03 (Wilcoxon test. It is possible that the polyphenols, present in high amounts in this beverage, could act inhibiting the xanthine oxidase enzyme. Therefore, the consumption of green coffee has to stabilize blood glucose 30 minutes after ingestion of test meal, and reduction of uricaemia.

  5. Thyroxine binding to serum thyronine-binding globulin in thyroidectomized adult and normal neonatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.A.; Meyers, B.; Alex, S.; Fang, S.L.; Braverman, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    The amount of tracer [125I]T4 bound to serum thyronine-binding globulin (TBG) was measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in adult thyroidectomized (TX) rats and normal 1-day to 4-week-old rat puts. Thyroidectomy was associated with the appearance of significant amounts of [125I]T4 binding to serum TBG in lean rats, but not in obese Zucker rats. Treatment of the TX rats in vivo with replacement doses of T4 prevented this increase in TBG binding, but enrichment of serum from TX rats with T4 did not. Significant amounts of tracer [125I]T4 binding to TBG was present in serum from 1- to 3-week-old normal rat pups, but not in 1-day- or 4-week-old pups. There were significantly higher levels of TBG binding of [125I]T4 in serum from 2-week-old rat pups raised in litters of 16 pups compared to those raised in litters of 4 pups. All manipulations that result in the appearance of TBG in rat serum also result in either weight loss or a slowing in the rate of growth, suggesting that the appearance of TBG in rat serum has a nutritional component. This possibility is further supported by the observations that increases in TBG binding of [125I]T4 are not found in obese Zucker rats fed a low protein-high carbohydrate diet for 14 days or fasted for 7 days, or after thyroidectomy, perhaps owing to the large stores of fuel in the obese rat

  6. Assessment of Normal Eyeball Protrusion Using Computed Tomographic Imaging and Three-Dimensional Reconstruction in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang-Jae; Gil, Young-Chun; Lee, Shin-Hyo; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Yoo, Ja-Young; Kim, Soon-Heum; Choi, Hyun-Gon; Shin, Hyun Jin; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess normal eyeball protrusion from the orbital rim using two- and three-dimensional images and demonstrate the better suitability of CT images for assessment of exophthalmos. The facial computed tomographic (CT) images of Korean adults were acquired in sagittal and transverse views. The CT images were used in reconstructing three-dimensional volume of faces using computer software. The protrusion distances from orbital rims and the diameters of eyeballs were measured in the two views of the CT image and three-dimensional volume of the face. Relative exophthalmometry was calculated by the difference in protrusion distance between the right and left sides. The eyeball protrusion was 4.9 and 12.5 mm in sagittal and transverse views, respectively. The protrusion distances were 2.9 mm in the three-dimensional volume of face. There were no significant differences between right and left sides in the degree of protrusion, and the difference was within 2 mm in more than 90% of the subjects. The results of the present study will provide reliable criteria for precise diagnosis and postoperative monitoring using CT imaging of diseases such as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and orbital tumors.

  7. Attentional Control and Subjective Executive Function in Treatment-Naive Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

  8. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  9. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venke Arntsberg Grane

    Full Text Available We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36 and in healthy controls (n = 35. Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.. Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A. There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  10. Determination of Sample Entropy and Fuzzy Measure Entropy Parameters for Distinguishing Congestive Heart Failure from Normal Sinus Rhythm Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Entropy provides a valuable tool for quantifying the regularity of physiological time series and provides important insights for understanding the underlying mechanisms of the cardiovascular system. Before any entropy calculation, certain common parameters need to be initialized: embedding dimension m, tolerance threshold r and time series length N. However, no specific guideline exists on how to determine the appropriate parameter values for distinguishing congestive heart failure (CHF from normal sinus rhythm (NSR subjects in clinical application. In the present study, a thorough analysis on the selection of appropriate values of m, r and N for sample entropy (SampEn and recently proposed fuzzy measure entropy (FuzzyMEn is presented for distinguishing two group subjects. 44 long-term NRS and 29 long-term CHF RR interval recordings from http://www.physionet.org were used as the non-pathological and pathological data respectively. Extreme (>2 s and abnormal heartbeat RR intervals were firstly removed from each RR recording and then the recording was segmented with a non-overlapping segment length N of 300 and 1000, respectively. SampEn and FuzzyMEn were performed for each RR segment under different parameter combinations: m of 1, 2, 3 and 4, and r of 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 respectively. The statistical significance between NSR and CHF groups under each combination of m, r and N was observed. The results demonstrated that the selection of m, r and N plays a critical role in determining the SampEn and FuzzyMEn outputs. Compared with SampEn, FuzzyMEn shows a better regularity when selecting the parameters m and r. In addition, FuzzyMEn shows a better relative consistency for distinguishing the two groups, that is, the results of FuzzyMEn in the NSR group were consistently lower than those in the CHF group while SampEn were not. The selections of m of 2 and 3 and r of 0.10 and 0.15 for SampEn and the selections of m of 1 and 2 whenever r (herein

  11. Gender Difference in TEOAEs and Contralateral Suppression of TEOAEs in Normal Hearing Adults

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    Farzaneh Zamiri Abdollahi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs are sounds that originate in cochlea and are measured in external auditory canal and provide a simple, efficient and non-invasive objective indicator of healthy cochlear function. Olivo cochlear bundle (OCB or auditory efferent system is a neural feedback pathway which originated from brain stem and terminated in the inner ear and can be evaluated non-invasively by applying a contralateral acoustic stimulus and simultaneously measuring reduction of OAEs amplitude. In this study gender differences in TEOAE amplitude and suppression of TEOAE were investigated. Methods: This study was performed at Akhavan rehabilitation centre belonging to the University of Social welfare and rehabilitation sciences, Tehran, Iran in 2011. 60 young adults (30 female and 30 male between 21 and 27 years old (mean=24 years old, SD=1.661 with normal hearing criteria were selected. Right ear of all cases were tested to neutralize side effect if there is any. Results: According to Independent t-test, TEOAE amplitude was significantly greater in females with mean value of 24.98 dB (P<0.001 and TEOAE suppression was significantly greater in males with mean value of 2.07 dB (P<0.001. Discussion: This study shows that there is a significant gender difference in adult’s TEOAE (cochlear mechanisms and TEOAE suppression (auditory efferent system. The exact reason for these results is not clear. According to this study different norms for males and females might be necessary.

  12. Is There Evidence for Myelin Modeling by Astrocytes in the Normal Adult Brain?

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    Alfredo Varela-Echevarría

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A set of astrocytic process associated with altered myelinated axons is described in the forebrain of normal adult rodents with confocal, electron microscopy, and 3D reconstructions. Each process consists of a protuberance that contains secretory organelles including numerous lysosomes which polarize and open next to disrupted myelinated axons. Because of the distinctive asymmetric organelle distribution and ubiquity throughout the forebrain neuropil, this enlargement is named paraxial process (PAP. The myelin envelope contiguous to the PAP displays focal disruption or disintegration. In routine electron microscopy clusters of large, confluent, lysosomes proved to be an effective landmark for PAP identification. In 3D assemblies lysosomes organize a series of interconnected saccules that open up to the plasmalemma next to the disrupted myelin envelope(s. Activity for acid hydrolases was visualized in lysosomes, and extracellularly at the PAP-myelin interface and/or between the glial and neuronal outer aspects. Organelles in astrocytic processes involved in digesting pyknotic cells and debris resemble those encountered in PAPs supporting a likewise lytic function of the later. Conversely, processes entangling tripartite synapses and glomeruli were devoid of lysosomes. Both oligodendrocytic and microglial processes were not associated with altered myelin envelopes. The possible roles of the PAP in myelin remodeling in the context of the oligodendrocyte-astrocyte interactions and in the astrocyte's secretory pathways are discussed.

  13. Diet enriched with fresh coconut decreases blood glucose levels and body weight in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Venugopal; Shankar, Nagashree R; Mavathur, Ramesh; Mooventhan, A; Anju, Sood; Manjunath, N K

    2018-02-20

    Background There exist controversies about the health effects of coconut. Fresh coconut consumption on human health has not been studied substantially. Fresh coconut consumption is a regular part of the diet for many people in tropical countries like India, and thus there is an increasing need to understand the effects of fresh coconut on various aspects of health. Aim To compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fiber intake, provided by fresh coconut, versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and fiber intake, provided by a combination of groundnut oil and groundnuts, on anthropometry, serum insulin, glucose levels and blood pressure in healthy adults. Materials Eighty healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups, were provided with a standardized diet along with either 100 g fresh coconut or an equivalent amount of groundnuts and groundnut oil for a period of 90 days. Assessments such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood sugar and insulin levels were performed before and after the supplementation period. Results Results of this study showed a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar (FBS) in both the groups. However, a significant reduction in body weight was observed in the coconut group, while a significant increase in diastolic pressure was observed in the groundnut group. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that fresh coconut-added diet helps reduce blood glucose levels and body weight in normal healthy individuals.

  14. Searching for sources of variance in speech recognition: Young adults with normal hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charles S.; Kidd, Gary R.

    2005-04-01

    In the present investigation, sensory-perceptual abilities of one thousand young adults with normal hearing are being evaluated with a range of auditory, visual, and cognitive measures. Four auditory measures were derived from factor-analytic analyses of previous studies with 18-20 speech and non-speech variables [G. R. Kidd et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2641 (2000)]. Two measures of visual acuity are obtained to determine whether variation in sensory skills tends to exist primarily within or across sensory modalities. A working memory test, grade point average, and Scholastic Aptitude Test scores (Verbal and Quantitative) are also included. Preliminary multivariate analyses support previous studies of individual differences in auditory abilities (e.g., A. M. Surprenant and C. S. Watson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 2085-2095 (2001)] which found that spectral and temporal resolving power obtained with pure tones and more complex unfamiliar stimuli have little or no correlation with measures of speech recognition under difficult listening conditions. The current findings show that visual acuity, working memory, and intellectual measures are also very poor predictors of speech recognition ability, supporting the independence of this processing skill. Remarkable performance by some exceptional listeners will be described. [Work supported by the Office of Naval Research, Award No. N000140310644.

  15. Subcategory learning in normal and language learning-disabled adults: how much information do they need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jessica; Harris, Laurel; Plante, Elena; Gerken, Louann

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine if nonreferential morphophonological information was sufficient to facilitate the learning of gender subcategories (i.e., masculine vs. feminine) in individuals with normal language (NL) and those with a history of language-based learning disabilities (HLD). Thirty-two adults listened for 18 min to a familiarization set of Russian words that included either 1 (single-marked) or 2 (double-marked) morphophonological markers indicating gender. Participants were then tested on their knowledge of both trained and untrained members of each gender subcategory. Testing indicated that morphophonological information is sufficient for lexical subcategory learning in both NL and HLD groups, although the HLD group had lower overall accuracy. The HLD group benefited from double-marking relative to single-marking for subcategory learning. The results demonstrated that learning through implicit mechanisms occurred after a relatively brief exposure to the language stimuli. In addition, the weaker overall learning by the HLD group was facilitated when multiple cues to linguistic subcategory were available in the input group members received.

  16. Cognitive function predicts listening effort performance during complex tasks in normally aging adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennine Harvey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines whether cognitive function, as measured by the subtests of the Woodcock–Johnson III (WCJ-III assessment, predicts listening-effort performance during dual tasks across the adults of varying ages. Materials and Methods: Participants were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 14 listeners (number of females = 11 who were 41–61 years old [mean = 53.18; standard deviation (SD = 5.97]. Group 2 consisted of 15 listeners (number of females = 9 who were 63–81 years old (mean = 72.07; SD = 5.11. Participants were administered the WCJ-III Memory for Words, Auditory Working Memory, Visual Matching, and Decision Speed subtests. All participants were tested in each of the following three dual-task experimental conditions, which were varying in complexity: (1 auditory word recognition + visual processing, (2 auditory working memory (word + visual processing, and (3 auditory working memory (sentence + visual processing in noise. Results: A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that task complexity significantly affected the performance measures of auditory accuracy, visual accuracy, and processing speed. Linear regression revealed that the cognitive subtests of the WCJ-III test significantly predicted performance across dependent variable measures. Conclusion: Listening effort is significantly affected by task complexity, regardless of age. Performance on the WCJ-III test may predict listening effort in adults and may assist speech-language pathologist (SLPs to understand challenges faced by participants when subjected to noise.

  17. The cerebral functional location in normal subjects when they listened to a story in English as a second language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Da; Zhan Hongwei; Xu Wei; Liu Hongbiao; He Guangqiang

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To detect the cerebral functional location when normal subjects listened to a story in English as a second language. Methods: 14 normal young students of the medical collage of Zhejiang University, 22-24 years old, 8 male and 6 female. The first they underwent a 99mTc-ECD brain imaging at rest using a dual-head gamma camera with fan beam collimators. After 2-4 days they were asked to listen a story in English as a second language on a tap for 20 minters. The content of the story is about the deeds of life of a well-known physicist, Aiyinsitan. They were also asked to pay special attention to the name of the personage in the story, what time and place did the story stated. 99mTc-ECD was administered in the first 3 minutes during they listened the story. The brain imaging was performed in 30-60 minutes after the tracer was administered. Their hearing was fell into bad, middle, and good according to the restate content. Results: To compare the rest state, during listen to the story in Chinese and asked to remember the content of story the superior temporal were activated in all 14 subjects, among them, dual in 4 cases, right in 5 cases, and left in 5 cases. The midtemporal (right in 5 cases), inferior temporal (right in 2 cases and left in 3 cases), and pre-temporal (in 1 case) were activated too. The auditory associated areas in frontal lobes were activated in different level, among them left post-inferior frontal (Broca's area) in 8 cases, right post-inferior frontal (Broca's area) in 3 cases, superior frontal in 6 cases (dual in 3 and right in 3), pre-inferior frontal and/or medial frontal lobes in 9 cases (dual in 6 and right in 3). Other regions that were activated included the parietal lobes (right in 4 and left in 1), the occipital lobes (dual in 4,right in 2 and left in 4)and pre-cingulated gyms (in 1 case). According to the hearing in sequence (bad, middle and good), the activated rate of the occipital lobes is decreasing (100%,75% and 57

  18. Normal Development and Measurements of the Occipital Condyle-C1 Interval in Children and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P; Linscott, L L; Vadivelu, S; Zhang, B; Leach, J L

    2016-05-01

    Widening of the occipital condyle-C1 interval is the most specific and sensitive means of detecting atlanto-occipital dislocation. Recent studies attempting to define normal measurements of the condyle-C1 interval in children have varied substantially. This study was performed to test the null hypothesis that condyle-C1 interval morphology and joint measurements do not change as a function of age. Imaging review of subjects undergoing CT of the upper cervical spine for reasons unrelated to trauma or developmental abnormality was performed. Four equidistant measurements were obtained for each bilateral condyle-C1 interval on sagittal and coronal images. The cohort was divided into 7 age groups to calculate the mean, SD, and 95% CIs for the average condyle-C1 interval in both planes. The prevalence of a medial occipital condyle notch was calculated. Two hundred forty-eight joints were measured in 124 subjects with an age range of 2 days to 22 years. The condyle-C1 interval varies substantially by age. Average coronal measurements are larger and more variable than sagittal measurements. The medial occipital condyle notch is most prevalent from 1 to 12 years and is uncommon in older adolescents and young adults. The condyle-C1 interval increases during the first several years of life, is largest in the 2- to 4-year age range, and then decreases through late childhood and adolescence. A single threshold value to detect atlanto-occipital dissociation may not be sensitive and specific for all age groups. Application of this normative data to documented cases of atlanto-occipital injury is needed to determine clinical utility. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  19. Temporal and spectral properties of esophageal mucosal blood perfusion: a comparison between normal subjects and nutcracker esophagus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zifan, A; Jiang, Y; Mittal, R K

    2017-02-01

    The mechanism of esophageal pain in patients with nutcracker esophagus (NE) and other esophageal motor disorders is not known. Our recent study shows that baseline esophageal mucosal perfusion, measured by laser Doppler perfusion monitoring, is lower in NE patients compared to controls. The goal of our current study was to perform a more detailed analysis of esophageal mucosal blood perfusion (EMBP) waveform of NE patients and controls to determine the optimal EMBP biomarkers that combined with suitable statistical learning models produce robust discrimination between the two groups. Laser Doppler recordings of 10 normal subjects (mean age 43 ± 15 years, 8 males) and 10 patients (mean age 47 ± 5.5 years., 8 males) with NE were analyzed. Time and frequency domain features were extracted from the first twenty-minute recordings of the EMBP waveforms, statistically ranked according to four independent evaluation criterions, and analyzed using two statistical learning models, namely, logistic regression (LR) and support vector machines (SVM). The top three ranked predictors between the two groups were the 0.5 and 0.75 perfusion quantile values followed by the surface of the EMBP power spectrum in the frequency domain. ROC curve ranking produced a cross-validated AUC (area under the curve) of 0.93 for SVM and 0.90 for LR. We show that as a group NE patients have lower perfusion values compared to controls, however, there is an overlap between the two groups, suggesting that not all NE patients suffer from low mucosal perfusion levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Decrease in the cortical intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with aging in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imon, Yukari; Murata, Yoshio; Kajima, Toshio; Nakamura, Shigenobu; Yamaguchi, Shinya

    1997-01-01

    We reported previously that Low T 2 intensity areas (LIAs) are more common in patients with central nervous system (CNS) diseases than in those with no such diseases, and that the occurrence of LIAs increases with aging. To determine a relationship between the intensity changes and aging, we investigated the intensity of the cerebral cortex in 26 normal Japanese individuals. Measurements of brain MRIs were performed with a Signa Advantage apparatus at 1.5 tesla. T 2 -weighted images were obtained using the spin-echo pulse sequences. On our laboratory console, we measured signal intensities in the regions of interest in the prefrontal, motor, sensory, parietal, temporal, or occipital cortex, and in the frontal white matter. To remove the effect of the system gain settings on signal intensity, that of cerebrospinal fluid was used as reference according to the method of Pujol et al. The average intensity in the temporal and prefrontal cortices was the highest, followed in order by the parietal, sensory, motor, and occipital cortices. The intensity in the temporal and parietal cortices decreased significantly with aging, and that in the motor and sensory cortices had a tendency to decrease with aging. The intensity in the motor and sensory cortices of the elderly subjects and that in the occipital cortex throughout all ages were lower than that in the prefrontal white matter, which would result in the appearance of LIAs. The average intensity of each cerebral cortex was inversely related to the non-heme iron content previously reported. It is likely that the difference in intensity among the cortices reflects variations of the non-heme iron content, and that the change in intensity with aging could be due to the increase in such cortical senile changes as that of microglia, astroglia, and senile plaques, which contain iron or iron-related proteins. The temporal cortex is most susceptible to senile changes. (K.H.)

  1. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  2. Gender differences in nigrostriatal dopaminergic innervation are present at young-to-middle but not at older age in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Kit; Müller, Martijn L T M; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Studenski, Stephanie A; Bohnen, Nicolaas I

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in brain dopaminergic activity have been variably reported in the literature. We performed an evaluation for gender effects on striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in a group of normal subjects. Community-dwelling adults (n = 85, 50F/35M, mean age 62.7 ± 16.2 SD, range 20-85) underwent DAT [(11)C]2-β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane (β-CFT) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Gender effects for DAT binding were compared using ANCOVA for two subgroups; young-to-middle aged adults and older adults, using an age threshold of 60 years. There were 54 subjects (24M/30F; mean age 72.9 ± 7.3) 60 years and older and 31 (11M/20F; mean age 45.0 ± 11.4) subjects younger than 60. Age-adjusted striatal DAT gender effects were present in the young-to-middle (F = 10.4, P = 0.003) but not in the elderly age group (F = 0.5, ns). Gender differences in nigrostriatal dopaminergic innervation are present, with higher levels of DAT binding in young-to-middle age women compared to men, but not present in the elderly. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Growing into obesity: patterns of height growth in those who become normal weight, overweight, or obese as young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovitz, Steven D; Demerath, Ellen W; Hannan, Peter J; Lytle, Leslie A; Himes, John H

    2011-01-01

    To study whether patterns of height growth differ by adult obesity status, and determine the contribution of subcutaneous fatness as an explanatory variable for any differences. A multicenter, prospective longitudinal cohort assessed in 3rd grade (8.8 years), 5th grade (11.1 years), 8th grade (14.1 years), and 12th grade (18.3 years). Exposures were young adult obesity status classified by CDC adult BMI categories at 12th grade. Skinfolds were measured in third, fifth, and eighth grades. Outcome was mean height (cm) at the four measurements using repeated-measures ANCOVA for young adult obesity status, and height increments between grades by adult obesity status in sequential models including initial height and, secondarily, initial skinfolds. Adjusted for age, and race/ethnicity, young adult obesity status explained a small, but statistically significant amount of height growth among both females and males within each of the three intervals. Compared with normal weight young adults, overweight or obese young adults stood taller in childhood, but had relatively less growth in height throughout the teenage years. There was no association between adult height and weight status. Skinfolds explained only a small amount of the height patterns in the three weight groups. Childhood and adolescent height growth patterns differ between those who become young adults who are normal weight and those who become overweight or obese. Since differences in fatness explain only a small amount of these height growth patterns, research is needed to identify other determinants. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Morning and Evening Blue-Enriched Light Exposure Alters Metabolic Function in Normal Weight Adults.

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    Ivy N Cheung

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence points to associations between light-dark exposure patterns, feeding behavior, and metabolism. This study aimed to determine the acute effects of 3 hours of morning versus evening blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light on hunger, metabolic function, and physiological arousal. Nineteen healthy adults completed this 4-day inpatient protocol under dim light conditions (<20lux. Participants were randomized to 3 hours of blue-enriched light exposure on Day 3 starting either 0.5 hours after wake (n = 9; morning group or 10.5 hours after wake (n = 10; evening group. All participants remained in dim light on Day 2 to serve as their baseline. Subjective hunger and sleepiness scales were collected hourly. Blood was sampled at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours in association with the light exposure period for glucose, insulin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and area under the curve (AUC for insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR and cortisol were calculated. Comparisons relative to baseline were done using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs. In both the morning and evening groups, insulin total area, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-IR AUC were increased and subjective sleepiness was reduced with blue-enriched light compared to dim light. The evening group, but not the morning group, had significantly higher glucose peak value during blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light. There were no other significant differences between the morning or the evening groups in response to blue-enriched light exposure. Blue-enriched light exposure acutely alters glucose metabolism and sleepiness, however the mechanisms behind this relationship and its impacts on hunger and appetite regulation remain unclear. These results provide further support for a role of environmental light exposure in the regulation of metabolism.

  5. Sleep apnea predicts distinct alterations in glucose homeostasis and biomarkers in obese adults with normal and impaired glucose metabolism

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    Hill Nathan R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Notwithstanding previous studies supporting independent associations between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and prevalence of diabetes, the underlying pathogenesis of impaired glucose regulation in OSA remains unclear. We explored mechanisms linking OSA with prediabetes/diabetes and associated biomarker profiles. We hypothesized that OSA is associated with distinct alterations in glucose homeostasis and biomarker profiles in subjects with normal (NGM and impaired glucose metabolism (IGM. Methods Forty-five severely obese adults (36 women without certain comorbidities/medications underwent anthropometric measurements, polysomnography, and blood tests. We measured fasting serum glucose, insulin, selected cytokines, and calculated homeostasis model assessment estimates of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS and pancreatic beta-cell function (HOMA-B. Results Both increases in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI and the presence of prediabetes/diabetes were associated with reductions in HOMA-IS in the entire cohort even after adjustment for sex, race, age, and BMI (P = 0.003. In subjects with NGM (n = 30, OSA severity was associated with significantly increased HOMA-B (a trend towards decreased HOMA-IS independent of sex and adiposity. OSA-related oxyhemoglobin desaturations correlated with TNF-α (r=-0.76; P = 0.001 in women with NGM and with IL-6 (rho=-0.55; P = 0.035 in women with IGM (n = 15 matched individually for age, adiposity, and AHI. Conclusions OSA is independently associated with altered glucose homeostasis and increased basal beta-cell function in severely obese adults with NGM. The findings suggest that moderate to severe OSA imposes an excessive functional demand on pancreatic beta-cells, which may lead to their exhaustion and impaired secretory capacity over time. The two distinct biomarker profiles linking sleep apnea with NGM and IGM via TNF-α and IL-6 have been discerned in our study to suggest that sleep apnea and particularly

  6. Enterogastric reflux and gastric clearance of refluxate in normal subjects and in patients with and without bile vomiting following peptic ulcer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, C.; Hulks, G.; Cuschieri, A.

    1986-01-01

    A noninvasive scintigraphic technique was used to estimate enterogastric reflux and subsequent gastric evacuation of refluxate in 35 normal, healthy subjects and 55 patients previously treated by vagotomy or partial gastrectomy. Reflux was provoked by a milk drink and quantitated by counting 99Tcm-EHIDA activity within the gastric area during gamma camera imaging. Seven normal subjects (20%) showed reflux of 5-18% of initial activity (mean: 10%), with peak values occurring at 5-30 minutes (mean: 14 minutes) following the milk. Gastric evacuation of activity in these subjects was monoexponential (r = 0.993, T1/2 = 24.1 minutes). Reflux occurred more frequently than normal in patients with truncal vagotomy and drainage (22/28 patients) and partial gastrectomy (20/21 patients). All of 16 patients with Billroth II anastomoses exhibited reflux, which was excessive compared with refluxing normal subjects (mean: 25%; p less than 0.01) and occurred later into the study (mean: 34 minutes; p less than 0.01). Ten of 11 asymptomatic patients showed reflux of similar amounts of activity (mean: 21%) compared with 16 patients who complained of bile vomiting (mean: 22%). However, asymptomatic patients exhibited gastric evacuation of refluxate at a rate similar to that of refluxing normal subjects, while bile vomiters showed significant gastric retention of refluxate at 25-30 minutes following peak gastric activity (p less than 0.05). This result confirms that post-operative bile vomiting is essentially a problem of gastric emptying

  7. Flow-regulated versus differential pressure-regulated shunt valves for adult patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebell, Morten; Wetterslev, Jørn; Tisell, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Since 1965 many ventriculo-peritoneal shunt systems have been inserted worldwide to treat hydrocephalus. The most frequent indication in adults is normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), a condition that can be difficult to diagnose precisely. Surgical intervention with flow-regulated and differential...

  8. Study on cerebral activation areas during repetition with functional MRI in normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Yohju

    2009-01-01

    For cerebral activation of speech areas in functional MRI (f-MRI) study, the usefulness of an optical microphone, which made it possible to perform task repetition at real time during scanning, was examined. Subjects were 25 healthy adults (mean age, 27.1±5.6 years), who consisted of 15 right-handed and 10 left-handed or ambidextrous persons. Tasks comprised repetition of monosyllables, non-words, words and sentences. The repetition tasks were covertly performed during scanning of f-MRI by using an optical microphone. In both the right-handed and non-right-handed groups, activations in the left superior temporal gyrus (sensory speech area) were most frequently observed during all of the tasks. In the right-handed group, activations in the left inferior frontal (motor speech area) and superior temporal gyri were significantly more often observed than those in the right inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri. From an assessment of the laterality index (LI), left-side dominant activation was frequently seen in most of the cerebral regions including sensory and motor speech areas, although right-side and bilateral dominant activations were observed in a few cases. In both groups, activations in regions associated with sensory speech were significantly more often seen than those in regions associated with motor speech. The present predominant activations in regions involved in sensory speech indicate that the optical microphone is useful in f-MRI studies using task repetition. (author)

  9. Correlation between the Plasma Insulin and Glucose Concentration in Normal Korean Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Kyu; Sung, Ho Kyung; Kim, Jin Eui [Radiological Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-09-15

    The correlation between the plasma insulin, and glucose concentration was studied in healthy Korean adults consisting of 20 males and 22 females of 16 to 38 years of age. The blood samples of above subjects were obtained through cubital vein at arbitrary times during their usual working hours. Plasma insulin was assayed by means of double antibody system of radioimmunoassay technics, and blood glucose was determined by means of Van Slyke-Folch method. Results were as follows : 1. There were no differences in the blood sugar levels in relation to the plasma insulin concentration either by sex or age. 2. In the case, when the plasma insulin concentration was within 50 mmuU/ml, the correlation between the insulin, and glucose concentration existed, the ratio of which was expressed as; Plasma glucose concentration (mg/dl)=91.9 + 0.08 X Insulin concentration r=0.62. 3. Insulinogenic index was 12.4%, which was somewhat higher than other reports. 4. It is suggested that the correlation between plasma insulin and glucose concentration could be determined at arbitrary times instead of fasting times.

  10. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism is normal in young adults with Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapiro, M.B.; Grady, C.L.; Kumar, A.; Herscovitch, P.; Haxby, J.V.; Moore, A.M.; White, B.; Friedland, R.P.; Rapoport, S.I.

    1990-01-01

    Regional CMRglc (rCMRglc) values were measured with [ 18 F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET), using a Scanditronix PC-1024-7B scanner, in 14 healthy, noninstitutionalized subjects with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome; DS) (mean age 30.0 years, range 25-38 years) and in 13 sex-matched, healthy volunteers (mean age 29.5 years, range 22-38 years). In the DS group, mean mental age on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test was 7.8 years and dementia was not present. Resting rCMRglc was determined with eyes covered and ears occluded in a quiet, darkened room. Global gray CMRglc equaled 8.76 +/- 0.76 mg/100 g/min (mean +/- SD) in the DS group as compared with 8.74 +/- 1.19 mg/100 g/min in the control group (p greater than 0.05). Gray matter regional measurements also did not differ between groups. The ratio of rCMRglc to global CMRglc, calculated to reduce the variance associated with absolute rCMRglc, and right/left ratios did not show any consistent differences. These results show that healthy young DS adults do not have alterations in regional or global brain glucose metabolism, as measured with 18FDG and PET, prior to an age at which the neuropathological changes in Alzheimer disease are reported to occur

  11. Popcorn is more satiating than potato chips in normal-weight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Von; Cooper, Lisa; Lowndes, Joshua; Melanson, Kathleen; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Rippe, James M; Reimers, Kristin

    2012-09-14

    Strategies that may increase compliance to reduced energy intakes are needed to reduce the health burden of obesity. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the effects of snacking on satiety and energy intake. This study compared short-term satiety from two common snack foods, low fat popcorn or potato chips. Using a counterbalanced within-subject design, 35 normal weight non-smoking participants (17 men, 18 women) ages 20-50 years (mean age 33 ± 11, BMI 23 ± 2 kg/m²) consumed four conditions each: 200 mL of water (control), one cup (4 g, 15 kcal) popcorn, 6 cups (27 g, 100 kcal) popcorn, and one cup (28 g, 150 kcal) potato chips, each with 200 mL water. Participants rated their hunger, satisfaction, prospective consumption, and thirst on 100 mm visual analogue scales 30 minutes after commencement of snack consumption. In addition, post-snack energy intake from an ad libitum meal (amount served less amount remaining) was measured, and the test food and meal combined energy intake and energy compensation were calculated. Participants expressed less hunger, more satisfaction, and lower estimates of prospective food consumption after six cups of popcorn compared to all other treatments (P 0.05). Popcorn exerted a stronger effect on short-term satiety than did potato chips as measured by subjective ratings and energy intake at a subsequent meal. This, combined with its relatively low calorie load, suggests that whole grain popcorn is a prudent choice for those wanting to reduce feelings of hunger while managing energy intake and ultimately, body weight.

  12. Popcorn is more satiating than potato chips in normal-weight adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Von

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strategies that may increase compliance to reduced energy intakes are needed to reduce the health burden of obesity. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the effects of snacking on satiety and energy intake. Methods This study compared short-term satiety from two common snack foods, low fat popcorn or potato chips. Using a counterbalanced within-subject design, 35 normal weight non-smoking participants (17 men, 18 women ages 20–50 years (mean age 33 ± 11, BMI 23 ± 2 kg/m2 consumed four conditions each: 200 mL of water (control, one cup (4 g, 15 kcal popcorn, 6 cups (27 g, 100 kcal popcorn, and one cup (28 g, 150 kcal potato chips, each with 200 mL water. Participants rated their hunger, satisfaction, prospective consumption, and thirst on 100 mm visual analogue scales 30 minutes after commencement of snack consumption. In addition, post-snack energy intake from an ad libitum meal (amount served less amount remaining was measured, and the test food and meal combined energy intake and energy compensation were calculated. Results Participants expressed less hunger, more satisfaction, and lower estimates of prospective food consumption after six cups of popcorn compared to all other treatments (P  0.05. Conclusion Popcorn exerted a stronger effect on short-term satiety than did potato chips as measured by subjective ratings and energy intake at a subsequent meal. This, combined with its relatively low calorie load, suggests that whole grain popcorn is a prudent choice for those wanting to reduce feelings of hunger while managing energy intake and ultimately, body weight.

  13. Circadian Clock Genes Are Essential for Normal Adult Neurogenesis, Differentiation, and Fate Determination.

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    Astha Malik

    proliferation during differentiation, but they generated normal percentages of neuronal cells. Neuronal fate commitment therefore appears to be controlled through a non-clock function of BMAL1. This study provides insight into how cell autonomous circadian clocks and clock genes regulate adult neural stem cells with implications for treating neurodegenerative disorders and impaired brain functions by manipulating neurogenesis.

  14. Social Inequalities and Depressive Symptoms in Adults: The Role of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebel, Jens; Maske, Ulrike E; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)-as measured by education, occupation, and income-is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung 'social ladder'. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms. Prospective studies are needed to establish

  15. Social Inequalities and Depressive Symptoms in Adults: The Role of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E.; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)—as measured by education, occupation, and income—is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Methods Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung ‘social ladder’. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). Results After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. Conclusions The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms

  16. Subjective cognitive decline and fall risk in community-dwelling older adults with or without objective cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Tashiro, Yuto; Nozaki, Yuma; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2018-05-01

    The association between subjective cognitive decline and falls has not been clearly determined. Our aim was to explore the effect of subjective cognitive decline on falls in community-dwelling older adults with or without objective cognitive decline. We included 470 older adults (mean age 73.6 ± 5.2; 329 women) living in the community and obtained data on fall history directly from the participants. Subjective cognitive decline was assessed using a self-administered question. Objective cognitive function was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Statistical analyses were carried out separately for participants with objective cognitive decline and those without. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that, among participants without objective cognitive decline, subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with falls [OR 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.12; p = 0.01). Conversely, among participants with objective cognitive decline, subjective cognitive decline was negatively associated with falls (OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.01-0.85, p = 0.04). The result suggests that the objective-subjective disparity may affect falls in community-dwelling older adults. The presence of subjective cognitive decline was significantly positively associated with falls among cognitively intact older adults. However, among their cognitively impaired peers, the absence of subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with falls.

  17. Subjective sleep impairment in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes : Results from Diabetes MILES-The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nefs, Giesje; Donga, Esther; van Someren, Eus; Bot, Mariska; Speight, Jane; Pouwer, François

    AIMS: Despite growing recognition of the impact of sleep on diabetes, a clear profile of people with diabetes regarding subjective sleep impairment has yet to be established. This study examines: (1) subjective sleep characteristics in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; (2) the relationship of

  18. Subjective sleep impairment in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: Results from Diabetes MILES-The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nefs, G.; Donga, E.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Bot, M.; Speight, J.; Pouwer, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Despite growing recognition of the impact of sleep on diabetes, a clear profile of people with diabetes regarding subjective sleep impairment has yet to be established. This study examines: (1) subjective sleep characteristics in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; (2) the relationship of

  19. Interleukin-6 Regulates Adult Neural Stem Cell Numbers during Normal and Abnormal Post-natal Development

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    Mekayla A. Storer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Circulating systemic factors can regulate adult neural stem cell (NSC biology, but the identity of these circulating cues is still being defined. Here, we have focused on the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6, since increased circulating levels of IL-6 are associated with neural pathologies such as autism and bipolar disorder. We show that IL-6 promotes proliferation of post-natal murine forebrain NSCs and that, when the IL-6 receptor is inducibly knocked out in post-natal or adult neural precursors, this causes a long-term decrease in forebrain NSCs. Moreover, a transient circulating surge of IL-6 in perinatal or adult mice causes an acute increase in neural precursor proliferation followed by long-term depletion of adult NSC pools. Thus, IL-6 signaling is both necessary and sufficient for adult NSC self-renewal, and acute perturbations in circulating IL-6, as observed in many pathological situations, have long-lasting effects on the size of adult NSC pools. : In this report, Storer and colleagues demonstrate that the circulating cytokine IL-6, which is elevated in humans in different pathological situations, can perturb neural stem cell biology after birth. They show that IL-6 signaling is essential for self-renewal and maintenance of post-natal and adult NSCs in the murine forebrain under normal homeostatic conditions. Keywords: interleukin-6, neural stem cell, adult neurogenesis, CNS cytokines, postnatal brain development, stem cell depletion, neural stem cell niche, circulating stem cell factors, olfactory bulb

  20. Effects of glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance on cerebral 18F-FDG distribution in cognitively normal older subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Airin; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ishii, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Background Increasing plasma glucose levels and insulin resistance can alter the distribution pattern of fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in the brain and relatively reduce 18F-FDG uptake in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related hypometabolic regions, leading to the appearance of an AD-like pattern. However, its relationship with plasma insulin levels is unclear. We aimed to compare the effects of plasma glucose levels, plasma insulin levels and insulin resistance on the appearance of the AD-like pattern in 18F-FDG images. Methods Fifty-nine cognitively normal older subjects (age = 75.7 ± 6.4 years) underwent 18F-FDG positron emission tomography along with measurement of plasma glucose and insulin levels. As an index of insulin resistance, the Homeostasis model assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Results Plasma glucose levels, plasma insulin levels, and HOMA-IR were 102.2 ± 8.1 mg/dL, 4.1 ± 1.9 μU/mL, and 1.0 ± 0.5, respectively. Whole-brain voxelwise analysis showed a negative correlation of 18F-FDG uptake with plasma glucose levels in the precuneus and lateral parietotemporal regions (cluster-corrected p < 0.05), and no correlation with plasma insulin levels or HOMA-IR. In the significant cluster, 18F-FDG uptake decreased by approximately 4–5% when plasma glucose levels increased by 20 mg/dL. In the precuneus region, volume-of-interest analysis confirmed a negative correlation of 18F-FDG uptake with plasma glucose levels (r = -0.376, p = 0.002), and no correlation with plasma insulin levels (r = 0.156, p = 0.12) or HOMA-IR (r = 0.096, p = 0.24). Conclusion This study suggests that, of the three parameters, plasma glucose levels have the greatest effect on the appearance of the AD-like pattern in 18F-FDG images. PMID:28715453

  1. Effects of glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance on cerebral 18F-FDG distribution in cognitively normal older subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ishibashi

    Full Text Available Increasing plasma glucose levels and insulin resistance can alter the distribution pattern of fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG in the brain and relatively reduce 18F-FDG uptake in Alzheimer's disease (AD-related hypometabolic regions, leading to the appearance of an AD-like pattern. However, its relationship with plasma insulin levels is unclear. We aimed to compare the effects of plasma glucose levels, plasma insulin levels and insulin resistance on the appearance of the AD-like pattern in 18F-FDG images.Fifty-nine cognitively normal older subjects (age = 75.7 ± 6.4 years underwent 18F-FDG positron emission tomography along with measurement of plasma glucose and insulin levels. As an index of insulin resistance, the Homeostasis model assessment of Insuli