WorldWideScience

Sample records for nordic light water

  1. Nordic Lighting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2018-01-01

    The Danish designer Poul Henningsen wrote very elaborated theories of interior lighting from the mid-1920s on. He fought against the cold and reduced light quality of electric bulbs and tried to tame and cultivate this technology by design. He wanted a more rich light for domestic purpose...... worthwhile discussing than other design categories to interpret, whether experience of nature and climatic conditions play a role in Scandinavian Design, as repeatedly stated. This discussion contributes both to understanding of interior lighting and the historiographical critique of Scandinavian Design...... and shaped it through lamp design, colour reflections and differentiated use of several lamps in the room to make a more dim lighting, but with greater variation and softer contrasts. It was a ‘culture’ of lighting, he promoted, but he didn’t saw it as linked to the Nordic countries. His sensibility...

  2. Ex-vessel coolability and energetics of steam explosions in nordic light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.S.; Dinh, T.N. [Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The report summarizes activities conducted at the Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology-Sweden (KTH-NPS) within the ExCoolSe project during the year 2005, which is a transition year for the KTH-NPS program. The ExCoolSe project supported by NKS contributes to the severe accident research at KTH-NPS concurrently supported by APRI, HSK and EU SARNET. The main objective in ExCoolSe project is to scrutinize research on risk-significant safety issues related to severe accident management (SAM) strategy adopted for Nordic BWR plants, namely the Ex-vessel Coolability and Energetic Steam explosion. The work aims to pave way toward building a tangible research framework to tackle these long-standing safety issues. Chapter 1 describes the project objectives and work description. Chapter 2 provides a critical assessment of research results obtained from several past programs at KTH. This includes review of key data, insights and implications from POMECO (Porous Media Coolability) program, COMECO (Corium Melt Coolability) program, SIMECO (Study of In-Vessel Melt Coolability) program, and MISTEE (Micro-Interactions in Steam Explosion Experiments) program. Chapter 3 discusses the rationale of the new research program focusing on the SAM issue resolution. The program emphasizes identification and qualification of physics-based limiting mechanisms for both in-vessel phenomena (melt progression and debris coolability in the lower head, vessel failure), and ex-vessel phenomena. Chapter 4 introduces research results from the newly established DEFOR (Debris Formation) program and the ongoing MISTEE program. The focus of DEFOR is fulfill an apparent gap in the contemporary knowledge of severe accidents, namely mechanisms which govern the debris bed formation and bed characteristics. The later control the debris bed coolability. In the MISTEE program, methods for image synchronization and data processing were developed and tested, which enable processing of

  3. Ex-vessel coolability and energetics of steam explosions in nordic light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.S.; Dinh, T.N.

    2007-04-01

    The report summarizes activities conducted at the Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology-Sweden (KTH-NPS) within the ExCoolSe project during the year 2005, which is a transition year for the KTH-NPS program. The ExCoolSe project supported by NKS contributes to the severe accident research at KTH-NPS concurrently supported by APRI, HSK and EU SARNET. The main objective in ExCoolSe project is to scrutinize research on risk-significant safety issues related to severe accident management (SAM) strategy adopted for Nordic BWR plants, namely the Ex-vessel Coolability and Energetic Steam explosion. The work aims to pave way toward building a tangible research framework to tackle these long-standing safety issues. Chapter 1 describes the project objectives and work description. Chapter 2 provides a critical assessment of research results obtained from several past programs at KTH. This includes review of key data, insights and implications from POMECO (Porous Media Coolability) program, COMECO (Corium Melt Coolability) program, SIMECO (Study of In-Vessel Melt Coolability) program, and MISTEE (Micro-Interactions in Steam Explosion Experiments) program. Chapter 3 discusses the rationale of the new research program focusing on the SAM issue resolution. The program emphasizes identification and qualification of physics-based limiting mechanisms for both in-vessel phenomena (melt progression and debris coolability in the lower head, vessel failure), and ex-vessel phenomena. Chapter 4 introduces research results from the newly established DEFOR (Debris Formation) program and the ongoing MISTEE program. The focus of DEFOR is fulfill an apparent gap in the contemporary knowledge of severe accidents, namely mechanisms which govern the debris bed formation and bed characteristics. The later control the debris bed coolability. In the MISTEE program, methods for image synchronization and data processing were developed and tested, which enable processing of

  4. Ex-Vessel corium coolability and steam explosion energetics in nordic light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, T.N.; Ma, W.M.; Karbojian, A.; Kudinov, P.; Tran, C.T.; Hansson, C.R. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), (Sweden)

    2008-03-15

    This report presents advances and insights from the KTH's study on corium pool heat transfer in the BWR lower head; debris bed formation; steam explosion energetics; thermal hydraulics and coolability in bottom-fed and heterogeneous debris beds. Specifically, for analysis of heat transfer in a BWR lower plenum an advanced threedimensional simulation tool was developed and validated, using a so-called effective convectivity approach and Fluent code platform. An assessment of corium retention and coolability in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower plenum by means of water supplied through the Control Rod Guide Tube (CRGT) cooling system was performed. Simulant material melt experiments were performed in an intermediate temperature range (1300-1600K) on DEFOR test facility to study formation of debris beds in high and low subcooled water pools characteristic of in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions. Results of the DEFOR-E scoping experiments and related analyses strongly suggest that porous beds formed in ex-vessel from a fragmented high-temperature debris is far from homogeneous. Calculation results of bed thermal hydraulics and dryout heat flux with a two-dimensional thermal-hydraulic code give the first basis to evaluate the extent by which macro and micro inhomogeneity can enhance the bed coolability. The development and validation of a model for two-phase natural circulation through a heated porous medium and its application to the coolability analysis of bottom-fed beds enables quantification of the significant effect of dryout heat flux enhancement (by a factor of 80-160%) due to bottom coolant injection. For a qualitative and quantitative understanding of steam explosion, the SHARP system and its image processing methodology were used to characterize the dynamics of a hot liquid (melt) drop fragmentation and the volatile liquid (coolant) vaporization. The experimental results provide a basis to suggest that the melt drop preconditioning is instrumental to

  5. Ex-Vessel corium coolability and steam explosion energetics in nordic light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, T.N.; Ma, W.M.; Karbojian, A.; Kudinov, P.; Tran, C.T.; Hansson, C.R.

    2008-03-01

    This report presents advances and insights from the KTH's study on corium pool heat transfer in the BWR lower head; debris bed formation; steam explosion energetics; thermal hydraulics and coolability in bottom-fed and heterogeneous debris beds. Specifically, for analysis of heat transfer in a BWR lower plenum an advanced threedimensional simulation tool was developed and validated, using a so-called effective convectivity approach and Fluent code platform. An assessment of corium retention and coolability in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower plenum by means of water supplied through the Control Rod Guide Tube (CRGT) cooling system was performed. Simulant material melt experiments were performed in an intermediate temperature range (1300-1600K) on DEFOR test facility to study formation of debris beds in high and low subcooled water pools characteristic of in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions. Results of the DEFOR-E scoping experiments and related analyses strongly suggest that porous beds formed in ex-vessel from a fragmented high-temperature debris is far from homogeneous. Calculation results of bed thermal hydraulics and dryout heat flux with a two-dimensional thermal-hydraulic code give the first basis to evaluate the extent by which macro and micro inhomogeneity can enhance the bed coolability. The development and validation of a model for two-phase natural circulation through a heated porous medium and its application to the coolability analysis of bottom-fed beds enables quantification of the significant effect of dryout heat flux enhancement (by a factor of 80-160%) due to bottom coolant injection. For a qualitative and quantitative understanding of steam explosion, the SHARP system and its image processing methodology were used to characterize the dynamics of a hot liquid (melt) drop fragmentation and the volatile liquid (coolant) vaporization. The experimental results provide a basis to suggest that the melt drop preconditioning is instrumental to the

  6. Ex-vessel coolability and energetics of steam explosions in nordic light water reactors - EXCOOLSE project report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.S.; Nayak, A.K.; Hansson, R.C.; Sehgal, B.R. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Div. of Nuclear Power Safety (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    Beyond-the-design-basis accidents, i.e. severe accidents, involve melting of the nuclear reactor core and release of radioactivity. Intensive research has been performed for years to evaluate the consequence of the postulated severe accidents. Severe accidents posed, to the reactor researchers, a most interesting and most difficult set of phenomena to understand, and to predict the consequences, for the various scenarios that could be contemplated. The complexity of the interactions, occurring at such high temperatures ({approx} 2500 deg. C), between different materials, which are changing phases and undergoing chemical reactions, is simply indescribable with the accuracy that one may desire. Thus, it is a wise approach to pursue research on SA phenomena until the remaining uncertainty in the predicted consequence, or the residual risk, can be tolerated. In the PRE-DELI-MELT project at NKS, several critical issues on the core melt loadings in the BWR and PWR reactor containments were identified. Many of Nordic nuclear power plants, particularly in boiling water reactors, adopted the Severe Accident Management Strategy (SAMS) which employed the deep subcooled water pool in lower dry-well. The success of this SAMS largely depends on the issues of steam explosions and formation of debris bed and its coolability. From the suggestions of the PRE-DELI-MELT project, a series of research plan was proposed to investigate the remaining issues specifically on the ex-vessel coolability of corium during severe accidents; (a) ex-vessel coolability of the melt or particulate debris, and (b) energetics and debris characteristics of fuel-coolant interactions endangering the integrity of the reactor containments. (au)

  7. Ex-vessel coolability and energetics of steam explosions in nordic light water reactors - EXCOOLSE project report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.S.; Nayak, A.K.; Hansson, R.C.; Sehgal, B.R.

    2005-10-01

    Beyond-the-design-basis accidents, i.e. severe accidents, involve melting of the nuclear reactor core and release of radioactivity. Intensive research has been performed for years to evaluate the consequence of the postulated severe accidents. Severe accidents posed, to the reactor researchers, a most interesting and most difficult set of phenomena to understand, and to predict the consequences, for the various scenarios that could be contemplated. The complexity of the interactions, occurring at such high temperatures (∼ 2500 deg. C), between different materials, which are changing phases and undergoing chemical reactions, is simply indescribable with the accuracy that one may desire. Thus, it is a wise approach to pursue research on SA phenomena until the remaining uncertainty in the predicted consequence, or the residual risk, can be tolerated. In the PRE-DELI-MELT project at NKS, several critical issues on the core melt loadings in the BWR and PWR reactor containments were identified. Many of Nordic nuclear power plants, particularly in boiling water reactors, adopted the Severe Accident Management Strategy (SAMS) which employed the deep subcooled water pool in lower dry-well. The success of this SAMS largely depends on the issues of steam explosions and formation of debris bed and its coolability. From the suggestions of the PRE-DELI-MELT project, a series of research plan was proposed to investigate the remaining issues specifically on the ex-vessel coolability of corium during severe accidents; (a) ex-vessel coolability of the melt or particulate debris, and (b) energetics and debris characteristics of fuel-coolant interactions endangering the integrity of the reactor containments. (au)

  8. Algae as bioindicators for radionuclides in Nordic coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, G.; Notter, M.

    1991-01-01

    During the later part of the 1970's NKS decided to introduce the bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus) as a suitable organism for monitoring radionuclides in Nordic coastal waters. During the past few years studies on this subject have been going on to a varying extent in the different Nordic countries. At this miniseminar the participants described different ongoing studies and projects. The lectures are summarized in the abstracts in the appendix, in which the speakers themselves are responsible for their contributions. (au)

  9. Regional climate scenarios for use in Nordic water resources studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rummukainen, Markku; Räisänen, J.; Bjørge, D.

    2003-01-01

    in the Nordic region than in the global mean, regional increases and decreases in net precipitation, longer growing season, shorter snow season etc. These in turn affect runoff, snowpack, groundwater, soil frost and moisture, and thus hydropower production potential, flooding risks etc. Regional climate models......-users of water resources scenarios are the hydropower industry, dam safety instances and planners of other lasting infrastructure exposed to precipitation, river flows and flooding....

  10. Arctic Intermediate Water in the Nordic Seas, 1991-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeansson, Emil; Olsen, Are; Jutterström, Sara

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of the different types of Arctic Intermediate Water (AIW) in the Nordic Seas is evaluated and compared utilising hydro-chemical data from 1991 to 2009. It has been suggested that these waters are important components of the Norwegian Sea Arctic Intermediate Water (NSAIW), and of the dense overflows to the North Atlantic. Thus, it is important to understand how their properties and distribution vary with time. The AIWs from the Greenland and Iceland Seas, show different degrees of variability during the studied period; however, only the Greenland Sea Arctic Intermediate Water (GSAIW) shows an increasing temperature and salinity throughout the 2000s, which considerably changed the properties of this water mass. Optimum multiparameter (OMP) analysis was conducted to assess the sources of the NSAIW. The analysis shows that the Iceland Sea Arctic Intermediate Water (ISAIW) and the GSAIW both contribute to NSAIW, at different densities corresponding to their respective density range. This illustrates that they flow largely isopycnally from their source regions to the Norwegian Sea. The main source of the NSAIW, however, is the upper Polar Deep Water, which explains the lower concentrations of oxygen and chlorofluorocarbons, and higher salinity and nutrient concentrations of the NSAIW layer compared with the ISAIW and GSAIW. This shows how vital it is to include chemical tracers in any water mass analysis to correctly assess the sources of the water mass being studied.

  11. Status of small water supplies in the Nordic countries: Characteristics, water quality and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Maria J; Persson, Kenneth M; Andradottir, Hrund O; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M

    2017-11-01

    Access to safe water is essential for public health and is one of the most important prerequisites for good living and safe food production. Many studies have shown that non-compliance with drinking water quality standards in small water supply systems is much higher than in large systems. Nevertheless, people served by small water supply systems have the right to the same level of health protection. Actions are therefore needed to improve the situation. The objective of the present study was to carry out a baseline analysis of the situation in the Nordic region and provide recommendations for governmental policy and actions. Data were gathered on number of water supplies, population served, compliance with regulations and waterborne disease outbreaks from various sources in the Nordic countries. The collected data showed that there are about 12500 regulated water supplies, 9400 of which serve fewer than 500 persons. The number of unregulated and poorly regulated supplies is unknown, but it can be roughly estimated that these serve 10% of the Nordic population on a permanent basis or 2.6 million people. However, this does not tell the whole story as many of the very small water supplies serve transient populations, summerhouse dwellers and tourist sites, with many more users. Non-compliance regarding microbes is much higher in the small supplies. The population weighted average fecal contamination incidence rate in the Nordic region is eleven times higher in the smaller supplies than in the large ones, 0.76% and 0.07%, respectively. Registered waterborne disease outbreaks were also more frequent in the small supplies than in the large ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Sea-ice cover in the Nordic Seas and the sensitivity to Atlantic water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mari F.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Spall, Michael A.

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the sea-ice cover of the Nordic Seas have been proposed to play a key role for the dramatic temperature excursions associated with the Dansgaard-Oeschger events during the last glacial. However, with its proximity to the warm Atlantic water, how a sea-ice cover can persist in the Nordic Seas is not well understood. In this study, we apply an eddy-resolving configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model with an idealized topography to study the presence of sea ice in a Nordic Seas-like domain. We assume an infinite amount of warm Atlantic water present in the south by restoring the southern area to constant temperatures. The sea-surface temperatures are restored toward cold, atmospheric temperatures, and as a result, sea ice is present in the interior of the domain. However, the sea-ice cover in the margins of the Nordic Seas, an area with a warm, cyclonic boundary current, is sensitive to the amount of heat entering the domain, i.e., the restoring temperature in the south. When the temperature of the warm, cyclonic boundary current is high, the margins are free of sea ice and heat is released to the atmosphere. We show that with a small reduction in the temperature of the incoming Atlantic water, the Nordic Seas-like domain is fully covered in sea ice. Warm water is still entering the Nordic Seas, however, this happens at depths below a cold, fresh surface layer produced by melted sea ice. Consequently, the heat release to the atmosphere is reduced along with the eddy heat fluxes. Results suggest a threshold value in the amount of heat entering the Nordic Seas before the sea-ice cover disappears in the margins. We study the sensitivity of this threshold to changes in atmospheric temperatures and vertical diffusivity.

  13. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  14. Approaches for integrated assessment of ecological and eutrophication status of surface waters in Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Aroviita, Jukka; Carstensen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    We review approaches and tools currently used in Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) for integrated assessment of ‘ecological status’ sensu the EU Water Framework Directive as well as assessment of ‘eutrophication status’ in coastal and marine waters. Integration principles for...... principles applied within BQEs are critical and in need of harmonisation if we want a better understanding of potential transition in ecological status between surface water types, e.g. when riverine water enters a downstream lake or coastal water body.......We review approaches and tools currently used in Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) for integrated assessment of ‘ecological status’ sensu the EU Water Framework Directive as well as assessment of ‘eutrophication status’ in coastal and marine waters. Integration principles...

  15. Light water lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    The panel was attended by prominent physicists from most of the well-known laboratories in the field of light-water lattices, who exchanged the latest information on the status of work in their countries and discussed both the theoretical and the experimental aspects of the subjects. The supporting papers covered most problems, including criticality, resonance absorption, thermal utilization, spectrum calculations and the physics of plutonium bearing systems. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Light water detritiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorchenko, O.A.; Aleksee, I.A.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Vasyanina, T.V. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute of National Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of tritiated light water have been accumulating from the enterprises of nuclear fuel cycles around the world. The Dual-Temperature Water-Hydrogen (DTWH) process looks like the only practical alternative to Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE). In DTWH power-consuming lower reflux device (electrolytic cell) is replaced by a so-called 'hot tower' (LPCE column operating at conditions which ensure relatively small value of elementary separation factor α(hot)). In the upper, cold tower, the tritium transfers from hydrogen to water while in the lower, hot tower - in the opposite direction - from water to hydrogen. The DTWH process is much more complicated compared to CECE; it must be thoroughly computed and strictly controlled by an automatic control system. The use of a simulation code for DTWH is absolutely important. The simulation code EVIO-5 deals with 3 flows inside a column (hydrogen gas, water vapour and liquid water) and 2 simultaneous isotope exchange sub-processes (counter-current phase exchange and co-current catalytic exchange). EVIO-5 takes into account the strong dependence of process performance on given conditions (temperature and pressure). It calculates steady-state isotope concentration profiles considering a full set of reversible exchange reactions between different isotope modifications of water and hydrogen (12 molecular species). So the code can be used for simulation of LPCE column operation for detritiation of hydrogen and water feed, which contains H and D not only at low concentrations but above 10 at.% also. EVIO-5 code is used to model a Tritium Removal Facility with a throughput capacity of about 400 m{sup 3}/day. Simulation results show that a huge amount of wet-proofed catalyst is required (about 6000 m{sup 3}), mainly (90%) in the first stage. One reason for these large expenses (apart from a big scale of the problem itself) is the relatively high tritium separation factor in the

  17. Light water detritiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorchenko, O.A.; Aleksee, I.A.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Vasyanina, T.V.

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of tritiated light water have been accumulating from the enterprises of nuclear fuel cycles around the world. The Dual-Temperature Water-Hydrogen (DTWH) process looks like the only practical alternative to Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE). In DTWH power-consuming lower reflux device (electrolytic cell) is replaced by a so-called 'hot tower' (LPCE column operating at conditions which ensure relatively small value of elementary separation factor α(hot)). In the upper, cold tower, the tritium transfers from hydrogen to water while in the lower, hot tower - in the opposite direction - from water to hydrogen. The DTWH process is much more complicated compared to CECE; it must be thoroughly computed and strictly controlled by an automatic control system. The use of a simulation code for DTWH is absolutely important. The simulation code EVIO-5 deals with 3 flows inside a column (hydrogen gas, water vapour and liquid water) and 2 simultaneous isotope exchange sub-processes (counter-current phase exchange and co-current catalytic exchange). EVIO-5 takes into account the strong dependence of process performance on given conditions (temperature and pressure). It calculates steady-state isotope concentration profiles considering a full set of reversible exchange reactions between different isotope modifications of water and hydrogen (12 molecular species). So the code can be used for simulation of LPCE column operation for detritiation of hydrogen and water feed, which contains H and D not only at low concentrations but above 10 at.% also. EVIO-5 code is used to model a Tritium Removal Facility with a throughput capacity of about 400 m 3 /day. Simulation results show that a huge amount of wet-proofed catalyst is required (about 6000 m 3 ), mainly (90%) in the first stage. One reason for these large expenses (apart from a big scale of the problem itself) is the relatively high tritium separation factor in the hot tower

  18. Contrasting trends in North Atlantic deep-water formation in the Labrador Sea and Nordic Seas during the Holocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renssen, H.; Goosse, H.; Fichefet, T.

    2005-01-01

    The Holocene North Atlantic deep-water formation is studied in a 9,000-year long simulation with a coupled climate model of intermediate complexity, forced by changes in orbital forcing and atmospheric trace gas concentrations. During the experiment, deep-water formation in the Nordic Seas is

  19. CISG Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    CISG Nordic offers full text court decisions, papers, domestic laws, etc. collected in the Nordic countries. All material is related to the application of the CISG.......CISG Nordic offers full text court decisions, papers, domestic laws, etc. collected in the Nordic countries. All material is related to the application of the CISG....

  20. Interannual to Decadal Variability of Atlantic Water in the Nordic and Adjacent Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, James A.; Chepurin, Gennady A.; Reagan, James; Haekkinen, Sirpa

    2011-01-01

    Warm salty Atlantic Water is the main source water for the Arctic Ocean and thus plays an important role in the mass and heat budget of the Arctic. This study explores interannual to decadal variability of Atlantic Water properties in the Nordic Seas area where Atlantic Water enters the Arctic, based on a reexamination of the historical hydrographic record for the years 1950-2009, obtained by combining multiple data sets. The analysis shows a succession of four multi-year warm events where temperature anomalies at 100m depth exceed 0.4oC, and three cold events. Three of the four warm events lasted 3-4 years, while the fourth began in 1999 and persists at least through 2009. This most recent warm event is anomalous in other ways as well, being the strongest, having the broadest geographic extent, being surface-intensified, and occurring under exceptional meteorological conditions. Three of the four warm events were accompanied by elevated salinities consistent with enhanced ocean transport into the Nordic Seas, with the exception of the event spanning July 1989-July 1993. Of the three cold events, two lasted for four years, while the third lasted for nearly 14 years. Two of the three cold events are associated with reduced salinities, but the cold event of the 1960s had elevated salinities. The relationship of these events to meteorological conditions is examined. The results show that local surface heat flux variations act in some cases to reinforce the anomalies, but are too weak to be the sole cause.

  1. Next generation light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoto, Akira

    1992-01-01

    In the countries where the new order of nuclear reactors has ceased, the development of the light water reactors of new type has been discussed, aiming at the revival of nuclear power. Also in Japan, since it is expected that light water reactors continue to be the main power reactor for long period, the technology of light water reactors of next generation has been discussed. For the development of nuclear power, extremely long lead time is required. The light water reactors of next generation now in consideration will continue to be operated till the middle of the next century, therefore, they must take in advance sufficiently the needs of the age. The improvement of the way men and the facilities should be, the simple design, the flexibility to the trend of fuel cycle and so on are required for the light water reactors of next generation. The trend of the development of next generation light water reactors is discussed. The construction of an ABWR was started in September, 1991, as No. 6 plant in Kashiwazaki Kariwa Power Station. (K.I.)

  2. Atlantic Water transformation in the Nordic Seas and its influence on the export rate of the Overflow Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Quintana, Yarisbel; Wiesner, Pia; Hu, Xianmin; Myers, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The Nordic Seas (NS) are the main gateway between the Arctic and the Atlantic Oceans. The basin can be considered as the headwaters for the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC), for it is there that the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) and the Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) acquire their properties. Their inflow into the North Atlantic Ocean occurs across the Greenland-Scotland ridge. Together with Labrador Sea Water, DSOW and ISOW are the main components of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), which ventilates the lower limb of the Atlantic MOC. In spite recent studies exploring the export rate and later pathways of the overflows, the question about what drives them, remains. Here we explore the transformation of the Atlantic Water (AW) as it enters the NS through Denmark Strait, Iceland Faroe Ridge and Faroe Schotland Channel, as well as its pathways within the basin. To do so, we use an eddy-permitting ocean general circulation model run over the period 2002 to 2015. Two different approaches are used to track the AW transformation in the NS: the well-tested off-line Lagrangian tool ARIANE and on-line passive tracers. In both cases we use the same definition of AW to tag its inflow through the three entering sections. The overflows directly impact circulation and water properties in much of the deep Atlantic Ocean, thus a better understanding of the physical processes behind their variability is crucial a asset.

  3. Coolability of degraded core under reflooding conditions in Nordic boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, I; Pekkarinen, E [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Nilsson, L [Studsvik EcoSafe AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    Present work is part of the first phase of subproject RAK-2.1 of the new Nordic Co-operative Reactor Safety Program, NKS. The first phase comprises reflooding calculations for the boiling water reactors (BWRs) TVO I/II in Finland and Forsmark 3 in Sweden, as a continuation of earlier severe accident analyses which were made in the SIK-2 project. The objective of the core reflooding studies is to evaluate when and how the core is still coolable with water and what are the probable consequences of water cooling. In the following phase of the RAK-2.1 project, recriticality studies will be performed. Conditions for recriticality might occur if control rods have melted away with the fuel rods intact in a shape that critical conditions can be created in reflooding with insufficiently borated water. Core coolability was investigated for two reference plants, TVO I/II and Forsmark 3. The selected accident cases were anticipated station blackout with or without successful depressurization of reactor coolant system (RCS). The effects of the recovery of emergency core cooling (ECC) were studied by varying the starting time of core reflooding. The start of ECC systems were assigned to reaching a maximum cladding temperature: 1400 K, 1600 K, 1800 K and 2000 K in the core. Cases with coolant injection through the downcomer were studied for TVO I/II and both downcomer injection and core top spray were investigated for Forsmark 3. Calculations with three different computer codes: MAAP 4, MELCOR 1.8.3 and SCDA/RELAP5/MOD 3.1 for the basis for the presented reflooding studies. Presently, and experimental programme on core reflooding phenomena has been started in Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe in QUENCH test facility. (EG) 17 refs.

  4. Advanced light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golay, M.W.; Todreas, N.E.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental concerns, economics and the earth's finite store of fossil fuels argue for a resuscitation of nuclear power. The authors think improved light-water reactors incorporating passive safety features can be both safe and profitable, but only if attention is paid to economics, effective management and rigorous training methods. The experience of nearly four decades has winnowed out designs for four basic types of reactor: the heavy-water reactor (HWR), the gas-cooled rector (GCR), the liquid-metal-cooled reactor (LMR) and the light-water reactor (LWR). Each design is briefly described before the paper discusses the passive safety features of the AP-600 rector, so-called because it employs an advanced pressurized water design and generates 600 MW of power

  5. Nordic Walking and the Isa Method for Breast Cancer Survivors: Effects on Upper Limb Circumferences and Total Body Extracellular Water - a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blasio, Andrea; Morano, Teresa; Napolitano, Giorgio; Bucci, Ines; Di Santo, Serena; Gallina, Sabina; Cugusi, Lucia; Di Donato, Francesco; D'Arielli, Alberto; Cianchetti, Ettore

    2016-12-01

    The negative side effects of breast cancer treatments can include upper limb lymphoedema. The growing literature indicates that Nordic walking is an effective discipline against several disease symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether introduction to Nordic walking alone is effective against total body extracellular water and upper limb circumferences in breast cancer survivors compared to its combination with a series of specifically created exercises (i.e. the Isa method). 16 breast cancer survivors (49.09 ± 2.24 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 different training groups. 10 lessons on Nordic walking technique plus the Isa method significantly reduced both extracellular body water and the extracellular-to-total body water ratio (p = 0.01 for both), and also the circumference of the upper limb, (both relaxed arm and forearm circumferences) (p = 0.01 for all), whereas Nordic walking alone did not. Introduction to Nordic walking does not seem to affect lymphoedema in breast cancer survivors. This might be because novice Nordic Walkers do not adequately generate an effective muscular pump through coordination of the alternated bimanual open-close cycle. The Isa method appears to close this gap.

  6. Light-water nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevon, G.

    1983-01-01

    This work gives basic information on light-water reactors which is advanced enough for the reader to become familiar with the essential objectives and aspects of their design, their operation and their insertion in the industrial, economic and human environment. In view of the capital role of electric energy in the modern economy a significant place is given to electron-nuclear power stations, particularly those of the type adopted for the French programme. The work includes sixteen chapters. The first chapter relates the history and presents the various applications of light water reactors. The second refers to the general elementary knowledge of reactor physics. The third chapter deals with the high power light-water nuclear power station and thereby introduces the ensuing chapters which, up to and including chapter 13, are devoted to the components and the various aspects of the operation of power stations, in particular safety and the relationship with the environment. Chapter 14 provides information on the reactors adapted to applications other than the generation of electricity on an industrial scale. Chapter 15 shows the extent of the industrial effort devoted to light-water reactors and chapter 16 indicates the paths along which the present work is preparing the future of these reactors. The various chapters have been written to allow for separate consultation. An index of the main technical terms and a bibliography complete the work [fr

  7. Northward advection of Atlantic water in the eastern Nordic Seas over the last 3000 yr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. V. Dylmer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Three marine sediment cores distributed along the Norwegian (MD95-2011, Barents Sea (JM09-KA11-GC, and Svalbard (HH11-134-BC continental margins have been investigated in order to reconstruct changes in the poleward flow of Atlantic waters (AW and in the nature of upper surface water masses within the eastern Nordic Seas over the last 3000 yr. These reconstructions are based on a limited set of coccolith proxies: the abundance ratio between Emiliania huxleyi and Coccolithus pelagicus, an index of Atlantic vs. Polar/Arctic surface water masses; and Gephyrocapsa muellerae, a drifted coccolith species from the temperate North Atlantic, whose abundance changes are related to variations in the strength of the North Atlantic Current. The entire investigated area, from 66 to 77° N, was affected by an overall increase in AW flow from 3000 cal yr BP (before present to the present. The long-term modulation of westerlies' strength and location, which are essentially driven by the dominant mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, is thought to explain the observed dynamics of poleward AW flow. The same mechanism also reconciles the recorded opposite zonal shifts in the location of the Arctic front between the area off western Norway and the western Barents Sea–eastern Fram Strait region. The Little Ice Age (LIA was governed by deteriorating conditions, with Arctic/Polar waters dominating in the surface off western Svalbard and western Barents Sea, possibly associated with both severe sea ice conditions and a strongly reduced AW strength. A sudden short pulse of resumed high WSC (West Spitsbergen Current flow interrupted this cold spell in eastern Fram Strait from 330 to 410 cal yr BP. Our dataset not only confirms the high amplitude warming of surface waters at the turn of the 19th century off western Svalbard, it also shows that such a warming was primarily induced by an excess flow of AW which stands as unprecedented over the last 3000 yr.

  8. Neutron thermalization in light water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, M.J.; Lolich, J.V.

    1975-05-01

    Investigations related to neutron thermalization in light water have been made. Neutron spectra under quasi-infinite-medium conditions have been measured by the time-of-flight technique and calculations were performed with different codes. Through the use of improved experimental techniques and the best known calculational techniques available, the known discrepancies between experimentals and theoretical values were below from 40% to 16%. The present disagreement is believed to be due the scattering model used (ENDF-GASKET, based on the modified Haywood II frequency spectra), that shows to be very satisfactory for poisoned light water cases. Moreover, previous experiments were completed and differential, integral and pulse-source experimental techniques were improved. Also a second step of a neutron and reactor calculation system was completed. (author)

  9. LIGHT WATER MODERATED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, R.F.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1957-09-17

    A uranium fuel reactor designed to utilize light water as a moderator is described. The reactor core is in a tank at the bottom of a substantially cylindrical cross-section pit, the core being supported by an apertured grid member and comprised of hexagonal tubes each containing a pluralily of fuel rods held in a geometrical arrangement between end caps of the tubes. The end caps are apertured to permit passage of the coolant water through the tubes and the fuel elements are aluminum clad to prevent corrosion. The tubes are hexagonally arranged in the center of the tank providing an amulus between the core and tank wall which is filled with water to serve as a reflector. In use, the entire pit and tank are filled with water in which is circulated during operation by coming in at the bottom of the tank, passing upwardly through the grid member and fuel tubes and carried off near the top of the pit, thereby picking up the heat generated by the fuel elements during the fission thereof. With this particular design the light water coolant can also be used as the moderator when the uranium is enriched by fissionable isotope to an abundance of U/sup 235/ between 0.78% and 2%.

  10. Nordic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This Box Set NORDIC LANDSCAPE presents Nordic Territories, a project by Rasmus Hjortshøj, exploring the man-made landscapes of the coastal territories and the entanglement of society and nature in times where it is no longer merely mankind subjected to nature, but where nature is equally being...... territories is not only their transient nature, but also the warm currents of the Gulf Stream making these northern shorelines habitable for human settlements....

  11. Simulated North Atlantic-Nordic Seas water mass exchanges in an isopycnic coordinate OGCM

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Jan Even Øie; Gao, Yongqi; Drange, Helge; Furevik, Tore; Bentsen, Mats

    2003-01-01

    The variability in the volume exchanges between the North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas during the last 50 years is investigated using a synoptic forced, global version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM). The simulated volume fluxes agree with the existing observations. The net volume flux across the Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC) is positively correlated with the net flux through the Denmark Strait (DS; R = 0.74 for 3 years low pass filtering), but negatively correlated with ...

  12. Advanced light water reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giedraityte, Zivile

    2008-01-01

    For nuclear power to be competitive with the other methods of electrical power generation the economic performance should be significantly improved by increasing the time spent on line generating electricity relative to time spent off-line conducting maintenance and refueling. Maintenance includes planned actions (surveillances) and unplanned actions (corrective maintenance) to respond to component degradation or failure. A methodology is described which is used to resolve maintenance related operating cycle length barriers. Advanced light water nuclear power plant is designed with the purpose to maximize online generating time by increasing operating cycle length. (author)

  13. Determination of heavy water in heavy water - light water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza M, A.

    1986-01-01

    A description about experimental methodology to determine isotopic composition of heavy water - light water mixtures is presented. The employed methods are Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, for measuring heavy water concentrations from 0 to 100% with intervals of 10% approx., and mass Spectrometry, for measuring heavy water concentrations from 0.1 to 1% with intervals of 0.15% approx., by means of an indirect method of Dilution. (Author)

  14. CISG Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    CISG Nordic er en forskningsdatabase hvor den seneste information om den internationale købelovs anvendelse i de Nordiske lande offentliggøres. På hjemmesiden indgår retsafgørelser, bibliografiske noter, FN dokumenter m.m.......CISG Nordic er en forskningsdatabase hvor den seneste information om den internationale købelovs anvendelse i de Nordiske lande offentliggøres. På hjemmesiden indgår retsafgørelser, bibliografiske noter, FN dokumenter m.m....

  15. CISG Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    CISG Nordic er en forskningsdatabase hvor den seneste information om den internationale købelovs anvendelse i de Nordiske lande offentliggøres. På hjemmesiden indgår retsafgørelser, bibliografiske noter, FN dokumenter m.m.......CISG Nordic er en forskningsdatabase hvor den seneste information om den internationale købelovs anvendelse i de Nordiske lande offentliggøres. På hjemmesiden indgår retsafgørelser, bibliografiske noter, FN dokumenter m.m....

  16. Standards for heavy water concentration determinations in light water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, M.; Steflea, D.; Pavelescu, M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a method to prepare heavy water -light water standards within the range 144 ppm - 1%. A formula for computing standards concentration based on initial concentration of D 2 O and distilled water is given

  17. High performance light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squarer, D.; Schulenberg, T.; Struwe, D.; Oka, Y.; Bittermann, D.; Aksan, N.; Maraczy, C.; Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R.; Souyri, A.; Dumaz, P.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the high performance light water reactor (HPLWR) project is to assess the merit and economic feasibility of a high efficiency LWR operating at thermodynamically supercritical regime. An efficiency of approximately 44% is expected. To accomplish this objective, a highly qualified team of European research institutes and industrial partners together with the University of Tokyo is assessing the major issues pertaining to a new reactor concept, under the co-sponsorship of the European Commission. The assessment has emphasized the recent advancement achieved in this area by Japan. Additionally, it accounts for advanced European reactor design requirements, recent improvements, practical design aspects, availability of plant components and the availability of high temperature materials. The final objective of this project is to reach a conclusion on the potential of the HPLWR to help sustain the nuclear option, by supplying competitively priced electricity, as well as to continue the nuclear competence in LWR technology. The following is a brief summary of the main project achievements:-A state-of-the-art review of supercritical water-cooled reactors has been performed for the HPLWR project.-Extensive studies have been performed in the last 10 years by the University of Tokyo. Therefore, a 'reference design', developed by the University of Tokyo, was selected in order to assess the available technological tools (i.e. computer codes, analyses, advanced materials, water chemistry, etc.). Design data and results of the analysis were supplied by the University of Tokyo. A benchmark problem, based on the 'reference design' was defined for neutronics calculations and several partners of the HPLWR project carried out independent analyses. The results of these analyses, which in addition help to 'calibrate' the codes, have guided the assessment of the core and the design of an improved HPLWR fuel assembly. Preliminary selection was made for the HPLWR scale

  18. Nordic Branding Podcast 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Reflections on Nordic branding with professor Dannie Kjeldgaard. Why Nordic regionality and why now? What is the dynamics of local/global/glocal/regional?......Reflections on Nordic branding with professor Dannie Kjeldgaard. Why Nordic regionality and why now? What is the dynamics of local/global/glocal/regional?...

  19. Water mass census in the Nordic seas using climatological and observational data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacsek, S.; Allard, R.; McClean, J.

    2008-01-01

    We have compared and evaluated the water mass census in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian (Gin) Sea area from climatologies, observational data sets and model output. The four climatologies evaluated were: the 1998 and 2001 versions of the World Ocean Atlas (WOA98, WOA01), and the United States Navy's GDEM90 (Generalized Digital Environmental Model) and MODAS01 (Modular Ocean Data Assimilation System) climatologies. Three observational data sets were examined: the multidecadal (1965-1995) set contained on the National Oceano- graphic Data Centre's (NODC) WOD98 (World Ocean Data) Cd-Rom, and two seasonal data sets extracted from observations taken on six cruises by the SACLANT Research Center (SACLANTCEN) of NATO/Italy between 1986-1989. The model data is extracted from a global model run at 1/3 degree resolution for the years 1983-1997, using the Pop (Parallel Ocean Program) model of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The census computations focused on the Norwegian Sea, in the southern part of the Gin Sea, between 10 0 W-10 0 E and 60 0 N-70 0 N, especially for comparisons with the hydro casts and the model. Cases of such evaluation computations included: (a) short term comparisons with quasi-synoptic CTD surveys carried out over a 4-year period in the southeastern Gin Sea; (b) climatological comparisons utilizing all available casts from the WOD98 Cd-Rom, with four climatologies; and (c) a comparison between the WOA01 climatology and the Pop model output ending in 1997. In this region in the spring, the fraction of ocean water that has salinity above 34.85 is ∼94%, and that has temperatures above 0 0 C is ∼33%. Three principal water masses dominated the census: the Atlantic water A W, the deep water D W and an intermediate water mass defined as Lower Arctic Intermediate Water (LAIW). Besides these classes, both the climatologies and the observations exhibited the significant presence of deep water masses with T-S characteristics that do not fall into the named

  20. Supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the latest reactor concepts, single pass core and experimental findings in thermal hydraulics, materials, corrosion, and water chemistry. It highlights research on supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors (SCWRs), one of the Generation IV reactors that are studied around the world. This book includes cladding material development and experimental findings on heat transfer, corrosion and water chemistry. The work presented here will help readers to understand the fundamental elements of reactor design and analysis methods, thermal hydraulics, materials and water

  1. Effect of Nordic Walking and Water Aerobics Training on Body Composition and the Blood Flow in Lower Extremities in Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasiński Ryszard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nordic walking and water aerobics are very popular forms of physical activity in the elderly population. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of regular health training on the venous blood flow in lower extremities and body composition in women over 50 years old. Twenty-four women of mean age 57.9 (± 3.43 years, randomly divided into three groups (Nordic walking, water aerobics, and non-training, participated in the study. The training lasted 8 weeks, with one-hour sessions twice a week. Dietary habits were not changed. Before and after training vein refilling time and the function of the venous pump of the lower extremities were measured by photoplethysmography. Body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance. Eight weeks of Nordic walking training improved the venous blood flow in lower extremities and normalized body composition in the direction of reducing chronic venous disorder risk factors. The average values of the refilling time variable (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, respectively decreased in both the right and the left leg. After training a statistically significant increase in the venous pump function index was found only in the right leg (p = 0.04. A significant increase in fat-free mass, body cell mass and total body water was observed (p = 0.01, whereas body mass, the body mass index, and body fat decreased (p < 0.03. With regard to water aerobic training, no similar changes in the functions of the venous system or body composition were observed.

  2. Advances in light water reactor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Takehiko; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    ""Advances in Light Water Reactor Technologies"" focuses on the design and analysis of advanced nuclear power reactors. This volume provides readers with thorough descriptions of the general characteristics of various advanced light water reactors currently being developed worldwide. Safety, design, development and maintenance of these reactors is the main focus, with key technologies like full MOX core design, next-generation digital I&C systems and seismic design and evaluation described at length. This book is ideal for researchers and engineers working in nuclear power that are interested

  3. Nordic cultural policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity......A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity...

  4. Light energy dissipation under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuhlfauth, T.; Scheuermann, R.; Fock, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    Using 14 CO 2 gas exchange and metabolite analyses, stomatal as well as total internal CO 2 uptake and evolution were estimated. Pulse modulated fluorescence was measured during induction and steady state of photosynthesis. Leaf water potential of Digitalis lanata EHRH. plants decreased to -2.5 megapascals after withholding irrigation. By osmotic adjustment, leaves remained turgid and fully exposed to irradiance even at severe water stress. Due to the stress-induced reduction of stomatal conductance, the stomatal CO 2 exchange was drastically reduced, whereas the total CO 2 uptake and evolution were less affected. Stomatal closure induced an increase in the reassimilation of internally evolved CO 2 . This CO 2 -recycling consumes a significant amount of light energy in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents. As a consequence, the metabolic demand for light energy is only reduced by about 40%, whereas net photosynthesis is diminished by about 70% under severe stress conditions. By CO 2 recycling, carbon flux, enzymatic substrate turnover and consumption of light energy were maintained at high levels, which enabled the plant to recover rapidly after rewatering. In stressed D. lanata plants a variable fluorescence quenching mechanism, termed coefficient of actinic light quenching, was observed. Besides water conservation, light energy dissipation is essential and involves regulated metabolic variations

  5. Light energy dissipation under water stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhlfauth, T.; Scheuermann, R.; Fock, H.P. (Universitaet Kaiserslautern (West Germany))

    1990-04-01

    Using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas exchange and metabolite analyses, stomatal as well as total internal CO{sub 2} uptake and evolution were estimated. Pulse modulated fluorescence was measured during induction and steady state of photosynthesis. Leaf water potential of Digitalis lanata EHRH. plants decreased to {minus}2.5 megapascals after withholding irrigation. By osmotic adjustment, leaves remained turgid and fully exposed to irradiance even at severe water stress. Due to the stress-induced reduction of stomatal conductance, the stomatal CO{sub 2} exchange was drastically reduced, whereas the total CO{sub 2} uptake and evolution were less affected. Stomatal closure induced an increase in the reassimilation of internally evolved CO{sub 2}. This CO{sub 2}-recycling consumes a significant amount of light energy in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents. As a consequence, the metabolic demand for light energy is only reduced by about 40%, whereas net photosynthesis is diminished by about 70% under severe stress conditions. By CO{sub 2} recycling, carbon flux, enzymatic substrate turnover and consumption of light energy were maintained at high levels, which enabled the plant to recover rapidly after rewatering. In stressed D. lanata plants a variable fluorescence quenching mechanism, termed coefficient of actinic light quenching, was observed. Besides water conservation, light energy dissipation is essential and involves regulated metabolic variations.

  6. Locating Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Waade, Anne Marit

    such as Beck, The Killing, Trapped and The Bridge as well as a range of other important Nordic Noir cases. The book positions the development of Nordic Noir on the global market for popular television drama and places the international attention towards Nordic crime dramas within regional development of drama...

  7. Developmental Light-Water Reactor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1989-12-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Developmental Light-Water Reactor (DLWR) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in FY 1989. It also includes (1) a brief description of the program, (2) definition of goals, (3) earlier achievements, and (4) proposed future activities

  8. Equations of state for light water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, G.A.; Granziera, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    The equations of state for light water were developed, based on the tables of Keenan and Keyes. Equations are presented, describing the specific volume, internal energy, enthalpy and entropy of saturated steam, superheated vapor and subcooled liquid as a function of pressure and temperature. For each property, several equations are shown, with different precisions and different degress of complexity. (Author) [pt

  9. Light-water reactor accident classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washburn, B.W.

    1980-02-01

    The evolution of existing classifications and definitions of light-water reactor accidents is considered. Licensing practice and licensing trends are examined with respect to terms of art such as Class 8 and Class 9 accidents. Interim definitions, consistent with current licensing practice and the regulations, are proposed for these terms of art

  10. Facilitation of decommissioning light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, E.B. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    Information on design features, special equipment, and construction methods useful in the facilitation of decommissioning light water reactors is presented. A wide range of facilitation methods - from improved documentation to special decommissioning tools and techniques - is discussed. In addition, estimates of capital costs, cost savings, and radiation dose reduction associated with these facilitation methods are given

  11. Light water reactor safeguards system evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnado, G.B.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Bennett, H.A.; Hulme, B.L.; Daniel, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    A methodology for assessing the effectiveness of safeguards systems was developed in this study and was applied to a typical light water reactor plant. The relative importance of detection systems, barriers, response forces and other safeguards system components was examined in extensive parameter variation studies. (author)

  12. Nordic Exceptionalism and the Nordic 'Others'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars; Loftsdóttir, Kristín

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to 'Whiteness and Postcolonialism in the Nordic Region' co-authored with Kristín Loftsdóttir, University of Iceland......Introduction to 'Whiteness and Postcolonialism in the Nordic Region' co-authored with Kristín Loftsdóttir, University of Iceland...

  13. Melancholy in Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    2017-01-01

    Nordic noir on screen is characterised by a certain melancholy displayed in the plot, the imagery and the characters. These elements also characterise Scandinavian crime fiction, for example, the troubled protagonists and the cold climate. Nordic noir has attracted considerable interest among...... audiences and academics. However, none of the academic contributions reflect the connection to the historical Nordic melancholy. In this article, I relate Nordic noir to Nordic melancholy in art, philosophy and culture in which melancholy as a romantic ideal was embedded in a particular landscape...

  14. The Nordic Seas carbon budget: Sources, sinks, and uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Jeansson, Emil; Olsen, Are; Eldevik, Tor; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Lauvset, Siv K.; Nilsen, Jan Even Ø.; Bellerby, Richard G. J; Johannessen, Truls; Falck, Eva

    2011-01-01

    A carbon budget for the Nordic Seas is derived by combining recent inorganic carbon data from the CARINA database with relevant volume transports. Values of organic carbon in the Nordic Seas' water masses, the amount of carbon input from river runoff, and the removal through sediment burial are taken from the literature. The largest source of carbon to the Nordic Seas is the Atlantic Water that enters the area across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge; this is in particular true for the anthropogen...

  15. Utility requirements for advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machiels, A.; Gray, S.; Mulford, T.; Rodwell, E.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear energy industry is actively engaged in developing advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs for the next century. The new designs take advantage of the thousands of reactor-years of experience that have been accumulated by operating over 400 plants worldwide. The EPRI effort began in the early 1980's, when a survey of utility executives was conducted to determine their prerequisites for ordering nuclear power plants. The results were clear: new plants had to be simpler and safer, and have greater design margins, i.e., be more forgiving. The utility executives also supported making improvements to the established light water reactor technology, rather than trying to develop new reactor concepts. Finally, they wanted the option to build mid-size plants (∼600 MWe) in addition to full-size plants of more than 1200 MWe. 4 refs

  16. Materials technologies of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begley, R.

    1984-01-01

    Satisfactory materials performance is a key element in achieving reliable operation of light water reactors. Outstanding performance under rigorous operational conditions has been exhibited by pressure boundary components, core internals, fuel cladding, and other critical components of these systems. Corrosion and stress corrosion phenomena have, however, had an impact on plant availability, most notably relating to pipe cracking in BWR systems and steam generator corrosion in PWR systems. These experiences have stimulated extensive development activities by the nuclear industry in improved NDE techniques, investigation of corrosion phenomena, as well as improved materials and repair processes. This paper reviews key materials performance aspects of light water reactors with particular emphasis on the progress which has been made in modeling of corrosion phenomena, control of the plant operating environment, advanced material development, and application of sophisticated repair procedures. Implementation of this technology provides the basis for improved plant availability

  17. Advanced light water reactors for the nineties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, F.A.; Sugnet, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The EPRI/Industry advanced light water reactor (ALWR) program and the US Department of Energy ALWR program are closely coordinated to meet the common objective which is the availability of improved and simplified light water reactor plants that may be ordered in the next decade to meet new or replacement capacity requirements. The EPRI/Industry objectives, program participants, and foreign participants, utility requirements document, its organization and content, small plant conceptual design program, the DOE ALWR program, design verification program, General Electric ABWR design features, Combustion Engineering system design, mid-size plant development, General Electric SBWR objectives, Westinghouse/Burns and Roe design objectives, construction improvement, and improved instrumentation and control are discussed in the paper

  18. Steam explosions in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The report deals with a postulated accident caused by molten fuel falling into the lower plenum of the containment of a reactor. The analysis which is presented in the report shows that the thermal energy released in the resulting steam explosion is not enough to destroy the pressure vessel or the containment. The report was prepared for the Swedish Governmental Committee on steam explosion in light water reactors. It includes statements issued by internationally well-known specialists. (G.B.)

  19. Light water reactor safety research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markoczy, G.; Aksan, S.N.; Behringer, K.; Prodan, M.; Stierli, F.; Ullrich, G.

    1980-07-01

    The research and development activities for the safety of Light Water Power Reactors carried out 1979 at the Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research are described. Considerations concerning the necessity, objectives and size of the Safety Research Project are presented, followed by a detailed discussion of the activities in the five tasks of the program, covering fracture mechanics and nondestructive testing, thermal-hydraulics, reactor noise analysis and pressure vessel steel surveillance. (Auth.)

  20. The light water natural uranium reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radkowsky, A.

    A new type of light water seed blanket with the seed having 20% enrichment and the blanket a special combination of elements of natural uranium and thorium, relatively close packed, but sufficient spacing for heat transfer purpose is described. The blanket would deliver approximately half the total energy for about 10,000 MWDIT, so this type of core would be just as economical or better in uranium ore consumation as present cores. (author)

  1. Light-water reactor safety analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.F.; Ransom, V.H.; Ybarrondo, L.J.; Liles, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review of the evolution of light-water reactor safety analysis codes is presented. Included is a summary comparison of the technical capabilities of major system codes. Three recent codes are described in more detail to serve as examples of currently used techniques. Example comparisons between calculated results using these codes and experimental data are given. Finally, a brief evaluation of current code capability and future development trends is presented

  2. Neutron disadvantage factors in heavy water and light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.

    1966-01-01

    A number od heavy water and light water reactor cells are analyzed in this paper by applying analytical methods of neutron thermalization. Calculations done according to the one-group Amouyal-Benoist method are included in addition. Computer codes for ZUSE Z-23 computer were written by applying both methods. The obtained results of disadvantage factors are then compared to results obtained by one-group P 3 approximation and by multigroup K7-THERMOS code [sr

  3. New lineup of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Kiyoshi; Oshima, Koichiro; Kitsukawa, Keisuke

    2007-01-01

    Toshiba is promoting technical studies for upcoming nuclear power plants based on its large accumulation of experience in boiling water reactor (BWR) design, manufacturing, construction, and maintenance. Our goal is to achieve higher reliability, lower life-cycle costs, and better competitiveness for nuclear power plants compared with other energy sources. In addition, we are developing a new light water reactor (LWR) lineup featuring the safest and most economical LWRs in the world as next-generation reactors almost at new construction and replacement in the Japanese and international markets expected to start from the 2020s. We are committed not only to developing BWRs with the world's highest performance but also to participating in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) market, taking advantage of the synergistic effect of both Toshiba's and Westinghouse's experience. (author)

  4. In Search of Nordicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng; Strandgaard, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    This article looks at the branding of Copenhagen as a food destination through the advent of the New Nordic Cuisine movement and how this may change the way we think about destination branding. The destination management organization of Copenhagen opportunistically embraced the New Nordic Cuisine...... an inductive, in-depth, longitudinal study of the New Nordic Cuisine and its movement's development in relation to branding Copenhagen as a tourism destination....

  5. Nordic Energy basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T.; Pursiheimo, E. [VTT, Espoo (Finland)

    2004-01-01

    This report gives numerical data of the existing energy systems in Denmark, Finland, Island, Norway and Sweden. The data includes: 1) Primary fossil fuel production and fuel reserves; 2) Energy production and consumption; 3) Hydrogen production in the Nordic countries; 4) Energy balances of the Nordic countries. The above data has been used as background information during the Nordic H{sub 2} Energy Foresight project. The data has been collected from public literature sources and also from project partners. (au)

  6. Penn State advanced light water reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, J.A.; Smith, K.A.; Edwards, R.M.; Robinson, G.E.; Schultz, M.A.; Klevans, E.H.

    1987-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island heightened concerns over the safety of nuclear power. In response to these concerns, a research group at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) undertook the conceptual design of an advanced light water reactor (ALWR) under sponsorship of the US Dept. of Energy (DOE). The design builds on the literally hundreds of years worth of experience with light water reactor technology. The concept is a reconfigured pressurized water reactor (PWR) with the capability of being shut down to a safe condition simply by removing all ac power, both off-site and on-site. Using additional passively activated heat sinks and replacing the pressurizer with a pressurizing pump system, the concept essentially eliminates the concerns of core damage associated with a total station blackout. Evaluation of the Penn State ALWR concept has been conducted using the EPRI Modular Modeling System (MMS). Results show that a superior response to normal operating transients can be achieved in comparison to the response with a conventional PWR pressurizer. The DOE-sponsored Penn State ALWR concept has evolved into a significant reconfiguration of a PWR leading to enhanced safety characteristics. The reconfiguration has touched a number of areas in overall plant design including a shutdown turbine in the secondary system, additional passively activated heat sinks, a unique primary side pressurizing concept, a low pressure cleanup system, reactor building layout, and a low power density core design

  7. Is light water reactor technology sustainable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.; Van der Zwaan, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes criteria for determining ''intermediate sustainability'' over a 500-year horizon. We apply these criteria to Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology and the LWR industry. We conclude that LWR technology does not violate intermediate sustainability criteria for (1) environmental externalities, (2) worker and public health and safety, or (3) accidental radioactive release. However, it does not meet criteria to (1) efficiently use depleted uranium and (2) avoid uranium enrichment technologies that can lead to nuclear weapons proliferation. Finally, current and future global demand for LWR technology might be below the minimum needed to sustain the current global LWR industry. (author)

  8. Trends in light water reactor dosimetry programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, F.J.; Serpan, C.Z.; Fabry, A.; McElroy, W.N.; Grundl, J.A.; Debrue, J.

    1977-01-01

    Dosimetry programs and techniques play an essential role in the continued assurance of the safety and reliability of components of light water reactors. Primary concern focuses on the neutron irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels and methods by which the integrity of a pressure vessel can be predicted and monitored throughout its service life. Research in these areas requires a closely coordinated program which integrates the elements of the calculational and material sciences, the development of advanced dosimetric techniques and the use of benchmarks and validation of these methods. The paper reviews the status of the various international efforts in the dosimetry area

  9. Light-water-reactor hydrogen manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, A.L.; Cummings, J.C.; Sherman, M.P.; Kupiec, C.F.; Healy, R.J.; Caplan, J.S.; Sandhop, J.R.; Saunders, J.H.

    1983-06-01

    A manual concerning the behavior of hydrogen in light water reactors has been prepared. Both normal operations and accident situations are addressed. Topics considered include hydrogen generation, transport and mixing, detection, and combustion, and mitigation. Basic physical and chemical phenomena are described, and plant-specific examples are provided where appropriate. A wide variety of readers, including operators, designers, and NRC staff, will find parts of this manual useful. Different sections are written at different levels, according to the most likely audience. The manual is not intended to provide specific plant procedures, but rather, to provide general guidance that may assist in the development of such procedures

  10. Development trends in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelstroem, L.; Simon, M.

    1988-01-01

    The present market for new nuclear power plants is weak, but is expected to pick up again, which is why great efforts are being made to further develop the light water reactor line for future applications. There is both a potential and a need for further improvement, for instance with respect to even higher cost efficiency, a simplified operating permit procedure, shorter construction periods, and increased operational flexibility to meet rising demands in load following behavior and in better cycle data of fuel elements. However, also public acceptance must not be forgotten when deciding about the line to be followed in the development of LWR technology. (orig.) [de

  11. Is light water reactor technology sustainable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, G. [Stanford Univ., Dept. of Economics, CA (United States); Van der Zwaan, B. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam, Inst. for Environmental Studies (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    This paper proposes criteria for determining ''intermediate sustainability'' over a 500-year horizon. We apply these criteria to Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology and the LWR industry. We conclude that LWR technology does not violate intermediate sustainability criteria for (1) environmental externalities, (2) worker and public health and safety, or (3) accidental radioactive release. However, it does not meet criteria to (1) efficiently use depleted uranium and (2) avoid uranium enrichment technologies that can lead to nuclear weapons proliferation. Finally, current and future global demand for LWR technology might be below the minimum needed to sustain the current global LWR industry. (author)

  12. Mercury in Nordic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, John; Waengberg, Ingvar (IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (SE)); Rognerud, Sigurd; Fjeld, Eirik (Norwegian Inst. for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo (Norway)); Verta, Matti; Porvari, Petri (Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland)); Meili, Markus (Inst. of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    This report provides a first comprehensive compilation and assessment of available data on mercury in air, precipitation, sediments and fish in the Nordic countries. The main conclusion is that mercury levels in Nordic ecosystems continue to be affected by long-range atmospheric transport. The geographical patterns of mercury concentrations in both sediments and fish are also strongly affected by ecosystem characteristics and in some regions possibly by historical pollution. An evaluation of geographical variations in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicates that the influence from anthropogenic sources from Central European areas is still significant. The annual variability of deposition is large and dependant of precipitation amounts. An evaluation of data from stations around the North Sea has indicated a significant decrease in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicating a continuous decrease of emissions in Europe (Waengberg et al., 2007). For mercury in air (TGM), the geographical pattern is less pronounced indicating the influence of mercury emissions and distribution over a larger geographical area (i.e. hemispherical transport). Comparison of recent (surficial) and historical lake sediments show significantly elevated concentrations of mercury most likely caused by anthropogenic atmospheric deposition over the past century. The highest pollution impact was observed in the coastal areas of southern Norway, in south western Finland and in Sweden from the coastal areas in the southwest across the central parts to the north-east. The general increase in recent versus old sediments was 2-5 fold. Data on mercury in Nordic freshwater fish was assembled and evaluated with respect to geographical variations. The fish data were further compared with temporal and spatial trends in mercury deposition and mercury contamination of lake sediments in order to investigate the coupling between atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury and local mercury

  13. Light-water reactor research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    This report on the national program of research and development on light water reactors is the second of two reports requested in 1982 by W. Kenneth Davis, Deputy Secretary of the Department of Energy. A first report, published in September 1983, treated the needs for safety-related R and D. In this second report, the Energy Research Advisory Board finds that, although many light water reactors are providing reliable and economic electricity, it appears unlikely that U.S. utilities will order additional reactors until the currently unacceptable economic risk, created by the regulatory climate and uncertain demand, is reduced. Thus it is unlikely that the private sector alone will fund major LWR design improvements. However, nuclear power will continue on its current course of expansion overseas. DOE participation is vitally needed to support the national interest in LWR technology. The report outlines R and D needs for a program to improve the safety, reliability, and economics of the present generation of plants; to develop evolutionary improved designs to be ready when needed; and to explore innovative longer-term concepts for deployment after the year 2000. The respective roles of government and the private sector are discussed

  14. Towards intrinsically safe light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannerz, K.

    1983-02-01

    The reactor-safety issue is one of the principal problems threatening the future of the nuclear option, at least in participatory democracies. It has contributed to widespread public distrust and is the direct cause of the escalation in design complexity and quality assurance requirements that are rapidly eroding the competitive advantage of nuclear power. Redesign of the light-water reactor can eliminate those features that leave it open to public distrust and obstructive intervention. This redesign appears feasible within the realm of proven technology in those fields (fuels, materials, water chemistry, waste technology, etc.) in which extended operating experience is essential for confidence in system performance. A pressurized water reactor outline design developed to achieve the above goal is presented. The key feature is the design of the primary system extracting heat from the core so that the latter is protected from damage caused by any credible system failure or any destructive intervention from the outside by either violent means (up to and including nonnuclear warfare) or by mistaken or malicious use of the plant control systems. Such a design objective can be achieved by placing the entire primary circulation system in a large pressurized pool of cold water with a high boric acid content. Enough water is provided in the pool to allow core-decay-heat removal by evaporation for at least one week following any incident with no cooling systems operating. Subsequently it is assumed that a supply of further water (a few cubic meters per hour) from the outside can be arranged, even without the presence of the plant operating personnel

  15. Environmentally assisted cracking in Light Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.; Chopra, O.K.; Ruther, W.E.; Kassner, T.F.; Michaud, W.F.; Park, J.Y.; Sanecki, J.E.; Shack, W.J.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) during the six months from October 1992 to March 1993. Fatigue and EAC of piping, pressure vessels, and core components in LWRs are important concerns as extended reactor lifetimes are envisaged. Topics that have been investigated include (1) fatigue of low-alloy steel used in piping, steam generators, and reactor pressure vessels. (2) EAC of cast stainless steels (SSs), (3) radiation-induced segregation and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of Type 304 SS after accumulation of relatively high fluence, and (4) EAC of low-alloy steels. Fatigue tests were conducted on medium-sulfur-content A106-Gr B piping and A533-Gr B pressure vessel steels in simulated PWR water and in air. Additional crack growth data were obtained on fracture-mechanics specimens of cast austenitic SSs in the as-received and thermally aged conditions and chromium-nickel-plated A533-Gr B steel in simulated boiling-water reactor (BWR) water at 289 degrees C. The data were compared with predictions based on crack growth correlations for ferritic steels in oxygenated water and correlations for wrought austenitic SS in oxygenated water developed at ANL and rates in air from Section XI of the ASME Code. Microchemical and microstructural changes in high- and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes and a control-blade sheath from operating BWRs were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

  16. Nordic Branding Podcast 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    'Hygge' is a concept that has generated much interest as a way of conceptualising 'Nordic living', e.g. in books on hygge or scented candles. In this Nordic Branding reflections podcast we are having a 'hyggelig' session with ph.d. Jeppe Trolle Linnet, reflecting on this concept and related 'Nord......' values. We met at Meyers Deli and The Laundromat Cafe (Copenhagen)....

  17. New Nordic Exceptionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbolt, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    At the 2009 Nordic Culture Forum summit in Berlin that centered on the profiling and branding of the Nordic region in a globalized world, one presenter stood out from the crowd. The lobbyist Annika Sigurdardottir delivered a speech that called for the establishment of “The United Nations of Norden...... that have been central to the debates on the branding of Nordicity over the last decades: on the one hand, the discourse of “Nordic exceptionalism,” that since the 1960s has been central to the promotion of a Nordic political, socio-economic, and internationalist “third way” model, and, on the other hand......, the discourse on the “New Nordic,” that emerged out of the New Nordic Food-movement in the early 2000s, and which has given art and culture a privileged role in the international re-fashioning of the Nordic brand. Through an analysis of Kim and Einhorn’s United Nations of Norden (UNN)-performance, the article...

  18. Radiation Protection at Light Water Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Prince, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This book is aimed at Health Physicists wishing to gain a better understanding of the principles and practices associated with a light water reactor (LWR) radiation protection program. The role of key program elements is presented in sufficient detail to assist practicing radiation protection professionals in improving and strengthening their current program. Details related to daily operation and discipline areas vital to maintaining an effective LWR radiation protection program are presented. Programmatic areas and functions important in preventing, responding to, and minimizing radiological incidents and the importance of performing effective incident evaluations and investigations are described. Elements that are integral in ensuring continuous program improvements are emphasized throughout the text.

  19. Light water reactor lower head failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Chavez, S.A.; Thinnes, G.L.

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the results from a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored research program to investigate the mode and timing of vessel lower head failure. Major objectives of the analysis were to identify plausible failure mechanisms and to develop a method for determining which failure mode would occur first in different light water reactor designs and accident conditions. Failure mechanisms, such as tube ejection, tube rupture, global vessel failure, and localized vessel creep rupture, were studied. Newly developed models and existing models were applied to predict which failure mechanism would occur first in various severe accident scenarios. So that a broader range of conditions could be considered simultaneously, calculations relied heavily on models with closed-form or simplified numerical solution techniques. Finite element techniques-were employed for analytical model verification and examining more detailed phenomena. High-temperature creep and tensile data were obtained for predicting vessel and penetration structural response

  20. Controlling hydrogen behavior in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullingford, H.S.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    In the aftermath of the incident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2), a new and different treatment of the Light Water Reactor (LWR) risks is needed for public safety because of the specific events involving hydrogen generation, transport, and behavior following the core damage. Hydrogen behavior in closed environments such as the TMI-2 containment building is a complex phenomenon that is not fully understood. Hence, an engineering approach is presented for prevention of loss of life, equipment, and environment in case of a large hydrogen generation in an LWR. A six-level defense strategy is described that minimizes the possibility of ignition of released hydrogen gas and otherwise mitigates the consequences of hydrogen release. Guidance is given to reactor manufacturers, utility companies, regulatory agencies, and research organizations committed to reducing risk factors and insuring safety of life, equipment, and environment

  1. Light water reactor lower head failure analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempe, J.L.; Chavez, S.A.; Thinnes, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the results from a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored research program to investigate the mode and timing of vessel lower head failure. Major objectives of the analysis were to identify plausible failure mechanisms and to develop a method for determining which failure mode would occur first in different light water reactor designs and accident conditions. Failure mechanisms, such as tube ejection, tube rupture, global vessel failure, and localized vessel creep rupture, were studied. Newly developed models and existing models were applied to predict which failure mechanism would occur first in various severe accident scenarios. So that a broader range of conditions could be considered simultaneously, calculations relied heavily on models with closed-form or simplified numerical solution techniques. Finite element techniques-were employed for analytical model verification and examining more detailed phenomena. High-temperature creep and tensile data were obtained for predicting vessel and penetration structural response.

  2. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Gruber, E.E.

    1996-07-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from April 1995 to December 1995. Topics that have been investigated include fatigue of carbon and low-alloy steel used in reactor piping and pressure vessels, EAC of Alloy 600 and 690, and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of Type 304 SS. Fatigue tests were conducted on ferritic steels in water that contained various concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) to determine whether a slow strain rate applied during different portions of a tensile-loading cycle are equally effective in decreasing fatigue life. Crack-growth-rate tests were conducted on compact-tension specimens from several heats of Alloys 600 and 690 in simulated LWR environments. Effects of fluoride-ion contamination on susceptibility to intergranular cracking of high- and commercial- purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-tensile tests at 288 degrees Centigrade. Microchemical changes in the specimens were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine whether trace impurity elements may contribute to IASCC of these materials

  3. Light water ultra-safe plant concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.

    1989-01-01

    Since the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), Penn State Nuclear Engineering Department Faculty and Staff have considered various methods to improve already safe reactor designs and public perception of the safety of Nuclear Power. During 1987 and 1988, the Department of Energy provided funds to the Nuclear Engineering Department at Penn State to investigate a plant reconfiguration originated by M.A. Schultz called ''The Light Water Ultra-Safe Plant Concept''. This report presents a final summary of the project with references to several masters' theses and addendum reports for further detail. The two year research effort included design verification with detailed computer simulation of: (a) normal operation characteristics of the unique pressurizing concept, (b) severe transients without loss of coolant, (c) combined primary and secondary system modeling, and (d) small break and large break loss of coolant accidents. Other studies included safety analysis, low power density core design, and control system design to greatly simplify the control room and required operator responses to plant upset conditions. The overall conclusion is that a reconfigured pressurized water reactor can achieve real and perceived safety improvements. Additionally, control system research to produce greatly simplified control rooms and operator requirements should be continued in future projects

  4. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    Brundtland Commission Report, and climate change became a common concern. Energy technology cooperation was an integral part of Nordic energy policy cooperation from the very beginning. The Nordic Energy Research Programme was established with funding from each of the Nordic countries, and was earmarked...... by a committee of senior officials and a secretariat. This was characterised by an incremental development of the cooperation based on consensus, mutual understanding and trust facilitated through exchange of experiences, work groups, seminars, educational activities and mobility schemes for energy policy...

  5. Particularities of the Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    The Nordic countries are in international rankings included as some of the most gender equal societies in the world (see e.g. the Global Gender Gap Index and the Gender Equality Index developed by the European Gender Equality Institute, EIGE), and scholars have demonstrated that the discourse...... and politics of women’s rights and gender equality has become an intrinsic part of the Nordic national identities and politics of belongings (Gullestad 2006). In spite of these achievements, Nordic scholars suggest that the increasing impact of globalization present major challenges for addressing multiple...... inequalities in power and resources (Melby et.al. 2008; Siim and Skjeie 2008). The chapter aims to analyse the challenge from globalization to the Nordic welfare and gender regimes and discuss the potentials and limits of this approach to equality from historical and comparative perspectives. The main research...

  6. Nordic Corporate Governance Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the key elements of the Nordic governance model, which include a distinct legal system, high governance ratings and low levels of corruption. Other characteristics include concentrated ownership, foundation ownership, semi two-tier board structures, employee representation...

  7. Nordic Noir Production Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit; Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors argue that Nordic noir constitutes a set of production values utilised and conceptualised to make Danish television series attractive in the international market. The idea of production values is embedded into a media industrial context where market principles of target...... by relating the specific Nordic noir production values present in the two series to changing conditions in Danish television drama production, in particular the internationalisation of DR’s Drama Division....

  8. CONFERENCE: Nordic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Around 80 physicists from eleven countries fought heavy snowstorms and 20-below temperatures at the winter resort of Spåtind, Norway, for the 8th Nordic Meeting on Elementary Particle Physics in January. This biennial conference is a traditional meeting place for Nordic particle physicists, and especially for the young research students, but also draws participants from other countries. This year's meeting was organized by the Division of Particle Physics of the Swedish Physical Society

  9. Fast reactor cooled by supercritical light water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwatari, Yuki; Mukouhara, Tami; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Oka, Yoshiaki [Tokyo Univ., Nuclear Engineering Research Lab., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    This report introduces the result of a feasibility study of a fast reactor cooled by supercritical light water (SCFR) with once-through cooling system. It is characterized by (1) no need of steam separator, recirculation system, or steam generator, (2) 1/7 of core flow rate compared with BWR or PWR, (3) high temperature and high pressure permits small turbine and high efficiency exceeding 44%, (4) structure and operation of major components are already experienced by LWRs or thermal power plants. Modification such as reducing blanket fuels and increasing seed fuels are made to achieve highly economic utilization of Pu and high power (2 GWe). The following restrictions were satisfied. (1) Maximum linear heat rate 39 kW/m, (2) Maximum surface temperature of Inconel cladding 620degC, (3) Negative void reactivity coefficient, (4) Fast neutron irradiation rate at the inner surface of pressure vessel less than 2.0x10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}. Thus the high power density of 167 MW/m{sup 3} including blanket is thought to contributes economy. The high conversion is attained to be 0.99 Pu fission residual rate by the outer radius of fuel rod of 0.88 mm. The breeding of 1.034 by Pu fission residual rate can be achieved by using briquette (tube-in-shell) type fuel structure. (K. Tsuchihashi)

  10. Nuclear fuel for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etemad, A.

    1976-01-01

    The goal of the present speech is to point out some of the now-a-day existing problems related to the fuel cycle of light water reactors and to foresee their present and future solutions. Economical aspects of nuclear power generation have been considerably improving, partly through technological advancements and partly due to the enlargement of unit capacity. The fuel cycle, defined in the course of this talk, discusses the exploration, mining, ore concentration, purification, conversion, enrichment, manufacturing of fuel elements, their utilization in a reactor, their discharge and subsequent storage, reprocessing, and their re-use or disposal. Uranium market in the world and the general policy of several uranium owning countries are described. The western world requirement for uranium until the year 2000, uranium resources and the nuclear power programs in the United States, Australia, Canada, South Africa, France, India, Spain, and Argentina are discussed. The participation of Iran in a large uranium enrichment plant based on French diffusion technology is mentioned

  11. Hydrogen behavior in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, M.; Cummings, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Three Mile Island accident resulted in the generation of an estimated 150 to 600 kg of hydrogen, some of which burned inside the containment building, causing a transient pressure rise of roughly 200 kPa (2 atm). With this accident as the immediate impetus and the improved safety of reactors as the long-term goal, the nuclear industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission initiated research programs to study hydrogen behavior and control during accidents at nuclear plants. Several fundamental questions and issues arise when the hydrogen problem for light-water-reactor plants is examined. These relate to four aspects of the problem: hydrogen production; hydrogen transport, release, and mixing; hydrogen combustion; and prevention or mitigation of hydrogen combustion. Although much has been accomplished, some unknowns and uncertainties still remain, for example, the rate of hydrogen production during a degraded-core or molten-core accident, the rate of hydrogen mixing, the effect of geometrical structures and scale on combustion, flame speeds, combustion completeness, and mitigation-scheme effectiveness. This article discusses the nature and extent of the hydrogen problem, the progress that has been made, and the important unresolved questions

  12. Photoelectrochemical water splitting: optimizing interfaces and light absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis several photoelectrochemical water splitting devices based on semiconductor materials were investigated. The aim was the design, characterization, and fabrication of solar-to-fuel devices which can absorb solar light and split water to produce hydrogen.

  13. Sedation practice in Nordic and non-Nordic ICUs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Albarran, John W; Ring, Mette

    2013-01-01

    A trend towards lighter sedation has been evident in many intensive care units (ICUs). The aims of the survey were to describe sedation practice in European ICUs and to compare sedation practice in Nordic and non-Nordic countries....

  14. Development of light water reactors and subjects for hereafter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Yoshio

    1995-01-01

    As for light water reactors, the structure is relatively simple, and the power plants of large capacity can be realized easily, therefore, they have been used for long period as main nuclear reactors. During that period, the accumulation of experiences on the design, manufacture, operation, maintenance and regulation of light water has become enormous, and in Japan, the social base for maintaining and developing light water reactor technologies has been prepared sufficiently. If the nuclear power generation using seawater uranium is considered, the utilization of uranium for light water reactor technologies can become the method of producing the own energy for Japan. As the factors that threaten the social base of light water reactor technologies, there are a the lowering of the desire to promote light water reactors, the effect of secular deterioration, the price rise of uranium resources, the effect of plutonium accumulation, the effect of the circumstances in developing countries and the sure recruiting of engineers. The construction and the principle of working of light water reactors and the development of light water reactors hereafter, for example, the improvement on small scale and the addition of new technology resulting in cost reduction and the lowering of the quality requirement for engineers, the improvement of core design, the countermeasures by design to serious accidents and others are described. (K.I.)

  15. Restrictions in Mg/Ca-Paleotemperature Estimations in High-Latitude Bottom Waters: Evidence from the Fram Strait and the Nordic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, K.; Marchitto, T. M., Jr.; Not, C.; Spielhagen, R. F.; Husum, K.

    2014-12-01

    Mg to Ca ratios of the benthic foraminifer species Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi provide a great potential for reconstructing bottom water temperatures, especially from the lower end of the temperature range between 0 and 6°C (Tisserand et al., 2013). A set of core top samples from the Fram Strait and the Norwegian margin have been studied for Mg/Ca ratios in C. wuellerstorfi in order to establish a calibration relationship to the environmental conditions. In this part of the northern North Atlantic the bottom water temperature range between -0.5 and -1°C. For the calibration to modern water mass conditions, modern oceanographic data from both existing conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) casts and the World Ocean Data Base 2013 (Boyer et al., 2013) have been used. Benthic Mg/Ca ratios are relatively high suggesting a preference of C. wuellerstorfi to incorporate Mg below 0°C. Although no correlation has been found to existing temperature calibrations, the data are in line with earlier Mg/Ca data from C. wuellerstorfi in the area (Martin et al., 2002; Elderfield et al., 2006). The carbonate ion effect is most likely a main cause for the relatively high Mg/Ca ratios found in core top samples from the Fram Strait and the Nordic Seas, however, other factors may influence the values as well. Holocene records of benthic trace metal/Ca ratios from the eastern Fram Strait display trends similar to those found in other proxy indicators, despite the difficulties to constrain a temperature calibration for this low temperature range. In particular, the benthic B/Ca and Li/Ca records resemble trends in Holocene planktic foraminifer assemblages, suggesting to be influenced by environmental factors such as the carbonate ion effect consistent for the entire water column.

  16. Light scattering by particles in water theoretical and experimental foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasz, Miroslaw

    2007-01-01

    Light scattering-based methods are used to characterize small particles suspended in water in a wide range of disciplines ranging from oceanography, through medicine, to industry. The scope and accuracy of these methods steadily increases with the progress in light scattering research. This book focuses on the theoretical and experimental foundations of the study and modeling of light scattering by particles in water and critically evaluates the key constraints of light scattering models. It begins with a brief review of the relevant theoretical fundamentals of the interaction of light with condensed matter, followed by an extended discussion of the basic optical properties of pure water and seawater and the physical principles that explain them. The book continues with a discussion of key optical features of the pure water/seawater and the most common components of natural waters. In order to clarify and put in focus some of the basic physical principles and most important features of the experimental data o...

  17. Freshwater exposure pathways in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1984-06-01

    The report relates to a subproject under a Nordic project called ''Large reactor accidents - consequences and mitigating actions''. The report summarizes information available, primarily in the Nordic countries, on freshwater exposure pathways. Experimental and theoretical data concerning the deposition and run-off of the nuclides *sp90*Sr and*Sp137*Cs is presented. Internal exposure via drinking water and freshwater fish is dealt with, as well as external exposure due to swimming, boating, contact with fishing utensils and use of beach areas. In addition is exposure via irrigated agricultural products considered. (RF)

  18. Challenges to Nordic Police Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research.......The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research....

  19. Nordic Regional Report; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper elaborates findings and discussions of 2013 Cluster Consultation Nordic Regional report. The countries have close economic and financial ties and face some common challenges and shared risks, such as large banking sectors and high household debt. The economic performance of the four continental Nordic economies (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden—Nordic-4) ranks among the advanced economic development circle. It is analyzed that the large Nordic banking systems su...

  20. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Accomplishments Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, Kathryn A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Welcome to the 2014 Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Accomplishments Report, covering research and development highlights from 2014. The LWRS Program is a U.S. Department of Energy research and development program to inform and support the long-term operation of our nation’s commercial nuclear power plants. The research uses the unique facilities and capabilities at the Department of Energy national laboratories in collaboration with industry, academia, and international partners. Extending the operating lifetimes of current plants is essential to supporting our nation’s base load energy infrastructure, as well as reaching the Administration’s goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by the year 2050. The purpose of the LWRS Program is to provide technical results for plant owners to make informed decisions on long-term operation and subsequent license renewal, reducing the uncertainty, and therefore the risk, associated with those decisions. In January 2013, 104 nuclear power plants operated in 31 states. However, since then, five plants have been shut down (several due to economic reasons), with additional shutdowns under consideration. The LWRS Program aims to minimize the number of plants that are shut down, with R&D that supports long-term operation both directly (via data that is needed for subsequent license renewal), as well indirectly (with models and technology that provide economic benefits). The LWRS Program continues to work closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to ensure that the body of information needed to support SLR decisions and actions is available in a timely manner. This report covers selected highlights from the three research pathways in the LWRS Program: Materials Aging and Degradation, Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization, and Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies, as well as a look-ahead at planned activities for 2015. If you

  1. Nordic Management and Sustainable Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preuss, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    of the Nordics and from that wants to answer if this management approach fosters a sustainable business culture. For defining the management and cultural approach applied in Nordic companies, the method of text mining in relation with machine learning will be used. Among European companies, the Nordic companies...

  2. Polarization Patterns of Transmitted Celestial Light under Wavy Water Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model to describe the polarization patterns of celestial light, which includes sunlight and skylight, when refracted by wavy water surfaces. The polarization patterns and intensity distribution of refracted light through the wave water surface were calculated. The model was validated by underwater experimental measurements. The experimental and theoretical values agree well qualitatively. This work provides a quantitative description of the repolarization and transmittance of celestial light transmitted through wave water surfaces. The effects of wind speed and incident sources on the underwater refraction polarization patterns are discussed. Scattering skylight dominates the polarization patterns while direct solar light is the dominant source of the intensity of the underwater light field. Wind speed has an influence on disturbing the patterns under water.

  3. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Slaug, Bjørn; Brandt, Åse

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients and their home environments. The instrument was translated...... from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently from each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  4. Fitness Club / Nordic Walking

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    Nordic Walking at CERN Enrollments are open for Nordic Walking courses and outings at CERN. Classes will be on Tuesdays as of 20 September, and outings for the more experienced will be on Thursdays as of 15 September. We meet at the CERN Club barracks car park (near entrance A). • 18:00 to 19:00 on 20 & 27 September, as well as 4 & 11 October. Check out our schedule and rates and enroll at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  5. A Mixed Nordic Experience:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Johnsen, Tor Arnt; Lewis, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Although the Nordic countries were among the first to develop competition in the electricity industry, it took a long time to make retail competition work. In Norway and Sweden a considerable number of households are actively using the market but very few households are active in Finland and Denm......Although the Nordic countries were among the first to develop competition in the electricity industry, it took a long time to make retail competition work. In Norway and Sweden a considerable number of households are actively using the market but very few households are active in Finland...

  6. New New Nordic Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Pynt

    2017-01-01

    Konstruktionen af nordisk regionalisme er en stærk tendens som udgangspunkt for Nordic branding, men har vi egentlig forstået de værdier og spændinger, der driver hele projektet om en ny ’nordiskhed’?......Konstruktionen af nordisk regionalisme er en stærk tendens som udgangspunkt for Nordic branding, men har vi egentlig forstået de værdier og spændinger, der driver hele projektet om en ny ’nordiskhed’?...

  7. Modeling Water Clarity and Light Quality in Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoplankton is a primary producer of organic compounds, and it forms the base of the food chain in ocean waters. The concentration of phytoplankton in the water column controls water clarity and the amount and quality of light that penetrates through it. The availability of ade...

  8. Nordic hydrogen energy foresight - challenges of managing the interactive process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eerola, A.; Loikkanen, T.; Koljonen, T.

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the managerial challenges of the Nordic Hydrogen Energy Foresight, a joint effort of the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden). Interaction between research, industry and government, and combination ofjudgmental and formal procedures, were essential...... of the project in the light of a dynamic model ofshared knowledge creation. In particular, the ways in which the design and the methodological tools facilitated the process and its management are discussed. Some suggestions for forthcoming foresight exercises are also presented....

  9. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte B.; Petersen, Kathrine B; Jakobsson, Maija

    2015-01-01

    by using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes on diagnoses and the Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee Classification of Surgical Procedure codes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of the studied complications and possible risk factors among parturients in the Nordic countries. RESULTS......OBJECTIVE: To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. DESIGN: Prospective, Nordic collaboration. SETTING: The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study...... (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases...

  10. The Nordic Research programme on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    Only two of the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Norway and Sweden) - Sweden and Finland - operate nuclear power plants, but there are a number of nuclear installations close to their borders. Regular 4-year programmes were initiated in 1977, designated NKS-programmes. (NKS: Nordisk KerneSikkerhedsforskning - Nordic nuclear-safety research). The current fourth NKS-programme is, influenced by the Chernobyl accident, dominated by the necessity for acquiring knowledge on unexpected events and release of radioactive material from nuclear installations. The present programme is divided into the areas of emergency preparedness, waste and decommissioning, radioecology and reactor safety. It comprises a total of 18 projects, the results of which will later be published in the form of handbooks for use in cases of emergency etc. The future of joint Nordic project work in the nuclear safety field must be seen in the light of changing conditions in and around the Nordic countries, such as the opening of relations to neighbours in the east, the move towards the European Communities and the need for training a new generation of specialists in the nuclear field etc. Each project is described in considerable detail and a list of reports resulting from the third NKS-programme 1985-1989 is given. (AB)

  11. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassner, T.F.; Ruther, W.E.; Chung, H.M.; Hicks, P.D.; Hins, A.G.; Park, J.Y.; Soppet, W.K.; Shack, W.J.

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking in high water reactors during the six months from April 1991 through September 1991. Topics that have been investigated during this period include (1) fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of low-alloy steel used in piping and in steam generator and reactor pressure vessels; (2) role of chromate and sulfate in simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) water on SCC of sensitized Type 304 SS; and (3) radiation-induced segregation (RIS) and irradiation-assisted SCC of Type 304 SS after accumulation of relatively high fluence. Fatigue data were obtained on medium-S-content A533-Gr B and A106-Gr B steels in high-purity (HP) deoxygenated water, in simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) water, and in air. Crack-growth-rates (CGRs) of composite specimens of A533-Gr B/Inconel-182/Inconel-600 (plated with nickel) and homogeneous specimens of A533-Gr B were determined under small- amplitude cyclic loading in HP water with ∼ 300 ppb dissolved oxygen. CGR tests on sensitized Type 304 SS indicate that low chromate concentrations in BWR water (25--35 ppb) may actually have a beneficial effect on SCC if the sulfate concentration is below a critical level. Microchemical and microstructural changes in HP and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes used in two operating BWRs were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and slow-strain,rate- tensile tests were conducts on tubular specimens in air and in simulated BWR water at 289 degrees C

  12. Disinfection of drinking water by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    It is no longer mandatory that a given residue of chlorine is present in drinking water and this has led to interest in the use of ultraviolet radiation for disinfection of water in large public waterworks. After a brief discussion of the effect of ultraviolet radiation related to wavelength, the most usual type of irradiation equipment is briefly described. Practioal considerations regarding the installation, such as attenuation of the radiation due to water quality and deposits are presented. The requirements as to dose and residence time are also discussed and finally it is pointed out that hydraulic imperfections can reduce the effectiveness drastically. (JIW)Ψ

  13. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, T.; Nygren, C.; Slaug, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument was transla......This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument...... was translated from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers, and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently of each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  14. Modeling Water Clarity and Light Quality in Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Abdelrhman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton is a primary producer of organic compounds, and it forms the base of the food chain in ocean waters. The concentration of phytoplankton in the water column controls water clarity and the amount and quality of light that penetrates through it. The availability of adequate light intensity is a major factor in the health of algae and phytoplankton. There is a strong negative coupling between light intensity and phytoplankton concentration (e.g., through self-shading by the cells, which reduces available light and in return affects the growth rate of the cells. Proper modeling of this coupling is essential to understand primary productivity in the oceans. This paper provides the methodology to model light intensity in the water column, which can be included in relevant water quality models. The methodology implements relationships from bio-optical models, which use phytoplankton chlorophyll a (chl-a concentration as a surrogate for light attenuation, including absorption and scattering by other attenuators. The presented mathematical methodology estimates the reduction in light intensity due to absorption by pure seawater, chl-a pigment, non-algae particles (NAPs and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, as well as backscattering by pure seawater, phytoplankton particles and NAPs. The methods presented facilitate the prediction of the effects of various environmental and management scenarios (e.g., global warming, altered precipitation patterns, greenhouse gases on the wellbeing of phytoplankton communities in the oceans as temperature-driven chl-a changes take place.

  15. The safety of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershagen, B.

    1986-04-01

    The book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The central part of the book is devoted to methods and results of safety analysis. Some significant events are described, notably the Three Mile Island accident. The book concludes with a chapter on the PIUS principle of inherent reactor safety as applied to the SECURE type of reactor developed in Sweden. (G.B.)

  16. Contaminants in light water reactor coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, I.; Bechtold, G.

    1975-01-01

    At a lower oxygen content of the pressurized water a reduced metal loss by about 10% was detected. The state of oxidation for incoloy resulting from surface examination was 2,3 +- 0,3 which corresponds to Fe 3 O 4 and a smaller fraction of iron hydroxide. (orig.) [de

  17. ALARA efforts in nordic BWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, T.; Lundgren, K.; Elkert, J. [ABB Atom, Vaesteraes (Sweden)

    1995-03-01

    Some ALARA-related ABB Atom projects are currently under investigation. One of the projects has been ordered by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, and two others by the Nordic BWR utilities. The ultimate objective of the projects is to identify and develop methods to significantly decrease the future exposure levels in the Nordic BWRS. As 85% to 90% of the gamma radiation field in the Nordic BWRs originates from Co-60, the only way to significantly decrease the radiation doses is to effect Co and Co-60. The strategy to do this is to map the Co sources and estimate the source strength of Co from these sources, and to study the possibility to affect the release of Co-60 from the core surfaces and the uptake on system surfaces. Preliminary results indicate that corrosion/erosion of a relatively small number of Stellite-coated valves and/or dust from grinding of Stellite valves may significantly contribute to the Co input to the reactors. This can be seen from a high measured Co/Ni ratio in the feedwater and in the reactor water. If stainless steel is the only source of Co, the Co/Ni ratio would be less than 0.02 as the Co content in the steel is less than 0.2%. The Co/Ni ratio in the reactor water, however, is higher than 0.1, indicating that the major fraction of the Co originates from Stellite-coated valves. There are also other possible explanations for an increase of the radiation fields. The Co-60 inventory on the core surfaces increases approximately as the square of the burn-up level. If the burn-up is increased from 35 to 5 MWd/kgU, the Co-60 inventory on the core surfaces will be doubled. Also the effect on the behavior of Co-60 of different water chemistry and materials conditions is being investigated. Examples of areas studied are Fe and Zn injection, pH-control, and different forms of surface pre-treatments.

  18. Light induced degradation of testosterone in waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulliet, Emmanuelle, E-mail: e.vulliet@sca.cnrs.fr [Service Central d' Analyse du CNRS - USR59, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France); Falletta, Marine; Marote, Pedro [Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques - UMR 5180, Universite Claude Bernard, 43 bd du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lomberget, Thierry [Laboratoire de Chimie Therapeutique, Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Faculte de Pharmacie-ISPB, EA 4443 Biomolecules, Cancer et Chimioresistances, INSERM U863 Hormones steroides et proteines de liaison, IFR 62, 8 avenue Rockefeller, F-69373, Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Paisse, Jean-Olivier; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie-Florence [Service Central d' Analyse du CNRS - USR59, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France)

    2010-08-01

    The degradation of testosterone under simulated irradiations was studied in phosphate buffers and in natural waters at various excitation wavelengths. The quantum yield of photolysis was significantly lower at 313 nm (2.4 x 10{sup -3}) than at 254 nm (0.225). The formation of several photoproducts was observed, some of them being rapidly transformed in turn while others show higher stability towards subsequent irradiations. The nature of the main products was tentatively identified, both deduced from their spectral and spectrometric data and by comparison with synthesised standard compounds. Among the obtained photoproducts, the main one is possibly a spiro-compound, hydroxylated derivative of testosterone originating from the photohydratation of the enone group. The photodegradation pathway includes also photorearrangements. One of them leads to (1,5,10)-cyclopropyl-17{beta}-hydroxyandrostane-2-one. The pH of the water does not seem to affect the rate of phototransformation and the nature of the by-products.

  19. Passive systems for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, R.; Noviello, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews the most original concepts that have been considered in Italy for the back-fitting of the nuclear power plants in order to reduce the probability and the importance of the release to the environment in case of a core melt. With reference either to BWR or PWR, passive concepts have been considered for back-fitting in the following areas: pump seals damage prevention and ECCS passive operation; reactor passive depressurization; molten reactor core passive cooling; metal containment passive water cooling through a water tank located at high level; containment isolation improvement through a sealing system; containment leaks control and limitation of environmental release. In addition some considerations will be made on the protection against external events introduced from the beginning on the PUN design either on building and equipment lay-out either on structure design. (author). 5 figs

  20. Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse

    Development and reliability testing of the Nordic Housing Enabler – an instrument for accessibility assessment of the physical housing. Tina Helle & Åse Brandt University of Lund, Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (SE) and University College Northern Jutland, Occupational Therapy department (DK......). Danish Centre for Assistive Technology. Abstract. For decades, accessibility to the physical housing environment for people with functional limitations has been of interest politically, professionally and for the users. Guidelines and norms on accessible housing design have gradually been developed......, however, the built environment shows serious deficits when it comes to accessibility. This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of inter-rater reliability, when used in occupational therapy practice. The instrument was translated from...

  1. A light-water detritiation project at Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniface, H.A.; Castillo, I.; Everatt, A.E.; Ryland, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The NRU reactor rod bays is a large, open pool of water that receives hundreds of fuel rods annually, each carrying a small amount of residual tritiated heavy water. The tritium concentration of the rod bays water has risen over the years, to a level that is of concern to the operations staff and to the environment. The proposed long-term solution is to reduce the rod bays tritium concentration by direct detritiation of the water. The Combined Electrolytic-Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process is well suited to the light-water detritiation problem. With a tritium-protium separation factor greater than five, a CECE detritiation process can easily achieve the eight orders of magnitude separation required to split a tritiated light-water feed into an essentially tritium-free effluent stream and a tritiated heavy water product suitable for recycling through a heavy water upgrader. This paper describes a CECE light-water detritiation process specifically designed to reduce the tritium concentration in the NRU rod bays to an acceptable level. The conceptual design of a 600 Mg/a detritiation process has been developed and is now at the stage of project review and the beginning of detailed design. (author)

  2. Kineziologická charakteristika Nordic Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Petra

    2009-01-01

    Title: Functional a physiological characteristics of Nordic Walking Purposes: The aim of the thesis is to describe and summarize current knowledge about Nordic Walking Methods: Literature analysis Key words: Nordic Walking, free bipedal walk, health benefits, functional indicator changes

  3. Nordic Walking Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2015-01-01

    Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch

  4. Developing Nordic Pedagogical Best Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Bettan; Kelly, Hélène; Wonsyld, Merete

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a Nordic educational project that supported dialogue and cooperation between nursing students and educators from eight Nordic educational institutions. An intensive course concept was developed. The course focus of prevention and health promotion among nordic youth not only...... illuminated the benefits of student exchange with respect to student learning but also how pedagogical cooperation can contribute to institutional, pedagogical innovation. Keywords Cooperation, pedagogcial development, comparative nursing, pedagogical best practice....

  5. Towards intrinsically safe light-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannerz, K

    1983-07-01

    Most of the present impediments to the rational use of the nuclear option have their roots in the reactor safety issue. The approach taken to satisfy the escalating safety concerns has resulted in excessively complex and expensive plant designs but has failed to create public confidence. This paper describes a new approach based on the principle of Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS). With the PIUS principle, ultimate safety is obtained by guaranteeing core integrity under all credible conditions. This is accomplished on the basis of the laws of gravity and thermohydraulics alone, interacting with the heat extraction process in an intact or damaged primary circuit, without recourse to engineered safety systems that may fail or dependence on error-prone human intervention. Application of the PIUS principle to the pressurized water reactor involves a substantial redesign of the reactor and primary system but builds on established PWR technology where long-term operation is needed for verification.

  6. Towards intrinsically safe light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannerz, K.

    1983-07-01

    Most of the present impediments to the rational use of the nuclear option have their roots in the reactor safety issue. The approach taken to satisfy the escalating safety concerns has resulted in excessively complex and expensive plant designs but has failed to create public confidence. This paper describes a new approach based on the principle of Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS). With the PIUS principle, ultimate safety is obtained by guaranteeing core integrity under all credible conditions. This is accomplished on the basis of the laws of gravity and thermohydraulics alone, interacting with the heat extraction process in an intact or damaged primary circuit, without recourse to engineered safety systems that may fail or dependence on error-prone human intervention. Application of the PIUS principle to the pressurized water reactor involves a substantial redesign of the reactor and primary system but builds on established PWR technology where long-term operation is needed for verification

  7. Corrosion problems in light water nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The corrosion problems encountered during the author's career are reviewed. Attention is given to the development of Zircaloys and attendant factors that affect corrosion; the caustic and chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic stainless steel steam generator tubing; the qualification of Inconel Alloy 600 for steam generator tubing and the subsequent corrosion problem of secondary side wastage, caustic SCC, pitting, intergranular attack, denting, and primary side SCC; and SCC in weld and furnace sensitized stainless steel piping and internals in boiling water reactor primary coolants. Also mentioned are corrosion of metallic uranium alloy fuels; corrosion of aluminum and niobium candidate fuel element claddings; crevice corrosion and seizing of stainless steel journal-sleeve combinations; SCC of precipitation hardened and martensitic stainless steels; low temperature SCC of welded austenitic stainless steels by chloride, fluoride, and sulfur oxy-anions; and corrosion problems experienced by condensers

  8. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.Y.; Ruther, W.E.; Kassner, T.F.; Shack, W.J.

    1990-12-01

    Topics that have been investigated during this year include (1) SCC of A533-Gr B steel used in steam generator and reactor pressure vessels, (2) fatigue of Type 316NG SS, and (3) SCC of Type 347 and CF-3 cast duplex stainless steels in simulated BWR water. Crack-growth-rate (CGR) tests were performed on a composite A533-Gr B/Inconel-182 specimen in which the stress corrosion crack in the Inconel-182 weld metal penetrated and grew into the A533-Gr B steel. CGR tests were also conducted on conventional (unplated) and nickel- or gold-plated A533-Gr B specimens to provide insight into whether the nature of the surface layer on the low-alloy steel, either oxide corrosion products or a noble metal, influences the overall SCC process. CGR data on the A533-Gr B specimens were compared with the fatigue crack reference curves in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, Appendix A. Fatigue tests were conducted on Type 316NG SS in air and simulated BWR water at low strain ranges and frequencies to better establish margins in the ASME Code Section III Fatigue Design Curves. CGR tests were also conducted on specimens of Type 347 SS with different heat-treatment conditions, and a specimen of CF-3 cast stainless steel with a ferrite content of 15.6%. The results were compared with previous data on another heat of Type 347 SS, which was very resistant to SCC, and a CF-3M steel with a ferrite content of 5%. 37 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs

  9. Safety aspects of water chemistry in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The goals of the water chemistry control programmes are to maximize operational safety and the availability and operating life of primary system components, to maximize fuel integrity, and to control radiation buildup. To achieve these goals an effective corporate policy should be developed and implemented. Essential management responsibilities are: Recognizing of the long-term benefits of avoiding or minimizing: a) system corrosion; b) fuel failure; and c) radiation buildup. The following control or diagnostic parameters are suitable performance indicators: for PWR primary coolant circuits: pH of reactor water (by operating temperature); Concentration of chlorides in reactor water; Hydrogen (or oxygen) in reactor water. For PWR secondary coolant circuits: pH in feedwater; Cation productivity in steam generator blowdown; Iron concentration in feedwater; Oxygen concentration in condensate. And BWR coolant circuits: Conductivity of reactor water; Concentration of chlorides in reactor water; Iron concentration in feedwater; Copper concentration in feedwater. The present document represents a review of the developments in some Member States on how to implement a reasonable water chemistry programme and how to assess its effectiveness through numerical indicators. 12 figs, 20 tabs

  10. Light and heavy water replacing system in reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Keiji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to determine the strength of a reactor container while neglecting the outer atmospheric pressure upon evacuation, by evacuating the gap between the reactor container and a biological thermal shield, as well as the container simultaneously upon light water - heavy water replacement. Method: Upon replacing light water with heavy water by vacuum evaporation system in a nuclear reactor having a biological thermal shield surrounding the reactor container incorporating therein a reactor core by way of a heat expansion absorbing gap, the reactor container and the havy water recycling system, as well as the inside of heat expansion absorbing gap are evacuated simultaneously. This enables to neglect the outer atmospheric outer pressure upon evacuation in the determination of the container strength, and the thickness of the container can be decreased by so much as the external pressure neglected. (Moriyama, K.)

  11. Neutron fluence determination for light water reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.

    1994-01-01

    A general description of limitations that exist in pressure vessel neutron fluence determinations for commercial light water reactors is presented. Complexity factors that arise in light water reactor pressure vessel neutron fluence calculations are identified and used to analyze calculational limitations. Two broad categories of calculational limitations are introduced, namely benchmark field limitations and deep penetration limitations. Explicit examples of limitations that can arise in each of these two broad categories are presented. These limitations are used to show that the recent draft regulatory guide for the determination of pressure vessel neutron fluence, developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is based upon procedures and assumptions that are not valid. To eliminate the complexity and limitations of calculational methods, it is recommended that the determination of light water reactor pressure vessel neutron fluence be based upon experiment. Recommendations for improved methods of pressure vessel surveillance neutron dosimetry are advanced

  12. Ultraviolet light: sterile water without chlorine smell and taste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The use of chlorine and hypochlorite is necessary in larger waterworks, but it is a disadvantage in smaller plants, where overtreatment easily leads to smell and taste of chlorine in the water. Ultraviolet light with a wavelength of 2535 Angstrom gives 100% disinfection with a dose of 10 mWs/cm 2 for all known bacteria. In practice a dose of 40 mWs/cm 2 and an irradiation time of 15 minutes is desireable. A standard unit utilising six UV light tubes arranged concentrically around a quartz tube, through which the water flows, is described briefly. (JIW)

  13. Ultraviolet light: sterile water without chlorine smell and taste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-14

    The use of chlorine and hypochlorite is necessary in larger waterworks, but it is a disadvantage in smaller plants, where overtreatment easily leads to smell and taste of chlorine in the water. Ultraviolet light with a wavelength of 2535 Angstrom gives 100% disinfection with a dose of 10 mWs/cm/sup 2/ for all known bacteria. In practice a dose of 40 mWs/cm/sup 2/ and an irradiation time of 15 minutes is desireable. A standard unit utilising six UV light tubes arranged concentrically around a quartz tube, through which the water flows, is described briefly.

  14. Removal and recovery of tritium from light and heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.P.; Hammerli, M.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing tritium from light water are described, comprising contacting tritiated feed water in a catalyst column in countercurrent flow with hydrogen gas originating from an electrolysis cell so as to enrich this feed water with tritium from the electrolytic hydrogen gas and passing the tritium enriched water to an electrolysis cell wherein the electrolytic hydrogen gas is generated and then fed upwards through the catalyst column or recovered as product. The tritium content of the hydrogen gas leaving the top of the enricher catalyst column is further reduced in a stripper column containing catalyst which transfers the tritium to a countercurrent flow of liquid water. Anodic oxygen and water vapour from the anode compartment may be fed to a drier and condensed electrolyte recycled with a slip stream or recovered as a further tritium product stream. A similar method involving heavy water is also described. (author)

  15. Design features of the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) which improve fuel utilization in light water reactors (LWBR development program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, H.C.; Freeman, L.B.

    1981-08-01

    This report surveys reactor core design features of the Light Water Breeder Reactor which make possible improved fuel utilization in light water reactor systems and breeding with the uranium-thorium fuel cycle. The impact of developing the uranium-thorium fuel cycle on utilization of nuclear fuel resources is discussed. The specific core design features related to improved fuel utilization and breeding which have been implemented in the Shippingport LWBR core are presented. These design features include a seed-blanket module with movable fuel for reactivity control, radial and axial reflcetor regions, low hafnium Zircaloy for fuel element cladding and structurals, and a closely spaced fuel rod lattice. Also included is a discussion of several design modifications which could further improve fuel utilization in future light water reactor systems. These include further development of movable fuel control, use of Zircaloy fuel rod support grids, and fuel element design modifications

  16. Labour education the Nordic way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, John Steen

    2007-01-01

    With its more than 75 years of experience, the Nordic Folk High School in Geneva has a strong tradition of labour education. Every year, about 35 trade union members from the Nordic countries take part in a course run alongside the International Labour Conference in Geneva....

  17. The Nordic Mobile Telecommunication Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2000-01-01

    A study of the historic role of the Nordic mobile telephone and telecommunications cluster and its background in both coordinated innovation policies and societal developments in Scandinavia.......A study of the historic role of the Nordic mobile telephone and telecommunications cluster and its background in both coordinated innovation policies and societal developments in Scandinavia....

  18. Is Nordic Private Equity Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Most research on private equity is based on American theory, tested on American empirical data. Nevertheless, the private equity concept has gained a solid foothold in the Nordic region, especially in Sweden. This article analyzes whether American-biased assumptions prevail in the Nordic countries...

  19. Lutheranism and the Nordic States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Mette

    2017-01-01

    The Reformation in the Nordic region – today consisting of Island, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland – was Lutheran and state driven. This chapter addresses the question of Nordic forms of Lutheranism as well as the question of the impact of Lutheranism in the North by focusing on the relation...

  20. Rheological Behaviour of Water-in-Light Crude Oil Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husin, H.; Taju Ariffin, T. S.; Yahya, E.

    2018-05-01

    Basically, emulsions consist of two immiscible liquids which have different density. In petroleum industry, emulsions are undesirable due to their various costly problems in term of transportation difficulties and production loss. A study of the rheological behaviour of light crude oil and its mixture from Terengganu were carried out using Antoon Paar MCR 301 rheometer operated at pressure of 2.5 bar at temperature C. Water in oil emulsions were prepared by mixing light crude oil with different water volume fractions (20%, 30% and 40%). The objectives of present paper are to study the rheological behaviour of emulsion as a fuction of shear rate and model analysis that fitted with the experimental data. The rheological models of Ostwald-De-Waele and Herschel-Bulkley were fitted to the experimental results. All models represented well the rheological data, with high values for the correlation coefficients. The result indicated that variation of water content influenced shear rate-shear stress rheogram of the prepared emulsions. In the case of 100% light crude oil, the study demonstrated non-Newtonian shear thickening behavior. However, for emulsion with different volume water ratios, the rheological behaviour could be well described by Herschel-Bulkley models due to the present of yield stress parameter (R2 = 0.99807). As a conclusion, rheological studies showed that volume water ratio have a great impact on the shear stress and viscosity of water in oil emulsion and it is important to understand these factors to avoid various costly problems.

  1. Bioindicator studies in Nordic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1985-06-01

    This project describes the application of bioindicator systems intended for the measruement of the low level radioactive contamination around nuclear installations. The system has been applied around the Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants and has, furthermore, been used in a study of the dispersion of the effluents from the British nuclear reprocessing plant, Sellafield. The doses to man from these installations have been calculated and compared with the natural background radiation received form the consumption of marine fish. (author)

  2. European community light water reactor safety research projects. Experimental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Research programs on light water reactor safety currently carried out in the European Community are presented. They cover: accident conditions (LOCA, ECCS, core meltdown, external influences, etc...), fault and accident prevention and means of mitigation, normal operation conditions, on and off site implications and equipment under severe accident conditions, and miscellaneous subjects

  3. NEPTUNE: a modular system for light-water reactor calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.; Kanevoky, A.; Reuss, P.

    1975-01-01

    A complete modular system of light water reactor calculations has been designed. It includes basic nuclear data processing, the APOLLO phase: transport calculations for cells, multicells, fuel assemblies or reactors, the NEPTUNE phase: reactor calculations. A fuel management module, devoted to the automatic determination of the best shuffling strategy is included in NEPTUNE [fr

  4. Loose parts monitoring in light water reactor cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.; Alma, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    The work related to loose monitoring system for light water reactor, developed at GRS - Munique, are described. The basic problems due to the exact localization and detection of the loose part as well the research activities and development necessary aiming to obtain the best techniques in this field. (E.G.) [pt

  5. The manufacture of plutonium fuels for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebastard, G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the agreement concluded between COGEMA and BELGONUCLEAIRE, reflected in the creation of the COMMOX group which has been made reponsible for promoting and marketing plutonium fuel rods for light water reactors. One then analyses the main aspects of manufacturing this type of fuel and the resources deployed. Finally one indicates the sales prospects scheduled to meet requirements (MELOX plant) [fr

  6. Safety of light water reactors. Risks of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veser, Anke; Schlueter, Franz-Hermann; Raskob, Wolfgang; Landman, Claudia; Paesler-Sauer, Juergen; Kessler, Guenter

    2012-01-01

    The book on the safety of light-water reactors includes the following chapters: Part I: Physical and technical safety concept of actual German and future European light-water reactors: (1) Worldwide operated nuclear power plants in 2011, (2) Some reactor physical fundamentals. (3) Nuclear power plants in Germany. (4) Radioactive exposure due to nuclear power plants. (5) Safety concept of light-water reactors. (6) Probabilistic analyses and risk studies. (7) Design of light-water reactors against external incidents. (8) Risk comparison of nuclear power plants and other energy systems. (9) Evaluation of risk studies using the improved (new) safety concept for LWR. (19) The severe reactor accidents of Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima. Part II: Safety of German LWR in case of a postulated aircraft impact. (11) Literature. (12) Review of requirements and actual design. (13) Incident scenarios. (14) Load approach for aircraft impact. (15) Demonstration of the structural behavior in case of aircraft impact. (16) Special considerations. (17) Evaluation of the safety state of German and foreign nuclear power plants. Part III: ROSOS as example for a computer-based decision making support system for the severe accident management. (19) Literature. (20) Radiological fundamentals, accident management, modeling of the radiological situation. (21) The decision making support system RODOS. (22) RODOS and the Fukushima accident. (23) Recent developments in the radiological emergency management in the European frame.

  7. Overview of environmental materials degradation in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, H.I.; Wu, P.

    1986-08-01

    This report provides a brief overview of analyses and conclusions reported in published literature regarding environmentally induced degradation of materials in operating light-water reactors. It is intended to provide a synopsis of subjects of concern rather than to address a licensing basis for any newly discovered problems related to reactor materials

  8. Tritium formation and elimination in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, L.; Briec, M.; Miquel, P.

    1976-01-01

    Light-water reactors have a tritium balance which should be considered from both the working constraint and environmental pollution aspects. The formation of tritium in the primary circuit and in the fuel, the elimination and enrichment processes are considered [fr

  9. Design features to facilitate IAEA safeguards at light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, T.; Glancy, J.; Goldman, L.; Swartz, J.

    1981-01-01

    Several studies have been performed recently to identify and analyze light water reactor (LWR) features that, if incorporated into the facility design, would facilitate the implementation of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. This paper presents results and conclusions of these studies. 2 refs

  10. RETRAN sensitivity studies of light water reactor transients. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, N.S.; Gose, G.C.; Harrison, J.F.; Sawtelle, G.R.

    1977-06-01

    This report presents the results of sensitivity studies performed using the RETRAN/RELAP4 transient analysis code to identify critical parameters and models which influence light water reactor transient predictions. Various plant transients for both boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors are examined. These studies represent the first detailed evaluation of the RETRAN/RELAP4 transient code capability in predicting a variety of plant transient responses. The wide range of transients analyzed in conjunction with the parameter and modeling studies performed identify several sensitive areas as well as areas requiring future study and model development

  11. Hydrogen evolution from water using solid carbon and light energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, T; Sakata, T

    1979-11-15

    Hydrogen is produced from water vapour and solid carbon when mixed powders of TiO2, RuO2 and active carbon exposed to water vapor at room temperature, or up to 80 C, are illuminated. At 80 C, the rate of CO and COat2 formation increased. Therefore solar energy would be useful here as a combination of light energy and heat energy. Oxygen produced on the surface of the photocatalyst has a strong oxidising effect on the carbon. It is suggested that this process could be used for coal gasification and hydrogen production from water, accompanied by storage of solar energy.

  12. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Filipsson Nyström

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives: The objectives are threefold: 1 to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2 to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3 to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design: Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results: In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion: The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all.

  13. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Erlund, Iris; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Hulthén, Lena; Laurberg, Peter; Mattisson, Irene; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Virtanen, Suvi; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2016-01-01

    Background Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives The objectives are threefold: 1) to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2) to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3) to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO) report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all. PMID:27283870

  14. Iodine status in the Nordic countries - past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Erlund, Iris; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Hulthén, Lena; Laurberg, Peter; Mattisson, Irene; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Virtanen, Suvi; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2016-01-01

    Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. The objectives are threefold: 1) to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2) to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3) to highlight differences among the Nordic countries' iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries' strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO) report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50-75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all.

  15. Impact of Seawater Nonlinearities on Nordic Seas Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helber, R. W.; Wallcraft, A. J.; Shriver, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Nordic Seas (Greenland, Iceland, and Norwegian Seas) form an ocean basin important for Arctic-mid-latitude climate linkages. Cold fresh water from the Arctic Ocean and warm salty water from the North Atlantic Ocean meet in the Nordic Seas, where a delicate balance between temperature and salinity variability results in deep water formation. Seawater non-linearities are stronger at low temperatures and salinities making high-latitude oceans highly subject to thermbaricity and cabbeling. This presentation highlights and quantifies the impact of seawater non-linearities on the Nordic Seas circulation. We use two layered ocean circulation models, the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYOCM) and the Modular Ocean Model version 6 (MOM6), that enable accurate representation of processes along and across density or neutral density surfaces. Different equations-of-state and vertical coordinates are evaluated to clarify the impact of seawater non-linearities. Present Navy systems, however, do not capture some features in the Nrodic Seas vertical structure. For example, observations from the Greenland Sea reveal a subsurface temperature maximum that deepens from approximately 1500 m during 1998 to 1800 m during 2005. We demonstrate that in terms of density, salinity is the largest source of error in Nordic Seas Navy forecasts, regional scale models can represent mesoscale features driven by thermobaricity, vertical coordinates are a critical issue in Nordic Sea circulation modeling.

  16. Partnerships in Nordic Building Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The project had two main objectives. The first was to establish a Nordic network of people and organisations interested in partnerships and partnering in the building industry in order to facilitate the exchange of experiences and new ideas. This objective was met through a series of workshops......, the functioning of specific partnering tools, knowledge management, training etc. Whereas the growth of partnering in all of the Nordic construction industries has developed from inspiration from the UK, and from other Nordic countries, it is the overall impression that partnering is interpreted, implemented...

  17. Nordic Luther Research in Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bo Kristian

    2008-01-01

    Luther research in the Nordic countries is characterised by both continuation and discussion of its own legacy. Finnish Luther studies have a prominent position here, but are by no means the only actors in Nordic Luther research. Giving an overview of Nordic Luther research in the last decade......, the article selects four main topics that have been the focus of special attention: politics and ethics, Communicatio idiomatum  and Luther's view on language, Luther as preacher, and Luther and the gift. The article concludes with some comments on the continuing role of creation theology, so strongly...

  18. In situ measurement of inelastic light scattering in natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuanmin

    Variation in the shape of solar absorption (Fraunhofer) lines are used to study the inelastic scattering in natural waters. In addition, oxygen absorption lines near 689nm are used to study the solar stimulated chlorophyll fluorescence. The prototype Oceanic Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (OFLD) has been further developed and improved by using a well protected fiber optic - wire conductor cable and underwater electronic housing. A Monte-Carlo code and a simple code have been modified to simulate the Raman scattering, DOM fluorescence and chlorophyll fluorescence. A series of in situ measurements have been conducted in clear ocean waters in the Florida Straits, in the turbid waters of Florida Bay, and in the vicinity of a coral reef in the Dry Tortugas. By comparing the reduced data with the model simulation results, the Raman scattering coefficient, b r with an excitation wavelength at 488nm, has been verified to be 2.6 × 10-4m-1 (Marshall and Smith, 1990), as opposed to 14.4 × 10- 4m-1 (Slusher and Derr, 1975). The wavelength dependence of b r cannot be accurately determined from the data set as the reported values (λ m-4 to λ m- 5) have an insignificant effect in the natural underwater light field. Generally, in clear water, the percentage of inelastic scattered light in the total light field at /lambda 510nm. At low concentrations (a y(/lambda = 380nm) less than 0.1m-1), DOM fluorescence plays a small role in the inelastic light field. However, chlorophyll fluorescence is much stronger than Raman scattering at 685nm. In shallow waters where a sea bottom affects the ambient light field, inelastic light is negligible for the whole visible band. Since Raman scattering is now well characterized, the new OFLD can be used to measure the solar stimulated in situ fluorescence. As a result, the fluorescence signals of various bottom surfaces, from coral to macrophytes, have been measured and have been found to vary with time possibly due to nonphotochemical quenching

  19. Light water breeder reactor using a uranium-plutonium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radkowsky, A.; Chen, R.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a light water receptor (LWR) for breeding fissile material using a uranium-plutonium cycle. It comprises: a prebreeder section having plutonium fuel containing a Pu-241 component, the prebreeder section being operable to produce enriched plutonium having an increased Pu-241 component; and a breeder section for receiving the enriched plutonium from the prebreeder section, the breeder section being operable for breeding fissile material from the enriched plutonium fuel. This patent describes a method of operating a light water nuclear reactor (LWR) for breeding fissile material using a uranium-plutonium cycle. It comprises: operating the prebreeder to produce enriched plutonium fuel having an increased Pu-241 component; fueling a breeder section with the enriched plutonium fuel to breed the fissile material

  20. US Advanced Light Water Reactor Program; overall objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klug, N.

    1989-01-01

    The overall objective of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) program is to perform coordinated programs of the nuclear industry and DOE to insure the availability of licensed, improved, and simplified light water reactor standard plant designs that may be ordered in the 1990's to help meet the US electrical power demand. The discussion includes plans to meet program objectives and the design certification program. DOE is currently supporting the development of conceptual designs, configurations, arrangements, construction methods/plans, and proof test key design features for the General Electric ASBWR and the Westinghouse AP600. Key features of each are summarized. Principal milestones related to licensing of large standard plants, simplified mid-size plant development, and plant lifetime improvement are noted

  1. Analysis of an accelerator-driven subcritical light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruijf, W.J.M. de; Wakker, P.H.; Wetering, T.F.H. van de; Verkooijen, A.H.M.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of the basic characteristics of an accelerator-driven light water reactor has been made. The waste in the nuclear fuel cycle is considerably less than in the light water reactor open fuel cycle. This is mainly caused by the use of equilibrium nuclear fuel in the reactor. The accelerator enables the use of a fuel composition with infinite multiplication factor k ∞ < 1. The main problem of the use of this type of fuel is the strongly peaked flux distribution in the reactor core. A simple analytical model shows that a large core is needed with a high peak power factor in order to generate net electric energy. The fuel in the outer regions of the reactor core is used very poorly. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Effects of temperature and salinity on light scattering by water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Hu, Lianbo

    2010-04-01

    A theoretical model on light scattering by water was developed from the thermodynamic principles and was used to evaluate the effects of temperature and salinity. The results agreed with the measurements by Morel within 1%. The scattering increases with salinity in a non-linear manner and the empirical linear model underestimate the scattering by seawater for S < 40 psu. Seawater also exhibits an 'anomalous' scattering behavior with a minimum occurring at 24.64 °C for pure water and this minimum increases with the salinity, reaching 27.49 °C at 40 psu.

  3. Uranium utilization of light water cooled reactors and fast breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojadinovic, Timm

    1991-08-01

    The better uranium utilization of fast breeder reactors as compared with water cooled reactors is one argument in favour of the breeder introduction. This report tries to quantify this difference. It gives a generally valid formalism for the uranium utilization as a function of the fuel burnup, the conversion rate, fuel cycle losses and the fuel enrichment. On the basis of realistic assumptions, the ratio between the utilizations of breeder reactors to that of light water cooled reactors (LWR) amounts to 180 for the open LWR cycle and 100 in case of plutonium recycling in LWRs

  4. The nordic perspective on early childhood education and care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Einarsdóttir, Johanna; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid

    2018-01-01

    and Women’s Liberation’ and ‘ECEC for All in an Internordic Perspective’, we describe the fact that almost all children in the Nordic countries attend preschool, which on the one hand can be described in the light of the participation of both mothers and fathers in the labour market and on the other hand......This chapter discusses a number of central dimensions and dilemmas of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in the Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. In the two first sections, ‘Early Childhood Education and Care: An Integrated Part of the Welfare System, Democracy...

  5. Nordic Energy Technologies : Enabling a sustainable Nordic energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vik, Amund; Smith, Benjamin

    2009-10-15

    A high current Nordic competence in energy technology and an increased need for funding and international cooperation in the field are the main messages of the report. This report summarizes results from 7 different research projects relating to policies for energy technology, funded by Nordic Energy Research for the period 2007-2008, and provides an analysis of the Nordic innovation systems in the energy sector. The Nordic countries possess a high level of competence in the field of renewable energy technologies. Of the total installed capacity comprises a large share of renewable energy, and Nordic technology companies play an important role in the international market. Especially distinguished wind energy, both in view of the installed power and a global technology sales. Public funding for energy research has experienced a significant decline since the oil crisis of the 1970s, although the figures in recent years has increased a bit. According to the IEA, it will require a significant increase in funding to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and limit further climate change. The third point highlighted in the report is the importance of international cooperation in energy research. Nordic and international cooperation is necessary in order to reduce duplication and create the synergy needed if we are to achieve our ambitious policy objectives in the climate and energy issue. (AG)

  6. Coatings used in light-water nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The guide is intended to provide a common basis in the selection of test methods which may be required to evaluate and qualify protective coatings (paints) to be used in a light-water nuclear power plant. Standard test methods for the determination of fire resistance, chemical resistance, physical properties, effects of radiation, decontaminability, thermal conductivity, repairability, and for evaluation under accident conditions are included

  7. Natural uranium fueled light water moderated breeding hybrid power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Schneider, A.; Misolovin, A.; Gilai, D.; Levin, P.

    The feasibility of fission-fusion hybrid reactors based on breeding light water thermal fission systems is investigated. The emphasis is on fuel-self-sufficient (FSS) hybrid power reactors that are fueled with natural uranium. Other LWHRs considered include FSS-LWHRs that are fueled with spent fuel from LWRs, and LWHRs which are to supplement LWRs to provide a tandem LWR-LWHR power economy that is fuel-self-sufficient

  8. Controllability studies for an advanced CANDU boiling light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepp, R.M.; Hinds, H.W.

    1976-12-01

    Bulk controllability studies carried out as part of a conceptual design study of a 1200 MWe CANDU boiling-light-water reactor fuelled with U 235 - or Pu-enriched uranium oxide are outlined. The concept, the various models developed for its simulation on a hybrid computer and the perturbations used to test system controllability, are described. The results show that this concept will have better bulk controllability than similar CANDU-BLW reactors fuelled with natural uranium. (author)

  9. Nuclear Data Libraries for Hydrogen in Light Water Ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L; Gillette, V.H

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear data libraries were produced for hydrogen (H) in light water ice at different temperatures, 20, 30, 50, 77, 112, 180, 230 K.These libraries were produced using the NJOY nuclear data processing system.With this code we produce pointwise cross sections and related quantities, in the ENDF format, and in the ACE format for MCNP.Experimental neutron spectra at such temperatures were compared with MCNP4B simulations, based on the locally produced libraries, leading to satisfactory results

  10. Nordic urban nature recreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, Scott; Lindhjem, Henrik; Zandersen, Marianne

    the associated nonmarket welfare benefits. The study stresses the need to collect user data to better understand visitation patterns, which can be combined with valuation methods to provide evidence of economic benefits associated with e.g., hiking, cycling, skiing, paddling and other recreation activities. Once......The Nordic countries continue to experience growth of urban areas, which provides benefits like economic growth, but also imposes economic costs in terms of reduced ecosystem services. This report focuses on urban nature recreation and highlights economic methods and data that can help capture...... these benefits are visible, decision-makers will have a better basis to balance economic growth with the environmental costs it imposes on urban ecosystem services....

  11. Nordic Dance Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume identifies different kinds of dance activities and examines their distribution and modes of operation across and beyond the Nordic region. The focus of the research is on dance and how it moves between different locations, organizations and networks of individuals. The study integrates...... three complementary perspectives. One looks at the interplay between politics and larger global flows on the one hand and the movements of dance and dancers on the other. Another looks at the contribution of localized activities such as dance festivals, competitions and cultural mobility pro......-grammes to the transnational movements within dance. The third looks at the ways in which the impact of the transnational context is supported, resisted or commented upon either by the general public, in the dance itself or by the dancers themselves. The book presents a critical analysis of cul-tural location, relocation...

  12. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise Havkrog; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Rix, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High phosphorus content in the diet may have adverse effect on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether the New Nordic Diet (NND), based mainly on local, organic and less processed food and large amounts of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain and fish, versus an Average Danish Diet (ADD......) would reduce the phosphorus load due to less phosphorus-containing food additives, animal protein and more plant-based proteins. METHODS: Phosphorus and creatinine were measured in plasma and urine at baseline, week 12 and week 26 in 132 centrally obese subjects with normal renal function as part....../10 MJ in the ADD group and decreased less in the NND compared to the ADD (67 ± 36 mg/10 MJ and -266 ± 45 mg/day, respectively, p high phosphorus intake and did not decrease the fractional phosphorus excretion compared with ADD. Further...

  13. The Nordic financial electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    NordREG is a cooperation of the Nordic energy regulators. The mission is to actively promote legal and institutional framework and conditions necessary for developing the Nordic and European electricity markets. The financial market is an important market for market participants to mitigate their risks. By providing tools for risk management, the financial market contributes to the efficient functioning of both wholesale and end-user markets. NordREG decided during 2009 to undertake a study on the Nordic financial electricity market. The aim of the report is to consider whether any improvements can be made to further increase the efficiency of the Nordic financial electricity market in order to secure an optimal price setting in the wholesale and the end-user markets

  14. Energy economy in Nordic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, P H; Finnedal, B H

    1980-01-01

    The employment, economic and energetic situation in various industrial branches and their importance for industry as a whole is mapped for Nordic countries. Future Nordic energy projects can base their attempts to decrease energy costs per unit on this report. In food and stimulants industry, chemical, glass and ceramic industry over 90% energy is used for processing while in steel- and metal-industry the processing consumes only about 25%. Rentability of new investments in energy saving should be considered in these branches against investments in automation, new equipment etc. Common Nordic energy-saving projects can provide much better energy economy. For instance 4% of USA energy which had formerly been used in drying processes is drastically decreased and if the USA result can be transferred to Nordic conditions DKr 160 million can be save. Prospective common projects are process-types like drying, spray-drying, heat treatments of mineral proproducts, and evaporation.

  15. Challenges in Nordic Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1996-01-01

    Design research has not won a convincing reputation in industry. Nordic research being scattered and small in number of researchers should find its special strengths and focus on creating results, which are based on our peculiar conditions and background.......Design research has not won a convincing reputation in industry. Nordic research being scattered and small in number of researchers should find its special strengths and focus on creating results, which are based on our peculiar conditions and background....

  16. The Nordic Gender Equality Model

    OpenAIRE

    Teigen, Mari; Skjeie, Hege

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we investigate the descriptive premises involved in portrayals of a Nordic model of gender equality. Mainly, we focus on the equality dimensions that form the baseline in comparative welfare state research and research on political participation. We outline these dimensions as norms for economic equity and democratic parity. First, we examine whether and how descriptive statistics that assess these two dimensions currently rank Nordic countries compared with other European co...

  17. Transport in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.; Pettersson, S.; Vilkamo, S.

    1989-01-01

    Transport of radioactive material from different fields of operation is well advanced in the Nordic countries: waste from the medical sector, industry, research, and now in increasing amounts from reactor operation, including spent fuel. In the future, waste from decommissioning will also be transported. This report gives the amount of radioactive waste material to be transported in the Nordic countries. Transport routes, transport containers, and transport systems are described. Legislations and transport regulatins are discussed. (author)

  18. Nordic noir and lifted localities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    What I do here is to draw attention to a particular visual quality of recent Nordic noir and to relate the visuality of TV-drama to what I – with a term borrowed from Roland Robertson – dub lifted localites.......What I do here is to draw attention to a particular visual quality of recent Nordic noir and to relate the visuality of TV-drama to what I – with a term borrowed from Roland Robertson – dub lifted localites....

  19. Nordic market report 2009 : Development in the Nordic electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The Nordic region is characterized by a unique mix of generation sources where the high share of hydropower, representing virtually all of the Norwegian and nearly half of the Swedish generation capacity, has a great influence on the market. The level of precipitation is thus vital when calculating and analysing potential generation levels. In addition, the Nordic region has significantly colder winters than any other European country, influencing the consumption as many households are electrically heated. In 2008 the overall electricity consumption in the Nordic region was slightly higher - 1.6 per cent - than in 2007. During periods of peak consumption the Nordic power system proved sufficient to ensure security of supply without restrictions on consumption. The Nordic region operates almost entirely as one synchronous power system through transmission grid. The continuous reinforcement of the Nordic transmission grid has enabled an increased security of supply as well as a more efficient use of the generation capacity. Increasing cross border power flows strain the transmission lines and increases the demand for transmission capacity. Possible congestions occurring between the Nord Pool bidding areas are handled through market splitting, while internal congestions in general are handled through counter trade or by reducing interconnector capacity at the bidding area borders. The Nordic wholesale power market is a well functioning electricity market. Trade at Nord Pool has increased steadily since it was established in 1993. Although trading at Nord Pool Spot is voluntary, significantly more physical power is now traded on the power exchange than bilaterally - from 42 per cent of total Nordic consumption in 2004 to 76 per cent in 2008. During 2008 average spot prices at Nord Pool were considerably higher (approximately 60 per cent) than prices in 2007. The Nordic retail markets are essentially four separate markets, influenced by national differences, but work on

  20. Nordic market report 2009. Development in the Nordic electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-15

    The Nordic region is characterized by a unique mix of generation sources where the high share of hydropower, representing virtually all of the Norwegian and nearly half of the Swedish generation capacity, has a great influence on the market. The level of precipitation is thus vital when calculating and analysing potential generation levels. In addition, the Nordic region has significantly colder winters than any other European country, influencing the consumption as many households are electrically heated. In 2008 the overall electricity consumption in the Nordic region was slightly higher - 1.6 per cent - than in 2007. During periods of peak consumption the Nordic power system proved sufficient to ensure security of supply without restrictions on consumption. The Nordic region operates almost entirely as one synchronous power system through transmission grid. The continuous reinforcement of the Nordic transmission grid has enabled an increased security of supply as well as a more efficient use of the generation capacity. Increasing cross border power flows strain the transmission lines and increases the demand for transmission capacity. Possible congestions occurring between the Nord Pool bidding areas are handled through market splitting, while internal congestions in general are handled through counter trade or by reducing interconnector capacity at the bidding area borders. The Nordic wholesale power market is a well functioning electricity market. Trade at Nord Pool has increased steadily since it was established in 1993. Although trading at Nord Pool Spot is voluntary, significantly more physical power is now traded on the power exchange than bilaterally - from 42 per cent of total Nordic consumption in 2004 to 76 per cent in 2008. During 2008 average spot prices at Nord Pool were considerably higher (approximately 60 per cent) than prices in 2007. The Nordic retail markets are essentially four separate markets, influenced by national differences, but work on

  1. Core design concepts for high performance light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulenberg, T.; Starflinger, J.

    2007-01-01

    Light water reactors operated under supercritical pressure conditions have been selected as one of the promising future reactor concepts to be studied by the Generation IV International Forum. Whereas the steam cycle of such reactors can be derived from modern fossil fired power plants, the reactor itself, and in particular the reactor core, still need to be developed. Different core design concepts shall be described here to outline the strategy. A first option for near future applications is a pressurized water reactor with 380 .deg. C core exit temperature, having a closed primary loop and achieving 2% pts. higher net efficiency and 24% higher specific turbine power than latest pressurized water reactors. More efficiency and turbine power can be gained from core exit temperatures around 500 .deg. C, which require a multi step heat up process in the core with intermediate coolant mixing, achieving up to 44% net efficiency. The paper summarizes different core and assembly design approaches which have been studied recently for such High Performance Light Water Reactors

  2. Dual-purpose light water reactor supplying heat for desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waplington, G.; Fichtner, H.

    1978-01-01

    The technical as well as the economic aspects of using a large commercial light water reactor for the production of both electricity and potable water have been examined. For the basis of the study, the multistage flash distillation process was selected, in conjunction with a reactor rated at not less than 2100 MW (thermal). Combined use of a condensing and a back-pressure turbine (the latter matched to distillation plant steam requirements) represents a convenient method for supplying process heat. Overall costs can be fairly allocated to the two products using the ''power credit'' method. A sample economic evaluation indicates highly favorable water costs as compared with more conventional distillation schemes based on fossil fuel

  3. Analysis of thermal fatigue events in light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, Yasunori [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Seika, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    Thermal fatigue events, which may cause shutdown of nuclear power stations by wall-through-crack of pipes of RCRB (Reactor Coolant Pressure Boundary), are reported by licensees in foreign countries as well as in Japan. In this paper, thermal fatigue events reported in anomalies reports of light water reactors inside and outside of Japan are investigated. As a result, it is clarified that the thermal fatigue events can be classified in seven patterns by their characteristics, and the trend of the occurrence of the events in PWRs (Pressurized Water Reactors) has stronger co-relation to operation hours than that in BWRs (Boiling Water Reactors). Also, it is concluded that precise identification of locations where thermal fatigue occurs and its monitoring are important to prevent the thermal fatigue events by aging or miss modification. (author)

  4. Critical heat flux experiments in a circular tube with heavy water and light water. (AWBA Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.L.; Beus, S.G.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments were performed to establish the critical heat flux (CHF) characteristics of heavy water and light water. Testing was performed with the up-flow of heavy and of light water within a 0.3744 inch inside diameter circular tube with 72.3 inches of heated length. Comparisons were made between heavy water and light water critical heat flux levels for the same local equilibrium quality at CHF, operating pressure, and nominal mass velocity. Results showed that heavy water CHF values were, on the average, 8 percent below the light water CHF values

  5. Aging management of major light water reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; Sinha, U.P.; Ware, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    Review of technical literature and field experience has identified stress corrosion cracking as one of the major degradation mechanisms for the major light water reactor components. Three of the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms of current concern are (a) primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in pressurized water reactors, and (b) intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) and (c) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in boiling water reactors. Effective aging management of stress corrosion cracking mechanisms includes evaluation of interactions between design, materials, stressors, and environment; identification and ranking of susceptible sites; reliable inspection of any damage; assessment of damage rate; mitigation of damage; and repair and replacement using corrosion-resistant materials. Management of PWSCC includes use of lower operating temperatures, reduction in residual tensile stresses, development of reliable inspection techniques, and use of Alloy 690 as replacement material. Management of IGSCC of nozzle and attachment welds includes use of Alloy 82 as weld material, and potential use of hydrogen water chemistry. Management of IASCC also includes potential use of hydrogen water chemistry

  6. The search for the white Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    arrived immigrants and descendants. The article includes an analysis of Nordic race science from the turn of the twentieth century in order to illustrate how the New Nordic Kitchen draws upon a longer historical tradition of viewing the Nordic, and especially Nordic whiteness, as superior. The historical...... importance of race science in Denmark is not common knowledge, and very limited research is done in this area. The article therefore also brings new insights to the historical construction of whiteness in the Nordic context. Finally, the article also shows how the New Nordic Kitchen not only draws upon...

  7. Nordic Market report 2010. Development in the Nordic Electricity Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-15

    The Nordic region is characterized by a unique mix of generation sources, with a very high share of hydropower. Hydropower accounts for virtually all of the Norwegian and nearly half of the Swedish generation capacity, making the level of precipitation vital when calculating and analysing potential generation levels. Climatic conditions such as, significantly colder winters than any other European country also influence consumption in the Nordic region, as many households are electrically heated. Overall electricity consumption in the Nordic region in 2009 was marked by decreasing consumption in every market - from a decrease of 1,5% in Denmark to a decrease of 5,5% in Finland. The Nordic transmission grid connects almost the entire region into one synchronous power system enabling increased security of supply as well as a more efficient use of the generation capacity, but congestion occurs. Congestions between the Nord Pool bidding areas are handled through market splitting, while internal congestions in general are handled through counter trade or by reducing interconnector capacity at the bidding area borders. The key future challenge for transmission network operations both in the Nordic area, and as well on the European level will be to facilitate the functioning of the pan-European wholesale electricity markets. The Nordic wholesale power market is well functioning. The volume traded at Nord Pool in 2009 was about the same share of total consumption as that of 2008. Although trading at Nord Pool is voluntary, significantly more power is traded on the power exchange than bilaterally. During 2009 average spot prices at Nord Pool were lower than prices in 2008 due to both lower demand and generation costs for thermal power plants for most of 2009. The Nordic retail markets are essentially four separate markets, influenced by national differences, but work on integration has started. Throughout 2009 retail prices in the Nordic region were lower than in 2008

  8. Hydrogen considerations in light-water power reactons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-02-01

    A critical review of the literature now available on hydrogen considerations in light-water power reactors (LWRs) and a bibliography of that literature are presented. The subject matter includes mechanisms for the generation of hydrogen-oxygen mixtures, a description of the fundamental properties of such mixtures, and their spontaneous ignition in both static and dynamic systems. The limits for hydrogen flammability and flame propagation are examined in terms of the effects of pressure, temperature, and additives; the emphasis is on the effects of steam and water vapor. The containment systems for pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) and boiling-water reactors (BWRs) are compared, and methods to control hydrogen and oxygen under the conditions of both normal operation and postulated accidents are reviewed. It is concluded that hydrogen can be controlled so that serious complications from the production of hydrogen will not occur. The bibliography contains abstracts from the computerized files of the Nuclear Safety Information Center. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are provided. The bibliography includes responses to questions asked by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which relate to hydrogen, as well as information on normal operations and postulated accidents including generation of hydrogen from core sprays. Other topics included in the ten sections of the bibliography are metal-water reactions, containment atmosphere, radiolytic gas, and recombiners

  9. Navigation by light polarization in clear and turbid waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Amit; Sabbah, Shai; Erlick, Carynelisa; Shashar, Nadav

    2011-01-01

    Certain terrestrial animals use sky polarization for navigation. Certain aquatic species have also been shown to orient according to a polarization stimulus, but the correlation between underwater polarization and Sun position and hence the ability to use underwater polarization as a compass for navigation is still under debate. To examine this issue, we use theoretical equations for per cent polarization and electric vector (e-vector) orientation that account for the position of the Sun, refraction at the air–water interface and Rayleigh single scattering. The polarization patterns predicted by these theoretical equations are compared with measurements conducted in clear and semi-turbid coastal sea waters at 2 m and 5 m depth over sea floors of 6 m and 28 m depth. We find that the per cent polarization is correlated with the Sun's elevation only in clear waters. We furthermore find that the maximum value of the e-vector orientation angle equals the angle of refraction only in clear waters, in the horizontal viewing direction, over the deeper sea floor. We conclude that navigation by use of underwater polarization is possible under restricted conditions, i.e. in clear waters, primarily near the horizontal viewing direction, and in locations where the sea floor has limited effects on the light's polarization. PMID:21282170

  10. Transmutation of waste actinides in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrell, T.C.

    1979-04-01

    Actinide recycle and transmutation calculations were made for three irradiation options of a light water reactor (LWR). The cases considered were: all actinides recycled in regular uranium fuel assemblies; transuranic actinides recycled in separate MOX assemblies with 235 U enrichment of uranium; and transuranic actinides recycled in separate MOX assemblies with plutonium enrichment of natural uranium. When all actinides were recycled in a uniform lattice, the transuranic inventory after ten recycles was 38% of the inventory accumulated without recycle. When the transuranics from two regular uranium assemblies were combined with those recycled from a MOX assembly, the transuranic inventory was reduced 50% after five recycles

  11. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of light water reactor flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzanos, C.P.; Weber, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    Advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), turbulence simulation, and parallel computing have made feasible the development of three-dimensional (3-D) single-phase and two-phase flow CFD codes that can simulate fluid flow and heat transfer in realistic reactor geometries with significantly reduced reliance, especially in single phase, on empirical correlations. The objective of this work was to assess the predictive power and computational efficiency of a CFD code in the analysis of a challenging single-phase light water reactor problem, as well as to identify areas where further improvements are needed

  12. The industry/EPRI advanced light water reactor program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlkopf, K.E.; Noble, D.M.; Sugnet, W.R.; Bilan, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    For the United States nuclear power industry to remain viable, it must be prepared to meet the expected need for new generating capacity in the late 1990s with an improved reactor system. The best hope of meeting this requirement is with evolutionary changes in current LWR systems through system simplification and reevaluation of safety and operational design margins. The grid characteristics and the difficulty in raising capital for large projects indicate that smaller light water reactors (400 to 600 MWe) may play an important role the next generation

  13. Major outage trends in light water reactors. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, E.T.

    1978-04-01

    The report is a summary of the major outages which occurred in light water reactor plants during the period January 1971 through June 1977. Only those outages greater than 100 hours duration (exclusive of refueling outages) are included in the report. The trends in outages related to various reactor systems and components are presented as a function of plant age, and alternatively, calendar year. The principal contributors to major outages are ranked by their effect on the overall outage time for PWRs and BWRs. In addition, the outage history of each operating nuclear plant greater than 150 MWe is presented, along with a brief summary of those outages greater than two months duration

  14. Spent fuel data base: commercial light water reactors. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauf, M.J.; Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1979-12-01

    As a consequence of this country's non-proliferation policy, the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been delayed indefinitely. This has resulted in spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel being considered as a potential waste form for disposal. Since the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is currently developing methodologies for use in the regulation of the management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes, a comprehensive data base describing LWR fuel technology must be compiled. This document provides that technology baseline and, as such, will support the development of those evaluation standards and criteria applicable to spent nuclear fuel.

  15. Light-water reactor pressure vessel surveillance standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The master matrix standard describes a series of standard practices, guides, and methods for the prediction of neutron-induced changes in light-water reactor (LWR) pressure vessel steels throughout a pressure vessel's service life. Some of these are existing American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards, some are ASTM standards that have been modified, and some are newly proposed ASTM standards. The current (1) scope, (2) areas of application, (3) interrelationships, and (4) status and time table of development, improvement, validation, and calibration for a series of 16 ASTM standards are defined. The standard also includes a discussion of LWR pressure vessel surveillance - justification, requirements, and status of work

  16. Nuclear safety in light water reactors severe accident phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Sehgal, Bal Raj

    2011-01-01

    This vital reference is the only one-stop resource on how to assess, prevent, and manage severe nuclear accidents in the light water reactors (LWRs) that pose the most risk to the public. LWRs are the predominant nuclear reactor in use around the world today, and they will continue to be the most frequently utilized in the near future. Therefore, accurate determination of the safety issues associated with such reactors is central to a consideration of the risks and benefits of nuclear power. This book emphasizes the prevention and management of severe accidents to teach nuclear professionals

  17. Enhancing proliferation resistance in advanced light water reactor fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimi, M.S.; Pilat, E.E.; Driscoll, M.J.; Xu, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhao, X.

    2001-01-01

    Alternative once-through, light water reactor fuel designs are evaluated for capability to reduce the amount and quality of plutonium produced. Doubling the discharge burnup is quite effective, producing modest reductions in total plutonium and significant increases in 238 Pu whose heat generation and spontaneous neutrons complicate weapon usability. Reductions in the hydrogen to heavy metal ratio are counterproductive. Increases are helpful, but only small changes can be accommodated. Use of ThO 2 in a homogeneous mixture with UO 2 can reduce plutonium production to about 50% of that in a typical present day PWR, and in heterogeneous seed-blanket designs can reduce it to 30 to 45%. (author)

  18. Automated ultrasonic examination of light water reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    An automated ultrasonic examination system has been developed to meet the pre- and inservice inspection requirements of light water reactors. This system features remotely-controlled travelling instrument carriers, computerized collection and storage or inspection data in a manner providing real time comparison against code standards, and computer control over the positioning of the instrument carriers to provide precise location data. The system is currently being utilized in the field for a variety of reactor inspections. The principal features of the system and the recent inspection experience are discussed. (author)

  19. The economics of the fuel cycle (light water reactors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepine, J.

    1979-01-01

    The economical characteristics of the fuel cycle (of light water reactors) as well as the definition and calculation method for the average updated cost of the kWh are recalled. The evolution followed by the unit prices of the different operations of the cycle, their total cost and the part taken by this cost in the overall cost of nuclear kWh are described. The effects on the cost of fuel of certain hypotheses, operating requirements and additional cost factors are considered [fr

  20. Light water reactors fuel assembly mechanical design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This standard establishes a procedure for performing an evaluation of the mechanical design of fuel assemblies for light water-cooled commercial power reactors. It does not address the various aspects of neutronic or thermalhydraulic performance except where these factors impose loads or constraints on the mechanical design of the fuel assemblies. This standard also includes a set of specific requirements for design, various potential performance problems and criteria aimed specifically at averting them. This standard replaces ANSI/ANS-57.5-1978

  1. Environment sensitive cracking in light water reactor pressure boundary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenninen, H.; Aho-Mantila, I.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to review the available methods and the most promising future possibilities of preventive maintenance to counteract the various forms of environment sensitive cracking of pressure boundary materials in light water reactors. Environment sensitive cracking is considered from the metallurgical, mechanical and environmental point of view. The main emphasis is on intergranular stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels and high strenght Ni-base alloys, as well as on corrosion fatigue of low alloy and stainless steels. Finally, some general ideas how to predict, reduce or eliminate environment sensitive cracking in service are presented

  2. Spent fuel data base: commercial light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauf, M.J.; Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1979-12-01

    As a consequence of this country's non-proliferation policy, the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been delayed indefinitely. This has resulted in spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel being considered as a potential waste form for disposal. Since the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is currently developing methodologies for use in the regulation of the management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes, a comprehensive data base describing LWR fuel technology must be compiled. This document provides that technology baseline and, as such, will support the development of those evaluation standards and criteria applicable to spent nuclear fuel

  3. Stainless steel clad for light water reactor fuels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, J.E.; Meyer, J.E.

    1980-07-01

    Proper reactor operation and design guidelines are necessary to assure fuel integrity. The occurrence of fuel rod failures for operation in compliance with existing guidelines suggests the need for more adequate or applicable operation/design criteria. The intent of this study is to develop such criteria for light water reactor fuel rods with stainless steel clad and to indicate the nature of uncertainties in its development. The performance areas investigated herein are: long term creepdown and fuel swelling effects on clad dimensional changes and on proximity to clad failure; and short term clad failure possibilities during up-power ramps

  4. Nuclear powerplant standardization: light water reactors. Volume 2. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    This volume contains working papers written for OTA to assist in preparation of the report, NUCLEAR POWERPLANT STANDARDIZATION: LIGHT WATER REACTORS. Included in the appendixes are the following: the current state of standardization, an application of the principles of the Naval Reactors Program to commercial reactors; the NRC and standardization, impacts of nuclear powerplant standardization on public health and safety, descriptions of current control room designs and Duke Power's letter, Admiral Rickover's testimony, a history of standardization in the NRC, and details on the impact of standardization on public health and safety

  5. Properties of light water reactor spent fuel cladding. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farwick, D.G.; Moen, R.A.

    1979-08-01

    The Commercial Waste and Spent Fuel Packaging Program will provide containment packages for the safe storage or disposal of spent Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel. Maintaining containment of radionuclides during transportation, handling, processing and storage is essential, so the best understanding of the properties of the materials to be stored is necessary. This report provides data collection, assessment and recommendations for spent LWR fuel cladding materials properties. Major emphasis is placed on mechanical properties of the zircaloys and austenitic stainless steels. Limited information on elastic constants, physical properties, and anticipated corrosion behavior is also provided. Work is in progress to revise these evaluations as the program proceeds

  6. Preliminary concepts: safeguards for spent light-water reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Dayem, H.A.; Dietz, R.J.

    1979-06-01

    The technology available for safeguarding spent nuclear fuels from light-water power reactors is reviewed, and preliminary concepts for a spent-fuel safeguards system are presented. Essential elements of a spent-fuel safeguards system are infrequent on-site inspections, containment and surveillance systems to assure the integrity of stored fuel between inspections, and nondestructive measurements of the fuel assemblies. Key safeguards research and development activities necessary to implement such a system are identified. These activities include the development of tamper-indicating fuel-assembly identification systems and the design and development of nondestructive spent-fuel measurement systems

  7. Comparative evaluation of recent water hammer events in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, R.K.; Sursock, J.P.; Kim, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Water hammer events that occurred in commercial U.S. light water reactors in the five-year period from 1981 to 1985 were surveyed, and a preliminary evaluation of the events was conducted. The information developed supplements a previous study which evaluated water hammer events in the twelve-year period from 1969 to 1981. The current study of water hammer events in the 1980's confirms that the rate of events remains relatively constant (less than 0.25 events per plant year) in both PWRs and BWRs. Although water hammer events are not normally considered a safety issue, the economic impact of the events on plant operations can be significant. One particular severe water hammer event is estimated to have cost the plant owner $10 million for repair and evaluation alone. A variety of key characteristics of the recent water hammer events are summarized to establish a basis for further study of preventative methods

  8. Development of next-generation light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Fumihiko; Yasuoka, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The Next-Generation Light Water Reactor Development Program, a national project in Japan, was inaugurated in April 2008. The primary objective of this program is to meet the need for the replacement of existing nuclear power plants in Japan after 2030. With the aim of setting a global standard design, the reactor to be developed offers greatly improved safety, reliability, and economic efficiency through several innovative technologies, including a reactor core system with uranium enrichment of 5 to 10%, a seismic isolation system, long-life materials, advanced water chemistry, innovative construction techniques, optimized passive and active safety systems, innovative digital technologies, and so on. In the first three years, a plant design concept with these innovative features is to be established and the effectiveness of the program will be reevaluated. The major part of the program will be completed in 2015. Toshiba is actively engaged in both design studies and technology development as a founding member of this program. (author)

  9. Toward visible light response: Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Extensive energy conversion of solar energy can only be achieved by large-scale collection of solar flux. The technology that satisfies this requirement must be as simple as possible to reduce capital cost. Overall water splitting by powder-form photocatalysts directly produces a mixture of H 2 and O2 (chemical energy) in a single reactor, which does not require any complicated parabolic mirrors and electronic devices. Because of its simplicity and low capital cost, it has tremendous potential to become the major technology of solar energy conversion. Development of highly efficient photocatalysts is desired. This review addresses why visible light responsive photocatalysts are essential to be developed. The state of the art for the photocatalysts for overall water splitting is briefly described. Moreover, various fundamental aspects for developing efficient photocatalysts, such as particle size of photocatalysts, cocatalysts, and reaction kinetics are discussed. Copyright © 2011 De Gruyter.

  10. Aerosol behavior and light water reactor source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbey, F.; Schikarski, W.O.

    1988-01-01

    The major developments in nuclear aerosol modeling following the accident to pressurized water reactor Unit 2 at Three Mile Island are briefly reviewed and the state of the art summarized. The importance and implications of these developments for severe accident source terms for light water reactors are then discussed in general terms. The treatment is not aimed at identifying specific source term values but is intended rather to illustrate trends, to assess the adequacy of the understanding of major aspects of aerosol behavior for source term prediction, and demonstrate in qualitative terms the effect of various aspects of reactor design. Areas where improved understanding of aerosol behavior might lead to further reductions in current source terms predictions are also considered

  11. Radiation Protection Legislation in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, Lars.

    1990-01-01

    Recent alterations in the radiation protection laws of the Nordic countries are presented. The report amends the previous SS-report 87-37 with the title Radiation Protection and Atomic Energy Legislation in the Nordic Countries. (au)

  12. Tritium formation and elimination in light-water electronuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, L.; Bazin, J.

    1977-01-01

    In light-water reactors, the tritium balance should be considered from both the working constraint and environmental pollution aspects. In light-water electronuclear stations with pressurized reactors using boric acid in solution for reactivity control, the amounts of tritium formed in the primary circuit are worthy of note. The estimations concerning the tritium production in a hypothetical 1000 MWe reactor are discussed. In the tritium build-up, the part which takes the tritium formed by fission in the fuel, owing to diffusion through cladding, is still difficult to estimate. The tritium balance in different working nuclear power stations are consequently of interest. But the tritium produced by ternary fission in the fuel is always much more abundant, and remains almost entirely confined in the uranium oxide if the fuel is clad with zircaloy. The annual quantity stored in the fuel elements is more than 20 times larger than that of the built up free tritium in the primary circuit water of a reactor. It reaches about 12,400 Ci in the hypothetical reactor. In the presently operated reprocessing plants, tritium is all going over in the effluents, and is almost entirely released in the environment. Taking into account the increasing quantities of high irradiated fuel to be reprocessed, it seems necessary to develop separation processes. Development work and tests have been achieved jointly by CEA and SAINT-GOBAIN TECHNIQUES NOUVELLES in order to: contain the tritium in the high activity part of the plant; and keep small the tritiated effluent volume, about 300 liters per ton of reprocessed uranium. It is then possible to envisage a storage for decay of isotopic separation processes. Such separation processes have been estimated by CEA assuming a daily output of 1500 liters of water containing 2,3 Ci.1 -1 of tritium, the desired decontamination factor being 100 [fr

  13. Nordic studies in reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershagen, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme SIK programme in reactor safety is part of a major joint Nordic research effort in nuclear safety. The report summarizes the achievements of the SIK programme, which was carried out during 1990-1993 in collaboration between Nordic nuclear utilities, safety authorities, and research institutes. Three main projects were successfully completed dealing with: 1) development and application of a living PSA concept for monitoring the risk of core damage, and of safety indicators for early warning of possible safety problems; 2) review and intercomparison of severe accident codes, case studies of potential core melt accidents in nordic reactors, development of chemical models for the MAAP code, and outline of a system for computerized accident management support; 3) compilation of information about design and safety features of neighbouring reactors in Germany, Lithuania and Russia, and for naval reactors and nuclear submarines. The report reviews the state-of-the-art in each subject matter as an introduction to the individual project summaries. The main findings of each project are highlighted. The report also contains an overview of reactor safety research in the Nordic countries and a summary of fundamental reactor safety principles. (au) (69 refs.)

  14. Nordic Mediation - Comparing Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi-Seppälä, Tapio; Storgaard, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The Nordic Countries have a long common history in criminal policy but a closer look also indicates individual Development. the introduction of Victim Offender Mediation is one example of Nordic diversity in details.......The Nordic Countries have a long common history in criminal policy but a closer look also indicates individual Development. the introduction of Victim Offender Mediation is one example of Nordic diversity in details....

  15. Fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassner, T.F.; Ruther, W.E.; Chung, H.M.; Hicks, P.D.; Hins, A.G.; Park, J.Y.; Shack, W.J.

    1991-12-01

    Fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking of piping, pressure vessels, and core components in light water reactors (LWRs) are important concerns as extended reactor lifetimes are envisaged. The degradation processes include intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of austenitic stainless steel (SS) piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs), and propagation of fatigue or SCC cracks (which initiate in sensitized SS cladding) into low-alloy ferritic steels in BWR pressure vessels. Similar cracking has also occurred in upper shell-to-transition cone girth welds in pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator vessels. Another concern is failure of reactor-core internal components after accumulation of relatively high fluence, which has occurred in both BWRs and PWRs. Research during the past year focused on (1) fatigue and SCC of ferritic steels used in piping and in steam generator and reactor pressure vessels, (2) role of chromate and sulfate in simulated BWR water in SCC of sensitized Type 304 SS, and (3) irradiation-assisted SCC in high- and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes used in two operating BWRs. Failure after accumulation of relatively high fluence has been attributed to radiation-induced segregation (RIS) of elements such as Si, P, Ni, and Cr. This document provides a summary of research progress in these areas

  16. Long term review of research on light water reactor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Yutaka

    1982-01-01

    In Japan, 24 nuclear power plants of 17.18 million kWe capacity are in operation, and their rate of operation has shown the good result of more than 60% since 1980. One of the research on the development of light water reactors is the electric power common research, which was started in 1976, and 272 researches were carried out till 1982. It contributed to the counter-measures to stress corrosion cracking, thermal fatigue and the thinning of steam generator tubes, to the reduction of crud generation and the remote control and automation of inspection and maintenance, and to the verification of safety. The important items for the future are the cost down of nuclear power plant construction, the development of robots for nuclear power plants, the improvement of the ability to follow load variation, and the development of light water reactors of new types. It is necessary to diversify the types of reactors to avoid the effect of a serious trouble which may occur in one type of reactors. Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., thinks that the Japanese type PWRs having the technical features of KWU type PWRs are desirable for the future development. The compatibility with the condition of installation permission in Japan, the required design change and the economy of the standard design PWRs of KWU (1.3 million kW) have been studied since October, 1981, by KWU and three Japanese manufacturers. (Kako, I.)

  17. Qualification issues for advanced light-water reactor protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Antonescu, C.

    1993-01-01

    The instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in advanced reactors will make extensive use of digital controls, microprocessors, multiplexing, and fiber optic transmission. Elements of these advances in I ampersand C have been implemented on some current operating plants. However, the widespread use of the above technologies, as well as the use of artificial intelligence with minimum reliance on human operator control of reactors, highlights the need to develop standards for qualifying the I ampersand C used in the next generation of nuclear power plants. As a first step in this direction, the protection system I ampersand C for present-day plants was compared to that proposed for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). An evaluation template was developed by assembling a configuration of a safety channel instrument string for a generic ALWR, then comparing the impact of environmental stressors on that string to their effect on an equivalent instrument string from an existing light-water reactor. The template was then used to suggest a methodology for the qualification of microprocessor-based protection systems. The methodology identifies standards/regulatory guides (or lack thereof) for the qualification of microprocessor-based safety I ampersand C systems. This approach addresses in part issues raised in NRC policy document SECY-91-292, which recognizes that advanced I ampersand C systems for the nuclear industry are ''being developed without consensus standards. as the technology available for design is ahead of the technology that is well understood through experience and supported by application standards.''

  18. Mechanical design of a light water breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Jones, D.S.; Kolsun, G.J.; Erbes, J.G.; Brennan, J.J.; Weissburg, J.A.; Sharbaugh, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    In a light water reactor system using the thorium-232--uranium-233 fuel system in a seed-blanket modular core configuration having the modules arranged in a symmetrical array surrounded by a reflector blanket region, the seed regions are disposed for a longitudinal movement between the fixed or stationary blanket region which surrounds each seed region. Control of the reactor is obtained by moving the inner seed region thus changing the geometry of the reactor, and thereby changing the leakage of neutrons from the relatively small seed region into the blanket region. The mechanical design of the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core includes means for axially positioning of movable fuel assemblies to achieve the neutron economy required of a breeder reactor, a structure necessary to adequately support the fuel modules without imposing penalties on the breeding capability, a structure necessary to support fuel rods in a closely packed array and a structure necessary to direct and control the flow of coolant to regions in the core in accordance with the heat transfer requirements. 4 claims, 24 drawing figures

  19. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented

  20. Ultraviolet light in the use of water disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbagh, R.

    1999-01-01

    Ultraviolet light is an effective method in the use of water disinfection for swimming pools, potable water and industry required water. For many reasons Ultraviolet light and Ultraviolet compounded with chlorine (Ultraviolet/chlorine) has been brought to attention ed in resent years. In this research, a swimming pool water disinfection was carried out by means of a system with the use of a reactor which was made of stainless steel (SS-304) and with many another standards required. Operation of system was carried out at first in the pilot plant and then installation in essential water treatment integrated. Inactivation of pollution index, E. Coli or Total coliform and Pseudomonas aeroginosa studies with 6000,16000 and 30000 μW.s/cm 2 Ultraviolet dose and then in presence of 0.3,0.6,0.9 and 1.2 mg/1 free chlorine (Ultraviolet/chlorine). In swimming pools minimum free chlorine residual usually is 1.5 mg/1. Optimum Ultraviolet dose was 16000 μW.s/cm 2 attention to 50 percent Ultraviolet absorption ca sued to TSS,TDS and turbidity. In the Ultraviolet/chlorine system suitable rate was 16000μW.s/cm 2 Ultraviolet dose/0.6 mg/1 chlorine in the 2.4 * 10 5 CFU/100 ml for Total coliform and 3600 CFU/100 ml for Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Most probable number (MPN) estimated multiple tube fermentation technique. In this way the flow rate for system indicated about 240 cm 3 /s or 0.9 m 3 /h. The samples polluted for secondary pollution with 54000 CFU/100 ml for E. Coli and 1800 CFU/100ml Pseudomonas aeroginosa. The number of microbes decreased to zero duration after 45 minutes contact time in presence of free chlorine residual in samples. In practical conditions which that disinfectant system was installed in essential water treatment circuit under 1.4 atm hydraulic pressure no growth was seen for pollution index in disinfected water with Ultraviolet in microbial density about 840 CFU/100 ml for Total coliform and 12 CFU/100 ml for pseudomonas aeroginosa. Attention to lower

  1. Ultraviolet light in the use of water disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbagh, R.

    1999-01-01

    Ultraviolet light is an effective method in the use of water disinfection for swimming pools, potable water and industry required water. For many reasons UV light and UV compounded with chlorine (UV/chlorine) has been brought to attention in resent years. In this research, a swimming pool water disinfection was carried out by means of a system with the use of a reactor which was made of stainless steel (SS-304) and with many another standards required. Operation of system was carried out at first in the pilot plant and then installation in essential water treatment integrated. Inactivation of pollution index, E. Coli or Total coliform and Pseudomonas aeroginosa studied with 6000,16000 and 30000 μW.s/cm 2 UV dose and then in presence of 0.3,0.6,0.9 and 1.2 mg/1 free chlorine (UV/chlorine). In swimming pools minimum free chlorine residual usually is 1.5 mg/1. Optimum UV dose was 16000 μW.s/cm 2 attention to 50 percent UV absorption caused to TSS,TDS and turbidity. In the UV/chlorine system suitable rate was 16000μW.s/cm 2 UV dose /0.6 mg/1 chlorine in the 2.4 * 10 5 CFU/100 ml for Total coliform and 3600CFU/100 ml for Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Most probable number(MPN) estimated multiple tube fermentation technique. In this way the flow rate for system indicated about 240 cm 3 /s or 0.9 m 3 /h. The samples polluted for secondary pollution with 54000 CFU/100 ml for E.Coli and 1800 CFU/100ml Pseudomonas aeroginosa. The number of microbes decreased to zero duration after 45 minutes contact time in presence of free chlorine residual in samples. In practical conditions which that disinfectant system was installed in essential water treatment circuit under 1.4 atm hydraulic pressure no growth was seen for pollution index in disinfected water with UV in microbial density about 840 CFU/100 ml for Total coliform and 12CFU/100 ml for Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Attention to lower turbidity, TSS and TDS in tap water, higher flow rate about 560 cm 3 /s or 2 m 3 /h acessesed

  2. Perspectives on Nordic Working Life Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ch. Karlsson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to this Thematic Issue on Perspectives on Nordic Working Life Research! It is perhaps not that surprising that a journal called Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies contains many discussions about “Nordic Models”: What is the Nordic Welfare State Model? What has happened to it lately? Is there still one? Has there ever been one? What about the Nordic Industrial Relations Model—is it on its way to be abandoned? And the Nordic Labor Market Model? Or the Nordic Work Environment Model? In contrast, in the Thematic Issue part of this issue of NJWLS Nordic working life research itself is discussed. Editing the issue has led me to some (selfcritical reflections on Nordic working life research—or perhaps rather reflections on the self-image of Nordic working life researchers. We often say that two of the cornerstones of Nordic working life research are the assumption that there is a positive correlation between employee autonomy at work and higher productivity, and that our research tradition is different from those found in other geographical areas (and, implicitly, probably better. Being part of the Nordic tradition, I too have claimed both, but I now think both needs to be qualified and critically discussed. Or rather, the first needs to be qualified and the consequences of the other critically evaluated (...

  3. The Nordic Approach to the Experience Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine

    This paper discusses the concept of the experience economy in a Nordic context and shows how the Nordic version of the concept has come about from a mix of three different approaches and theories. Besides, the Nordic definition links the experience economy closely with cultural activities...

  4. What Characterise the Nordic Welfare State Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The main distinctive characteristics of the Nordic welfare states are presented. These include full employment, high degree of equality, a high level of taxes and public sector spending. The Nordic countries are compared to other European countries. The conclusion being that the Nordic Model...... is here to stay, although a movement in a European direction is underway....

  5. Nordic Seniors on the Move

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ”I believe that all people need to move about. Actually, some have difficulties in doing so. They stay in their home neighbourhoods where they’ve grown up and feel safe. I can understand that, but my wife and I, we didn’t want that. We are more open to new ideas.” This anthology is about seniors...... on the move. In seven chapters, Nordic researchers from various disciplines, by means of ethnographic methods, attempt to comprehend the phenomenon of Nordic seniors who move to leisure areas in their own or in other countries. The number of people involved in this kind of migratory movement has grown...... above gives voice to one of these seniors, stressing the necessity of moving. The anthology contributes to the international body of literature about later life migration, specifically representing experiences made by Nordic seniors. As shown here, mobility and migration in later life have implications...

  6. High resolution conductometry for isotopic assay of deuterium in mixtures of heavy water and light water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthanarayanan, R.; Sahoo, P.; Murali, N.

    2014-01-01

    A PC based high resolution conductivity monitoring technique has been deployed for determination of isotopic purity of heavy water in samples containing heavy water and light water mixtures using pulsating sensor based conductivity monitoring instrument. The technique involves accurate determination of conductivities of a series of specially treated heavy water and light water mixtures of various compositions at a constant solution temperature. The shift in conductivity (Δκ), which is the difference between conductivities of composite mixture after and before the formation of a typical complex compound (boric acid–mannitol complex in this case), shows a smooth and reproducible decreasing trend with increase in percentage composition of heavy water. This relation, which is obtained by appropriate calibration, is used in the software program for direct display of isotopic purity of heavy water. The technique is examined for determination of percentage composition of heavy water in the entire range of concentration (0-100 %) with reasonable precision (relative standard deviation, RSD ≤1.5 %). About 1 mL of sample is required for each analysis and analysis is completed within a couple of minutes after pretreatment of sample. The accuracy in measurement is ≤1.75 %. (author)

  7. Status of advanced technology and design for water cooled reactors: Light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    Water reactors represent a high level of performance and safety. They are mature technology and they will undoubtedly continue to be the main stream of nuclear power. There are substantial technological development programmes in Member States for further improving the technology and for the development of new concepts in water reactors. Therefore the establishment of an international forum for the exchange of information and stimulation of international co-operation in this field has emerged. In 1987 the IAEA established the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR). Within the framework of IWGATWR the IAEA Technical Report on Status of Advanced Technology and Design for Water Cooled Reactors, Part I: Light Water Reactors and Part II: Heavy Water Reactors has been undertaken to document the major current activities and different trends of technological improvements and developments for future water reactors. Part I of the report dealing with LWRs has now been prepared and is based mainly on submissions from Member States. It is hoped that this part of the report, containing the status of advanced light water reactor design and technology of the year 1987 and early 1988 will be useful for disseminating information to Agency Member States and for stimulating international cooperation in this subject area. 93 refs, figs and tabs

  8. Fuel Summary Report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illum, D.B.; Olson, G.L.; McCardell, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    The Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was a small water cooled, U-233/Th-232 cycle breeder reactor developed by the Pittsburgh Naval Reactors to improve utilization of the nation's nuclear fuel resources in light water reactors. The LWBR was operated at Shippingport Atomic Power Station (APS), which was a Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly Atomic Energy Commission)-owned reactor plant. Shippingport APS was the first large-scale, central-station nuclear power plant in the United States and the first plant of such size in the world operated solely to produce electric power. The Shippingport LWBR was operated successfully from 1977 to 1982 at the APS. During the five years of operation, the LWBR generated more than 29,000 effective full power hours (EFPH) of energy. After final shutdown, the 39 core modules of the LWBR were shipped to the Expended Core Facility (ECF) at Naval Reactors Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). At ECF, 12 of the 39 modules were dismantled and about 1000 of more than 17,000 rods were removed from the modules of proof-of-breeding and fuel performance testing. Some of the removed rods were kept at ECF, some were sent to Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho and some to ANL-East in Chicago for a variety of physical, chemical and radiological examinations. All rods and rod sections remaining after the experiments were shipped back to ECF, where modules and loose rods were repackaged in liners for dry storage. In a series of shipments, the liners were transported from ECF to Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The 47 liners containing the fully-rodded and partially-derodded core modules, the loose rods, and the rod scraps, are now stored in underground dry wells at CPP-749

  9. The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilard, Ronaldo; Zhang, Hongbin; Kothe, Douglas; Turinsky, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is a DOE Energy Innovation Hub for modeling and simulation of nuclear reactors. It brings together an exceptionally capable team from national labs, industry and academia that will apply existing modeling and simulation capabilities and develop advanced capabilities to create a usable environment for predictive simulation of light water reactors (LWRs). This environment, designated as the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA), will incorporate science-based models, state-of-the-art numerical methods, modern computational science and engineering practices, and uncertainty quantification (UQ) and validation against data from operating pressurized water reactors (PWRs). It will couple state-of-the-art fuel performance, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics (T-H), and structural models with existing tools for systems and safety analysis and will be designed for implementation on both today's leadership-class computers and the advanced architecture platforms now under development by the DOE. CASL focuses on a set of challenge problems such as CRUD induced power shift and localized corrosion, grid-to-rod fretting fuel failures, pellet clad interaction, fuel assembly distortion, etc. that encompass the key phenomena limiting the performance of PWRs. It is expected that much of the capability developed will be applicable to other types of reactors. CASL's mission is to develop and apply modeling and simulation capabilities to address three critical areas of performance for nuclear power plants: (1) reduce capital and operating costs per unit energy by enabling power uprates and plant lifetime extension, (2) reduce nuclear waste volume generated by enabling higher fuel burnup, and (3) enhance nuclear safety by enabling high-fidelity predictive capability for component performance.

  10. Light requirements of water lobelia (Lobelia dortmanna L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowiak Dariusz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maximum depth of colonization (zC and total area covered by a population of Lobelia dortmanna, as well as underwater light regime were studied in 25 soft water lobelia lakes in north-western Poland. Variations in underwater light conditions among the lakes were described by Secchi disc depths (zSD, and by attenuation coefficients of irradiance within photosynthetically active radiation range (Kd,PAR, and euphotic zone depths (zEU derived from photometric measurements conducted twice a year (in midspring and midsummer during the period 2014–2015. Maximum depth of colonization of water lobelia ranged from 0.1 to 2.2 m (median zC = 0.8 m; mean zC = 1.0 m. Nine lakes showed the relative coverage of the littoral zone (RCLZ by L. dortmanna to be greater than the mean value, which was 4.8%. Studies showed that light requirements of water lobelia increase when the maximum depth of colonization also increases. This pattern could be partially related to the greater energy needs of deeper growing individuals due to enlarged seed production and their incubation, and for the creation of much heavier inflorescences. Assessment of the light requirements of L. dortmanna along the depth gradient indicates that relative irradiance (percentage of subsurface irradiance of PAR should be at the level of: (i 47–50% (annual total of quantum irradiance 3083–3280 mol m−2 yr−2 for plants growing within a depth range of 2.0–2.5 m; (ii 44–47% (2886–3083 mol m−2yr−1 for plants growing within a depth range of 1.5–2.0 m; (iii 41–44% (2690–2886 mol m−2yr−2 for plants growing within a depth range of 1.0–1.5 m; and (iv 34–41% (2230–2690 mol m−1 yr−1 for those growing in the littoral zone at a depth of between 0.5 and 1.0 m. In average conditions in the Pomeranian lakes, the maximum depth of colonization by L. dortmanna accounts for approximately a third of the Secchi disc depth and a fifth of the depth of the euphotic zone with irradiance

  11. Nordic eHealth Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyppönen, Hannele; Faxvaag, Arild; Gilstad, Heidi

    This report describes first results of the Network: eHealth policy analysis and first common Nordic eHealth indicators. The results show similarities and also some differences in the eHealth policies, priorities and implementation. Interesting similarities and differences in availability and use...... of eHealth services in the Nordic countries were found with the first comparable eHealth indicators. The results create a basis for Evidence-based policy making as well as benchmarking and learning best practices from each other....

  12. Absenteeism in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Jensen, Troels Wendelboe

    2007-01-01

    and Sweden. Employees working in the public sector, more specific the municipalities, have a higher level of absence compared to the private sector. According to the personal characteristics, women are more absent than men in all Nordic countries, but the effect of age differs according to the country...... in question. If the manager however is a woman and the employee likewise, then the level of absence is higher in Denmark, Norway and Finland compared to the other gender constellations. Originality/value - Because of the lack of international comparative studies of absenteeism in the Nordic countries...

  13. Multiangular hyperspectral investigation of polarized light in case 2 waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonizzo, A.; Zhou, J.; Gilerson, A.; Chowdhary, J.; Gross, B.; Moshary, F.; Ahmed, S.

    2009-09-01

    The focus of this work is on the dependence of in situ hyperspectral and multiangular polarized data on the size distribution and refractive index of the suspended particles. Underwater polarization measurements were obtained using a polarimeter developed at the Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory of the City College of New York, NY. The degree of polarization (DOP) of the underwater light field in coastal environments was measured and the water-leaving polarized radiance was derived. In-water optical properties were also measured with an ac-9 (WET Labs). Absorption and attenuation spectra are then used to derive information on the dissolved and suspend components in the water medium which are used in a vector radiative transfer code which provides the upwelling radiance. The model was run for various values of the refractive index of mineral particles until the modeled DOP matched the measured one. The relationship between the intensity of the maximum of the DOP and both the refractive index of the mineral particles and the shapes of their size distributions is analyzed in detail.

  14. Status of advanced light water reactor designs 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    The report is intended to be a source of reference information for interested organizations and individuals. Among them are decision makers of countries considering implementation of nuclear power programmes. Further, the report is addressed to government officials with an appropriate technical background and to research institutes of countries with existing nuclear programmes that wish to be informed on the global status in order to plan their nuclear power programmes including both research and development efforts and means for meeting future. The future utilization of nuclear power worldwide depends primarily on the ability of the nuclear community to further improve the economic competitiveness of nuclear power plants while meeting stringent safety requirements. The IAEA's activities in nuclear power technology development include the preparation of status reports on advanced reactor designs to provide all interested IAEA Member States with balanced and objective information on advances in nuclear plant technology. In the field of light water reactors, the last status report published by the IAEA was 'Status of Advanced Light Water Cooled Reactor Designs: 1996' (IAEA-TECDOC-968). Since its publication, quite a lot has happened: some designs have been taken into commercial operation, others have achieved significant steps toward becoming commercial products, including certification from regulatory authorities, some are in a design optimization phase to reduce capital costs, development for other designs began after 1996, and a few designs are no longer pursued by their promoters. With this general progress in mind, on the advice and with the support of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Energy's Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors (LWRs), the IAEA has prepared this new status report on advanced LWR designs that updates IAEA-TECDOC-968, presenting the various advanced LWR designs in a balanced way according to a common outline

  15. Safety considerations concerning light water reactors in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, T.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate was commissioned by the Government to perform a Reactor Safety Study concerning commercial light water reactors. The study will contain an account of: - rules and regulations for reactor designs; - operation experience of the Swedish nuclear power plants with international comparisons; - the development of reactor designs during the last 10 years; - demands and conditions for inspection and inspection methods; - nuclear power plant operation organization; - training of operators; and - the results of research into nuclear safety. The study is scheduled for completion by July 1st, 1977, however, this paper gives a summary of the results of the Reactor Safety Study already available. The paper contains detailed statistics concerning safety related occurrences and reactor scrams in Sweden from July 1st, 1974 until the beginning of 1977

  16. The United States advanced light water reactor (USALWR) development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlkopf, K.E.; Noble, D.M.; Devine, J.C. Jr.; Sugnet, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    For the United States Nuclear Power industry to remain viable, it must be prepared to meet the expected need for a new generation capacity in the late 90s with an improved reactor system. The best hope of meeting this requirement is with revolutionary changes to current LWR systems through simplification and re-evaluation of safety and operational design margins. In addition, the grid characteristics and the difficulty in raising capital for large projects indicate the smaller light water reactors (600 MWe) may play an important role in the next generation. A cooperative and coordinated program between EPRI, U.S. DOE, the major architect engineers, nuclear steam supply vendors, and the NRC in the U.S. has been undertaken with four major goals in mind

  17. Historical perspective of thermal reactor safety in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, S.

    1986-01-01

    A brief history of thermal reactor safety in U.S. light water reactors is provided in this paper. Important shortcomings in safety philosophy evolution versus time are identified and potential corrective actions are suggested. It should be recognized, that this analysis represents only one person's opinion and that most historical accountings reflect the author's biases and specific areas of knowledge. In that sense, many of the examples used in this paper are related to heat transfer and fluid flow safety issues, which explains why it has been included in a Thermal Hydraulics session. One additional note of caution: the value of hindsight and the selective nature of human memory when looking at the past cannot be overemphasized in any historical perspective

  18. German Light-Water-Reactor Safety-Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seipel, H.G.; Lummerzheim, D.; Rittig, D.

    1977-01-01

    The Light-Water-Reactor Safety-Research Program, which is part of the energy program of the Federal Republic of Germany, is presented in this article. The program, for which the Federal Minister of Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany is responsible, is subdivided into the following four main problem areas, which in turn are subdivided into projects: (1) improvement of the operational safety and reliability of systems and components (projects: quality assurance, component safety); (2) analysis of the consequences of accidents (projects: emergency core cooling, containment, external impacts, pressure-vessel failure, core meltdown); (3) analysis of radiation exposure during operation, accident, and decommissioning (project: fission-product transport and radiation exposure); and (4) analysis of the risk created by the operation of nuclear power plants (project: risk and reliability). Various problems, which are included in the above-mentioned projects, are concurrently studied within the Heiss-Dampf Reaktor experiments

  19. Aging management of light water reactor concrete containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; Hookhman, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper evaluates aging of light water reactor concrete containments and identifies three degradation mechanisms that have potential to cause widespread aging damage after years of satisfactory experience: alkali-silica reaction, corrosion of reinforcing steel, and sulfate attack. The evaluation is based on a comprehensive review of the relevant technical literature. Low-alkali cement and slow-reacting aggregates selected according to ASTM requirements cause deleterious alkali-silica reactions. Low concentrations of chloride ions can initiate corrosion of the reinforcing steel if the hydroxyl ions are sufficiently reduced by carbonation, leaching, or magnesium sulfate attack. Magnesium sulfate attack on concrete can cause loss of strength and cementitious properties after long exposure. Techniques to detect and mitigate these long-term aging effects are discussed

  20. The United States Advanced Light Water reactor (USALWR) development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlkopf, K.E.; Noble, D.M.; Devine, Jr.J.C.; Sugnet, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    For the United States Nuclear power industry to remain viable, it must be prepared to meet the expected need for a new generation capacity in the late 90s with an improved reactor system. The best hope of meeting this requirement is with revolutionary changes to current LWR systems through simplification and re-evaluation of safety and operational design margins. In addition, the grid characteristics and the difficulty in raising capital for large projects indicate the smaller light water reactors (600 MWe) may play an important role in the next generation. A cooperative and coordinated program between EPRI, U.S. DOE, the major architect engineers, nuclear steam supply vendors, and the NRC in the U.S. has been undertaken with four major goals in mind. (author)

  1. Assembly homogenization techniques for light water reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    Recent progress in development and application of advanced assembly homogenization methods for light water reactor analysis is reviewed. Practical difficulties arising from conventional flux-weighting approximations are discussed and numerical examples given. The mathematical foundations for homogenization methods are outlined. Two methods, Equivalence Theory and Generalized Equivalence Theory which are theoretically capable of eliminating homogenization error are reviewed. Practical means of obtaining approximate homogenized parameters are presented and numerical examples are used to contrast the two methods. Applications of these techniques to PWR baffle/reflector homogenization and BWR bundle homogenization are discussed. Nodal solutions to realistic reactor problems are compared to fine-mesh PDQ calculations, and the accuracy of the advanced homogenization methods is established. Remaining problem areas are investigated, and directions for future research are suggested. (author)

  2. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility Geotechnical Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Circulating Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork

  3. Power generation versus fuel production in light water hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1977-06-01

    The economic potentials of fissile-fuel-producing light-water hybrid reactors (FFP-LWHR) and of fuel-self-sufficient (FSS) LWHR's are compared. A simple economic model is constructed that gives the capital investment allowed for the hybrid reactor so that the cost of electricity generated in the hybrid based energy system equals the cost of electricity generated in LWR's. The power systems considered are LWR, FSS-LWHR, and FFP-LWHR plus LWR, both with and without plutonium recycling. The economic potential of FFP-LWHR's is found superior to that of FSS-LWHR's. Moreover, LWHR's may compete, economically, with LWR's. Criteria for determining the more economical approach to hybrid fuel or power production are derived for blankets having a linear dependence between F and M. The examples considered favor the power generation rather than fuel production

  4. Anticipated transients without scram for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    In the first two volumes of this report, Anticipated Transients without Scram for Light Water Reactors NUREG-0460, dated April 1978, the NRC staff reviewed the information on this subject that had been developed in the past and evaluated the susceptibility of current nuclear plants to ATWS events using fault tree/event tree analysis techniques. Based on that evaluation, the staff concluded that some corrective measures were required to reduce the risk of severe consequences arising from possible ATWS events. Since the issuance of NUREG-0460, new safety and cost information has become available on ATWS. Also, new insights have been developed on the general subject of quantitative risk assessment. The purpose of this supplement to NUREG-0460 is to summarize the important additions to the information base and to propose a course of action from among a variety of alternatives for resolving the ATWS concern

  5. Conceptual design study of high conversion light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Akie, Hiroshi; Mori, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Ishiguro, Yukio

    1990-06-01

    Since 1984, R and D work has been made for high conversion light water reactors (HCLWRs), at JAERI, to improve the natural uranium saving and effective plutonium utilization by the use of conventional or extended LWR technology. This report summarizes the results of the feasibility study made mainly from the viewpoint of nuclear design in the Phase-I Program (1985∼1989). Until now, the following various types of HCLWR core concepts have been investigated; 1) homogeneous core with tight pitch lattice of fuel rods, 2) homogeneous core with semi-tight pitch lattice, 3) spectral shift core using fertile rod with semi-tight pitch lattice, 4) flat-core, 5) axial heterogeneous core. The core burnup and thermohydraulic analyses during normal operations have been performed to clear up the burnup performances and feasibility for each core. Based on the analysis results, the axial heterogeneous HCLWR core was selected as the JAERI reference core. (author)

  6. Comparative economics of the breeder and light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, B.G.

    1980-01-01

    The issue of breeder timing is studied in this article via a breakeven analysis in which the key driving variables are conveniently segregated into two groups, with uranium price providing the linkage. In one group, the technical and cost characteristics of reactors and fuel cycles determine the uranium breakeven price. In the other group, nuclear demand projections and the uranium supply schedule determine the time paths of uranium price for a given composition of reactor types. The author finds that, even if proliferation risk is ignored, the breeder is not economically competitive with a 30%-improved once-through light water reactor before the year 2030 in the USA and in the world outside communist areas as a whole in 90% of the cases examined. In the exceptional cases, the penalty of delaying commercial breeder introduction to 2030 is small and well within the noise level of long-term energy planning. (author)

  7. Nuclide inventories of spent fuels from light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Okamoto, Tsutomu

    2012-02-01

    Accurate information on nuclide inventories of spent fuels from Light Water Reactors (LWRs) is important for evaluations of criticality, decay heat, radioactivity, toxicity, and so on, in the safety assessments of storage, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal of the spent fuels. So, a lot of lattice burn-up calculations were carried out for the possible fuel specifications and irradiation conditions in Japanese commercial LWRs by using the latest nuclear data library JENDL-4.0 and a sophisticated lattice burn-up calculation code MOSRA-SRAC. As a result, burn-up changes of nuclide inventories and their possible ranges were clarified for 21 heavy nuclides and 118 fission products, which are important from the viewpoint of impacts to nuclear characteristics and nuclear fuel cycle and environment. (author)

  8. Non-linear analysis in Light Water Reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Y.R.; Sharabi, M.N.; Nickell, R.E.; Esztergar, E.P.; Jones, J.W.

    1980-03-01

    The results obtained from a scoping study sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Safety Technology Program at Sandia National Laboratories are presented. Basically, this project calls for the examination of the hypothesis that the use of nonlinear analysis methods in the design of LWR systems and components of interest include such items as: the reactor vessel, vessel internals, nozzles and penetrations, component support structures, and containment structures. Piping systems are excluded because they are being addressed by a separate study. Essentially, the findings were that nonlinear analysis methods are beneficial to LWR design from a technical point of view. However, the costs needed to implement these methods are the roadblock to readily adopting them. In this sense, a cost-benefit type of analysis must be made on the various topics identified by these studies and priorities must be established. This document is the complete report by ANATECH International Corporation

  9. Cost analysis of light water reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooz, W.E.

    1978-06-01

    A statistical analysis is presented of the capital costs of light water reactor (LWR) electrical power plants. The objective is twofold: to determine what factors are statistically related to capital costs and to produce a methodology for estimating these costs. The analysis in the study is based on the time and cost data that are available on U.S. nuclear power plants. Out of a total of about 60 operating plants, useful capital-cost data were available on only 39 plants. In addition, construction-time data were available on about 65 plants, and data on completed construction permit applications were available for about 132 plants. The cost data were first systematically adjusted to constant dollars. Then multivariate regression analyses were performed by using independent variables consisting of various physical and locational characteristics of the plants. The dependent variables analyzed were the time required to obtain a construction permit, the construction time, and the capital cost

  10. Standard Guide for Benchmark Testing of Light Water Reactor Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers general approaches for benchmarking neutron transport calculations in light water reactor systems. A companion guide (Guide E2005) covers use of benchmark fields for testing neutron transport calculations and cross sections in well controlled environments. This guide covers experimental benchmarking of neutron fluence calculations (or calculations of other exposure parameters such as dpa) in more complex geometries relevant to reactor surveillance. Particular sections of the guide discuss: the use of well-characterized benchmark neutron fields to provide an indication of the accuracy of the calculational methods and nuclear data when applied to typical cases; and the use of plant specific measurements to indicate bias in individual plant calculations. Use of these two benchmark techniques will serve to limit plant-specific calculational uncertainty, and, when combined with analytical uncertainty estimates for the calculations, will provide uncertainty estimates for reactor fluences with ...

  11. Waste disposal from the light water reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.; Hardy, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    Alternative nuclear fuel cycles for support of light water reactors are described and wastes containing naturally occurring or artificially produced radioactivity reviewed. General principles and objectives in radioactive waste management are outlined, and methods for their practical application to fuel cycle wastes discussed. The paper concentrates upon management of wastes from upgrading processes of uranium hexafluoride manufacture and uranium enrichment, and, to a lesser extent, nuclear power reactor wastes. Some estimates of radiological dose commitments and health effects from nuclear power and fuel cycle wastes have been made for US conditions. These indicate that the major part of the radiological dose arises from uranium mining and milling, operation of nuclear reactors, and spent fuel reprocessing. However, the total dose from the fuel cycle is estimated to be only a small fraction of that from natural background radiation

  12. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes in water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhunen, Sari; Särkkä, Heikki; Sillanpää, Mika

    2009-06-01

    The novel system of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) was studied in water disinfection. Conventional UV lamps, like mercury vapor lamp, consume much energy and are considered to be problem waste after use. UV LEDs are energy efficient and free of toxicants. This study showed the suitability of LEDs in disinfection and provided information of the effect of two emitted wavelengths and different test mediums to Escherichia coli destruction. Common laboratory strain of E. coli (K12) was used and the effects of two emitted wavelengths (269 and 276 nm) were investigated with two photolytic batch reactors both including ten LEDs. The effects of test medium were examined with ultrapure water, nutrient and water, and nutrient and water with humic acids. Efficiency of reactors was almost the same even though the one emitting higher wavelength had doubled optical power compared to the other. Therefore, the effect of wavelength was evident and the radiation emitted at 269 nm was more powerful. Also, the impact of background was studied and noticed to have only slight deteriorating effect. In the 5-min experiment, the bacterial reduction of three to four log colony-forming units (CFU) per cubic centimeter was achieved, in all cases. When turbidity of the test medium was greater, part of the UV radiation was spent on the absorption and reactions with extra substances on liquid. Humic acids can also coat the bacteria reducing the sensitivity of the cells to UV light. The lower wavelength was distinctly more efficient when the optical power is considered, even though the difference of wavelengths was small. The reason presumably is the greater absorption of DNA causing more efficient bacterial breakage. UV LEDs were efficient in E. coli destruction, even if LEDs were considered to have rather low optical power. The effect of wavelengths was noticeable but the test medium did not have much impact. This study found UV LEDs to be an optimal method for bacterial

  13. Study for improvement of light water reactor technology, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hideaki; Morita, Terumichi; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Tabata, Hiroaki

    1991-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Power Company has performed some studies, which are referred to as 'some feasibility studies of LWR technology', in order to help improve and up-grade the light water reactor technology. We would like to show the key results of the above studies in an orderly fashion in this document. As the third issue, this paper describes the study of the feasibility of applying a suppression pool system in a 4-loop PWR plant in order to reduce containment volume and evaluates the merits of such a system. The results confirmed the feasibility of such a plant consisting of a 4-loop plant with a suppression pool system. The expected merits of a suppression pool type PWR are as follows: (1) The volume within the containment boundary is half of that for the conventional plant. This reduces the material quantity substantially. (2) A wider layout space is obtained since the operating floor is located outside the containment are. And this improves the maneuverability of plant outage. (3) Low center of gravity of the plant contributes to improving the ability to withstand seismic activity. Although there are some open items left that should be confirmed, we consider that PWR with small CV is an appealing plant in the light of further sales points such as relaxing siting conditions, extending the use of robotics and so on. (author)

  14. Utility Leadership in Defining Requirements for Advanced Light Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugnet, William R.; Layman, William H.

    1990-01-01

    It is appropriate, based on twenty five years of operating experience, that utilities take a position of leadership in developing the technical design and performance requirements for the next generations of nuclear electric generating plants. The U. S. utilities, through the Electric Power Research Institute, began an initiative in 1985 to develop such Utility requirements. Many international Utility organizations, including Korea Electric Power Corporation, have joined as full participants in this important Utility industry initiative. In light of the closer linkage among countries of the world due to rapid travel and telecommunications, it is also appropriate that there be international dialogue and agreement on the principal standards for nuclear power plant acceptability and performance. The Utility/EPRI Advanced Light Water Reactor Program guided by the ALRR Utility Steering Committee has been very successful in developing these Utility requirements. This paper will summarize the state of development of the ALRR Utility Requirements for Evolutionary Plants, recent developments in their review by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, resolution of open issues, and the extension of this effort to develop a companion set of ALRR Utility Requirements for plants employing passive safety features

  15. Transmutation of Americium in Light and Heavy Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.; Edwards, G.W.R. [Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada); Ellis, R.J.; Gehin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Maldonado, G.I. [University of Tennessee (Knoxville)/ORNL, Tennessee (United States)

    2009-06-15

    There is interest worldwide in reducing the burden on geological nuclear fuel disposal sites. In most disposal scenarios the decay heat loading of the surrounding rock limits the capacity of these sites. On the long term, this decay heat is generated primarily by actinides, and a major contributor 100 to 1000 years after discharge from the reactor is {sup 241}Am. One possible approach to reducing the decay-heat burden is to reprocess spent reactor fuel and use thermal spectrum reactors to 'burn' the Am nuclides. The viability of this approach is dependent upon the detailed changes in chemical and isotopic composition of actinide-bearing fuels after irradiation in thermal reactor spectra. The currently available thermal spectrum reactor options include light water-reactors (LWRs) and heavy-water reactors (HWRs) such as the CANDU{sup R} designs. In addition, as a result of the recycle of spent LWR fuel, there would be a considerable amount of potential recycled uranium (RU). One proposed solution for the recycled uranium is to use it as fuel in Candu reactors. This paper investigates the possibilities of transmuting americium in 'spiked' bundles in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and in boiling water reactors (BWRs). Transmutation of Am in Candu reactors is also examined. One scenario studies a full core fuelled with homogeneous bundles of Am mixed with recycled uranium, while a second scenario places Am in an inert matrix in target channels in a Candu reactor, with the rest of the reactor fuelled with RU. A comparison of the transmutation in LWRs and HWRs is made, in terms of the fraction of Am that is transmuted and the impact on the decay heat of the spent nuclear fuel. CANDU{sup R} is a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). (authors)

  16. Potential of light water reactors for future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueldner, R.

    2003-01-01

    Energy consumption worldwide is going to increase further in the next few decades. Reliable supplies of electricity can be achieved only by centralized power plant structures. In this scenario, nuclear power plants are going to play a leading role as reliable and competitive plants, also under deregulated market conditions. Today, light water reactors have achieved a leading position, both technically and economically, contributing 85% to worldwide electricity generation in nuclear plants. They will continue to be a proven technology in power generation. In many countries, activities therefore are concentrated on extending the service life of plants beyond a period of forty years. New nuclear generating capacities are expected to be created and added from the end of this decade onward. Most of this capacity will be in light water reactors. The concepts of third-generation reactors will meet all economic and technical safety requirements of the 21st century and will offer considerable potential for further development. Probably some thirty years from now, fourth-generation nuclear power plants will be ready for commercial application. These plants will penetrate especially new sectors of the energy markets. Public acceptance of new nuclear power plants is not a matter of reactor lines, provided that safety requirements are met. The important issue is the management of radioactive waste. The construction of new nuclear power plants in Western Europe and North America mainly hinges on the ability to explain to the public that there is a need for new plants and that nuclear power is fundamental to assuring sustainable development. (orig.)

  17. Materials Inventory Database for the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi Ahmed; Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton

    2013-08-01

    Scientific research involves the purchasing, processing, characterization, and fabrication of many sample materials. The history of such materials can become complicated over their lifetime – materials might be cut into pieces or moved to various storage locations, for example. A database with built-in functions to track these kinds of processes facilitates well-organized research. The Material Inventory Database Accounting System (MIDAS) is an easy-to-use tracking and reference system for such items. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRS), which seeks to advance the long-term reliability and productivity of existing nuclear reactors in the United States through multiple research pathways, proposed MIDAS as an efficient way to organize and track all items used in its research. The database software ensures traceability of all items used in research using built-in functions which can emulate actions on tracked items – fabrication, processing, splitting, and more – by performing operations on the data. MIDAS can recover and display the complete history of any item as a simple report. To ensure the database functions suitably for the organization of research, it was developed alongside a specific experiment to test accident tolerant nuclear fuel cladding under the LWRS Advanced Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuels Pathway. MIDAS kept track of materials used in this experiment from receipt at the laboratory through all processes, test conduct and, ultimately, post-test analysis. By the end of this process, the database proved to be right tool for this program. The database software will help LWRS more efficiently conduct research experiments, from simple characterization tests to in-reactor experiments. Furthermore, MIDAS is a universal tool that any other research team could use to organize their material inventory.

  18. Outcomes, challenges and prospects for the Nordic network regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrell, Per J.; Koivuranta, Kari; Lorenz, Mathias

    2005-01-01

    The deregulation of the electricity sector in the NordPool area has largely been a success story in terms of market organization and responsiveness. The joint market and the tight cooperation among the TSOs serve as an international benchmark in terms of transparency and market efficiency. However, the regulation models for the residual distribution network monopolies are surprisingly heterogeneous in terms of character, instruments and application. For primarily historical and institutional reasons, the Nordic countries have chosen different methods to regulate the sector, with interesting differences also in industrial structure. Whereas Finland and Sweden long maintained a 'light-handed' ex post approach based on enforced self-regulation, Norway adopted an ex ante increasingly high-powered revenue cap regime based on frontier analysis methods (DEA). Denmark, where the sector is dominated by cooperatively owned distributors, opted for high-powered model based on simple regression tools (COLS). In this paper, we present findings from a joint Nordic study on the challenges to the heterogeneous regulation models in the presence of increasing consolidation and supra-national regulatory convergence from the IEM directives. Based on an analysis based on surveys among stakeholders in the four countries, we investigate the feasibility and potential properties of a common Nordic regulation model. The paper is illustrated with a new Nordic operating efficiency analysis for the area, based on frontier analysis, showing the relative and absolute cost differences in the current decentralized regime. (Author)

  19. Breaking the Nordic Defense Deadlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    United Nations] was a ‘ luxury good’, only affordable because the Nordics were allowed a free ride on a security order created by the presence of an... Brands Poroshenko ‘Nazi’ Ahead of EU Deal,” BBC News, June 27, 2014, available from www.bbc. co.uk/news/world-europe-28049565, accessed June, 27, 2014

  20. Nordic projects concerning nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, H.C.

    1988-11-01

    The report describes the nature of the work done in the first half of 1988 within the field of nuclear safety (1985-89) under the Nordic program for 1985-89. Five programmes and their documentation, are described and complete lists of addresses and of persons involved is given. (AB)

  1. Nordic Management and Sustainable Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preuss, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    The Nordics have been since a longer time a role model for a social and reliable management style. However, this statement was in the last just proven by doing few case studies with top executives. This study wants to describe the corporate culture and management style in the biggest companies...

  2. Nordic scepticism towards health claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine that you are shopping in a supermarket and find a package of pork chops labelled "omega-3 added" or that the yogurt "contains phosphatidylserine, which can improve your memory"; would you buy these pork chops or this yogurt? Most Nordic consumers would choose products without health claims....

  3. Hepatoblastoma in the nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, S; Schmidt, L S; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of hepatoblastoma. Because of the young age at diagnosis, several studies have looked at various birth characteristics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of hepatoblastoma in the Nordic countries and the association between selected bir...

  4. New Nordic and Scandinavian retro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels Peter; Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    ’?” with a focus on the Danish firm Muuto, which has been a central actor in establishing the term “New Nordic Design.” We focus on the interplay between the storytelling around the products and designers on webpages and in marketing, popular literature, etc., and the actual design objects. Reoccurring themes from...

  5. The Nordic Corporate Governance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    , concentrated ownership, semi two-tier board structures, employee representation and low-powered managerial incentives – has been shaped by the welfare state in ways consistent with systemic corporate governance theories. The article concludes with a skeptical discussion of the Nordic model as a development...

  6. Tritium separation from light and heavy water by bipolar electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramey, D.W.; Petek, M.; Taylor, R.D.; Kobisk, E.H.; Ramey, J.; Sampson, C.A.

    1979-10-01

    Use of bipolar electrolysis with countercurrent electrolyte flow to separate hydrogen isotopes was investigated for the removal of tritium from light water effluents or from heavy water moderator. Deuterium-tritium and protium-tritium separation factors occurring on a Pd-25% Ag bipolar electrode were measured to be 2.05 to 2.16 and 11.6 to 12.4 respectively, at current densities between 0.21 and 0.50 A cm -2 , and at 35 to 90 0 C. Current densities up to 0.3 A cm -2 have been achieved in continuous operation, at 80 to 90 0 C, without significant gas formation on the bipolar electrodes. From the measured overvoltage at the bipolar electrodes and the electrolyte conductivity the power consumption per stage was calculated to be 3.0 kwh/kg H 2 O at 0.2 A cm -2 and 5.0 kwh/kg H 2 O at 0.5 A cm -2 current density, compared to 6.4 and 8.0 kwh/kg H 2 O for normal electrolysis. A mathematical model derived for hydrogen isotope separation by bipolar electrolysis, i.e., for a square cascade, accurately describes the results for protium-tritium separation in two laboratory scale, multistage experiments with countercurrent electrolyte flow; the measured tiritum concentration gradient through the cascade agreed with the calculated values

  7. Development of pre-startup equipment for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, Rajit; Borkar, S.P.; Dixit, M.Y.; Das, Debashis; Patil, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    Light water reactor (LWR) core typically has high excess reactivity as compared to Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). Unlike PHWR, where online refueling is done, LWR is operated for a long period to achieve maximum fuel burn-up before refueling. Since the reactivity is always reducing with burn-up of the core, the positions of control rods at criticality are always changing in a single direction, i.e. away from the core. Therefore it is possible to start the LWR even if the nuclear instrumentation is not online, provided the criticality position of control rods is known for previous operation. However, for the very first startup, the criticality position of control rods is required to be determined. A special nuclear instrumentation system, called Pre-startup equipment (PSE) is developed using two numbers of in-core detectors along with the processing electronics. The PSE enables operators to determine the criticality position of control rods for the first startup at zero power. The same equipment can also be used during loading of fuel assemblies. This paper discusses the features and architecture of PSE, its individual circuit blocks and specifications. (author)

  8. Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, W.R.; Irick, S.C.; Lunt, D.L.J.

    1991-01-01

    The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously

  9. Clarification of dissolved irradiated light-water-reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, G.C.

    1983-02-01

    Bench-scale studies with actual dissolved irradiated light water reactor (LWR) fuels showed that continuous centrifugation is a practical clarification method for reprocessing. Dissolved irradiated LWR fuel was satisfactorily clarified in a bench-scale, continuous-flow bowl centrifuge. The solids separated were successfully reslurried in water. When the reslurried solids were mixed with clarified centrate, the resulting suspension behaved similar to the original dissolver solution during centrifugation. Settling rates for solids in actual irradiated fuel solutions were measured in a bottle centrifuge. The results indicate that dissolver solutions may be clarified under conditions achievable by available plant-scale centrifuge technology. The effective particle diameter of residual solids was calculated to be 0.064 microns for Oconee-1 fuel and 0.138 microns for Dresden-1 fuel. Filtration was shown unsuitable for clarification of LWR fuel solutions. Conventional filtration with filter aid would unacceptably complicate remote canyon operation and maintenance, might introduce dissolved silica from filter aids, and might irreversibly plug the filter with dissolver solids. Inertial filtration exhibited irreversible pluggage with nonradioactive stand-in suspensions under all conditions tested

  10. Light water ultra-safe plant concept: First annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.

    1987-01-01

    Since the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) Penn State Nuclear Engineering Department Faculty and Staff have considered various methods to improve already safe reactor designs and public perception of the safety of Nuclear Power. During the last year, the Department of Energy funded the study of a plant reconfiguration originally proposed by M.A. Shultz. This report presents the status of the project at the end of the first year. A broad set of specifications to improve safety and public perception were set forth and the realization of these goals is achieved in a plant design named, ''The Light Water Ultra-Safe Plant Concept.'' The most significant goals of the concept address the station black-out problem and simplification of required operator actions during abnormal situations. These goals are achieved in the Ultra-Safe Concept by addition of an in-containment atmospheric tank containing a large quantity of cool water, replacement of the conventional PWR pressurizer system with a pressurizing pump, internal emergency power generation, and arrangement of components to utilize natural circulation at shut-down. The first year effort included an evaluation of the normal operation characteristics of the primary system pressurizing concept, evaluating parameters and modeling for analysis of the shutdown scenario, design of a low power density core, design of a low-pressure waste handling system, arrangement of a drainage system for pipe break considerations, and failure modes and effects analysis

  11. A new book : 'light-water reactor materials'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, Donald R.; Motta, Arthur T.

    2005-01-01

    The contents of a new book currently in preparation are described. The dearth of books in the field of nuclear materials has left both students in nuclear materials classes and professionals in the same field without a resource for the broad fundamentals of this important sub-discipline of nuclear engineering. The new book is devoted entirely to materials problems in the core of light-water reactors, from the pressure vessel into the fuel. Key topics deal with the UO 2 fuel, zircaloy cladding, stainless steel, and of course, water. The restriction to LWR materials does not mean a short monograph; the enormous quantity of experimental and theoretical work over the past 50 years on these materials presents a challenge of culling the most important features and explaining them in the simplest quantitative fashion. Moreover, LWRs will probably be the sole instrument of the return of nuclear energy in electric power production for the next decade or so. By that time, a new book will be needed

  12. PARs for combustible gas control in advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosler, J.; Sliter, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress being made in the United States to introduce passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) technology as a cost-effective alternative to electric recombiners for controlling combustible gas produced in postulated accidents in both future Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) and certain U. S. operating nuclear plants. PARs catalytically recombine hydrogen and oxygen, gradually producing heat and water vapor. They have no moving parts and are self-starting and self-feeding, even under relatively cold and wet containment conditions. Buoyancy of the hot gases they create sets up natural convective flow that promotes mixing of combustible gases in a containment. In a non-inerted ALWR containment, two approaches each employing a combination of PARs and igniters are being considered to control hydrogen in design basis and severe accidents. In pre-inerted ALWRs, PARs alone control radiolytic oxygen produced in either accident type. The paper also discusses regulatory feedback regarding these combustible gas control approaches and describes a test program being conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Electricite de France (EdF) to supplement the existing PAR test database with performance data under conditions of interest to U.S. plants. Preliminary findings from the EPRI/EdF PAR model test program are included. Successful completion of this test program and confirmatory tests being sponsored by the U. S. NRC are expected to pave the way for use of PARs in ALWRs and operating plants. (author)

  13. Nuclear power in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Of the Nordic countries-Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and Norway-the first two have chosen nuclear energy to supply a large portion of their electrical generation requirements. Finland has opted for two Western-style boiling water reactors and two modified Russian-designed pressurized water reactors. The country has led the nuclear nations of the world in the 1990s with its capacity factor. Domestic reports state that nuclear is the lowest-cost electrical generation source, and Finland will need additional capacity by 2000. The country's nuclear waste storage facilities are in operation, with more under construction. In this, the second part of a two-part feature (the first part viewed Sweden's nuclear program), the attention is focused on Finland: its government, where it has positioned itself in the world economy, and the internal conflicts of how, or if, to add the needed electrical capacity

  14. Naturally occurring radioactivity in the Nordic countries. Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the publication 'Naturally Occurring Radiation in the Nordic Countries - Recommendations' published in 1986 the radiation protection authorities in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden gave radiation protection recommendations for natural radiation in the Nordic countries. The exposure of the populations in the Nordic countries to natural radiation sources is among the highest in the world and much effort has been devoted during the last 10 to 20 years to characterising, assessing and, where feasible, to reduce these exposures. The exposure of workers to natural radiation sources has also been an important area of work in the same period. During this period the international recommendations on radiation protection policy have been further developed with ICRP Publication 60: '1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection', and ICRP Publication 65: 'Protection Against Radon-222 at Home and at Work'. The European Basic Safety Standards Directive from 1996 (96/29/EURATOM), which is based on the ICRP recommendations, differs from the earlier versions in that special provisions have been laid down concerning exposure to natural radiation sources. As Denmark, Finland and Sweden are members of European Union and the EFTA-countries (Iceland and Norway) have close co-operation with the EU, the practical implementation of the EU-BSS will play an important role in all the Nordic countries. In November 1998, a new Drinking Water Directive, 98/83/EC, was adopted. The directive also includes radioactivity in drinking water, excluding potassium-40, radon, and radon decay products. Altogether this means that the Nordic recommendations from 1986 for natural radiation needed to be updated. The Nordic Radiation Protection Authorities therefore decided to set up a working group with the aim of revising the recommendations from 1986. The new revised recommendations will, as before, only deal with the components of the exposure to natural

  15. Water chemistry control to meet the advanced design and operation of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Sato, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Water chemistry control is one of the key technologies to establish safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The road maps on R and D plans for water chemistry of nuclear power systems in Japan have been proposed along with promotion of R and D related water chemistry improvement for the advanced application of light water reactors (LWRs). The technical trends were divided into four categories, dose rate reduction, structural integrity, fuel integrity and radioactive waste reduction, and latest technical break through for each category was shown for the advanced application of LWRs. At the same time, the technical break through and the latest movements for regulation of water chemistry were introduced for each of major organizations related to nuclear engineering in the world. The conclusions were summarized as follows; 1. Water chemistry improvements might contribute to achieve the advanced application of LWRs, while water chemistry should be often changed to achieve the advanced application of LWRs. 2. Only one solution for water chemistry control was not obtained for achieving the advanced application of LWRs, but miscellaneous solutions were possible for achieving one. Optimal water chemistry control was desired for having the good practices for satisfying multi-targets at the same time and it was much affected by the plant unique systems and operational history. 3. That meant it was difficult to determine water chemistry regulation targets for achieving application of LWRs but it was necessary to prepare suitable guideline for good achievement of application of LWRs. That meant the guideline should be recommendation for good practice in the plant. 4. The water chemistry guide line should be modified along with progress of plant operation and water chemistry and related technologies. (author)

  16. Nordic cooperation within natural gas research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edna, O.-J.

    1993-01-01

    Nordic cooperation within natural gas research is discussed. A reorganization of this cooperation has recently taken place. It is explained that common Nordic resources are now to be concentrated within 7 areas, one of which is the area of energy/industrial policies, regional policies and agriculture and forestry, all under the common heading of ''Economy''. The plan of activities within this area includes international cooperation within the European Communities, the European Energy Charter, the International Energy Agency and will involve the energy policy situation in eastern Europe and the Baltic countries, the electric power and natural gas markets in the northern countries, energy related environmental questions and Nordic energy research cooperation. Nordic research activities constitute 2% of research resources within the OECD. The basis for Nordic research cooperation (for example a common cultural background) is described, and suggestions are made as to how it should be administrated. The Nordic energy research programme for 1991-1994 embodies bioenergy and the environment, fuel cells, energy and the society, solid fuels, district heating and petroleum technology. The status report for the nordic gas market, which represents the Nordic gas companies' evaluation of the Nordic gas market, is summarized, and Nordic research activities related to gas utilization are shortly commented upon. (AB)

  17. A collection of publications and articles for a light water ultra-safe plant concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    This collection contains reports titled: ''The Penn State Ultra-Safe Reactor Concept; '' ''Ultra Safe Nuclear Power; '' ''Use of the Modular Modeling System, in the Design of the Penn State Advanced Light Water Reactor; '' ''Use of the Modular Modeling System in Severe Transient Analysis of Penn State Advanced Light Water Reactor; '' ''PSU Engineers' Reactor Design May Stop a Future TMI; '' and ''The Penn State Advanced Light Water reactor Concept.''

  18. Wind and load variability in the Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H.; Rissanen, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Larsen, X. [Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, Lyngby (Denmark); Loevholm, A. L. [Kjeller Vindteknikk (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    This publication analysed the variability of wind production and load in Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and the Nordic region as a whole, based on real data measured from large-scale wind power during 2009-2011. The Nordic-wide wind power time series was scaled up such that Sweden had same amount of wind power production than Denmark, and Finland and Norway only 50% of the wind power production in Denmark. Wind power production in Denmark and Sweden is somewhat correlated (coefficient 0.7) but less correlation is found between the other countries. The variations from one hour to the next are only weakly correlated between all countries, even between Denmark and Sweden. Largest variations occur when the production is approximately 30-70% of installed capacity and variability is low during periods of light winds. The variability in shorter time scales was less than the hourly variations. During the three years analysed in this publication there were few storm incidents and they did not produce dramatic wind power ramps in the Nordic region. Wind and load variations are not correlated between the countries, which is beneficial from the viewpoint of wind integration. The smoothing effect is shown as reduction of variability from a single country to Nordic-wide wind power. The impact of wind power on the variability that the system experiences is evaluated by analysing the variability of net load with different wind power penetration levels. The Nordic-wide wind power production increases the highest hourly ramps by 2.4% (up) and -3.6% (down) of installed wind power capacity when there is 20% wind power penetration and by 2.7% (up) and -4.7% (down) for 30% wind penetration. These results assess the impacts of variability only. The next step will be assessing the uncertainty from forecast errors. The timing of ramp events, and occurrence of high-wind and low-load are studied. With current wind penetration, low production levels (2-5% of installed wind power) can occur in a

  19. Temperature effects studies in light water reactor lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erradi, Lahoussine.

    1982-02-01

    The CREOLE experiments performed in the EOLE critical facility located in the Nuclear Center of CADARACHE - CEA (UO 2 and UO 2 -PuO 2 lattice reactivity temperature coefficient continuous measurements between 20 0 C and 300 0 C; integral measurements by boron equivalent effect in the moderator; water density effects measurements with the use of over cladding aluminium tubes to remove moderator) allow to get an interesting and complete information on the temperature effects in the light water reactor lattices. A very elaborated calcurated scheme using the transport theory and the APOLLO cross sections library, has been developed. The analysed results of the whole lot of experiments show that the discrepancy between theory and experiment strongly depends on the temperature range and on the type of lattices considered. The error is mainly linked with the thermal spectrum effects. A study on the temperature coefficient sensitivity to the different cell neutron parameters has shown that only the shapes of the 235 U and 238 U thermal cross sections have enough weight and uncertainty margins to explain the observed experimental/calculation bias. Instead of arbitrarily fitting the identified wrong data on the calculation of the reactivity temperature coefficient we have defined a procedure of modification of the cross sections based on the consideration of the basic nuclear data: resonance parameters and associated statistic laws. The implementation of this procedure has led to propose new thermal cross sections sets for 235 U and 238 U consistent with the uncertainty margins associated with the previously accepted values and with some experimental data [fr

  20. Summary of Research on Light Water Reactor Improvement Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowery, Alfred L.

    2002-01-01

    The Arms Control and Disarmament Agency of the U.S. Department of State instituted a study aimed at improving the light water reactor (LWR) fuel consumption efficiency as an alternative to fuel recycle in the late 1970s. Comparison of the neutron balance tables of an LWR (1982 design) and an 'advanced' Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor explained that the relatively low fuel efficiency of the LWR was not primarily a consequence of water moderator absorptions. Rather, the comparatively low LWR fuel efficiency resulted from its use of poison to hold down startup reactivity together with other neutron losses. The research showed that each neutron saved could reduce fuel consumption by about 5%. In a typical LWR some 5 neutrons (out of 100) were absorbed in control poisons over a cycle. There are even more parasitic and leakage neutron absorptions. The objective of the research was to find ways to minimize control, parasitic, and other neutron losses aimed at improved LWR fuel consumption. Further research developed the concept of 'putting neutrons in the bank' in 238 U early in life and 'drawing them out of the bank' late in life by burning the 239 Pu produced. Conceptual designs were explored that could both control the reactor and substantially improve fuel efficiency and minimize separative work requirements.The U.S. Department of Energy augmented its high burnup fuel program based on the research in the late 1970s. As a result of the success of this program, fuel burnup in U.S. LWRs has almost doubled in the intervening two decades

  1. Application of fully ceramic microencapsulated fuels in light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, C.; George, N.; Maldonado, I. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of Tennessee-Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States); Godfrey, A.; Terrani, K.; Gehin, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study performs a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of incorporation of Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuels in light water reactors (LWRs). In particular, pin cell, lattice, and full core analyses are carried out on FCM fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Using uranium-based fuel and Pu/Np-based fuel in TRistructural isotropic (TRISO) particle form, each fuel design was examined using the SCALE 6.1 analytical suite. In regards to the uranium-based fuel, pin cell calculations were used to determine which fuel material performed best when implemented in the fuel kernel as well as the size of the kernel and surrounding particle layers. The higher fissile material density of uranium mononitride (UN) proved to be favorable, while the parametric studies showed that the FCM particle fuel design with 19.75% enrichment would need roughly 12% additional fissile material in comparison to that of a standard UO{sub 2} rod in order to match the lifetime of an 18-month PWR cycle. As part of the fuel assembly design evaluations, fresh feed lattices were modeled to analyze the within-assembly pin power peaking. Also, a 'color-set' array of assemblies was constructed to evaluate power peaking and power sharing between a once-burned and a fresh feed assembly. In regards to the Pu/Np-based fuel, lattice calculations were performed to determine an optimal lattice design based on reactivity behavior, pin power peaking, and isotopic content. After obtaining a satisfactory lattice design, the feasibility of core designs fully loaded with Pu/Np FCM lattices was demonstrated using the NESTLE three-dimensional core simulator. (authors)

  2. Application of fully ceramic microencapsulated fuels in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentry, C.; George, N.; Maldonado, I.; Godfrey, A.; Terrani, K.; Gehin, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study performs a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of incorporation of Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuels in light water reactors (LWRs). In particular, pin cell, lattice, and full core analyses are carried out on FCM fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Using uranium-based fuel and Pu/Np-based fuel in TRistructural isotropic (TRISO) particle form, each fuel design was examined using the SCALE 6.1 analytical suite. In regards to the uranium-based fuel, pin cell calculations were used to determine which fuel material performed best when implemented in the fuel kernel as well as the size of the kernel and surrounding particle layers. The higher fissile material density of uranium mononitride (UN) proved to be favorable, while the parametric studies showed that the FCM particle fuel design with 19.75% enrichment would need roughly 12% additional fissile material in comparison to that of a standard UO 2 rod in order to match the lifetime of an 18-month PWR cycle. As part of the fuel assembly design evaluations, fresh feed lattices were modeled to analyze the within-assembly pin power peaking. Also, a 'color-set' array of assemblies was constructed to evaluate power peaking and power sharing between a once-burned and a fresh feed assembly. In regards to the Pu/Np-based fuel, lattice calculations were performed to determine an optimal lattice design based on reactivity behavior, pin power peaking, and isotopic content. After obtaining a satisfactory lattice design, the feasibility of core designs fully loaded with Pu/Np FCM lattices was demonstrated using the NESTLE three-dimensional core simulator. (authors)

  3. Application of Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuels in Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, Cole A [ORNL; George, Nathan M [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Godfrey, Andrew T [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to perform a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of incorporation of Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuels in Light Water Reactors (LWRs). In particular pin cell, lattice, and full core analyses are carried out on FCM fuel in a pressurized water reactor. Using uranium-based fuel and transuranic (TRU) based fuel in TRistructural ISOtropic (TRISO) particle form, each fuel design was examined using the SCALE 6.1 analytical suite. In regards to the uranium-based fuel, pin cell calculations were used to determine which fuel material performed best when implemented in the fuel kernel as well as the size of the kernel and surrounding particle layers. The higher physical density of uranium mononitride (UN) proved to be favorable, while the parametric studies showed that the FCM particle fuel design would need roughly 12% additional fissile material in comparison to that of a standard UO2 rod in order to match the lifetime of an 18-month PWR cycle. As part of the fuel assembly design evaluations, fresh feed lattices were modeled to analyze the within-assembly pin power peaking. Also, a color-set array of assemblies was constructed to evaluate power peaking and power sharing between a once-burned and a fresh feed assembly. In regards to the TRU based fuel, lattice calculations were performed to determine an optimal lattice design based on reactivity behavior, pin power peaking, and isotopic content. After obtaining a satisfactory lattice design, feasibility of core designs fully loaded with TRU FCM lattices was demonstrated using the NESTLE three-dimensional core simulator.

  4. Job-related doses in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnuer, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Treaty of 1957 establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, (EURATOM) was an essential prerequisite for the development of a strong nuclear industry in Europe. Among other things the Treaty provides that the Community shall lay down Basic Safety Standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation and ensure that they are applied. Following adoption of the Council Directive of 1980, the European Commission defined the basic principles of Justification, Optimization and Limitation to be applied in order to ensure the greatest possible protection of workers and the general public. Subsequently the Commission took initiatives in order to find ways of implementing these three basic principles in practical radiation protection. In 1980 the Commission in close collaboration with the leading nuclear power station operators, set up its own system of 'occupational radiation dose statistics from light water reactors operating in Western Europe'. This was designed for PWRs and BWRs, and the Commission benefited from the experience of neighbouring non-EC countries such as Sweden, Finland, Switzerland and Spain (not yet a member) operating nuclear power stations made by different manufacturers. The paper provides some general information on developments and trends in collective and individual doses to workers in nuclear power stations, based on a unique European databank of approximately 1000 operating reactor years. 9 figs

  5. Investigation of activity release during light water reactor core meltdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, H.; Matschoss, V.; Wild, H.

    1978-01-01

    A test facility was developed for the determination of activity release and of aerosol characteristics under realistic light water reactor core melting conditions. It is composed of a high-frequency induction furnace, a ThO 2 crucible system, and a collection apparatus consisting of membrane and particulate filters. Thirty-gram samples of a representative core material mixture (corium) were melted under air, argon, or steam at 0.8 to 2.2 bar. In air at 2700 0 C, for example, the relative release was 0.4 to 0.7% for iron, chromium, and cobalt and 4 to 11% for tin, antimony, and manganese. Higher release values of 20 to 40% at lower temperatures (2150 0 C, air) were found for selenium, cadmium, tellurium, and cesium. The size distribution of the aerosol particles was trimodal with maxima at diameters of 0.17, 0.30, and 0.73 μm. The result of a qualitative x-ray microanalysis was that the main elements of the melt were contained in each aerosol particle. Further investigations will include larger melt masses and the additional influence of concrete on the release and aerosol behavior

  6. Reactor core of light water-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Jun-ichi; Aoyama, Motoo; Mochida, Takaaki.

    1996-01-01

    In a reactor core of a light water cooled reactor, the center of the fuel rods or moderating rods situated at the outermost circumference among control rods or moderating rods are connected to divide a lattice region into an inner fuel region and an outer moderator region. In this case, the area ratio of the moderating region to the fuel region is determined to greater than 0.81 for every cross section of the fuel region. The moderating region at the outer side is increased relative to the fuel rod region at the inner side while keeping the lattice pitch of the fuel assembly constant, thereby suppressing the increase of an absolute value of a void reactivity coefficient which tends to be caused when using MOX fuels as a fuel material, by utilizing neutron moderation due to a large quantity of coolants at the outer side of the fuel region. The void reactivity coefficient can be made substantially equal with that of uranium fuel assembly without greatly reducing a plutonium loading amount or without greatly increasing linear power density. (N.H.)

  7. Study on unstable fracture characteristics of light water reactor piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Ryoichi

    1998-08-01

    Many testing studies have been conducted to validate the applicability of the leak before break (LBB) concept for the light water reactor piping in the world. It is especially important among them to clarify the condition that an inside surface crack of the piping wall does not cause an unstable fracture but ends in a stable fracture propagating only in the pipe thickness direction, even if the excessive loading works to the pipe. Pipe unstable fracture tests performed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute had been planned under such background, and clarified the condition for the cracked pipe to cause the unstable fracture under monotonous increase loading or cyclic loading by using test pipes with the inside circumferential surface crack. This paper examines the pipe unstable fracture by dividing it into two parts. One is the static unstable fracture that breaks the pipe with the inside circumferential surface crack by increasing load monotonously. Another is the dynamic unstable fracture that breaks the pipe by the cyclic loading. (author). 79 refs

  8. Light water reactor pressure isolation valve performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neely, H.H.; Jeanmougin, N.M.; Corugedo, J.J.

    1990-07-01

    The Light Water Reactor Valve Performance Testing Program was initiated by the NRC to evaluate leakage as an indication of valve condition, provide input to Section XI of the ASME Code, evaluate emission monitoring for condition and degradation and in-service inspection techniques. Six typical check and gate valves were purchased for testing at typical plant conditions (550F at 2250 psig) for an assumed number of cycles for a 40-year plant lifetime. Tests revealed that there were variances between the test results and the present statement of the Code; however, the testing was not conclusive. The life cycle tests showed that high tech acoustic emission can be utilized to trend small leaks, that specific motor signature measurement on gate valves can trend and indicate potential failure, and that in-service inspection techniques for check valves was shown to be both feasible and an excellent preventive maintenance indicator. Life cycle testing performed here did not cause large valve leakage typical of some plant operation. Other testing is required to fully understand the implication of these results and the required program to fully implement them. (author)

  9. Physics methods for calculating light water reactor increased performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, C.; Charlier, A.

    1988-01-01

    The intensive use of light water reactors (LWRs) has induced modification of their characteristics and performances in order to improve fissile material utilization and to increase their availability and flexibility under operation. From the conceptual point of view, adequate methods must be used to calculate core characteristics, taking into account present design requirements, e.g., use of burnable poison, plutonium recycling, etc. From the operational point of view, nuclear plants that have been producing a large percentage of electricity in some countries must adapt their planning to the need of the electrical network and operate on a load-follow basis. Consequently, plant behavior must be predicted and accurately followed in order to improve the plant's capability within safety limits. The Belgonucleaire code system has been developed and extensively validated. It is an accurate, flexible, easily usable, fast-running tool for solving the problems related to LWR technology development. The methods and validation of the two computer codes LWR-WIMS and MICROLUX, which are the main components of the physics calculation system, are explained

  10. Studies of severe accidents in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    From 10 to 12 November 1986 some 80 delegates met under the auspices of the CEC working group on the safety of light-water reactors. The participants from EC Member States were joined by colleagues from Sweden, Finland and the USA and met to discuss the subject of severe accidents in LWRs. Although this seminar had been planned well before Chernobyl, the ''severe-accident-that-really-happened'' made its mark on the seminar. The four main seminar topics were: (i) high source-term accident sequences identified in PSAs, (ii) containment performance, (iii) mitigation of core melt consequences, (iv) severe accident management in LWRs. In addition to the final panel discussion there was also a separate panel discussion on lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident. These proceedings include the papers presented during the seminar and they are arranged following the seminar programme outline. The presentations and discussions of the two panels are not included in the proceedings. The general conclusions and directions following from these two panels were, however, considered in a seminar review paper which was published in the March 1987 issue of Nuclear Engineering International

  11. Radionuclide distribution in LWR [light-water reactor] spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Thomas, L.E.; Baldwin, D.L.; Mendel, J.E.

    1990-09-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provides well-characterized spent fuel from light-water reactors (LWRs) for use in laboratory tests relevant to nuclear waste disposal in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Interpretation of results from tests on spent fuel oxidation, dissolution, and cladding degradation requires information on the inventory and distribution of radionuclides in the initial test materials. The MCC is obtaining this information from examinations of Approved Testing Materials (ATMs), which include spent fuel with burnups from 17 to 50 MWd/kgM and fission gas releases (FGR) from 0.2 to 18%. The concentration and distribution of activation products and the release of volatile fission products to the pellet-cladding gap and rod plenum are of particular interest because these characteristics are not well understood. This paper summarizes results that help define the 14 C inventory and distribution in cladding, the ''gap and grain boundary'' inventory of radionuclides in fuels with different FGRs, and the structure and radionuclide inventory of the fuel rim region within a few hundred micrometers from the fuel edge. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. Neutron radiographic findings in light water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1979-06-01

    The assessment of neutron radiographs of nuclear fuel elements can be much easier, faster and simpler if reference can be made to typical defects, which can be revealed by neutron radiography. In other fields of industrial radiography collections of reference radiographs, showing typical defects in welding, or casting have been completed and published long ago. Since 1974 neutron radiography is routinely used at Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark, for the quality and performance control of nuclear fuel. About 2000 neutron radiographs were taken, mainly during the post irradiation examination of light water reactor fuel. During assessment of neutron radiographs some typical defects of the fuel were found and it was felt that a classification of such defects will help to speed up the assessment procedure. Therefore an attempt was made to establish such a classification, which is currently used at Risoe now. This classification is presented in this atlas, which contains 36 neutron radiographs reproduced on film (in original size) and on paper (twice enlarged). (author)

  13. Controlling radiation fields in siemans designed light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riess, R.; Marchl, T. [Siemens Power Generation Group, Erlangen (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    An essential item for the control of radiation fields is the minimization of the use of satellites in the reactor systems of Light Water Reactors (LWRs). A short description of the qualification of Co-replacement materials will be followed by an illustration of the locations where these materials were implemented in Siemens designed LWRs. Especially experiences in PWRs show the immense influence of reduction of cobalt sources on dose rate buildup. The corrosion and the fatique and wear behavior of the replacement materials has not created concern up to now. A second tool to keep occupational radiation doses at a low level in PWRs is the use of the modified B/Li-chemistry. This is practized in Siemens designed plants by keeping the Li level at a max. value of 2 ppm until it reaches a pH (at 300{degrees}C) of {approximately}7.4. This pH is kept constant until the end of the cycle. The substitution of cobalt base alloys and thus the removal of the Co-59 sources from the system had the largest impact on the radiation levels. Nonetheless, the effectiveness of the coolant chemistry should not be neglected either. Several years of successful operation of PWRs with the replacement materials resulted in an occupational radiation exposure which is below 0.5 man-Sievert/plant and year.

  14. On the path to ordering standardized advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliter, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    The international Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) program is specifying, designing, and certifying the next generation of nuclear power plants. Begun in the mid-1980's, the program is on track to permit ordering and construction of families of standardized plants at the start of the twenty-first century. ALWRs will be constructed only if they are economically competitive with alternative forms of electricity generation and are recognized as acceptable and favorable by the public, prospective owners, and investors. This paper first gives an overview of the major building blocks ensuring safe, reliable, and economic designs and the status of those designs. Next it lays out the path the industry has charted toward adopting the ALWR option and indicates the status of three key steps -- design certification, utility requirements, and first-of-a-kind engineering. Lastly, the paper focuses on one of the most important building blocks for ensuring economic viability -- life-cycle standardization. Among the topics are the definition and scope of standardization; its advantages and disadvantages; design team standardization plans that describe the desired or optimum degree of standardization and the processes used to achieve it; and the need for an agreement among all plant owners and operators for implementing and sustaining standardization in families of ALWRs. 10 refs., 5 figs

  15. Capital costs of light water reactors: the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, G.

    1979-10-01

    The cost of building a modern nuclear power plant is greater than that of almost any other single civilian project - costs of individual plants are reckoned in hundreds of millions of pounds in the UK, and up to a billion dollars or more in the USA. Hence, depending on the size of nuclear programmes and their funding, escalation of nuclear capital costs may have important economic and social consequences through its effects on overall resource allocation. It is therefore important to analyse the extent and, as far as possible, the sources of cost increases and escalation, in order to see if the experience yields implications for technology policy. The USA has much the greatest experience in nuclear construction: it also has by far the largest amount of published information on the subject of capital costs. As all other countries lack either sufficient experience and/or adequate published cost information, it is impossible to conduct a genuine international comparison, and this paper is confined to an examination of US experience. This paper therefore assembles and evaluates currently available data on light water reactor (PWR and BWR) capital costs in the USA. (author)

  16. The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringsberg, Karin C

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007 at the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV). This article aims to describe the foundation of the NHPRN, the development and the present status of the work of NHPRN. The NHPRN consists of about 50 senior and junior researchers from all Nordic countries. It is a working network that aims to develop the theoretical understanding of health promotion, to create research cooperation in health promotion from a Nordic perspective and to extend the scope of health promotion through education. Network members meet biannually to discuss and further develop research within the field and are also responsible for the Nordic conference on Health Promotion, organized every 3 years. The NHV hosted the network between 2007 and 2014; and the World Health Organisation (WHO) will assume this role in 2015. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. Nordic walking and chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Hartvigsen, Jan; Puggaard, Lis

    2006-01-01

    activity provide similar benefits. Nordic Walking is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe. Initial studies have demonstrated that persons performing Nordic Walking are able to exercise longer and harder compared to normal walking thereby increasing their cardiovascular metabolism....... Until now no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to low back pain. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether supervised Nordic Walking can reduce pain and improve function in a population of chronic low back pain patients...... when compared to unsupervised Nordic Walking and advice to stay active. In addition we investigate whether there is an increase in the cardiovascular metabolism in persons performing supervised Nordic Walking compared to persons who are advised to stay active. Finally, we investigate whether...

  18. Nordic project food contact materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ågot; Tesdal Håland, Julie; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    Denmark, Finland, Faroe Islands, Iceland, Norway and Sweden have in 2013––2015 conducted a Nordic project on food contact materials. Food contact materials are used in all stages of food production and can be a general source of contamination. The food safety authorities in most of the Nordic...... countries have had a limited focus on the FCM area with the exception of Denmark and Finland. The aim of the project was therefore to control establishments producing, importing or using plastic food contact materials as well as to increase the knowledge of the inspectors performing these controls....... The focus of the inspections was to control the declaration of compliance (DoC) for plastic food contact materials. The requirement for a Doc is mandatory in order to ensure that the FCM complies with the legislation. In addition some products were analyzed for phthalates....

  19. Ten perspectives on Nordic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennbakk, Berit

    2006-10-15

    Summary: Perspective no. 1: Costly early learning from the EU ETS - Unforeseen price levels hit industries hard; Perspective no. 2: Market based support schemes - Do they work as intended? Perspective no. 3: New decade in the Nordic energy markets. Perspective no. 4: Reduced CO{sub 2} emissions and more renewables - Are we getting there or not? Perspective no. 5: Interpretation of financial requirements - An impediment to sound investments? Perspective no. 6: Who should invest in infrastructure - Public or private investors? Perspective no. 7: Re regulation is not the answer - Need for coordination calls for a visible hand? Perspective no. 8: Increased infrastructure investments - Due to EU ETS and support schemes for RES. Perspective no. 9: Energy, welfare and industry - Complex links make policy making difficult. Perspective no. 10 'Fuel' for an energy policy discussion - A Nordic energy policy agenda? (AG)

  20. German versus Nordic Board Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Board structure is an important component of the individual governance of firms, and the appropriateness of the various models is one of the most debated issues in corporate governance today. A comparison of the Nordic and German approaches to the structure of corporate boards reveals stark...... conceptual differences, as emphasized by the 2014 Lekvall Report on the Nordic Corporate Governance Model. This article provides a conceptual comparison between the two approaches to board structure and confirms the fundamental divergence between both models. However, relying on a number of recent legal...... changes and developments in business practice, the article argues that board practices in the two systems effectively blur the structural distinction, and that board organization is converging in practice. It thereby contributes to the broader debates on functionality and comparative corporate law...

  1. The Nordic Chernobyl data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walmod-Larsen, O.

    1990-01-01

    The NORDIC CHERNOBYL DATA BASE (NCDB) is established for scientific purposes. The aim is to collect valid data on radiation and radioactivity resulting from measurements made in the Nordic countries particularly after the Chernobyl accident. All information is stored in the so called C-base data system, which can handle input from a variety of sources, including multiple information on each sample. The system permits output to various other computer programs for furhter data treatment. The data base can be used from personal computers and as well as from VAX-computers. Data can be displayed in time- or geographical scales and they can be arranged so as to fit different system for statistical analysis. (author)

  2. E-learning Nordic 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sanya Gertsen

    2006-01-01

    E-learning Nordic 2006 er den første fællesnordiske undersøgelse, som specifikt fokuserer på effekten af it i uddannelsessektoren. Studiet er gennemført i Finland, Sverige, Norge og Danmark og mere end 8000 personer (elever, lærere, forældre og skoleledere i grundskoler og på de gymnasiale...... ungdomsuddannelser) har deltaget. Dette studie giver en række svar på centrale spørgsmål såsom: Hvad har vi fået ud af satsningen på it i uddannelsessektoren indtil nu? Og hvilke udfordringer inden for uddannelsessektoren står de nordiske lande foran i en globaliseret verden? E-learning Nordic 2006 er designet og...

  3. The modernisation of Nordic eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Gronow, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    It is often claimed that in post-industrial societies eating is characterised by the dissolution of traditional cultural patterns regarding eating rhythms, the structure of meals and the social context of eating. This paper presents results from a Nordic quantitative and comparative study which...... was conducted in 1997 based on interviews with almost 5000 individuals from four nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden). The study showed that even through some flexibility was evident, eating was characterized by nationally different, but socially coordinated rhythms. Two distinct meal patterns...... were identified, a "western" pattern with one daily hot meal (Denmark, Norway), and an "eastern" patterns with two, daily hot meals (Finalnad, Sweden). Even though a lot of eating took place in solitude, eating was most often a social activity. It is concluded that daily eating patterns are still...

  4. Innovating and re-branding Nordic wellbeing tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette; Konu, H.; Huijbens., E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Driving forces behind the successful development of coherent wellbeing tourism in the Nordic region. An innovation perspective on developing a particular Nordic content of wellbeing offered by tourism enterprises and destinations across the five Nordic countries...

  5. Nordic society for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Damkjaer, A.

    1999-11-01

    The key themes of teh 12th ordinary general meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection were: RADIATION - ENVIRONMENT - INFORMATION. A number of outstanding international experts accepted to contribute on the meetings first day with invited presentations, which focussed on these themes. In all 38 oral presentations and 28 posters are included in the present Proceedings, which furthermore contains a resume of discussions from the special session on 'Controllable Dose'. (EHS)

  6. Adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations in a Nordic population with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svandis Erna; Brader, Lea; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg

    2013-01-01

    The Nordic countries collaborate in setting recommendations for intake of nutrients by publishing the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Studies exploring how well the Nordic population adheres to the NNR are limited and none are available for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) subgroup...

  7. Model of Nordic energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjelsvik, E.; Johnsen, T.; Mysen, H.T.

    1992-01-01

    Simulation results are given of the consumption of electricity and oil in Denmark, Norway and Sweden based on the demand section of a Nordic energy market model which is in the process of being developed in Oslo under the auspices of the Nordic Council of Ministers. The model incorporates supply, and trade between countries so that it can be analyzed how trading can contribute to goals within energy and environmental policies and to cost effective activities aimed at reducing pollution. The article deals in some detail with the subject of how taxation on carbon dioxide emission can influence pollution abatement and with energy consumption development within individual sectors in individual Northern countries. The model of energy demand is described with emphasis on the individual sectors of industry, transport, service and private households. Simulation results giving the effects of energy consumption and increased taxation on fossil fuels are given. On this background the consequences of the adaption of power plants is discussed and a sketch is given of a Nordic electric power market incorporating trading. (AB) (15 refs.)

  8. Nordic Analysis of Climate Friendly Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Inger; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wahlstrøm, Åsa

    This report summarizes the findings of the work conducted within the project “Nordic Analysis of Climate Friendly Buildings”, financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers. The main goal of the project was to establish a knowledge and decision base for a Nordic innovation program that will promote...... the development and demonstration of low energy and climate friendly buildings. The innovation program should support a development that brings the Nordic countries to an international forefront with respect to business strongholds and market penetration of low energy and climate friendly buildings....

  9. Nordic Corporate Governance and Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    to the international audience. This paper therefore reviews the Nordic corporate governance model with special emphasis on a unique ownership structure, industrial foundations (foundations that own business companies). Rather than a meticulous description of details it emphasizes the Nordic model as a mode......The Nordic countries have attracted considerable attention in recent years as a benchmark for good governance. However, while the political governance characteristics of the Nordic model – particularly the welfare state - are well understood, its corporate governance characteristics remain elusive...

  10. Light Water Reactor Generic Safety Issues Database (LWRGSIDB). User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    resolved in other plants and which can be used in reassessing the safety of individual operating plants. The IAEA-TECDOC-1044, Generic Safety Issues for Nuclear Power Plants with Light Water Reactors and Measures Taken for Their Resolution (September 1998), is a compilation of such safety issues which is based on broad international experience. This compilation is one element within the framework of IAEA activities to assist Member States in reassessing the safety of operating nuclear power plants. It is a compilation not only of the generic safety issues identified in nuclear power plants but also, in almost all cases, the measures taken to resolve these issues. The safety issues, which are generic in nature with regard to light water reactors (LWRs), and the measures taken for their resolution, are intended for use as a reference in the reassessment of the safety of operating plants.The information contained in the main body of the TECDOC has been used to establish a database. This database has search, query and report functions. This information is thus available in an electronic form which can be selectively queried and with which reports can be produced according to the requirements of the user. The database also enables the IAEA to update the data periodically on the basis of information made available by Member States

  11. Light water reactor safety. Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, Bal Raj

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the past, present and possible future developments in light water reactor (LWR) safety. The paper divides the past into two periods: the distant past i.e., before the TMI-2 accident when the main concern was with the design basis, the general design criteria, the concept of the defense in depth, the thermal hydraulics of the large loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and the success of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS), and the near past, i.e., after the TMI-2 accident when the main concern was with the physics of the postulated severe accidents: their prevention and mitigation. The present period is chosen as the translation of the research on the design basis and severe accidents into practical designs of Gen III+ with their core catchers and severe accident management (SAM) strategies, which could, in fact, provide ample assurances of public safety even for very severe accidents. The paper attempts to describe the remaining safety issues for both the Gen II and Gen III+ nuclear plants. The more important safety challenges are being posed by the recent moves of (1) extension of the life of the presently installed Gen II LWRs to 60 years (and perhaps to 80 years) and (2) the large uprates in power that are being sought for the Gen II LWRs. Clearly, the safety margins will be tested by these moves of long extended operations with greater power ratings of the Gen II plants. A prognosis of the emerging development trends in the LWR safety has been attempted with some suggestions. (author)

  12. Radiological characterization for small type light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ken-ichi; Ichige, Hideaki; Tanabe, Hidenori

    2011-01-01

    In order to plan a decommissioning, amount investigation of waste materials and residual radioactivity inventory evaluation must be performed at the first stage of preparatory tasks. These tasks are called radiological characterization. Reliable information from radiological characterization is crucial for specification of decommissioning plan. With the information, we can perform radiological safety analysis and optimize decommissioning scenario. Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) has already started preparatory tasks for Tsuruga Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 (TS-1) that is the first commercial Small Type Light Water Reactor in Japan. To obtain reliable information about residual radioactivity inventory, we improved radioactivity inventory evaluation procedure. The procedure consists of neutron flux distribution calculation and radioactivity distribution calculation. We need a better understanding about characteristics of neutron transport phenomena in order to obtain reliable neutron flux distribution. Neutron flux was measured in Primary Containment Vessel (PCV) at 30 locations using activation foils. We chose locations where characteristic phenomena can be observed. Three dimensional (3D) neutron flux calculation was also performed to simulate continuous changes of neutron flux distribution. By assessing both the measured values and 3D calculation results, we could perform the calculation that simulates the phenomena well. We got knowledge about how to perform an appropriate neutron flux distribution calculation and also became able to calculate a reliable neutron flux distribution. Using the neutron flux distribution, we can estimate a reliable radioactivity distribution. We applied network-parallel-computing method to the estimation. And further we developed 'flux level approximation method' which use linear or parabola fitting method to estimation. Using these new methods, radioactivity by neutron irradiation, which is radioisotope formation, was calculated at

  13. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, George; Youngblood, Robert; Busby, Jeremy; Hallbert, Bruce; Barnard, Cathy; McCarthy, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline - even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration's energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program's plans.

  14. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Griffith; Robert Youngblood; Jeremy Busby; Bruce Hallbert; Cathy Barnard; Kathryn McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline - even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration's energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program's plans.

  15. Reliability assurance programme guidebook for advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    To facilitate the implementation of reliability assurance programmes (RAP) within future advanced reactor programmes and to ensure that the next generation of commercial nuclear reactors achieves the very high levels of safety, reliability and economy which are expected of them, in 1996, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established a task to develop a guidebook for reliability assurance programmes. The draft RAP guidebook was prepared by an expert consultant and was reviewed/modified at an Advisory Group meeting (7-10 April 1997) and at a consults meeting (7-10 October 1997). The programme for the RAP guidebook was reported to and guided by the Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors (TWG-LWR). This guidebook will demonstrate how the designers and operators of future commercial nuclear plants can exploit the risk, reliability and availability engineering methods and techniques developed over the past two decades to augment existing design and operational nuclear plant decision-making capabilities. This guidebook is intended to provide the necessary understanding, insights and examples of RAP management systems and processes from which a future user can derive his own plant specific reliability assurance programmes. The RAP guidebook is intended to augment, not replace, specific reliability assurance requirements defined by the utility requirements documents and by individual nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) designers. This guidebook draws from utility experience gained during implementation of reliability and availability improvement and risk based management programmes to provide both written and diagrammatic 'how to' guidance which can be followed to assure conformance with the specific requirements outlined by utility requirements documents and in the development of a practical and effective plant specific RAP in any IAEA Member State

  16. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, Kathryn A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Busby, Jeremy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hallbert, Bruce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Barnard, Cathy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program’s plans.

  17. Factors in the economic viability of advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.; Bagnal, C.W.; Rohde, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear power currently produces over 20% of the electricity generated in the United States, and a similar number for the entire world. Electricity generated from these nuclear power plants is typically some of the most economical of all sources, and is becoming even more economical with time as utilities focus on reducing production costs. Nevertheless, with the exception of the Asia Pacific region, no new nuclear orders have been placed in many years, and none are planned for the forseeable future. Two reasons for this demise for nuclear power in the western world are usually put forward: the current price of alternative means of electric power generation and the political climate, which tends to be anti-nuclear. The first of these reasons is founded in the low price of natural gas, which has been the preferred fuel for recent power generation additions. These additions have principally been used as peaking units, which are required only at the highest demand periods and not as base load units. The second reason stems from some bad experiences in the post-TMI era, when projects experienced a rapidly changing regulatory environment, long schedule stretchouts, and huge cost overruns. In spite of this relatively poor environment for new nuclear power plants, major programs to develop advanced light water reactors are continuing to keep the nuclear option alive, both in the United States and Europe. These programs are aimed at capturing the lessons learned from past experience, to ensure the success of future nuclear projects. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  18. Revised accident source terms for light-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soffer, L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents revised accident source terms for light-water reactors incorporating the severe accident research insights gained in this area over the last 15 years. Current LWR reactor accident source terms used for licensing date from 1962 and are contained in Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4. These specify that 100% of the core inventory of noble gases and 25% of the iodine fission products are assumed to be instantaneously available for release from the containment. The chemical form of the iodine fission products is also assumed to be predominantly elemental iodine. These assumptions have strongly affected present nuclear air cleaning requirements by emphasizing rapid actuation of spray systems and filtration systems optimized to retain elemental iodine. A proposed revision of reactor accident source terms and some im implications for nuclear air cleaning requirements was presented at the 22nd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. A draft report was issued by the NRC for comment in July 1992. Extensive comments were received, with the most significant comments involving (a) release fractions for both volatile and non-volatile species in the early in-vessel release phase, (b) gap release fractions of the noble gases, iodine and cesium, and (c) the timing and duration for the release phases. The final source term report is expected to be issued in late 1994. Although the revised source terms are intended primarily for future plants, current nuclear power plants may request use of revised accident source term insights as well in licensing. This paper emphasizes additional information obtained since the 22nd Conference, including studies on fission product removal mechanisms, results obtained from improved severe accident code calculations and resolution of major comments, and their impact upon the revised accident source terms. Revised accident source terms for both BWRS and PWRS are presented.

  19. Burnable poison management in light water reactor lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenemann, D; Mueller, A

    1970-07-01

    For a better reactivity control and power flattening as well as for an increase in dynamic stability the use of burnable poisons in light water reactors has been considered. The main goals for a burnable poison management and its technological realisation are discussed. The poison is assumed to be in the form of separate poison rods or homogeneous or inhomogeneous poisoning in the fuel rods. A new concept with a central poison rod within the fuel rod is discussed. The balance-equation for the needed concentration of burnable poisons for reactivity central as well as the problems of optimization of lumped poisons are treated in connection with the fuel lattice burnup. A first approximation for the design is found. For the calculation of the microburnup of lumped poison and fuel the special code NEUTRA has been developed. The burnup-equation can be chosen either in a simplified burnup-version with 2 pseudo fission products for each fissionable isotope or with an extended system of burnup equations to be used at sophisticated calculations. These burnup equations are coupled to S{sub N}-routines optionally for cylindrical or x-y-geometry for the proper calculation of the microscopic isotope density-, flux-, and power distributions. The theoretical predictions have been checked by means of special experiments so as to determine the accuracy of the computations. Even for a relatively long burnup of the fuel the predicted values are found to be within the experimental error in the case of lumped rods containing a cadmium-alloy or boron carbide. (auth)

  20. Feasibility study of plutonium recycling in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, Hideoto

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of plutonium recycling in light water reactors has been studied by the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, MITI. As the first step of the feasibility study, it was planned to charge two fuel assemblies, containing uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MO 2 ), in the core of the Tsuruga nuclear power plant (BWR) for testing. The design of fuel the safety of these fuel and the operating characteristics of these special fuel assemblies were evaluated. The specifications of MO 2 fuel pin and fuel assembly are compared to those of present uranium oxide (UO 2 ) fuel. The weight of fissile plutonium in one MO 2 fuel assembly is 2.22 kg. The characteristics of MO 2 fuel assemblies, such as reactivity, control rod worth and power distribution can be kept similar to UO 2 fuel. The plutonium isotope ratio of the MO 2 fuel is assumed as that obtained in the fuel taken out of the Tokai No. 1 gas cooled reactor. The temperature distribution in the fuel pellets is shown, compared to that of UO 2 fuel. The linear power density is 440 w/cm at the beginning of the fuel life and 360 w/cm after the burn-up of 44,000 Mwd/t. The stress in the cladding tubes of MO 2 fuel is not different from that of UO 2 fuel. The pellet-cladding interaction (PCM1) was analyzed, utilizing the FEM code, FEAST. Concerning the calculation of resonance absorption, the space dependence of thermal neutron spectra and the nuclear behavior of hollow pellets the methods of design calculation were checked up. It was recognized that regarding the nuclear characteristics of MO 2 fuel, no special technical question remains. (Nakai, Y.)

  1. Consideration of important technical issues for advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thadani, A.C.; Perch, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Early in the design and review process of the Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in recognition of the importance of defense-in-depth focused its attention on lessons learned from the operating experience, research and other studies as well as addressing the challenges from severe accidents. The Commission issued the Policy Statement on Safety Goals for the Operations of Nuclear Power Plants on August 4, 1986. This policy statement focused on the risks to the public from nuclear power plant operations with the objective of establishing goals that broadly define an acceptable level of radiological risk that might be imposed on the public as a result of nuclear power plant operation. The Commission recognizes the importance of mitigating the consequences of a core-melt accident and continues to emphasize features such as containment and siting in less populated areas as integral parts of the defense-in-depth concept associated with its accident prevention and mitigation philosophy. In its Severe Accident Policy statement, the Commission expressed its expectation that vendors engage in designing new standard plants should address severe accidents during the design stage to take full advantage of insights gained by providing design features to further reduce the likelihood of severe accidents from occurring and, in the unlikely occurrence of a severe accident, mitigating their consequences. Incorporating insights and design features during the design phase can be cost effective when compared to modifications to existing plants. The staff has used this guidance to apply defense-in-depth philosophy in focusing attention on severe accident considerations. This paper discusses some of the key prevention and mitigation issues the NRC has focused its efforts, including emerging technologies being applied to new reactor designs

  2. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn McCarthy; Jeremy Busby; Bruce Hallbert; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Curtis Smith; Cathy Barnard

    2013-04-01

    Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program’s plans.

  3. 77 FR 15812 - Initial Test Program of Condensate and Feedwater Systems for Light-Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... Systems for Light-Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide... Feedwater Systems for Light- Water Reactors.'' DG-1265 is proposed revision 2 of Regulatory Guide 1.68.1... Plants,'' dated January 1977. This regulatory guide is being revised to: (1) expand the scope of the...

  4. Technology Implementation Plan. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Commercial Light Water Reactor Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Terrani, Kurt A.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Worrall, Andrew; Robb, Kevin R.; Snead, Mary A.

    2015-01-01

    This report is an overview of the implementation plan for ORNL's fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) light water reactor fuel. The fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles embedded inside a fully dense SiC matrix and is intended for utilization in commercial light water reactor application.

  5. Technology Implementation Plan. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Commercial Light Water Reactor Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Lance Lewis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snead, Mary A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report is an overview of the implementation plan for ORNL's fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) light water reactor fuel. The fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles embedded inside a fully dense SiC matrix and is intended for utilization in commercial light water reactor application.

  6. Estimation of diffuse attenuation of ultraviolet light in optically shallow Florida Keys waters from MODIS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffuse attenuation of solar light (Kd, m−1) determines the percentage of light penetrating the water column and available for benthic organisms. Therefore, Kd can be used as an index of water quality for coastal ecosystems that are dependent on photosynthesis, such as the coral ...

  7. NordVal: A Nordic system for validation of alternative microbiological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Sven

    2007-01-01

    NordVal was created in 1999 by the Nordic Committee of Senior Officials for Food Issues under the Nordic Council of Ministers. The Committee adopted the following objective for NordVal: NordVal evaluates the performance and field of application of alternative microbiological methods. This includes...... analyses of food, water, feed, animal faeces and food environmental samples in the Nordic countries. NordVal is managed by a steering group, which is appointed by the National Food Administrations in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The background for creation of NordVal was a Danish...... validation system (DanVal) established in 1995 to cope with a need to validate alternative methods to be used in the Danish Salmonella Action Program. The program attracted considerable attention in the other Nordic countries. NordVal has elaborated a number of documents, which describe the requirements...

  8. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-10-28

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene.

  9. Lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  10. Nordic Seas nutrients data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olafsson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 cruises in the Arctic, Atlantic, and Southern Ocean have been assembled and the collection merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. The data have been subject to rigorous quality control (QC in order to ensure highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the parameters included were examined in order to quantify systematic biases in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Significant biases have been corrected for in the data products, i.e. the three merged files with measured, calculated and interpolated values for each of the three CARINA regions; the Arctic Mediterranean Seas (AMS, the Atlantic (ATL and the Southern Ocean (SO. With the adjustments, the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP (Key et al., 2004 and is suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates, and for model validation. The Arctic Mediterranean Seas is the collective term for the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, and the quality control was carried out separately in these two areas. This contribution presents an account of the quality control of the nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, and silicate data from the Nordic Seas in CARINA. Out of the 35 cruises from the Nordic Seas included in CARINA, 33 had nutrients data. The nitrate data from 4 of these appeared to be of so poor quality that they should not be used, for phosphate this number is 7 and for silicate it is 3. We also recommend that the nitrate data from 4 of the cruises should be adjusted, for phosphate and silicate only data from one cruise should be adjusted. The final data appears consistent to 5% based on evaluation of deep data. For nitrate this corresponds to 0.6 μmol kg−1, and for phosphate and silicate it corresponds to 0.04 and 0.6 μmol kg−1, respectively.

  11. Nordic exchange of students and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsson, A.

    2012-04-01

    Since the end of 2010 and until the summer of 2011 two upper secondary schools in Höyanger, Norway and Ronneby, Sweden had the possibility to take part in a project called Nordplus junior. The main aims of the program are: • To promote Nordic languages and culture and mutual Nordic-Baltic linguistic and cultural understanding. • To contribute to the development of quality and innovation in the educational systems for life-long learning in the participating countries by means of educational cooperation, development projects, exchanges and networking. • To support, develop, draw benefit from and spread innovative products and processes in education through systematic exchange of experiences and best practice. • To strengthen and develop Nordic educational cooperation and contribute to the establishment of a Nordic-Baltic educational area. The students did research on climate change and the impact on local and regional areas. Many questions had to be answered, giving an explanation to what happens if the climate changes. Questions related to Höyanger, Norway What happens to life in Norwegian fiords? Which attitudes do youngsters and adults have about climate change and what actions do they take? What does a rise in sea level mean for Höyanger? How are different tourist attractions affected in western Norway? Questions related to Ronneby, Sweden How is the regional fauna and flora affected? What will happen to agriculture and forestry? What do adults and youngsters know about consequences of a possible climate change? What happens to the people of Ronneby if the sea level rises? Are there any positive outcomes if the climate changes? Conclusions In Norwegian fiords there could be benefits because fish are growing faster in the winter because of an increased temperature. At the same time there could be an imbalance in the ecosystem because of a change in the living ranges of different species. Most of the young boys and girls in Höyanger, Norway were

  12. Development of Nordic Standard for analysis of oil and fat in water based on supercritical fluid extraction. Preliminary study, part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenssen, L.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes a preliminary study of a method of determining oil in water. The method is based on solid phase extraction and supercritical fluid extraction (SPE-SFE). The oil is extracted from the water by absorption to extraction disks from which it is then desorbed by supercritical carbon dioxide and detected by means of infrared spectrophotometry or gas chromatography. The results of the study will indicate if the method is suitable as a future substitute for the present Norwegian Standard, NS 9803 (Swedish Standard, SS 02 8145). The method has been validated using water samples with addition of real oil to 1-100 ppm. The accuracy is almost 70%, and the method has good repeatability and is linear in the 1-100 ppm range. 5 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modro, S.M.; Fisher, J.E.; Weaver, K.D.; Reyes, J.N.; Groome, J.T.; Babka, P.; Carlson, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) project was conducted under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The primary project objectives were to develop the conceptual design for a safe and economic small, natural circulation light water reactor, to address the economic and safety attributes of the concept, and to demonstrate the technical feasibility by testing in an integral test facility. This report presents the results of the project. After an initial exploratory and evolutionary process, as documented in the October 2000 report, the project focused on developing a modular reactor design that consists of a self-contained assembly with a reactor vessel, steam generators, and containment. These modular units would be manufactured at a single centralized facility, transported by rail, road, and/or ship, and installed as a series of self-contained units. This approach also allows for staged construction of an NPP and ''pull and replace'' refueling and maintenance during each five-year refueling cycle. Development of the baseline design concept has been sufficiently completed to determine that it complies with the safety requirements and criteria, and satisfies the major goals already noted. The more significant features of the baseline single-unit design concept include: (1) Thermal Power--150 MWt; (2) Net Electrical Output--35 MWe; (3) Steam Generator Type--Vertical, helical tubes; (4) Fuel UO 2 , 8% enriched; (5) Refueling Intervals--5 years; (6) Life-Cycle--60 years. The economic performance was assessed by designing a power plant with an electric generation capacity in the range of current and advanced evolutionary systems. This approach allows for direct comparison of economic performance and forms a basis for further evaluation, economic and technical, of the proposed design and for the design evolution towards a more cost competitive concept. Applications such as cogeneration

  14. Occupation and leukemia in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talibov, Madar; Kautiainen, Susanna; Martinsen, Jan Ivar

    2012-01-01

    We studied occupational variation of the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and other leukemia in Nordic countries.......We studied occupational variation of the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and other leukemia in Nordic countries....

  15. Radiation protection legislation in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1992-01-01

    A close collaboration exists in the Nordic countries in the field of radiation protection. The radiation protection authorities attach major importance to a uniform interpretation of the international recommendations. The legal situation of the Nordic countries in the radiation protection field will be reviewed with the main emphasis on the new Swedish and Finnish laws. (author)

  16. An Overview of Nordic Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Bryde; Runesson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This essay is published as the opening chapter in a book that celebrates the 100 year anniversary of the uniform Nordic Contracts Acts. It introduces some of the main concepts, main rules and lines of argumentation that you will find in Nordic contract law. Thereby it introduces the reader...

  17. Experiences from Nordic research collaboration in linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Sandøy

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The project “Modern loanwords in the languages of the Nordic countries (MIN – Moderne importord i språka i Norden” was the first large-scale collaborative project between linguists in the Nordic countries. This article presents both the aim of the project and some experiences from the work with respect to project design, financing and networking.

  18. Calculation methods for advanced concept light water reactor lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, S.

    1986-01-01

    In the last few years s several advanced concepts for fuel rod lattices have been studied. Improved fuel utilization is one of the major aims in the development of new fuel rod designs and lattice modifications. By these changes s better performance in fuel economics s fuel burnup and material endurance can be achieved in the frame of the well-known basic Light Water Reactor technology. Among the new concepts involved in these studies that have attracted serious attention are lattices consisting of arrays of annular rods duplex pellet rods or tight multicells. These new designs of fuel rods and lattices present several computational problems. The treatment of resonance shielded cross sections is a crucial point in the analyses of these advanced concepts . The purpose of this study was to assess adequate approximation methods for calculating as accurately as possible, resonance shielding for these new lattices. Although detailed and exact computational methods for the evaluation of the resonance shielding in these lattices are possible, they are quite inefficient when used in lattice codes. The computer time and memory required for this kind of computations are too large to be used in an acceptable routine manner. In order to over- come these limitations and to make the analyses possible with reasonable use of computer resources s approximation methods are necessary. Usual approximation methods, for the resonance energy regions used in routine lattice computer codes, can not adequately handle the evaluation of these new fuel rod lattices. The main contribution of the present work to advanced lattice concepts is the development of an equivalence principle for the calculation of resonance shielding in the annular fuel pellet zone of duplex pellets; the duplex pellet in this treatment consists of two fuel zones with the same absorber isotope in both regions. In the transition from a single duplex rod to an infinite array of this kind of fuel rods, the similarity of the

  19. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Digital Architecture Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Oxstrand, Johanna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Digital Architecture effort is a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The LWRS program is performed in close collaboration with industry research and development (R&D) programs that provides the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants (NPPs). One of the primary missions of the LWRS program is to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. Therefore, a major objective of the LWRS program is the development of a seamless digital environment for plant operations and support by integrating information from plant systems with plant processes for nuclear workers through an array of interconnected technologies. In order to get the most benefits of the advanced technology suggested by the different research activities in the LWRS program, the nuclear utilities need a digital architecture in place to support the technology. A digital architecture can be defined as a collection of information technology (IT) capabilities needed to support and integrate a wide-spectrum of real-time digital capabilities for nuclear power plant performance improvements. It is not hard to imagine that many processes within the plant can be largely improved from both a system and human performance perspective by utilizing a plant wide (or near plant wide) wireless network. For example, a plant wide wireless network allows for real time plant status information to easily be accessed in the control room, field workers’ computer-based procedures can be updated based on the real time plant status, and status on ongoing procedures can be incorporated into smart schedules in the outage command center to allow for more accurate planning of critical tasks. The goal

  20. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Integrated Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program's plans. For the LWRS Program, sustainability is defined as the ability to maintain safe and economic operation of the existing fleet of nuclear power plants for a longer-than-initially-licensed lifetime. It has two facets with respect to long-term operations: (1) manage the aging of plant systems, structures, and components so that nuclear power plant lifetimes can be extended and the plants can continue to operate safely, efficiently, and economically; and (2) provide science-based solutions to the industry to implement technology to exceed the performance of the current labor-intensive business model.

  1. Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Bays, Samuel E.; Pope, Michael A.; Youinou, Gilles J.

    2010-01-01

    From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in a light water reactor (LWR). The transuranic portion of the MOX was varied among Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. (All-TRU means all isotopes through Cf-252.) The Pu case was allowed to go to 10% Pu in fresh fuel, but when the minor actinides were included, the transuranic enrichment was kept below 8% to satisfy the expected void reactivity constraint. The uranium portion of the MOX was enriched uranium. That enrichment was increased (to as much as 6.5%) to keep the fuel critical for a typical LWR irradiation. The second approach uses heterogeneous inert matrix fuel (IMF) assemblies in an LWR - a mix of IMF and traditional UOX pins. The uranium-free IMF fuel pins were Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. The UOX pins were limited to 4.95% U-235 enrichment. The number of IMF pins was set so that the amount of TRU in discharged fuel from recycle N (from both IMF and UOX pins) was made into the new IMF pins for recycle N+1. Up to 60 of the 264 pins in a fuel assembly were IMF. The assembly-average TRU content was 1-6%. The third approach uses fast reactor oxide fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor with transuranic conversion ratio of 0.50 and 1.00. The transuranic conversion ratio is the production of transuranics divided by destruction of transuranics. The FR at CR=0.50 is similar to the CR for the MOX case. The fast reactor cases had a transuranic content of 33-38%, higher than IMF or MOX.

  2. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Integrated Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-05-01

    proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program’s plans. For the LWRS Program, sustainability is defined as the ability to maintain safe and economic operation of the existing fleet of nuclear power plants for a longer-than-initially-licensed lifetime. It has two facets with respect to long-term operations: (1) manage the aging of plant systems, structures, and components so that nuclear power plant lifetimes can be extended and the plants can continue to operate safely, efficiently, and economically; and (2) provide science-based solutions to the industry to implement technology to exceed the performance of the current labor-intensive business model.

  3. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Integrated Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-02-15

    proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program's plans. For the LWRS Program, sustainability is defined as the ability to maintain safe and economic operation of the existing fleet of nuclear power plants for a longer-than-initially-licensed lifetime. It has two facets with respect to long-term operations: (1) manage the aging of plant systems, structures, and components so that nuclear power plant lifetimes can be extended and the plants can continue to operate safely, efficiently, and economically; and (2) provide science-based solutions to the industry to implement technology to exceed the performance of the current labor-intensive business model.

  4. Fuel cycle options for light water reactors in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecking, D.; Mester, W.

    1999-01-01

    In Germany 19 nuclear power plants with an electrical output of 22 GWe are in operation. Annually about 450 t of spent fuel are unloaded from the reactors. Currently most of the spent fuel elements are shipped to France and the United Kingdom for reprocessing according to contracts which have been signed since the late 70es. By the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act in 1994 the previous priority for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel was substituted by a legal equivalency of the reprocessing and direct disposal option. As a consequence some utilities take into consideration the direct disposal of their spent fuel for economical reasons. The separated plutonium will be recycled as MOX fuel in light water reactors. About 30 tons of fissile plutonium will be available to German utilities for recycling by the year 2000. Twelve German reactors are already licensed for the use of MOX fuel, five others have applied for MOX use. Eight reactors are currently using MOX fuel or used it in the past. The spent fuel elements which shall be disposed of without reprocessing will be stored in two interim dry storage facilities at Gorleben and Ahaus. The storage capacities are 3800 and 4200 tHM, respectively. The Gorleben salt dome is currently investigated to prove its suitability as a repository for high level radioactive waste, either in a vitrified form or as conditioned spent fuel. The future development of the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management depends on the future role of nuclear energy in Germany. According to estimations of the German utilities no additional nuclear power plants are needed in the near future. Around the middle of the next decade it will have to be decided whether existing plants should be substituted by new ones. For the foreseeable time German utilities are interested in a highly flexible approach to the nuclear fuel cycle and waste management keeping open both spent fuel management options: the closed fuel cycle and direct disposal of

  5. Visible Light Responsive Catalyst for Air Water Purification Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Investigate and develop viable approaches to render the normally UV-activated TIO2 catalyst visible light responsive (VLR) and achieve high and sustaining catalytic activity under the visible region of the solar spectrum.

  6. Visible Light Responsive Catalyst for Air & Water Purification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective for this project was to investigate and develop viable approaches to render the normally UV-activated titanium dioxide (TiO2) catalyst visible light...

  7. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  8. Nordic Noir - Location, Identity and Emotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and discussing the impact of the Nordic element in ‘Nordic Noir’ is the main purpose of this article. This is pursued by tracing the concepts of location, identity and emotion in selected episodes of TV series and serials representative of Nordic Noir – Wallander (2005-) Forbrydelsen...... the Nordic countries traditionally see each other are therefore investigated – with Denmark and Sweden in the main roles. In terms of theory, the concept of emotions as “structures of feeling” (Raymond Williams 1978) has recently been revived, paving the way for studies of the relationship between culture...... and emotion (Sharma & Dahl 2013, Tygstrup 2013, Pribram 2011, Laine 2011). Their concepts are applied in the analyses. The article concludes with a perspective considering the role of Nordic Noir vis-à-vis international TV drama productions....

  9. Obesity Prevention in the Nordic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmarr, Anders; Hejgaard, Tatjana; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that mean BMI and prevalences of overweight/obesity and obesity have increased over the last decades in the Nordic countries, despite highly regulated societies with a focus on obesity prevention. We review recent overweight/obesity and obesity prevention initiatives within four of the five Nordic countries: Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. Moreover, we analyze the current situation based on monitoring data on BMI collected in 2011 and 2014, and obtain overall estimates of overweight/obesity and obesity prevalences for the Nordic Region. Data analysis shows that obesity in adults has increased from 2011 to 2014, while no significant changes were found for children. No significant increases were found for mean BMI and overweight/obesity prevalence. Obesity prevention initiatives among the Nordic countries are highly similar although minor differences are present, which is rooted in transnational Nordic cooperation and comparable societal structures.

  10. Technology foresight in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eerola, A.; Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2002-01-01

    and the society at large at the sametime. The report recommends: 1. The establishment of a Nordic forum for technology foresight practitioners and researchers. 2. The creation of a common follow-up system for relevant international technology foresight exercises. 3. The realisation oftechnology foresight......Technology foresight (TF) is increasingly used by governments, funding agencies, R&D institutions and private companies as a tool for strategy development, prioritisation of R&D funds, and learning. Although the Nordic Council of Ministers aims at"developing Nordic region in next 10 years...... and social differences among the Nordic countries. Nordic foresight cooperation may alsoremain as a distant academic exercise if proper links to political and economic decisions cannot be made and maintained. A technology foresight exercise might serve different institutions of the innovation system...

  11. Nordic eHealth Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyppönen, Hannele; Faxvaag, Arild; Gilstad, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    eHealth indicator and benchmarking activities are rapidly increasing nationally and internationally. The work is rarely based on a transparent methodology for indicator definition. This article describes first results of testing an indicator methodology for defining eHealth indicators, which...... was reported at the Medical Informatics Europe conference in 2012. The core elements of the methodology are illustrated, demonstrating validation of each of them in the context of Nordic eHealth Indicator work. Validation proved the importance of conducting each of the steps of the methodology, with several...

  12. Nordic seminar on energy taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Taxes on energy contribute considerably to a State's income, it is stated. This form of taxation also influences the consumer prices of energy products significantly. Taxation is an important means of political control within the energy sector, it is also a powerful means of controlling a country's environmental policy. The seminar's aim was to study the theoretical background for energy taxation and to provide information on how the standard system for taxation has changed in the various Nordic countries, and the need for a renewal of energy taxation. Seven papers presented at the seminar are presented. (AB)

  13. Sustainable Energy Future - Nordic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This invited paper first outlines the methodologies applied in analysing the energy savings potentials, as applied to a Nordic and a European case study. Afterwards are shown results for how a high quality of life can be achieved with an energy consumption only a small fraction of the present in ...... in Europe. The energy policy in Denmark since 1973 is outlined, including the activities and the roles of NGOs. Finally are described some of the difficulties of implementing energy saving policies, especially in combination with increasing liberalization of the energy market....

  14. Nordic MCL2 trial update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Christian H; Kolstad, Arne; Laurell, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a heterogenic non-Hodgkin lymphoma entity, with a median survival of about 5 years. In 2008 we reported the early - based on the median observation time of 4 years - results of the Nordic Lymphoma Group MCL2 study of frontline intensive induction immunochemotherapy...... and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), with more than 60% event-free survival at 5 years, and no subsequent relapses reported. Here we present an update after a median observation time of 6·5 years. The overall results are still excellent, with median overall survival and response duration longer than...

  15. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  16. Seawater desalination using small and medium light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Water is an essential substance for sustaining human life. As Japan is an island country, surrounded by the sea and having abundant rainfall, there is no scarcity of water in daily life except during abnormally dry summers or after disasters such as earthquakes. Consequently, there is hardly any demand for seawater desalination plants except on remote islands, Okinawa and a part of Kyushu. However, the IAEA has forecast a scarcity of drinking water in developing countries at the beginning of the 21st century. Further, much more irrigation water will be required every year to prevent cultivated areas from being lost by desertification. If developing countries were to produce such water by seawater desalination using current fossil fuel energy technology, it would cause increased air pollution and global warming. This paper explains the concept of seawater desalination plants using small and medium water reactors (hereinafter called 'nuclear desalination'), as well as important matters regarding the export nuclear desalination plants to developing countries. (author)

  17. Design of New Nordic Pasta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mai; Fisker, Anna Marie

    The wave The Danish nature is characterized by the rough oceans that capture Denmark, which has been an inspiration for this pasta-design. The Wave is supposed to be the base of a new Nordic meal that creates experiences and surprises on the journey through the meal. The Boiled sweet The pasta...... captures the the experience of taste in each single piece of the boiled sweet, that associates to pearls in a row. It creates a meal that is divided sharply into pieces and creates a simplicity and pureness on the plate like the Nordic designers like it. The colors of the stuffing are struggling to get out...... through the holes in the pasta which makes the guests interested and curious in the meal. Dualism This pasta-design is based on the clash between the Italian and the Danish culture. The simplicity and sharpness of the Danish design meets the soft and curved Italian design with the sharp edge and the soft...

  18. Personal piety in Nordic heathenism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke V. Ström

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, Nordic heathenism is thought of as a fairy-tale or as an impersonal, collective event. Sacrifice (blót and ethics appear to be the main facts. Was there anything at all like piety, and could it, in this case, be spoken of as personal? The inhabitant of the North stands out as a more collectively thinking person, attached to dynasty, housecarls and family. However, there are a couple of examples in the texts of a "personal faith" and an interest in "the individual or his soul or destiny". It is quite clear, that the collective and impersonal traits in old Norse religion were far more prominent than in the religious currents of today, but there was in Nordic paganism a personal piety, too. It appeared not only in personal opinion and personal means of expression, but also in daily life as well. The single peasant, Viking, fisherman, artisan, housewife, was in his or her everyday work totally dependent on the blessing of the gods and on protection from the attacks of the demons. He who succeeded enjoyed this personal success because of personal sacrifices, personal fortune and personal blessing.

  19. A waveshifter light collector for a water Cherenkov detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, R.; Sulak, L.; Ciocio, A.; Stone, J.L.; Seidel, S.; Casper, D.; Bionta, R.M.; Park, H.S.; Wuest, C.; Blewitt, G.; Bratton, C.B.; Dye, S.T.; Learned, J.G.; Errede, S.; Foster, G.W.; Gajewski, W.; Matthews, J.; Sinclair, D.; Thornton, G.; Van Der Velde, J.C.; Ganezer, K.S.; Haines, T.J.; Kropp, W.R.; Price, L.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Sobel, H.W.; Svoboda, R.; Goldhaber, M.; Jones, T.W.; Kielczewska, D.; Losecco, J.M.; Shumard, E.

    1987-01-01

    A device has been developed which is capable of doubling the light collection capability of a 5 inch hemispherical photomultiplier tube. Known as a 'waveshifter plate', its geometry is adaptable to various applications. Its marginal cost is small with respect to that of a phototube, it is readily removable, and it has minimum effect upon dark noise and timing resolution. (orig.)

  20. Report of analyses for light hydrocarbons in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dromgoole, E.L.

    1982-04-01

    This report contains on microfiche the results of analyses for methane, ethane, propane, and butane in 11,659 ground water samples collected in 47 western and three eastern 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangles of the National Topographic Map Series (Figures 1 and 2), along with a brief description of the analytical technique used and some simple, descriptive statistics. The ground water samples were collected as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance. Further information on the ground water samples can be obtained by consulting the NURE data reports for the individual quadrangles. This information includes (1) measurements characterizing water samples (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements, where applicable (water temperature, well description, and other measurements), and (3) elemental analyses

  1. Proceedings of the 1st Nordic Optimization Symposium - 10th Nordic MPS meeting, Copenhagen 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Jørgensen, Rene Munk; Kohl, Niklas

    2006-01-01

    , Operations Research and Mathematical Programming. Finally we would like to thank our sponsors and supporter for their contributions. It has among other things made it possible to give free registration to a number of researchers from the Baltic countries and Ph.D. students in general. We wish you all......On behalf of the Technical University of Denmark, the Danish Operations Research Society and the Nordic Section of the Mathematical Programming Society we welcome you to Copenhagen and the 1st Nordic Optimization Symposium - the 10th meeting of the Nordic MPS. The meetings of the Nordic MPS have...... to add a new title, that reflects the much broader field that is our playground at these meetings. Still the odd trustworthy title “Meeting of the Nordic MPS” has been maintained to demonstrate the origin of the symposium. It is our hope that future Nordic MPS meetings will carry on using this “double...

  2. Electrolytic separation factors for oxygen isotopes in light and heavy water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulens, J.; Olmstead, W.J.; Longhurst, T.H.; Gale, K.L.; Rolston, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The electrolytic separation factor, α, has been measured for /sup 17/O and /sup 18/O at Pt and Ni anodes in both light and heavy water solutions of 6M KOH as a function of current density. For oxygen-17, isotopic separation effects were not observed, within the experimental uncertainty of +-2%, under all conditions studied. For oxygen-18, there is a small difference of 2% in α values between Pt and Ni in both light and heavy water solutions, but there is no significant difference in α values between light and heavy water solutions. In light waters solutions, the separation factor at Pt is small, α(/sup 18/O) ≤ 1.02 for i ≥ 0.1 A/cm/sub 2/. This value agrees reasonably well with theoretical estimates

  3. Current status of light water reactor and Hitachi's technical improvements for BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Minoru; Ohki, Arahiko.

    1984-01-01

    Gradual technical improvements in Japan over the years has improved the reliability of light water reactors, and has achieved the highest capacity factor level in the world. Commercial operation of Fukushima 2-2 (1,100 MW) of the Tokyo Electric Power Co. was started in February, 1984, as the first standardized BWR base plant, ushering in a new age of domestic light water reactor technology. The ABWR (1,300 MW class) has been developed as Japan's next generation light water reactor, with construction aimed at the latter half of the 1980's. Hitachi's extensive efforts range from key nuclear equipment to various related robots, directed at improving safety, reliability, and the capacity factor, while reducing radiation exposure. This paper presents an outline of Hitachi's participation in the light water reactor's improvement and standardization, and the current status of our role in the international cooperation plan for the ABWR. (author)

  4. More recent developments for the ultrasonic testing of light water reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiger, H.; Engl, G.

    1976-01-01

    The development of an ultrasonic testing method for the inspection from the outside of the areas close to the cladding of the spherical fields of holes of light water reactor pressure vessels is described

  5. Catalogue and classification of technical safety rules for light-water reactors and reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloser, M.; Fichtner, N.; Neider, R.

    1975-08-01

    This report on the cataloguing and classification of technical rules for land-based light-water reactors and reprocessing plants contains a list of classified rules. The reasons for the classification system used are given and discussed

  6. Climate impacts of parameterized Nordic Sea overflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Large, William G.; Briegleb, Bruce P.

    2010-11-01

    A new overflow parameterization (OFP) of density-driven flows through ocean ridges via narrow, unresolved channels has been developed and implemented in the ocean component of the Community Climate System Model version 4. It represents exchanges from the Nordic Seas and the Antarctic shelves, associated entrainment, and subsequent injection of overflow product waters into the abyssal basins. We investigate the effects of the parameterized Denmark Strait (DS) and Faroe Bank Channel (FBC) overflows on the ocean circulation, showing their impacts on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and the North Atlantic climate. The OFP is based on the Marginal Sea Boundary Condition scheme of Price and Yang (1998), but there are significant differences that are described in detail. Two uncoupled (ocean-only) and two fully coupled simulations are analyzed. Each pair consists of one case with the OFP and a control case without this parameterization. In both uncoupled and coupled experiments, the parameterized DS and FBC source volume transports are within the range of observed estimates. The entrainment volume transports remain lower than observational estimates, leading to lower than observed product volume transports. Due to low entrainment, the product and source water properties are too similar. The DS and FBC overflow temperature and salinity properties are in better agreement with observations in the uncoupled case than in the coupled simulation, likely reflecting surface flux differences. The most significant impact of the OFP is the improved North Atlantic Deep Water penetration depth, leading to a much better comparison with the observational data and significantly reducing the chronic, shallow penetration depth bias in level coordinate models. This improvement is due to the deeper penetration of the southward flowing Deep Western Boundary Current. In comparison with control experiments without the OFP, the abyssal ventilation rates increase in the North

  7. Nuclear calculation methods for light water moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.

    1961-02-01

    This report is intended as an introductory review. After a brief discussion of problems encountered in the nuclear design of water moderated reactors a comprehensive scheme of calculations is described. This scheme is based largely on theoretical methods and computer codes developed in the U.S.A. but some previously unreported developments made in this country are also described. It is shown that the effective reproduction factor of simple water moderated lattices may be estimated to an accuracy of approximately 1%. Methods for treating water gap flux peaking and control absorbers are presented in some detail, together with a brief discussion of temperature coefficients, void coefficients and burn-up problems. (author)

  8. Light Refraction by Water as a Rationale for the Poggendorff Illusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2017-01-01

    The Poggendorff illusion in its classical form of parallel lines interrupting a transversal is viewed from the perspective of being related to the everyday experience of observing the light refraction in water. It is argued that if one considers a transversal to be a light ray in air and the para...

  9. CISG Part II in Nordic Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, as the Nordic countries celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Nordic Contract Act (NCA), there is also good reason to celebrate the fact that - due to recent developments - the original field of NCA application has been narrowed in one important respect. In particular, the contract...... formation rules in NCA Chapter I – which for nearly 100 years applied by default to all contracts – no longer apply to contracts for the international sale of goods. As regards this latter significant contract category, Chapter I of the NCA has (except for inter-Nordic sales) been pre-empted, i.e. replaced...

  10. Toward visible light response: Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Domen, Kazunari

    2011-01-01

    Extensive energy conversion of solar energy can only be achieved by large-scale collection of solar flux. The technology that satisfies this requirement must be as simple as possible to reduce capital cost. Overall water splitting by powder

  11. Nordic study on reactor waste. Technical part 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    An important part of the Nordic studies on system- and safety analysis of the management of low and medium level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, is the safety analysis of a Reference System. This reference system was established within the study and is described in this Technical Part 1. The reference system covers waste management Schemes that are potential possibilities in either one of the four participating Nordic countries. The reference system is based on: a power reactor system consisting of 6 BWR's of 500 MWe each, operated simultaneously over the same 30 year period, and deep bed granular ion exchange resin wastes from the Reactor Water Clean-Up System (RWCS and powdered ion exchange resin from the Spent Fuel Pool Cleanup System (SFPCS)). Both waste types are supposed to be solidified by mixing with cement and bitumen. Two basic types of containers are considered. Standard 200 liter steel drums and specially made cubicreinforced concrete moulds with a net volume of 1 m 3 . The Nordic study assumes temporary storage of the solidified waste for a maximum of 50 years before the waste is transferred to the disposal site. Transportation of the waste from the storage facilitiy to the disposal site will be by road or sea. Three different disposal facilities are considered: Shallow land burial, near surface concrete bunker, and rock cavern with about 30 m granite cover. (EG)

  12. Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) in the European Nordic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, U. [Norwegian Institute of Air Research (NILU), Tromso (Norway); Jaernberg, U. [Institute of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm (Sweden); Kallenborn, R. [Norwegian Institute of Air Research (NILU), Kjeller (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) have been industrially produced for several decades and are applied as stain and water repellents for surface treatment of textiles, carpets, leather and paper products. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a degradation product of several PFAS, has recently gained considerable attention because of its ubiquitous distribution in the environment and its presence in human blood plasma. Though most of the production volume of PFOS-based chemicals has been voluntarily phased out by the manufacturers, similar compounds with perfluorinated chains, including perfluorinated carboxylic acids, continue to be employed for comparable applications. A first screening project on the distribution of PFAS in the environment of five Nordic countries was supported and financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers through the Chemicals Group and the Environmental Monitoring Group and national institutions. The aim of the study was to assess the levels and distribution of PFAS in the Nordic environment and to trace differences in contaminant concentrations and patterns between different countries and types of matrices.

  13. 10-fold enhancement in light-driven water splitting using niobium oxynitride microcone array films

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Basamat

    2016-03-26

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the synthesis of highly ordered niobium oxynitride microcones as an attractive class of materials for visible-light-driven water splitting. As revealed by the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), photoelectrochemical and transient photocurrent measurements, the microcones showed enhanced performance (~1000% compared to mesoporous niobium oxide) as photoanodes for water splitting with remarkable stability and visible light activity. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Overview of light water/hydrogen-based low energy nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.; Shrestha, Prajakti J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews light water and hydrogen-based low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) including the different methodologies used to study these reactions and the results obtained. Reports of excess heat production, transmutation reactions, and nuclear radiation emission are cited. An aim of this review is to present a summary of the present status of light water LENR research and provide some insight into where this research is heading. (author)

  15. The Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) programme. Nordic cooperation on nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kasper G. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark). National Lab. for Sustainable Energy; Ekstroem, Karoliina [Fortum Power and Heat, Fortum (Finland); Gwynn, Justin P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Tromsoe (Norway). Fram Centre; Magnusson, Sigurdur M. [Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland); Physant, Finn C. [NKS-Sekretariatet, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2012-07-01

    The roots of the current Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) programme can be traced back to the recommendation by the Nordic Council in the late 1950s for the establishment of joint Nordic committees on the issues of nuclear research and radiation protection. One of these joint Nordic committees, the 'Kontaktorgan', paved the way over its 33 years of existence for the future of Nordic cooperation in the field of nuclear safety, through the formation of Nordic groups on reactor safety, nuclear waste and environmental effects of nuclear power in the late 1960s and early 1970s. With an increased focus on developing nuclear power in the wake of the energy crisis on the 1970s, the NKS was established by the Nordic Council to further develop the previous strands of Nordic cooperation in nuclear safety. NKS started its first programme in 1977, funding a series of four year programmes over the next 24 years covering the areas of reactor safety, waste management, emergency preparedness and radioecology. Initially funded directly from the Nordic Council, ownership of NKS was transferred from the political level to the national competent authorities at the beginning of the 1990s. This organizational and funding model has continued to the present day with additional financial support from a number of co-sponsors in Finland, Norway and Sweden. (orig.)

  16. Laser-light backscattering response to water content and proteolysis in dry-cured ham

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fulladosa, E.; Rubio-Celorio, M.; Skytte, Jacob Lercke

    2017-01-01

    on the acquisition conditions used. Laser backscattering was influenced by both dryness and proteolysis intensity showing an average light intensity decrease of 0.2 when decreasing water content (1% weight loss) and increasing proteolysis (equivalent to one-hour enzyme action). However, a decrease of scattering area...... was only detected when the water content was decreased (618 mm(2) per 1% weight loss). Changes on scattering of light profiles were only observed when the water content changed. Although there is a good correlation between water content and LBI parameters when analysing commercial samples, proteolysis...... of laser incidence) and to analyse the laser-light backscattering changes caused by additional hot air drying and proteolysis of dry-cured ham slices. The feasibility of the technology to determine water content and proteolysis (which is related to textural characteristics) of commercial sliced dry...

  17. Questionnaire use among nordic neuropsychologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeland, Jens; Norup, Anne; Persson, Bengt A.

    2017-01-01

    The core method of neuropsychologists has been to collect structured samples of behavior through standardized tests. Information that cannot be elicited through tests may be gathered by questionnaires asking questions about behavior. Tests may deconstruct cognitive function precisely, but lack...... the ecological validity of questionnaires. Thus, many neuropsychologists have advocated more use of questionnaires, but it is not known whether professional practice has changed. Until recently, personality instruments were the only widespread questionnaires in frequent use among neuropsychologists. We studied...... the inventory use of 702 Nordic neuropsychologists. The most used questionnaires are listed, and differences between countries are analyzed. In addition, the questionnaires are grouped with regard to whether they map cognition, behavior not observable during consultations, emotional symptoms, personality...

  18. The Nordic concept of 'faellesskab'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, P

    1991-01-01

    The complex of cultural, political and societal affiliations, both in a historic and a contemporary perspective, is expressed by a special term in the Nordic languages, 'faellesskab', often with the addition of 'folkelig', as 'folkeligt faellesskab', where 'folkelig' means of the people. No corresponding term exists in English. For medical ethics the concept 'faellesskab', or whatever wording is chosen to serve the semantics of this term, is vital. In research ethics and clinical decision-making complex ethical analyses and normative evaluations are necessary. They cannot be based solely on moral relativism, whether being based on results of opinion polls or on a widespread 'every man minds his own business' concept. 'Faellesskab' possesses the necessary base of common values. PMID:2033630

  19. Partnering models in Nordic construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    of local research and industry partners including major building clients. Data were collected by means of national reviews of partnering policies and practices, thematic analyses, and case studies. The concept partnering was introduced in a Nordic context in the 1990s and has since then been implemented...... in a large number of projects. Clients sought to establish a culture of openness and trust within the project and tried promoting this with various kinds of incentives. In some countries the move towards voluntary collaboration was, paradoxically, strongly advocated by public authorities. Generally, however......Traditionally, procurement and contractual policies adopted by building and construction clients produce a system in which clients procure design services separately from construction services, while operation and maintenance have been subject to further, separate procurement actions...

  20. Nordic study on reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    In 1981, 14 nuclear power reactors are in operation and 2 under construction in the Nordic countries. So far, the reactor waste originating from day-to-day operation of these plants has been stored in solidified form at the reactor sites. Within a few years a satisfactory disposal procedure needs to be established. While the main R and D effects in the waste field have earlier been devoted to the question of irradiated fuel and waste from reprocessing, there is therefore now an increased interest in reactor waste with its much lower radioactivity but somewhat larger volumes. Since 1977, efforts have been made in a joint Nordic study to examine which facts need to be known in order to perform a comprehensive safety assessment of a reactor waste management system. In the present study a Reference system related to the waste generated over 30 years from six 500 MW-reactors is examined. The dominating radionuclides during storage and transportation accident scenarios are Cs-134, Cs-137 and Co-60. For most of the release scenarios from repositories Cs-137 and Sr-90 are dominating. Some scenarios are, however, dominated by the very longlived nuclides I-129 and C-14. A closer examination of the concentration in the waste of these nuclides and of their leaching properties indicates that their small - but significant - influence, as calculated, is probably grossly overestimated. The mechanical stability obtained in routine solidification processes of reactor waste products in conjunction with the outer container (steel drum, transport container, etc.) turns out to be sufficient. Difficulties were encountered in applying ICRP methodology and available dose calculation methods to calculation of population doses due to small activity releases, and effects extending into the far future. (EG)

  1. Radiative transfer modeling of upwelling light field in coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundarabalan, Balasubramanian; Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Manjusha, Sadasivan

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the radiance distribution in coastal waters are a complex problem, but playing a growingly important role in optical oceanography and remote sensing applications. The present study attempts to modify the Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) to allow the phase function to vary with depth, and the bottom boundary to take into account a sloping/irregular surface and the effective reflectance of the bottom material. It then uses the Hydrolight numerical model to compute Apparent Optical Properties (AOPs) for modified IOPs and bottom boundary conditions compared to the default values available in the standard Hydrolight model. The comparison of the profiles of upwelling radiance simulated with depth-dependent IOPs as well as modified bottom boundary conditions for realistic cases of coastal waters off Point Calimere of southern India shows a good match between the simulated and measured upwelling radiance profile data, whereas there is a significant drift between the upwelling radiances simulated from the standard Hydrolight model (with default values) and measured data. Further comparison for different solar zenith conditions at a coastal station indicates that the upwelling radiances simulated with the depth-dependent IOPs and modified bottom boundary conditions are in good agreement with the measured radiance profile data. This simulation captures significant changes in the upwelling radiance field influenced by the bottom boundary layer as well. These results clearly emphasize the importance of using realistic depth-dependent IOPs as well as bottom boundary conditions as input to Hydrolight in order to obtain more accurate AOPs in coastal waters. -- Highlights: ► RT model with depth-dependent IOPs and modified bottom boundary conditions provides accurate L u profiles in coastal waters. ► The modified phase function model will be useful for coastal waters. ► An inter-comparison with measured upwelling radiance gives merits of the

  2. Water cooling of high power light emitting diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The development in light technologies for entertainment is moving towards LED based solutions. This progress is not without problems, when more than a single LED is used. The amount of generated heat is often in the same order as in a conventional discharge lamp, but the allowable operating...... temperature is much lower. In order to handle the higher specific power (W/m3) inside the LED based lamps cold plates were designed and manufactured. 6 different designs were analyzed through laboratory experiments and their performances were compared. 5 designs cover; traditional straight mini channel, S...

  3. Time for a Nordic Business History Initiative?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekberg, Espen; Iversen, Martin Jes

    2018-01-01

    The current state of Nordic business history is by certain estimates better than ever. Nordic business historians publish extensively in leading international journals and have a strong presence at international business history conferences. Still, in this discussion article we raise a yellow flag...... of warning for the future of Nordic business history. We argue that the subject field is challenged along three important dimensions: (i) lack of relevant teaching, (ii) continued reliance on commissioned history and (iii) limited recruitment. The article discusses these challenges and seeks to place them...... grounds for the development of such projects, The Scandinavian Society for Economic and Social History – the formal collaborative body for Nordic economic historians and the owner of Scandinavian Economic History Review – should be reinvigorated....

  4. Nordic Approaches to Peace Operations (in Korean)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    operations. First, it demolishes the widely held view that the Nordic countries remain a bastion of traditional Cold War peacekeeping with little relevance for contemporary operations. Second, it constitutes the first systematic overview of the reforms undertaken by the four Nordic countries since the end......A new examination of Nordic approaches to peace operations after the Cold War. It shows how the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) remain relevant for the study and practice of post-Cold War peace operations. This unique study is structured around eleven success conditions...... derived from an analysis of the lessons learned since the early 1990s, ensuring that the results of the case studies are directly comparable. These case studies are supplemented by an analysis of Nordics’ collective efforts to replace their old Cold War peacekeeping model with a new one that meets...

  5. The Wage Curve in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Albæk, K.; Asplund, R.

    regions in the long run. One explanation put forward for this slow speed of regional wage adjustment is the rather centralized bargaining system on the labour market in the Nordic countries. Wages are set according to the average unemployment rate for the economy as a whole, and differences in regional...... for researchers or civil servants with a deeper interest in labour market problems. The main result from this study is that the wage formation at the regional level is rather inflexible in the short run in all five Nordic countries, with no effect from changes in local unemployment on the local wage level......This report focusses on wage formation in the Nordic countries with a special attention to the effect from changes in local unemployment on the local wage level. The book gives a comprehensive and comparable study of this topic in the five Nordic countries which may be of great value...

  6. Obesity Prevention in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockmarr, Anders; Hejgaard, Tatjana; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that mean BMI and prevalences of overweight/obesity and obesity have increased over the last decades in the Nordic countries, despite highly regulated societies with a focus on obesity prevention. We review recent overweight/obesity and obesity prevention initiatives...... that obesity in adults has increased from 2011 to 2014, while no significant changes were found for children. No significant increases were found for mean BMI and overweight/obesity prevalence. Obesity prevention initiatives among the Nordic countries are highly similar although minor differences are present...... within four of the five Nordic countries: Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. Moreover, we analyze the current situation based on monitoring data on BMI collected in 2011 and 2014, and obtain overall estimates of overweight/obesity and obesity prevalences for the Nordic Region. Data analysis shows...

  7. Changing health inequalities in the Nordic countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahelma, E; Lundberg, O; Manderbacka, K; Roos, E

    2001-01-01

    The Nordic countries, referring here to Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, have often been viewed as a group of countries with many features in common, such as geographical location, history, culture, religion, language, and economic and political structures. It has also been habitual to refer to a "Nordic model" of welfare states comprising a large public sector, active labour market policies, high costs for social welfare as well as high taxes, and a general commitment to social equality. Recent research suggests that much of this "Nordicness" appears to remain despite the fact that the Nordic countries have experienced quite different changes during the 1980s and 1990s. How this relates to changes in health inequalities is in the focus of this supplement.

  8. Methodology of fuel rod design for pressurized light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira e Silva, A.; Esteves, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The fuel performance program FRAPCON-1 and the structural finite element program SAP-IV are applied in a pressurized water reactor fuel rod design methodology. The applied calculation procedure allows to dimension the fuel rod components and characterize its internal pressure. (author) [pt

  9. Light penetration in the coastal waters off Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathyendranath, S.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    February to April, and by May, just before the onset of the SW monsoon rains, the waters are once again highly turbid, this time apparently due to churning action of wind-waves and strong currents. It has been found that the average irradiance attenuation...

  10. Conclusions drawn of tritium balance in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, L.; Bazin, J.

    1978-01-01

    In the tritium balance of pressurized water reactors, using boric acid and lithium in the cooling water, contribution of the tritium produced by fission, diffusing through the zircalloy of the fuel cladding estimated to 0.1%, was not in agreement with quantities measured in reactors. It is still difficult to estimate what percentage is represented by the tritium formed by fission in the fuel, owing to diffusion through cladding. The tritium balance in different working nuclear power stations is consequently of interest. The tritium balance method in the water of the cooling circuit of PWR is fast and experimentally simple. It is less sensitive to errors originating from fission yields than balance of tritium produced by fission in the fuel. A tritium balance in the water of the cooling circuit of Biblis-A, with a specific burn-up of 18000 MWd/t gives a better precision. Diffusion rate of tritium produced by fission was less than 0.2%. So low a contribution is a justification to the use of lithium with an isotopic purity of 99.9% of lithium 7 to limit at a low value the residual lithium 6 [fr

  11. Study of the light emitted in the moderation of a heavy-water pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, D.

    1958-06-01

    During the running of a reactor which uses water as a neutron moderator, a bluish light is seen to appear inside the liquid. A detailed study of this radiation, undertaken on the Fontenay-aux-Roses pile, has shown that the spectrum is identical with that which characterises the light produced by the Cerenkov effect. The light intensity as a function of the pile power grows exponentially as a function of time when the pile diverges, with a lifetime equal to that of the rise in power. An examination of the various particles present in the pile has led to the conclusion that only electrons with an energy greater than 260 keV con produce the Cerenkov light. The light source thus produced is about 2.10 6 photons/cm 2 of water, when the pile power equals 1 watt. (author) [fr

  12. [Effects of light on submerged macrophytes in eutrophic water: research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Sha, Zou; Ze-Yu, Nie; Xiao-Yan, Yao; Ji-Yan, Shi

    2013-07-01

    The restoration of submerged macrophytes is the key to remediate eutrophic water and maintain the health of aquatic ecosystem, while light is the main limiting factor. This paper summarized the factors affecting the light extinction in water and the mechanisms of light intensity affecting the physiology of submerged macrophytes, with the focuses on the metabolic mechanisms of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, the responses of antioxidant enzyme system, and the feedbacks of pigment composition and concentration in the common submerged macrophytes under low light stress. Several engineering techniques applied in the ecological restoration of submerged macrophytes were presented, and the framework of the restoration of submerged macrophytes in eutrophic water was proposed. Some problems in current research and several suggestions on future research were addressed, which could help the related research and engineering practices.

  13. A Nordic view on perspectives for radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    At the turn of millennium, several scientists have expressed their thoughts on the future of radioecology and related topics in the Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. These contributions are listed and commented upon. The role of radioecology in the 6th Euratom Framework Programme (2002-2006) is discussed. Previous Nordic radioecology seminars are summarised and trends identified, and suggestions are given for future Nordic activities and developments in the field of environmental radioactivity. (au)

  14. Occupational Science in a Nordic perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Tove; Bendixen, HJ; Frydendal, E

    The book is anthology and the first of its kind to be publiched in the Nordic countries. It comprices contributions from Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The authors write from respective fields of interest, research perspectives and personal experiences. The overall goal is to present a vision and im...... and importance of Occupational Science in a Nordic perspective, in responce to the American understanding. The anthology comprise 14 articles and adresses all with an interest in research in human activity and social participation....

  15. A Nordic view on perspectives for radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S P [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-04-01

    At the turn of millennium, several scientists have expressed their thoughts on the future of radioecology and related topics in the Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. These contributions are listed and commented upon. The role of radioecology in the 6th Euratom Framework Programme (2002-2006) is discussed. Previous Nordic radioecology seminars are summarised and trends identified, and suggestions are given for future Nordic activities and developments in the field of environmental radioactivity. (au)

  16. Information Society Visions in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Kristensen, Thomas Myrup

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the information society visions put forward by the governments/administrations of the Nordic countries and compares them to the visions advanced at the EU-level. The paper suggests that the information society visions constitute a kind of common ideology for almost the whole...... political spectrum although it is characterised by a high degree of neo-liberal thinking. It is further argued that there is no distinctly Nordic model for an information society....

  17. Separation setup for the light water detritiation process in the water-hydrogen system based on the membrane contact devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenkevich, M. B.; Rastunova, I. L.; Prokunin, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    Detritiation of light water wastes down to a level permissible to discharge into the environment while simultaneously concentrating tritium to decrease amount of waste being buried is a constant problem. The laboratory setup for the light water detritiation process is presented. The separation column consists of 10 horizontally arranged perfluorosulphonic acid Nafion-type membrane contact devises and platinum catalyst (RCTU-3SM). Each contact device has 42.3 cm 2 of the membrane and 10 cm 3 of the catalyst. The column is washed by tritium free light water (L H2O ) and the tritium-containing flow (F HTO ) feeds the electrolyser at λ = G H2 /L H2O = 2. A separation factor of 66 is noted with the device at 336 K and 0.145 MPa. (authors)

  18. Visible-Light-Driven BiOI-Based Janus Micromotor in Pure Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Renfeng; Hu, Yan; Wu, Yefei; Gao, Wei; Ren, Biye; Wang, Qinglong; Cai, Yuepeng

    2017-02-08

    Light-driven synthetic micro-/nanomotors have attracted considerable attention due to their potential applications and unique performances such as remote motion control and adjustable velocity. Utilizing harmless and renewable visible light to supply energy for micro-/nanomotors in water represents a great challenge. In view of the outstanding photocatalytic performance of bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI), visible-light-driven BiOI-based Janus micromotors have been developed, which can be activated by a broad spectrum of light, including blue and green light. Such BiOI-based Janus micromotors can be propelled by photocatalytic reactions in pure water under environmentally friendly visible light without the addition of any other chemical fuels. The remote control of photocatalytic propulsion by modulating the power of visible light is characterized by velocity and mean-square displacement analysis of optical video recordings. In addition, the self-electrophoresis mechanism has been confirmed for such visible-light-driven BiOI-based Janus micromotors by demonstrating the effects of various coated layers (e.g., Al 2 O 3 , Pt, and Au) on the velocity of motors. The successful demonstration of visible-light-driven Janus micromotors holds a great promise for future biomedical and environmental applications.

  19. Petal abscission in rose flowers: effects of water potential, light intensity and light quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Vojinovic, A.

    1996-01-01

    Petal abscission was studied in roses (Rosa hybrida L.), cvs. Korflapei (trade name Frisco), Sweet Promise (Sonia) and Cara Mia (trade name as officially registered cultivar name). Unlike flowers on plants in greenhouses, cut flowers placed in water in the greenhouse produced visible symptoms of

  20. Ten Perspectives on Nordic Energy. Final report for the first phase of the Nordic Energy Perspectives project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryden, Bo

    2006-09-01

    Nordic Energy Perspectives is an interdisciplinary energy research project which, from a holistic perspective, analyses and creates new insights into the consequences for energy markets and energy systems of the goals and instruments of energy policy in the light of new conditions. The project's aim is to provide better bases for decisions on energy and environmental policy at both national and international levels. It is intended to contribute to constructive dialogue between researchers, politicians, authorities and actors on the energy markets. A first phase of the project has been carried out during Apr 2005 - Sep 2006. This report summarises the most important results. Around fifteen current research issues have been analysed. Some of these issues have been analysed in detail, while others have been studied more generally. This means that we can present a comprehensive flora of results in a number of areas, whereas in regard to other questions the analysis is less deep and the conclusions are not as firmly grounded. We have nonetheless chosen to present the entire range of results in this final report. An objective of Nordic Energy Perspectives has been to create a forum for fact-based discussion and dialogue between decision-makers and other energy actors from different disciplines and different countries. Today this forum is fully active. We are very eager that the forum should survive and that the discussion should continue concerning the themes treated by Nordic Energy Perspectives. Hence, for each of the chapters 1-17 below, we identify the researchers whom the reader can contact for further dialogue. The ten perspectives, which are based on contributions from the whole research group, have the following headlines: Costly early learnings from the first year of EU ETS: Unforeseen price levels hit industries hard; Market based support schemes - do they really work as intended; New decade in the Nordic energy markets; Reduced CO 2 emissions and more

  1. Dual pressurized light water reactor producing 2000 M We

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    The dual unit optimizer 2000 M We (Duo2000) is proposed as a new design concept for large nuclear power plant. Duo is being designed to meet economic and safety challenges facing the 21 century green and sustainable energy industry. Duo2000 has two nuclear steam supply systems (NSSS) of the unit nuclear optimizer (Uno) pressurized water reactor (PWR) in a single containment so as to double the capacity of the plant. Uno is anchored to the optimized power reactor 1000 M We (OPR1000) of the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. The concept of Duo can be extended to any number of PWRs or pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR s), or even boiling water reactor (BWRs). Once proven in water reactors, the technology may even be expanded to gas cooled, liquid metal cooled, and molten salt cooled reactors. In particular, since it is required that the small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) be built as units, the concept of Duo2000 will apply to SMRs as well. With its in-vessel retention as severe accident management strategy, Duo can not only put the single most querulous PWR safety issue to end, but also pave ways to most promising large power capacity dispensing with huge redesigning cost for generation III + nuclear systems. The strengths of Duo2000 include reducing the cost of construction by decreasing the number of containment buildings from two to one, minimizing the cost of NSSS and control systems by sharing between the dual units, and lessening the maintenance cost by uniting NSSS. The technology can further be extended to coupling modular reactors as dual, triple, or quadruple units to increase their economics, thus accelerating the commercialization as well as the customization of SMRs. (Author)

  2. Operational limitations of light water reactors relating to fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.S.

    1976-07-01

    General aspects of fuel performance for typical Boiling and Pressurized Water Reactors are presented. Emphasis is placed on fuel failures in order to make clear important operational limitations. A discussion of fuel element designs is first given to provide the background information for the subsequent discussion of several fuel failure modes that have been identified. Fuel failure experiences through December 31, 1974, are summarized. The operational limitations that are required to mitigate the effects of fuel failures are discussed

  3. Steam turbine chemistry in light water reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, Robert; Haertel, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Steam turbines in boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants of various manufacturers have been affected by corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. Steam chemistry has not been a prime focus for related research because the water in nuclear steam generating systems is considered to be of high purity. Steam turbine chemistry however addresses more the problems encountered in fossil fired power plants on all volatile treatment, where corrosive environments can be formed in zones where wet steam is re-evaporated and dries out, or in the phase transition zone, where superheated steam starts to condense in the low-pressure (LP) turbine. In BWR plants the situation is aggravated by the fact that no alkalizing agents are used in the cycle, thus making any anionic impurity immediately acidic. This is illustrated by case studies of pitting corrosion of a 12 % Cr steel gland seal and of flow-oriented corrosion attack on LP turbine blades in the phase transition zone. In PWR plants, volatile alkalizing agents are used that provide some buffering of acidic impurities, but they also produce anionic decomposition products. (orig.)

  4. Effect of water chemistry improvement on flow accelerated corrosion in light-water nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, Wataru; Ohira, Taku; Nagata, Nobuaki; Abe, Ayumi; Takiguchi, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) of Carbon Steel (CS) piping has been one of main issues in Light-Water Nuclear Reactor (LWRs). Wall thinning of CS piping due to FAC increases potential risk of pipe rupture and cost for inspection and replacement of damaged pipes. In particular, corrosion products generated by FAC of CS piping brought steam generator (SG) tube corrosion and degradation of thermal performance, when it intruded and accumulated in secondary side of PWR. To preserve SG integrity by suppressing the corrosion of CS, High-AVT chemistry (Feedwater pH9.8±0.2) has been adopted to Tsuruga-2 (1160 MWe PWR, commercial operation in 1987) in July 2005 instead of conventional Low-AVT chemistry (Feedwater pH 9.3). By the High-AVT adoption, the accumulation rate of iron in SG was reduced to one-quarter of that under conventional Low-AVT. As a result, a tendency to degradation of the SG thermal efficiency was improved. On the other hand, it was clarified that High-AVT is ineffective against Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) at the region where the flow turbulence is much larger. By contrast, wall thinning of CS feed water pipes due to FAC has been successfully controlled by oxygen treatment (OT) for long time in BWRs. Because Magnetite film formed on CS surface under AVT chemistry has higher solubility and porosity in comparison with Hematite film, which is formed under OT. In this paper, behavior of the FAC under various pH and dissolved oxygen concentration are discussed based on the actual wall thinning rate of BWR and PWR plant and experimental results by FAC test-loop. And, it is clarified that the FAC is suppressed even under extremely low DO concentration such as 2ppb under AVT condition in PWR. Based on this result, we propose the oxygenated water chemistry (OWC) for PWR secondary system which can mitigate the FAC of CS piping without any adverse effect for the SG integrity. Furthermore, the applicability and effectiveness of this concept developed for FAC

  5. Bioassay using the water soluble fraction of a Nigerian Light Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: A 96-hour bioassay was conducted using the water soluble fraction of a Nigerian light crude oil sample on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 mls of water soluble fractions (WSF) of the oil were added to 1000 litres of de-chlorinated tap water to form 0, 25, 50 , 75 and 100 parts per million ...

  6. Characterization of 14C in Swedish light water reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Asa; Aronsson, Per-Olof; Lundgren, Klas; Stenström, Kristina

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a 4-y investigation of 14C in different waste streams of both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Due to the potential impact of 14C on human health, minimizing waste and releases from the nuclear power industry is of considerable interest. The experimental data and conclusions may be implemented to select appropriate waste management strategies and practices at reactor units and disposal facilities. Organic and inorganic 14C in spent ion exchange resins, process water systems, ejector off-gas and replaced steam generator tubes were analyzed using a recently developed extraction method. Separate analysis of the chemical species is of importance in order to model and predict the fate of 14C within process systems as well as in dose calculations for disposal facilities. By combining the results of this investigation with newly calculated production rates, mass balance assessments were made of the 14C originating from production in the coolant. Of the 14C formed in the coolant of BWRs, 0.6-0.8% was found to be accumulated in the ion exchange resins (core-specific production rate in the coolant of a 2,500 MWth BWR calculated to be 580 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The corresponding value for PWRs was 6-10% (production rate in a 2,775 MWth PWR calculated to be 350 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The 14C released with liquid discharges was found to be insignificant, constituting less than 0.5% of the production in the coolant. The stack releases, routinely measured at the power plants, were found to correspond to 60-155% of the calculated coolant production, with large variations between the BWR units.

  7. A Nordic perspective on career competences and guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie

    This concept note reflects an initiative within the Nordic ELPGN group, in partnership with the Nordic network for adult learning (NVL), to investigate the possibilities for collaboration between the Nordic countries in developing a number of joint documents on career competences and....../or a competence framework for career learning in the Nordic countries. The objective for this concept note is to contribute to a shared Nordic frame of understanding for career competences which can be used in the ongoing development of guidance in the Nordic countries. The intended audience is guidance...... professionals, teachers, researchers, managers, policy makers and clients....

  8. Aging and life extension of major light water reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; MacDonald, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    An understanding of the aging degradation of the major pressurized and boiling water reactor structures and components is given. The design and fabrication of each structure or component is briefly described followed by information on the associated stressors. Interactions between the design, materials and various stressors that cause aging degradation are reviewed. In many cases, aging degradation problems have occurred, and the plant experience to date is analyzed. The discussion summarize the available aging-related information and are supported with extensive references, including references to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents, Electric Power Research Institute reports, US and international conference proceedings and other publications

  9. Experimental studies on catalytic hydrogen recombiners for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drinovac, P.

    2006-01-01

    In the course of core melt accidents in nuclear power plants a large amount of hydrogen can be produced and form an explosive or even detonative gas mixture with aerial oxygen in the reactor building. In the containment atmosphere of pressurized water reactors hydrogen combines a phlogistically with the oxygen present to form water vapor even at room temperature. In the past, experimental work conducted at various facilities has contributed little or nothing to an understanding of the operating principles of catalytic recombiners. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to conduct detailed investigations on a section of a recombiner essentially in order to deepen the understanding of reaction kinetics and heat transport processes. The results of the experiments presented in this dissertation form a large data base of measurements which provides an insight into the processes taking place in recombiners. The reaction-kinetic interpretation of the measured data confirms and deepens the diffusion theory - proposed in an earlier study. Thus it is now possible to validate detailed numeric models representing the processes in recombiners. Consequently the present study serves to broaden and corroborate competence in this significant area of reactor technology. In addition, the empirical knowledge thus gained may be used for a critical reassessment of previous numeric model calculations. (orig.)

  10. Green Nanotechnology in Nordic Construction - Eco-innovation strategies and Dynamics in nordic Window Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Sandén, Björn A.; Palmberg, Christopher

    This project analyzes Nordic trends in the development and industrial uptake of green nanotechno-logy in construction. The project applies an evolutionary economic perspective in analyzing the innovation dynamics and firm strategies in the window value chains in three Nordic countries, Denmark......, Finland and Sweden. Hence the project investigates two pervasive parallel market trends: The emergence of the green market and the emergence of nanotechnology. The analysis investigates how a traditional economic sector such as the construction sector reacts to such major trends. Conclusions are multiple...... of nanotechnology in the construction sector in the Nordic countries we do find quite a high number of nanotech applications in the Nordic window chains. Eco-innovation is influencing strongly on the nanotech development. We see several examples of nano-enabled smart, multifunctional green solutions in the Nordic...

  11. Green nanotechnology in Nordic Construction: Eco-innovation strategies and Dynamics in Nordic Window Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch

    2010-01-01

    This project analyzes Nordic trends in the development and industrial uptake of green nanotechno-logy in construction. The project applies an evolutionary economic perspective in analyzing the innovation dynamics and firm strategies in the window value chains in three Nordic countries, Denmark......, Finland and Sweden. Hence the project investigates two pervasive parallel market trends: The emergence of the green market and the emergence of nanotechnology. The analysis investigates how a traditional economic sector such as the construction sector reacts to such major trends. Conclusions are multiple...... of nanotechnology in the construction sector in the Nordic countries we do find quite a high number of nanotech applications in the Nordic window chains. Eco-innovation is influencing strongly on the nanotech development. We see several examples of nano-enabled smart, multifunctional green solutions in the Nordic...

  12. Impact of different moderator ratios with light and heavy water cooled reactors in equilibrium states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Sidik; Takaki, Naoyuki; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    As an issue of sustainable development in the world, energy sustainability using nuclear energy may be possible using several different ways such as increasing breeding capability of the reactors and optimizing the fuel utilization using spent fuel after reprocessing as well as exploring additional nuclear resources from sea water. In this present study the characteristics of light and heavy water cooled reactors for different moderator ratios in equilibrium states have been investigated. The moderator to fuel ratio (MFR) is varied from 0.1 to 4.0. Four fuel cycle schemes are evaluated in order to investigate the effect of heavy metal (HM) recycling. A calculation method for determining the required uranium enrichment for criticality of the systems has been developed by coupling the equilibrium fuel cycle burn-up calculation and cell calculation of SRAC 2000 code using nuclear data library from the JENDL 3.2. The results show a thermal spectrum peak appears for light water coolant and no thermal peak for heavy water coolant along the MFR (0.1 ≤ MFR ≤ 4.0). The plutonium quality can be reduced effectively by increasing the MFR and number of recycled HM. Considering the effect of increasing number of recycled HM; it is also effective to reduce the uranium utilization and to increase the conversion ratio. trans-Plutonium production such as americium (Am) and curium (Cm) productions are smaller for heavy water coolant than light water coolant. The light water coolant shows the feasibility of breeding when HM is recycled with reducing the MFR. Wider feasible area of breeding has been obtained when light water coolant is replaced by heavy water coolant

  13. Analysis of alternative light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeb, C.M.; Aaberg, R.L.; Boegel, A.J.; Jenquin, U.P.; Kottwitz, D.A.; Lewallen, M.A.; Merrill, E.T.; Nolan, A.M.

    1979-12-01

    Nine alternative LWR fuel cycles are analyzed in terms of the isotopic content of the fuel material, the relative amounts of primary and recycled material, the uranium and thorium requirements, the fuel cycle costs and the fraction of energy which must be generated at secured sites. The fuel materials include low-enriched uranium (LEU), plutonium-uranium (MOX), highly-enriched uranium-thorium (HEU-Th), denatured uranium-thorium (DU-Th) and plutonium-thorium (Pu-Th). The analysis is based on tracing the material requirements of a generic pressurized water reactor (PWR) for a 30-year period at constant annual energy output. During this time period all the created fissile material is recycled unless its reactivity worth is less than 0.2% uranium enrichment plant tails

  14. COMSORS: A light water reactor chemical core catcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Core-Melt Source Reduction System (COMSORS) is a new approach to terminate lightwater reactor (LWR) core-melt accidents and ensure containment integrity. A special dissolution glass made of lead oxide (PbO) and boron oxide (B 2 O 3 ) is placed under the reactor vessel. If molten core debris is released onto the glass, the following sequence happens: (1) the glass absorbs decay heat as its temperature increases and the glass softens; (2) the core debris dissolves into the molten glass; (3) molten glass convective currents create a homogeneous high-level waste (HLW) glass; (4) the molten glass spreads into a wider pool, distributing the heat for removal by radiation to the reactor cavity above or transfer to water on top of the molten glass; and (5) the glass solidifies as increased surface cooling area and decreasing radioactive decay heat generation allows heat removal to exceed heat generation

  15. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  16. Advanced steam cycles for light water reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.C.

    1975-07-01

    An appraisal of the potential of adding superheat to improve the overall LWR plant cycle performance is presented. The study assesses the economic and technical problems associated with the addition of approximately 500 0 F of superheat to raise the steam temperature to 1000 0 F. The practicality of adding either nuclear or fossil superheat to LWR's is reviewed. The General Electric Company Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) model 238-732 (BWR/6) is chosen as the LWR starting point for this evaluation. The steam conditions of BWR/6 are representative of LWR's. The results of the fossil superheat portion of the evaluation are considered directly applicable to all LWR's. In spite of the potential of a nuclear superheater to provide a substantial boost to the LWR cycle efficiency, nuclear superheat offers little promise of development at this time. There are difficult technical problems to resolve in the areas of superheat fuel design and emergency core cooling. The absence of a developed high integrity, high temperature fuel for operation in the steam/water environment is fundamental to this conclusion. Fossil superheat offers the potential opportunity to utilize fossil fuel supplies more efficiently than in any other mode of central station power generation presently available. Fossil superheat topping cycles evaluated included atmospheric fluidized beds (AFB), pressurized fluidized beds, pressurized furnaces, conventional furnaces, and combined gas/steam turbine cycles. The use of an AFB is proposed as the preferred superheat furnace. Fossil superheat provides a cycle efficiency improvement for the LWR of two percentage points, reduces heat rejection by 15 percent per kWe generated, increases plant electrical output by 54 percent, and burns coal with an incremental net efficiency of approximately 40 percent. This compares with a net efficiency of 36--37 percent which might be achieved with an all-fluidized bed fossil superheat plant design

  17. Environmentally assisted cracking of light-water reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Kassner, T.F.; Shack, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of lightwater reactor (LWR) materials has affected nuclear reactors from the very introduction of the technology. Corrosion problems have afflicted steam generators from the very introduction of pressurized water reactor (PWR) technology. Shippingport, the first commercial PWR operated in the United States, developed leaking cracks in two Type 304 stainless steel (SS) steam generator tubes as early as 1957, after only 150 h of operation. Stress corrosion cracks were observed in the heat-affected zones of welds in austenitic SS piping and associated components in boiling-water reactors (BRWs) as early as 1965. The degradation of steam generator tubing in PWRs and the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic SS piping in BWRs have been the most visible and most expensive examples of EAC in LWRs, and the repair and replacement of steam generators and recirculation piping has cost hundreds of millions of dollars. However, other problems associated with the effects of the environment on reactor structures and components am important concerns in operating plants and for extended reactor lifetimes. Cast duplex austenitic-ferritic SSs are used extensively in the nuclear industry to fabricate pump casings and valve bodies for LWRs and primary coolant piping in many PWRs. Embrittlement of the ferrite phase in cast duplex SS may occur after 10 to 20 years at reactor operating temperatures, which could influence the mechanical response and integrity of pressure boundary components during high strain-rate loading (e.g., seismic events). The problem is of most concern in PWRs where slightly higher temperatures are typical and cast SS piping is widely used

  18. Needs of nuclear data for advanced light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao

    2008-01-01

    Hitachi has been developing medium sized ABWRs as a power source that features flexibility to meet various market needs, such as minimizing capital risks, providing a timely return on capital investments, etc. Basic design concepts of the medium sized ABWRs are 1) using the current ABWR design which has accumulated favorable construction and operation histories as a starting point; 2) utilizing standard BWR fuels which have been fabricated by proven technology; 3) achieving a rationalized design by suitably utilizing key components developed for large sized reactors. Development of the medium sized ABWRs has proceeded in a systematic, stepwise manner. The first step was to design an output scale for the 600MWe class reactor (ABWR-600), and the next step was to develop an uprating concept to extend this output scale to the 900MWe class reactor (ABWR-900) based on the rationalized technology of the ABWR-600 for further cost savings. In addition, Hitachi and MHI developed an ultra small reactor, 'Package-Reactor'. About the nuclear data, for the purpose of verification of the nuclear analysis method of BWR for mixed oxide (MOX) cores, UO 2 and MOX fuel critical experiments EPICURE and MISTRAL were analyzed using nuclear design codes HINES and CERES with ENDF/B nuclear data file. The critical keffs of the absorber worth experiments, the water hole worth experiments and the 2D void worth experiments agreed with those of the reference experiments within about 0.1%Δk. The root mean square differences of radial power distributions between calculation and measurement were almost less than 2.0%. The calculated reactivity worth values of the absorbers, the water hole and the 2D void agreed with the measured values within nearly experimental uncertainties. These results indicate that the nuclear analysis method of BWR in the present paper give the same accuracy for the UO 2 cores and the MOX cores. (author)

  19. New Nordic comics—a question of promotion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Platz Cortsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, the cultures of the Nordic countries have at certain points been seen through a lense that stresses regional commonality, most recently with terms like “New Nordic Cooking” or “Nordic Noir.” In this article, we examine the possibility of a common concept of “New Nordic Comics” by analyzing a number of Nordic comics anthologies. We discuss in what way Nordic comics might be said to be new and how they can be considered to be Nordic. We state that the comics in the collections are not identifiable as particularly Nordic based on their themes or the stylistic or visual repertoires. In these respects, Nordic comics are part of a broader transnational comics culture. The comics, however, occasionally bear witness to a Nordic background or heritage, for instance, in the form of words in Finnish or the Scandinavian languages, names of characters or the milieux in the comics. On the whole, Nordicness in comics is variable and diverse, and rather than a phenomenon based on inherent quality or aesthetic commonality, new Nordic comics are a result of promotional strategies, cultural policies, and transnational connections between Nordic actors in the comics field.

  20. The lantern shark's light switch: turning shallow water crypsis into midwater camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Julien M.; Mallefet, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    Bioluminescence is a common feature in the permanent darkness of the deep-sea. In fishes, light is emitted by organs containing either photogenic cells (intrinsic photophores), which are under direct nervous control, or symbiotic luminous bacteria (symbiotic photophores), whose light is controlled by secondary means such as mechanical occlusion or physiological suppression. The intrinsic photophores of the lantern shark Etmopterus spinax were recently shown as an exception to this rule since they appear to be under hormonal control. Here, we show that hormones operate what amounts to a unique light switch, by acting on a chromatophore iris, which regulates light emission by pigment translocation. This result strongly suggests that this shark's luminescence control originates from the mechanism for physiological colour change found in shallow water sharks that also involves hormonally controlled chromatophores: the lantern shark would have turned the initial shallow water crypsis mechanism into a midwater luminous camouflage, more efficient in the deep-sea environment. PMID:20410033

  1. Investment behaviour in the Nordic power market; Investeringsadferd i det nordiske kraftmarkedet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingeberg, K; Johannessen, A

    1995-11-15

    This report is the result of a preliminary project which defines the frames for an application for a main project within the research programme EFFEKT. The composition, extent and time for new investments in the Nordic power market will have decisive influence on the profits of Norwegian water power resources in the future. At the same time the process around investments is very complex and is affected by economic, technological and political conditions. The report examines important prime movers for new investments and how the investment behaviour in the Nordic power market can be analysed in a main project. 25 refs., 1 figure

  2. Investigation into the use of water based brake fluid for light loads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The actual test of the formulated brake fluid was carried out with a Nissan Sunny vehicle model 1.5 within the speed range of 20km/hr to 80km/hr at the permanent campus· of University of Uyo and the· braking effiqiency obtained at test to its suitability for light loads. Keywords·: Water-based, Brake fluid properties, Light loads ...

  3. Comparison of Nordic dose models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thykier-Nielsen, S.

    1978-04-01

    A comparison is made between the models used in the four Nordic countries, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark, for calculation of concentrations and doses from releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere. The comparison is limited to the near-zone models, i.e. the models for calculation of concentrations and doses within 50 km from the release point, and it comprises the following types of calculation: a. Concentrations of airborne material, b. External gamma doses from a plume, c. External gamma doses from radioactive material deposited on the ground. All models are based on the gaussian dispersion model (the gaussian plume model). Unit releases of specific isotopes under specific meteorological conditions are assumed. On the basis of the calculation results from the models, it is concluded that there are no essential differences. The difference between the calculation results only exceeds a factor of 3 in special cases. It thus lies within the known limits of uncertainty for the gaussian plume model. (author)

  4. Characteristics of ultraviolet light and radicals formed by pulsed discharge in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing; Kunitomo, Shinta; Igarashi, Chiaki

    2006-09-01

    In this investigation, the ultraviolet light characteristics and OH radical properties produced by a pulsed discharge in water were studied. For the plate-rod reactor, it was found that the ultraviolet light energy has a 3.2% total energy injected into the reactor. The ultraviolet light changed with the peak voltage and electrode distance. UV characteristics in tap water and the distilled water are given. The intensity of the OH radicals was the highest for the 40 mm electrode distance reactor. In addition, the properties of hydrogen peroxide and ozone were also studied under arc discharge conditions. It was found that the OH radicals were in the ground state and the excited state when a pulsed arc discharge was used. The ozone was produced by the arc discharge even if the oxygen gas is not bubbled into the reactor. The ozone concentration produces a maximum value with treatment time.

  5. Characteristics of ultraviolet light and radicals formed by pulsed discharge in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Bing [Dalian Maritime University, College of Environment, 1st Linghai Road, Dalian (China); Kunitomo, Shinta [Ebara Corporation, 1-6-27, Konan, Minato-ku 108-8480 (Japan); Igarashi, Chiaki [Ebara Research Co. Ltd, 2-1, Honfujisawa 4-chome, Fujisawa 251-8502 (Japan)

    2006-09-07

    In this investigation, the ultraviolet light characteristics and OH radical properties produced by a pulsed discharge in water were studied. For the plate-rod reactor, it was found that the ultraviolet light energy has a 3.2% total energy injected into the reactor. The ultraviolet light changed with the peak voltage and electrode distance. UV characteristics in tap water and the distilled water are given. The intensity of the OH radicals was the highest for the 40 mm electrode distance reactor. In addition, the properties of hydrogen peroxide and ozone were also studied under arc discharge conditions. It was found that the OH radicals were in the ground state and the excited state when a pulsed arc discharge was used. The ozone was produced by the arc discharge even if the oxygen gas is not bubbled into the reactor. The ozone concentration produces a maximum value with treatment time.

  6. Programme of research and development on plutonium recycling in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This is the third annual progress report concerning the programme on plutonium recycling in light-water reactors (indirect action) of the Commission of the European Communities. It covers the year 1978 and follows the annual reports for 1977 (EUR 6002 EN) and 1976 (EUR 5780). The preliminary results obtained under the 1975-79 programme indicate that: (a) assuming that plutonium recycling in light-water reactors is industrially developed by the end of the century, the foreseeable radiological impact on both workers and the general public can be maintained within the limits of current radiation protection standards; (b) on the whole, there is a good knowledge and mastery of the specific aspects involved in the plutonium recycling in light-water reactors and in particular they indicate that plutonium fuels have a similar behaviour to uranium fuels

  7. Study of plutonium recycling physics in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, Paul

    1979-10-01

    A stock of plutonium from the reprocessing of thermal neutron reactor fuel is likely to appear in the next few years. The use of this plutonium as fuel replacing 235 U in thermal reactors is probably more interesting than simple stock-piling storage: immobilization of a capital which moreover would deteriorate by radioactive decay of isotope 241 also fissile and present to an appreciable extend in plutonium from reprocessing (half-life 15 years); recycling, on the other hand, will supply energy without complete degradation of the stock for fast neutron reactor loads, the burned matter having been partially renewed by conversion; furthermore the use of plutonium will meet the needs created by a temporary pressure on the naturel and/or enriched uranium market. For these two reasons the recycling of plutonium in thermal neutron reactors is being considered seriously today. The present work is confined to neutronic aspects and centres mainly on pressurized water-moderated reactors, the most highly developed at present in France. Four aspects of the problem are examined: 1. the physics of a plutonium-recycling reactor special features of neutronic phenomena with respect to the 'conventional' scheme of the 235 U burning reactor; 2. calculation of a plutonium-recycling reactor: adaptation of standard methods; 3. qualification of these calculations from the viewpoint of both data and inevitable approximations; 4. the fuel cycle and particularly the equivalence of fissile matters [fr

  8. Safety reviews of next-generation light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudrick, J.A.; Wilson, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is reviewing three applications for design certification under its new licensing process. The U.S. Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) and System 80+ designs have received final design approvals. The AP600 design review is continuing. The goals of design certification are to achieve early resolution of safety issues and to provide a more stable and predictable licensing process. NRC also reviewed the Utility Requirements Document (URD) of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and determined that its guidance does not conflict with NRC requirements. This review led to the identification and resolution of many generic safety issues. The NRC determined that next-generation reactor designs should achieve a higher level of safety for selected technical and severe accident issues. Accordingly, NRC developed new review standards for these designs based on (1) operating experience, including the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2; (2) the results of probabilistic risk assessments of current and next-generation reactor designs; (3) early efforts on severe accident rulemaking; and (4) research conducted to address previously identified generic safety issues. The additional standards were used during the individual design reviews and the resolutions are documented in the design certification rules. 12 refs

  9. Thermohydraulics of emergency core cooling in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    This report, by a group of experts of the OECD-NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations, reviews the current state-of-knowledge in the field of emergency core cooling (ECC) for design-basis, loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA) and core uncover transients in pressurized- and boiling-water reactors. An overview of the LOCA scenarios and ECC phenomenology is provided for each type of reactor, together with a brief description of their ECC systems. Separate-effects and integral-test facilities, which contribute to understanding and assessing the phenomenology, are reviewed together with similarity and scaling compromises. All relevant LOCA phenomena are then brought together in the form of tables. Each phenomenon is weighted in terms of its importance to the course of a LOCA, and appraised for the adequacy of its data base and analytical modelling. This qualitative procedure focusses attention on the modelling requirements of dominant LOCA phenomena and the current capabilities of the two-fluid models in two-phase flows. This leads into the key issue with ECC: quantitative code assessment and the application of system codes to predict with a well defined uncertainty the behaviour of a nuclear power plant. This issue, the methodologies being developed for code assessment and the question of how good is good enough are discussed in detail. Some general conclusions and recommendations for future research activities are provided

  10. Coastdown in light water reactors as a fuel management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, L.G.

    1980-12-01

    Improved uranium utilization by means of extended burnup via routine end-of-cycle coastdown has been analyzed, with a specific focus on pressurided water reactors. Both computer and simple analytic models have been developed to determine the optimal coastdown length. Coastdown has been compared with the use of higher fuel-enrichment to achieve comparable burnup values. Temperature and Power coastdown modes were analyzed and changes in the plant thermodynamic efficiency determined. Effects on fuel integrity due to coastdown were examined using a fuel reliability code (SPEAR). Finally the effects on coastdown duration of major parameters involved in charaterizing reactor operation and the economic enviroment were examined. It was found that natural uranium savings up to 7% could be achieved in a typical application by the use of routine pre-planned coast down up to the economic optimun. If coastdown is carried out all the way up to the economic breakeven point yellowcake savings sum up to 16%. Coastdown is substantially more effective than increasing enrichment to extend cycle length without coastdown. Thermodynamic efficiency does not change appreciably during coastdown, a circumstance which greatly simplifies modeling. Coastdown was found to have no statistically significant effect on predicted fuel failure rates. Finally, simple back-of-the evenlope analytic models were found to give an excellent estimate of coastdown duration to both the optimum and breakeven points, and to correctly track the functional behavior induced by all major variables

  11. Improvement of failed fuel detection system of light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, M.K.; Kang, H.D.; Cho, S.W.; Lee, K.W.

    1981-01-01

    Multi-task DAAS system by utilizing PDP-11/23 computer was assembled and tested for its performances. By connecting four Ge(Li) detectors to this DAAS, test experiments were done to prove system capability for detection and analysis of any fission gases resolved in four independently sampled primary cooling water from a power reactor. Appropriate computer programs were also introduced for this application and satisfactory results were obtained. Further application of this DAAS to the quality test of fuel pins (uniform distribution of enriched uranium in fresh fuel pellets), a prototype fuel scanner system was designed, constructed and tested. Operational principle of this system is based on the determination of 235 U/ 238 U abundance ratio in pellets by precision spectrometry or gamma-rays which are emitted from a portion of fuel pellets. For the uniform scanning, rotational and traverse motions at pre-selected speeds were applied to a fuel pin under tests. A long lens magnetic beta-spectrometer of Argonne National Laboratory was transferred to KAERI and re-installed for future precision beta-gamma spectroscopic research works on short-lived fission products nuclei

  12. Study of Pu consumption in Advanced Light Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Timely disposal of the weapons plutonium is of paramount importance to permanently safeguarding this material. GE's 1300 MWe Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) has been designed to utilize fill] core loading of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel. Because of its large core size, a single ABWR reactor is capable of disposing 100 metric tons of plutonium within 15 years of project inception in the spiking mode. The same amount of material could be disposed of in 25 years after the start of the project as spent fuel, again using a single reactor, while operating at 75 percent capacity factor. In either case, the design permits reuse of the stored spent fuel assemblies for electrical energy generation for the remaining life of the plant for another 40 years. Up to 40 percent of the initial plutonium can also be completely destroyed using ABWRS, without reprocessing, either by utilizing six ABWRs over 25 years or by expanding the disposition time to 60 years, the design life of the plants and using two ABWRS. More complete destruction would require the development and testing of a plutonium-base fuel with a non-fertile matrix for an ABWR or use of an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR). The ABWR, in addition, is fully capable of meeting the tritium target production goals with already developed target technology

  13. Coeval Eocene blooms of the freshwater fern Azolla in and around Arctic and Nordic seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barke, J.; Burgh, A.H.P. van der; Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A. van; Collinson, M.E.; Pearce, M.A.; Bujak, J.; Heilman-Clausen, C.; Lotter, A.F.; Speelman, E.N.; Kempen, M.M.L. van; Reichart, G.-J.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2012-01-01

    For a short time interval (c. 1.2 Myr) during the early middle Eocene (~ 49 Myr), the central Arctic Ocean was episodically densely covered by the freshwater fern Azolla, implying sustained freshening of surface waters. Coeval Azolla fossils in neighboring Nordic seas were thought to have been

  14. Utilization of light water reactors for plutonium incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.

    1995-01-01

    In this work a potential of incineration of excess Pu in LWR's is investigated. In order to maintain the economic viability of the Pu incineration option it should be carried out by the existing power plants without additional investment for plant modifications. Design variations are reduced to the fuel cycle optimization, i.e. fuel composition may be varied to achieve optimal Pu destruction. Fuel mixtures considered in this work were based either on uranium or thorium fertile materials and Pu as a fissile component. The slightly enriched U fuel cycle for a typical pressurized water reactor was considered as a reference case. The Pu content of all fuels was adjusted to assure the identical cycle length and discharged burnup values. An equilibrium cycle was simulated by performing cluster burnup calculations. The material composition data for the whole core was estimated based on the core, fuel and cycle parameters. The annual production of Pu of a standard PWR with 1100 MWe output is about 298 kg. The same core completely loaded with the MOX fuel is estimated to consume 474 kg of Pu, mainly fissile isotopes. The MOX-239 fuel type (pure Pu-239) shows a potential toreduce the initial total Pu inventory by 220 kg/year and fissile Pu inventory by 420 kg/year. TMOX and TMOX-239 are based on Th-232 as a fertile component of the fuel, instead of U-238. The amount of Pu destroyed per year for both cases is significantly higher than that of U-based fuels. Especially impressive is the reduction in fissile Pu inventory: more than 900 kg/year. (author)

  15. Demand response in liberalized electricity markets - the Nordic case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndal, Mette; Lund, Arne-Christian; Rud, Linda

    2005-01-01

    the Nordic markets in light of different market organization, different contract forms and also with respect to different customer classes. (Author)

  16. Psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbjornsson, B; Ejstrup, L; Gran, J T

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries.......To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries....

  17. Practical considerations in the use of UV light for drinking water disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyanayagam, S.; Cotton, C.

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light was discovered approximately 150 years ago. The first commercial UV lamp was made in the early 1900s soon followed by the manufacture of the quartz sleeve. These technological advances allowed the first application of UV light for water disinfection in 1907 in France. In the mid 1980s, UV disinfection was named as a Best available technology (BAT) for wastewater disinfection in the United States. Fueled by the recent findings that UV disinfection can inactivate key pathogens at cost effective UV doses, the drinking water industry in North America is closely investigating its application in large installations. (author)

  18. Research and development of super light water reactors and super fast reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Y.; Morooka, S.; Yamakawa, M.; Ishiwatari, Y.; Ikejiri, S.; Katsumura, Y.; Muroya, Y.; Terai, T.; Sasaki, K.; Mori, H.; Hamamoto, Y.; Okumura, K.; Kugo, T.; Nakatsuka, T.; Ezato, K.; Akasaka, N.; Hotta, A.

    2011-01-01

    Super Light Water Reactors (Super LWR) and Super Fast Reactors (Super FR) are the supercritical- pressure light water cooled reactors (SCWR) that are developed by the research group of University of Tokyo since 1989 and now jointly under development with the researchers of Waseda University, University of Tokyo and other organizations in Japan. The principle of the reactor concept development, the results of the past Super LWR and Super FR R&D as well as the R&D program of the Super FR second phase project are described. (author)

  19. Flow-induced vibration for light-water reactors. Progress report, April 1978-December 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schardt, J.F.

    1980-03-01

    Flow-Induced vibration for Light Water Reactors (FIV for LWRs) is a four-year program designed to improve the FIV performance of light water reactors through the development of design criteria, analytical models for predicting behavior of components, general scaling laws to improve the accuracy of reduced-scale tests, and the identification of high FIV risk areas. The program commenced December 1, 1976, but was suspended on September 30, 1978, due to a shift in Department of Energy (DOE) priorities away from LWR productivity/availability. It was reinitiated as of August 1, 1979. This progress report summarizes the accomplishments achieved during the period from April 1978 to December 1979

  20. Investigation into the Use of Water Based Brake Fluid for Light Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Akpan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the possibility of using water based fluid as a brake fluid for light loads. Characterization of both standard and water based braked fluids formulated was carried out. The properties of the latter were compared with that of a standard commercial brake fluid. The actual test of the formulated brake fluid was carried out with a Nissan Sunny vehicle model 1.5 within the speed range of 20km/hr to 80km/hr at the permanent campus of University of Uyo and the braking efficiency obtained attest to its suitability for light loads.

  1. Cohort Fertility Patterns in the Nordic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Andersson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous analyses of period fertility suggest that the trends of the Nordic countries are sufficiently similar to speak of a common "Nordic fertility regime". We investigate whether this assumption can be corroborated by comparing cohort fertility patterns in the Nordic countries. We study cumulated and completed fertility of Nordic birth cohorts based on the childbearing histories of women born in 1935 and later derived from the population registers of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. We further explore childbearing behaviour by women's educational attainment. The results show remarkable similarities in postponement and recuperation between the countries and very small differences in completed fertility across educational groups. Median childbearing age is about 2-3 years higher in the 1960-64 cohort than in the 1950-54 cohort, but the younger cohort recuperates the fertility level of the older cohort at ages 30 and above. A similar pattern of recuperation can be observed for highly educated women as compared to women with less education. An interesting finding is that of a positive relationship between educational level and the final number of children when women who become mothers at similar ages are compared. Country differences in fertility outcome are generally rather low. Childlessness is highest in Finland and lowest in Norway, and the educational differentials are largest in Norway. Despite such differences, the cohort analyses in many ways support the notion of a common Nordic fertility regime.

  2. Dermatological moulage collections in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, A-M; Sinisalo, H; Eilertsen, G; Åhrén, E; Meyer, I

    2018-04-01

    The art of producing and acquiring dermatological wax models, moulages, flourished all over Europe in the beginning of the twentieth century, whereas very little is known about the existence of moulage collections in the Nordic countries. The aim of this study was to elucidate the presence, the origin, the production place, the use and the condition of dermatological moulage collections in the Nordic countries. In each Nordic country, an extensive survey was undertaken during spring 2016. Dermatological departments, museums with medical collections, persons assumed to have specific information about wax moulages as well as secondary sources were contacted and interviewed. Several hitherto undescribed collections have survived in each country, most, however, damaged and in disrepair. One Danish and part of a Finnish collection have been restored. Only few moulages are exhibited and some have been photographed and digitalized. Denmark and Sweden have had a local moulage production. Responses to the survey indicate that the result covers all collections of dermatological moulages in the Nordic countries, though some moulages may remain in private collections unknown to the authors, or uncatalogued in museums. Moulages are medical gems from bygone days before modern technology facilitated new means of communication. Restoration and appropriate storing should be considered for at least selected items from the Nordic collections. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. Nordic nuclear emergency exercises. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennerstedt, T.; Stranden, E.; Salo, A.

    1995-01-01

    In all Nordic countries, nuclear emergency provisions have been revised following the Chernobyl accident. Local and national exercises are carried out regularly in each country. Several actions have been taken to harmonize the emergency approaches of the Nordic countries. In order to further promote consistent decisions in an emergency situation, two Nordic exercises were conducted in 1993. It was important to see if all five countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) responded in a similar way to a given situation, as far as risk assessment and protective measures were concerned. The exercises were mainly aimed at decision makers and advisers of the five national emergency organizations. Thus, the exercises did not include comparison of underlying calculations on, e.g., atmospheric trajectories or transfer of radioactive material from air to ground. Such functions were tested separately in drills that also formed part of the Nordic emergency preparedness program. The exercises included an acute-phase situation (NORA), and a late-phase situation (ODIN). The Nordic exercises aroused international interest, and hence observers from IAEA, OECD/NEA and the European Union were invited to the exercises. NORA was observed by representatives from IAEA (in Finland) and OECD/NEA (in Sweden). ODIN was attended by IAEA (in Sweden) and the European Union (in Norway). Generally speaking, regional exercises such as NORA and ODIN help improve national emergency preparedness planning, organization and operations as well as international coordination. (EG)

  4. Reinterpreting the Historicity of the Nordic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauli Kettunen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In conventional images of the so-called Nordic model, the strong state is opposed to markets or civil society and co-operation is opposed to conflict. These opposites appear problematic if one takes seriously the Nordic market- and interest-centered language used for the practices of social regulation, including the stubborn use of “labor market parties” instead of the EU concept “social partners”. Applying an approach sensitive to the historical and political aspects of language and concepts, the paper argues that a particular notion of social citizenship developed in the Nordic countries, in which interests rather than rights were put into the center. Such a notion of social citizenship was associated with two intertwined ideas, important in the development of the Nordic pattern of social reform: the idea of symmetry between workers and employers and the idea of a virtuous circle between divergent interests. With these ideas democracy and citizenship were combined with paid work and conflicting interests. This combination has been questioned by the projects for competitive national (and European communities, responding to globalized and financialized capitalism. The vigorous comparisons of “models”, and the popularity of the concept of “the Nordic model”, can be seen as an aspect of this current transformation.

  5. Trading electricity outside the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The subject of transborder trade of electricity between the Nordic countries and other North-European countries is dealt with. A detailed comparison of generating capacity, generating costs as well as electricity prices, market structure and national and international regulations is given. This shows that generating costs in the Nordic countries in general are lower than those in other North-European countries. This indicates a potential for transborder trade. Norway has a potential for exporting power while Denmark and Sweden have a potential for energy exports due to current excess capacity. Transmission capacity from the Nordic countries to Germany is limited. As access to the German transmission network is restricted, conditions for trade depend on differences between marginal cost. After transmission cost, those differences do not finance larger investments in further capacity. A change in the market structure in Germany with third party access to the transmission network will allow major consumers to buy directly from producers in the Nordic countries. An opening up of the market should reduce the price load in Germany. This could cause price increases in the Nordic countries. (AB)

  6. A nordic charter for universal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Evastina

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the result of a pioneer project; A Nordic Charter for Universal Design, which was initiated by the Norwegian Directorate for Children, Youth and Family Affairs in 2011. The purpose of the Charter was to present rationales that stated prerequisites for successful investment in Universal Design, and to establish a platform for further research and good practice. It was also meant to contribute to spreading of information and knowledge about the importance of guidance by the concept of Universal Design of initiatives with effects on the public arena. A Nordic group of researchers and professionals in the field ended up after 8 months of work with a written document: "A Nordic Charter for Universal Design", which was presented at the International Conference in Universal Design in Oslo, Norway (UD 2012). A Nordic Charter for Universal Design. Persons with disabilities often experience the public arenas environments, products and services as poorly-designed to fit their abilities and/or their needs. Together with the demographic changes in the Nordic societies with an increasing number of elderly people, it needs initiatives to improve independence, accessibility and participation in society. A strategy which aims to make design and composition of different environments, products, communication, information technology and services accessible, usable and understandable to as many as possible is Universal Design.

  7. Filtered atmospheric venting of light water reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedgran, A.; Ahlstroem, P.E.; Nilsson, L.; Persson, Aa.

    1982-11-01

    The aim of filtered venting is to improve the function of the reactor containment in connection with very severe accidents. By equipping the containment with a safety valve for pressure relief and allowing the released gases to pass through an effective filter, it should be possible to achieve a considerable protective effect. The work has involved detailed studies of the core meltdown sequence, how the molten core material runs out of the reactor vessel, what effect it has on concrete and other structures and how final cooling of the molten core material takes place. On the basis of previous Swedish studies, the project has chosen to study a filter concept that consists of a gravel bed of large volume. This filter plant shall not only retain the radioactive particles that escape from the containment through the vent line, but shall also condense the accompanying steam. After the government decided in 1981 that Barsebaeck was to be equipped with filtered venting and issued specifications regarding its performance, the project aimed at obtaining results that could be used to design and verify a plant for filtered venting at the Barsebaeck nuclear power station. As far as the other Swedish nuclear power plants at Oskarshamn, Ringhals and Forsmark are concerned, the results are only applicable to a limited extent. Additional studies are required for these nuclear power plants before the value of filtered venting can be assessed. Based on the results of experiments and analyses, the project has made a safety analysis with Barsebaeck as a reference plant in order to study how the introduction of filtered venting affects the safety level at a station. In summary, the venting function appears to entail a not insignificant reduction of risks for boiling water reactors of the Barsebaeck type. For a number of types of such very severe core accident cases, the filter design studied ensures a substantial reduction of the releases. However it has not been possible within the

  8. Flooding of a large, passive, pressure-tube light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejzlar, P.; Todreas, N.E.; Driscoll, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    A reactor concept has been developed which can survive loss of coolant accidents without scram and without replenishing primary coolant inventory, while maintaining safe temperature limits on the fuel and pressure tubes. The proposed concept is a pressure tube type reactor of similar design to CANDU reactors, but differing in three key aspects. First, a solid SiC-coated graphite fuel matrix is used in place of fuel pin bundles to enable the dissipation of decay heat from the fuel in the absence of primary coolant. Second, the heavy water coolant in the pressure tubes is replaced by light water, which also serves as the moderator. Finally, the calandria tank, surrounded by a graphite reflector, contains a low pressure gas instead of heavy water moderator, and this normally-voided calandria is connected to a light water heat sink. The cover gas displaces the light water from the calandria during normal operation, while during loss of coolant or loss of heat sink accidents it allows passive calandria flooding. Calandria flooding also provides redundant and diverse reactor shutdown. This paper describes the thermal hydraulic characteristics of the passively initiated, gravity driven calandria flooding process. Flooding the calandria space with light water is a unique and very important feature of the proposed pressure-tube light water reactor (PTLWR) concept. The flooding of the top row of fuel channels must be accomplished fast enough so that in the total loss of coolant, none of the critical components of the fuel channel, i.e. the pressure tube, the calandria tube, the matrix and the fuel, exceed their design limits. The flooding process has been modeled and shown to be rapid enough to maintain all components within their design limits. (orig.)

  9. Rapid water disinfection using vertically aligned MoS_2 nanofilms and visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chong; Kong, Desheng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Yuan, Hongtao; Lee, Hyun-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Here, solar energy is readily available in most climates and can be used for water purification. However, solar disinfection of drinking water (SODIS) mostly relies on ultraviolet light, which represents only 4% of total solar energy, and this leads to slow treatment speed. The development of new materials that can harvest visible light for water disinfection, and speed up solar water purification, is therefore highly desirable. Here, we show that few-layered vertically aligned MoS_2 (FLV-MoS_2) films can be used to harvest the whole spectrum of visible light (~ 50% of solar energy) and achieve highly efficient water disinfection. The bandgap of MoS_2 was increased from 1.3 eV to 1.55 eV by decreasing the domain size, which allowed the FLV-MoS_2 to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) for bacterial inactivation in water. The FLV-MoS_2 showed ~15 times better log inactivation efficiency of indicator bacteria compared to bulk MoS_2, and much faster inactivation of bacteria under both visible light and sunlight illumination compared to widely used TiO_2. Moreover, by using a 5 nm copper film on top of the FLV-MoS_2 as a catalyst to facilitate electron-hole pair separation and promote the generation of ROS, the disinfection rate was further increased 6 fold. With our approach, we achieved water disinfection of >99.999% inactivation of bacteria in 20 minutes with a small amount of material (1.6 mg/L) under simulated visible light.

  10. Rapid water disinfection using vertically aligned MoS2 nanofilms and visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chong; Kong, Desheng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Yuan, Hongtao; Lee, Hyun-Wook

    2016-01-01

    In most climates, solar energy is readily available and can be used for water purification. But, solar disinfection of drinking water mostly relies on ultraviolet light, which represents only 4% of the total solar energy, and this leads to a slow treatment speed. Therefore, the development of new materials that can harvest visible light for water disinfection, and so speed up solar water purification, is highly desirable. Here we show that few-layered vertically aligned MoS_2 (FLV-MoS_2) films can be used to harvest the whole spectrum of visible light (~50% of solar energy) and achieve highly efficient water disinfection. The bandgap of MoS_2 was increased from 1.3 to 1.55 eV by decreasing the domain size, which allowed the FLV-MoS_2 to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) for bacterial inactivation in the water. The FLV-MoS_2 showed a ~15 times better log inactivation efficiency of the indicator bacteria compared with that of bulk MoS_2, and a much faster inactivation of bacteria under both visible light and sunlight illumination compared with the widely used TiO_2. Moreover, by using a 5 nm copper film on top of the FLV-MoS_2 as a catalyst to facilitate electron–hole pair separation and promote the generation of ROS, the disinfection rate was increased a further sixfold. Here, we achieved water disinfection of >99.999% inactivation of bacteria in 20 min with a small amount of material (1.6 mg l–1) under simulated visible light.

  11. Boreal Tree Light- and Water-Use: Asynchronous, Diverging, yet Complementary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, C.; Baltzer, J. L.; Barr, A.; Black, T. A.; Bohrer, G.; Detto, M.; Maillet, J.; Matheny, A. M.; Roy, A.; Sonnentag, O.; Stephens, J.

    2017-12-01

    Water stress has been suggested as a key mechanism behind the contemporary increase in tree mortality rates in northwestern North America. However, a detailed analysis of boreal tree light- and water-use strategies as well as their interspecific differences are still lacking. Here, we examine the tree hydraulic behaviour of co-occurring larch (Larix laricina) and black spruce (Picea mariana), two characteristic boreal tree species, near the southern limit of the boreal ecozone in central Canada. Sap flux density (Js) and concurrently recorded stem radius fluctuations and meteorological conditions are used to quantify tree hydraulic functioning and to scrutinize tree light- and water-use strategies. Our analysis reveals an asynchrony in the diel hydrodynamics of the two species with the initial rise in Js occurring two hours earlier in larch than in black spruce. Structural differences in the crown architecture of larch and black spruce lead to interspecific differences in light harvesting that can explain the observed asynchrony in their hydraulic function. Furthermore, the two species exhibit diverging stomatal regulation strategies with larch employing relatively isohydric whereas black spruce anisohydric behaviour. Such asynchronous and diverging tree-level light- and water-use strategies provide new insights into the ecosystem-level complementarity of tree form and function, with implications for understanding boreal forests' water and carbon dynamics and resilience to environmental stress.

  12. Nordic Narratives of the Second World War : National Historiographies Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    How have the dramatic events of the Second World War been viewed in the Nordic countries? In Nordic Narratives of the Second World War, leading Nordic historians analyse post-war memory and historiography. They explore the relationship between scholarly and public understandings of the war. How have national interpretations been shaped by official security-policy doctrines? And in what way has the end of the Cold War affected the Nordic narratives? The authors not only present the ...

  13. Market design : Common Nordic end-user market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    No later than 2015, suppliers in the Nordic countries should be able to offer electricity to consumers in any Nordic country on equal terms. In this report NordREG has analyzed the present situation in the Nordic countries and identified the issues that should be harmonised in order to establish a common Nordic end-user market. In this report NordREG also suggests an indicative road map for the implementation process. (Author)

  14. Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busby, Jeremy T; Nanstad, Randy K; Stoller, Roger E; Feng, Zhili; Naus, Dan J

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear reactors present a very harsh environment for components service. Components within a reactor core must tolerate high temperature water, stress, vibration, and an intense neutron field. Degradation of materials in this environment can lead to reduced performance, and in some cases, sudden failure. A recent EPRI-led study interviewed 47 US nuclear utility executives to gauge perspectives on long-term operation of nuclear reactors. Nearly 90% indicated that extensions of reactor lifetimes to beyond 60 years were likely. When polled on the most challenging issues facing further life extension, two-thirds cited plant reliability as the key issue with materials aging and cable/piping as the top concerns for plant reliability. Materials degradation within a nuclear power plant is very complex. There are many different types of materials within the reactor itself: over 25 different metal alloys can be found with can be found within the primary and secondary systems, not to mention the concrete containment vessel, instrumentation and control, and other support facilities. When this diverse set of materials is placed in the complex and harsh environment coupled with load, degradation over an extended life is indeed quite complicated. To address this issue, the USNRC has developed a Progressive Materials Degradation Approach (NUREG/CR-6923). This approach is intended to develop a foundation for appropriate actions to keep materials degradation from adversely impacting component integrity and safety and identify materials and locations where degradation can reasonably be expected in the future. Clearly, materials degradation will impact reactor reliability, availability, and potentially, safe operation. Routine surveillance and component replacement can mitigate these factors, although failures still occur. With reactor life extensions to 60 years or beyond or power uprates, many components must tolerate the reactor environment for even longer times. This may increase

  15. Sedation practice in Nordic and non-Nordic ICUs: a European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Albarran, John W; Ring, Mette; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2013-07-01

    A trend towards lighter sedation has been evident in many intensive care units (ICUs). The aims of the survey were to describe sedation practice in European ICUs and to compare sedation practice in Nordic and non-Nordic countries. A cross-sectional survey of ICU nurses attending the fourth European federation of Critical Care Nursing associations (EfCCNa) in Denmark, 2011. Data included use of protocols; sedation, pain and delirium assessment tools; collaborative decision-making; sedation and analgesic medications; and educational preparation related to sedation. Response rate was 42% (n = 291) from 22 countries where 53% (n = 148) used sedation protocols. Nordic nurses reported greater use of sedation (91% versus 67%, p Nordic nurses. Decision-making on sedation was more inter-professionally collaborative in Nordic ICUs (83% versus 61%, p Nordic nurses reported greater consistency in maintaining circadian rhythm (66% versus 49%, p Nordic context might be more germane to the goal of lighter sedation and better pain management. Our study raises awareness of current sedation practice, paving the way towards optimized ICU sedation management. © 2013 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  16. Electrochemistry in light water reactors reference electrodes, measurement, corrosion and tribocorrosion issues

    CERN Document Server

    Bosch, R -W; Celis, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    There has long been a need for effective methods of measuring corrosion within light water nuclear reactors. This important volume discusses key issues surrounding the development of high temperature reference electrodes and other electrochemical techniques. The book is divided into three parts with part one reviewing the latest developments in the use of reference electrode technology in both pressurised water and boiling water reactors. Parts two and three cover different types of corrosion and tribocorrosion and ways they can be measured using such techniques as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Topics covered across the book include in-pile testing, modelling techniques and the tribocorrosion behaviour of stainless steel under reactor conditions. Electrochemistry in light water reactors is a valuable reference for all those concerned with corrosion problems in this key technology for the power industry. Discusses key issues surrounding the development of high temperature reference eletrodes A valuab...

  17. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    1963-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  18. Water hammer caused by rapid gas production in a severe accident in a light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inasaka, Fujio; Adachi, Masaki; Aya, Izuo; Nariai, Hideki; Shiozaki, Kohki

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the water hammer caused by striking of water mass pushed up by a rapidly growing bubble and its scale effects using two cylindrical model containment vessels of 1.0 and 0.428 m diameters. We also closely observed the movement of water mass and the growing bubble in the vessels. In these experiments, rapid bubble growth was simulated by injecting high-pressure air into a water pool. It was clarified that the water mass was pushed up without any air penetration until the water level reached a certain elevation. On the basis of all data, experimental correlations for estimating the height and striking velocity of the water mass with coherency were proposed, and the water hammer pressure for exerting large forces on the structures was quantitatively evaluated. (author)

  19. Dermatological moulage collections in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, A M.; Sinisalo, H.; Eilertsen, G.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The art of producing and acquiring dermatological wax models, moulages, flourished all over Europe in the beginning of the twentieth century, whereas very little is known about the existence of moulage collections in the Nordic countries. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to elucidate...... the presence, the origin, the production place, the use and the condition of dermatological moulage collections in the Nordic countries. METHODS: In each Nordic country, an extensive survey was undertaken during spring 2016. Dermatological departments, museums with medical collections, persons assumed to have...... specific information about wax moulages as well as secondary sources were contacted and interviewed. RESULTS: Several hitherto undescribed collections have survived in each country, most however damaged and in disrepair. One Danish and part of a Finnish collection have been restored. Only few moulages...

  20. Control mechanisms for Nordic ship emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, K. [DNV, Oslo (Norway); Torvanger, A. [Cicero, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    Shipping today operates under a complex set of international and domestic regulations. However, the environmental regulations have lagged behind those of other industries. This situation is now changing quite dramatically. The increased focus on environmental issues, combined with the growing realisation of the actual pollution burden imposed by shipping, has led to an upsurge in both international and national regulations. Some are ready and will enter into force in the near future, while others are still being developed. On behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers DNV has carried out a study on possible control mechanisms for Nordic ship emission. The aim is to assess the baseline shipping emissions and reduction potential and the possible controlling mechanisms (both incentives and regulations) available for reducing the emissions to air from shipping within the Nordic region. (Author)

  1. Challenges for Nordic VET-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2015-01-01

    , this challenge is not new. It has been on the agenda since the late 1960s following the crisis for apprenticeship and the growing demand for equal access to all levels of education. What is new, however, is that the challenge has intensified and the solutions developed since the 1970s don’t appear tenable today......The systems of vocational education and training (VET) in the Nordic Countries all face a similar challenge: to offer double qualifications. The Nordic VET-systems are expected to give access not only to skilled employment, but also to higher education. As an increasing share of young people....... This situation calls for new solutions to tackle the challenge of double qualifications. The question, which I will examine in this chapter, is how the Nordic VET-systems have handled this challenge in different ways and what these systems can learn from Switzerland, which is often highlighted as a model...

  2. Conceptions of "Nordic Democracy" and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    Reluctance towards European integration in the Nordic countries is doubtlessly more connected to ideas on democracy than elsewhere. This goes not only for the (empirical) practicability of democracy but also for the (normative) desirability of democracy in the EU. After the Second World War, when...... and reborn after the Second World War as genuine democracy. However, a third narrative developed in which democracy was seen as having its roots in the Nordic countries dating back to the Viking Age or earlier. In the period from the 1940s to the 1980s, a number of Nordic anthologies contained articles...... the process of contemporary European integration was approaching, and the concept of democracy at the same time was heavily contested in public debates and among academics, two conceptions of democracy were struggling: On one hand, democracy was recognized as a European value developing in the form...

  3. Challenges to nordic teacher education programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Dorf, Hans

    2010-01-01

    and subjects in the Finnish teacher education program (pedagogical studies, quality of practice teaching, research base) and its strong focus on training future teachers for the teacher profession and a professional community play an important role in respect to recruitment and low drop-out rates.......  This article resumes a comparative study on the Nordic teacher education programs in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden (Nordisk Ministerråd/Nordic Council of Ministers, 2008). By focusing on the part of the study which is occupied with the structure and organisation of the Nordic...... teacher education programs it tries to find explanations for the fact that only the Finnish teacher education does not suffer from a decreasing number of applicants, from high drop-out rates, and from low retention rates. It is claimed that the strong emphasis on specific professional elements...

  4. Performance management in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    -specific perspective, I analyze variations and similarities among countries and agencies in their development of a performance measurement system and the incorporation and use of performance information. Empirically the study shows that some patterns can be discerned but they also seem to be rather complex. Starting......This paper reports a study of performance management in practice in three tasks (Food safety, Meteorology and Prisons) across the three Scandinavian countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The paper examines how the system of performance management in Denmark, Norway and Sweden (Management...... from this analysis I discuss, whether it is possible to identify a Nordic model of performance management? Whether we should distinguish between an East Nordic and a West Nordic model? Should we rather talk about a Danish model, a Swedish model and a Norwegian model, or are the differences within...

  5. Living with the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Arun; Holm, Lotte; Jensen, Katherine O'Doherty

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Based on New Nordic Cuisine and Nordic dietary recommendations, the research centre OPUS has developed a healthy, sustainable and tasty New Nordic Diet (NND) with the goal of improving public health in Denmark. In order to determine the health potential of the NND, a six-month, controlled...... dietary intervention trial was conducted, in which participants procured NND foods at a specially designed intervention supermarket and prepared and consumed NND meals in their homes. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative sociological study was conducted among...... indicate that while the taste of the NND is likely to appeal to wider groups of consumers, the tasks of food procurement and preparation are likely to constitute barriers to its adoption. The strictly controlled intervention setting enabled participants to learn how to comply with dietary composition...

  6. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Ulbak, Kaare; Dreyer, L

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our...... malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic...... and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180...

  7. Nordic Model of Subregional Co-Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzela Joanna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nordic co-operation is renowned throughout the world and perceived as the collaboration of a group of countries which are similar in their views and activities. The main pillars of the Nordic model of co-operation are the tradition of constitutional principles, activity of public movements and organisations, freedom of speech, equality, solidarity, and respect for the natural environment. In connection with labour and entrepreneurship, these elements are the features of a society which favours efficiency, a sense of security and balance between an individual and a group. Currently, the collaboration is a complex process, including many national, governmental and institutional connections which form the “Nordic family”.

  8. Self-propagating solar light reduction of graphite oxide in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorova, N.; Giannakopoulou, T.; Boukos, N.; Vermisoglou, E. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR “Demokritos”, 153 41 Attikis (Greece); Lekakou, C. [Division of Mechanical, Medical, and Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Trapalis, C., E-mail: c.trapalis@inn.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR “Demokritos”, 153 41 Attikis (Greece)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphite oxide was partially reduced by solar light irradiation in water media. • No addition of catalysts nor reductive agent were used for the reduction. • Specific capacitance increased stepwise with increase of irradiation time. • Self-propagating reduction of graphene oxide by solar light is suggested. - Abstract: Graphite Oxide (GtO) is commonly used as an intermediate material for preparation of graphene in the form of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Being a semiconductor with tunable band gap rGO is often coupled with various photocatalysts to enhance their visible light activity. The behavior of such rGO-based composites could be affected after prolonged exposure to solar light. In the present work, the alteration of the GtO properties under solar light irradiation is investigated. Water dispersions of GtO manufactured by oxidation of natural graphite via Hummers method were irradiated into solar light simulator for different periods of time without addition of catalysts or reductive agent. The FT-IR analysis of the treated dispersions revealed gradual reduction of the GtO with the increase of the irradiation time. The XRD, FT-IR and XPS analyses of the obtained solid materials confirmed the transition of GtO to rGO under solar light irradiation. The reduction of the GtO was also manifested by the CV measurements that revealed stepwise increase of the specific capacitance connected with the restoration of the sp{sup 2} domains. Photothermal self-propagating reduction of graphene oxide in aqueous media under solar light irradiation is suggested as a possible mechanism. The self-photoreduction of GtO utilizing solar light provides a green, sustainable route towards preparation of reduced graphene oxide. However, the instability of the GtO and partially reduced GO under irradiation should be considered when choosing the field of its application.

  9. A new device for acquiring ground truth on the absorption of light by turbid waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Srna, R.; Treasure, W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A new device, called a Spectral Attenuation Board, has been designed and tested, which enables ERTS-1 sea truth collection teams to monitor the attenuation depths of three colors continuously, as the board is being towed behind a boat. The device consists of a 1.2 x 1.2 meter flat board held below the surface of the water at a fixed angle to the surface of the water. A camera mounted above the water takes photographs of the board. The resulting film image is analyzed by a micro-densitometer trace along the descending portion of the board. This yields information on the rate of attenuation of light penetrating the water column and the Secchi depth. Red and green stripes were painted on the white board to approximate band 4 and band 5 of the ERTS MSS so that information on the rate of light absorption by the water column of light in these regions of the visible spectrum could be concurrently measured. It was found that information from a red, green, and white stripe may serve to fingerprint the composition of the water mass. A number of these devices, when automated, could also be distributed over a large region to provide a cheap method of obtaining valuable satellite ground truth data at present time intervals.

  10. Water hammer caused by rapid steam production in a severe accident in a light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inasaka, Fujio; Adachi, Masaki; Murata, Hiroyuki; Aya, Izuo

    2007-01-01

    We conducted the experimental studies on the water hammer caused by striking of a water mass pushed up by a rapidly growing steam bubble, using a cylindrical model containment vessel of 0.4286 m in diameter. In the experiments, a rapid gas growth was simulated by injecting high-pressure steam into a water pool. It was clarified that coherency of the water mass movement and its water hammer caused by the condensable gas production considerably decreased in comparison with the case of the non-condensable gas production because the rising velocity of the water mass was suppressed due to the steam bubble condensation. On the basis of the data, experimental correlations for estimating the water hammer on the structures in the containment vessel were proposed. (author)

  11. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Vocational education in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a common heritage in education policy. This volume will help strengthen the knowledge base required for transnational policy learning, and for developing vocational education internationally for the future. As a result, the book will be of interest to researchers, academics and postgraduate students......Vocational Education in the Nordic Countries: Learning from Diversity is the second of two books that disseminates new and systematic knowledge on the strengths and weaknesses of the different models of vocational education and training (VET) in four Nordic countries. Vocational education in Europe...... involved in the study of vocational education, educational studies and educational policy, as well as policy makers....

  13. The Thrill of the Nordic Kill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    prey. The manhunt movie is a subgenre of the Hollywood thriller which joins two elements: big-game sport hunting and hunting humans. Sport hunting stirs up themes of nature and culture, morals and ethics, masculinity, and, finally, civilization. Here, we will ask what happens when the subgenre is used...... in the Nordic thriller. The chapter has three aims: First, it establishes the central generic traits of the manhunt movie. Second, it sets up a theoretical framework of sociobiological and ecological theories with hunting as a reference point. And, third, it examines the Nordic version of the manhunt movie...

  14. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs

  16. CISG Nordic: www.cisgnordic.net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    CISG Nordic er en forskningsdatabase hvor den seneste information om den internationale købelovs anvendelse i de Nordiske lande offentliggøres. På hjemmesiden indgår retsafgørelser, bibliografiske noter, FN dokumenter m.m.......CISG Nordic er en forskningsdatabase hvor den seneste information om den internationale købelovs anvendelse i de Nordiske lande offentliggøres. På hjemmesiden indgår retsafgørelser, bibliografiske noter, FN dokumenter m.m....

  17. CISG Nordic: www.cisgnordic.net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    CISG Nordic er en forskningsdatabase hvor den seneste information om den internationale købelovs anvendelse i de Nordiske lande offentliggøres. På hjemmesiden indgår retsafgørelser, bibliografiske noter, FN dokumenter m.m.......CISG Nordic er en forskningsdatabase hvor den seneste information om den internationale købelovs anvendelse i de Nordiske lande offentliggøres. På hjemmesiden indgår retsafgørelser, bibliografiske noter, FN dokumenter m.m....

  18. Reinterpreting the Historicity of the Nordic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pauli Kettunen

    2012-01-01

    In conventional images of the so-called Nordic model, the strong state is opposed to markets or civil society and co-operation is opposed to conflict. These opposites appear problematic if one takes seriously the Nordic market- and interest-centered language used for the practices of social regulation, including the stubborn use of “labor market parties” instead of the EU concept “social partners”. Applying an approach sensitive to the historical and political aspects of language and concepts...

  19. Technology programs in support of advanced light water reactor plants: Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichen, E.P.

    1989-10-01

    Stone ampersand Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) is conducting several independent, yet interrelated, studies of light water reactor plants to improve constructibility and quality, to reduce costs and schedule duration, and to simplify design. This document discusses construction approaches. 77 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Technology programs in support of advanced light water reactor plants: Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichen, E.P.

    1987-12-01

    Stone ampersand Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) is conducting several independent, yet interrelated, studies of light water reactor plants to improve constructibility and quality, to reduce costs and schedule durations, and to simplify design. This document discusses successes and problems in construction. 49 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs

  1. Inland Waters Night Lighting Configurations: A Navigation Rules Course for Coast Guard Auxiliarists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Gregory Peter

    A project developed a training program to teach boaters to recognize and interpret properly the lights of other vessels in nighttime or other reduced visibility conditions in the inland waters of the United States. The project followed the Instructional Systems Design model in the development of the course. The target population were members of…

  2. CLUMPED LIGHT WATER MODERATED UO$sub 2$ SUPERHEAT CRITICALS. PART I. EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warzek, F. G.; Johnston, H. F.

    1963-11-15

    The following critical and subcritical measurements were made in the EVESR core: reactivity with no control rods; full core reactivity with control rods; and power distribution in the full core with control rods. The fuel was UO/ sub 2/, and the elements were of the superheating type. The reactor was light- water-cooled and -moderated. (T.F.H.)

  3. Technology programs in support of advanced light water reactor plants: Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichen, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    Under Contract No. AC03-86SF16565, Stone ampersand Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) is conducting several independent, yet interrelated, studies of light water reactor plants to improve constructibility and quality, to reduce costs and schedule durations, and to simplify design. This document discusses design requirements. 36 refs., 57 figs., 56 tabs

  4. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Constellation Pilot Project FY11 Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary report for Fiscal Year 2011 activities associated with the Constellation Pilot Project. The project is a joint effor between Constellation Nuclear Energy Group (CENG), EPRI, and the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The project utilizes two CENG reactor stations: R.E. Ginna and Nine Point Unit 1. Included in the report are activities associate with reactor internals and concrete containments.

  5. Generic environmental impact statement on handling and storage of spent light water power reactor fuel. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    Detailed appendices are included with the following titles: light water reactor fuel cycle, present practice, model 1000MW(e) coal-fired power plant, increasing fuel storage capacity, spent fuel transshipment, spent fuel generation and storage data (1976-2000), characteristics of nuclear fuel, and ''away-from-reactor'' storage concept

  6. The influence of savanna trees on nutrient, water and light availability and the understorey vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Kroon, de H.; Berendse, F.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2004-01-01

    In an East African savanna herbaceous layer productivity and species composition were studied around Acacia tortilis trees of three different age classes, as well as around dead trees and in open grassland patches. The effects of trees on nutrient, light and water availability were measured to

  7. LWR-WIMS, a computer code for light water reactor lattice calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsall, M.J.

    1982-06-01

    LMR-WIMS is a comprehensive scheme of computation for studying the reactor physics aspects and burnup behaviour of typical lattices of light water reactors. This report describes the physics methods that have been incorporated in the code, and the modifications that have been made since the code was issued in 1972. (U.K.)

  8. A light water excess heat reaction suggests that cold fusion may be alkali-hydrogen fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Mills and Kneizys presented data in support of a light water excess heat reaction obtained with an electrolytic cell highly reminiscent of the Fleischmann-Pons cold fusion cell. The claim of Mills and Kneizys that their excess heat reaction can be explained on the basis of a novel chemistry, which supposedly also explains cold fusion, is rejected in favor of their reaction being, instead, a light water cold fusion reaction. It is the first known light water cold fusion reaction to exhibit excess heat, it may serve as a prototype to expand our understanding of cold fusion. From this new reactions are deduced, including those common to past cold fusion studies. This broader pattern of nuclear reactions is typically seen to involve a fusion of the nuclides of the alkali atoms with the simplest of the alkali-type nuclides, namely, protons, deuterons, and tritons. Thus, the term alkali-hydrogen fusion seems appropriate for this new type of reaction with three subclasses: alkali-hydrogen fusion, alkali-deuterium fusion, and alkali-tritium fusion. A new three-dimensional transmission resonance model (TRM) is sketched. Finally, preliminary experimental evidence in support of the hypothesis of a light water nuclear reaction and alkali-hydrogen fusion is reported. Evidence is presented that appears to strongly implicate the transmission resonance phenomenon of the new TRM

  9. GENERIC, COMPONENT FAILURE DATA BASE FOR LIGHT WATER AND LIQUID SODIUM REACTOR PRAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. A. Eide; S. V. Chmielewski; T. D. Swantz

    1990-02-01

    A comprehensive generic component failure data base has been developed for light water and liquid sodium reactor probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) . The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) and the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) data bases were used to generate component failure rates . Using this approach, most of the failure rates are based on actual plant data rather than existing estimates .

  10. Fuel utilization potential in light water reactors with once-through fuel irradiation (AWBA Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rampolla, D.S.; Conley, G.H.; Candelore, N.R.; Cowell, G.K.; Estes, G.P.; Flanery, B.K.; Duncombe, E.; Dunyak, J.; Satterwhite, D.G.

    1979-07-01

    Current commercial light water reactor cores operate without recylce of fuel, on a once-through fuel cycle. To help conserve the limited nuclear fuel resources, there is interest in increasing the energy yield and, hence, fuel utilization from once-through fuel irradiation. This report evaluates the potential increase in fuel utilization of light water reactor cores operating on a once-through cycle assuming 0.2% enrichment plant tails assay. This evaluation is based on a large number of survey calculations using techniques which were verified by more detailed calculations of several core concepts. It is concluded that the maximum fuel utilization which could be achieved by practical once-through pressurized light water reactor cores with either uranium or thorium is about 17 MWYth/ST U 3 O 8 (Megawatt Years Thermal per Short Ton of U 3 O 8 ). This is about 50% higher than that of current commercial light water reactor cores. Achievement of this increased fuel utilization would require average fuel burnup beyond 50,000 MWD/MT and incorporation of the following design features to reduce parasitic losses of neutrons: reflector blankets to utilize neutrons that would otherwise leak out of the core; fuel management practices in which a smaller fraction of the core is replaced at each refueling; and neutron economic reactivity control, such as movable fuel control rather than soluble boron control. For a hypothetical situation in which all neutron leakage and parasitic losses are eliminated and fuel depletion is not limited by design considerations, a maximum fuel utilization of about 20 MWYth/ST U 3 O 8 is calculated for either uranium or thorium. It is concluded that fuel utilization for comparable reactor designs is better with uranium fuel than with thorium fuel for average fuel depletions of 30,000 to 35,000 MWD/MT which are characteristic of present light water reactor cores

  11. Vocational education and training in the Nordic countries:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2018-01-01

    countries and the historical development of each of the four VET systems. This is followed by an examination of the role of VET in relation to the Nordic model of education and the Nordic labour market model. Finally, the position of VET in the Nordic transition systems is considered.......The chapter examines the systems of vocational education and training (VET) in four Nordic countries, Sweden, Finland, Norway and Denmark. First, it identifies the common political challenges for VET, which the following chapters of the book examine. Next, it outlines shared qualities of the Nordic...

  12. Radiological control aspects of the fabrication of the Light Water Breeder Reactor core (LWBR Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, B.G.

    1979-05-01

    A description is presented of the radiological control aspects of the fabrication of the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core. Included are the radiological control criteria applied for the design and use of fabrication facilities, the controls and limits imposed to minimize radiaion exposure to personnel, and an evaluation of the applied radiological program in meeting the program objectives. The goal of the LWBR program is to develop the technology to breed in light water reactors so that nuclear fuel may be used significantly more efficiently in these reactors. This technology is being developed by designing and fabricating a breeder reactor core, utilizing thoria (ThO 2 ) and binary thoria--urania (ThO 2 - 233 UO 2 ) fuel, to be operated in the existing pressurized water reactor plant owned by the Department of Energy at Shippingport, Pennsylvania

  13. A method and algorithm for correlating scattered light and suspended particles in polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami Gumaan Daraigan; Mohd Zubir Matjafri; Khiruddin Abdullah; Azlan Abdul Aziz; Abdul Aziz Tajuddin; Mohd Firdaus Othman

    2005-01-01

    An optical model has been developed for measuring total suspended solids TSS concentrations in water. This approach is based on the characteristics of scattered light from the suspended particles in water samples. An optical sensor system (an active spectrometer) has been developed to correlate pollutant (total suspended solids TSS) concentration and the scattered radiation. Scattered light was measured in terms of the output voltage of the phototransistor of the sensor system. The developed algorithm was used to calculate and estimate the concentrations of the polluted water samples. The proposed algorithm was calibrated using the observed readings. The results display a strong correlation between the radiation values and the total suspended solids concentrations. The proposed system yields a high degree of accuracy with the correlation coefficient (R) of 0.99 and the root mean square error (RMS) of 63.57 mg/l. (Author)

  14. Aging assessment and mitigation for major LWR [light water reactor] components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Y.N.; Ware, A.G.; Conley, D.A.; MacDonald, P.E.; Burns, J.J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the results of the Aging Assessment and Mitigation Project sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objective of the project is to develop an understanding of the aging degradation of the major light water reactor (LWR) structures and components and to develop methods for predicting the useful life of these components so that the impact of aging on the safe operation of nuclear power plants can be evaluated and addressed. The research effort consists of integrating, evaluating, and updating the available aging-related information. This paper discusses current accomplishments and summarizes the significant degradation processes active in two major components: pressurized water reactor pressurizer surge and spray lines and nozzles, and light water reactor primary coolant pumps. This paper also evaluates the effectiveness of the current inservice inspection programs and presents conclusions and recommendations related to aging of these two major components. 37 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Disinfection of Spacecraft Potable Water Systems by Photocatalytic Oxidation Using UV-A Light Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele N.; O'Neal, Jeremy A.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light has long been used in terrestrial water treatment systems for photodisinfection and the removal of organic compounds by several processes including photoadsorption, photolysis, and photocatalytic oxidation/reduction. Despite its effectiveness for water treatment, UV has not been explored for spacecraft applications because of concerns about the safety and reliability of mercury-containing UV lamps. However, recent advances in ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have enabled the utilization of nanomaterials that possess the appropriate optical properties for the manufacture of LEDs capable of producing monochromatic light at germicidal wavelengths. This report describes the testing of a commercial-off-the-shelf, high power Nichia UV-A LED (250mW A365nnJ for the excitation of titanium dioxide as a point-of-use (POD) disinfection device in a potable water system. The combination of an immobilized, high surface area photocatalyst with a UV-A LED is promising for potable water system disinfection since toxic chemicals and resupply requirements are reduced. No additional consumables like chemical biocides, absorption columns, or filters are required to disinfect and/or remove potentially toxic disinfectants from the potable water prior to use. Experiments were conducted in a static test stand consisting of a polypropylene microtiter plate containing 3mm glass balls coated with titanium dioxide. Wells filled with water were exposed to ultraviolet light from an actively-cooled UV-A LED positioned above each well and inoculated with six individual challenge microorganisms recovered from the International Space Station (ISS): Burkholderia cepacia, Cupriavidus metallidurans, Methylobacterium fujisawaense, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Wautersia basilensis. Exposure to the Nichia UV-A LED with photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a complete (>7-log) reduction of each challenge bacteria population in UV-A LEDs and semi

  16. Energy research projects in the Nordic countries - catalogue 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Nordic energy ministers at their meeting February 9, 1982 agreed upon a working plan for the Nordic energy cooperation. As part of this plan a contact group was established in order to maintain coordination and cooperation within the area of energy research and development. This group decided April 1982 to establish a catalogue of energy research projects in the Nordic countries. A pilot catalogue was published in June 1982. The 1983 catalogue gives an up-to-date survey of energy research and development projects in the Nordic countries. About 2125 projects are described, and information is given on investigator(s), performing organization, financing body, funds, and period. The catalogue is prepared by the Nordic energy libraries through their cooperation in Nordic Atomic Libraries Joint Secretariat. The information is also included in the data base Nordic Energy Index (NEI), which is online accessible at I/S Datacentralen, Copenhagen, via EURONET, SCANNET, TYMNET, AND TELENET. (BP)

  17. Zinc oxide nanorod mediated visible light photoinactivation of model microbes in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapkota, Ajaya; Anceno, Alfredo J; Dutta, Joydeep [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, Asian Institute of Technology, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Baruah, Sunandan; Shipin, Oleg V, E-mail: alfredo.anceno@cemagref.fr, E-mail: joy@ait.ac.th [Environmental Engineering and Management, Asian Institute of Technology, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

    2011-05-27

    The inactivation of model microbes in aqueous matrix by visible light photocatalysis as mediated by ZnO nanorods was investigated. ZnO nanorods were grown on glass substrate following a hydrothermal route and employed in the inactivation of gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Bacillus subtilis in MilliQ water. The concentration of Zn{sup 2+} ions in the aqueous matrix, bacterial cell membrane damage, and DNA degradation at post-exposure were also studied. The inactivation efficiencies for both organisms under light conditions were about two times higher than under dark conditions across the cell concentrations assayed. Anomalies in supernatant Zn{sup 2+} concentration were observed under both conditions as compared to control treatments, while cell membrane damage and DNA degradation were observed only under light conditions. Inactivation under dark conditions was hence attributed to the bactericidal effect of Zn{sup 2+} ions, while inactivation under light conditions was due to the combined effects of Zn{sup 2+} ions and photocatalytically mediated electron injection. The reduction of pathogenic bacterial densities by the photocatalytically active ZnO nanorods in the presence of visible light implies potential ex situ application in water decontamination at ambient conditions under sunlight.

  18. Geriatric work-up in the Nordic countries. The Nordic approach to comprehensive geriatric assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sletvold, O; Tilvis, R; Jonsson, A

    1996-01-01

    A group established by the Nordic professors of geriatrics has developed a position document presenting a shared and updated review of geriatric work-up as a way of comprehensive geriatric assessment in the Nordic countries. The main intention is that the document will serve as support and help f...... languages, and the translated versions should ideally have been subjected to validity and reliability testing. However, so far no scale meets these demands regarding all the five Nordic languages.......A group established by the Nordic professors of geriatrics has developed a position document presenting a shared and updated review of geriatric work-up as a way of comprehensive geriatric assessment in the Nordic countries. The main intention is that the document will serve as support and help...... for the clinician concerned with hospital based geriatric medicine. It may also be useful for quality control and teaching. Not least, it may be useful for health professionals other than geriatricians. To some extent, the position of geriatric medicine in the Nordic countries varies between the countries. However...

  19. Telehealth ICT Infrastructures in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Daniel Bjerring; Hallenborg, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and recommendations of ICT infrastructures and reference architectures for telehealth in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). This study shows that so far only Denmark has designed a complete reference architecture, and by the end...

  20. Carbon leakage from a Nordic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess-Schmidt, S.; Hansen, Martin Bo; Sand Kirk, J. [Copenhagen Economics, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-02-15

    Carbon pricing is generally considered a highly effective tool in reducing carbon emissions. Putting a price on carbon provides incentives for users and producers of fossil fuels to reduce consumption and develop low carbon products and processes. However, pursuing an ambitious climate policy can lead to carbon leakage, which refers to a situation where unilateral or regional climate change policy drives the relocation of industry investments and installations, and associated emissions, to third countries. This report by Copenhagen Economics has been commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers to give an overview of the industries at risk of carbon leakage in the Nordic countries, and estimate the expected extent of carbon leakage from unilateral climate policies in the Nordic countries. The report also assesses available policy options that may reduce the risk of carbon leakage, such as exemptions from energy tax and exemptions from quota obligations under green certificate schemes. The key drivers of carbon leakage are identified, which include energy intensity, product differentiation, transportation costs and capital intensity. The analysis suggests that industries such as paper and pulp, iron and steel, aluminium, cement, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and fertilizers are most at risk of carbon leakage in the Nordic manufacturing sector. (Author)