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Sample records for noradrenaline transporter underlying

  1. TERLIPRESSIN VERSUS NORADRENALINE FOR HEPATORENAL SYNDROME. Economic evaluation under the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System

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    Ângelo Zambam de MATTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background - Terlipressin and noradrenaline are the best studied treatments for hepatorenal syndrome, and there is no evidence of superiority of one over the other regarding to efficacy. While the former drug is more costly, the latter requires admission into an intensive care unit. Objective - The aim of this study was to perform an economic evaluation, comparing treatments for hepatorenal syndrome with terlipressin and noradrenaline. Methods - For the economic evaluation, a cost-minimization analysis was performed. Direct medical costs of the two treatment strategies were compared under the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System as the third-party payer. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. Results - The costs of treatments with terlipressin or noradrenaline were 287.77 and 2,960.45 International Dollars (Int$ respectively. Treatment using terlipressin would save Int$2,672.68 for the Public Health System for each hospital admission related to hepatorenal syndrome. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, it was verified that the cost of the treatment with noradrenaline could vary between Int$2,326.53 and Int$3,644.16, while costs related to the treatment using terlipressin are not variable. Conclusion - The treatment strategy using terlipressin was more economical than that using noradrenaline under the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System as the third-party payer.

  2. Central noradrenaline transporter availability in highly obese, non-depressed individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, Swen; Sabri, Osama; Becker, Georg-Alexander; Bresch, Anke; Luthardt, Julia; Patt, Marianne; Meyer, Philipp M.; Rullmann, Michael; Hankir, Mohammed K.; Zientek, Franziska; Reissig, Georg; Fenske, Wiebke K.; Arelin, Katrin; Lobsien, Donald; Mueller, Ulrich; Baldofski, S.; Hilbert, Anja; Blueher, Matthias; Fasshauer, Mathias; Stumvoll, Michael; Ding, Yu-Shin

    2017-01-01

    The brain noradrenaline (NA) system plays an important role in the central nervous control of energy balance and is thus implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. The specific processes modulated by this neurotransmitter which lead to obesity and overeating are still a matter of debate. We tested the hypothesis that in vivo NA transporter (NAT) availability is changed in obesity by using positron emission tomography (PET) and S,S-["1"1C]O-methylreboxetine (MRB) in twenty subjects comprising ten highly obese (body mass index BMI > 35 kg/m"2), metabolically healthy, non-depressed individuals and ten non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m"2) healthy controls. Overall, we found no significant differences in binding potential (BP_N_D) values between obese and non-obese individuals in the investigated brain regions, including the NAT-rich thalamus (0.40 ± 0.14 vs. 0.41 ± 0.18; p = 0.84) though additional discriminant analysis correctly identified individual group affiliation based on regional BP_N_D in all but one (control) case. Furthermore, inter-regional correlation analyses indicated different BP_N_D patterns between both groups but this did not survive testing for multiple comparions. Our data do not find an overall involvement of NAT changes in human obesity. However, preliminary secondary findings of distinct regional and associative patterns warrant further investigation. (orig.)

  3. Central noradrenaline transporter availability in highly obese, non-depressed individuals

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    Hesse, Swen; Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Leipzig University Medical Centre, Integrated Treatment and Research Centre (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); Becker, Georg-Alexander; Bresch, Anke; Luthardt, Julia; Patt, Marianne; Meyer, Philipp M. [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Rullmann, Michael [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Leipzig University Medical Centre, Integrated Treatment and Research Centre (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig (Germany); Hankir, Mohammed K.; Zientek, Franziska; Reissig, Georg; Fenske, Wiebke K. [Leipzig University Medical Centre, Integrated Treatment and Research Centre (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); Arelin, Katrin [Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Day Clinic for Cognitive Neurology, Leipzig (Germany); Lobsien, Donald [University of Leipzig, Department of Neuroradiology, Leipzig (Germany); Mueller, Ulrich [University of Cambridge, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Baldofski, S.; Hilbert, Anja [Leipzig University Medical Centre, Integrated Treatment and Research Centre (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Department of Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, Leipzig (Germany); Blueher, Matthias [University of Leipzig, Department of Internal Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Fasshauer, Mathias; Stumvoll, Michael [Leipzig University Medical Centre, Integrated Treatment and Research Centre (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Department of Internal Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Ding, Yu-Shin [New York University School of Medicine, Departments of Radiology and Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The brain noradrenaline (NA) system plays an important role in the central nervous control of energy balance and is thus implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. The specific processes modulated by this neurotransmitter which lead to obesity and overeating are still a matter of debate. We tested the hypothesis that in vivo NA transporter (NAT) availability is changed in obesity by using positron emission tomography (PET) and S,S-[{sup 11}C]O-methylreboxetine (MRB) in twenty subjects comprising ten highly obese (body mass index BMI > 35 kg/m{sup 2}), metabolically healthy, non-depressed individuals and ten non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m{sup 2}) healthy controls. Overall, we found no significant differences in binding potential (BP{sub ND}) values between obese and non-obese individuals in the investigated brain regions, including the NAT-rich thalamus (0.40 ± 0.14 vs. 0.41 ± 0.18; p = 0.84) though additional discriminant analysis correctly identified individual group affiliation based on regional BP{sub ND} in all but one (control) case. Furthermore, inter-regional correlation analyses indicated different BP{sub ND} patterns between both groups but this did not survive testing for multiple comparions. Our data do not find an overall involvement of NAT changes in human obesity. However, preliminary secondary findings of distinct regional and associative patterns warrant further investigation. (orig.)

  4. Investigation of the mechanisms underlying the hypophagic effects of the 5-HT and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, sibutramine, in the rat

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    Jackson, Helen C; Bearham, M Clair; Hutchins, Lisa J; Mazurkiewicz, Sarah E; Needham, Andrew M; Heal, David J

    1997-01-01

    Sibutramine is a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (serotonin- noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, SNRI) which is currently being developed as a treatment for obesity. Sibutramine has been shown to decrease food intake in the rat. In this study we have used a variety of monoamine receptor antagonists to examine the pharmacological mechanisms underlying sibutramine-induced hypophagia. Individually-housed male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on reversed phase lighting with free access to food and water. Drugs were administered at 09 h 00 min and food intake was monitored over the following 8 h dark period. Sibutramine (10 mg kg−1, p.o.) produced a significant decrease in food intake during the 8 h following drug administration. This hypophagic response was fully antagonized by the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin (0.3 and 1 mg kg−1, i.p.), and partially antagonized by the β1-adrenoceptor antagonist, metoprolol (3 and 10 mg kg−1, i.p.) and the 5-HT receptor antagonists, metergoline (non-selective; 0.3 mg kg−1, i.p.); ritanserin (5-HT2A/2C; 0.1 and 0.5 mg kg−1, i.p.) and SB200646 (5-HT2B/2C; 20 and 40 mg kg−1, p.o.). By contrast, the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, RX821002 (0.3 and 1 mg kg−1, i.p.) and the β2-adrenoceptor antagonist, ICI 118,551 (3 and 10 mg kg−1, i.p.) did not reduce the decrease in food intake induced by sibutramine. These results demonstrate that β1-adrenoceptors, 5-HT2A/2C-receptors and particularly α1-adrenoceptors, are involved in the effects of sibutramine on food intake and are consistent with the hypothesis that sibutramine-induced hypophagia is related to its ability to inhibit the reuptake of both noradrenaline and 5-HT, with the subsequent activation of a variety of noradrenaline and 5-HT receptor systems. PMID:9283694

  5. Blockade of the high-affinity noradrenaline transporter (NET) by the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor escitalopram: an in vivo microdialysis study in mice

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    Nguyen, Hai T; Guiard, Bruno P; Bacq, Alexandre; David, Denis J; David, Indira; Quesseveur, Gaël; Gautron, Sophie; Sanchez, Connie; Gardier, Alain M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Escitalopram, the S(+)-enantiomer of citalopram is the most selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor approved. Although all 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increase extracellular levels of 5-HT ([5-HT]ext). some also enhance, to a lesser extent, extracellular levels of noradrenaline ([NA]ext). However, the mechanisms by which SSRIs activate noradrenergic transmission in the brain remain to be determined. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH This study examined the effects of escitalopram, on both [5-HT]ext and [NA]ext in the frontal cortex (FCx) of freely moving wild-type (WT) and mutant mice lacking the 5-HT transporter (SERT−/−) by using intracerebral microdialysis. We explored the possibilities that escitalopram enhances [NA]ext, either by a direct mechanism involving the inhibition of the low- or high-affinity noradrenaline transporters, or by an indirect mechanism promoted by [5-HT]ext elevation. The forced swim test (FST) was used to investigate whether enhancing cortical [5-HT]ext and/or [NA]ext affected the antidepressant-like activity of escitalopram. KEY RESULTS In WT mice, a single systemic administration of escitalopram produced a significant increase in cortical [5-HT]ext and [NA]ext. As expected, escitalopram failed to increase cortical [5-HT]ext in SERT−/− mice, whereas its neurochemical effects on [NA]ext persisted in these mutants. In WT mice subjected to the FST, escitalopram increased swimming parameters without affecting climbing behaviour. Finally, escitalopram, at relevant concentrations, failed to inhibit cortical noradrenaline and 5-HT uptake mediated by low-affinity monoamine transporters. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These experiments suggest that escitalopram enhances, although moderately, cortical [NA]extin vivo by a direct mechanism involving the inhibition of the high-affinity noradrenaline transporter (NET). PMID:22233336

  6. Pressor Response to Noradrenaline in the Setting of Septic Shock: Anything New under the Sun—Dexmedetomidine, Clonidine? A Minireview

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    A. Géloën

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress over the last 50 years has led to a decline in mortality from ≈70% to ≈20% in the best series of patients with septic shock. Nevertheless, refractory septic shock still carries a mortality close to 100%. In the best series, the mortality appears related to multiple organ failure linked to comorbidities and/or an intense inflammatory response: shortening the period that the subject is exposed to circulatory instability may further lower mortality. Treatment aims at reestablishing circulation within a “central” compartment (i.e., brain, heart, and lung but fails to reestablish a disorganized microcirculation or an adequate response to noradrenaline, the most widely used vasopressor. Indeed, steroids, nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, or donors have not achieved overwhelming acceptance in the setting of septic shock. Counterintuitively, α2-adrenoceptor agonists were shown to reduce noradrenaline requirements in two cases of human septic shock. This has been replicated in rat and sheep models of sepsis. In addition, some data show that α2-adrenoceptor agonists lead to an improvement in the microcirculation. Evidence-based documentation of the effects of alpha-2 agonists is needed in the setting of human septic shock.

  7. The concentration of adrenaline and noradrenaline in the serum of dogs under the influence of calcium channels blockers

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    Milanović Tamara

    2015-01-01

    membrane of presynaptic ending is necessary to free the neurotransmitter out of the vesicle, the aim of our work is to study whether Verapamile has effects on the membrane of presynaptic endings of sympathetic nervous system checking the level of catecholamine in serum. The experiment was conducted in 6 healthy dogs which were, after 10-minute-infusion (0.9% NaCl, treated with intravenous bolus veramapile injections in three occasions, in every 5 minutes, until the first signs of intoxication had appeared. This caused bradycardia, heart rhythm disorder and blood pressure drop. In order to determine the level of catecholamine, blood was taken sequentially, in every 5 minutes, before the new dose of verapamile was given. Verapamile (given intravenous significantly decreases the concentration of adrenaline and noradrenaline in the serum of dogs.

  8. Noradrenaline and Parkinson's disease

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    Claire eDelaville

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is characterized by the degeneration of dopamine (DA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and motor symptoms including bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor at rest. These symptoms are manifest when around 70% of striatal DA is lost. In addition to motor deficits, PD is also characterized by the manifestation of non-motor symptoms. However, depletion of DA alone in animal models has failed to simultaneously elicit both the motor and non-motor deficits of PD because the disease is a multi-system disorder that features a profound loss of other neurotransmitter systems. There is growing evidence that additional loss of noradrenaline (NA neurons of the locus coeruleus, the principal source of NA in the brain, could be involved in the clinical expression of motor as well as in non-motor deficits. In the present review, we analyzed the latest data obtained from animal models of parkinsonism and from parkinsonian patients providing evidence for the implication of NA in the pathophysiology of PD. Recent studies have shown that NA depletion alone or combined with DA depletion resulted in motor as well as in non-motor dysfunctions. In addition, by using selective agonists and antagonists of alpha receptors we, and others, have shown that α2 receptors are implicated in the control of motor activity and that α2 receptor antagonists can improve PD motor symptoms as well as L-Dopa-induced dyskinesia. Here we provide arguments that the loss of NA neurons in PD has an impact on all PD symptoms and that the association of NAergic agents to dopaminergic medication can be beneficial in the treatment of the disease.

  9. Adeprene influence on the turnover rate of brain noradrenaline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyutyulkova, N.I.; Gorancheva, J.I.; Ankov, V.K.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of Adeprene - Bulgarian antidepressant - on the content and the turnover rate of the rat brain noradrenaline was studied. The animals were injected intraperitoneally during 5 days with 20 mg/kg Adeprene. One hour after the last administration of Adeprene, Tyrosine, labelled with 14 C was injected. The animals were sacrified on the 1st, 2nd and 4th hours after the injection of 14 C-Tyrosine. The tyrosine and noradrenaline concentration were determined spectrofluorimetrically the concentration of the compounds labelled with 14 C by means of a liquid scintillator. The turnover rate constant of noradrenaline was calculated on the basis of the obtained results and the respective formula. It was established that under the influence of Adeprene, the noradrenaline concentration in the brain rises from 0,5 g/g in the control animals to 0,6 in treated mice. The turnover rate constant of noradrenaline, however, drops to 0,9 g/g/hour as compared to 0,15 g/g/hours in the controls. The determination of the turnover rate provides an idea about the intensity of utilization and synthesis of the mediator and is considered consequently as a more radiosensitive index for the neuronal activity then the total amine content. (A.B.)

  10. [Features of noradrenaline stimulation of rat liver mitochondria respiration by ADP and calcium ions].

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    Stefankiv, Iu S; Babskyĭ, A M; Shostakovska, Y V

    1995-01-01

    A single administration of a physiological dose of noradrenaline to animals. in contrast to adrenaline, stimulates the respiration of mitochondria not only under oxidation of FAD-dependent Krebbs cycle substrate of the succinase but also HAD-dependent substrate of alpha-ketoglutarate. In the both cases the phosphorylation rate increases, since the action of noradrenaline, separating the respiration and oxidative phosphorylation, was not found. Noradrenaline increases the capacity of mitochondria to more actively absorb calcium ions under oxidation of succinate than under that of alpha-ketoglutarate.

  11. Serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors improve micturition control in mice.

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    Marco Redaelli

    Full Text Available Poor micturition control may cause profound distress, because proper voiding is mandatory for an active social life. Micturition results from the subtle interplay of central and peripheral components. It involves the coordination of autonomic and neuromuscular activity at the brainstem level, under the executive control of the prefrontal cortex. We tested the hypothesis that administration of molecules acting as reuptake inhibitors of serotonin, noradrenaline or both may exert a strong effect on the control of urine release, in a mouse model of overactive bladder. Mice were injected with cyclophosphamide (40 mg/kg, to increase micturition acts. Mice were then given one of four molecules: the serotonin reuptake inhibitor imipramine, its metabolite desipramine that acts on noradrenaline reuptake, the serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor duloxetine or its active metabolite 4-hydroxy-duloxetine. Cyclophosphamide increased urine release without inducing overt toxicity or inflammation, except for increase in urothelium thickness. All the antidepressants were able to decrease the cyclophosphamide effects, as apparent from longer latency to the first micturition act, decreased number of urine spots and volume of released urine. These results suggest that serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors exert a strong and effective modulatory effect on the control of urine release and prompt to additional studies on their central effects on brain areas involved in the social and behavioral control of micturition.

  12. Sediment transport under breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Mayer, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    The sediment transport in the surf zone is modelled by combining a Navier-Stokes solver, a free surface model, a turbulence model, and a sediment transport model. The flow solver is based on the finite volume technique for non-orthogonal grids. The model is capable of simulating the turbulence...... generated at the surface where the wave breaks as well as the turbulence generated near the bed due to the wave-motion and the undertow. In general, the levels of turbulent kinetic energy are found to be higher than experiments show. This results in an over prediction of the sediment transport. Nevertheless...

  13. Exposure of P. gingivalis to noradrenaline reduces bacterial growth and elevates ArgX protease activity.

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    Saito, Takayuki; Inagaki, Satoru; Sakurai, Kaoru; Okuda, Katsuji; Ishihara, Kazuyuki

    2011-03-01

    Periodontitis, an infectious disease caused by periodontopathic bacteria, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, is reported to be accelerated by stress, under which noradrenaline levels are increased in the bloodstream. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of noradrenaline on P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis was incubated in the presence of 25μM, 50μM, or 100μM adrenaline or noradrenaline at 37°C for 12, 24 or 36h and growth was evaluated by OD(660). Auto-inducer-2 (AI-2) was measured by luminescence of Vibrio harveyi BB 170. Expression of P. gingivalis genes was evaluated using a microarray and RT-PCR. Rgp activity of arg-gingipainA and B (Rgp) was measured with a synthetic substrate. Growth of P. gingivalis FDC381 was inhibited by noradrenaline at 24 and 36h. Growth inhibition by noradrenaline increased dose-dependently. Inhibition of growth partially recovered with addition of propranolol. AI-2 production from P. gingivalis showed a marked decrease with addition of noradrenaline compared with peak production levels in the control group. Microarray analysis revealed an increase in expression in 18 genes and a decrease in expression in 2 genes. Amongst these genes, expression of the protease arg-gingipainB (RgpB) gene, a major virulence factor of P. gingivalis, was further analysed. Expression of rgpB showed a significant increase with addition of noradrenaline, which was partially reduced by addition of propranolol. Cell-associated Rgp activity also increased with addition of noradrenaline. These results suggest that stressors influence the expression of the virulence factors of P. gingivalis via noradrenaline. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

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    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  15. Dopamine versus noradrenaline in septic shock

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    Bo Xu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe ‘Surviving Sepsis’ Campaign guidelines recommend theuse of dopamine or noradrenaline as the first vasopressor inseptic shock. However, information that guides clinicians inchoosing between dopamine and noradrenaline as the firstvasopressor in patients with septic shock is limited.ObjectiveThis article presents a review of the literature regarding theuse of dopamine versus noradrenaline in patients with septicshock.ResultsTwo randomised controlled trials (RCT and two largeprospective cohort studies were analysed. RCT data showeddopamine was associated with increased arrhythmic events.One cohort study found dopamine was associated with higher30-day mortality. The other cohort study found noradrenalinewas associated with higher 28-day mortality.DiscussionData on the use of dopamine versus noradrenaline in patientswith septic shock is limited. Following the recent SOAP IIstudy, there is now strong evidence that the use of dopaminein septic shock is associated with significantly morecardiovascular adverse events, compared tonoradrenaline.ConclusionNoradrenaline should be used as the initial vasopressor inseptic shock to avoid the arrhythmic events associatedwith dopamine.

  16. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.; Hu, Q.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of Revision 00 of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada

  17. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.; Hu, Q.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids, and

  18. Rotational Spectra of Adrenaline and Noradrenaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo, V.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2009-06-01

    The emergence of Laser Ablation Molecular Beam Fourier Transform Microwave (LA-MB-FTMW) spectroscopy has rendered accessible the gas-phase study of solid biomolecules with high melting points. Among the biomolecules to benefit from this technique, neurotransmitters have received special attention due to the lack of experimental information and their biological relevance. As a continuation of the we present the study of adrenaline and noradrenaline. The comparison between the experimental rotational and ^{14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants and those calculated ab initio provide a definitive test for molecular structures and confirm unambiguously the identification of four conformers of adrenaline and three conformers of noradrenaline. Their relative population in the jet has been evaluated by relative intensity measurements of selected rotational transitions. The most abundant conformer in both neurotransmitters present an extended AG configuration with a O-H\\cdotsN hydrogen bond in the side chain. J.L. Alonso, M.E. Sanz, J.C. López and V. Cortijo, J. Am. Chem. Soc. (in press), 2009

  19. Contrasting Roles of Dopamine and Noradrenaline in the Motivational Properties of Social Play Behavior in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, E J Marijke; van Kerkhof, Linda W M; Servadio, Michela; van Swieten, Maaike M H; Houwing, Danielle J; Aalderink, Mandy; Driel, Nina V; Trezza, Viviana; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2016-02-01

    Social play behavior, abundant in the young of most mammalian species, is thought to be important for social and cognitive development. Social play is highly rewarding, and as such, the expression of social play depends on its pleasurable and motivational properties. Since the motivational properties of social play have only sporadically been investigated, we developed a setup in which rats responded for social play under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a key role in incentive motivational processes, and both dopamine and noradrenaline have been implicated in the modulation of social play behavior. Therefore, we investigated the role of dopamine and noradrenaline in the motivation for social play. Treatment with the psychostimulant drugs methylphenidate and cocaine increased responding for social play, but suppressed its expression during reinforced play periods. The dopamine reuptake inhibitor GBR-12909 increased responding for social play, but did not affect its expression, whereas the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine decreased responding for social play as well as its expression. The effects of methylphenidate and cocaine on responding for social play, but not their play-suppressant effects, were blocked by pretreatment with the dopamine receptor antagonist α-flupenthixol. In contrast, pretreatment with the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist RX821002 prevented the play-suppressant effect of methylphenidate, but left its effect on responding for social play unaltered. In sum, the present study introduces a novel method to study the incentive motivational properties of social play behavior in rats. Using this paradigm, we demonstrate dissociable roles for dopamine and noradrenaline in social play behavior: dopamine stimulates the motivation for social play, whereas noradrenaline negatively modulates the motivation for social play behavior and its expression.

  20. Noradrenaline, oxymetazoline and phorbol myristate acetate induce distinct functional actions and phosphorylation patterns of α1A-adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-Hernández, Rocío; Hernández-Méndez, Aurelio; Romero-Ávila, M Teresa; Alfonzo-Méndez, Marco A; Pupo, André S; García-Sáinz, J Adolfo

    2017-12-01

    In LNCaP cells that stably express α 1A -adrenergic receptors, oxymetazoline increased intracellular calcium and receptor phosphorylation, however, this agonist was a weak partial agonist, as compared to noradrenaline, for calcium signaling. Interestingly, oxymetazoline-induced receptor internalization and desensitization displayed greater effects than those induced by noradrenaline. Phorbol myristate acetate induced modest receptor internalization and minimal desensitization. α 1A -Adrenergic receptor interaction with β-arrestins (colocalization/coimmunoprecipitation) was induced by noradrenaline and oxymetazoline and, to a lesser extent, by phorbol myristate acetate. Oxymetazoline was more potent and effective than noradrenaline in inducing ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. Mass spectrometric analysis of immunopurified α 1A -adrenergic receptors from cells treated with adrenergic agonists and the phorbol ester clearly showed that phosphorylated residues were present both at the third intracellular loop and at the carboxyl tail. Distinct phosphorylation patterns were observed under the different conditions. The phosphorylated residues were: a) Baseline and all treatments: T233; b) noradrenaline: S220, S227, S229, S246, S250, S389; c) oxymetazoline: S227, S246, S381, T384, S389; and d) phorbol myristate acetate: S246, S250, S258, S351, S352, S401, S402, S407, T411, S413, T451. Our novel data, describing the α 1A -AR phosphorylation sites, suggest that the observed different phosphorylation patterns may participate in defining adrenoceptor localization and action, under the different conditions examined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stereoselectivity of the distribution of labelled noradrenaline in rabbit aortic strips after inhibition of the noradrenaline-metabolizing enzymes

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    Eckert, E; Henseling, M; Gescher, A; Trendelenburg, U [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie

    1976-01-01

    Rabbit aortic strips (nerve-free, reserpinepretreated or normal) whose noradrenaline-metabolizing enzymes were inhibited (by in vitro treatment with 0.5 mM pargyline for 30 min and by the presence of 0.1 mM U-0521) were exposed to 1.18 ..mu..M labelled (-)- or (+)noradrenaline for 30 min. At the end of the incubation period some strips were used for analysis of radioactivity (i.e., of noradrenaline and its metabolites), while for others the efflux of radioactivity was determined during 250 min of washout with amine-free solution. An estimate of the original distribution of the amine into the various extraneuronal and neuronal compartments of the tissue was obtained by compartmental analysis of the efflux curves. The mechanisms responsible for the accumulation of radioactivity in extraneuronal and axoplasmic compartments lack stereoselectivity; the rate constants for the efflux of radioactivity from these compartments are the same for (-)- and (+)noradrenaline. Despite the use of enzyme inhibitors, the 'late neuronal efflux' of radioactivity (i.e., the efflux collected between the 200th and 250th min of wash out) contained a considerable proportion of metabolites of noradrenaline. The metabolism of noradrenaline was stereoselective: while dihydroxyphenylglycol (DOPEG) was the predominant metabolite in the efflux from strips incubated with (-)noradrenaline, a considerable part of the efflux from strips incubated with the (+)isomer consisted of dihydroxymandelic acid and 'O-methylated and deaminated' metabolites (in addition to DOPEG).

  2. Stereoselectivity of the distribution of labelled noradrenaline in rabbit aortic strips after inhibition of the noradrenaline-metabolizing enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, E.; Henseling, M.; Gescher, A.; Trendelenburg, U.

    1976-01-01

    Rabbit aortic strips (nerve-free, reserpinepretreated or normal) whose noradrenaline-metabolizing enzymes were inhibited (by in vitro treatment with 0.5 mM pargyline for 30 min and by the presence of 0.1 mM U-0521) were exposed to 1.18 μM labelled (-)- or (+)noradrenaline for 30 min. At the end of the incubation period some strips were used for analysis of radioactivity (i.e., of noradrenaline and its metabolites), while for others the efflux of radioactivity was determined during 250 min of washout with amine-free solution. An estimate of the original distribution of the amine into the various extraneuronal and neuronal compartments of the tissue was obtained by compartmental analysis of the efflux curves. The mechanisms responsible for the accumulation of radioactivity in extraneuronal and axoplasmic compartments lack stereoselectivity; the rate constants for the efflux of radioactivity from these compartments are the same for (-)- and (+)noradrenaline. Despite the use of enzyme inhibitors, the 'late neuronal efflux' of radioactivity (i.e., the efflux collected between the 200th and 250th min of wash out) contained a considerable proportion of metabolites of noradrenaline. The metabolism of noradrenaline was stereoselective: while dihydroxyphenylglycol (DOPEG) was the predominant metabolite in the efflux from strips incubated with (-)noradrenaline, a considerable part of the efflux from strips incubated with the (+)isomer consisted of dihydroxymandelic acid and 'O-methylated and deaminated' metabolites (in addition to DOPEG). (orig/GSE) [de

  3. The distribution of 3H-(+-)noradrenaline in rabbit aortic strips after inhibition of the noradrenaline-metabolizing enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henseling, M.; Eckert, E.; Trendelenburg, U.

    1976-01-01

    Rabbit aortic strips (nerve-free, reserpine pretreated or normal) whose noradrenaline-metabolizing enzymes were inhibited (by in vitro treatment with 0.5 mM pargyline for 30 min and by the presence of 0.1 mM U-0521) were exposed to 1.18 μM 3 H-(+-)noradrenaline for 30 min (in most experiments). At the end of the incubation some strips were used for anlysis of radioactivity (i.e., of noradrenaline and its metabolites), while for others the efflux of radioactivity was determined during 240 min of wash out with amine-free solution. An estimate of the original distribution of the amine into the various extraneuronal and neuronal compartments of the tissue was obtained by compartmental analysis of the efflux curves. Extracellular amine distributes into 'compartment I + II' (characterized by a half time for efflux of 14 C-sorbitol. The extraneuronal accumulation of noradrenaline is a quickly equilibrating process which involves compartments III and IV (with half times for efflux of 3 and 11 min, respectively). Compartment IV represents not only extraneuronally but also neuronally distributed noradrenaline. The neuronal accumulation of noradrenaline is a slowly equilibrating process which can be subdivided into axoplasmic and vesicular accumulation. The results support the view that the rate of relaxation (of strips initially exposed to noradrenaline and then washed out) is affected by the efflux of unchanged amine form extraneuronal and neuronal stores. (orig./GSE) [de

  4. Leptin inhibits and ghrelin augments hypothalamic noradrenaline release after stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Akio; Okada, Nobukazu; Rokkaku, Kumiko; Honda, Kazufumi; Ishibashi, Shun; Onaka, Tatsushi

    2008-09-01

    Metabolic conditions affect hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal responses to stressful stimuli. Here we examined effects of food deprivation, leptin and ghrelin upon noradrenaline release in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations after stressful stimuli. Food deprivation augmented both noradrenaline release in the PVN and the increase in plasma ACTH concentration following electrical footshocks (FSs). An intracerebroventricular injection of leptin attenuated the increases in hypothalamic noradrenaline release and plasma ACTH concentrations after FSs, while ghrelin augmented these responses. These data suggest that leptin inhibits and ghrelin facilitates neuroendocrine stress responses via noradrenaline release and indicate that a decrease in leptin and an increase in ghrelin release after food deprivation might contribute to augmentation of stress-induced ACTH release in a fasting state.

  5. Strategic planning for transportation under the NWPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.; Miernyk, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the western states have found strategic planning to be an effective approach for identifying activities, and the appropriate sequencing of activities, that should be undertaken in the development of a transportation system for shipping high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel to a repository or monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The Western Interstate Energy Board's High-Level Radioactive Waste Committee works with the U.S. Department of Energy pursuant to a cooperative agreement on the development of a safe, publicly-acceptable transportation system. The Committee has developed a Strategic Plan and Schedule which: guides the scheduling and prioritization of the Committee's work; enhances understanding of the complex and interrelated activities that states believe should be undertaken in developing a transportation system for high-level radioactive materials; and provides states with an appropriate structure for evaluating DOE's responsiveness to state needs

  6. Adrenaline but not noradrenaline is a determinant of exercise-induced lipid mobilization in human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glisezinski, I. de; Larrouy, D.; Bajzova, M.

    2009-01-01

    The relative contribution of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine) in the control of lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) during exercise was evaluated in men treated with a somatostatin analogue, octreotide. Eight lean and eight obese young men matched...... of octreotide suppressed plasma insulin and growth hormone levels at rest and during exercise. It blocked the exercise-induced increase in plasma adrenaline while that of noradrenaline was unchanged. Plasma natriuretic peptides (NPs) level was higher at rest and during exercise under octreotide infusion in lean...... individuals. In conclusion, blockade of beta-adrenergic receptors during exercise performed during infusion of octreotide (blocking the exercise-induced rise in adrenaline but not that of noradrenaline) does not alter the exercise-induced lipolysis. This suggests that adrenaline is the main adrenergic agent...

  7. Fluxes of lactate into, from, and among gap junction-coupled astrocytes and their interaction with noradrenaline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif eHertz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactate is a versatile metabolite with important roles in modulation of brain glucose utilization rate (CMRglc, diagnosis of brain-injured patients, redox- and receptor-mediated signaling, memory, and alteration of gene transcription. Neurons and astrocytes release and accumulate lactate using equilibrative monocarboxylate transporters that carry out net transmembrane transport of lactate only until intra- and extracellular levels reach equilibrium. Astrocytes have much faster lactate uptake than neurons and shuttle more lactate among gap junction-coupled astrocytes than to nearby neurons. Lactate diffusion within syncytia can provide precursors for oxidative metabolism and glutamate synthesis and facilitate its release from endfeet to perivascular space to stimulate blood flow. Lactate efflux from brain during activation underlies the large underestimation of CMRglc with labeled glucose and fall in CMRO2/CMRglc ratio. Receptor-mediated effects of lactate on locus coeruleus neurons include noradrenaline release in cerebral cortex and c-AMP-mediated stimulation of astrocytic gap junctional coupling, thereby enhancing its dispersal and release from brain. Lactate transport is essential for its multifunctional roles.

  8. Distribution of /sup 3/H-(+-)noradrenaline in rabbit aortic strips after inhibition of the noradrenaline-metabolizing enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henseling, M; Eckert, E; Trendelenburg, U [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie

    1976-01-01

    Rabbit aortic strips (nerve-free, reserpine pretreated or normal) whose noradrenaline-metabolizing enzymes were inhibited (by in vitro treatment with 0.5 mM pargyline for 30 min and by the presence of 0.1 mM U-0521) were exposed to 1.18 ..mu..M /sup 3/H-(+-)noradrenaline for 30 min (in most experiments). At the end of the incubation some strips were used for anlysis of radioactivity (i.e., of noradrenaline and its metabolites), while for others the efflux of radioactivity was determined during 240 min of wash out with amine-free solution. An estimate of the original distribution of the amine into the various extraneuronal and neuronal compartments of the tissue was obtained by compartmental analysis of the efflux curves. Extracellular amine distributes into 'compartment I + II' (characterized by a half time for efflux of < 1 min); compartment size and half time for efflux were similar to those obtained for /sup 14/C-sorbitol. The extraneuronal accumulation of noradrenaline is a quickly equilibrating process which involves compartments III and IV (with half times for efflux of 3 and 11 min, respectively). Compartment IV represents not only extraneuronally but also neuronally distributed noradrenaline. The neuronal accumulation of noradrenaline is a slowly equilibrating process which can be subdivided into axoplasmic and vesicular accumulation. The results support the view that the rate of relaxation (of strips initially exposed to noradrenaline and then washed out) is affected by the efflux of unchanged amine form extraneuronal and neuronal stores.

  9. Plasma clearance of noradrenaline does not change with age in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S

    1985-01-01

    Noradrenaline kinetics (plasma concentrations, plasma clearance and appearance rates) were investigated in seven elderly healthy subjects and in six young healthy subjects. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline concentrations were higher in the elderly subjects compared with the young subjects. Pla....... Plasma clearance of noradrenaline was identical in the two groups. The increase in plasma noradrenaline concentration, with age, probably reflects an increased sympathetic nervous activity.......Noradrenaline kinetics (plasma concentrations, plasma clearance and appearance rates) were investigated in seven elderly healthy subjects and in six young healthy subjects. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline concentrations were higher in the elderly subjects compared with the young subjects...

  10. The Transport of Radioactive Materials under special arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaggio, A.L.; Vietri, J.R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material rule the international transport of these materials and provide the basis of national and regional regulations. The Regulations establish the technical, operational and administrative requirements which shall be accomplished to carry out the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). They also allow the transport in different conditions of those currently applicable and, in such cases, establish that the transport shall be made under special arrangement. To approve a transport under special arrangement the involved Competent Authority shall be satisfied that the alternative provisions are adequate to ensure that the overall level of safety in transport and in-transit storage is at least equivalent to that which would be provided if all the applicable requirements had been met (para. 2ll of the International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Series No. 6). This paper explains some difficulties the Argentine Competent. Authority has experienced trying by comparing the equivalence between the level of safety resulting from the compliance with current requirements and the overall level of safety which is provided by the application of alternative provisions. As most of the experience gained come from the transport of RAM by road, only this mode of transport is considered. (J.P.N.)

  11. The postirradiation effect of noradrenaline, serotonin and dopamine on Na-K-pump activity in rat brain sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvoretskij, A.I.; Kulikova, I.A.

    1993-01-01

    Whole-body X-irradiation with doses of 0.155 and 0.310 C/kg was shown to modify in different ways the activating effects of noradrenaline and serotonin, as well as a biphase effect of dopamine of neuronal membranes. The resulting effect was a function of a combination of radiation doses and neurotransmitter concentrations and thus showed different modes of interaction between neurotransmitter and ion-transport systems of brain cells in radiation sickness

  12. Study on multimodal transport route under low carbon background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lele; Liu, Jie

    2018-06-01

    Low-carbon environmental protection is the focus of attention around the world, scientists are constantly researching on production of carbon emissions and living carbon emissions. However, there is little literature about multimodal transportation based on carbon emission at home and abroad. Firstly, this paper introduces the theory of multimodal transportation, the multimodal transport models that didn't consider carbon emissions and consider carbon emissions are analyzed. On this basis, a multi-objective programming 0-1 programming model with minimum total transportation cost and minimum total carbon emission is proposed. The idea of weight is applied to Ideal point method for solving problem, multi-objective programming is transformed into a single objective function. The optimal solution of carbon emission to transportation cost under different weights is determined by a single objective function with variable weights. Based on the model and algorithm, an example is given and the results are analyzed.

  13. Tariff Policy and Transport Costs under Reciprocal Dumping

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Oshiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes tariff competition by investigating the strategic interactions among firms that are highly mobile across national boundaries. Although high transport costs yield a geographic dispersion of the industry, sufficiently low transport costs result in a core-periphery location where nobody bears tariff burdens. In any case, the world economy would be in a much better position under an international coordination scheme. An economy is only required to enforce a weak international ...

  14. A Literature Review On Multimodal Freight Transportation Planning Under Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosyida, E. E.; Santosa, B.; Pujawan, I. N.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reviews publication that focuses on multimodal freight transportation planning under disruptions. In this paper, disruptions are specified by the level of the disruptions occurs and the scope of its effect. This becomes an important distinction since the cause and effect that may occur at different levels. The failure to make this distinction has implications for how we understand and manage. The reviewed papers include those that develop framework, model, and technical procedure for freight transportation. Finally, we provide an outlook of future research directions on the domain of transportation planning.

  15. One-dimensional radionuclide transport under time-varying conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbard, F.; Olague, N.E.; Longsine, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses new analytical and numerical solutions presented for one-dimensional radionuclide transport under time-varying fluid-flow conditions including radioactive decay. The analytical solution assumes that all radionuclides have identical retardation factors, and is limited to instantaneous releases. The numerical solution does not have these limitations, but is tested against the limiting case given for the analytical solution. Reasonable agreement between the two solutions was found. Examples are given for the transport of a three-member radionuclide chain transported over distances and flow rates comparable to those reported for Yucca Mountain, the proposed disposal site for high-level nuclear waste

  16. A quasilinear model for solute transport under unsaturated flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseworth, J.E.; Leem, J.

    2009-01-01

    We developed an analytical solution for solute transport under steady-state, two-dimensional, unsaturated flow and transport conditions for the investigation of high-level radioactive waste disposal. The two-dimensional, unsaturated flow problem is treated using the quasilinear flow method for a system with homogeneous material properties. Dispersion is modeled as isotropic and is proportional to the effective hydraulic conductivity. This leads to a quasilinear form for the transport problem in terms of a scalar potential that is analogous to the Kirchhoff potential for quasilinear flow. The solutions for both flow and transport scalar potentials take the form of Fourier series. The particular solution given here is for two sources of flow, with one source containing a dissolved solute. The solution method may easily be extended, however, for any combination of flow and solute sources under steady-state conditions. The analytical results for multidimensional solute transport problems, which previously could only be solved numerically, also offer an additional way to benchmark numerical solutions. An analytical solution for two-dimensional, steady-state solute transport under unsaturated flow conditions is presented. A specific case with two sources is solved but may be generalized to any combination of sources. The analytical results complement numerical solutions, which were previously required to solve this class of problems.

  17. Strategies for optical transport network recovery under epidemic network failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Kosteas, Vasileios

    2015-01-01

    The current trend in deploying automatic control plane solutions for increased flexibility in the optical transport layer leads to numerous advantages for both the operators and the customers, but also pose challenges related to the stability of the network and its ability to operate in a robust...... manner under different failure scenarios. This work evaluates two rerouting strategies and proposes four policies for failure handling in a connection-oriented optical transport network, under generalized multiprotocol label switching control plane. The performance of the strategies and the policies......, and that there exist a clear trade-off between policy performance and network resource consumption, which must be addressed by network operators for improved robustness of their transport infrastructures. Applying proactive methods for avoiding areas where epidemic failures spread results in 50% less connections...

  18. Structural Evaluation on HIC Transport Packaging under Accident Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Sung Hwan; Kim, Duck Hoi; Jung, Jin Se; Yang, Ke Hyung; Lee, Heung Young

    2005-01-01

    HIC transport packaging to transport a high integrity container(HIC) containing dry spent resin generated from nuclear power plants is to comply with the regulatory requirements of Korea and IAEA for Type B packaging due to the high radioactivity of the content, and to maintain the structural integrity under normal and accident conditions. It must withstand 9 m free drop impact onto an unyielding surface and 1 m drop impact onto a mild steel bar in a position causing maximum damage. For the conceptual design of a cylindrical HIC transport package, three dimensional dynamic structural analysis to ensure that the integrity of the package is maintained under all credible loads for 9 m free drop and 1 m puncture conditions were carried out using ABAQUS code.

  19. Transport properties in GaTe under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouskov, L.; Carvalho, M.

    1980-01-01

    First results of the resistivity rho(perpendicular) and rho(parallel)(perpendicular and parallel to the normal to the cleavage plane) under hydrostatic pressure (1 bar <= P <= 3 kbar) on GaTe grown by the Bridgman method, are given and discussed. The analysis of electrical transport properties of GaTe under pressure, indicates a complex nature of the acceptor level in this material. The activation energy Esub(a) has a negative pressure coefficient which is sample dependent. The comparison of the variations of rho(parallel) and rho(perpendicular) versus pressure shows that the activation energy E of the rho(parallel)/rho(perpendicular) ratio has also a negative pressure coefficient which can be justified in the frame of a one-dimensional disorder model proposed by Maschke and Schmid, in order to explain the transport properties in the direction of the normal to the cleavage plane. (author)

  20. Sand Transport under Highly Turbulent Airflow on a Beach Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, A. C. W.; Jackson, D. W. T.; Cooper, J. A. G.; Lynch, K.; Delgado-Fernandez, I.; Beyers, J. H. M.

    2012-04-01

    The past decade has seen a growing body of research on the relation between turbulence in the wind and the resultant transport of sediment over active sand surfaces. Widespread use of sonic anemometry and high-frequency sand transport sensors and traps have facilitated recent field studies over dunes and beach surfaces, to move beyond monitoring of mean wind speed and bulk transport to more detailed measurements at much higher spatio-temporal resolutions. In this paper we present results of a field study conducted in the recirculation flow and re-attachment zone on a beach behind a foredune at Magilligan Strand, Northern Ireland. The offshore winds over the foredune at this site are associated with flow separation and reversal located over the beach surface in the lee of the dune row, often strong enough to induce sand transport toward the toe of the foredune ('against' the overall offshore flow). The re-attachment and recirculation zone are associated with strongly turbulent fluid flow and complex streamlines that do not follow the underlying topography. High frequency (25 Hz) wind and sand transport data were collected at a grid of point locations distributed over the beach surface between 35 m to 55 m distance from the 10 m high dune crest, using ultrasonic anemometers at 0.5 m height and co-located load cell traps and Safires at the bed surface. The wind data are used to investigate the role of Reynolds shear stresses and quadrant analysis techniques for identifying burst-sweep events in relation to sand transport events. This includes an assessment of the issues involved with data rotations for yaw, pitch, and roll corrections relative to complex flow streamlines, and the subsequently derived turbulence parameters based on fluctuating vector components (u', v', w'). Results illustrate how transport may exist under threshold mean velocities because of the role played by coherent flow structures, and the findings corroborate previous findings that shear velocity

  1. Mixed Transportation Network Design under a Sustainable Development Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%.

  2. Mixed Transportation Network Design under a Sustainable Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Ni, Ling-lin; Shi, Feng

    2013-01-01

    A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%. PMID:23476142

  3. Lived experience of involuntary transport under mental health legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Joanne; Hutchinson, Marie; Hurley, John; Stasa, Helen

    2017-12-01

    Police have historically been responsible for transporting people during a mental health crisis in Australia. A major change to the New South Wales (NSW) Mental Health Act (MHA) in 2007 expanded the range of coercive transportation agencies to include NSW Ambulance (paramedics) and NSW Health (mental health nurses). Anecdotal reports, however, describe a lack of clarity around how these changes should be implemented in practice. This research aims to explore this lack of clarity through qualitative analysis of interviews with people with the lived experience of involuntary transport under the MHA. Sixteen interviews were conducted; most (n = 14) interviews in northern NSW regions: six with people who had been transported (consumers), four with carers, and six with service providers (two police, one paramedic, and three mental health nurses). For consumers and carers, the police response was often perceived as too intense, particularly if the person was not violent. Carers were often conflicted by having to call for emergency intervention. Service providers were frustrated by a lack of a coordinated interagency response, resourcing issues, delays at emergency departments, and lack of adequate training. A central theme across all groups was the importance of communication styles. As one participant (consumer) said: 'Everybody needs a lesson in kindness'. All groups agreed that high-risk situations necessitate police involvement. However, invocation of the MHA during a high-risk situation is fraught with stress and difficulties, leaving little room for empathetic communications. Effective and diverse, evidence-based, early intervention strategies - both consensual and non-consensual - are necessary to reduce the requirement for police involvement in mental health transports. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  4. 77 FR 71430 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Public Transportation Baseline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Public Transportation Baseline Assessment for Security Enhancement... voluntary site visits with security and operating officials of public transportation systems. This program...

  5. 77 FR 19680 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Rail Transportation Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration [Docket No. TSA-2006-26514] Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Rail Transportation Security AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces that the...

  6. 77 FR 15114 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Transportation Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Transportation Security Officer (TSO) Medical Questionnaire AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day Notice. SUMMARY: This notice...

  7. 75 FR 2556 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Transportation Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Transportation Security Officer (TSO) Medical Questionnaire AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day notice. SUMMARY: This notice...

  8. The neuropharmacology of serotonin and noradrenaline in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J

    2002-06-01

    Several classes of antidepressant drug exist, divided into three broad families, the monoamine reuptake inhibitors, the monoamine oxidase inhibitors and the monoamine receptor antagonists. All these drugs have a common pharmacological effect, to raise the synaptic concentrations of noradrenaline and serotonin. Although different drugs have different relative selectivity for noradrenaline and serotonin systems, these two neurotransmitter pathways work in parallel and in a coherent manner to produce the same final antidepressant response. The lag-time in the onset of action of antidepressants can be explained by the activation of inhibitory autoreceptors on serotonergic and noradrenergic neurones which initially attenuate the effects of antidepressants on synaptic transmitter levels. Over time, these autoreceptors desensitize, allowing the emergence of an overt antidepressant response. This theory has led to the proposition that antagonists at these autoreceptors such as pindolol may be useful adjuncts to antidepressant treatment, in order to hasten the appearance of a clinical response. Evidence for the clinical validity of this idea remains equivocal, however. The use of central monoamine depletion studies has demonstrated that it is elevated synaptic monoamine levels themselves, rather than some downstream postsynaptic changes in, for example, receptor sensitivity, that are responsible for the therapeutic effect of antidepressant drugs. Taken together, the data collected over the last 40 years have allowed the emergence of a unified monoamine hypothesis of antidepressant drug action.

  9. Lead-Induced Atypical Parkinsonism in Rats: Behavioral, Electrophysiological, and Neurochemical Evidence for a Role of Noradrenaline Depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Sabbar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead neurotoxicity is a major health problem known as a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, including the manifestation of parkinsonism-like disorder. While lead is known to preferentially accumulate in basal ganglia, the mechanisms underlying behavioral disorders remain unknown. Here, we investigated the neurophysiological and biochemical correlates of motor deficits induced by sub-chronic injections of lead.Methods: Sprague Dawely rats were exposed to sub-chronic injections of lead (10 mg/kg, i.p. or to a single i.p. injection of 50 mg/kg N-(2-chloroethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP-4, a drug known to induce selective depletion of noradrenaline. Rats were submitted to a battery of behavioral tests, including the open field for locomotor activity and rotarod for motor coordination. Electrophysiological recordings were carried out in three major basal ganglia nuclei, the subthalamic nucleus (STN, globus pallidus (GP, and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr. At the end of experiments, post-mortem tissue level of the three monoamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin and their metabolites has been determined using HPLC.Results: Lead intoxication significantly impaired exploratory and locomotor activity as well as motor coordination. It resulted in a significant reduction in the level of noradrenaline in the cortex and dopamine and its metabolites, DOPAC, and HVA, in the striatum. The tissue level of serotonin and its metabolite 5-HIAA was not affected in the two structures. Similarly, DSP-4, which induced a selective depletion of noradrenaline, significantly decreased exploratory, and locomotor activity as well as motor coordination. L-DOPA treatment did not improve motor deficits induced by lead and DSP-4 in the two animal groups. Electrophysiological recordings showed that both lead and DSP-4 did not change the firing rate but resulted in a switch from the regular normal firing to irregular and

  10. Transport of nuclear material under the 1971 Brussels Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagorce, M.

    1975-01-01

    The legal regime in force before entry into force of the 1971 Brussels Convention relating to civil liability for the maritime carriage of nuclear material created serious difficulties for maritime carriers, regarding both the financial risks entailed and restrictions on enjoyment of the rights granted by civil liability conventions. The 1971 Convention exonerates from liability any person likely to be held liable for nuclear damage under maritime law, provided another person is liable under the nuclear conventions or an equivalent national law. A problem remaining is that of compensation of nuclear damage to the means of transport for countries not having opted for re-inclusion of such damage in the nuclear law regime; this does not apply however to countries having ratified the Convention to date. A feature of the latter is that it establishes as extensively as possible the priority of nuclear law over maritime law. Furthermore the new regime continues to preserve efficiently the interests of victims of nuclear incidents. It is therefore to be hoped that insurers will no longer hesitate to cover international maritime carriage of nuclear material [fr

  11. Modeling sheet-flow sand transport under progressive surface waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    In the near-shore zone, energetic sea waves generate sheet-flow sand transport. In present day coastal models, wave-induced sheet-flow sand transport rates are usually predicted with semi-empirical transport formulas, based on extensive research on this phenomenon in oscillatory flow tunnels.

  12. Noradrenaline and isoproterenol kinetics in diabetic patients with and without autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, Anders; Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J

    1986-01-01

    Noradrenaline and isoproterenol kinetics using intravenous infusion of L-3H-NA and of 3H-isoproterenol were investigated in eight Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients without neuropathy and in eight Type 1 diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy matched for age, sex and duration...... with autonomic failure (p less than 0.01). The disappearance of L-3H-noradrenaline from plasma after the infusion of L-3H-noradrenaline had been stopped was not different in patients with and without neuropathy. The metabolic clearance of isoproterenol was not influenced by the presence of autonomic failure...

  13. Attempt to separate the fluorescence spectra of adrenaline and noradrenaline using chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Rikke P; Hansen, Åse Marie; Bro, R

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on whether the fluorescence spectra of the very similar catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline could be separated using chemometric methods. The fluorescence landscapes (several excitation and emission spectra were measured) of two data sets with respectively 16...... regression (Unfold-PLSR) on the larger data set and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of the six samples of the smaller set showed that there was no difference between the fluorescence landscapes of adrenaline and noradrenaline. It can be concluded that chemometric separation of adrenaline and noradrenaline...

  14. Muscarinic receptors in separate populations of noradrenaline- and adrenaline-containing chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelena, P.; Moro, M.A.; Castillo, C.J.; Garcia, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    We have performed binding experiments of (a)[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate to partially purified membranes from noradrenaline- and adrenaline-containing chromaffin cells and (b) [3H]N-methyl-quinuclidinyl benzilate to acutely isolated, or 48-h cultured, chromaffin cells subpopulations. Using this approach, we obtained enough evidence to conclude (1st) that muscarinic receptors are present in both noradrenaline- and adrenaline containing cells; (2nd) that noradrenaline cells contain in fact 2-3 fold higher density of those receptors; and (3rd) that those receptors undergo plastic changes upon chronic culturing of the cells

  15. Thermal analysis on NAC-STC spent fuel transport cask under different transport conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yumei [Institute of Process Equipment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Yang, Jian, E-mail: zdhjkz@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Process Equipment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Xu, Chao; Wang, Weiping [Institute of Process Equipment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Ma, Zhijun [Department of Material Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Spent fuel cask was investigated as a whole instead of fuel assembly alone. • The cask was successfully modeled and meshed after several simplifications. • Equivalence method was used to calculate the properties of parts. • Both the integral thermal field and peak values are captured to verify safety. • The temperature variations of key parts were also plotted. - Abstract: Transport casks used for conveying spent nuclear fuel are inseparably related to the safety of the whole reprocessing system for spent nuclear fuel. Thus they must be designed according to rigorous safety standards including thermal analysis. In this paper, for NAC-STC cask, a finite element model is established based on some proper simplifications on configurations and the heat transfer mechanisms. Considering the complex components and gaps, the equivalence method is presented to define their material properties. Then an equivalent convection coefficient is introduced to define boundary conditions. Finally, the temperature field is captured and analyzed under both normal and accident transport conditions by using ANSYS software. The validity of numerical calculation is given by comparing its results with theoretical calculation. Obtaining the integral distribution laws of temperature and peak temperature values of all vital components, the security of the cask can be evaluated and verified.

  16. Effect of noradrenaline on production of methoxyindoles by rat pineal gland in organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This report examined the effect of noradrenaline on production of methoxyindoles by the pineal gland in organ culture. Pineal glands were incubated in pairs in 95μl culture medium containing 5-hydroxy [2- 14 C]tryptamine creatinine sulphate (0,1 mM) and noradrenaline (NA) (0,5-100 μM). The results indicated that noradrenaline appeared to have a characteristic action on pineal metabolism. An increase in production of both N-acetylserotonin and melatonin by the pineal after noradrenaline treatment was observed. The overall production of methoxyindoles followed a very similar trend to that of N-acetylserotonin and melatonin, which suggests some degree of noradrenergic control over HIOMT levels

  17. Suprachiasmatic modulation of noradrenaline release in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Mleux, Benoît; Bayer, Laurence; Eggermann, Emmanuel; Jones, Barbara E; Mühlethaler, Michel; Serafin, Mauro

    2007-06-13

    As the major brain circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is known to influence the timing of sleep and waking. We thus investigated here the effect of SCN stimulation on neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) thought to be involved in promoting sleep. Using an acute in vitro preparation of the rat anterior hypothalamus/preoptic area, we found that whereas single-pulse stimulations of the SCN evoked standard fast ionotropic IPSPs and EPSPs, train stimulations unexpectedly evoked a long-lasting inhibition (LLI). Such LLIs could also be evoked in VLPO neurons by pressure application of NMDA within the SCN, indicating the specific activation of SCN neurons. This LLI was shown to result from the presynaptic facilitation of noradrenaline release, because it was suppressed in presence of yohimbine, a selective antagonist of alpha2-adrenoreceptors. The LLI depended on the opening of a potassium conductance, because it was annulled at E(K) and could be reversed below E(K). These results show that the SCN can provide an LLI of the sleep-promoting VLPO neurons that could play a role in the circadian organization of the sleep-waking cycle.

  18. Selective noradrenaline depletion impairs working memory and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradazzi, Marino; Gulino, Rosario; Fieramosca, Francesco; Falzacappa, Lucia Verga; Riggi, Margherita; Leanza, Giampiero

    2016-12-01

    Noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus play a role in learning and memory, and their loss is an early event in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Moreover, noradrenaline may sustain hippocampal neurogenesis; however, whether are these events related is still unknown. Four to five weeks following the selective immunotoxic ablation of locus coeruleus neurons, young adult rats underwent reference and working memory tests, followed by postmortem quantitative morphological analyses to assess the extent of the lesion, as well as the effects on proliferation and/or survival of neural progenitors in the hippocampus. When tested in the Water Maze task, lesioned animals exhibited no reference memory deficit, whereas working memory abilities were seen significantly impaired, as compared with intact or sham-lesioned controls. Stereological analyses confirmed a dramatic noradrenergic neuron loss associated to reduced proliferation, but not survival or differentiation, of 5-bromo-2'deoxyuridine-positive progenitors in the dentate gyrus. Thus, ascending noradrenergic afferents may be involved in more complex aspects of cognitive performance (i.e., working memory) possibly via newly generated progenitors in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. CFTR mediates noradrenaline-induced ATP efflux from DRG neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Takeshi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2011-09-24

    In our earlier study, noradrenaline (NA) stimulated ATP release from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons as mediated via β(3) adrenoceptors linked to G(s) protein involving protein kinase A (PKA) activation, to cause allodynia. The present study was conducted to understand how ATP is released from DRG neurons. In an outside-out patch-clamp configuration from acutely dissociated rat DRG neurons, single-channel currents, sensitive to the P2X receptor inhibitor PPADS, were evoked by approaching the patch-electrode tip close to a neuron, indicating that ATP is released from DRG neurons, to activate P2X receptor. NA increased the frequency of the single-channel events, but such NA effect was not found for DRG neurons transfected with the siRNA to silence the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. In the immunocytochemical study using acutely dissociated rat DRG cells, CFTR was expressed in neurons alone, but not satellite cells, fibroblasts, or Schwann cells. It is concluded from these results that CFTR mediates NA-induced ATP efflux from DRG neurons as an ATP channel.

  20. Reduced plasma noradrenaline during angiotensin II-induced acute hypertension in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, N J

    1985-01-01

    1. Plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations were measured in ten subjects before, during and after intravenous infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II) in order to determine the sympathoadrenal response of ANG II challenge in man. In five subjects ganglionic blockade was additionally performed...... by intravenous infusion of trimethaphan. 2. During ANG II infusion mean arterial blood pressure increased by 30% (P adrenaline decreased less. 3. During ganglionic blockade plasma noradrenaline decreased significantly (P

  1. Transport studies of radon in limestone underlying houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.; Saultz, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    In hilly limestone terrains of the southern Appalachians, subterranean networks of solution cavities and fissures present circulatory systems facilitating convective and advective transport of radon-bearing gas. Evidence suggests that the primary driving forces for transport are aerostatic pressure differentials created by the difference between the underground and the outside air temperatures. Examples are presented of houses experiencing elevated indoor radon levels as a consequence of communicating with such subsurface transportation systems. The location of a house near the upper or lower end of a subterranean-circulatory system seems to produce amplification of indoor radon levels in winter or summer, respectively. The transport mechanism for radon-bearing air in karst and its impact on indoor radon need better understanding, both in regard to evaluating the geographical prevalence of the phenomenon and the induced spatial and temporal effects that are possible. This paper reports field studies made at houses in karst regions at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Huntsville, Alabama. A primary radon-transport mechanism is advocated of ascending or descending subsurface columns of air whose flows are largely driven by aerostatic pressure gradients created by the inground-outdoor air temperature differentials. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. 76 FR 73020 - Agency Information Collection (Request for Transportation Expense Reimbursement): Activity Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... for Transportation Expense Reimbursement): Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... for Transportation Expense Reimbursement (38 CFR 21.8370). OMB Control Number: 2900-0580. Type of... transportation expenses. To be eligible, the child must provide supportive documentation of actual expenses...

  3. From conservative to reactive transport under diffusion-controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Tristan; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2016-05-01

    We assess the possibility to use conservative transport information, such as that contained in transit time distributions, breakthrough curves and tracer tests, to predict nonlinear fluid-rock interactions in fracture/matrix or mobile/immobile conditions. Reference simulated data are given by conservative and reactive transport simulations in several diffusive porosity structures differing by their topological organization. Reactions includes nonlinear kinetically controlled dissolution and desorption. Effective Multi-Rate Mass Transfer models (MRMT) are calibrated solely on conservative transport information without pore topology information and provide concentration distributions on which effective reaction rates are estimated. Reference simulated reaction rates and effective reaction rates evaluated by MRMT are compared, as well as characteristic desorption and dissolution times. Although not exactly equal, these indicators remain very close whatever the porous structure, differing at most by 0.6% and 10% for desorption and dissolution. At early times, this close agreement arises from the fine characterization of the diffusive porosity close to the mobile zone that controls fast mobile-diffusive exchanges. At intermediate to late times, concentration gradients are strongly reduced by diffusion, and reactivity can be captured by a very limited number of rates. We conclude that effective models calibrated solely on conservative transport information like MRMT can accurately estimate monocomponent kinetically controlled nonlinear fluid-rock interactions. Their relevance might extend to more advanced biogeochemical reactions because of the good characterization of conservative concentration distributions, even by parsimonious models (e.g., MRMT with 3-5 rates). We propose a methodology to estimate reactive transport from conservative transport in mobile-immobile conditions.

  4. Mechanistic logic underlying the axonal transport of cytosolic proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David A.; Das, Utpal; Tang, Yong; Roy, Subhojit

    2011-01-01

    Proteins vital to presynaptic function are synthesized in the neuronal perikarya and delivered into synapses via two modes of axonal transport. While membrane-anchoring proteins are conveyed in fast axonal transport via motor-driven vesicles, cytosolic proteins travel in slow axonal transport; via mechanisms that are poorly understood. We found that in cultured axons, populations of cytosolic proteins tagged to photoactivable-GFP (PA-GFP) move with a slow motor-dependent anterograde bias; distinct from vesicular-trafficking or diffusion of untagged PA-GFP. The overall bias is likely generated by an intricate particle-kinetics involving transient assembly and short-range vectorial spurts. In-vivo biochemical studies reveal that cytosolic proteins are organized into higher-order structures within axon-enriched fractions that are largely segregated from vesicles. Data-driven biophysical modeling best predicts a scenario where soluble molecules dynamically assemble into mobile supra-molecular structures. We propose a model where cytosolic proteins are transported by dynamically assembling into multi-protein complexes that are directly/indirectly conveyed by motors. PMID:21555071

  5. Price Analysis of Railway Freight Transport under Marketing Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Fang, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhiya

    Regarding the problems in the reform of the railway tariff system and the pricing of the transport, by means of assaying the influence of the price elasticity on the artifice used for price, this article proposed multiple regressive model which analyzed price elasticity quantitatively. This model conclude multi-factors which influences on the price elasticity, such as the averagely railway freight charge, the averagely freight haulage of proximate supersede transportation mode, the GDP per capita in the point of origin, and a series of dummy variable which can reflect the features of some productive and consume demesne. It can calculate the price elasticity of different classes in different domains, and predict the freight traffic volume on different rate levels. It can calculate confidence-level, and evaluate the relevance of each parameter to get rid of irrelevant or little relevant variables. It supplied a good theoretical basis for directing the pricing of transport enterprises in market economic conditions, which is suitable for railway freight, passenger traffic and other transportation manner as well. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software was used to calculate and analysis the example. This article realized the calculation by HYFX system(Ministry of Railways fund).

  6. Reliability Evaluation Of The City Transport Buses Under Actual Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymarz Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to present a reliability comparison of two types of city transport buses. Case study on the example of the well-known brands of city buses: Solaris Urbino 12 and Mercedes-Benz 628 Conecto L used at Municipal Transport Company in Lublin was presented in details. A reliability index for the most failure parts and complex systems for the period of time failures was determined. The analysis covered damages of the following systems: engine, electrical system, pneumatic system, brake system, driving system, central heating and air-conditioning and doors. Reliability was analyzed based on Weibull model. It has been demonstrated, that during the operation significant reliability differences occur between the buses produced nowadays.

  7. Noradrenaline increases the expression and release of Hsp72 by human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, E; Multhoff, G; Ortega, E

    2010-05-01

    The blood concentration of extracellular 72kDa heat shock protein (eHsp72) increases under conditions of stress, including intense exercise. However, the signal(s), source(s), and secretory pathways in its release into the bloodstream have yet to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of noradrenaline (NA) as a stress signal on the expression and release of Hsp72 by circulating neutrophils (as a source), all within a context of the immunophysiological regulation during exercise-induced stress in sedentary and healthy young (21-26years) women. The expression of Hsp72 on the surface of isolated neutrophils was determined by flow cytometry, and its release by cultured isolated neutrophils was determined by ELISA. Incubation with cmHsp70-FITC showed that neutrophils express Hsp72 on their surface under basal conditions. In addition, cultured isolated neutrophils (37 degrees C and 5% CO(2)) also released Hsp72 under basal conditions, with this release increasing from 10min to 24h in the absence of cell damage. NA at 10(-9)-10(-5)M doubled the percentage of neutrophils expressing Hsp72 after 60min and 24h incubation. NA also stimulated (by about 20%) the release of Hsp72 after 10min of incubation. (1) Hsp72 is expressed on the surface of isolated neutrophils under basal conditions, and this expression is augmented by NA. (2) Isolated neutrophils can also release Hsp72 under cultured basal conditions in the absence of cell death, and NA can increase this release. These results may contribute to confirming the hypothesis that NA can act as a "stress signal" for the increased eHsp72 in the context of exercise stress, with a role for neutrophils as a source for the expression and, to a lesser degree, the release of Hsp72 after activation by NA. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Network Performance Improvement under Epidemic Failures in Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate epidemic failure spreading in large- scale GMPLS-controlled transport networks. By evaluating the effect of the epidemic failure spreading on the network, we design several strategies for cost-effective network performance improvement via differentiated repair times....... First we identify the most vulnerable and the most strategic nodes in the network. Then, via extensive simulations we show that strategic placement of resources for improved failure recovery has better performance than randomly assigning lower repair times among the network nodes. Our OPNET simulation...... model can be used during the network planning process for facilitating cost- effective network survivability design....

  9. Correlations between plasma noradrenaline concentrations, antioxidants, and neutrophil counts after submaximal resistance exercise in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramel, A; Wagner, K; Elmadfa, I

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate noradrenaline concentrations, neutrophil counts, plasma antioxidants, and lipid oxidation products before and after acute resistance exercise. Methods: 17 male participants undertook a submaximal resistance exercise circuit (10 exercises; 75% of the one repetition maximum; mean (SD) exercise time, 18.6 (1.1) minutes). Blood samples were taken before and immediately after exercise and analysed for plasma antioxidants, noradrenaline, neutrophils, and lipid oxidation products. Wilcoxon's signed-rank test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for calculations. Results: Neutrophils, noradrenaline, fat soluble antioxidants, and lipid oxidation products increased after exercise. Noradrenaline concentrations were associated with higher antioxidant concentrations. Neutrophils were related to higher concentrations of conjugated dienes. Conclusions: Submaximal resistance exercise increases plasma antioxidants. This might reflect enhanced antioxidant defence in response to the oxidative stress of exercise, though this is not efficient for inhibiting lipid oxidation. The correlation between noradrenaline concentrations and plasma antioxidants suggests a modulating role of the stress hormone. Neutrophils are a possible source of oxidative stress after resistance exercise. PMID:15388566

  10. [3H] glycogen hydrolysis in brain slices: responses to meurotransmitters and modulation of noradrenaline receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quach, T.T.; Rose, C.; Schwartz, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Different agents have been investigated for their effects on [ 3 H] glycogen synthesized in mouse cortical slices. Of these noradrenaline, serotonin and histamine induced clear concentration-dependent glycogenesis. [ 3 H] glycogen hydrolysis induced by noradrenaline appears to be mediated by beta-adrenergic receptors because it is completely prevented by timolol, while phentolamine is ineffective. It seems to involve cyclic AMP because it is potentiated in the presence of isobutylmethylxanthine; in addition dibutyryl cyclic AMP (but not dibutyryl cyclic GMP) promotes glycogenolysis. Lower concentrations of noradrenaline were necessary for [ 3 H] glycogen hydrolysis (ECsub(50) 0.5μM) than for stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation (ECsub(50) = 8μM). After subchronic reserpine treatment the concentration-response curve to noradrenaline was significantly shifted to the left (ECsub(50) = 0.09 +- 0.02 μM as compared with 0.49 +- 0.08μM in saline-pretreated mice) without modifications of either the basal [ 3 H] glycogen level, maximal glycogenolytic effect, or the dibutyryl cAMP-induced glycogenolytic response. In addition to noradrenaline, clear concentration-dependent [ 3 H] glycogen hydrolysis was observed in the presence of histamine or serotonin. In contrast to the partial [ 3 H] glycogen hydrolysis elicited by these biogenic amines, depolarization of the slices by 50 mM K + provoked a nearly total [ 3 H] glycogen hydrolysis. (author)

  11. Serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Patrick; Üçeyler, Nurcan; Klose, Petra; Walitt, Brian; Häuser, Winfried

    2018-02-28

    Fibromyalgia is a clinically defined chronic condition of unknown etiology characterized by chronic widespread pain that often co-exists with sleep disturbances, cognitive dysfunction and fatigue. People with fibromyalgia often report high disability levels and poor quality of life. Drug therapy, for example, with serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), focuses on reducing key symptoms and improving quality of life. This review updates and extends the 2013 version of this systematic review. To assess the efficacy, tolerability and safety of serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) compared with placebo or other active drug(s) in the treatment of fibromyalgia in adults. For this update we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, the US National Institutes of Health and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for published and ongoing trials and examined the reference lists of reviewed articles, to 8 August 2017. We selected randomized, controlled trials of any formulation of SNRIs against placebo or any other active treatment of fibromyalgia in adults. Three review authors independently extracted data, examined study quality, and assessed risk of bias. For efficacy, we calculated the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) for pain relief of 50% or greater and of 30% or greater, patient's global impression to be much or very much improved, dropout rates due to lack of efficacy, and the standardized mean differences (SMD) for fatigue, sleep problems, health-related quality of life, mean pain intensity, depression, anxiety, disability, sexual function, cognitive disturbances and tenderness. For tolerability we calculated number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) for withdrawals due to adverse events and for nausea, insomnia and somnolence as specific adverse events. For safety we calculated NNTH for serious adverse events. We undertook meta

  12. Response Surface Modelling of Noradrenaline Production in Hairy Root Culture of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghorbani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is an annual plant as one of the natural sources for noradrenaline hormone. In this research, hairy root culture of purslane was established by using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834. In the following, Box-Behnken model of response surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize B5 medium for the growth of P. oleracea L. hairy root line. According to the results, modelling and optimization conditions, including sucrose, CaCl2.H2O, H2PO4 and NO3-/NH4+ concentrations on maximum dry weight (0.155 g and noradrenaline content (0.36 mg.g-1 DW was predicted. These optimal conditions predicted by RSM were confirmed the enhancement of noradrenaline production as an application potential for production by hairy root cultures.

  13. Transport and diffusion on crystalline surfaces under external forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenberg, Katja; Lacasta, A M; Sancho, J M; Romero, A H

    2005-01-01

    We present a numerical study of classical particles obeying a Langevin equation and moving on a solid crystalline surface under an external force that may either be constant or modulated by periodic oscillations. We focus on the particle drift velocity and diffusion. The roles of friction and equilibrium thermal fluctuations are studied for two nonlinear dynamical regimes corresponding to low and to high but finite friction. We identify a number of resonances and antiresonances, and provide phenomenological interpretations of the observed behaviour

  14. Quantum transport in topological semimetals under magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing

    2017-06-01

    Topological semimetals are three-dimensional topological states of matter, in which the conduction and valence bands touch at a finite number of points, i.e., the Weyl nodes. Topological semimetals host paired monopoles and antimonopoles of Berry curvature at the Weyl nodes and topologically protected Fermi arcs at certain surfaces. We review our recent works on quantum transport in topological semimetals, according to the strength of the magnetic field. At weak magnetic fields, there are competitions between the positive magnetoresistivity induced by the weak anti-localization effect and negative magnetoresistivity related to the nontrivial Berry curvature. We propose a fitting formula for the magnetoconductivity of the weak anti-localization. We expect that the weak localization may be induced by inter-valley effects and interaction effect, and occur in double-Weyl semimetals. For the negative magnetoresistance induced by the nontrivial Berry curvature in topological semimetals, we show the dependence of the negative magnetoresistance on the carrier density. At strong magnetic fields, specifically, in the quantum limit, the magnetoconductivity depends on the type and range of the scattering potential of disorder. The high-field positive magnetoconductivity may not be a compelling signature of the chiral anomaly. For long-range Gaussian scattering potential and half filling, the magnetoconductivity can be linear in the quantum limit. A minimal conductivity is found at the Weyl nodes although the density of states vanishes there.

  15. Strontium and caesium transport in unsaturated soil from Chernobyl Pilot Site under steady flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szenknect, St.

    2003-10-01

    This work is devoted to the quantification and the identification of the predominant processes involved in strontium and caesium transport in unsaturated soil from Chernobyl Pilot Site under steady flow conditions. The transport and fate of radionuclides in the subsurface is affected by various physical and chemical processes including advective and diffusive transport as well as chemical and biological transformations. Laboratory experiments and the use of a multiple tracer approach allow to isolate the contributions of each elementary process and to control the physico-chemical conditions in the system. To be more representative of the field conditions, we decided to perform column miscible displacement experiments. We perform batch and flow-through reactor experiments to characterize the radionuclides sorption mechanisms. Miscible displacement experiments within homogeneous columns and modeling allow to characterize the hydrodynamic properties of the soil and to describe the radionuclides behaviour under dynamic conditions at different water contents. We show that the water content of porous media affect the transport behaviour of inert and strongly sorbing radionuclides. Our results demonstrate that a parametrized transport model that was calibrated under completely saturated conditions was not able to describe the advective-dispersive transport of reactive solutes under unsaturated steady state conditions. Under our experimental conditions, there is no effect of a decrease of the mean water content on the sorption model parameters, but the transport parameters are modified. We established for the studied soil the relation between hydrodynamic dispersion and water content and the relation between pore water velocity and water content. (author)

  16. The release of noradrenaline in the locus coeruleus and prefrontal cortex studied with dual-probe microdialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudovkina, O; Kawahara, Y; de Vries, J.B; Westerink, B.H.C.

    2001-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate and compare the properties of noradrenaline release in the locus coeruleus (LC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). For that aim the dual-probe microdialysis technique was applied for simultaneous detection of noradrenaline levels in the LC and PFC in

  17. Characterizing fate and transport properties in karst aquifers under different hydrologic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E.; Padilla, I. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Karst landscapes contain very productive aquifers. The hydraulic and hydrogeological characteristics of karst aquifers make these systems capable of storing and transporting large amount of water, but also highly vulnerable to contamination. Their extremely heterogeneous nature prevents accurate prediction in contaminant fate and transport. Even more challenging is to understand the impact of hydrologic conditions changes on fate and transport processes. This studies aims at characterizing fate and transport processes in the karst groundwater system of northern Puerto Rico under different hydrologic conditions. The study involves injecting rhodamine and uranine dyes into a sinkhole, and monitoring concentrations at a spring. Results show incomplete recovery of tracers, but breaking curves can be used to estimate advective, dispersive and mass transfer characteristic of the karst system. Preliminary results suggest significant differences in fate and transport characteristics under different hydrologic conditions.

  18. Stress at birth: plasma noradrenaline concentrations of women in labour and in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messow-Zahn, K; Sarafoff, M; Riegel, K P

    1978-03-15

    Radioenzymatically measured plasma noradrenaline concentrations, present at birth in umbilical veins of 19 healthy, 17 acutely asphyxiated, and 9 chronically distressed newborn infants were found to be elevated above maternal values proportional to the degree of distress and to plasma H ion concentrations.

  19. Olfactory Perceptual Learning Requires Action of Noradrenaline in the Olfactory Bulb: Comparison with Olfactory Associative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinera, Jennifer; Kermen, Florence; Sacquet, Joëlle; Didier, Anne; Mandairon, Nathalie; Richard, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Noradrenaline contributes to olfactory-guided behaviors but its role in olfactory learning during adulthood is poorly documented. We investigated its implication in olfactory associative and perceptual learning using local infusion of mixed a1-ß adrenergic receptor antagonist (labetalol) in the adult mouse olfactory bulb. We reported that…

  20. [Presence of conjugated noradrenaline in the walls of the nest of Vespula germanica Linné].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, J; Bourdon, V; Damas, J; Leclercq, M; Leclercq, J

    1976-01-01

    Conjugated noradrenaline (NA) has been identified as a constituant of the walls of a Vespid wasp: Vespula germanica Linne. Concentrations range between 1,8 mug/g (external wall) and 18 mug/g (internal structure). Probably NA originates from the saliva of the Hymenoptera.

  1. Na+-independent, nifedipine-resistant rat afferent arteriolar Ca2+ responses to noradrenaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsson, Max; Braunstein, Thomas Hartig; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim: In rat afferent arterioles we investigated the role of Na(+) entry in noradrenaline (NA)-induced depolarization and voltage-dependent Ca(2+) entry together with the importance of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) subfamily for non-voltage-dependent Ca(2+) entry. Methods...

  2. Tonic inhibition by orphanin FQ/nociceptin of noradrenaline neurotransmission in the amygdala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawahara, Y; Hesselink, M.B.; van Scharrenburg, G; Westerink, B.H.C.

    2004-01-01

    The present microdialysis study investigated whether nociceptin/orphanin FQ exerts a tonic inhibition of the release of noradrenaline in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala in awake rats. The non-peptide competitive nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) peptide receptor antagonist J-113397 (20 mg/kg

  3. The Dynamic cerebral autoregulatory adaptive response to noradrenaline is attenuated during systemic inflammation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M. G.; Plovsing, Ronni R.; Bailey, Damian M.

    2015-01-01

    Vasopressor support is used widely for maintaining vital organ perfusion pressure in septic shock, with implications for dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA). This study investigated whether a noradrenaline-induced steady state increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) would enhance d......, noradrenaline administration was associated with a decrease in gain (1.18 (1.12-1.35) vs 0.93 (0.87-0.97) cm/mmHg per s; P vs 0.94 (0.81-1.10) radians; P = 0.58). After LPS, noradrenaline administration changed neither gain (0.91 (0.85-1.01) vs 0.87 (0.......81-0.97) cm/mmHg per s; P = 0.46) nor phase (1.10 (1.04-1.30) vs 1.37 (1.23-1.51) radians; P = 0.64). The improvement of dCA to a steady state increase in MAP is attenuated during an LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response. This may suggest that vasopressor treatment with noradrenaline offers no additional...

  4. CO-RELEASED ADRENALINE MARKEDLY FACILITATES NORADRENALINE OVERFLOW THROUGH PREJUNCTIONAL BETA(2)-ADRENOCEPTORS DURING SWIMMING EXERCISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    COPPES, RP; SMIT, J; BENTHEM, L; VANDERLEEST, J; ZAAGSMA, J

    1995-01-01

    The effect of intravenously applied (-)adrenaline, taken up by and released from sympathetic nerves, on swimming exercise-induced noradrenaline overflow in permanently cannulated adrenal demedullated rats was studied. Adrenaline (100 ng/min) was infused for 2 h, during which a plasma concentration

  5. Chronic sleep restriction induces long-lasting changes in adenosine and noradrenaline receptor density in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoo; Elmenhorst, David; Weisshaupt, Angela; Wedekind, Franziska; Kroll, Tina; McCarley, Robert W; Strecker, Robert E; Bauer, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Although chronic sleep restriction frequently produces long-lasting behavioural and physiological impairments in humans, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. Here we used a rat model of chronic sleep restriction to investigate the role of brain adenosine and noradrenaline systems, known to regulate sleep and wakefulness, respectively. The density of adenosine A1 and A2a receptors and β-adrenergic receptors before, during and following 5 days of sleep restriction was assessed with autoradiography. Rats (n = 48) were sleep-deprived for 18 h day(-1) for 5 consecutive days (SR1-SR5), followed by 3 unrestricted recovery sleep days (R1-R3). Brains were collected at the beginning of the light period, which was immediately after the end of sleep deprivation on sleep restriction days. Chronic sleep restriction increased adenosine A1 receptor density significantly in nine of the 13 brain areas analysed with elevations also observed on R3 (+18 to +32%). In contrast, chronic sleep restriction reduced adenosine A2a receptor density significantly in one of the three brain areas analysed (olfactory tubercle which declined 26-31% from SR1 to R1). A decrease in β-adrenergic receptors density was seen in substantia innominata and ventral pallidum which remained reduced on R3, but no changes were found in the anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that chronic sleep restriction can induce long-term changes in the brain adenosine and noradrenaline receptors, which may underlie the long-lasting neurocognitive impairments observed in chronic sleep restriction. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. Hydro-dynamic Solute Transport under Two-Phase Flow Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadimitriou, Nikolaos K; Joekar-Niasar, Vahid; Brizuela, Omar Godinez

    2017-07-26

    There are abundant examples of natural, engineering and industrial applications, in which "solute transport" and "mixing" in porous media occur under multiphase flow conditions. Current state-of-the-art understanding and modelling of such processes are established based on flawed and non-representative models. Moreover, there is no direct experimental result to show the true hydrodynamics of transport and mixing under multiphase flow conditions while the saturation topology is being kept constant for a number of flow rates. With the use of a custom-made microscope, and under well-controlled flow boundary conditions, we visualized directly the transport of a tracer in a Reservoir-on-Chip (RoC) micromodel filled with two immiscible fluids. This study provides novel insights into the saturation-dependency of transport and mixing in porous media. To our knowledge, this is the first reported pore-scale experiment in which the saturation topology, relative permeability, and tortuosity were kept constant and transport was studied under different dynamic conditions in a wide range of saturation. The critical role of two-phase hydrodynamic properties on non-Fickian transport and saturation-dependency of dispersion are discussed, which highlight the major flaws in parametrization of existing models.

  7. Effects of propofol and sevoflurane on isolated human umbilical arteries pre-contracted with dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Ergun; Arun, Oguzhan; Bagci, Sengal Taylan; Oc, Bahar; Salman, Alper; Yilmaz, Setenay Arzu; Celik, Cetin; Duman, Ates

    2015-05-01

    To assess the effects of propofol and sevoflurane on the contraction elicited by dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline on isolated human umbilical arteries. Umbilical arteries were cut into endothelium-denuded spiral strips and suspended in organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit solution bubbled with O2 +CO2 mixture. Control contraction to phenylephrine (10(-5)  M) was recorded. Response curves were obtained to 10(-5)  M dopamine, 10(-5)  M adrenaline or 10(-5)  M noradrenaline. Afterwards, either cumulative propofol (10(-6)  M, 10(-5)  M and 10(-4)  M) or cumulative sevoflurane (1.2%, 2.4% and 3.6%) was added to the organ bath, and the responses were recorded. Responses are expressed percentage of phenylephrine-induced contraction (mean ± standard deviation) (P adrenaline and noradrenaline (P adrenaline. High and highest concentrations of sevoflurane caused significantly higher relaxation compared with the high and highest concentrations of propofol on the contraction elicited by noradrenaline. Dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline elicit contractions in human umbilical arteries, and noradrenaline causes the highest contraction. Both propofol and sevoflurane inhibit these contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Propofol caused greater relaxation in the contractions elicited by dopamine and adrenaline while sevoflurane caused greater relaxation in the contraction elicited by noradrenaline. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Beach-dune dynamics: Spatio-temporal patterns of aeolian sediment transport under complex offshore airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, K.; Jackson, D.; Delgado-Fernandez, I.; Cooper, J. A.; Baas, A. C.; Beyers, M.

    2010-12-01

    This study examines sand transport and wind speed across a beach at Magilligan Strand, Northern Ireland, under offshore wind conditions. Traditionally the offshore component of local wind regimes has been ignored when quantifying beach-dune sediment budgets, with the sheltering effect of the foredune assumed to prohibit grain entrainment on the adjoining beach. Recent investigations of secondary airflow patterns over coastal dunes have suggested this may not be the case, that the turbulent nature of the airflow in these zones enhances sediment transport potential. Beach sediment may be delivered to the dune toe by re-circulating eddies under offshore winds in coastal areas, which may explain much of the dynamics of aeolian dunes on coasts where the dominant wind direction is offshore. The present study investigated aeolian sediment transport patterns under an offshore wind event. Empirical data were collected using load cell traps, for aeolian sediment transport, co-located with 3-D ultrasonic anemometers. The instrument positioning on the sub-aerial beach was informed by prior analysis of the airflow patterns using computational fluid dynamics. The array covered a total beach area of 90 m alongshore by 65 m cross-shore from the dune crest. Results confirm that sediment transport occurred in the ‘sheltered’ area under offshore winds. Over short time and space scales the nature of the transport is highly complex; however, preferential zones for sand entrainment may be identified. Alongshore spatial heterogeneity of sediment transport seems to show a relationship to undulations in the dune crest, while temporal and spatial variations may also be related to the position of the airflow reattachment zone. These results highlight the important feedbacks between flow characteristics and transport in a complex three dimensional surface.

  9. Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization under Freezing Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandlikar, Satish G. [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Lu, Zijie [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Rao, Navalgund [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Sergi, Jacqueline [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Rath, Cody [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); McDade, Christopher [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Trabold, Thomas [General Motors, Honeoye Falls, NY (United States); Owejan, Jon [General Motors, Honeoye Falls, NY (United States); Gagliardo, Jeffrey [General Motors, Honeoye Falls, NY (United States); Allen, Jeffrey [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Yassar, Reza S. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Medici, Ezequiel [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Herescu, Alexandru [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2010-05-30

    In this program, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), General Motors (GM) and Michigan Technological University (MTU) have focused on fundamental studies that address water transport, accumulation and mitigation processes in the gas diffusion layer and flow field channels of the bipolar plate. These studies have been conducted with a particular emphasis on understanding the key transport phenomena which control fuel cell operation under freezing conditions.

  10. Silicon in vascular plants: uptake, transport and its influence on mineral stress under acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontigo, Sofía; Ribera, Alejandra; Gianfreda, Liliana; de la Luz Mora, María; Nikolic, Miroslav; Cartes, Paula

    2015-07-01

    So far, considerable advances have been achieved in understanding the mechanisms of Si uptake and transport in vascular plants. This review presents a comprehensive update about this issue, but also provides the new insights into the role of Si against mineral stresses that occur in acid soils. Such information could be helpful to understand both the differential Si uptake ability as well as the benefits of this mineral element on plants grown under acidic conditions. Silicon (Si) has been widely recognized as a beneficial element for many plant species, especially under stress conditions. In the last few years, great efforts have been made to elucidate the mechanisms involved in uptake and transport of Si by vascular plants and recently, different Si transporters have been identified. Several researches indicate that Si can alleviate various mineral stresses in plants growing under acidic conditions, including aluminium (Al) and manganese (Mn) toxicities as well as phosphorus (P) deficiency all of which are highly detrimental to crop production. This review presents recent findings concerning the influence of uptake and transport of Si on mineral stress under acidic conditions because a knowledge of this interaction provides the basis for understanding the role of Si in mitigating mineral stress in acid soils. Currently, only four Si transporters have been identified and there is little information concerning the response of Si transporters under stress conditions. More investigations are therefore needed to establish whether there is a relationship between Si transporters and the benefits of Si to plants subjected to mineral stress. Evidence presented suggests that Si supply and its subsequent accumulation in plant tissues could be exploited as a strategy to improve crop productivity on acid soils.

  11. Connection Management and Recovery Strategies under Epidemic Network Failures in Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2014-01-01

    The current trend in deploying automatic control plane solutions for increased flexibility in the optical transport layer leads to numerous advantages for both the operators and the customers, but also pose challenges related to the stability of the network and its ability to operate in a robust...... manner under attacks. This work proposes four policies for failure handling in a connection-oriented optical transport network, under Generalized MultiProtocol Label Switching control plane, and evaluates their performance under multiple correlated large-scale failures. We employ the Susceptible...... of their transport infrastructures. Applying proactive methods for avoiding areas where epidemic failures spread results in 50% less connections requiring recovery, which translates in improved quality of service to customers....

  12. Magnetic restricted-access microspheres for extraction of adrenaline, dopamine and noradrenaline from biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Deli; Liu, Shubo; Liang, Liyun; Bi, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    Epoxy propyl bonded magnetic microspheres were prepared by atomic layer deposition using Fe 3 O 4 -SiO 2 microspheres as a core support material. Then, a restricted-access magnetic sorbent was prepared that contains diol groups on the external surface and m-aminophenylboronic acid groups on the internal surface. This kind of microspheres achieved excellent specific adsorption of the ortho-dihydroxy compounds (dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline). Following desorption with sorbitol, the ortho-dihydroxy compounds were quantified by HPLC. The limits of detection for dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline were 0.074, 0.053 and 0.095 μg mL −1 , respectively. Recoveries from spiked mice serum samples range from 80.2 to 89.1 %. (author)

  13. Which key properties controls the preferential transport in the vadose zone under transient hydrological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, J.; Vanderborght, J.; Puetz, T.; Gerke, H. H.; Rupp, H.; Wollschlaeger, U.; Stumpp, C.; Priesack, E.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding water flow and solute transport in the unsaturated zone is of great importance for an appropriate land use management strategy. The quantification and prediction of water and solute fluxes through the vadose zone can help to improve management practices in order to limit potential risk on our fresh water resources. Water related solute transport and residence time is strongly affected by preferential flow paths in the soil. Water flow in soils depends on soil properties and site factors (climate or experiment conditions, land use) and are therefore important factors to understand preferential solute transport in the unsaturated zone. However our understanding and knowledge of which on-site properties or conditions define and enhance preferential flow and transport is still poor and mostly limited onto laboratory experimental conditions (small column length and steady state boundary conditions). Within the TERENO SOILCan lysimeter network, which was designed to study the effects of climate change on soil functions, a bromide tracer was applied on 62 lysimeter at eight different test sites between Dec. 2013 and Jan. 2014. The TERENO SOILCan infrastructure offers the unique possibility to study the occurrence of preferential flow and transport of various soil types under different natural transient hydrological conditions and land use (crop, bare and grassland) at eight TERENO SOILCan observatories. Working with lysimeter replicates at each observatory allows defining the spatial variability of preferential transport and flow. Additionally lysimeters in the network were transferred within and between observatories in order to subject them to different rainfall and temperature regimes and enable us to relate the soil type susceptibility of preferential flow and transport not only to site specific physical and land use properties, but also to different transient boundary conditions. Comparison and statistical analysis between preferential flow indicators 5

  14. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  15. The modulatory effects of noradrenaline on vagal control of heart rate in the dogfish, Squalus acanthias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnisola, Claudio; Randall, David J; Taylor, Edwin W

    2003-01-01

    The possible interactions between inhibitory vagal control of the heart and circulating levels of catecholamines in dogfish (Squalus acanthias) were studied using an in situ preparation of the heart, which retained intact its innervation from centrally cut vagus nerves. The response to peripheral vagal stimulation typically consisted of an initial cardiac arrest, followed by an escape beat, leading to renewed beating at a mean heart rate lower than the prestimulation rate (partial recovery). Cessation of vagal stimulation led to a transient increase in heart rate, above the prestimulation rate. This whole response was completely abolished by 10(-4) M atropine (a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist). The degree of vagal inhibition was evaluated in terms of both the initial, maximal cardiac interval and the mean heart rate during partial recovery, both expressed as a percentage of the prestimulation heart rate. The mean prestimulation heart rate of this preparation (36+/-4 beats min(-1)) was not affected by noradrenaline but was significantly reduced by 10(-4) M nadolol (a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist), suggesting the existence of a resting adrenergic tone arising from endogenous catecholamines. The degree of vagal inhibition of heart rate varied with the rate of stimulation and was increased by the presence of 10(-8) M noradrenaline (the normal in vivo level in routinely active fish), while 10(-7) M noradrenaline (the in vivo level measured in disturbed or deeply hypoxic fish) reduced the cardiac response to vagal stimulation. In the presence of 10(-7) M noradrenaline, 10(-4) M nadolol further reduced the vagal response, while 10(-4) M nadolol + 10(-4) M phentolamine had no effect, indicating a complex interaction between adrenoreceptors, possibly involving presynaptic modulation of vagal inhibition.

  16. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis with a high level of plasma noradrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yukihiko; Nagai, Ayako; Saito, Masuyoshi; Ito, Tomonobu; Koga, Michiyuki; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2007-02-01

    Ingesting certain foods sometimes triggers anaphylaxis when followed by exercise (food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, FDEIA). Specific food-induced mucocutaneous urticaria may also progress to anaphylaxis (oral allergy syndrome, OAS). A positive skin test and/or radioallergosorbent test (RAST) to the foods suggest involvement of immunoglobulin (Ig)E-anaphylaxis in both disorders. The triggering foods and initial target organs are usually different in each case. In the present study, a 32-year-old male reported dyspnea accompanied by wheals, and symptoms of low blood pressure while walking after eating Chinese noodles and donuts. He also reported uncomfortable sensations in his mouth and throat after ingesting melon. Exercise challenge tests were administered. Serum histamine, plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine were measured pre- and post-test. No symptoms were induced by exercise or by the ingestion of any single food item before exercise. However, numerous wheals appeared when exercise followed the combined ingestion of foods. Likewise, the sequence of eating pancakes and then exercising resulted in numerous wheals and anaphylaxis. Olopatadine hydrochloride and ketotifen fumarate completely inhibited this anaphylaxis. The skin prick tests resulted in fruit-induced erythema and wheals. The results of these tests with wheat, butter and sugar were negative, and no symptoms were induced by the exercise test after ingestion of watermelon, melon or apple. The anaphylactoid symptoms were accompanied by a significant increase of plasma noradrenaline. In this case, not only wheat, but sugar and butter may induce the onset of FDEIA. There was no significant correlation between the intensity of the symptoms and the serum histamine levels in the present case. Noradrenaline may be involved in the onset of FDEIA, since noradrenaline may selectively inhibit T-helper (Th)1 functions while favoring Th2 responses. The tests showed no cross-reactivity between the

  17. Carbon dioxide sequestration: Modeling the diffusive and convective transport under a CO2 cap

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca; Sun, Shuyu

    2012-01-01

    of low permeability. CO2 from this ‘capped' region diffuses into the fluid underlying it, and the resulting CO2-fluid mixture increases in density. This increase in density leads to gravity-driven convection. Accordingly, diffusive-convective transport

  18. 76 FR 4408 - Notice of Funding Availability for Applications for Credit Assistance Under the Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... to be selected for credit assistance. Because demand for the TIFIA program can exceed budgetary... Applications Because the demand for credit assistance can exceed budgetary resources, the DOT is utilizing... Availability for Applications for Credit Assistance Under the Transportation Infrastructure Finance and...

  19. 76 FR 3190 - Notice of Funding Availability for Applications for Credit Assistance Under the Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... specified criteria to be selected for credit assistance. Because demand for the TIFIA program can exceed... Applications Because the demand for credit assistance can exceed budgetary resources, the DOT is utilizing...] Notice of Funding Availability for Applications for Credit Assistance Under the Transportation...

  20. Local charge transport properties of hydrazine reduced monolayer graphene oxide sheets prepared under pressure condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryuzaki, Sou; Meyer, Jakob Abild Stengaard; Petersen, Søren Vermehren

    2014-01-01

    Charge transport properties of chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets prepared by treatment with hydrazine were examined using conductive atomic force microscopy. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of monolayer RGO sheets prepared under atmospheric pressure followed an exponentially...

  1. Transport of gadolinium- and arsenic-based pharmaceuticals in saturated soil under various redox conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menahem, Adi; Dror, Ishai; Berkowitz, Brian

    2016-02-01

    The release of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) to the soil-water environment necessitates understanding of PPCP transport behavior under conditions that account for dynamic flow and varying redox states. This study investigates the transport of two organometallic PPCPs, Gd-DTPA and roxarsone (arsenic compound) and their metal salts (Gd(NO3)3, AsNaO2); Gd-DTPA is used widely as a contrasting agent for MRI, while roxarsone is applied extensively as a food additive in the broiler poultry industry. Here, we present column experiments using sand and Mediterranean red sandy clay soil, performed under several redox conditions. The metal salts were almost completely immobile. In contrast, transport of Gd-DTPA and roxarsone was affected by the soil type. Roxarsone was also affected by the different redox conditions, showing delayed breakthrough curves as the redox potential became more negative due to biological activity (chemically-strong reducing conditions did not affect the transport). Mechanisms that include adsorptive retardation for aerobic and nitrate-reducing conditions, and non-adsorptive retardation for iron-reducing, sulfate-reducing and biologically-strong reducing conditions, are suggested to explain the roxarsone behavior. Gd-DTPA is found to be a stable complex, with potential for high mobility in groundwater systems, whereas roxarsone transport through groundwater systems is affected by redox environments, demonstrating high mobility under aerobic and nitrate-reducing conditions and delayed transport under iron-reducing, sulfate-reducing and biologically-strong reducing conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modulation of sibutramine-induced increases in extracellular noradrenaline concentration in rat frontal cortex and hypothalamus by α2-adrenoceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortley, K E; Heal, D J; Stanford, S C

    1999-01-01

    The effects of sibutramine (0.25–10 mg kg−1 i.p.) on extracellular noradrenaline concentration in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus of freely-moving rats were investigated using microdialysis. The role of presynaptic α2-adrenoceptors in modulating the effects of sibutramine in these brain areas was also determined.Sibutramine induced an increase in extracellular noradrenaline concentration, the magnitude of which paralleled dose, in both brain areas. In the cortex, this increase was gradual and sustained, whereas in the hypothalamus it was more rapid and of shorter duration.In both the cortex and hypothalamus, pretreatment of rats with the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist RX821002 (3 mg kg−1 i.p.) potentiated increases in the accumulation of extracellular noradrenaline induced by sibutramine (10 mg kg−1 i.p.), by 7 and 10 fold respectively. RX821002 also reduced the latency of sibutramine to reach its maximum effect in the cortex, but not in the hypothalamus.Infusion of RX821002 (1 μM) via the probe increased the accumulation of extracellular noradrenaline induced by sibutramine (10 mg kg−1 i.p.) in both brain areas. In the hypothalamus, the effects of RX821002 on the accumulation of noradrenaline induced by sibutramine were 2 fold greater than those in the cortex.These findings support evidence that sibutramine inhibits the reuptake of noradrenaline in vivo, but that the accumulation of extracellular noradrenaline is limited by noradrenergic activation of presynaptic α2-adrenoceptors. Furthermore, the data suggest that terminal α2-adrenoceptors in the hypothalamus exert a greater inhibitory effect over the control of extracellular noradrenaline accumulation than do those in the cortex. PMID:10516646

  3. Role of adrenal hormones in the synthesis of noradrenaline in cardiac sympathetic neurones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, B.

    1969-01-01

    1. Adrenalectomy or adrenal demedullation affected neither the levels of endogenous catecholamines in the rat heart nor the accumulation of 3H-noradrenaline 1 hr after its intravenous administration. 2. Twenty-four hours after intravenous administration of labelled amine, however, its retention was markedly reduced in the heart of adrenalectomized or demedullated rats. Ganglionic blockade prevented this reduction. 3. Rate calculations from the decline of catecholamine levels after blockade of synthesis with α-methyl-tyrosine showed that cardiac synthesis of noradrenaline increased about four-fold after demedullation and about three-fold after adrenalectomy. This increase in synthesis may compensate for the loss of circulating catecholamines. 4. There was no change in catechol-o-methyl-transferase activity, but monoamine oxidase activity was increased in the homogenates of the heart of adrenalectomized and demedullated rats. The increase in the cardiac monoamine oxidase activity was markedly greater in the adrenalectomized rats than in the demedullated rats. 5. It is suggested that adrenal cortex insufficiency may modulate the rate of synthesis of noradrenaline and monoamine oxidase activity in cardiac sympathetic neurones. PMID:5360339

  4. Highly loaded behavior of kinesins increases the robustness of transport under high resisting loads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woochul Nam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kinesins are nano-sized biological motors which walk by repeating a mechanochemical cycle. A single kinesin molecule is able to transport its cargo about 1 μm in the absence of external loads. However, kinesins perform much longer range transport in cells by working collectively. This long range of transport by a team of kinesins is surprising because the motion of the cargo in cells can be hindered by other particles. To reveal how the kinesins are able to accomplish their tasks of transport in harsh intracellular circumstances, stochastic studies on the kinesin motion are performed by considering the binding and unbinding of kinesins to microtubules and their dependence on the force acting on kinesin molecules. The unbinding probabilities corresponding to each mechanochemical state of kinesin are modeled. The statistical characterization of the instants and locations of binding are captured by computing the probability of unbound kinesin being at given locations. It is predicted that a group of kinesins has a more efficient transport than a single kinesin from the perspective of velocity and run length. Particularly, when large loads are applied, the leading kinesin remains bound to the microtubule for long time which increases the chances of the other kinesins to bind to the microtubule. To predict effects of this behavior of the leading kinesin under large loads on the collective transport, the motion of the cargo is studied when the cargo confronts obstacles. The result suggests that the behavior of kinesins under large loads prevents the early termination of the transport which can be caused by the interference with the static or moving obstacles.

  5. Silicon transport in sputter-deposited tantalum layers grown under ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallais, P.; Hantzpergue, J.J.; Remy, J.C.; Roptin, D.

    1988-01-01

    Tantalum was sputter deposited on (111) Si substrate under low-energy ion bombardment in order to study the effects of the ion energy on the silicon transport into the Ta layer. The Si substrate was heated up to 500 0 C during growth. For ion energies up to 180 eV silicon is not transported into tantalum and the growth temperature has no effect. An ion bombardment energy of 280 eV enhances the transport of silicon throughout the tantalum layer. Growth temperatures up to 300 0 C have no effect on the silicon transport which is mainly enhanced by the ion bombardment. For growth temperatures between 300 and 500 0 C, the silicon transport is also enhanced by the thermal diffusion. The experimental depth distribution of silicon is similar to the theoretical depth distribution calculated for the case of an interdiffusion. The ion-enhanced process of silicon transport is characterized by an activation energy of 0.4 eV. Silicon into the layers as-grown at 500 0 C is in both states, amorphous silicide and microcrystalline cubic silicon

  6. A Bingham-plastic model for fluid mud transport under waves and currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-rong; Wu, Bo; Huhe, Ao-de

    2014-04-01

    Simplified equations of fluid mud motion, which is described as Bingham-Plastic model under waves and currents, are presented by order analysis. The simplified equations are non-linear ordinary differential equations which are solved by hybrid numerical-analytical technique. As the computational cost is very low, the effects of wave current parameters and fluid mud properties on the transportation velocity of the fluid mud are studied systematically. It is found that the fluid mud can move toward one direction even if the shear stress acting on the fluid mud bed is much smaller than the fluid mud yield stress under the condition of wave and current coexistence. Experiments of the fluid mud motion under current with fluctuation water surface are carried out. The fluid mud transportation velocity predicted by the presented mathematical model can roughly match that measured in experiments.

  7. Simplified calculation method for radiation dose under normal condition of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, N.; Ozaki, S.; Sato, K.; Sugahara, A.

    1993-01-01

    In order to estimate radiation dose during transportation of radioactive materials, the following computer codes are available: RADTRAN, INTERTRAN, J-TRAN. Because these codes consist of functions for estimating doses not only under normal conditions but also in the case of accidents, when nuclei may leak and spread into the environment by air diffusion, the user needs to have special knowledge and experience. In this presentation, we describe how, with a view to preparing a method by which a person in charge of transportation can calculate doses in normal conditions, the main parameters upon which the value of doses depends were extracted and the dose for a unit of transportation was estimated. (J.P.N.)

  8. Institutional interactions in developing a transportation system under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes that the success of its efforts to develop and operate a system for transporting nuclear waste under the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) depends in large measure on the effectiveness of Departmental interactions with the affected parties. To ensure the necessary network of communication, the DOE is establishing lines of contact with those who are potential participants in the task of developing the policies and procedures for the NWPA transportation system. In addition, a number of measures have been initiated to reinforce broad-based involvement in program development. The Transportation Institutional Plan provides a preliminary road map of DOE's projected interactions over the next decade and is discussed in this paper

  9. Transport properties of the topological Kondo insulator SmB6 under the irradiation of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guo-Bao; Yang Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study transport properties of the X point in the Brillouin zone of the topological Kondo insulator SmB 6 under the application of a circularly polarized light. The transport properties at high-frequency regime and low-frequency regime as a function of the ratio ( κ ) of the Dresselhaus-like and Rashba-like spin–orbit parameter are studied based on the Floquet theory and Boltzmann equation respectively. The sign of Hall conductivity at high-frequency regime can be reversed by the ratio κ and the amplitude of the light. The amplitude of the current can be enhanced by the ratio κ . Our findings provide a way to control the transport properties of the Dirac materials at low-frequency regime. (paper)

  10. Analysis of nuclide transport under natural convection and time dependent boundary condition using TOUGH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javeri, V. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    After implementation of TOUGH2 at GRS in summer 91, it was first used to analyse the gas transport in a repository for the nuclear waste with negligible heat generation and to verify the results obtained with ECLIPSE/JAV 92/. Since the original version of TOUGH2 does not directly simulate the decay of radionuclide and the time dependent boundary conditions, it is not a appropriate tool to study the nuclide transport in a porous medium/PRU 87, PRU 91/. Hence, in this paper some modifications are proposed to study the nuclide transport under combined influence of natural convection diffusion, dispersion and time dependent boundary condition. Here, a single phase fluid with two liquid components is considered as in equation of state model for water and brine/PRU 91A/.

  11. Central Hemodynamics and Oxygen Transport in Various Activation of Patients Operated On Under Extracorporeal Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Dzybinskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study central hemodynamics, the determinants of myocardial oxygen balance, and the parameters of oxygen transport in various activation of patients after surgery under extracorporeal circulation. Subjects and methods. Thirty-four patients aged 57.8±2.5 years who had coronary heart disease were divided into 2 groups: 1 those with late activation (artificial ventilation time 157±9 min and 2 those with immediate activation (artificial ventilation time 33±6 min. Group 2 patients were, if required, given fentanyl, midazolam, or myorelaxants. Results. During activation, there were no intergroup differences in the mean levels of the major parameters of cardiac pump function, in the determinants of coronary blood flow (coronary perfusion gradients and myocardial oxygen demand (the product of heart rate by systolic blood pressure, and in the parameters of oxygen transport, including arterial lactatemia. After tracheal extubation, the left ventricular pump coefficient was increased considerably (up to 3.8±0.2 and 4.4±0.2 gm/mm Hg/m2 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively; p<0.05 with minimum inotropic support (dopamine and/or dobutamine being used at 2.7±0.3 and 2.4±0.3 mg/kg/min, respectively. In both groups, there were no close correlations between the indices of oxygen delivery and consumption at all stages of the study, which was indicative of no transport-dependent oxygen uptake. Conclusion. When the early activation protocol was followed up, the maximum acceleration of early activation, including that using specific antagonists of anesthetics, has no negative impact on central hemodynamics, the determinants of myocardial oxygen balance and transport in patients operated on under extracorporeal circulation. Key words: early activation, surgery under extracorporeal circulation, tracheal extubation in the operating-room, central hemodynamics, oxygen transport.

  12. Electron transport properties in InAs four-terminal ballistic junctions under weak magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, M.; Fujiwara, K.; Amano, N.; Maemoto, T.; Sasa, S.; Inoue, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the electron transport properties based on ballistic electrons under magnetic fields in four-terminal ballistic junctions fabricated on an InAs/AlGaSb heterostructure. The four-terminal junction structure is composed of two longitudinal stems with two narrow wires slanted with 30 degree from the perpendicular axis. The electron focusing peak was obtained with the bend resistance measurement. Then it was investigated the nonlinear electron transport property of potential difference between longitudinal stems due to ballistic electrons with applying direct current from narrow wires. Observed nonlinearity showed clear rectification effects which have negative polarity regardless of input voltage polarity. Although this nonlinearity was qualitatively changed due to the Lorentz force under magnetic fields, the degradation of ballistic effects on nonlinear properties were observed when the current increased to higher strength. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Long-range transport of air pollution under light gradient wind conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, H.; Sasaki, K.; Muroga, H.; Ueda, H.; Wakamatsu, S.

    1985-01-01

    The long-range transport of air pollution on clear days under light gradient wind conditions is investigated from an analysis of all days with high oxidant concentrations in 1979 at locations in central Japan that are far from pollutant sources. Surface-level wind and pressure distributions over a 300 x 300 km area were analyzed, together with concentration isopleths of oxidants and suspended particles produced by photochemical reactions

  14. A methodology for the evaluation of fuel rod failures under transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, J.Y.R.; Machiels, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies on long-term behavior of high-burnup spent fuel have shown that under normal conditions of stor-age, challenges to cladding integrity from various postulated damage mechanisms, such as delayed hydride crack-ing, stress-corrosion cracking and long-term creep, would not lead to any significant safety concerns during dry storage, and regulatory rules have subsequently been established to ensure that a compatible level of safety is maintained. However, similar safety assurances for spent fuel transportation have not yet been developed, and further studies are currently being conducted to evaluate the conditions under which transportation-related safety issues can be resolved. One of the issues presently under evaluation is the ability and the extent of the fuel as-semblies to maintain non-reconfigured geometry during transportation accidents. This evaluation may determine whether, or not, the shielding, confinement, and criticality safety evaluations can be performed assuming initial fuel assembly geometries. The degree to which spent fuel re-configuration could occur during a transportation accident would depend to a large degree on the number of fuel rod failures and the type and geometry of the failure modes. Such information can only be developed analytically, as there is no direct experimental data that can provide guidance on the level of damage that can be expected. To this end, the paper focuses on the development of a modeling and analysis methodology that deals with this general problem on a generic basis. First consideration is given to defining acci-dent loading that is equivalent to the bounding, although analytically intractable, hypothetical transportation acci-dent of a 9-meter drop onto essentially unyielding surface, which is effectively a condition for impact-limiters de-sign. Second, an analytically robust material constitutive model, an essential element in a successful structural analysis, is required. A material behavior model

  15. Advective-diffusive transport of D2O in unsaturated media under evaporation condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Amano, Hikaru; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Iida, Takao

    2003-01-01

    Advective-diffusive transport of HTO in unsaturated media was investigated empirically using deuterated water (D 2 O) and columns filled with glass beads. The tortuosity factor was evaluated by numerical model calculations corresponding to first experiment for diffusion under no-evaporation condition. Temporal variations in depth profiles of D 2 O concentrations in the columns were observed by second experiment, which considers the transferring and spreading of D 2 O by pore-water flow caused by evaporation. Measurements and model calculations indicated that diffusion was about two times more efficient than dispersion for D 2 O spreading process under this evaporation condition. (author)

  16. Diffusion Dominant Solute Transport Modelling in Fractured Media Under Deep Geological Environment - 12211

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, S. [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom); Jivkov, A.P. [Research Centre for Radwaste and Decommissioning and Modelling and Simulation Centre, University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Deep geologic disposal of high activity and long-lived radioactive waste is gaining increasing support in many countries, where suitable low permeability geological formation in combination with engineered barriers are used to provide long term waste contaminant and minimise the impacts to the environment and risk to the biosphere. This modelling study examines the solute transport in fractured media under low flow velocities that are relevant to a deep geological environment. In particular, reactive solute transport through fractured media is studied using a 2-D model, that considers advection and diffusion, to explore the coupled effects of kinetic and equilibrium chemical processes. The effects of water velocity in the fracture, matrix porosity and diffusion on solute transport are investigated and discussed. Some illustrative modelled results are presented to demonstrate the use of the model to examine the effects of media degradation on solute transport, under the influences of hydrogeological (diffusion dominant) and microbially mediated chemical processes. The challenges facing the prediction of long term degradation such as cracks evolution, interaction and coalescence are highlighted. The potential of a novel microstructure informed modelling approach to account for these effects is discussed, particularly with respect to investigating multiple phenomena impact on material performance. The GRM code is used to examine the effects of media degradation for a geological waste disposal package, under the combined hydrogeological (diffusion dominant) and chemical effects in low groundwater flow conditions that are typical of deep geological disposal systems. An illustrative reactive transport modelling application demonstrates the use of the code to examine the interplay of kinetic controlled biogeochemical reactive processes with advective and diffusive transport, under the influence of media degradation. The initial model results are encouraging which show the

  17. An Eulerian two-phase flow model for sediment transport under realistic surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, T. J.; Kim, Y.; Cheng, Z.; Chauchat, J.

    2017-12-01

    Wave-driven sediment transport is of major importance in driving beach morphology. However, the complex mechanisms associated with unsteadiness, free-surface effects, and wave-breaking turbulence have not been fully understood. Particularly, most existing models for sediment transport adopt bottom boundary layer approximation that mimics the flow condition in oscillating water tunnel (U-tube). However, it is well-known that there are key differences in sediment transport when comparing to large wave flume datasets, although the number of wave flume experiments are relatively limited regardless of its importance. Thus, a numerical model which can resolve the entire water column from the bottom boundary layer to the free surface can be a powerful tool. This study reports an on-going effort to better understand and quantify sediment transport under shoaling and breaking surface waves through the creation of open-source numerical models in the OpenFOAM framework. An Eulerian two-phase flow model, SedFoam (Cheng et al., 2017, Coastal Eng.) is fully coupled with a volume-of-fluid solver, interFoam/waves2Foam (Jacobsen et al., 2011, Int. J. Num. Fluid). The fully coupled model, named SedWaveFoam, regards the air and water phases as two immiscible fluids with the interfaces evolution resolved, and the sediment particles as dispersed phase. We carried out model-data comparisons with the large wave flume sheet flow data for nonbreaking waves reported by Dohmen-Janssen and Hanes (2002, J. Geophysical Res.) and good agreements were obtained for sediment concentration and net transport rate. By further simulating a case without free-surface (mimic U-tube condition), the effects of free-surface, most notably the boundary layer streaming effect on total transport, can be quantified.

  18. Noradrenaline and dopamine neurons in the reward/effort trade-off: a direct electrophysiological comparison in behaving monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varazzani, Chiara; San-Galli, Aurore; Gilardeau, Sophie; Bouret, Sebastien

    2015-05-20

    Motivation determines multiple aspects of behavior, including action selection and energization of behavior. Several components of the underlying neural systems have been examined closely, but the specific role of the different neuromodulatory systems in motivation remains unclear. Here, we compare directly the activity of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra pars compacta and noradrenergic neurons from the locus coeruleus in monkeys performing a task manipulating the reward/effort trade-off. Consistent with previous reports, dopaminergic neurons encoded the expected reward, but we found that they also anticipated the upcoming effort cost in connection with its negative influence on action selection. Conversely, the firing of noradrenergic neurons increased with both pupil dilation and effort production in relation to the energization of behavior. Therefore, this work underlines the contribution of dopamine to effort-based decision making and uncovers a specific role of noradrenaline in energizing behavior to face challenges. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357866-12$15.00/0.

  19. Antidepressant drugs specifically inhibiting noradrenaline reuptake enhance recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltmann, Kristin; Konradsson-Geuken, Åsa; De Bundel, Dimitri; Lindskog, Maria; Schilström, Björn

    2015-12-01

    Patients suffering from major depression often experience memory deficits even after the remission of mood symptoms, and many antidepressant drugs do not affect, or impair, memory in animals and humans. However, some antidepressant drugs, after a single dose, enhance cognition in humans (Harmer et al., 2009). To compare different classes of antidepressant drugs for their potential as memory enhancers, we used a version of the novel object recognition task in which rats spontaneously forget objects 24 hr after their presentation. Antidepressant drugs were injected systemically 30 min before or directly after the training phase (Session 1 [S1]). Post-S1 injections were used to test for specific memory-consolidation effects. The noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors reboxetine and atomoxetine, as well as the serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor duloxetine, injected prior to S1 significantly enhanced recognition memory. In contrast, the serotonin reuptake inhibitors citalopram and paroxetine and the cyclic antidepressant drugs desipramine and mianserin did not enhance recognition memory. Post-S1 injection of either reboxetine or citalopram significantly enhanced recognition memory, indicating an effect on memory consolidation. The fact that citalopram had an effect only when injected after S1 suggests that it may counteract its own consolidation-enhancing effect by interfering with memory acquisition. However, pretreatment with citalopram did not attenuate reboxetine's memory-enhancing effect. The D1/5-receptor antagonist SCH23390 blunted reboxetine's memory-enhancing effect, indicating a role of dopaminergic transmission in reboxetine-induced recognition memory enhancement. Our results suggest that antidepressant drugs specifically inhibiting noradrenaline reuptake enhance cognition and may be beneficial in the treatment of cognitive symptoms of depression. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The wake-promoting hypocretin/orexin neurons change their response to noradrenaline after sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivel, Jeremy; Cvetkovic, Vesna; Bayer, Laurence; Machard, Danièle; Tobler, Irene; Mühlethaler, Michel; Serafin, Mauro

    2005-04-20

    Sleep deprivation is accompanied by the progressive development of an irresistible need to sleep, a phenomenon whose mechanism has remained elusive. Here, we identified for the first time a reflection of that phenomenon in vitro by showing that, after a short 2 h period of total sleep deprivation, the action of noradrenaline on the wake-promoting hypocretin/orexin neurons changes from an excitation to an inhibition. We propose that such a conspicuous modification of responsiveness should contribute to the growing sleepiness that accompanies sleep deprivation.

  1. Noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations in various vascular beds in patients with cirrhosis. Relation to haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Christensen, N J; Ring-Larsen, H

    1981-01-01

    indicates that sympathetic nervous activity is enhanced in patients with cirrhosis. Based on the above positive correlation between NA and heart rate and the significant release of NA from the kidney, it may be hypothesized that the increased sympathetic nervous activity especially involves heart and kidney......Plasma noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) concentrations were related to various haemodynamic parameters in fifteen patients with cirrhosis. In supine position at rest plasma NA and A in peripheral venous blood were significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis than in normal subjects. Mean...

  2. Effect of an inhibitor of noradrenaline uptake, desipramine, on cell proliferation in the intestinal crypt epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1989-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa receives an adrenergic innervation for which there is no commonly accepted function. However, in recent years, cell kinetic studies have raised the possibility that this innervation may be an important regulator of crypt cell proliferation. The effects of noradrenaline released from adrenergic nerves is terminated principally by re-uptake of the amine into the nerve and this process can be inhibited by the antidepressant drug, desipramine. In this report desipramine is shown to accelerate crypt cell proliferation in intact, but not in chemically sympathectomized rats, thus adding support to the notion that regulation of crypt cell division is an important function of the sympathetic nervous system.

  3. Noradrenaline spillover during exercise in active versus resting skeletal muscle in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savard, G; Strange, S; Kiens, Bente

    1987-01-01

    Increases in plasma noradrenaline (NA) concentration occur during moderate to heavy exercise in man. This study was undertaken to examine the spillover of NA from both resting and contracting skeletal muscle during exercise. Six male subjects performed one-legged knee-extension so that all...... in the exercising leg than in the resting leg both during 50% and 100% leg exercise. These results suggest that contracting skeletal muscle may contribute to a larger extent than resting skeletal muscle to increasing the level of plasma NA during exercise. Contractile activity may influence the NA spillover from...

  4. Noradrenaline and dopamine levels in acute cerveau isolé in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szikszay, M; Benedek, G; Obál, F; Obál, F

    1980-01-01

    Noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) levels were studied in the forebrain of acute immobilized cats and in cerveau isolé preparations. A gradual decrease in NA and DA was observed one and two hours after high mesencephalic transection, while the amount of NA increased in acute immobilized cats after the cessation of ether anaesthesia. These changes in NA level are consistent with the observations suggesting an inverse relationship between NA and cortical deactivation. The decrease of DA with an exaggeration of spindle activity and increased synchronizing effect of basal forebrain stimulation indicate that the spindle-increasing effect of DA suggested by several authors requires the contribution of the brain stem.

  5. Transport in aluminized RDX under shock compression explored using molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losada, M; Chaudhuri, S

    2014-01-01

    Shock response of energetic materials is controlled by a combination of mechanical response, thermal, transport, and chemical properties. How these properties interplay in condensed-phase energetic materials is of fundamental interest for improving predictive capabilities. Due to unknown nature of chemistry during the evolution and growth of high-temperature regions within the energetic material (so called hot spots), the connection between reactive and unreactive equations of state contain a high degree of empiricism. In particular, chemistry in materials with high degree of heterogeneity such as aluminized HE is of interest. In order to identify shock compression states and transport properties in high-pressure/temperature (HP-HT) conditions, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in conjunction with the multi-scale shock technique (MSST). Mean square displacement calculations enabled us to track the diffusivity of stable gas products. Among decomposition products, H 2 O and CO 2 are found to be the dominant diffusing species under compression conditions. Heat transport and diffusion rates in decomposed RDX are compared and the comparison shows that around 2000 K, transport can be a major contribution during propagation of the reaction front.

  6. A theoretical model for oxygen transport in skeletal muscle under conditions of high oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, B J; Secomb, T W

    2001-11-01

    Oxygen transport from capillaries to exercising skeletal muscle is studied by use of a Krogh-type cylinder model. The goal is to predict oxygen consumption under conditions of high demand, on the basis of a consideration of transport processes occurring at the microvascular level. Effects of the decline in oxygen content of blood flowing along capillaries, intravascular resistance to oxygen diffusion, and myoglobin-facilitated diffusion are included. Parameter values are based on human skeletal muscle. The dependence of oxygen consumption on oxygen demand, perfusion, and capillary density are examined. When demand is moderate, the tissue is well oxygenated and consumption is slightly less than demand. When demand is high, capillary oxygen content declines rapidly with axial distance and radial oxygen transport is limited by diffusion resistance within the capillary and the tissue. Under these conditions, much of the tissue is hypoxic, consumption is substantially less than demand, and consumption is strongly dependent on capillary density. Predicted consumption rates are comparable with experimentally observed maximal rates of oxygen consumption.

  7. Multi-scale nitrate transport in a sandstone aquifer system under intensive agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Daniel; Ballard, Jean-Marc; Lefebvre, René; Savard, Martine M.

    2018-03-01

    Nitrate transport in heterogeneous bedrock aquifers is influenced by mechanisms that operate at different spatial and temporal scales. To understand these mechanisms in a fractured sandstone aquifer with high porosity, a groundwater-flow and nitrate transport model—reproducing multiple hydraulic and chemical targets—was developed to explain the actual nitrate contamination observed in groundwater and surface water in a study area on Prince Edward Island, Canada. Simulations show that nitrate is leached to the aquifer year-round, with 61% coming from untransformed and transformed organic sources originating from fertilizers and manure. This nitrate reaches the more permeable shallow aquifer through fractures in weathered sandstone that represent only 1% of the total porosity (17%). Some of the nitrate reaches the underlying aquifer, which is less active in terms of groundwater flow, but most of it is drained to the main river. The river-water quality is controlled by the nitrate input from the shallow aquifer. Groundwater in the underlying aquifer, which has long residence times, is also largely influenced by the diffusion of nitrate in the porous sandstone matrix. Consequently, following a change of fertilizer application practices, water quality in domestic wells and the river would change rapidly due to the level of nitrate found in fractures, but a lag time of up to 20 years would be necessary to reach a steady level due to diffusion. This demonstrates the importance of understanding nitrate transport mechanisms when designing effective agricultural and water management plans to improve water quality.

  8. Heat transport and afterheat removal for gas cooled reactors under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Heat Transport and Afterheat Removal for Gas Cooled Reactors Under Accident Conditions was organized within the framework of the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors (IWGGCR). This International Working Group serves as a forum for exchange of information on national programmes, provides advice to the IAEA on international co-operative activities in advanced technologies of gas cooled reactors (GCRs) and supports the conduct of these activities. Advanced GCR designs currently being developed are predicted to achieve a high degree of safety through reliance on inherent safety features. Such design features should permit the technical demonstration of exceptional public protection with significantly reduced emergency planning requirements. For advanced GCRs, this predicted high degree of safety largely derives from the ability of the ceramic coated fuel particles to retain the fission products under normal and accident conditions, the safe neutron physics behaviour of the core, the chemical stability of the core and the ability of the design to dissipate decay heat by natural heat transport mechanisms without reaching excessive temperatures. Prior to licensing and commercial deployment of advanced GCRs, these features must first be demonstrated under experimental conditions representing realistic reactor conditions, and the methods used to predict the performance of the fuel and reactor must be validated against these experimental data. Within this CRP, the participants addressed the inherent mechanisms for removal of decay heat from GCRs under accident conditions. The objective of this CRP was to establish sufficient experimental data at realistic conditions and validated analytical tools to confirm the predicted safe thermal response of advance gas cooled reactors during accidents. The scope includes experimental and analytical investigations of heat transport by natural convection conduction and thermal

  9. Electronic transport in armchair graphene nanoribbon under double magnetic barrier modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; Wu, Chao; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Xiaojiao; Zhou, Guanghui

    2018-03-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the transport properties and the magnetoresistance effect in armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) under modulation by two magnetic barriers. The energy levels are found to be degenerate for a metallic AGNR but are not degenerate for a semiconducting AGNR. However, the conductance characteristics show quantized plateaus in both the metallic and semiconducting cases. When the magnetization directions of the barriers change from parallel to antiparallel, the conductance plateau in the metallic AGNR shows a degenerate feature due to matching between the transport modes in different regions. As the barrier height increases, the conductance shows more oscillatory behavior with sharp peaks and troughs. Specifically, the initial position of nonzero conductance for the metallic AGNR system moves towards a higher energy regime, which indicates that an energy gap has been opened. In addition, the magnetoresistance ratio also shows plateau structures in certain specific energy regions. These results may be useful in the design of electron devices based on AGNR nanostructures.

  10. Three dimensional computational fluid dynamic analysis of debris transport under emergency cooling water recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Woon

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis method on the evaluation of debris transport under emergency recirculation mode after loss of coolant accident of a nuclear power plant. Three dimensional reactor building floor geometrical model is constructed including flow obstacles larger than 6 inches such as mechanical components and equipments and considering various inlet flow paths from the upper reactor building such as break and spray flow. In the modeling of the inlet flows from the upper floors, effect of gravitational force was also reflected. For the precision of the analysis, 3 millions of tetrahedral-shaped meshes were generated. Reference calculation showed physically reasonable results. Sensitivity studies for mesh type and turbulence model showed very similar results to the reference case. This study provides useful information on the application of CFD to the evaluation of debris transport fraction for the design of new emergency sump filters. (orig.)

  11. Diffusion Dominant Solute Transport Modelling In Deep Repository Under The Effect of Emplacement Media Degradation - 13285

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, S.; Jivkov, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    transport model) to examine the long term behaviour of deep geological repositories with media property change under complex geochemical conditions. (authors)

  12. Carbon dioxide sequestration: Modeling the diffusive and convective transport under a CO2 cap

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    A rise in carbon dioxide levels from industrial emissions is contributing to the greenhouse effect and global warming. CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers is a strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels. Scientists and researchers rely on numerical simulators to predict CO2 storage by modeling the fluid transport behaviour. Studies have shown that after CO2 is injected into a saline aquifer, undissolved CO2 rises due to buoyant forces and will spread laterally away from the injection site under an area of low permeability. CO2 from this ‘capped\\' region diffuses into the fluid underlying it, and the resulting CO2-fluid mixture increases in density. This increase in density leads to gravity-driven convection. Accordingly, diffusive-convective transport is important to model since it predicts an enhanced storage capacity of the saline aquifer. This work incorporates the diffusive and convective transport processes into the transport modeling equation, and uses a self-generated code. Discretization of the domain is done with a cell-centered finite difference method. Cases are set up using similar parameters from published literature in order to compare results. Enhanced storage capacity is predicted in this work, similar to work done by others. A difference in the onset of convective transport between this work and published results is noticed and discussed in this paper. A sensitivity analysis is performed on the density model used in this work, and on the diffusivity value assumed. The analysis shows that the density model and diffusivity value is a key component on simulation results. Also, perturbations are added to porosity and permeability in order to see the effect of perturbations on the onset of convection, and results agree with similar findings by others. This work provides a basis for studying other cases, such as the impact of heterogeneity on the diffusion-convective transport. An extension of this work may involve the use of an equation of state to

  13. Noradrenaline might enhance assertive human social behaviours: an investigation in a flatmate relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, W S; Bond, A J

    2006-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the role of noradrenaline on the social behaviour of healthy volunteers when they were interacting with a familiar person, their flatmate. Interaction with the flatmate was explored in a cooperative game situation. Ten pairs of same-sex healthy volunteer flatmates aged 18-25 years were recruited for the experiment. All volunteers gave written informed consent and the study was approved by the institutional ethical committee. A randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of reboxetine versus placebo was conducted. In each of the 10 pairs of volunteers, one (subject) volunteered to take the tablets and the other (flatmate) received no treatment. Reboxetine (4 mg/bd) and placebo were administered orally as identical capsules for 2 weeks. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive either reboxetine or placebo first and there was a two-week washout period following the first treatment. At baseline and the end of each treatment, they filled in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Social Adapation Self-Evaluation Scale (SASS), and Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Then, they were instructed to play the Tangrams game. This task elicits face-valid social behaviours such as cooperation, giving commands and unilateral grasps. Analysis of covariance showed that there was a statistical trend for reboxetine treatment to increase commands (p=0.055). This study presents preliminary evidence that two weeks' enhancement of noradrenaline transmission induced by reboxetine makes healthy volunteers more self-confident and assertive.

  14. GPR40/FFAR1 deficient mice increase noradrenaline levels in the brain and exhibit abnormal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuka Aizawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is activated by long chain fatty acids. We have previously demonstrated that activation of brain GPR40/FFAR1 exerts an antinociceptive effect that is mediated by the modulation of the descending pain control system. However, it is unclear whether brain GPR40/FFAR1 contributes to emotional function. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GPR40/FFAR1 in emotional behavior using GPR40/FFAR1 deficient (knockout, KO mice. The emotional behavior in wild and KO male mice was evaluated at 9–10 weeks of age by the elevated plus-maze test, open field test, social interaction test, and sucrose preference test. Brain monoamines levels were measured using LC–MS/MS. The elevated plus-maze test and open field tests revealed that the KO mice reduced anxiety-like behavior. There were no differences in locomotor activity or social behavior between the wild and KO mice. In the sucrose preference test, the KO mice showed reduction in sucrose preference and intake. The level of noradrenaline was higher in the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus and midbrain of KO mice. Therefore, these results suggest that brain GPR40/FFAR1 is associated with anxiety- and depression-related behavior regulated by the increment of noradrenaline in the brain.

  15. GPR40/FFAR1 deficient mice increase noradrenaline levels in the brain and exhibit abnormal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Fuka; Nishinaka, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Kurihara, Takashi; Hirasawa, Akira; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Miyata, Atsuro; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2016-12-01

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is activated by long chain fatty acids. We have previously demonstrated that activation of brain GPR40/FFAR1 exerts an antinociceptive effect that is mediated by the modulation of the descending pain control system. However, it is unclear whether brain GPR40/FFAR1 contributes to emotional function. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GPR40/FFAR1 in emotional behavior using GPR40/FFAR1 deficient (knockout, KO) mice. The emotional behavior in wild and KO male mice was evaluated at 9-10 weeks of age by the elevated plus-maze test, open field test, social interaction test, and sucrose preference test. Brain monoamines levels were measured using LC-MS/MS. The elevated plus-maze test and open field tests revealed that the KO mice reduced anxiety-like behavior. There were no differences in locomotor activity or social behavior between the wild and KO mice. In the sucrose preference test, the KO mice showed reduction in sucrose preference and intake. The level of noradrenaline was higher in the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus and midbrain of KO mice. Therefore, these results suggest that brain GPR40/FFAR1 is associated with anxiety- and depression-related behavior regulated by the increment of noradrenaline in the brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional adaptation of the human β-cells after frequent exposure to noradrenaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    KEY POINTS: Trained people produce less insulin than untrained; there is an adaptation of the insulin-producing cells to the trained state. The mechanism behind this adaptation is not known, but some sort of memory must be introduced into the insulin-producing cells. Here it is shown that this me......KEY POINTS: Trained people produce less insulin than untrained; there is an adaptation of the insulin-producing cells to the trained state. The mechanism behind this adaptation is not known, but some sort of memory must be introduced into the insulin-producing cells. Here it is shown...... that this memory is introduced by 10 daily intravenous infusions of noradrenaline, mimicking the increases that occur during a 10 day training programme. Thus, after the infusion period, the subjects produced less insulin in response to the same stimulus. It is concluded that exercise-induced increases...... in noradrenaline is most likely the stimulus that introduces a memory in the insulin-producing cells. ABSTRACT: Physical training decreases glucose- and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion. The mechanism by which the pancreatic β-cells adapt to the training status of the individual is not known. We hypothesized...

  17. 15N-urea transport and transformation in two deforsted Amazonian soils under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victoria, R.L.; Libardi, P.L.; Reichardt, K.; Matsui, E.

    1982-01-01

    Brazilian agriculture is now expanding toward the Amazon region, where large new areas of virgin lands are being brought under cultivation. There is therefore an urgent need to better understand the conditions and characteristics of the soils of that region. In this study a Red Yellow Podzol and a Yellow Latosol were used to examine urea transport and transformation in the laboratory under water-saturated conditions. The soils were collected in an area that was deforested in 1976 and planted to tropical fruits since then. Soils were subjected to miscible displacement techniques under both continuous feed and pulse applications of urea to mathematically describe urea transport and transformation as functions of depth and time. Transformation mechanisms were considered to be first order kinetics. Urea was readily leached from both soils. Recovery of urea in the effluent of the 30 cm columns was 91%, for the Podzol and 86% for the Latosol. NH 4+ -N from urea hydrolysis was also readily leached and its recovery in the effluent was 4.2% for the Podzol and 11.2% for the Latosol. Very little nitrogen-including exchangeable NH 4+ -N and biomass nitrogen - was left in the columns of either soil at the end of the experiment. (orig.)

  18. 76 FR 68257 - Letters of Interest for Credit Assistance Under the Transportation Infrastructure Finance and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ...The DOT's TIFIA Joint Program Office (JPO) announces the availability of a limited amount of funding in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 to provide credit assistance. Under TIFIA, the DOT provides secured (direct) loans, lines of credit, and loan guarantees to public and private applicants for eligible surface transportation projects of regional or national significance. Projects must meet statutorily specified criteria to be selected for credit assistance. Because demand for the TIFIA program exceeds budgetary resources, the DOT is utilizing periodic fixed-date solicitations. This notice outlines the process that project sponsors must follow to compete to secure an invitation for Federal credit assistance for Federal FY 2012.

  19. Phosphate transporter mediated lipid accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under phosphate starvation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Antoni W; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, when phosphate transporters pho88 and pho86 were knocked out they resulted in significant accumulation (84% and 43%) of triacylglycerol (TAG) during phosphate starvation. However in the presence of phosphate, TAG accumulation was only around 45% in both pho88 and pho86 mutant cells. These observations were confirmed by radio-labeling, fluorescent microscope and RT-PCR studies. The TAG synthesizing genes encoding for acyltransferases namely LRO1 and DGA1 were up regulated. This is the first report for accumulation of TAG in pho88Δ and pho86Δ cells under phosphate starvation conditions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Testing ZigBee Motes for Monitoring Refrigerated Vegetable Transportation under Real Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ruiz-Garcia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality control and monitoring of perishable goods during transportation and delivery services is an increasing concern for producers, suppliers, transport decision makers and consumers. The major challenge is to ensure a continuous ‘cold chain’ from producer to consumer in order to guaranty prime condition of goods. In this framework, the suitability of ZigBee protocol for monitoring refrigerated transportation has been proposed by several authors. However, up to date there was not any experimental work performed under real conditions. Thus, the main objective of our experiment was to test wireless sensor motes based in the ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 protocol during a real shipment. The experiment was conducted in a refrigerated truck traveling through two countries (Spain and France which means a journey of 1,051 kilometers. The paper illustrates the great potential of this type of motes, providing information about several parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, door openings and truck stops. Psychrometric charts have also been developed for improving the knowledge about water loss and condensation on the product during shipments.

  1. A Transporter of Ibuprofen is Upregulated in MDCK I Cells under Hyperosmotic Culture Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Rasmussen, Rune N; Mo, Junying

    2016-01-01

    Ibuprofen is a widely used drug. It has been identified as an inhibitor of several transporters, but it is not clear if ibuprofen is a substrate of any transporter itself. In the present work, we have characterized a transporter of ibuprofen, which is upregulated by hyperosmotic culture conditions...... in Madin-Darby canine kidney I (MDCK I) renal cells. [(3)H]-Ibuprofen uptake rate was measured in MDCK I cell cultured under normal (300 mOsm) and hyperosmotic (500 mOsm) conditions. Hyperosmotic conditions were obtained by supplementing urea, NaCl, mannitol, or raffinose to culture medium. The effect...... of increased osmolarity was investigated for different incubation times. [(3)H]-Ibuprofen uptake in MDCK I cells was upregulated by hyperosmotic culture condition, and was saturable with a Km value of 0.37 ± 0.08 μM and a Vmax of 233.1 ± 17.2 pmol· cm(-2)· min(-1). Racemic [(3)H]-ibuprofen uptake could...

  2. Bacteria transport and retention in intact calcareous soil columns under saturated flow conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokhian Firouzi Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Study of bacterial transport and retention in soil is important for various environmental applications such as groundwater contamination and bioremediation of soil and water. The main objective of this research was to quantitatively assess bacterial transport and deposition under saturated conditions in calcareous soil. A series of leaching experiments was conducted on two undisturbed soil columns. Breakthrough curves of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Cl were measured. After the leaching experiment, spatial distribution of bacteria retention in the soil columns was determined. The HYDRUS-1D one- and two-site kinetic models were used to predict the transport and deposition of bacteria in soil. The results indicated that the two-site model fits the observed data better than one-site kinetic model. Bacteria interaction with the soil of kinetic site 1 revealed relatively fast attachment and slow detachment, whereas attachment to and detachment of bacteria from kinetic site 2 was fast. Fast attachment and slow detachment of site 1 can be attributed to soil calcium carbonate that has favorable attachment sites for bacteria. The detachment rate was less than 0.02 of the attachment rate, indicating irreversible attachment of bacteria. High reduction rate of bacteria was also attributed to soil calcium carbonate.

  3. Safety analysis of spent fuel transport and storage casks under extreme impact conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, D.; Wieser, G.; Ballheimer, V.; Voelzke, H.; Droste, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Worldwide the security of transport and storage of spent fuel with respect to terrorism threats is a matter of concern. In Germany a spent nuclear fuel management program was developed by the government including a new concept of dry on-site interim storage instead of centralized interim storage. In order to minimize transports of spent fuel casks between nuclear power plants, reprocessing plants and central storage facilities, the operators of NPPs have to erect and to use interim storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel on the site or in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. Up to now, 11 on-site interim storage buildings, one storage tunnel and 4 on-site interim storage areas (preliminary cask storage till the on-site interim storage building is completed) have been licensed at 12 nuclear power plant sites. Inside the interim storage buildings the casks are kept in upright position, whereas at the preliminary interim storage areas horizontal storage of the casks on concrete slabs is used and each cask is covered by concrete elements. Storage buildings and concrete elements are designed only for gamma and neutron radiation shielding reasons and as weather protection. Therefore the security of spent fuel inside a dual purpose transport and storage cask depends on the inherent safety of the cask itself. For nearly three decades BAM has been investigating cask safety under severe accident conditions like drop tests from more than 9 m onto different targets and without impact limiters as well as artificially damaged prototype casks. Since the terror attacks of 11 September 2001 the determination of casks' inherent safety also under extreme impact conditions due to terrorist attacks has been of our increasing interest. With respect to spent fuel storage one of the most critical scenarios of a terrorist attack for a cask is the centric impact of a dynamic load onto the lid-seal-system caused e.g. by direct aircraft crash or its engine as well as by a

  4. Noradrenaline concentration and turnover in nuclei of the hypothalamus and the medulla oblongata at two stages in the development of renal hypertension in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, H.J.L.M.; Kloet, E.R. de; Versteeg, D.H.G.; Jong, Wybren de

    1980-01-01

    The noradrenaline concentration and the α-methyl-para-tyrosine (α-MPT)-induced disappearance of noradrenaline were determined in several nuclei of the hypothalamus and the medulla oblongata of renal hypertensive rats (two-kidney Goldblatt hypertension). A decreased α-MPT-induced disappearance of

  5. [The effect of prolonged treatment of hypertensive rats with antihypertensive drugs of various actions on the arterial tension and noradrenaline level in the myocardium, brain and aortal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriakov, A; Khlebarova, M; Staneva-stoicheva, D; Panova, I

    1975-01-01

    The authors examined the changes in arterial blood pressure and the content of Noradrenaline in the myocardium, brain and aorta of rats with hypertension due to nephrectomy and treatment with desoxycorticosterone and NaCl, and after a chronic 6-month treatment of hypertension with various antihypertensive means. The most significant reduction of noradrenaline in the three of the examined tissues was found in rats, which received dic. sulfyram (100 mg/kg per os). Clondine (10 mkg/kg, per os) manifested the strongest hypotensive effect and lowered the level of noradrenaline in the myocardium, while it was raised in the aorta. Reserpine (10 mkg/kg, s. c) induced a clear reduction of Noradrenaline content in the brain, but an increase in the other two tissues. Insignificant hypotensive effect was observed in animals, treated with guanetidine (0.5 mg/kg, per os), which did not affect substantially noradrenaline in the examined organs. The increase of noradrenaline level was established in the three of the organs of animals, treated with alpha-methyl-DOFA (25 mg/kg, per os). Furosemide (1 mg/kg, s.c.) induced a statistically significant elevation of noradrenaline in the aorta, but was noneffective to noradrenaline in the myocardium and brain.

  6. Spent fuel transport cask thermal evaluation under normal and accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, G. [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of Pisa, Via Diotisalvi, no 2-56126 Pisa (Italy); Lo Frano, R., E-mail: rosa.lofrano@ing.unipi.i [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of Pisa, Via Diotisalvi, no 2-56126 Pisa (Italy); Forasassi, G. [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of Pisa, Via Diotisalvi, no 2-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The casks used for transport of nuclear materials, especially the spent fuel element (SPE), must be designed according to rigorous acceptance criteria and standards requirements, e.g. the International Atomic Energy Agency ones, in order to provide protection to people and environment against radiation exposure particularly in a severe accident scenario. The aim of this work was the evaluation of the integrity of a spent fuel cask under both normal and accident scenarios transport conditions, such as impact and rigorous fire events, in according to the IAEA accident test requirements. The thermal behaviour and the temperatures distribution of a Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel transport cask are presented in this paper, especially with reference to the Italian cask designed by AGN, which was characterized by a cylindrical body, with water or air inside the internal cavity, and two lateral shock absorbers. Using the finite element code ANSYS a series of thermal analyses (steady-state and transient thermal analyses) were carried out in order to obtain the maximum fuel temperature and the temperatures field in the body of the cask, both in normal and in accidents scenario, considering all the heat transfer modes between the cask and the external environment (fire in the test or air in the normal conditions) as well as inside the cask itself. In order to follow the standards requirements, the thermal analyses in accidents scenarios were also performed adopting a deformed shape of the shock absorbers to simulate the mechanical effects of a previous IAEA 9 m drop test event. Impact tests on scale models of the shock absorbers have already been conducted in the past at the Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of Pisa, in the '80s. The obtained results, used for possible new licensing approval purposes by the Italian competent Authority of the cask for PWR spent fuel cask transport by the Italian competent Authority, are

  7. Biomass Energy for Transport and Electricity: Large scale utilization under low CO2 concentration scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-01-25

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. The costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are also incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the dominant source. A key finding of this paper is the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies coupled with commercial biomass energy can play in meeting stringent emissions targets. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, the resulting negative emissions used in combination with biomass are a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels and shows that both technologies are important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics. Through application of the GCAM integrated assessment model, it becomes clear that, given CCS availability, bioenergy will be used both in electricity and transportation.

  8. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF MULTI-SPECIES TRANSPORT IN SOILS UNDER ELECTRIC FIELDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project investigated an innovative approach for transport of inorganic species under the influence of electric fields. This process, commonly known as electrokinetics uses low-level direct current (dc) electrical potential difference across a soil mass applied through inert...

  9. Correction: The effect of recombination under short-circuit conditions on the determination of charge transport properties in nanostructured photoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Cab, J; Anta, J A; Oskam, G

    2016-05-28

    Correction for 'The effect of recombination under short-circuit conditions on the determination of charge transport properties in nanostructured photoelectrodes' by J. Villanueva-Cab et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, 18, 2303-2308.

  10. Transport of silver nanoparticles from nanocomposite Ag/alginate hydrogels under conditions mimicking tissue implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Danijela D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess phenomena occurring during AgNP transport from nanocomposite Ag/alginate hydrogels under conditions relevant for potential biomedical applications as antimicrobial soft tissue implants. First, we have studied AgNP migration from the nanocomposite to the adjacent alginate hydrogel mimicking soft tissue next to the implant. AgNP deposition was carried out by the initial burst release lasting for ∼24 h yielding large aggregates on hydrogel surfaces and smaller clusters (∼400 nm in size inside. However, the overall released content was low (0.67% indicating high nanocomposite stability. In the next experimental series, release of AgNPs, 10–30 nm in size, from Ag/alginate microbeads in water was investigated under static conditions as well as under continuous perfusion mimicking vascularized tissues. Mathematical modeling has revealed AgNP release by diffusion under static conditions with the diffusion coefficient within the Ag/alginate hydrogel of 6.9x10–19 m2 s–1. Conversely, continuous perfusion induced increased AgNP release by convection with the interstitial fluid velocity estimated as 4.6 nm s–1. Overall, the obtained results indicated the influence of hydrodynamic conditions at the implantation site on silver release and potential implant functionality, which should be investigated at the experimentation beginning using appropriate in vitro systems. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III 45019

  11. Analysis of corrosion product transport in PWR primary system under non-convective condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Byoung Sub

    1992-02-01

    The increase of occupational radiation exposure (ORE) due to the increase of the operational period at existing nuclear power plant and also the publication of the new version of ICRP recommendation (ICRP publication No. 60) for radiological protection require much more strict reduction of radiation buildup in the nuclear power plant. The major sources of the radiation, i.e. the radioactive corrosion-products, are generated by the neutron activation of the corrosion products at the reactor core, and then the radioactive corrosion products are transported to the outside of the core, and accumulated near the steam generator side at PWR. Major radioactive corrosion-products of interest in PWR are Cr 51 ,: Mn 54 ,: Co 58 ,: Fe 59 and Co 60 . Among them Co 58 and Co 60 are known to contribute approximately more than 70% of the total ORE. Thus our main concerns are focused on predicting the transport and deposition of the Co radionuclides and suggesting the optimizing method which can minimize and control the ORE of the nuclear power plant. It is well known that Co-source is most effectively controlled by pH-solubility radiation control, and also some complex computer codes such as CORA and PACTOLE have been developed and revised to predict the corrosion product behavior. However these codes still imply some intrisic problems in simulating the real behavior of corrosion products in the reactor because of 1) the lack of important experimental data, coefficients and parameters of the transport and reactions under actual high temperature and pressure conditions, 2) no general theoretical modelling which can describe such many different mechanisms involved in the corrosion product movements, 3) the newly developed and measured behavior of the corrosion product transport mechanism. Since no sufficient and detailed information is available from the above-mentioned codes (also due to propriority problems), we concentrate on developing a new computer code, CP-TRAN (Corrosion

  12. Solute transport in a well under slow-purge and no-purge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, M. A.; Britt, S. L.; Martin-Hayden, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Non-purge sampling techniques, such as diffusion bags and in-situ sealed samplers, offer reliable and cost-effective groundwater monitoring methods that are a step closer to the goal of real-time monitoring without pumping or sample collection. Non-purge methods are, however, not yet completely accepted because questions remain about how solute concentrations in an unpurged well relate to concentrations in the adjacent formation. To answer questions about how undisturbed well water samples compare to formation concentrations, and to provide the information necessary to interpret results from non-purge monitoring systems, we have conducted a variety of physical experiments and numerical simulations of flow and transport in and through monitoring wells under low-flow and ambient flow conditions. Previous studies of flow and transport in wells used a Darcy’s law - based continuity equation for flow, which is often justified under the strong, forced-convection flow caused by pumping or large vertical hydraulic potential gradients. In our study, we focus on systems with weakly forced convection, where density-driven free convection may be of similar strength. We therefore solved Darcy’s law for porous media domains and the Navier Stokes equations for flow in the well, and coupled solution of the flow equations to that of solute transport. To illustrate expected in-well transport behavior under low-flow conditions, we present results of three particular studies: (1) time-dependent effluent concentrations from a well purged at low-flow pumping rates, (2) solute-driven density effects in a well under ambient horizontal flow and (3) temperature-driven mixing in a shallow well subject to seasonal temperature variations. Results of the first study illustrate that assumptions about the nature of in-well flow have a significant impact on effluent concentration curves even during pumping, with Poiseuille-type flow producing more rapid removal of concentration differences

  13. 30 CFR 206.110 - How do I determine a transportation allowance under an arm's-length transportation contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fees do not include title transfer fees. (9) Payments for a volumetric deduction to cover shrinkage.... (8) Gauging fees. (d) If your arm's-length transportation contract includes more than one liquid...

  14. Laboratory experiments on solute transport in bimodal porous media under cyclic precipitation-evaporation boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa

    2016-04-01

    Flow and solute transport in the shallow subsurface is strongly governed by atmospheric boundary conditions. Erratically varying infiltration and evaporation cycles lead to alternating upward and downward flow, as well as spatially and temporally varying water contents and associated hydraulic conductivity of the prevailing materials. Thus presenting a highly complicated, dynamic system. Knowledge of subsurface solute transport processes is vital to assess e.g. the entry of, potentially hazardous, solutes to the groundwater and nutrient uptake by plant roots and can be gained in many ways. Besides field measurements and numerical simulations, physical laboratory experiments represent a way to establish process understanding and furthermore validate numerical schemes. With the aim to gain a better understanding and to quantify solute transport in the unsaturated shallow subsurface under natural precipitation conditions in heterogeneous media, we conduct physical laboratory experiments in a 22 cm x 8 cm x 1 cm flow cell that is filled with two types of sand and apply cyclic infiltration-evaporation phases at the soil surface. Pressure at the bottom of the domain is kept constant. Following recent studies (Lehmann and Or, 2009; Bechtold et al., 2011a), heterogeneity is introduced by a sharp vertical interface between coarse and fine sand. Fluorescent tracers are used to i) qualitatively visualize transport paths within the domain and ii) quantify solute leaching at the bottom of the domain. Temporal and spatial variations in water content during the experiment are derived from x-ray radiographic images. Monitored water contents between infiltration and evaporation considerably changed in the coarse sand while the fine sand remained saturated throughout the experiments. Lateral solute transport through the interface in both directions at different depths of the investigated soil columns were observed. This depended on the flow rate applied at the soil surface and

  15. Comparative evaluation of two radioenzymatic procedures designed to determine noradrenaline in the plasma (COMT assay and PNMT assay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, A.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of two radioenzymatic procedures to determine the concentration of noradrenaline in the plasma - with linearity, sensitivity, specifity and accuracy serving as test criteria - led to the following results: In view of a probability of error in the order of 2% both methods were judged to show a satisfactory sensitivity. The specific of the COMT assay, by contrast with that of the PNMT assay, was found to be wanting, as the noradrenaline measurements in the presence of other biogenic amines were biassed in such a way that the values determined were higher than the actual concentrations. During antihypertensive treatment even minimal changes in the noradrenaline concentration can be ascertained on a quantitative basis. If suitable hardware is available, the COMT assay permits up to 25 single determinations to be carried out per day, while the number of double determinations is restricted to 7 per day. One advantage, however, lies in the fact that several catecholamines in the plasma can be detected simultaneously, if required. In cases where the noradrenaline concentration alone is to be determined for clinical purposes, preference should be given to the PNMT assay, as both tests showed equal linearity and sensitivity. (TRV) [de

  16. Cutaneous noradrenaline measured by microdialysis in complex regional pain syndrome during whole-body cooling and heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Astrid Juhl; Gierthmühlen, Janne; Petersen, Lars J.

    2013-01-01

    and in healthy volunteers. Seven patients and nine controls completed whole-body cooling (sympathetic activation) and heating (sympathetic inhibition) induced by a whole-body thermal suit with simultaneous measurement of the skin temperature, skin blood flow, and release of dermal noradrenaline. CRPS pain...

  17. Chronic cobalt-induced epilepsy: noradrenaline ionophoresis and adrenoceptor binding studies in the rat cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregman, B.; Le Saux, F.; Maurin, Y.; Trottier, S.; Chauvel, P.

    1985-01-01

    Several studies indicate that brain noradrenaline (NA) depletion facilitates the occurrence of epileptogenic syndromes in various animal models. In cobalt-induced epilepsy in the rat, seizure activity is associated with a cortical NA denervation. In order to search for cortical adrenoceptor modifications, inonophoretic studies and adrenoceptor binding assays were performed. At the period of maximal seizure activity, there was a significant supersensitivity of cortial neurons to the ionophoretic application of NA. An increase in the density of β-adrenoceptor binding sites was observed. No modification in α 1 - and α 2 -adrenoceptor binding sites was found. This suggests that in cobalt-induced epilepsy there is a denervation supersensitivity which rests on a selective involvement of β-adrenoceptors. (Author)

  18. Role of glycogenolysis in memory and learning: regulation by noradrenaline, serotonin and ATP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Elizabeth Gibbs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role played by glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis and glycogen re-synthesis in memory processing in two different chick brain regions, (1 the hippocampus and (2 the avian equivalent of the mammalian cortex, the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM. Memory processing is regulated by the neuromodulators noradrenaline and serotonin soon after training and glycogen breakdown and re-synthesis are involved. In day-old domestic chicks, memory formation is dependent on the breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis at three specific times during the first 60 min after learning (around 2.5, 30 and 55 min. The chicks learn to discriminate in a single trial between beads of two colours and tastes. Inhibition of glycogen breakdown by the inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (DAB given at specific times prior to the formation of long-term memory prevents memory forming. Noradrenergic stimulation of cultured chicken astrocytes by a selective β2-adrenergic (AR agonist reduces glycogen levels and we believe that in vivo this triggers memory consolidation at the second stage of glycogenolysis. Serotonin acting at 5-HT2B receptors acts on the first stage, but not on the second. We have shown that noradrenaline, acting via post-synaptic α2-ARs, is also responsible for the synthesis of glycogen and our experiments suggest that there is a readily accessible labile pool of glycogen in astrocytes which is depleted within 10 min if glycogen synthesis is inhibited. Endogenous ATP promotion of memory consolidation at 2.5 and 30 min is also dependent on glycogen breakdown. ATP acts at P2Y1 receptors and the action of thrombin suggests that it causes the release of internal calcium ([Ca2+]i] in astrocytes. Glutamate and GABA, the primary neurotransmitters in the brain, cannot be synthesized in neurons de novo. Neurons rely on astrocytic glutamate synthesis, requiring glycogenolysis.

  19. Noradrenaline decreases spike voltage threshold and induces electrographic sharp waves in turtle medial cortex in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Daniel; Velluti, Julio C

    2004-01-01

    The noradrenergic modulation of neuronal properties has been described at different levels of the mammalian brain. Although the anatomical characteristics of the noradrenergic system are well known in reptiles, functional data are scarce. In our study the noradrenergic modulation of cortical electrogenesis in the turtle medial cortex was studied in vitro using a combination of field and intracellular recordings. Turtle EEG consists of a low voltage background interspersed by spontaneous large sharp waves (LSWs). Noradrenaline (NA, 5-40 microM) induced (or enhanced) the generation of LSWs in a dose-dependent manner. Pharmacological experiments suggest the participation of alpha and beta receptors in this effect. In medial cortex neurons NA induced a hyperpolarization of the resting potential and a decrease of input resistance. Both effects were observed also after TTX treatment. Noradrenaline increased the response of the cells to depolarizing pulses, resulting in an upward shift of the frequency/current relation. In most cells the excitability change was mediated by a decrease of the spike voltage threshold resulting in the reduction of the amount of depolarization needed to fire the cell (voltage threshold minus resting potential). As opposed to the mechanisms reported in mammalian neurons, no changes in the frequency adaptation or the post-train afterhyperpolarization were observed. The NA effects at the cellular level were not reproduced by noradrenergic agonists. Age- and species-dependent properties in the pharmacology of adrenergic receptors could be involved in this result. Cellular effects of NA in turtle cortex are similar to those described in mammals, although the increase in cellular excitability seems to be mediated by a different mechanism. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Transport Calculations for the reference configuration under neutral bean injection in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Castejon, F.; Liniers, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transport calculations for the Reference Configuration under Neutral Beam Injection in TJ-II are discussed. For all these analysis the Transport Code PROCTR has been used but, in reason of the complex geometry of TJ-II, some modifications to the code have been needed, not only for the absorption, losses and deposition radial profile evaluations, but also for the treatment of the transition between ECRH and NBI or the fit of Transport Coefficients to the different Scaling Laws. The attained centralβ values for high density ( central value around 11 x 10''13 cm''3), in steady, range between a minimum of 1.9% for the GRB law up to 3.6% or 4.2% for those laws that show an explicit dependence with the rotational transform (ISS and LGS), with an intermediate value of 2.8% for the LHD case. Global energy confinement times range between 3.9 and 8.8 ms for the two extreme cases and 5.6 ms for LHD. As well ions as electrons are clearly in the plateau regime, in contrast to the ECRH phase where the electrons are well inside the 1/ν regime, dominated by helical ripple effects. The effect of impurities is to decrease slightly the absorption and the attainable β levels, but only for Zeff values higher than 4 this degradation becomes important. For the stationary state the density remains always below the semiempirical limit, independently of the Zeff value. Even along the first stages of injection, where absorption can be rather low, the limit is not reached, at least for Zeff < 4, so that radioactive collapse along this critical phase should not to be expected. (Author) 14 refs

  1. Characterization of noradrenaline release in the locus coeruleus of freely moving awake rats by in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pastor, Begoña; Mateo, Yolanda; Gómez-Urquijo, Sonia; Javier Meana, J

    2005-07-01

    The origin and regulation of noradrenaline (NA) in the locus coeruleus (LC) is unknown. The neurochemical features of NA overflow (nerve impulse dependence, neurotransmitter synthesis, vesicle storage, reuptake, alpha2-adrenoceptor-mediated regulation) were characterized in the LC. Brain microdialysis was performed in awake rats. Dialysates were analyzed for NA. NA in the LC decreased via local infusion of Ca2+-free medium (-42+/-5%) or the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxine (TTX) (-47+/-8%) but increased (333+/-40%) via KCl-induced depolarization. The tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) inhibitor alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (250 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and the vesicle depletory drug reserpine (5 mg kg(-1), i.p.) decreased NA. Therefore, extracellular NA in the LC satisfies the criteria for an impulse flow-dependent vesicular exocytosis of neuronal origin. Local perfusion of the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine (0.1-100 microM) decreased NA (E(max)=-79+/-5%) in the LC, whereas the opposite effect (E(max)=268+/-53%) was observed with the alpha2A-adrenoceptor antagonist BRL44408 (0.1-100 microM). This suggests a tonic modulation of NA release through local alpha2A-adrenoceptors. The selective NA reuptake inhibitor desipramine (DMI) (0.1-100 microM) administered into the LC increased NA in the LC (E(max)=223+/-40%) and simultaneously decreased NA in the cingulate cortex, confirming the modulation exerted by NA in the LC on firing activity of noradrenergic cells and on the subsequent NA release in noradrenergic terminals. Synaptic processes underlying NA release in the LC are similar to those in noradrenergic terminal areas. NA in the LC could represent local somatodendritic release, but also the presence of neurotransmitter release from collateral axon terminals.

  2. Natural ventilation of a generic cask under a transport hood - CFD and analytical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, D.; Davies, G.; Tso, C.F. [Arup, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    In comparison with finite element simulation for structural and thermal behaviour, the use of computational fluid dynamics technique (hereafter CFD) to analyse, predict and design air and heat flow in package design is relatively novel. Arup has been using CFD techniques to investigate fluid and heat flow, and to use it as a tool to design fluid and heat flow across a broad spectrum of industries for over fifteen years. In order demonstrate the power of the technique and its benefits, the airflow and heat flow characteristics around a transport package during transit under a transport hood has been evaluated using the CFD technique. This paper presents the scenario, the model, the analysis technique and the results of this analysis. Comparison with test results is probably the best way to validate a CFD analysis. In the absence of test results, the analysis was verified by comparison with hand calculation solutions. The scenario as it stands is too complex and hand calculation solution cannot describe the scenario sufficiently. However, hand calculation solutions could be derived for simplified version of the scenario against which CFD analysis of the simplified scenario can be compared. The second half of this paper describes the verification out.

  3. Silicon nanopore membrane (SNM) for islet encapsulation and immunoisolation under convective transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shang; Faleo, Gaetano; Yeung, Raymond; Kant, Rishi; Posselt, Andrew M.; Desai, Tejal A.; Tang, Qizhi; Roy, Shuvo

    2016-03-01

    Problems associated with islet transplantation for Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) such as shortage of donor cells, use of immunosuppressive drugs remain as major challenges. Immune isolation using encapsulation may circumvent the use of immunosuppressants and prolong the longevity of transplanted islets. The encapsulating membrane must block the passage of host’s immune components while providing sufficient exchange of glucose, insulin and other small molecules. We report the development and characterization of a new generation of semipermeable ultrafiltration membrane, the silicon nanopore membrane (SNM), designed with approximately 7 nm-wide slit-pores to provide middle molecule selectivity by limiting passage of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, the use of convective transport with a pressure differential across the SNM overcomes the mass transfer limitations associated with diffusion through nanometer-scale pores. The SNM exhibited a hydraulic permeability of 130 ml/hr/m2/mmHg, which is more than 3 fold greater than existing polymer membranes. Analysis of sieving coefficients revealed 80% reduction in cytokines passage through SNM under convective transport. SNM protected encapsulated islets from infiltrating cytokines and retained islet viability over 6 hours and remained responsive to changes in glucose levels unlike non-encapsulated controls. Together, these data demonstrate the novel membrane exhibiting unprecedented hydraulic permeability and immune-protection for islet transplantation therapy.

  4. Natural ventilation of a generic cask under a transport hood - CFD and analytical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, D.; Davies, G.; Tso, C.F.

    2004-01-01

    In comparison with finite element simulation for structural and thermal behaviour, the use of computational fluid dynamics technique (hereafter CFD) to analyse, predict and design air and heat flow in package design is relatively novel. Arup has been using CFD techniques to investigate fluid and heat flow, and to use it as a tool to design fluid and heat flow across a broad spectrum of industries for over fifteen years. In order demonstrate the power of the technique and its benefits, the airflow and heat flow characteristics around a transport package during transit under a transport hood has been evaluated using the CFD technique. This paper presents the scenario, the model, the analysis technique and the results of this analysis. Comparison with test results is probably the best way to validate a CFD analysis. In the absence of test results, the analysis was verified by comparison with hand calculation solutions. The scenario as it stands is too complex and hand calculation solution cannot describe the scenario sufficiently. However, hand calculation solutions could be derived for simplified version of the scenario against which CFD analysis of the simplified scenario can be compared. The second half of this paper describes the verification out

  5. Quadrupole beam-transport experiment for heavy ions under extreme space charge conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chupp, W.; Faltens, A.; Hartwig, E.C.

    1983-03-01

    A Cs ion-beam-transport experiment is in progress to study beam behavior under extreme space-charge conditions. A five-lens section matches the beam into a periodic electrostatic quadrupole FODO channel and its behavior is found to agree with predictions. With the available parameters (less than or equal to 200 keV, less than or equal to 20 mA, πepsilon/sub n/ greater than or equal to 10 - 7 π rad-m, up to 41 periods) the transverse (betatron) occillation frequency (nu) can be depressed down to one-tenth of its zero current value (nu/sub 0/), where nu/sup 2/ = nu/sub 0//sup 2/ -#betta#/sub p/ 2 /2, and #betta#/sub p/ is the beam plasma frequency. The current can be controlled by adjustment of the gun and the emittance can be controlled independently by means of a set of charged grids

  6. Electronic transport in Thue-Morse gapped graphene superlattice under applied bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingjing; Zhang, Hongmei; Liu, De

    2018-04-01

    We investigate theoretically the electronic transport properties of Thue-Morse gapped graphene superlattice under an applied electric field. The results indicate that the combined effect of the band gap and the applied bias breaks the angular symmetry of the transmission coefficient. The zero-averaged wave-number gap can be greatly modulated by the band gap and the applied bias, but its position is robust against change of the band gap. Moreover, the conductance and the Fano factor are strongly dependent not only on the Fermi energy but also on the band gap and the applied bias. In the vicinity of the new Dirac point, the minimum value of the conductance obviously decreases and the Fano factor gradually forms a Poissonian value plateau with increasing of the band gap.

  7. [Selenium uptake and transport of rice under different Se-enriched natural soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao-qiang; Shen, Jia; Zu, Chao-long

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a pot experiment was conducted with "Wandao 205" as test materials to investigate Se uptake and translocation in rice under different Se concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg . kg-1). Results showed that there was no significant change in rice yield when Se concentration in soil was lower than 1.5 mg . kg-1. Significant linear correlations existed between Se concentration in soil and different rice plant tissues. Se concentration in rice plant followed the order of root > straw > grain. Se concentration in different rice grain fractions followed the order of bran > polished rice > hull. The root absorption index of Se was more than 1.86, suggest that the rice could absorpt Se from soil effectively. However, the transport and accumulation of Se in seeds from Se-enriched soil was relatively constant. The Se transport index in seeds was between 0.53 and 0.59. Soil Se concentration within the range of 0.5 to 1.0 mg . kg-1 could produce Se-enriched rice, which might be enough for human requirement of 60-80 µg . d-1 Se. However, polished rice at high-Se treatment (1.5 mg . kg-1) exceeded the maximum standard limit of Se (0.3 mg . kg-1) for cereals in China. These results suggested that we could produce Se-enriched rice under soil Se concentration in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 mg . kg-1 without spraying Se fertilizer, thus reducing the cost and avoiding soil and water pollution caused by exogenous Se.

  8. Modelling of sediment transport and morphological evolution under the combined action of waves and currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Guilherme; Delpey, Matthias T.; Brito, David; Pinto, Lígia; Leitão, Paulo; Neves, Ramiro

    2017-09-01

    Coastal defence structures are often constructed to prevent beach erosion. However, poorly designed structures may cause serious erosion problems in the downdrift direction. Morphological models are useful tools to predict such impacts and assess the efficiency of defence structures for different scenarios. Nevertheless, morphological modelling is still a topic under intense research effort. The processes simulated by a morphological model depend on model complexity. For instance, undertow currents are neglected in coastal area models (2DH), which is a limitation for simulating the evolution of beach profiles for long periods. Model limitations are generally overcome by predefining invariant equilibrium profiles that are allowed to shift offshore or onshore. A more flexible approach is described in this paper, which can be generalised to 3-D models. The present work is based on the coupling of the MOHID modelling system and the SWAN wave model. The impacts of different designs of detached breakwaters and groynes were simulated in a schematic beach configuration following a 2DH approach. The results of bathymetry evolution are in agreement with the patterns found in the literature for several existing structures. The model was also tested in a 3-D test case to simulate the formation of sandbars by undertow currents. The findings of this work confirmed the applicability of the MOHID modelling system to study sediment transport and morphological changes in coastal zones under the combined action of waves and currents. The same modelling methodology was applied to a coastal zone (Costa da Caparica) located at the mouth of a mesotidal estuary (Tagus Estuary, Portugal) to evaluate the hydrodynamics and sediment transport both in calm water conditions and during events of highly energetic waves. The MOHID code is available in the GitHub repository.

  9. Biogeochemical Processes Responsible for the Enhanced Transport of Plutonium Under transient Unsaturated Ground Water Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred J. Molz, III

    2010-05-28

    to Pu uptake by corn roots and xylem transport. Plants were started in wet paper wrapped around each corn seed. When the tap roots were sufficiently long, the seedlings were transplanted to a soil container with the tap root extending out the container bottom. The soil container was then placed over a nutrient solution container, and the solution served as an additional medium for root growth. To conduct an uptake study, a radioactive substance, such as Pu complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB, was added to the nutrient solution. After a suitable elapsed time, the corn plant was sacrificed, cut into 10 cm lengths, and the activity distribution measured. Experimental results clarified the basic nature of Pu uptake and transport in corn plants, and resulting simulations suggested that each growing season Pu in the SRS lysimeters would move into the plant shoots and be deposited on the soil surface during the Fall dieback. Subsequent isotope ratio analyses showed that this did happen. OVERALL RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS - (1) Pu transport downward from the source is controlled by advection, dispersion and adsorption, along with surface-mediated REDOX reactions. (2) Hysteresis, extreme root distribution functions, air-content dependent oxidation rate constants, and large evaporation rates from the soil surface were not able to explain the observed upward migration of Pu. (3) Small amounts of Pu uptake by plant roots and translocation in the transpiration stream creates a realistic mechanism for upward Pu migration (4) Realistic xylem cross-sectional areas imply high flow velocities under hot, wet conditions. Such flow velocities produce the correct shape for the observed activity distributions in the top 20 cm of the lysimeter soil. (5) Simulations imply that Pu should have moved into the above-ground grass tissue each year during the duration of the experiments, resulting in an activity residual accumulating on the soil surface. An isotope ratio analysis showed that

  10. Biogeochemical Processes Responsible for the Enhanced Transport of Plutonium Under transient Unsaturated Ground Water Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molz, Fred J. III

    2010-01-01

    to Pu uptake by corn roots and xylem transport. Plants were started in wet paper wrapped around each corn seed. When the tap roots were sufficiently long, the seedlings were transplanted to a soil container with the tap root extending out the container bottom. The soil container was then placed over a nutrient solution container, and the solution served as an additional medium for root growth. To conduct an uptake study, a radioactive substance, such as Pu complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB, was added to the nutrient solution. After a suitable elapsed time, the corn plant was sacrificed, cut into 10 cm lengths, and the activity distribution measured. Experimental results clarified the basic nature of Pu uptake and transport in corn plants, and resulting simulations suggested that each growing season Pu in the SRS lysimeters would move into the plant shoots and be deposited on the soil surface during the Fall dieback. Subsequent isotope ratio analyses showed that this did happen. OVERALL RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS - (1) Pu transport downward from the source is controlled by advection, dispersion and adsorption, along with surface-mediated REDOX reactions. (2) Hysteresis, extreme root distribution functions, air-content dependent oxidation rate constants, and large evaporation rates from the soil surface were not able to explain the observed upward migration of Pu. (3) Small amounts of Pu uptake by plant roots and translocation in the transpiration stream creates a realistic mechanism for upward Pu migration (4) Realistic xylem cross-sectional areas imply high flow velocities under hot, wet conditions. Such flow velocities produce the correct shape for the observed activity distributions in the top 20 cm of the lysimeter soil. (5) Simulations imply that Pu should have moved into the above-ground grass tissue each year during the duration of the experiments, resulting in an activity residual accumulating on the soil surface. An isotope ratio analysis showed that

  11. Facilitated transport of titanium dioxide nanoparticles by humic substances in saturated porous media under acidic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ruichang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science (China); Zhang, Haibo; Tu, Chen; Hu, Xuefeng; Li, Lianzhen [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research (China); Luo, Yongming, E-mail: ymluo@yic.ac.cn; Christie, Peter [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science (China)

    2015-04-15

    The transport behavior of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NPs, 30 nm in diameter) was studied in well-defined porous media composed of clean quartz sand over a range of solution chemistry under acidic conditions. Transport of TiO{sub 2} NPs was dramatically enhanced by humic substances (HS) at acidic pH (4.0, 5.0 and 6.0), even at a low HS concentration of 0.5 mg L{sup −1}. Facilitated transport of TiO{sub 2} NPs was likely attributable to the increased stability of TiO{sub 2} NPs and repulsive interaction between TiO{sub 2} NPs and quartz sands due to the adsorbed HS. The mobility of TiO{sub 2} NPs was also increased with increasing pH from 4.0 to 6.0. Although transport of TiO{sub 2} NPs was insensitive to low ionic strength, it was significantly inhibited by high concentrations of NaCl and CaCl{sub 2}. In addition, calculated Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) interaction energy indicated that high energy barriers were responsible for the high mobility of TiO{sub 2} NPs, while the secondary energy minimum could play an important role in the retention of TiO{sub 2} NPs at 100 mmol L{sup −1} NaCl. Straining and gravitational settlement of larger TiO{sub 2} NPs aggregates at 1 mg L{sup −1} HS, pH 5.0, and 2 mmol L{sup −1} CaCl{sub 2} could be responsible for the significant retention even in the presence of high energy barriers. Moreover, more favorable interaction between approaching TiO{sub 2} NPs and TiO{sub 2} NPs that had been already deposited on the collector resulted in a ripening-shape breakthrough curve at 2 mmol L{sup −1} CaCl{sub 2}. Overall, a combination of mechanisms including DLVO-type force, straining, and physical filtration was involved in the retention of TiO{sub 2} NPs over the range of solution chemistry examined in this study.

  12. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  13. Spent nuclear fuel system dynamic stability under normal conditions of transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jy-An John, E-mail: wangja@ornl.gov

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A conformational potential effect of fuel assembly contact interaction induced transient shock. • Complex vibration modes and vibration load intensity were observed from fuel assembly system. • The project was able to link the periodic transient shock to spent fuel fatigue strength reduction. - Abstract: In a horizontal layout of a spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assembly under normal conditions of transportation (NCT), the fuel assembly’s skeleton formed by guide tubes and spacer grids is the primary load bearing structure for carrying and transferring the vibration loads within an SNF assembly. Therefore, the integrity of guide tubes and spacer grids will dictate the vibration amplitude/intensity of the fuel assembly during transport, and must be considered when designing multipurpose purpose canister (MPC) for safe SNF transport. This paper investigates the SNF assembly deformation dynamics during normal vibration mode, as well as the transient shock mode inside the cask during NCT. Dynamic analyses were performed in the frequency domain to study frequency characteristic of the fuel assembly system and in the time domain to simulate the transient dynamic response of the fuel assembly. To further evaluate the intensity of contact interaction induced by the local contacts’ impact loading at the spacer grid, detailed models of the actual spring and dimples of the spacer grids were created. The impacts between the fuel rod and springs and dimples were simulated with a 20 g transient shock load. The associated contact interaction intensities, in terms of reaction forces, were estimated from the finite element analyses (FEA) results. The bending moment estimated from the resultant stress on the clad under 20 g transient shock can be used to define the loading in cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT) vibration testing for the equivalent condition. To estimate the damage potential of the transient shock to the SNF vibration

  14. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  15. Disorder effects on helical edge transport in graphene under a strong tilted magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunli; Cazalilla, Miguel A.

    2015-10-01

    In a recent experiment, Young et al. [Nature (London) 505, 528 (2014), 10.1038/nature12800] observed a metal to insulator transition as well as transport through helical edge states in monolayer graphene under a strong, tilted magnetic field. Under such conditions, the bulk is a magnetic insulator which can exhibit metallic conduction through helical edges. It was found that the two-terminal conductance of the helical channels deviates from the expected quantized value (=e2/h per edge, at zero temperature). Motivated by this observation, we study the effect of disorder on the conduction through the edge channels. We show that, unlike for helical edges of topological insulators in semiconducting quantum wells, a disorder Rashba spin-orbit coupling does not lead to backscattering, at least to leading order. Instead, we find that the lack of perfect antialignment of the electron spins in the helical channels to be the most likely cause for backscattering arising from scalar (i.e., spin-independent) impurities. The intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and other time-reversal symmetry-breaking and/or sublattice parity-breaking potentials also lead to (subleading) corrections to the channel conductance.

  16. Comparison of changes in the extracellular concentration of noradrenaline in rat frontal cortex induced by sibutramine or d-amphetamine: modulation by α2-adrenoceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortley, K E; Hughes, Z A; Heal, D J; Stanford, S C

    1999-01-01

    The effects of sibutramine (0.25–10 mg kg−1, i.p.) on extracellular noradrenaline concentration in the frontal cortex of halothane-anaesthetized rats were compared with those of d-amphetamine (1–3 mg kg−1, i.p.) using in vivo microdialysis. The role of presynaptic α2-adrenoceptors in modulating the effects of these drugs on extracellular noradrenaline concentration were also investigated by pretreating rats with the selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, RX821002.Sibutramine induced a gradual and sustained increase in extracellular noradrenaline concentration. The dose-response relationship was described by a bell-shaped curve with a maximum effect at 0.5 mg kg−1. In contrast, d-amphetamine induced a rapid increase in extracellular noradrenaline concentration, the magnitude of which paralleled drug dose.Pretreatment with the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, RX821002 (dose 3 mg kg−1, i.p.) increased by 5 fold the accumulation of extracellular noradrenaline caused by sibutramine (10 mg kg−1) and reduced the latency of sibutramine to reach its maximum effect from 144–56 min.RX821002-pretreatment increased by only 2.5 fold the increase in extracellular noradrenaline concentration caused by d-amphetamine alone (10 mg kg−1) and had no effect on the latency to reach maximum.These findings support evidence that sibutramine acts as a noradrenaline uptake inhibitor in vivo and that the effects of this drug are blunted by indirect activation of presynaptic α2-adreno-ceptors. In contrast, the rapid increase in extracellular noradrenaline concentration induced by d-amphetamine is consistent with this being mainly due to an increase in Ca2+-independent release of noradrenaline. PMID:10482917

  17. Examination of Technetium Transport Through Soils Under Contrasting Redox Conditions: Batch and Column Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, R.; Montgomery, D.; Wylie, E. M.; Dogan, M.; Moysey, S. M.; Powell, B. A.; Martinez, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments were performed under various reducing conditions to evaluate the transport behavior of technetium-99 (99Tc) in the presence of sandy clay loam soil from the Savannah River Site (SRS) and goethite, magnetite, and iron sulfide, which were selected for their increasing reducing potential. The experiments were conducted to investigate how redox reaction equilibria and rates affect the overall mobility of 99Tc as it transitions between the mobile Tc(VII) and immobile Tc(IV). Under oxygen-rich conditions, batch sorption isotherms measured for TcO4- across the concentration range 0.5 to 50 μg/L were linear with distribution coefficients (Kd) of 0.78 mL/g or lower, with decreasing sorption for goethite, magnetite, and iron sulfide, respectively. Addition of Na2S resulted in a marked increase in apparent 99Tc sorption to the solid phase, with Kd of 43 mL/g, 35 mL/g, and 29 mL/g, following the same mineral trend as previously. The increased Kd values are possibly due to reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV), resulting in the formation of TcO2(s). SRS soil batch sorption isotherms measured for TcO4- across the same concentration range were also linear, with Kd of 0.7 mL/g for unadjusted pH, 5.1 mL/g for pH of around 6, and 6.7 mL/g for pH of around 4. Kinetic batch sorption tests showed less than 10% 99Tc sorption in an oxidizing environment and greater than 95% sorption in a reducing environment, with both reactions occurring on the order of minutes. In contrast, desorption experiments initiated by transferring the samples from a reducing environment (0.1% H2(g)/99.9% N2(g)) to atmospheric conditions resulted in a slow desorption step on the order of days. Column experiments conducted with the SRS sands indicate a retardation factor of 1.17 for 99Tc under oxygen rich conditions. Additional column experiments are being conducted to evaluate 99Tc transport dependencies on transitions between oxygen rich and poor conditions.

  18. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF MULTI-SPECIES TRANSPORT IN SOILS UNDER ELECTRIC FIELDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrokinetics employs the use of electrodes implanted in soils-contaminated media. Electrodes are supplied with direct current (dc) facilitating ionic transport and subsequent removal. This project investigates the feasibility and efficiency of electrokinetic transport of lea...

  19. A risk analysis for gas transport network planning expansion under regulatory uncertainty in Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, C.; Wortmann, J.C. [Information System Cluster, Faculty of Economics and Business, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Landleven 5, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    The natural gas industry in Western Europe went through drastic changes induced by the unbundling of the national companies, followed by the liberalization of gas trade and the regulation of gas transmission. Natural gas transmission is operated through a network of interconnected grids, and is capacity constrained. Each of the grids is locally regulated in terms of price limits on transportation services. Local tariff differences may induce unnatural gas routing within a network, creating congestion in some part of it. This phenomena is referred to as the Jepma effect. Following Jepma (2001. Gaslevering onder druk. Stichting JIN. Available at: www.jiqweb.org (52pp) (in Dutch)) this may lead to misguided investment decisions. In this paper a multi-stage linear program is used to simulate the repartition of the natural gas flow in an interconnected grid system on a succession of contracting periods. By this simulation, the risk linked to infrastructure investment is assessed. The risk measured can be seen as the probability of a negative present net value for the investment. The model is applied on an example of two grids that are on alternative routes serving same destinations. When applied to a specific situation of North-West Europe (Germany and The Netherlands), the model clearly demonstrates that the risks turn out to be too high to invest: there are hardly any scenarios under which an acceptable ROI will be realized. Given the current tariff policy and current publicly available forecasts of demand and supply, it is unlikely that market forces will attract additional investments in transportation capacity. This reluctance to invest can be prohibitive for further growth of supply if the demand would increase significantly. (author)

  20. A risk analysis for gas transport network planning expansion under regulatory uncertainty in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, C.; Wortmann, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The natural gas industry in Western Europe went through drastic changes induced by the unbundling of the national companies, followed by the liberalization of gas trade and the regulation of gas transmission. Natural gas transmission is operated through a network of interconnected grids, and is capacity constrained. Each of the grids is locally regulated in terms of price limits on transportation services. Local tariff differences may induce unnatural gas routing within a network, creating congestion in some part of it. This phenomena is referred to as the Jepma effect. Following Jepma (2001. Gaslevering onder druk. Stichting JIN. Available at: www.jiqweb.org (52pp) (in Dutch)) this may lead to misguided investment decisions. In this paper a multi-stage linear program is used to simulate the repartition of the natural gas flow in an interconnected grid system on a succession of contracting periods. By this simulation, the risk linked to infrastructure investment is assessed. The risk measured can be seen as the probability of a negative present net value for the investment. The model is applied on an example of two grids that are on alternative routes serving same destinations. When applied to a specific situation of North-West Europe (Germany and The Netherlands), the model clearly demonstrates that the risks turn out to be too high to invest: there are hardly any scenarios under which an acceptable ROI will be realized. Given the current tariff policy and current publicly available forecasts of demand and supply, it is unlikely that market forces will attract additional investments in transportation capacity. This reluctance to invest can be prohibitive for further growth of supply if the demand would increase significantly. (author)

  1. Predicting Nitrate Transport under Future Climate Scenarios beneath the Nebraska Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Akbariyeh, S.; Gomez Peña, C. A.; Bartlet-Hunt, S.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the impacts of future climate change on soil hydrological processes and solute transport is crucial to develop appropriate strategies to minimize adverse impacts of agricultural activities on groundwater quality. The goal of this work is to evaluate the direct effects of climate change on the fate and transport of nitrate beneath a center-pivot irrigated corn field in Nebraska Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) site. Future groundwater recharge rate and actual evapotranspiration rate were predicted based on an inverse modeling approach using climate data generated by Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model under the RCP 8.5 scenario, which was downscaled from global CCSM4 model to a resolution of 24 by 24 km2. A groundwater flow model was first calibrated based on historical groundwater table measurement and was then applied to predict future groundwater table in the period 2057-2060. Finally, predicted future groundwater recharge rate, actual evapotranspiration rate, and groundwater level, together with future precipitation data from WRF, were used in a three-dimensional (3D) model, which was validated based on rich historic data set collected from 1993-1996, to predict nitrate concentration in soil and groundwater from the year 2057 to 2060. Future groundwater recharge was found to be decreasing in the study area compared to average groundwater recharge data from the literature. Correspondingly, groundwater elevation was predicted to decrease (1 to 2 ft) over the five years of simulation. Predicted higher transpiration data from climate model resulted in lower infiltration of nitrate concentration in subsurface within the root zone.

  2. Safety Evaluation of Radioactive Material Transport Package under Stacking Test Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Chan; Seo, Ki Seog; Yoo, Seong Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive waste transport package was developed to transport eight drums of low and intermediate level waste(LILW) in accordance with the IAEA and domestic related regulations. The package is classified with industrial package IP-2. IP-2 package is required to undergo a free drop test and a stacking test. After free drop and stacking tests, it should prevent the loss or dispersal of radioactive contents, and loss of shielding integrity which would result in more than 20 % increase in the radiation level at any external surface of the package. The objective of this study is to establish the safety test method and procedure for stacking test and to prove the structural integrities of the IP-2 package. Stacking test and analysis were performed with a compressive load equal to five times the weight of the package for a period of 24 hours using a full scale model. Strains and displacements were measured at the corner fitting of the package during the stacking test. The measured strains and displacements were compared with the analysis results, and there were good agreements. It is very difficult to measure the deflection at the container base, so the maximum deflection of the container base was calculated by the analysis method. The maximum displacement at the corner fitting and deflection at the container base were less than their allowable values. Dimensions of the test model, thickness of shielding material and bolt torque were measured before and after the stacking test. Throughout the stacking test, it was found that there were no loss or dispersal of radioactive contents and no loss of shielding integrity. Thus, the package was shown to comply with the requirements to maintain structural integrity under the stacking condition.

  3. Soil, plant, and transport influences on methane in a subalpine forest under high ultraviolet irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated direct methane emission from plant foliage under aerobic conditions, particularly under high ultraviolet (UV irradiance. We examined the potential importance of this phenomenon in a high-elevation conifer forest using micrometeorological techniques. Vertical profiles of methane and carbon dioxide in forest air were monitored every 2 h for 6 weeks in summer 2007. Day to day variability in above-canopy CH4 was high, with observed values in the range 1790 to 1910 nmol mol−1. High CH4 was correlated with high carbon monoxide and related to wind direction, consistent with pollutant transport from an urban area by a well-studied mountain-plain wind system. Soils were moderately dry during the study. Vertical gradients of CH4 were small but detectable day and night, both near the ground and within the vegetation canopy. Gradients near the ground were consistent with the forest soil being a net CH4 sink. Using scalar similarity with CO2, the magnitude of the summer soil CH4 sink was estimated at ~1.7 mg CH4 m−2 h−1, which is similar to other temperate forest upland soils. The high-elevation forest was naturally exposed to high UV irradiance under clear sky conditions, with observed peak UVB irradiance >2 W m−2. Gradients and means of CO2 within the canopy under daytime conditions showed net uptake of CO2 due to photosynthetic drawdown as expected. No evidence was found for a significant foliar CH4 source in the vegetation canopy, even under high UV conditions. While the possibility of a weak foliar source cannot be excluded given the observed soil sink, overall this subalpine forest was a net sink for atmospheric methane during the growing season.

  4. Source tagging modeling study of heavy haze episodes under complex regional transport processes over Wuhan megacity, Central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Miaomiao; Tang, Xiao; Wang, Zifa; Gbaguidi, Alex; Liang, Shengwen; Hu, Ke; Wu, Lin; Wu, Huangjian; Huang, Zhen; Shen, Longjiao

    2017-01-01

    Wuhan as a megacity of Central China was suffering from severe particulate matter pollution according to previous observation studies, however, the mechanism behind the pollution formation especially the impact of regional chemical transport is still unclear. This study, carried out on the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) coupled with an on-line source-tagging module, explores different roles regional transport had in two strong haze episodes over Wuhan in October 2014 and quantitatively assesses the contributions from local and regional sources to PM 2.5 concentration. Validation of predictions based on observations shows modeling system good skills in reproducing key meteorological and chemical features. The first short-time haze episode occurred on 12 October under strong northerly winds, with a hourly PM 2.5 peak of 180 μg m −3 , and was found to be caused primarily by the long-range transport from the northern regions, which contributed 60.6% of the episode's PM 2.5 concentration (versus a total of 32.7% from sources in and near Wuhan). The second episode lasted from the 15–20 October under stable regional large-scale synoptic conditions and weak winds, and had an hourly PM 2.5 peak of 231.0 μg m −3 . In this episode, both the long-distance transport from far regions and short-range transport from the Wuhan-cluster were the primary causes of the haze episode and account for 24.8% and 29.2% of the PM 2.5 concentration respectively. Therefore, regional transport acts as a crucial driver of haze pollution over Wuhan through not only long-range transfer of pollutants, but also short-range aerosol movement under specific meteorological conditions. The present findings highlight the important role of regional transport in urban haze formation and indicate that the joint control of multi city-clusters are needed to reduce the particulate pollution level in Wuhan. - Highlights: • Regional transport impacts studied on two haze

  5. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  6. Thermal transport of carbon nanotubes and graphene under optical and electrical heating measured by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, I.-Kai

    addition, the temperature gradient from the heating location to both ends of the suspended CNT, together with absorbed power and diameter of the CNT can be used to solve for the thermal conductivity of the CNT, which is found to span the range from 0.51nW/K to 2.28nW/K. We also conduct Raman measurements to explore the effect of gas molecules on thermal transport in electrically- or optically-heated suspended carbon nanotubes. Under the same electric heating power, the temperature increase of the CNT in gaseous environments is found to be considerably less than in vacuum, indicating non-negligible heat dissipation to the surrounding gas molecules. The result shows the approximately 50 to 60% of the heat is taken away by the surrounding gas molecules in a 5 microm long electrically-heated CNT. Following the electrical heating technique, a two-laser, purely optical measurement technique is utilized to observe heat dissipation in an ultra-long suspended CNT. Exponentially decaying temperature profiles with the heat decay lengths shorter than 7 microm are found in all samples measured. These relatively short heat decay lengths are attributed to the strong thermal coupling of carbon nanotubes' surface to air molecules. Moreover, the previously unmeasured heat transfer coefficient between CNT and air molecules is determined to be on the order of 104 W/m2·K.

  7. Dynamics Under Location Uncertainty: Model Derivation, Modified Transport and Uncertainty Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resseguier, V.; Memin, E.; Chapron, B.; Fox-Kemper, B.

    2017-12-01

    In order to better observe and predict geophysical flows, ensemble-based data assimilation methods are of high importance. In such methods, an ensemble of random realizations represents the variety of the simulated flow's likely behaviors. For this purpose, randomness needs to be introduced in a suitable way and physically-based stochastic subgrid parametrizations are promising paths. This talk will propose a new kind of such a parametrization referred to as modeling under location uncertainty. The fluid velocity is decomposed into a resolved large-scale component and an aliased small-scale one. The first component is possibly random but time-correlated whereas the second is white-in-time but spatially-correlated and possibly inhomogeneous and anisotropic. With such a velocity, the material derivative of any - possibly active - tracer is modified. Three new terms appear: a correction of the large-scale advection, a multiplicative noise and a possibly heterogeneous and anisotropic diffusion. This parameterization naturally ensures attractive properties such as energy conservation for each realization. Additionally, this stochastic material derivative and the associated Reynolds' transport theorem offer a systematic method to derive stochastic models. In particular, we will discuss the consequences of the Quasi-Geostrophic assumptions in our framework. Depending on the turbulence amount, different models with different physical behaviors are obtained. Under strong turbulence assumptions, a simplified diagnosis of frontolysis and frontogenesis at the surface of the ocean is possible in this framework. A Surface Quasi-Geostrophic (SQG) model with a weaker noise influence has also been simulated. A single realization better represents small scales than a deterministic SQG model at the same resolution. Moreover, an ensemble accurately predicts extreme events, bifurcations as well as the amplitudes and the positions of the simulation errors. Figure 1 highlights this last

  8. Neutron radiography experiments for verification of soluble boron mixing and transport modeling under natural circulation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlang, M.M.; Feltus, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The use of neutron radiography for visualization of fluid flow through flow visualization modules has been very successful. Current experiments at the Penn State Breazeale Reactor serve to verify the mixing and transport of soluble boron under natural flow conditions as would be experienced in a pressurized water reactor. Different flow geometries have been modeled including holes, slots, and baffles. Flow modules are constructed of aluminum box material 1 1/2 inches by 4 inches in varying lengths. An experimental flow system was built which pumps fluid to a head tank and natural circulation flow occurs from the head tank through the flow visualization module to be radio-graphed. The entire flow system is mounted on a portable assembly to allow placement of the flow visualization module in front of the neutron beam port. A neutron-transparent fluor-inert fluid is used to simulate water at different densities. Boron is modeled by gadolinium oxide powder as a tracer element, which is placed in a mixing assembly and injected into the system a remotely operated electric valve, once the reactor is at power. The entire sequence is recorded on real-time video. Still photographs are made frame-by-frame from the video tape. Computers are used to digitally enhance the video and still photographs. The data obtained from the enhancement will be used for verification of simple geometry predictions using the TRAC and RELAP thermal-hydraulic codes. A detailed model of a reactor vessel inlet plenum, downcomer region, flow distribution area and core inlet is being constructed to model the APGOO plenum. Successive radiography experiments of each section of the model under identical conditions will provide a complete vessel / core model for comparison with the thermal-hydraulic codes

  9. Neutron radiography experiments for verification of soluble boron mixing and transport modeling under natural circulation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltus, M.A.; Morlang, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    The use of neutron radiography for visualization of fluid flow through flow visualization modules has been very successful. Current experiments at the Penn State Breazeale Reactor serve to verify the mixing and transport of soluble boron under natural flow conditions as would be experienced in a pressurized water reactor. Different flow geometries have been modeled including holes, slots, and baffles. Flow modules are constructed of aluminum box material 1 1/2 inches by 4 inches in varying lengths. An experimental flow system was built which pumps fluid to a head tank and natural circulation flow occurs from the head tank through the flow visualization module to be radiographed. The entire flow system is mounted on a portable assembly to allow placement of the flow visualization module in front of the neutron beam port. A neutron-transparent fluorinert fluid is used to simulate water at different densities. Boron is modeled by gadolinium oxide powder as a tracer element, which is placed in a mixing assembly and injected into the system by remote operated electric valve, once the reactor is at power. The entire sequence is recorded on real-time video. Still photographs are made frame-by-frame from the video tape. Computers are used to digitally enhance the video and still photographs. The data obtained from the enhancement will be used for verification of simple geometry predictions using the TRAC and RELAP thermal-hydraulic codes. A detailed model of a reactor vessel inlet plenum, downcomer region, flow distribution area and core inlet is being constructed to model the AP600 plenum. Successive radiography experiments of each section of the model under identical conditions will provide a complete vessel/core model for comparison with the thermal-hydraulic codes

  10. The buckling of fuel rods in transportation casks under hypothetical accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorkman, G.S.

    2004-01-01

    The buckling analysis of fuel rods during an end drop impact of a spent fuel transportation cask has traditionally been performed to demonstrate the structural integrity of the fuel rod cladding or the integrity of the fuel geometry in criticality evaluations following a cask drop event. The actual calculation of the fuel rod buckling load, however, has been the subject of some controversy, with estimates of the critical buckling load differing by as much as a factor of 5. Typically, in the buckling analysis of a fuel rod, assumptions are made regarding the percentage of fuel mass that is bonded to or participates with the cladding during the buckling process, with estimates ranging from 0 to 100%. The greater the percentage of fuel mass that is assumed to be bonded to the cladding the higher the inertia loads on the cladding, and, therefore, the lower the ''g'' value at which buckling occurs. Current published solutions do not consider displacement compatibility between the fuel and the cladding. By invoking displacement compatibility between the fuel column and the cladding column, this paper presents an exact solution for the buckling of fuel rods under inertia loading. The results show that the critical inertia load magnitude for the buckling of a fuel rod depends on the weight of the cladding and the total weight of the fuel, regardless of the percentage of fuel mass that is assumed to be attached to or participate with the cladding in the buckling process. Therefore, 100% of the fuel always participates in the buckling of a fuel rod under inertia loading

  11. Particle Tracking Model for Suspended Sediment Transport and Streambed Clogging Under Losing and Gaining Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi-Ribero, A.; Fox, A.; Packman, A. I.; Escobar-Vargas, J.; Donado-Garzon, L. D.; Li, A.; Arnon, S.

    2017-12-01

    Exchange of mass, momentum and energy between surface water and groundwater is a driving factor for the biology, ecology and chemistry of rivers and water bodies in general. Nonetheless, this exchange is dominated by different factors like topography, bed morphology, and large-scale hydraulic gradient. In the particular case of fine sediments like clay, conservative tracer modeling is impossible because they are trapped in river beds for long periods, thus the normal advection dispersion approach leads to errors and results do not agree with reality. This study proposes a numerical particle tracking model that represents the behavior of kaolinite in a sand flume, and how its deposition varies according to different flow conditions, namely losing and gaining flow. Since fine particles do not behave like solutes, kaolinite dynamics are represented using settling velocity and a filtration coefficient allowing the particles to be trapped in the bed. This approach allows us to use measurable parameters directly related with the fine particle features as size and shape, and hydraulic parameters. Results are then compared with experimental results from lab experiments obtained in a recirculating flume, in order to assess the impact of losing and gaining conditions on sediment transport and deposition. Furthermore, our model is able to identify the zones where kaolinite deposition concentrates over the flume due to the bed geometry, and later relate these results with clogging of the bed and hence changes in the bed's hydraulic conductivity. Our results suggest that kaolinite deposition is higher under losing conditions since the vertical velocity of the flow is added to the deposition velocity of the particles modeled. Moreover, the zones where kaolinite concentrates varies under different flow conditions due to the difference in pressure and velocity in the river bed.

  12. Carbohydrate production and transport in cotton cultivars grown under boron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Bogiani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An adequate supply of boron (B is required for the optimal growth and development of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. plants, but the low phloem mobility of B limits the possibilities of correcting B deficiency. There are indications that different cotton cultivars could have different responses to B deficiency. The differences in responses of cotton cultivars to B regarding photoassimilate production and transport were studied in a greenhouse experiment with nutrient solution. Treatments consisted of three cotton cultivars (FMT 701, DP 604BG and FMX 993 and five concentrations of B (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 µmol L−1. Sampling began at the phenological stage B1 (first square and continued for four weeks. The leaf area and the number of reproductive branches and structures decreased due to B deficiency. A higher level of abortion of reproductive structures was observed under B deficiency. Boron deficiency increased the internal CO2 concentration but decreased the transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. Despite the decrease in photosynthesis, nonstructural carbohydrates accumulated in the leaves due to decreased export to bolls in B-deficient plants. The response to B deficiency is similar among cotton cultivars, which shows that the variability for this trait is low even for cultivars with different genetic backgrounds.

  13. First-principles calculation of transport property in nano-devices under an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingzhe; Zhang Jin; Han Rushan

    2008-01-01

    The mesoscopic quantum interference phenomenon (QIP) can be observed and behaves as the oscillation of conductance in nano-devices when the external magnetic field changes. Excluding the factor of impurities or defects, specific QIP is determined by the sample geometry. We have improved a first-principles method based on the matrix Green's function and the density functional theory to simulate the transport behaviour of such systems under a magnetic field. We have studied two kinds of QIP: universal conductance fluctuation (UCF) and Aharonov–Bohm effect (A–B effect). We find that the amplitude of UCF is much smaller than the previous theoretical prediction. We have discussed the origin of difference and concluded that due to the failure of ergodic hypothesis, the ensemble statistics is not applicable, and the conductance fluctuation is determined by the flux-dependent density of states (DOSs). We have also studied the relation between the UCF and the structure of sample. For a specific structure, an atomic circle, the A–B effect is observed and the origin of the oscillation is also discussed

  14. Optimization of the transporting beam for the CMS Barrel under a displacement constraint

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2139604; Spadinger, Markus

    The aim of this research was to find the optimal solution for the design of the new transporting beam for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Barrel. Once the new crane in the experimental cavern is installed, the previous design of the beam will become obsolete due to its weight. The current beam is made from steel and has four air-pads to support it. The new design of the beam, which will be presented in this thesis, will be made of aluminium alloy and will have only two air-pads supporting it. Two main issues that guided the direction of this research were the concentrations of stresses and the displacements due to bending. At the beginning of the research, all of the focus will be on the beam. This approach will prove to be limited, which will lead to the gradual inclusion of other interfacing components in the analysis. In order to correctly mimic the behaviour of the beam under such loads, representative models of the air-pads will be introduced into the Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Part of the original B...

  15. Water transport by the Na+/glucose cotransporter under isotonic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, T; Meinild, A K; Klaerke, D A

    1997-01-01

    Solute cotransport in the Na+/glucose cotransporter is directly coupled to significant water fluxes. The water fluxes are energized by the downhill fluxes of the other substrates by a mechanism within the protein itself. In the present paper we investigate the Na+/glucose cotransporter expressed ...... of water molecules and the number of Na+ ions transported, equivalent to 390 water molecules per glucose molecule. Unstirred layer effects are ruled out on the basis of experiments on native oocytes incubated with the ionophores gramicidin D or nystatin.......Solute cotransport in the Na+/glucose cotransporter is directly coupled to significant water fluxes. The water fluxes are energized by the downhill fluxes of the other substrates by a mechanism within the protein itself. In the present paper we investigate the Na+/glucose cotransporter expressed...... in Xenopus oocytes. We present a method which allows short-term exposures to sugar under voltage clamp conditions. We demonstrate that water is cotransported with the solutes despite no osmotic differences between the external and intracellular solutions. There is a fixed ratio of 195:1 between the number...

  16. 77 FR 45411 - Letters of Interest for Credit Assistance Under the Transportation Infrastructure Finance and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ...Pursuant to the recently enacted Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21), DOT announces the availability of funding authorized in the amount of $1.75 billion ($750 million in Federal Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 funds and $1 billion in FY 2014 funds (and any funds that may be available from prior fiscal years)) to provide TIFIA credit assistance for eligible projects. The FY 2013 and FY 2014 funds are subject to an annual obligation limitation that may be established in appropriations law. The amount of TIFIA budget authority available in a given year may be less than the amount authorized for that fiscal year. Under TIFIA, DOT provides secured (direct) loans, lines of credit, and loan guarantees to public and private applicants for eligible surface transportation projects. Projects must meet statutorily specified eligibility criteria to receive credit assistance. This notice outlines the process that project sponsors must follow in seeking TIFIA credit assistance. DOT is publishing this notice to give project sponsors an opportunity to submit Letters of Interest for the newly authorized funding as soon as possible. However, in addition to authorizing more funding for TIFIA credit assistance, MAP-21 made some significant changes to the TIFIA program's structure, including the terms and conditions pursuant to which DOT can provide TIFIA credit assistance. While this notice provides guidance about how DOT will implement some of the changes made by MAP-21, it does not provide guidance about how DOT will implement all of these changes. Further information about the changes made by MAP-21 and additional DOT guidance for implementation of these provisions is provided in Part VII below. Also, Part VII invites interested parties to submit comments about DOT's implementation of MAP-21 and DOT's guidance for awarding TIFIA credit assistance. Unless otherwise noted, statutory section references in this notice are to sections of title 23 of the U.S. Code, as

  17. Critical investigation of the separation of noradrenaline and adrenaline from urine samples using Al2O3 as adsorbant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neidhart, B.; Kringe, K.-P.; Deutschmann, P.

    1983-01-01

    A critical investigation of the separation of free noradrenaline and adrenaline from urine samples revealed serious errors during sample pretreatment using Al 2 O 3 as adsorbent. An exact and rapid pH adjustment of the sample, using thymol-blue as indicator, proved to be the chief prerequisite for precise and accurate results. Increasing temperature and pH favour the oxidative decomposition of the catecholamines during routine analysis. This was examined, using the radiotracer method and liquid scintillation counting. (author)

  18. Transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Shrestha, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO 2 emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO 2 emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO 2 emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO 2 emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO 2 emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes.

  19. Transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timilsina, Govinda R., E-mail: gtimilsina@worldbank.or [Development Research Group, World Bank, 1818H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Shrestha, Ashish [Development Research Group, World Bank, 1818H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO{sub 2} emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO{sub 2} emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO{sub 2} emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes.

  20. Transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions growth in Asia. Underlying factors and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Shrestha, Ashish [Development Research Group, The World Bank, 1818H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO{sub 2} emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO{sub 2} emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO{sub 2} emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes. (author)

  1. Relationship between respiratory failure and plasma noradrenaline levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, A; Koike, Y; Takahashi, A; Hirayama, M; Murakami, N; Sobue, G

    1997-08-01

    We evaluated plasma noradrenaline (NA) levels at test and during head-up tilt test in 20 patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Their fasting plasma NA levels ranged from 195 to 4227 pg/ml. The average plasma NA level was 483 pg/ml in five ambulatory patients, 341 in two wheelchair-bound patients, 1264 in 11 bedridden patients, and 208 in two respirator-dependent patients whose disability grading was the worst among the four groups. Arterial carbon dioxide (PCO2) was evaluated as a measure of respiratory function. The coefficient of correlation between PCO2 and plasma NA was r = 0.654 (p respiratory failure or lower motor neuron dysfunction may relate to the elevation of plasma NA levels. In the two bedridden patients, plasma NA levels and heart rate at rest increased significantly as the disease progressed. Cardiovascular responses to head-up tilting were normal. These data suggest that the elevation of plasma NA levels may be related to progression of respiratory failure and lower motor neuron dysfunction. In conclusion, sympathetic hyperactivity in ALS is considered to be not primary, but secondary to somatic motor disabilities and respiratory failure.

  2. Effect of naftopidil on brain noradrenaline-induced decrease in arginine-vasopressin secretion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Yamamoto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Naftopidil, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, has been shown to inhibit nocturnal polyuria in patients with lower urinary tract symptom. However, it remains unclear how naftopidil decreases nocturnal urine production. Here, we investigated the effects of naftopidil on arginine-vasopressin (AVP plasma level and urine production and osmolality in rats centrally administered with noradrenaline (NA. NA (3 or 30 μg/kg was administered into the left ventricle (i.c.v. of male Wistar rats 3 h after naftopidil pretreatment (10 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.. Blood samples were collected from the inferior vena cava 1 h after NA administration or 4 h after peritoneal administration of naftopidil; plasma levels of AVP were assessed by ELISA. Voiding behaviors of naftopidil (30 mg/kg, i.p.-administered male Wistar rats were observed during separate light- and dark cycles. Administration of NA decreased plasma AVP levels and elevated urine volume, which were suppressed by systemic pretreatment with naftopidil (30 mg/kg, i.p.. Urine osmolality decreased 1 h after NA administration. However, naftopidil by itself had no effect on plasma AVP levels or urodynamic parameters during light- and dark cycles. Our findings suggest that systemic administration of naftopidil could prevent central noradrenergic nervous system-mediated decline in AVP secretion and increase in urine production in rats.

  3. Genesis and Maintenance of Attentional Biases: The Role of the Locus Coeruleus-Noradrenaline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mana R. Ehlers

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotionally arousing events are typically better remembered than mundane ones, in part because emotionally relevant aspects of our environment are prioritized in attention. Such biased attentional tuning is itself the result of associative processes through which we learn affective and motivational relevance of cues. We propose that the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline (LC-NA system plays an important role in the genesis of attentional biases through associative learning processes as well as their maintenance. We further propose that individual differences in and disruptions of the LC-NA system underlie the development of maladaptive biases linked to psychopathology. We provide support for the proposed role of the LC-NA system by first reviewing work on attentional biases in development and its link to psychopathology in relation to alterations and individual differences in NA availability. We focus on pharmacological manipulations to demonstrate the effect of a disrupted system as well as the ADRA2b polymorphism as a tool to investigate naturally occurring differences in NA availability. We next review associative learning processes that—modulated by the LC-NA system—result in such implicit attentional biases. Further, we demonstrate how NA may influence aversive and appetitive conditioning linked to anxiety disorders as well as addiction and depression.

  4. Effect of water soluble vitamins on Zn transport of Caco-2 cells and their implications under oxidative stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupe, Rashmi Santosh; Agte, Vaishali Vilas

    2010-02-01

    The role of different water soluble vitamins in Zn metabolism beyond intestinal Zn absorption is poorly explored. Using Caco-2 cells, effects of different vitamins on intestinal Zn transport and their implications under oxidative stress (OS) were investigated. Cells were apically treated with Zn (25 muM) and vitamins (Folic acid (FA), Nicotinic acid (NA), Ascorbic acid (AA), riboflavin, thiamine, pyridoxine) for 60 min. The effect of most promising vitamins on zinc transport, antioxidant enzymes (Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase), and intracellular OS status (ROS generation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential) were investigated. OS was generated by tert-butyl hydro peroxide and results for each vitamin were compared with respective Zn containing controls with and without OS. Without OS, Zn transport was slightly enhanced in presence of NA, while it was significantly reduced by thiamine, riboflavin, and pyridoxine. Under OS, NA significantly (P vitamins. With Zn + FA + OS, enzyme activities decreased maximally, with twofold increase in 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA) (P < 0.01) and lowering of rhodamine fluorescence (P < 0.05). In Zn + AA + OS, DCF-DA fluorescence increased (P < 0.05) but with NA, cellular enzymes, and antioxidant profile were improved. Results for the first time demonstrate advantageous effects of NA and deleterious consequences of FA with no effect by AA on Zn transport, especially under OS. These observed changes in the transport of Zn seem to have an impact on OS markers.

  5. Protein kinase C and α 2-adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of noradrenaline release from the rat tail artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, B.; Neuburger, J.; Illes, P.

    1991-01-01

    In isolated rat tail arteries preincubated with [3H]noradrenaline, electrical field stimulation evoked the overflow of tritium. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a protein kinase C (PKC) activating phorbol ester, time-dependently increased the overflow at 1 mumol/L but not at 0.1 mumol/L. In contrast, the overflow was not altered by phorbol 13-acetate (PA, 1 mumol/L), which does not influence the activity of PKC. Polymyxin B (70 mumol/L), an inhibitor of PKC, depressed the overflow when given alone and, in addition, attenuated the effect of PMA, 1 mumol/L. The selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist B-HT 933 depressed the overflow; PMA, 1 mumol/L, did not interfere with the effect of B-HT 933, 10 mumol/L. The results provide evidence for the participation of prejunctionally located PKC in the release of noradrenaline. However, PKC does not seem to be involved in the alpha 2-adrenoceptor-agonist-mediated inhibition of noradrenaline release

  6. Modeling solute transport in a heterogeneous unsaturated porous medium under dynamic boundary conditions on different spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa; Bechtold, Michel

    2013-04-01

    Understanding transport of solutes/contaminants through unsaturated soil in the shallow subsurface is vital to assess groundwater quality, nutrient cycling or to plan remediation projects. Alternating precipitation and evaporation conditions causing upward and downward flux with differing flow paths, changes in saturation and related structural heterogeneity make the description of transport in the unsaturated zone near the soil-surface a complex problem. Preferential flow paths strongly depend, among other things, on the saturation of a medium. Recent studies (e.g. Bechtold et al., 2011) showed lateral flow and solute transport during evaporation conditions (upward flux) in vertically layered sand columns. Results revealed that during evaporation water and solute are redistributed laterally from coarse to fine media deeper in the soil, and towards zones of lowest hydraulic head near to the soil surface. These zones at the surface can be coarse or fine grained depending on saturation status and evaporation flux. However, if boundary conditions are reversed and precipitation is applied, the flow field is not reversed in the same manner, resulting in entirely different transport patterns for downward and upward flow. Therefore, considering net-flow rates alone is misleading when describing transport in the shallow unsaturated zone. In this contribution, we analyze transport of a solute in the shallow subsurface to assess effects resulting from the superposition of heterogeneous soil structures and dynamic flow conditions on various spatial scales. Two-dimensional numerical simulations of unsaturated flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media under changing boundary conditions are carried out using a finite-volume code coupled to a particle tracking algorithm to quantify solute transport and leaching rates. In order to validate numerical simulations, results are qualitatively compared to those of a physical experiment (Bechtold et al., 2011). Numerical

  7. Chaski, a novel Drosophila lactate/pyruvate transporter required in glia cells for survival under nutritional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, María Graciela; Oliva, Carlos; López, Estefanía; Ibacache, Andrés; Galaz, Alex; Delgado, Ricardo; Barros, L Felipe; Sierralta, Jimena

    2018-01-19

    The intercellular transport of lactate is crucial for the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS), a model of brain energetics according to which neurons are fueled by astrocytic lactate. In this study we show that the Drosophila chaski gene encodes a monocarboxylate transporter protein (MCT/SLC16A) which functions as a lactate/pyruvate transporter, as demonstrated by heterologous expression in mammalian cell culture using a genetically encoded FRET nanosensor. chaski expression is prominent in the Drosophila central nervous system and it is particularly enriched in glia over neurons. chaski mutants exhibit defects in a high energy demanding process such as synaptic transmission, as well as in locomotion and survival under nutritional stress. Remarkably, locomotion and survival under nutritional stress defects are restored by chaski expression in glia cells. Our findings are consistent with a major role for intercellular lactate shuttling in the brain metabolism of Drosophila.

  8. Silicon transport under rotating and combined magnetic fields in liquid phase diffusion growth of SiGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, N.; Dost, S. [Crystal Growth Laboratory, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of applied rotating and combined (rotating and static) magnetic fields on silicon transport during the liquid phase diffusion growth of SiGe was experimentally studied. 72-hour growth periods produced some single crystal sections. Single and polycrystalline sections of the processed samples were examined for silicon composition. Results show that the application of a rotating magnetic field enhances silicon transport in the melt. It also has a slight positive effect on flattening the initial growth interface. For comparison, growth experiments were also conducted under combined (rotating and static) magnetic fields. The processed samples revealed that the addition of static field altered the thermal characteristics of the system significantly and led to a complete melt back of the germanium seed. Silicon transport in the melt was also enhanced under combined fields compared with experiments with no magnetic field. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Formation and development of a breaker bar under regular waves. Part 2: Sediment transport and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    In Part 2 of this work, the hydrodynamic model described in Part 1 is applied for the simulation of sediment transport and the associated morphological development of breaker bars. The sediment description is split into bed load and suspended load, and like the hydrodynamics the sediment transport...

  10. Electrokinetic transport of aerobic microorganisms under low-strength electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillacheruvu, Krishnanand Y; Chinchoud, Preethi R

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of utilizing low strength electric fields to transport commonly available mixed cultures such as those from an activated sludge process, bench scale batch reactor studies were conducted in sand and sandy loam soils. A readily biodegradable substrate, dextrose, was used to test the activity of the transported microorganisms. Electric field strengths of 7V, 10.5V, and 14V were used. Results from this investigation showed that an electric field strength of 0.46 Volts per cm was sufficient to transport activated sludge microorganisms across a sandy loam soil across a distance of about 8 cm in 72 h. More importantly, the electrokinetically transported microbial culture remained active and viable after the transport process and was biodegrade 44% of the dextrose in the soil medium. Electrokinetic treatment without microorganisms resulted in removal of 37% and the absence of any treatment yielded a removal of about 15%.

  11. Goal system for comparative assessments of nuclear fuel transport under security aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrendt, V.; Schwieren, G.

    1983-01-01

    Due to the great hazard potential of nuclear fuel transports the possibility always exists during transportation that either a single perpetrator or a group of perpetrators will try to get possession of the nuclear fuel. One can assume that at the end of such illegal actions there will be a politically (or otherwise) motivated extortion. Thinking about security one has to face things like sabotage, attacks from inside or outside the system, robbery and/or dispersion of the transported goods. In respect to the security of nuclear transports we carried out an investigation for the German Ministry of the Interior in order to review the different levels of security of different transport systems. This paper deals with the methodological approach, especially with the goal system and the way we executed the investigation

  12. Brain glucose transport and phosphorylation under acute insulin-induced hypoglycemia in mice: an 18F-FDG PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alf, Malte F; Duarte, João M N; Schibli, Roger; Gruetter, Rolf; Krämer, Stefanie D

    2013-12-01

    We addressed the questions of how cerebral glucose transport and phosphorylation change under acute hypoglycemia and what the underlying mechanisms of adaptation are. Quantitative (18)F-FDG PET combined with the acquisition of real-time arterial input function was performed on mice. Hypoglycemia was induced and maintained by insulin infusion. PET data were analyzed with the 2-tissue-compartment model for (18)F-FDG, and the results were evaluated with Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics. Glucose clearance from plasma to brain (K1,glc) and the phosphorylation rate constant increased with decreasing plasma glucose (Gp), in particular at a Gp of less than 2.5 mmol/L. Estimated cerebral glucose extraction ratios taking into account an increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) at a Gp of less than 2 mmol/L were between 0.14 and 0.79. CBF-normalized K1,glc values were in agreement with saturation kinetics. Phosphorylation rate constants indicated intracellular glucose depletion at a Gp of less than 2-3 mmol/L. When brain regions were compared, glucose transport under hypoglycemia was lowest in the hypothalamus. Alterations in glucose transport and phosphorylation, as well as intracellular glucose depletion, under acute hypoglycemia can be modeled by saturation kinetics taking into account an increase in CBF. Distinct transport kinetics in the hypothalamus may be involved in its glucose-sensing function.

  13. Effects of heat and water transport on the performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell under high current density operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, Yuichiro; Shiomi, Takeshi; Aoki, Osamu; Kubo, Norio; Shinohara, Kazuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Key challenges to the acceptance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) for automobiles are the cost reduction and improvement in its power density for compactness. In order to get the solution, the further improvement in a fuel cell performance is required. In particular, under higher current density operation, water and heat transport in PEMFCs has considerable effects on the cell performance. In this study, the impact of heat and water transport on the cell performance under high current density was investigated by experimental evaluation of liquid water distribution and numerical validation. Liquid water distribution in MEA between rib and channel area is evaluated by neutron radiography. In order to neglect the effect of liquid water in gas channels and reactant species concentration distribution in the flow direction, the differential cell was used in this study. Experimental results suggested that liquid water under the channel was dramatically changed with rib/channel width. From the numerical study, it is found that the change of liquid water distribution was significantly affected by temperature distribution in MEA between rib and channel area. In addition, not only heat transport but also water transport through the membrane also significantly affected the cell performance under high current density operation.

  14. Effect of temperature on the transport of solvents through PTMSP under ultra-high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grekhov, A M; Belogorlov, A A; Eremin, Yu S; Pastukhova, E V; Yushkin, A A; Volkov, A V

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large number of studies, by now there is no any definitive explanation of the solvent transport mechanism in nanostructured polymer materials. Both convective and diffusive transport of solvents can be observed in these materials. The study of the solvents permeability at different temperatures and pressures allow the variation of the physical parameters and structure of the solvent-membrane interaction thus becoming the key factor in the understanding of the fundamental aspects of the selective transport process in nanostructured polymer membranes. The paper presents the study of ethanol, propanol and water transport through poly [1- (trimethylsilyl)-l-propine] (PTMSP) at pressures 50-150 atm and temperature up to 90°C. The study was done by the method of pressure dynamic decay. As the temperature rises, the permeability of ethanol and propanol through PTMSP is shown to increase in proportion to decreasing viscosity that denotes a convective type of transport. As for water, the permeability change is thermo-activated that is typical for a diffusive type of transport. This difference in the transport characteristics can be related to a change in the membrane structure and energetic characteristics of the solvent-polymer interaction. (paper)

  15. Studies on groundwater transport in fractured crystalline rock under controlled conditions using nonradioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, E.; Klockars, C.-E.

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of the investigation has been study the following parameters along existing fractures between two boreholes: hydraulic properties of rock mass and fractures; adsorptive properties of some selected tracers during transport along fractures; dispersivity and dilution of tracers during transport in fractures; kinematic porosity of fractured bedrock. The procedure has been to determine the hydraulic properties of a rock mass by means of conventional hydraulic testing methods in 100 m deep boreholes, and to study transport mechanisms and properties of selected tracers in a selected fracture zone between two boreholes. (Auth.)

  16. Crystallization and Thermoelectric Transport in Semiconductor Micro- and Nanostructures Under Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokirmak, Ali [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Silva, Helena [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2017-08-30

    This project focused on thermoelectric transport in semiconductor micro and nanostructures where moderate and typical operating voltages and currents lead to extreme thermal gradients and current densities. Models that describe behavior of semiconducting materials typically assume an equilibrium condition or slight deviations from it. In these cases the generation-recombination processes are assumed to have reached a local equilibrium for a given temperature. Hence, free carrier concentrations and their mobilities, band-gap, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric properties, mobility of atoms and mechanical properties of the material, can be described as a function of temperature. In the case of PN junctions under electrical bias, carrier concentrations can change up to ~ 1020 cm-3 and a drift-diffusion approximation is typically used to obtain the carrier concentrations while assuming that the material properties do not change. In non-equilibrium conditions, the assumption that the material properties remain the same may not be valid. While the increased conduction-band electron concentration may not have a drastic effect on the material, large hole concentration is expected to soften the material as ‘a hole’ comes into existence as a broken bond in the lattice. As the hole density approaches 1022 cm-3, the number of bonds holding the lattice together is significantly reduced, making it easier to break additional bonds, reduce band-gap and inhibit phonon transport. As these holes move away from where they were generated, local properties are expected to deviate significantly from the equilibrium case. Hence, temperature alone is not sufficient to describe the behavior of the material. The behavior of the solid material close to a molten region (liquid-solid interfaces) is also expected to deviate from the equilibrium case as a function of hole injection rate, which can be drastically increased or decreased in the presence of an electric field. In the past years

  17. Comparison of transports expected under different waste management concepts: determination of basic data for application in risk analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, U.; Mielke, H.G.; Wehner, G.

    1983-01-01

    According to the Atomic Act, article 9a, paragraph 1, the licensees of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany are obliged to provide for the management of radioactive wastes resulting from the operation of these plants. Concerning the provisions to be made for the management of such wastes, two concepts are discussed: nuclear reprocessing and final waste disposal center (Nukleares Entsorgungszentrum, NEZ); and the integrated spent fuel and waste management concept (Integriertes Entsorgungskonzept, IEK). Unlike the NEZ, the IEK-concept may have different sites for the following fuel cycle facilities: intermediate spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning and final disposal, and uranium and plutonium fuel element fabrication facilities. The fundamental differences of the pertinent transports are presented. Transport scenarios expected under the two alternatives NEZ and IEK have been elaborated for the purpose of a data collection covering the following aspects: materials to be shipped, number of packages shipped, number of packages shipped per transport, transport by rail or by road, transport routes and distances, and duration of transports

  18. Structural instability of atmospheric flows under perturbations of the mass balance and effect in transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Núñez, M A; Mendoza, R

    2015-01-01

    Several methods to estimate the velocity field of atmospheric flows, have been proposed to the date for applications such as emergency response systems, transport calculations and for budget studies of all kinds. These applications require a wind field that satisfies the conservation of mass but, in general, estimated wind fields do not satisfy exactly the continuity equation. An approach to reduce the effect of using a divergent wind field as input in the transport-diffusion equations, was proposed in the literature. In this work, a linear local analysis of a wind field, is used to show analytically that the perturbation of a large-scale nondivergent flow can yield a divergent flow with a substantially different structure. The effects of these structural changes in transport calculations are illustrated by means of analytic solutions of the transport equation

  19. Modeling of water and solute transport under variably saturated conditions: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappala, E.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews the equations used in deterministic models of mass and energy transport in variably saturated porous media. Analytic, quasi-analytic, and numerical solution methods to the nonlinear forms of transport equations are discussed with respect to their advantages and limitations. The factors that influence the selection of a modeling method are discussed in this paper; they include the following: (1) the degree of coupling required among the equations describing the transport of liquids, gases, solutes, and energy; (2) the inclusion of an advection term in the equations; (3) the existence of sharp fronts; (4) the degree of nonlinearity and hysteresis in the transport coefficients and boundary conditions; (5) the existence of complex boundaries; and (6) the availability and reliability of data required by the models

  20. Columnar to equiaxed transition in a refined Al-Cu alloy under diffusive and convective transport conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupouy, M.D.; Camel, D.; Mazille, J.E. [CEA Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches sur les Materiaux, 38 - Grenoble (France); Hugon, I. [Lab. de Metallographie, DCC/DTE/SIM, CEA Valrho (France)

    2000-07-01

    The columnar-equiaxed transition under diffusive transport conditions was studied in microgravity (EUROMIR95 and spacelab-LMS96) by solidifying four Al-4wt%Cu alloys refined at different levels, with a constant cooling rate (1 K/min), both under nearly isothermal conditions and under a decreasing temperature gradient. Isothermal samples showed a homogeneous equiaxed structure with no fading of the refiner efficiency. Gradient samples revealed a continuous transition consisting of an orientation of the microsegregation parallel to the solidification direction, without any grain selection effect. For comparison, ground samples evidence the influence of the motion of both refiner particles and growing equiaxed grains. (orig.)

  1. Classification of the Group Invariant Solutions for Contaminant Transport in Saturated Soils under Radial Uniform Water Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Potsane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport of chemicals through soils to the groundwater or precipitation at the soils surfaces leads to degradation of these resources. Serious consequences may be suffered in the long run. In this paper, we consider macroscopic deterministic models describing contaminant transport in saturated soils under uniform radial water flow backgrounds. The arising convection-dispersion equation given in terms of the stream functions is analyzed using classical Lie point symmetries. A number of exotic Lie point symmetries are admitted. Group invariant solutions are classified according to the elements of the one-dimensional optimal systems. We analyzed the group invariant solutions which satisfy the physical boundary conditions.

  2. Simulation of charge generation and transport in semi-conductors under energetic-particle bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The passage of energetic ions through semiconductor devices generates excess charge which can produce logic upset, memory change, and device damage. This single event upset (SEU) phenomenon is increasingly important for satellite communications. Experimental and numerical simulation of SEUs is difficult because of the subnanosecond times and large charge densities within the ion track. The objective of this work is twofold: (1) the determination of the track structure and electron-hole pair generation profiles following the passage of an energetic ion; (2) the development and application of a new numerical method for transient charge transport in semiconductor devices. A secondary electron generation and transport model, based on the Monte Carlo method, is developed and coupled to an ion transport code to simulate ion track formation in silicon. A new numerical method is developed for the study of transient charge transport. The numerical method combines an axisymmetric quadratic finite-element formulation for the solution of the potential with particle simulation methods for electron and hole transport. Carrier transport, recombination, and thermal generation of both majority and minority carriers are included. To assess the method, transient one-dimensional solutions for silicon diodes are compared to a fully iterative finite-element method. Simulations of charge collection from ion tracks in three-dimensional axisymmetric devices are presented and compared to previous work. The results of this work for transient current pulses following charged ion passage are in agreement with recent experimental data

  3. Effects of chromium and chromium + vitamin C combination on metabolic, oxidative, and fear responses of broilers transported under summer conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perai, A. H.; Kermanshahi, H.; Moghaddam, H. Nassiri; Zarban, A.

    2015-04-01

    A total of 240 female broilers (42 days old) were randomly assigned to four groups with six replicates and fed either a basal diet (two control groups) or a basal diet supplemented with either 1,200 μg Cr+3 from chromium (Cr) methionine/kg (Cr group) or 1,200 μg Cr+3 from Cr methionine plus 800 mg vitamin C (Vit C)/kg of diet (Cr + Vit C group). After 7 days on the dietary treatment, all groups except one of the controls were transported for 3 h under the summer conditions. Performance parameters were not influenced by dietary treatments. The plasma concentrations of insulin, triiodothyronine, triglyceride, and the ratio of triiodothyronine/thyroxin were decreased and the ratio of glucose/insulin was increased due to transport process. Road transportation also increased the plasma concentrations of protein, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase and decreased the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the Cr + Vit C group. The pretransport concentrations of insulin and triiodothyronine were highest in the Cr + Vit C group. The concentration of phosphorous was lower in the Cr group than that in the other groups after transport. No significant effects of dietary treatments were observed on the other biochemical parameters. Transport increased malondialdehyde concentration in the control group and did not change plasma total antioxidant capacity and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity. Either in combination or alone, Cr increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (before transport P ≤ 0.05, after transport P = 0.07) but did not affect the concentration of malondialdehyde and activity of glutathione peroxidase. The duration of tonic immobility (TI) was similar between nontransported control chicks and transported chicks without any supplements. Pretreatment with Cr + Vit C significantly reduced the duration of TI.

  4. Extinction memory is facilitated by methylphenidate and regulated by dopamine and noradrenaline receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furini, Cristiane R G; Behling, Jonny A K; Zinn, Carolina G; Zanini, Mara Lise; Assis Brasil, Eduardo; Pereira, Luiza Doro; Izquierdo, Ivan; de Carvalho Myskiw, Jociane

    2017-05-30

    Extinction is defined as the learned inhibition of retrieval and is the mainstay of exposure therapy, which is widely used to treat drug addiction, phobias and fear disorders. The psychostimulant, methylphenidate (MPH) is known to increase extracellular levels of noradrenaline and dopamine by blocking their reuptake and studies have demonstrated that MPH can modulate hippocampal physiology and/or functions including long-term potentiation (LTP), learning and memory. However, the influence of MPH on fear extinction memory has been insufficiently studied. Here we investigate the effect of MPH infused into the CA1 region of the hippocampus on extinction memory in animals normally incapable of showing contextual fear conditioning (CFC) extinction because of weak training, and the possible mechanisms through which it acts during this process. For this, male Wistar rats with infusion cannulae stereotaxically implanted in the CA1 region were submitted to a weak extinction protocol in a CFC apparatus. Animals that received intra-CA1 infusion of MPH (12.5μg/side) 20min before the extinction training (Ext Tr) expressed less freezing behavior than Veh-treated animals during both Ext Tr and extinction retention Test (Ext Test). Additionally, the administration of MPH+Timolol (1μg/side) or MPH+SCH23390 (1.5μg/side) intra-CA1 20min before the Ext Tr blocked the enhancing effect of the MPH on extinction learning. These results suggest that MPH in the CA1 region of the hippocampus is able to induce the consolidation of extinction memory and this process occurs through both β-adrenergic and D1/D5 dopaminergic receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Copper Induces Vasorelaxation and Antagonizes Noradrenaline -Induced Vasoconstriction in Rat Mesenteric Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chun Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Copper is an essential trace element for normal cellular function and contributes to critical physiological or pathological processes. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of copper on vascular tone of rat mesenteric artery and compare the effects of copper on noradrenaline (NA and high K+ induced vasoconstriction. Methods: The rat mesenteric arteries were isolated and the vessel tone was measured by using multi wire myograph system in vitro. Blood pressure of carotid artery in rabbits was measured by using physiological data acquisition and analysis system in vivo. Results: Copper dose-dependently blunted NA-induced vasoconstriction of rat mesenteric artery. Copper-induced vasorelaxation was inhibited when the vessels were pretreated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME. Copper did not blunt high K+-induced vasoconstriction. Copper preincubation inhibited NA-evoked vasoconstriction and the inhibition was not affected by the presence of L-NAME. Copper preincubation showed no effect on high K+-evoked vasoconstriction. Copper chelator diethyldithiocarbamate trihydrate (DTC antagonized the vasoactivity induced by copper in rat mesenteric artery. In vivo experiments showed that copper injection (iv significantly decreased blood pressure of rabbits and NA or DTC injection (iv did not rescue the copper-induced hypotension and animal death. Conclusion: Copper blunted NA but not high K+-induced vasoconstriction of rat mesenteric artery. The acute effect of copper on NA-induced vasoconstriction was depended on nitric oxide (NO, but the effect of copper pretreatment on NA-induced vasoconstriction was independed on NO, suggesting that copper affected NA-induced vasoconstriction by two distinct mechanisms.

  6. Quantified distribution of the noradrenaline innervation in the hippocampus of adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleskevich, S.; Descarries, L.; Lacaille, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    A recently developed radioautographic technique, based on the uptake labeling of monoamine terminals in vitro, was used to quantify the noradrenaline (NA) innervation in adult rat hippocampus. After incubation of brain slices with 1 microM 3H-NA, the NA varicosities were visualized as small aggregates of silver grains, in light microscope radioautographs prepared at 3 equidistant horizontal levels across the ventral 2/3 of the hippocampus. Using a computer-assisted image analyzer, counts were obtained from the subiculum (SUB), 3 sectors of Ammon's horn (CA1, CA3-a, CA3-b) and 3 sectors of the dentate gyrus (DG-medial blade, crest, and lateral blade), every lamina being sampled in each region. After a double correction for duration of radioautographic exposure and section thickness, and following measurement of varicosity diameter in electron microscope radioautographs, it was possible to express these results in number of terminals per volumetric unit of tissue. It was thus found that the overall density of hippocampal NA innervation averages 2.1 million varicosities/mm3 of tissue, a value almost twice as high as that in cerebral cortex. This innervation is 20% denser ventrally than dorsally and is heterogeneous both in terms of regional and laminar distribution. SUB and DG are more strongly innervated than Ammon's horn, wherein CA1 has the lowest overall density. In SUB and CA1, there is a clear predilection of NA varicosities for the stratum moleculare. In CA3, there is a narrow band of even stronger innervation in the stratum radiatum, near the apical border of the stratum pyramidale, contrasting with a 3 times lower density in this cell layer and the stratum oriens. In DG, the NA innervation is again the weakest in the cell body layer and exhibits an almost 3-fold greater density in the polymorph layer, the highest of all hippocampus

  7. [Changes in serotonin and noradrenaline in hepatic encephalopathy as a result of liver failure in rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min-ning; Song, Yu-na; Chen, Fu; Luo, Mei-lan

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the changes in serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA) in hepatic encephalopathy as a result of acute and chronic liver failure in rat. One hundred and ten Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into groups of normal control (n=20), experimental group of acute liver failure (ALF) encephalopathy (n=45), and experimental group of chronic liver failure (CLF) encephalopathy (n=45). Two dosages of thioacetamide (TAA) of 500 mg/kg were gavaged with an interval of 24 hours to reproduce ALF model. To reproduce CLF model rats were fed with 0.03% TAA in drinking water for 10 weeks, and 50% of TAA dosage was added or withheld according to the change in weekly body weight measurement. Animals were sacrificed and venous blood specimens were obtained after successful replication of model, and 5-HT, NA, ammonia, parameters of liver function were determined, and liver and brain were studied pathologically. The experiment showed that the liver functions of rats in groups ALF encephalopathy and CLF encephalopathy deteriorated seriously, changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), albumen (ALB), ALB/globulin (A/G), and blood ammonia were observed(Pliver and brain pathologies were identical to those of ALF and CLF encephalopathy. The values of 5-HT were increased in groups ALF encephalopathy and CLF encephalopathy [(16.06+/-1.08) micromol/L and (15.32+/-1.48) micromol/L] compared with the normal group [(2.75+/-0.26) micromol/L, both Pencephalopathy [(94.0+/-2.13) pmol/L vs.(121.2+/-14.8) pmol/L,Pencephalopathy and CLF encephalopathy. The content of NA decreases remarkably in CLF encephalopathy.

  8. Volume Transmission in Central Dopamine and Noradrenaline Neurons and Its Astroglial Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxe, Kjell; Agnati, Luigi F; Marcoli, Manuela; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O

    2015-12-01

    Already in the 1960s the architecture and pharmacology of the brainstem dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) neurons with formation of vast numbers of DA and NA terminal plexa of the central nervous system (CNS) indicated that they may not only communicate via synaptic transmission. In the 1980s the theory of volume transmission (VT) was introduced as a major communication together with synaptic transmission in the CNS. VT is an extracellular and cerebrospinal fluid transmission of chemical signals like transmitters, modulators etc. moving along energy gradients making diffusion and flow of VT signals possible. VT interacts with synaptic transmission mainly through direct receptor-receptor interactions in synaptic and extrasynaptic heteroreceptor complexes and their signaling cascades. The DA and NA neurons are specialized for extrasynaptic VT at the soma-dendrtitic and terminal level. The catecholamines released target multiple DA and adrenergic subtypes on nerve cells, astroglia and microglia which are the major cell components of the trophic units building up the neural-glial networks of the CNS. DA and NA VT can modulate not only the strength of synaptic transmission but also the VT signaling of the astroglia and microglia of high relevance for neuron-glia interactions. The catecholamine VT targeting astroglia can modulate the fundamental functions of astroglia observed in neuroenergetics, in the Glymphatic system, in the central renin-angiotensin system and in the production of long-distance calcium waves. Also the astrocytic and microglial DA and adrenergic receptor subtypes mediating DA and NA VT can be significant drug targets in neurological and psychiatric disease.

  9. Effects of Acetylcholine and Noradrenalin on Action Potentials of Isolated Rabbit Sinoatrial and Atrial Myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, Arie O.; Geuzebroek, Guillaume S. C.; Veldkamp, Marieke W.; Wilders, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system controls heart rate and contractility through sympathetic and parasympathetic inputs to the cardiac tissue, with acetylcholine (ACh) and noradrenalin (NA) as the chemical transmitters. In recent years, it has become clear that specific Regulators of G protein Signaling proteins (RGS proteins) suppress muscarinic sensitivity and parasympathetic tone, identifying RGS proteins as intriguing potential therapeutic targets. In the present study, we have identified the effects of 1 μM ACh and 1 μM NA on the intrinsic action potentials of sinoatrial (SA) nodal and atrial myocytes. Single cells were enzymatically isolated from the SA node or from the left atrium of rabbit hearts. Action potentials were recorded using the amphotericin-perforated patch-clamp technique in the absence and presence of ACh, NA, or a combination of both. In SA nodal myocytes, ACh increased cycle length and decreased diastolic depolarization rate, whereas NA decreased cycle length and increased diastolic depolarization rate. Both ACh and NA increased maximum upstroke velocity. Furthermore, ACh hyperpolarized the maximum diastolic potential. In atrial myocytes stimulated at 2 Hz, both ACh and NA hyperpolarized the maximum diastolic potential, increased the action potential amplitude, and increased the maximum upstroke velocity. Action potential duration at 50 and 90% repolarization was decreased by ACh, but increased by NA. The effects of both ACh and NA on action potential duration showed a dose dependence in the range of 1–1000 nM, while a clear-cut frequency dependence in the range of 1–4 Hz was absent. Intermediate results were obtained in the combined presence of ACh and NA in both SA nodal and atrial myocytes. Our data uncover the extent to which SA nodal and atrial action potentials are intrinsically dependent on ACh, NA, or a combination of both and may thus guide further experiments with RGS proteins. PMID:22754533

  10. Semianalytical solutions for contaminant transport under variable velocity field in a coastal aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohbor, Behshad; Fahs, Marwan; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad; Simmons, Craig T.; Younes, Anis

    2018-05-01

    Existing closed-form solutions of contaminant transport problems are limited by the mathematically convenient assumption of uniform flow. These solutions cannot be used to investigate contaminant transport in coastal aquifers where seawater intrusion induces a variable velocity field. An adaptation of the Fourier-Galerkin method is introduced to obtain semi-analytical solutions for contaminant transport in a confined coastal aquifer in which the saltwater wedge is in equilibrium with a freshwater discharge flow. Two scenarios dealing with contaminant leakage from the aquifer top surface and contaminant migration from a source at the landward boundary are considered. Robust implementation of the Fourier-Galerkin method is developed to efficiently solve the coupled flow, salt and contaminant transport equations. Various illustrative examples are generated and the semi-analytical solutions are compared against an in-house numerical code. The Fourier series are used to evaluate relevant metrics characterizing contaminant transport such as the discharge flux to the sea, amount of contaminant persisting in the groundwater and solute flux from the source. These metrics represent quantitative data for numerical code validation and are relevant to understand the effect of seawater intrusion on contaminant transport. It is observed that, for the surface contamination scenario, seawater intrusion limits the spread of the contaminant but intensifies the contaminant discharge to the sea. For the landward contamination scenario, moderate seawater intrusion affects only the spatial distribution of the contaminant plume while extreme seawater intrusion can increase the contaminant discharge to the sea. The developed semi-analytical solution presents an efficient tool for the verification of numerical models. It provides a clear interpretation of the contaminant transport processes in coastal aquifers subject to seawater intrusion. For practical usage in further studies, the full

  11. Survival of Ucides cordatus (Decapoda: Ocypodidae megalopae during transport under different conditions of density and duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Ventura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Target areas for Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763 restocking programs are often located far from the laboratory where larval rearing is developed. During translocation, the larvae are submitted to highly stressful conditions due to handling, packing, and transport activities. The aim of the present study was to assess the mortality rates of U. cordatus megalopae caused by different transportation procedures. Megalopae at loading densities of 50, 150, and 300 ind.L-1 were packed in double polyethylene 12 x 25 cm plastic bags with 200 ml of marine water at salinity 30. The bags were filled with oxygen at a proportion of 1:2 parts of water and sealed tightly. The trepidations during transport were simulated by the use of a shaker device (800 vibrations/minute over periods of three and six hours inside a dark container. The survivorship rates of larvae after simulation were compared to those obtained in control groups, which consisted of plastic vials with megalopae at a loading density of 50 ind.L-1 maintained at rest. Immediately after the two transport simulations, there was no significant difference in survivorship between the treatments and the control. However, 24 hours after simulation some of the tested densities resulted in significantly lower survivorships. The results demonstrated that U. cordatus megalopae can tolerate six hours of shaking during transportation, at high densities with minimal mortality.

  12. Photosystem II cycle activity and alternative electron transport in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under dynamic light conditions and nitrogen limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Heiko; Jakob, Torsten; Lavaud, Johann; Wilhelm, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Alternative electron sinks are an important regulatory mechanism to dissipate excessively absorbed light energy particularly under fast changing dynamic light conditions. In diatoms, the cyclic electron transport (CET) around Photosystem II (PS II) is an alternative electron transport pathway (AET) that contributes to avoidance of overexcitation under high light illumination. The combination of nitrogen limitation and high-intensity irradiance regularly occurs under natural conditions and is expected to force the imbalance between light absorption and the metabolic use of light energy. The present study demonstrates that under N limitation, the amount of AET and the activity of CETPSII in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were increased. Thereby, the activity of CETPSII was linearly correlated with the amount of AET rates. It is concluded that CETPSII significantly contributes to AET in P. tricornutum. Surprisingly, CETPSII was found to be activated already at the end of the dark period under N-limited conditions. This coincided with a significantly increased degree of reduction of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool. The analysis of the macromolecular composition of cells of P. tricornutum under N-limited conditions revealed a carbon allocation in favor of carbohydrates during the light period and their degradation during the dark phase. A possible linkage between the activity of CETPSII and degree of reduction of the PQ pool on the one side and the macromolecular changes on the other is discussed.

  13. Analysis of moisture transport between connected enclosures under a forced thermal gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staliulionis, Zygimantas; Joshy, Salil; Ambat, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    and humidity control solutions. While high fidelity CFD codes are too time consuming due to computational effort/time, the well-known Resistor-Capacitor (RC) approach has much lower calculation time and is more efficient to use in enclosures without too complex geometry in their interior. Thus, the objective...... of this paper is to build an in-house code based on the RC approach for simulating coupled heat and mass transport. The developed code is used for simulating moisture transport between two boxes/enclosures having different temperatures, connected with a tube of known geometry. It has also the capability...

  14. Shielding requirements for the transport of nuclear warhead components under decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.F.

    1994-09-01

    The requirements to carry out accurate shielding calculations involved with the safe off-site transportation of packages containing nuclear warhead components, special assemblies and radioactive materials are discussed. The need for (a) detailed information on the geometry and material composition of the packaging and radioactive load, (b) accurate representation of the differential energy spectra (dN/dE) for the neutron and gamma spectra emitted by the radioactive materials enclosed in the packaging, (c) well-tested neutron and photon cross section libraries, (d) and accurate three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport codes are illustrated. A brief discussion of the need for reliable dose measurements is presented

  15. Mass transport in low permeability rocks under the influence of coupled thermomechanical and hydrochemical effects - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.

    1984-10-01

    The present paper gives a general overview of mass transport in low permeability rocks under the coupled thermomechanical and hydrochemical effects associated with a nuclear waste repository. A classification of coupled processes is given. Then an ess is presented. example of a coupled process is presented. Discussions of coupled processes based on a recent LBL Panel meeting are summarized. 5 references, 3 figures, 4 tables

  16. Unusual Sediment Transportation Processes Under Low Pressure Environments and Implications For Gullies and Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raack, J.; Herny, C.; Conway, S. J.; Balme, M. R.; Carpy, S.; Patel, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recently and presently active mass wasting features such as gullies and recurring slope lineae (RSL) are common on the surface of Mars, but their origin and triggering mechanisms are under intense debate. While several active mass wasting features have been linked to sublimation of CO2ice, dry granular flows (avalanches), or a combination of both effects, others have been more closely linked to liquid water or briny outflows (e.g. for RSL). However, liquid water on the surface of Mars is unstable under present-day low pressures and surface temperatures. Nevertheless, numerical modeling and remote sensing data have shown that maximum surface temperatures can exceed the frost point of water and that liquid water could exist on the surface of actual Mars in a transient state. But to explain the observed spatial extent of RSL and recent modification of gullies, it is estimated that relatively large amounts of liquid water are necessary. It is proving challenging to generate such quantities from the atmosphere. In this contribution we explore the potential effects of boiling water (boiling occurs at martian pressures slightly above the frost point of 273 K) on sediment transport. We will present the outcomes of a series of experiments under low surface and water temperatures (between 278 and 297 K, analogous to surface temperatures observed near RSL) and low pressures (between 8 and 11 mbar). We simulate sediment transport by boiling liquid water over a sloping bed of unconsolidated sediment. Our results reveal a suite of unusual and very reactive sediment transportation processes, which are not produced under terrestrial pressures. We will discuss the impact of these unusual sediment transport processes on estimates of water budgets for active mass wasting processes.

  17. 77 FR 59793 - Prioritization and Allocation Authority Exercised by the Secretary of Transportation Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    .... App. Sec. 2061 et seq.) was enacted during the Korean War to ensure the availability of resources to...,'' ``person,'' and ``services.'' Section 801 of Executive Order 13603--``civil transportation,'' ``energy... aircraft, by registration or ``N'' number, of each airline participating in the CRAF program. \\7\\ CRAF was...

  18. Decay characteristics and erosion-related transport of glyphosate in Chinese loess soil under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Wang, Fei; Martins Bento, Celia; Meng, L.; Dam, van R.C.J.; Mol, J.G.J.; Liu, Guobin; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2015-01-01

    The decay characteristics and erosion-related transport of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were monitored for 35 d at different slope gradients and rates of application in plots with loess soil on the Loess Plateau, China. The initial glyphosate decayed rapidly (half-life of 3.5 d)

  19. 76 FR 8675 - Prioritization and Allocation Authority Exercised by the Secretary of Transportation Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... necessitated redefining DOT's role for providing emergency transportation services and for designating the... directive could require a person to stop or reduce production of an item or service; prohibit the use of... Defense Production Act, the priorities provisions of the Selective Service Act, when applicable, this...

  20. Transportation and Production Lot-size for Sugarcane under Uncertainty of Machine Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudtachat Kanchala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated transportation and production lot size problems is important effect to total cost of operation system for sugar factories. In this research, we formulate a mathematic model that combines these two problems as two stage stochastic programming model. In the first stage, we determine the lot size of transportation problem and allocate a fixed number of vehicles to transport sugarcane to the mill factory. Moreover, we consider an uncertainty of machine (mill capacities. After machine (mill capacities realized, in the second stage we determine the production lot size and make decision to hold units of sugarcane in front of mills based on discrete random variables of machine (mill capacities. We investigate the model using a small size problem. The results show that the optimal solutions try to choose closest fields and lower holding cost per unit (at fields to transport sugarcane to mill factory. We show the results of comparison of our model and the worst case model (full capacity. The results show that our model provides better efficiency than the results of the worst case model.

  1. Influence of Humic Acid on the Transport and Deposition of Colloidal Silica under Different Hydrogeochemical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The transport and deposition of colloids in aquifers plays an important role in managed aquifer recharge (MAR schemes. Here, the processes of colloidal silica transport and deposition were studied by displacing groundwater with recharge water. The results showed that significant amounts of colloidal silica transport occurred when native groundwater was displaced by HA solution. Solution contains varying conditions of ionic strength and ion valence. The presence of humic acid could affect the zeta potential and size of the colloidal silica, which led to obvious colloidal silica aggregation in the divalent ion solution. Humic acid increased colloidal silica transport by formation of non-adsorbing aqueous phase silica–HA complexes. The experimental and modeling results showed good agreement, indicating that the essential physics were accurately captured by the model. The deposition rates were less than 10−8 s−1 in deionized water and monovalent ion solution. Moreover, the addition of Ca2+ and increase of IS resulted in the deposition rates increasing by five orders of magnitude to 10−4 s−1. In all experiments, the deposition rates decreased in the presence of humic acid. Overall, the promotion of humic acid in colloidal silica was strongly associated with changes in water quality, indicating that they should receive greater attention during MAR.

  2. Study of heat transport in structured soil under grass cover. Dual-continuum approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votrubová, J.; Dohnal, M.; Tesař, Miroslav; Vogel, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2011), s. 7414 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2011. 03.04.2011-08.04.2011, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : water and heat transport * model S1D * Sumava Mts. Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  3. Analysis of physical mechanisms underlying density-dependent transport in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, the interaction between (large) density gradients and flow and transport in porous media is studied. Large gradients in the density of groundwater exist for example near deep salt rock formations, which are considered as possible long-term storage sites for radioactive waste.

  4. Thinking on Sichuan-Chongqing gas pipeline transportation system reform under market-oriented conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yanzhi

    2017-01-01

    The gas pipeline networks in Sichuan and Chongqing (Sichuan-Chongqing) region have formed a fully-fledged gas pipeline transportation system in China, which supports and promotes the rapid development of gas market in Sichuan-Chongqing region. In the circumstances of further developed market-oriented economy, it is necessary to carry out further the pipeline system reform in the areas of investment/financing system, operation system and pricing system to lay a solid foundation for improving future gas production and marketing capability and adapting itself to the national gas system reform, and to achieve the objectives of multiparty participated pipeline construction, improved pipeline transportation efficiency and fair and rational pipeline transportation prices. In this article, main thinking on reform in the three areas and major deployment are addressed, and corresponding measures on developing shared pipeline economy, providing financial support to pipeline construction, setting up independent regulatory agency to enhance the industrial supervision for gas pipeline transportation, and promoting the construction of regional gas trade market are recommended.

  5. Investing in CO2 transport infrastructure under uncertainty : A comparison between ships and pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoope, M. M J; Ramírez, A.; Faaij, A. P C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess whether the value of flexibility can influence the investment decision between CO2 ship and pipeline transport and, therefore, the way the infrastructure develops. For this, the value of a carbon capture and storage project are calculated with the

  6. 78 FR 59364 - Revision of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Transportation Worker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ...: Joanna Johnson, TSA PRA Officer, Office of Information Technology (OIT), TSA-11, Transportation Security..., electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology... documentation, biometric information, and proof of immigration status (if required). This information allows TSA...

  7. Alternative electron transports participate in the maintenance of violaxanthin De-epoxidase activity of Ulva sp. under low irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiujun; Gu, Wenhui; Gao, Shan; Lu, Shan; Li, Jian; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce; Shen, Songdong

    2013-01-01

    The xanthophyll cycle (Xc), which involves violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) and the zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP), is one of the most rapid and efficient responses of plant and algae to high irradiance. High light intensity can activate VDE to convert violaxanthin (Vx) to zeaxanthin (Zx) via antheraxanthin (Ax). However, it remains unclear whether VDE remains active under low light or dark conditions when there is no significant accumulation of Ax and Zx, and if so, how the ΔpH required for activation of VDE is built. In this study, we used salicylaldoxime (SA) to inhibit ZEP activity in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva sp. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) and then characterized VDE under low light and dark conditions with various metabolic inhibitors. With inhibition of ZEP by SA, VDE remained active under low light and dark conditions, as indicated by large accumulations of Ax and Zx at the expense of Vx. When PSII-mediated linear electron transport systems were completely inhibited by SA and DCMU, alternative electron transport systems (i.e., cyclic electron transport and chlororespiration) could maintain VDE activity. Furthermore, accumulations of Ax and Zx decreased significantly when SA, DCMU, or DBMIB together with an inhibitor of chlororespiration (i.e., propyl gallate (PG)) were applied to Ulva sp. This result suggests that chlororespiration not only participates in the build-up of the necessary ΔpH, but that it also possibly influences VDE activity indirectly by diminishing the oxygen level in the chloroplast.

  8. Alternative electron transports participate in the maintenance of violaxanthin De-epoxidase activity of Ulva sp. under low irradiance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujun Xie

    Full Text Available The xanthophyll cycle (Xc, which involves violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE and the zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP, is one of the most rapid and efficient responses of plant and algae to high irradiance. High light intensity can activate VDE to convert violaxanthin (Vx to zeaxanthin (Zx via antheraxanthin (Ax. However, it remains unclear whether VDE remains active under low light or dark conditions when there is no significant accumulation of Ax and Zx, and if so, how the ΔpH required for activation of VDE is built. In this study, we used salicylaldoxime (SA to inhibit ZEP activity in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva sp. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta and then characterized VDE under low light and dark conditions with various metabolic inhibitors. With inhibition of ZEP by SA, VDE remained active under low light and dark conditions, as indicated by large accumulations of Ax and Zx at the expense of Vx. When PSII-mediated linear electron transport systems were completely inhibited by SA and DCMU, alternative electron transport systems (i.e., cyclic electron transport and chlororespiration could maintain VDE activity. Furthermore, accumulations of Ax and Zx decreased significantly when SA, DCMU, or DBMIB together with an inhibitor of chlororespiration (i.e., propyl gallate (PG were applied to Ulva sp. This result suggests that chlororespiration not only participates in the build-up of the necessary ΔpH, but that it also possibly influences VDE activity indirectly by diminishing the oxygen level in the chloroplast.

  9. M-octopamine injected into the paraventricular nucleus induces eating in rats: a comparison with noradrenaline-induced eating.

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, P. J.; Paterson, I. A.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects on food intake in rats of injection of m- and p-octopamine into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus were examined, and compared to the effects of noradrenaline (NA). 2. m-Octopamine injected into the PVN induced a dose-dependent increase in food intake, with the maximal effect occurring at a dose of 25 nmol. p-Octopamine did not elicit eating unless it was administered to animals pretreated with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline. 3. The effects of pre...

  10. Increased Contractile Response to Noradrenaline Induced By Factors Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome in Cultured Small Mesenteric Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blædel, Martin; Sams, Anette; Boonen, Harrie C M

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: This study investigated the effect of the metabolic syndrome associated risk factors hyperglycemia (glucose [Glc]), hyperinsulinemia (insulin [Ins]) and low-grade inflammation (tumor necrosis factor α [TNFα]) on the vasomotor responses of resistance arteries. Isolated small mesenteric...... arteries from 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats, were suspended for 21-23 h in tissue cultures containing either elevated Glc (30 mmol/l), Ins (100 nmol/l), TNFα (100 ng/ml) or combinations thereof. After incubation, the vascular response to noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine, isoprenaline and NA...... in vascular tone....

  11. Serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors: New hope for the treatment of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Pedro L

    2006-01-01

    Depression and painful symptoms occur frequently together. Over 75% of depressed patients report painful symptoms such as headache, stomach pain, neck and back pain as well as non-specific generalized pain. In addition, World Health Organization data have shown that primary care patients with chronic pain have a four fold greater risk of becoming depressed than pain-free patients. Increasingly, pain is considered as an integral symptom of depression and there evidence to suggest that pain and depression may arise from a common neurobiological dysfunction. Serotonergic cell bodies, in the raphe nucleus, and noradrenergic cell bodies in the locus coeruleus send projections to various parts of the brain, where they are involved in the control of mood, movement, cognitive functioning and emotions. In addition both serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons project to the spinal cord. These descending pathways serve to inhibit input from the intestines, skeletal muscles and other sensory inputs. Usually, these inhibitory effects are modest, but in times of stress, in the interest of the survival of the individual, they can completely inhibit the input from painful stimuli. A dysfunction of the serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons can thus affect both the ascending and descending pathways resulting in the psychological symptoms of depression and somatic pain symptoms such as chronic pain, fibromyalgia, non-cardiac chest pain, or irritable bowel syndrome. In view of this, it is not surprising that tricyclic antidepressants have been a standard treatment of chronic pain for many years. In contrast and in spite of their improved tolerance, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors do not appear to be particularly effective in the treatment of pain. Recently, a number of open and controlled trials with selective serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors such as venlafaxine, milnacipran and duloxetine, suggest that these compounds may be more effective in relieving pain

  12. Numerical investigations of solute transport in bimodal porous media under dynamic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa; Bechtold, Michel; Vanderborght, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of flow and solute transport in the shallow subsurface adjacent to the atmosphere is decisive to prevent groundwater pollution and conserve groundwater quality, to develop successful remediation strategies and to understand nutrient cycling. In nature, due to erratic precipitation-evaporation patterns, soil moisture content and related hydraulic conductivity in the vadose zone are not only variable in space but also in time. Flow directions and flow paths locally change between precipitation and evaporation periods. This makes the identification and description of solute transport processes in the vadose zone a complex problem. Recent studies (Lehmann and Or, 2009; Bechtold et al., 2011a) focused on the investigation of upward transport of solutes during evaporation in heterogeneous soil columns, where heterogeneity was introduced by a sharp vertical material interface between two types of sand. Lateral solute transport through the interface in both (lateral) directions was observed at different depths of the investigated soil columns. Following recent approaches, we conduct two-dimensional numerical simulations in a similar setup which is composed of two sands with a sharp vertical material interface. The investigation is broadened from the sole evaporation to combined precipitation-evaporation cycles in order to quantify transport processes resulting from the combined effects of heterogeneous soil structure and dynamic flow conditions. Simulations are performed with a coupled finite volume and random walk particle tracking algorithm (Ippisch et al., 2006; Bechtold et al., 2011b). By comparing scenarios with cyclic boundary conditions and stationary counterparts with the same net flow rate, we found that duration and intensity of precipitation and evaporation periods potentially have an influence on lateral redistribution of solutes and thus leaching rates. Whether or not dynamic boundary conditions lead to significant deviations in the transport

  13. Measuring the environmental benefits of hydrogen transportation fuel cycles under uncertainty about external costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyavs'ka, Liliya; Gulli, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to measure the environmental benefits of hydrogen deployment in the transportation sector. We compare the hydrogen pathways to the conventional transportation fuel cycles in terms of external costs, estimated using the results of the most accurate methodologies available in this field. The central values of performed analysis bring us ambiguous results. The external cost of the best conventional solution ('oil to diesel hybrid internal-combustion engine') in some cases is just higher and in others just lower than that of the best fossil fuel to hydrogen solution ('natural gas to hydrogen fuel cell'). Nevertheless, by accounting for the uncertainty about external costs, we are able to remove this ambiguity highlighting that the hydrogen pathway provides significant environmental benefits ,especially in densely populated areas, assuming 100% city driving.

  14. Suitability of Commercial Transport Media for Biological Pathogens under Nonideal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Hubbard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is extensive data to support the use of commercial transport media as a stabilizer for known clinical samples; however, there is little information to support their use outside of controlled conditions specified by the manufacturer. Furthermore, there is no data to determine the suitability of said media for biological pathogens, specifically those of interest to the US military. This study evaluates commercial off-the-shelf (COTS transport media based on sample recovery, viability, and quality of nucleic acids and peptides for nonpathogenic strains of Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, in addition to ricin toxin. Samples were stored in COTS, PBST, or no media at various temperatures over an extended test period. The results demonstrate that COTS media, although sufficient for the preservation of nucleic acid and proteinaceous material, are not capable of maintaining an accurate representation of biothreat agents at the time of collection.

  15. Magnetic Shear and Transport in ECRH Discharges of the TJ-II under Ohmic Induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Bruna, D.; Castejon, F.; Romero, J. A.; Estrada, T.; Medina, F.; Ochando, M.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Ascasibar, E.; Herranz, J.; Sanchez, E.; Luna, E. de la; Pastor, I.

    2006-07-01

    TJ-II is ha heliac type stellarator characterised by high, but almost constant, vacuum rotational transform throughout the confining volume. In ECRH plasmas, moderate induced ohmic currents (negligible heating and modification of the magnetic field nodules) are enough to disregard the bootstrap contribution, which allows us performing a fair calculation of the evolution of the rotational transform. We use the loop voltage diagnostic to estimate the plasma electrical conductivity. Then the evolution of the rotational transform and shear is related to changes in the profiles of electron and thermal diffusivities: negative shear correlates with decreasing diffusivities in the region of steepest density gradient; transport increases toward zero shear but the achieved positive values are too small to draw conclusions. The radial sweeping of lowest order rational magnetic surfaces does not determine the observed trends in transport. (Author)43 refs.

  16. Magnetic Shear and Transport in ECRH Discharges of the TJ-II under Ohmic Induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Bruna, D.; Castejon, F.; Romero, J. A.; Estrada, T.; Medina, F.; Ochando, M.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Ascasibar, E.; Herranz, J.; Sanchez, E.; Luna, E. de la; Pastor, I.

    2006-01-01

    TJ-II is ha heliac type stellarator characterised by high, but almost constant, vacuum rotational transform throughout the confining volume. In ECRH plasmas, moderate induced ohmic currents (negligible heating and modification of the magnetic field nodules) are enough to disregard the bootstrap contribution, which allows us performing a fair calculation of the evolution of the rotational transform. We use the loop voltage diagnostic to estimate the plasma electrical conductivity. Then the evolution of the rotational transform and shear is related to changes in the profiles of electron and thermal diffusivities: negative shear correlates with decreasing diffusivities in the region of steepest density gradient; transport increases toward zero shear but the achieved positive values are too small to draw conclusions. The radial sweeping of lowest order rational magnetic surfaces does not determine the observed trends in transport. (Author)43 refs

  17. Peristaltic transport of Johnson-Segalman fluid under effect of a magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Elshahed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The peristaltic transport of Johnson-Segalman fluid by means of an infinite train of sinusoidal waves traveling along the walls of a two-dimensional flexible channel is investigated. The fluid is electrically conducted by a transverse magnetic field. A perturbation solution is obtained for the case in which amplitude ratio is small. Numerical results are reported for various values of the physical parameters of interest.

  18. Mannitol transport and mannitol dehydrogenase activities are coordinated in Olea europaea under salt and osmotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Artur; Silva, Paulo; Agasse, Alice; Conde, Carlos; Gerós, Hernâni

    2011-10-01

    The intracellular accumulation of organic compatible solutes functioning as osmoprotectants, such as polyols, is an important response mechanism of several plants to drought and salinity. In Olea europaea a mannitol transport system (OeMaT1) was previously characterized as a key player in plant response to salinity. In the present study, heterotrophic sink models, such as olive cell suspensions and fruit tissues, and source leaves were used for analytical, biochemical and molecular studies. The kinetic parameters of mannitol dehydrogenase (MTD) determined in cells growing in mannitol, at 25°C and pH 9.0, were as follows: K(m), 54.5 mM mannitol; and V(max), 0.47 μmol h⁻¹ mg⁻¹ protein. The corresponding cDNA was cloned and named OeMTD1. OeMTD1 expression was correlated with MTD activity, OeMaT1 expression and carrier-mediated mannitol transport in mannitol- and sucrose-grown cells. Furthermore, sucrose-grown cells displayed only residual OeMTD activity, even though high levels of OeMTD1 transcription were observed. There is evidence that OeMTD is regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. MTD activity and OeMTD1 expression were repressed after Na+, K+ and polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatments, in both mannitol- and sucrose-grown cells. In contrast, salt and drought significantly increased mannitol transport activity and OeMaT1 expression. Taken together, these studies support that olive trees cope with salinity and drought by coordinating mannitol transport with intracellular metabolism.

  19. Transport of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in saturated porous media under various solution chemistry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yu; Gao Bin; Morales, Verónica L.; Tian Yuan; Wu Lei; Gao Jie; Bai Wei; Yang Liuyan

    2012-01-01

    Because of its wide applications, nanosized titanium dioxide may become a potential environmental risk to soil and groundwater system. It is therefore important to improve current understanding of the environmental fate and transport of titanium oxides nanoparticles (TONPs). In this work, the effect of solution chemistry (i.e., pH, ionic strength, and natural organic matter (NOM) concentration) on the deposition and transport of TONPs in saturated porous media was examined in detail. Laboratory columns packed with acid-cleaned quartz sand were used in the experiment as porous media. Transport experiments were conducted with various chemistry combinations, including four ionic strengths, three pH levels, and two NOM concentrations. The results showed that TONP mobility increased with increasing solution pH, but decreased with increasing solution ionic strength. It is also found that the presence of NOM in the system enhanced the mobility of TONPs in the saturated porous media. The Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) theory was used to justify the mobility trends observed in the experimental data. Predictions from the theory agreed excellently with the experimental data.

  20. Optimization of cask for transport of radioactive material under impact loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Kuldeep, E-mail: kuldeep.brit@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India); Pawaskar, D.N.; Guha, Anirban [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India); Singh, R.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center (India)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Cost and weight are important criteria for fabrication and transportation of cask used for transportation of radioactive material. • Reduction of cask cost by modifying few cask geometry parameters using complex search method. • Maximum von Mises stress generated and deformation after impact as design constraints. • Up to 6.9% reduction in cost and 4.6% reduction in weight observed in the examples used. - Abstract: Casks used for transporting radioactive material need to be certified fit by subjecting them to a specific set of tests (IAEA, 2012). The high cost of these casks gives rise to the need for optimizing them. Conducting actual experiments for the process of design iterations is very costly. This work outlines a procedure for optimizing Type B(U) casks through simulations of the 9 m drop test conducted in ABAQUS{sup ®}. Standard designs and material properties were chosen, thus making the process as realistic as reasonable even at the cost of reducing the options (design variables) available for optimization. The results, repeated for different source cavity sizes, show a scope for 6.9% reduction in cost and 4.6% reduction in weight over currently used casks.

  1. Fire test of container for radioactive materials under the condition of transportation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Sanae; Shimada, Hirohisa

    1986-01-01

    To secure the safe transportation of container for radioactive materials, furnace and open fire test for the thermal test of container are provided. Therefore, we have carried out furnace and open fire test using test model simulating a transportation state. Test model used in this test is made of stainless steel with diameter of 200 mm and length of 400 mm, and is set on the rest as in the case of transportation state. From the data on temperature measurement, some interesting results are obtained as follows. Near the surface of model, the temperature gradient in the direction perpendicular to the surface of model with the rest is greater than that without the rest. The temperature rise at the center of the model with the rest is less than that without the rest. In the experiment, temperature distributions are measured in the three radial directions. The temperature differences among three distributions in the model with rest are greater than that without rest. On the other hand, in the furnace test, the heat transfer coefficient on the surface of test model with the rest is 90 - 140 kcal/m 2 h · K for the range of furnace temperature from 700 to 950 deg C and this value is almost equal to the value without the rest. (author)

  2. Avoiding transport bottlenecks in an expanding root system: xylem vessel development in fibrous and pioneer roots under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Byczyk, Julia; Eissenstat, David M; Oleksyn, Jacek; Zadworny, Marcin

    2012-09-01

    Root systems develop to effectively absorb water and nutrients and to rapidly transport these materials to the transpiring shoot. In woody plants, roots can be born with different functions: fibrous roots are primarily used for water and nutrient absorption, whereas pioneer roots have a greater role in transport. Because pioneer roots extend rapidly in the soil and typically quickly produce fibrous roots, they need to develop transport capacity rapidly so as to avoid becoming a bottleneck to the absorbed water of the developing fibrous roots and, as we hypothesized, immediately activate a specific type of autophagy at a precise time of their development. Using microscopy techniques, we monitored xylem development in Populus trichocarpa roots in the first 7 d after emergence under field conditions. Newly formed pioneer roots contained more primary xylem poles and had larger diameter tracheary elements than fibrous roots. While xylogenesis started later in pioneer roots than in fibrous, it was completed at the same time, resulting in functional vessels on the third to fourth day following root emergence. Programmed cell death was responsible for creating the water conducting capacity of xylem. Although the early xylogenesis processes were similar in fibrous and pioneer roots, secondary vascular development proceeded much more rapidly in pioneer roots. Compared to fibrous roots, rapid development of transport capacity in pioneer roots is not primarily caused by accelerated xylogenesis but by larger and more numerous tracheary elements and by rapid initiation of secondary growth.

  3. Anisotropic transport properties of quasiballistic InAs nanowires under high magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneau, Florian; Zeng, Zaiping; Escoffier, Walter; Caroff, Philippe; Leturcq, Renaud; Niquet, Yann-Michel; Raquet, Bertrand; Goiran, Michel

    2018-03-01

    The magnetoconductance of a long channel InAs nanowire based field effect transistor in the quasiballistic regime under large magnetic field is investigated. The quasi-1D nanowire is fully characterized by a bias voltage spectroscopy and measurements under magnetic field up to 50 T applied either perpendicular or parallel to the nanowire axis lifting the spin and orbital degeneracies of the subbands. Under normal magnetic field, the conductance shows quantized steps due to the backscattering reduction and a decrease due to depopulation of the 1D modes. Under axial magnetic field, a quasioscillatory behavior is evidenced due to the coupling of the magnetic field with the angular momentum of the wave function. In addition the formation of cyclotron orbits is highlighted under high magnetic field. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculation of the 1D band structure and related parameters.

  4. Experimental quantification of solute transport through the vadose zone under dynamic boundary conditions with dye tracers and optical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of subsurface solute transport processes is vital to investigate e.g. groundwater contamination, nutrient uptake by plant roots and to implement remediation strategies. Beside field measurements and numerical simulations, physical laboratory experiments represent a way to establish process understanding and furthermore validate numerical schemes. Atmospheric forcings, such as erratically varying infiltration and evaporation cycles, subject the shallow subsurface to local and temporal variations in water content and associated hydraulic conductivity of the prevailing porous media. Those variations in material properties can cause flow paths to differ between upward and downward flow periods. Thereby, the unsaturated subsurface presents a highly complicated, dynamic system. Following an extensive systematical numerical investigation of flow and transport through bimodal, unsaturated porous media under dynamic boundary conditions (Cremer et al., 2016), we conduct physical laboratory experiments in a 22 cm x 8 cm x 1 cm flow cell where we introduce structural heterogeneity in the form sharp material interfaces between different porous media. In all experiments, a constant pressure head is implemented at the lower boundary, while cyclic infiltration-evaporation phases are applied at the soil surface. As a reference case a stationary infiltration with a rate corresponding to the cycle-averaged infiltration rate is applied. By initial application of dye tracers, solute transport within the domain is visualized such that transport paths and redistribution processes can be observed in a qualitative manner. Solute leaching is quantified at the bottom outlet, where breakthrough curves are obtained via spectroscopy. Liquid and vapor flow in and out of the domain is obtained from multiple balances. Thereby, the interplay of material structural heterogeneity and alternating flow (transport) directions and flow (transport) paths is investigated. Results show lateral

  5. Survey of ABC transporter and metallothionein genes expressions in tall fescue inoculated with Funneliformis intraradices under Nickel toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massomeh Rafiei-Demneh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In plants, there are complex network of transport, chelation, and sequestration processes that functions in maintaining concentrations of essential metal ions in different cellular compartments, thus minimizing the damage caused by entry of non-essential metal ions into the cytosol. In the presence of toxic ones, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi are able to alleviate metal toxicity in the plant. In this study the effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Funneliformis intraradices on growth, Nickel tolerance, and ABC transporter and metallothionein expression in leaves and roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea plants cultivated in Ni polluted soil were evaluated. The fungi infected (M+ and uninfected (M- fescue plants were cultivated in soil under different Ni concentrations (0, 30, 90 and 180 ppm for 3 months. Results demonstrated the positive effect of fungi colonization on the increase in growth and reduction in Ni uptake (90 and 180 ppm and Ni translocation from roots to shoot of tall fescue under Ni stress. The results also demonstrated that the level of ABC transporterand metallothionein transcripts accumulation in roots was considerably higher for both M- and M+ plants compared to the control. Also, M+ plants showed less ABC and MET expression compared to the M- plants. These results demonstrated the importance of mycorrhizal colonization of F. intraradices in reduction of Ni transport from root to shoot of tall fescue which alleviates Ni-induced stress.

  6. A Binomial Modeling Approach for Upscaling Colloid Transport Under Unfavorable Attachment Conditions: Emergent Prediction of Nonmonotonic Retention Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilpert, Markus; Johnson, William P.

    2018-01-01

    We used a recently developed simple mathematical network model to upscale pore-scale colloid transport information determined under unfavorable attachment conditions. Classical log-linear and nonmonotonic retention profiles, both well-reported under favorable and unfavorable attachment conditions, respectively, emerged from our upscaling. The primary attribute of the network is colloid transfer between bulk pore fluid, the near-surface fluid domain (NSFD), and attachment (treated as irreversible). The network model accounts for colloid transfer to the NSFD of downgradient grains and for reentrainment to bulk pore fluid via diffusion or via expulsion at rear flow stagnation zones (RFSZs). The model describes colloid transport by a sequence of random trials in a one-dimensional (1-D) network of Happel cells, which contain a grain and a pore. Using combinatorial analysis that capitalizes on the binomial coefficient, we derived from the pore-scale information the theoretical residence time distribution of colloids in the network. The transition from log-linear to nonmonotonic retention profiles occurs when the conditions underlying classical filtration theory are not fulfilled, i.e., when an NSFD colloid population is maintained. Then, nonmonotonic retention profiles result potentially both for attached and NSFD colloids. The concentration maxima shift downgradient depending on specific parameter choice. The concentration maxima were also shown to shift downgradient temporally (with continued elution) under conditions where attachment is negligible, explaining experimentally observed downgradient transport of retained concentration maxima of adhesion-deficient bacteria. For the case of zero reentrainment, we develop closed-form, analytical expressions for the shape, and the maximum of the colloid retention profile.

  7. Modeling Quantum Dot Nanoparticle Fate and Transport in Saturated Porous Media under Varying Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M. D.; Wang, Y.; Englehart, J.; Pennell, K. D.; Abriola, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    As manufactured nanomaterials become more prevalent in commercial and industrial applications, the development of mathematical models capable of predicting nanomaterial transport and retention in subsurface systems is crucial to assessing their fate and distribution in the environment. A systematic modeling approach based on a modification of clean-bed filtration theory was undertaken to elucidate mechanisms governing the transport and deposition behavior of quantum dots in saturated quartz sand as a function of grain size and flow velocity. The traditional deposition governing equation, which assumes irreversible attachment by a first-order rate (katt), was modified to include a maximum or limiting retention capacity (Smax) and first-order detachment of particles from the solid phase (kdet). Quantum dot mobility experiments were performed in columns packed with three size fractions of Ottawa sand (d50 = 125, 165, and 335 μm) at two different pore-water velocities (0.8 m/d and 7.6 m/d). The CdSe quantum dots in a CdZnS shell and polyacrylic acid coating were negatively charged (zeta potential measured ca. -35 mV) with a hydrodynamic diameter of approximately 30 nm. Fitted values of katt, Smax, and kdet were obtained for each transport and deposition experiment through the implementation of a nonlinear least-squares routine developed to fit the model to experimental breakthrough and retention data via multivariate optimization. Fitted attachment rates and retention capacities increased exponentially with decreasing grain size at both flow rates, while no discernable trend was apparent for the fitted detachment rates. Maximum retention capacity values were plotted against a normalized mass flux expression, which accounts for flow conditions and grain size. A power function fit to the data yielded a dependence that was consistent with a previous study undertaken with fullerene nanoparticles.

  8. Comparative Sediment Transport Between Exposed and Reef Protected Beaches Under Different Hurricane Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret, D.; Enriquez, C.; Marino-Tapia, I.

    2016-12-01

    Many world coast regions are subjected to tropical cyclone activity, which can cause major damage to beaches and infrastructure on sediment dominated coasts. The Caribbean Sea has on average 4 hurricanes per year, some of them have caused major damage to coastal cities in the past 25 years. For example, Wilma, a major hurricane that hit SE Mexico in October 2005 generated strong erosion at an exposed beach (Cancun), while beach accretion was observed 28 km south at a fringing reef protected beach (Puerto Morelos). Hurricanes with similar intensity and trajectory but different moving speeds have been reported to cause a different morphological response. The present study analyses the morphodynamic response to the hydrodynamic conditions of exposed and reef protected beaches, generated by hurricanes with similar intensities but different trajectories and moving speeds. A non-stationary Delft3D Wave model is used to generate large scale wind swell conditions and local sea wind states and coupled with Delft3D Flow model to study the connection between the continental shelf and surf zones exchanges. The model is validated with hydrodynamic data gathered during Wilma, and morphological conditions measured before and after the event. Preliminary results show that erosion appears at the exposed beach and a predominant exchange between north and south dominates the shelf sediment transport (figure 1). Onshore driven flows over the reef crest input sediment in the reef protected beach. It is expected that for a same track but faster moving speed, southward sediment transport will have less time to develop and accretion at the reef protected site would be less evident or inexistent. The study can be used as a prediction tool for shelf scale sediment transport exchange driven by hurricanes.

  9. Soil transport parameters of potassium under a tropical saline soil condition using STANMOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanye da Silva Santos, Rafaelly; Honorio de Miranda, Jarbas; Previatello da Silva, Livia

    2015-04-01

    Environmental responsibility and concerning about the final destination of solutes in soil, so more studies allow a better understanding about the solutes behaviour in soil. Potassium is a macronutrient that is required in high concentrations, been an extremely important nutrient for all agricultural crops. It plays essential roles in physiological processes vital for plant growth, from protein synthesis to maintenance of plant water balance, and is available to plants dissolved in soil water while exchangeable K is loosely held on the exchange sites on the surface of clay particles. K will tend to be adsorbed onto the surface of negatively charged soil particles. Potassium uptake is vital for plant growth but in saline soils sodium competes with potassium for uptake across the plasma membrane of plant cells. This can result in high Na+:K+ ratios that reduce plant growth and eventually become toxic. This study aimed to obtain soil transport parameters of potassium in saline soil, such as: pore water velocity in soil (v), retardation factor (R), dispersivity (λ) and dispersion coefficient (D), in a disturbed sandy soil with different concentrations of potassium chlorate solution (KCl), which is one of the most common form of potassium fertilizer. The experiment was carried out using soil samples collected in a depth of 0 to 20 cm, applying potassium chlorate solution containing 28.6, 100, 200 and 500 mg L-1 of K. To obtain transport parameters, the data were adjusted with the software STANMOD. At low concentrations, interaction between potassium and soil occur more efficiently. It was observed that only the breakthrough curve prepared with solution of 500 mg L-1 reached the applied concentration, and the solution of 28.6 mg L-1 overestimated the parameters values. The STANMOD proved to be efficient in obtaining potassium transport parameters; KCl solution to be applied should be greater than 500 mg L-1; solutions with low concentrations tend to overestimate

  10. Surplus dietary tryptophan reduces plasma cortisol and noradrenaline concentrations and enhances recovery after social stress in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Sietse Jan; Ruis, Marko; Dekker, Ruud; van Diepen, Hans; Korte, Mechiel; Mroz, Zdzislaw

    2005-07-21

    Social stress occurs in intensive pig farming due to aggressive behavior. This stress may be reduced at elevated dietary levels of tryptophan (TRP). In this study, we compared the effects of high (13.2%) vs. normal (3.4%) dietary TRP to large neutral amino acid (LNAA) ratios on behavior and stress hormones in catheterized pigs ( approximately 50 kg BW), which were exposed to social stress by placing them twice into the territory of a dominant pig ( approximately 60 kg) for 15 min. Pre-stress plasma TRP concentrations were 156+/-15 vs. 53+/-6 micromol/l (psocial confrontations, pigs on the high vs. normal TRP diets show a tendency towards reduced active avoidance behavior (3.2+/-1.1 vs. 6.7+/-1.2 min, psocial confrontations, the post-stress plasma cortisol, noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations and/or curves (from +5 min to 2 h) were lower/steeper (psurplus TRP in diets for pigs (1) does not significantly affect behavior when exposed to social stress, (2) reduces basal plasma cortisol and noradrenaline concentrations, (3) does not affect the immediate hormonal response to stress, and (4) reduces the long-term hormonal response to stress. In general, pigs receiving high dietary TRP were found to be less affected by stress.

  11. Determination of adrenaline, noradrenaline and corticosterone in rodent blood by ion pair reversed phase UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Marianne Skov-Skov; Bogen, Inger Lise; Andersen, Jannike Mørch; Øiestad, Åse Marit Leere; Berg, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    A novel ion pair reversed phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of the stress hormones adrenaline, noradrenaline and corticosterone in rodent blood was developed and fully validated. Separations were performed on an Acquity HSS T3 column (2.1mm i.d.×100mm, 1.8μm) with gradient elution and a runtime of 5.5min. The retention of adrenaline and noradrenaline was substantially increased by employing the ion pair reagent heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA). Ion pair reagents are usually added to the mobile phase only, but we demonstrate for the first time that including HFBA to the sample reconstitution solvent as well, has a major impact on the chromatography of these compounds. The stability of adrenaline and corticosterone in rodent blood was investigated using the surrogate analytes adrenaline-d 3 and corticosterone-d 8 . The applicability of the described method was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of stress hormones in rodent blood samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ion transport in roots of cotton seedlings under the effect of gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasymov, A.K.

    1976-01-01

    It has been found that small doses (0.1 to 0.5kR) increase the ion transport (K + and Na + ) in seedling roots, and relatively high radiation doses (25 to 100 kR) markedly decrease it. ATPase activity varied with the dose. Mgsup(++)-, Na + - and K + -activated ATPases were more sensitive than a background ATPase. It is suggested that high radiation doses destroy the work of the sodium-potassium pump of cotton root cells inhibiting the activity of the transfer ATPase

  13. Electron transport in nanometer GaAs structure under radiation exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Demarina, N V

    2002-01-01

    One investigates into effect of neutron and proton irradiation on electron transport in nanometer GaAs structures. Mathematical model takes account of radiation defects via introduction of additional mechanisms od scattering of carriers at point defects and disordered regions. To investigate experimentally into volt-ampere and volt-farad characteristics one used a structure based on a field-effect transistor with the Schottky gate and a built-in channel. Calculation results of electron mobility, drift rate of electrons, time of energy relaxation and electron pulse are compared with the experimental data

  14. Electronic structure and thermoelectric transport properties of the golden Th2S3-type Ti2O3 under pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A lot of physical properties of Th2S3-type Ti2O3 have investigated experimentally, hence, we calculated electronic structure and thermoelectric transport properties by the first-principles calculation under pressure. The increase of the band gaps is very fast from 30GP to 35GP, which is mainly because of the rapid change of the lattice constants. The total density of states becomes smaller with increasing pressure, which shows that Seebeck coefficient gradually decreases. Two main peaks of Seebeck coefficients always decrease and shift to the high doping area with increasing temperature under pressure. The electrical conductivities always decrease with increasing temperature under pressure. The electrical conductivity can be improved by increasing pressure. Electronic thermal conductivity increases with increasing pressure. It is noted that the thermoelectric properties is reduced with increasing temperature.

  15. Integrating supply and demand aspects of transportation for mass evacuation under disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-15

    This study seeks to address real-time operational needs in the context of the evacuation response problem by providing a capability to dynamically route vehicles under evacuation, thereby being responsive to the actual conditions unfolding in real-ti...

  16. Dynamics of herbicide transport and partitioning under event flow conditions in the lower Burdekin region, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Aaron M.; Lewis, Stephen E.; Bainbridge, Zoë T.; Glendenning, Lionel; Turner, Ryan D.R.; Brodie, Jon E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the temporal variability in herbicide delivery to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon (Australia) from one of the GBR catchment’s major sugarcane growing regions. Annual loads of measured herbicides were consistently in the order of 200+ kg. Atrazine, it’s degradate desethylatrazine, and diuron contributed approximately 90% of annual herbicide load, with early ‘first-flush’ events accounting for the majority of herbicide loads leaving the catchment. Assessment of herbicide water–sediment partitioning in flood runoff highlighted the majority of herbicides were transported in predominantly dissolved form, although a considerable fraction of diuron was transported in particulate-bound form (ca. 33%). Diuron was also the herbicide demonstrating the highest concentrations and frequency of detection in sediments collected from catchment waterways and adjacent estuarine–marine environments, an outcome aligning with previous research. Herbicide physico-chemical properties appear to play a crucial role in partitioning between water column and sediment habitat types in GBR receiving ecosystems.

  17. Mass transport aspects of polymer electrolyte fuel cells under two-phase flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, D.

    2007-03-27

    This work deals with selected aspects of mass transport phenomena in PEFCs and DMFCs. Emphasis is placed on the implications originating from the occurrence of two-phase flow within these devices. Optimality of supply, distribution, and removal of the fuel, the oxidant, and the reaction products is of utmost importance for the stability, efficiency, and durability of the devices. Being a prerequisite for high current densities while maintaining sufficient voltage, mass transport optimization contributes to the development of cost effective as well as compact designs and hence competitive fuel cells. [German] Die Visualisierung und Quantifizierung von Fluessigwasseransammlungen in Polymerelektrolytmembran-Brennstoffzellen konnte mittels Neutronenradiographie erreicht werden. Dank dieser neuartigen diagnostischen Methode konnte erstmals die Fluessigwasseransammlung in den poroesen Gasdiffusionsschichten direkt nachgewiesen und quantifiziert werden. Die Kombination von Neutronenradiographie mit ortsaufgeloesten Stromdichtemessungen bzw. lokaler Impedanzspektroskopie erlaubte die Korrelation des inhomogenen Fluessigwasseranfalls mit dem lokalen elektrochemischen Leistungsverhalten. Systematische Untersuchungen an Polymerelektrolyt- und Direkt-Methanol-Brennstoffzellen verdeutlichen sowohl den Einfluss von Betriebsbedingungen als auch die Auswirkung von Materialeigenschaften auf die Ausbildung zweiphasiger Stroemungen.

  18. A binomial modeling approach for upscaling colloid transport under unfavorable conditions: organic prediction of extended tailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilpert, Markus; Rasmuson, Anna; Johnson, William

    2017-04-01

    Transport of colloids in saturated porous media is significantly influenced by colloidal interactions with grain surfaces. Near-surface fluid domain colloids experience relatively low fluid drag and relatively strong colloidal forces that slow their down-gradient translation relative to colloids in bulk fluid. Near surface fluid domain colloids may re-enter into the bulk fluid via diffusion (nanoparticles) or expulsion at rear flow stagnation zones, they may immobilize (attach) via strong primary minimum interactions, or they may move along a grain-to-grain contact to the near surface fluid domain of an adjacent grain. We introduce a simple model that accounts for all possible permutations of mass transfer within a dual pore and grain network. The primary phenomena thereby represented in the model are mass transfer of colloids between the bulk and near-surface fluid domains and immobilization onto grain surfaces. Colloid movement is described by a sequence of trials in a series of unit cells, and the binomial distribution is used to calculate the probabilities of each possible sequence. Pore-scale simulations provide mechanistically-determined likelihoods and timescales associated with the above pore-scale colloid mass transfer processes, whereas the network-scale model employs pore and grain topology to determine probabilities of transfer from up-gradient bulk and near-surface fluid domains to down-gradient bulk and near-surface fluid domains. Inter-grain transport of colloids in the near surface fluid domain can cause extended tailing.

  19. Role of hybrid forecasting techniques for transportation planning of broiler meat under uncertain demand in thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoranin Sujjaviriyasup

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of numerous problems experiencing in supply chain management is the demand. Most demands are appeared in terms of uncertainty. The broiler meat industry is inevitably encountering the same problem. In this research, hybrid forecasting model of ARIMA and Support Vector Machine (SVMs are developed to forecast broiler meat export. In addition, ARIMA, SVMs, and Moving Average (MA are chosen for comparing the forecasting efficiency. All the forecasting models are tested and validated using the data of Brazil’s export, Canada’s export, and Thailand’s export. The hybrid model provides accuracy of the forecasted values that are 98.71%, 97.50%, and 93.01%, respectively. In addition, the hybrid model presents the least error of all MAE, RMSE, and MAPE comparing with other forecasting models. As forecasted data are applied to transportation planning, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of optimal value of forecasted value and actual value is 14.53%. The hybrid forecasting model shows an ability to reduce risk of total cost of transportation when broiler meat export is forecasted by using MA(2, MA(3, ARIMA, and SVM are 50.59%, 60.18%, 68.01%, and 46.55%, respectively. The results indicate that the developed forecasting model is recommended to broiler meat industries’ supply chain decision.

  20. Adherent diamond film deposited on Cu substrate by carbon transport from nanodiamond buried under Pt interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuezhang; Wei Qiuping; Yu Zhiming; Yang Taiming; Zhai Hao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Adherent polycrystalline diamond films were grown on copper substrate by carbon transport. ► The nucleation density was increased to 10 11 cm −2 . ► Diamond films were a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. ► Diamond nucleation was based by carbon dissolving from UDDs to Pt interlayer and formation of sp 3 -bonded diamond clusters at the Pt surface. - Abstract: Diamond film deposited on Cu suffered from poor adhesion mainly due to the large mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients and the lack of affinity between carbon and Cu. Enhancing diamond nucleation by carbon transport from buried nanodiamond through a Pt ultrathin interlayer, adherent diamond film was then deposited on Cu substrate without distinctly metallic interlayer. This novel nucleation mechanism increased diamond nucleation density to 10 11 cm −2 , and developed diamond film with a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Diamond film was characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscope, respectively. The composition of diamond film/Cu substrate interface was examined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The adhesion of diamond film was evaluated by indentation test. Those results show that a Pt ultrathin interlayer provides stronger chemically bonded interfaces and improve film adhesion.

  1. Adherent diamond film deposited on Cu substrate by carbon transport from nanodiamond buried under Pt interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xuezhang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Wei Qiuping, E-mail: qiupwei@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Yu Zhiming, E-mail: zhiming@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Yang Taiming; Zhai Hao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adherent polycrystalline diamond films were grown on copper substrate by carbon transport. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nucleation density was increased to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamond films were a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamond nucleation was based by carbon dissolving from UDDs to Pt interlayer and formation of sp{sup 3}-bonded diamond clusters at the Pt surface. - Abstract: Diamond film deposited on Cu suffered from poor adhesion mainly due to the large mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients and the lack of affinity between carbon and Cu. Enhancing diamond nucleation by carbon transport from buried nanodiamond through a Pt ultrathin interlayer, adherent diamond film was then deposited on Cu substrate without distinctly metallic interlayer. This novel nucleation mechanism increased diamond nucleation density to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}, and developed diamond film with a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Diamond film was characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscope, respectively. The composition of diamond film/Cu substrate interface was examined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The adhesion of diamond film was evaluated by indentation test. Those results show that a Pt ultrathin interlayer provides stronger chemically bonded interfaces and improve film adhesion.

  2. Analysis of the clinical backgrounds of patients who developed respiratory acidosis under high-flow oxygen therapy during emergency transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Hirokazu; Nishimura, Naoki; Yamano, Yasuhiko; Ishikawa, Genta; Tomishima, Yutaka; Jinta, Torahiko; Takahashi, Osamu; Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    High-flow oxygen is often administered to patients during emergency transport and can sometimes cause respiratory acidosis with disturbed consciousness, thereby necessitating mechanical ventilation. Although oxygen titration in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients during emergency transport reduces mortality rates, the clinical risk factors for respiratory acidosis in emergency settings are not fully understood. Therefore, we analyzed the clinical backgrounds of patients who developed respiratory acidosis during pre-hospital transport. This was a retrospective study of patients who arrived at our hospital by emergency transport in 2010 who received high-flow oxygen while in transit. Respiratory acidosis was defined by the following arterial blood gas readings: pH, ≤7.35; PaCO 2 , ≥45 mmHg; and HCO 3 - , ≥24 mmol/L. The risk factors were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. In 765 study patients, 66 patients showed respiratory acidosis. The following risk factors for respiratory acidosis were identified: age, ≥65 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-2.8); transportation time, ≥10 min (OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7); three digits on the Japan Coma Scale (OR 3.1; 95% CI, 1.7-5.8); percutaneous oxygen saturation, ≤90% (OR 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8-3.0); tuberculosis (OR 4.5; 95% CI, 1.4-15.1); asthma (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 0.6-5.3); pneumonia (OR 1.5; 95% CI, 0.7-3.1); and lung cancer (OR 3.9; 95% CI, 1.5-10.1). These underlying diseases as risk factors included both comorbid diseases and past medical conditions. The factors identified may contribute to the development of respiratory acidosis. Further studies on preventing respiratory acidosis will improve the quality of emergency medical care.

  3. Transportability Class of Americium in K Basin Sludge under Ambient and Hydrothermal Processing Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-08-01

    This report establishes the technical bases for using a ''slow uptake'' instead of a ''moderate uptake'' transportability class for americium-241 (241Am) for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) dose consequence analysis. Slow uptake classes are used for most uranium and plutonium oxides. A moderate uptake class has been used in prior STP analyses for 241Am based on the properties of separated 241Am and its associated oxide. However, when 241Am exists as an ingrown progeny (and as a small mass fraction) within plutonium mixtures, it is appropriate to assign transportability factors of the predominant plutonium mixtures (typically slow) to the Am241. It is argued that the transportability factor for 241Am in sludge likewise should be slow because it exists as a small mass fraction as the ingrown progeny within the uranium oxide in sludge. In this report, the transportability class assignment for 241Am is underpinned with radiochemical characterization data on K Basin sludge and with studies conducted with other irradiated fuel exposed to elevated temperatures and conditions similar to the STP. Key findings and conclusions from evaluation of the characterization data and published literature are summarized here. Plutonium and 241Am make up very small fractions of the uranium within the K Basin sludge matrix. Plutonium is present at about 1 atom per 500 atoms of uranium and 241Am at about 1 atom per 19000 of uranium. Plutonium and americium are found to remain with uranium in the solid phase in all of the {approx}60 samples taken and analyzed from various sources of K Basin sludge. The uranium-specific concentrations of plutonium and americium also remain approximately constant over a uranium concentration range (in the dry sludge solids) from 0.2 to 94 wt%, a factor of {approx}460. This invariability demonstrates that 241Am does not partition from the uranium or plutonium fraction for any characterized sludge matrix. Most

  4. Transport of perfluoroalkyl acids in a water-saturated sediment column investigated under near-natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vierke, Lena; Möller, Axel; Klitzke, Sondra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the transport of C 4–10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and C 4,6,8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in a water-saturated sediment column representing a riverbank filtration scenario under near-natural conditions. Short-chain PFCAs and PFSAs with up to six C-atoms showed complete tracer-like breakthrough. Longer chain ones were retarded due to sorption to the sediment or due to other processes in the aqueous phase. The study reports the first column derived sediment–water partition coefficients ranging from 0.01 cm 3 g −1 to 0.41 cm 3 g −1 for C 4,6 PFSAs and from 0.0 cm 3 g −1 to 6.5 cm 3 g −1 for C 4,5,6,8,9 PFCAs. The results clearly indicate that short-chain PFCAs and PFSAs may pose a problem if contaminated surface waters are used for drinking water production via riverbank filtration. Highlights: • Transport of per- and polyfluorinated compounds in a riverbank filtration scenario. • Investigations under near-natural conditions with a water-saturated sediment column. • Processes in water and sediment control the transport of analytes. • Short chain PFCAs and PFSAs are not retarded in the water-saturated sediment column. • First column derived sediment–water partition coefficients. -- Quantification of breakthrough of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) under conditions simulating a riverbank filtration scenario

  5. Mass transport aspects of polymer electrolyte fuel cells under two-phase flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, D.

    2007-03-15

    This well-illustrated, comprehensive dissertation by Dr. Ing. Denis Kramer takes an in-depth look at polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) and the possibilities for their application. First of all, the operating principles of polymer electrolyte fuel cells are described and discussed, whereby thermodynamics aspects and loss mechanisms are examined. The mass transport diagnostics made with respect to the function of the cells are discussed. Field flow geometry, gas diffusion layers and, amongst other things, liquid distribution, the influence of flow direction and the low-frequency behaviour of air-fed PEFCs are discussed. Direct methanol fuel cells are examined, as are the materials chosen. The documentation includes comprehensive mathematical and graphical representations of the mechanisms involved.

  6. Formation of neoclassical internal transport barriers under various operational regimes on compact helical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, T [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Fujisawa, A [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Iguchi, H [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Nishimura, S [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Ida, K [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Yokoyama, M [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Murakami, S [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Yoshimura, Y [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Isobe, M [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Suzuki, C [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Nagaoka, K [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Akiyama, T [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Yoshinuma, M [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Shimizu, A [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Takahashi, C [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Matsuoka, K [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Okamura, S [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2004-05-01

    Optimization has been carried out on the operational regime where neoclassical internal transport barriers (N-ITBs) are formed. The condition of the forming N-ITB is sensitive to the location of the electron cyclotron heating resonance zone. A high electron temperature is obtained for the central heating (-2 cm < R{sub resonance} < 2 cm). The variation of the magnetic axis location affects the formation of the N-ITB. The electron and ion temperatures at the magnetic axis location (R{sub ax}) of 94.9 cm are higher than those at 92.1 and 97.4 cm. This result indicates that the neoclassical flux and the created radial electric field are influenced by the magnetic field structure.

  7. A binomial modeling approach for upscaling colloid transport under unfavorable conditions: Emergent prediction of extended tailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilpert, Markus; Rasmuson, Anna; Johnson, William P.

    2017-07-01

    Colloid transport in saturated porous media is significantly influenced by colloidal interactions with grain surfaces. Near-surface fluid domain colloids experience relatively low fluid drag and relatively strong colloidal forces that slow their downgradient translation relative to colloids in bulk fluid. Near-surface fluid domain colloids may reenter into the bulk fluid via diffusion (nanoparticles) or expulsion at rear flow stagnation zones, they may immobilize (attach) via primary minimum interactions, or they may move along a grain-to-grain contact to the near-surface fluid domain of an adjacent grain. We introduce a simple model that accounts for all possible permutations of mass transfer within a dual pore and grain network. The primary phenomena thereby represented in the model are mass transfer of colloids between the bulk and near-surface fluid domains and immobilization. Colloid movement is described by a Markov chain, i.e., a sequence of trials in a 1-D network of unit cells, which contain a pore and a grain. Using combinatorial analysis, which utilizes the binomial coefficient, we derive the residence time distribution, i.e., an inventory of the discrete colloid travel times through the network and of their probabilities to occur. To parameterize the network model, we performed mechanistic pore-scale simulations in a single unit cell that determined the likelihoods and timescales associated with the above colloid mass transfer processes. We found that intergrain transport of colloids in the near-surface fluid domain can cause extended tailing, which has traditionally been attributed to hydrodynamic dispersion emanating from flow tortuosity of solute trajectories.

  8. Assessment of existing sediment transport models for sand barrier dynamics under wave and currents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thuy, T.T.V.; Nghiem, L.T.; Jayakumar, S.; Nielsen, P.

    The paper summarizes morphology changes over rippled sand barriers under wave and wave combined current of 27 laboratorial experiments. Data of 4 wave conditions (H=10cm, T=1s; H=12cm, T=1s; H=12cm, T=1.5s; H=14cm, T=1.5s) and 6 currents (Q= 10, -10...

  9. Fringe-controlled biodegradation under dynamic conditions: Quasi 2-D flow-through experiments and reactive-transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Dominik; Kürzinger, Petra; Bauer, Robert; Griebler, Christian; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradation in contaminated aquifers has been shown to be most pronounced at the fringe of contaminant plumes, where mixing of contaminated water and ambient groundwater, containing dissolved electron acceptors, stimulates microbial activity. While physical mixing of contaminant and electron acceptor by transverse dispersion has been shown to be the major bottleneck for biodegradation in steady-state plumes, so far little is known on the effect of flow and transport dynamics (caused, e.g., by a seasonally fluctuating groundwater table) on biodegradation in these systems. Towards this end we performed experiments in quasi-two-dimensional flow-through microcosms on aerobic toluene degradation by Pseudomonas putida F1. Plume dynamics were simulated by vertical alteration of the toluene plume position and experimental results were analyzed by reactive-transport modeling. We found that, even after disappearance of the toluene plume for two weeks, the majority of microorganisms stayed attached to the sediment and regained their full biodegradation potential within two days after reappearance of the toluene plume. Our results underline that besides microbial growth, also maintenance and dormancy are important processes that affect biodegradation performance under transient environmental conditions and therefore deserve increased consideration in future reactive-transport modeling.

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns of airflow across a foredune and beach surface under offshore winds: implications for aeolian sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D.; Delgado-Fernandez, I.; Lynch, K.; Baas, A. C.; Cooper, J. A.; Beyers, M.

    2010-12-01

    The input of aeolian sediment into foredune systems from beaches represents a key component of sediment budget analysis along many soft sedimentary coastlines. Where there are significant offshore wind components in local wind regimes this is normally excluded from analysis. However, recent work has shown that if the topography of the foredune is favourable then this offshore component is steered or undergoes flow reversal through leeside eddying to give onshore transport events at the back beach under offshore flow conditions. At particular distances from the foredune crest flow reattaches to the surface to continue its incident offshore direction. The location of this reattachment point has important implications for aeolian transport of sand on the back beach and foredune toe locations. This study reports initial results where the positioning of the reattachment point is mobile and is driven by incident wind velocity (at the foredune crest) and the actual undulations of the foredune crest’s topography, dictating heterogeneous flow behaviour at the beach. Using detailed field measurements (25 Hz, three-dimensional sonic anemometry) and computational fluid dynamic modelling, a temporal and spatial pattern of reattachment positions are described. Implications for aeolian transport and dune evolution are also examined.

  11. Modeling Coupled Water and Heat Transport in the Root Zone of Winter Wheat under Non-Isothermal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Ren

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is an integral part of soil quality in terms of moisture content; coupling between water and heat can render a soil fertile, and plays a role in water conservation. Although it is widely recognized that both water and heat transport are fundamental factors in the quantification of soil mass and energy balance, their computation is still limited in most models or practical applications in the root zone under non-isothermal conditions. This research was conducted to: (a implement a fully coupled mathematical model that contains the full coupled process of soil water and heat transport with plants focused on the influence of temperature gradient on soil water redistribution and on the influence of change in soil water movement on soil heat flux transport; (b verify the mathematical model with detailed field monitoring data; and (c analyze the accuracy of the model. Results show the high accuracy of the model in predicting the actual changes in soil water content and temperature as a function of time and soil depth. Moreover, the model can accurately reflect changes in soil moisture and heat transfer in different periods. With only a few empirical parameters, the proposed model will serve as guide in the field of surface irrigation.

  12. Fringe-controlled biodegradation under dynamic conditions: quasi 2-D flow-through experiments and reactive-transport modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Dominik; Kürzinger, Petra; Bauer, Robert; Griebler, Christian; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradation in contaminated aquifers has been shown to be most pronounced at the fringe of contaminant plumes, where mixing of contaminated water and ambient groundwater, containing dissolved electron acceptors, stimulates microbial activity. While physical mixing of contaminant and electron acceptor by transverse dispersion has been shown to be the major bottleneck for biodegradation in steady-state plumes, so far little is known on the effect of flow and transport dynamics (caused, e.g., by a seasonally fluctuating groundwater table) on biodegradation in these systems. Towards this end we performed experiments in quasi-two-dimensional flow-through microcosms on aerobic toluene degradation by Pseudomonas putida F1. Plume dynamics were simulated by vertical alteration of the toluene plume position and experimental results were analyzed by reactive-transport modeling. We found that, even after disappearance of the toluene plume for two weeks, the majority of microorganisms stayed attached to the sediment and regained their full biodegradation potential within two days after reappearance of the toluene plume. Our results underline that besides microbial growth, also maintenance and dormancy are important processes that affect biodegradation performance under transient environmental conditions and therefore deserve increased consideration in future reactive-transport modeling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Apparent directional mass-transfer capacity coefficients in three-dimensional anisotropic heterogeneous aquifers under radial convergent transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, D.; Fernàndez-Garcia, D.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Bolster, D.; Benson, D. A.

    2014-02-01

    Aquifer hydraulic properties such as hydraulic conductivity (K) are ubiquitously heterogeneous and typically only a statistical characterization can be sought. Additionally, statistical anisotropy at typical characterization scales is the rule. Thus, regardless of the processes governing solute transport at the local (pore) scale, transport becomes non-Fickian. Mass-transfer models provide an efficient tool that reproduces observed anomalous transport; in some cases though, these models lack predictability as model parameters cannot readily be connected to the physical properties of aquifers. In this study, we focus on a multirate mass-transfer model (MRMT), and in particular the apparent capacity coefficient (β), which is a strong indicator of the potential of immobile zones to capture moving solute. We aim to find if the choice of an apparent β can be phenomenologically related to measures of statistical anisotropy. We analyzed an ensemble of random simulations of three-dimensional log-transformed multi-Gaussian permeability fields with stationary anisotropic correlation under convergent flow conditions. It was found that apparent β also displays an anisotropic behavior, physically controlled by the aquifer directional connectivity, which in turn is controlled by the anisotropic correlation model. A high hydraulic connectivity results in large β values. These results provide new insights into the practical use of mass-transfer models for predictive purposes.

  14. Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Cations in an Unsaturated Fractured Soil Under Transient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Joseph [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-01-31

    Rainfall experiments were conducted using intact soil cores and an instrumented soil pedon to examine the effect of physical heterogeneity and rainfall characteristics on the mobilization of colloids, organic matter, cesium, and strontium in a fractured soil. To measure the spatial variability of infiltration of colloids and contaminants, samples were collected through a 19-port grid placed below the soil core in laboratory study and in 27 samplers at multiple depths in the soil pedon in the field study. Cesium and strontium were applied to the soil cores and the soil pedon prior to mobilization experiments. Rainwater solutions of multiple ionic strengths and organic matter concentrations were applied to the soil cores and soil pedon to mobilize in situ colloids, cesium, and strontium. The mobilization of colloids and metal cations occurred through preferential flow paths in the soil cores. Compared to steady rainfall, greater amounts of colloids were mobilized during rainfall interrupted by pauses, which indicates that the supply of colloids to be mobilized was replenished during the pauses. A maximum in the amount of mobilized colloids were mobilized during a rainfall following a pause of 2.5 d. Pauses of shorter or longer duration resulted in less colloid mobilization. Freeze-thaw cycles, a transient condition in winter, enhanced colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated transport of cesium and strontium in the soil cores. The exchange of solutes between the soil matrix and macropores caused a hysteretic mobilization of colloids, cesium, and strontium during changes in ionic strength. Colloid-facilitated mobilization of cesium and strontium was important at low ionic strength in fractures where slow flow allowed greater exchange of flow between the fractures and the surrounding matrix. The release of cesium and strontium by cation exchange occurred at high ionic strength in fractures where there is a little exchange of pore water with the surrounding matrix

  15. Assessment of bridge abutment scour and sediment transport under various flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilja, Gordon; Valyrakis, Manousos; Michalis, Panagiotis; Bekić, Damir; Kuspilić, Neven; McKeogh, Eamon

    2017-04-01

    Safety of bridges over watercourses can be compromised by flow characteristics and bridge hydraulics. Scour process around bridge foundations can develop rapidly during low-recurrence interval floods when structural elements are exposed to increased flows. Variations in riverbed geometry, as a result of sediment removal and deposition processes, can increase flood-induced hazard at bridge sites with catastrophic failures and destructive consequences for civil infrastructure. The quantification of flood induced hazard on bridge safety generally involves coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport models (i.e. 2D numerical or physical models) for a range of hydrological events covering both high and low flows. Modelled boundary conditions are usually estimated for their probability of occurrence using frequency analysis of long-term recordings at gauging stations. At smaller rivers gauging station records are scarce, especially in upper courses of rivers where weirs, drops and rapids are common elements of river bathymetry. As a result, boundary conditions that accurately represent flow patterns on modelled river reach cannot be often reliably acquired. Sediment transport process is also more complicated to describe due to its complexity and dependence to local flow field making scour hazard assessment a particularly challenging issue. This study investigates the influence of flow characteristics to the development of scour and sedimentation processes around bridge abutments of a single span masonry arch bridge in south Ireland. The impact of downstream weirs on bridge hydraulics through variation of downstream model domain type is also considered in this study. The numerical model is established based on detailed bathymetry data surveyed along a rectangular grid of 50cm spacing. Acquired data also consist of riverbed morphology and water level variations which are monitored continuously on bridge site. The obtained data are then used to compare and calibrate

  16. Ultra High Intensity laser produced fast electron transport in under-dense and over-dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manclossi, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is related to inertial fusion research, and particularly concerns the approach to fast ignition, which is based on the use of ultra-intense laser pulses to ignite the thermonuclear fuel. Until now, the feasibility of this scheme has not been proven and depends on many fundamental aspects of the underlying physics, which are not yet fully understood and which are also very far from controls. The main purpose of this thesis is the experimental study of transport processes in the material over-dense (solid) and under-dense (gas jet) of a beam of fast electrons produced by pulse laser at a intensity of some 10 19 Wcm -2 . (author)

  17. A Floquet-Green's function approach to mesoscopic transport under ac bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, B H; Cao, J C

    2008-01-01

    The current response of a mesoscopic system under a periodic ac bias is investigated by combining the Floquet theorem and the nonequilibrium Green's function method. The band structure of the lead under ac bias is fully taken into account by using appropriate self-energies in an enlarged Floquet space. Both the retarded and lesser Green's functions are obtained in the Floquet basis to account for the interference and interaction effects. In addition to the external ac bias, the time-varying Coulomb interaction, which is treated at the self-consistent Hartree-Fock level, provides another internal ac field. The numerical results show that the time-varying Coulomb field yields decoherence and reduces the ringing behavior of the current response to a harmonic bias

  18. Transport properties of finite carbon nanotubes under electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T S; Lin, M F

    2006-01-01

    Electronic and transport properties of finite carbon nanotubes subject to the influences of a transverse electric field and a magnetic field with varying polar angles are studied by the tight-binding model. The external fields will modify the state energies, destroy the state degeneracy, and modulate the energy gap. Both the state energy and the energy gap exhibit rich dependence on the field strength, the magnetic field direction, and the types of carbon nanotubes. The semiconductor-metal transition would be allowed for certain field strengths and magnetic field directions. The variations of state energies with the external fields will also be reflected in the electrical and thermal conductance. The number, the heights, and the positions of the conductance peaks are strongly dependent on the external fields. The heights of the electrical and thermal conductance peaks display a quantized behaviour, while that of the Peltier coefficient does not. Finally, it is found that the validity of the Wiedemann-Franz law depends upon the temperature, the field strength, the electronic structure, and the chemical potential

  19. Transport of ions through a (6,6) carbon nanotube under electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Xu, Zhen; Zhou, Zhe-Wei; Hu, Guo-Hui

    2014-11-01

    The transport of water and ions through carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is crucial in nanotechnology and biotechnology. Previous investigation indicated that the ions can hardly pass through (6,6) CNTs due to their hydrated shells. In the present study, utilizing molecular dynamics simulation, it is shown that the energy barrier mainly originating from the hydrated water molecules could be overcome by applying an electric field large enough in the CNT axis direction. Potential of mean force is calculated to show the reduction of energy barrier when the electric field is present for (Na+, K+, Cl-) ions. Consequently, ionic flux through (6,6) CNTs can be found once the electric field becomes larger than a threshold value. The variation of the coordination numbers of ions at different locations from the bulk to the center of the CNT is also explored to elaborate this dynamic process. The thresholds of the electric field are different for Na+, K+, and Cl- due to their characteristics. This consequence might be potentially applied in ion selectivity in the future.

  20. Carbon Footprint Management of Road Freight Transport under the Carbon Emission Trading Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing concern over environmental issues has considerably increased the number of regulations and legislation that aim to curb carbon emissions. Carbon emission trading mechanism, which is one of the most effective means, has been broadly adopted by several countries. This paper presents a road truck routing problem under the carbon emission trading mechanism. By introducing a calculation method of carbon emissions that considers the load and speed of the vehicle among other factors, a road truck routing optimizing model under the cap and trade mechanism based on the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP is described. Compared with the classical TSP model that only considers the economic cost, this model suggests that the truck routing decision under the cap and trade mechanism is more effective in reducing carbon emissions. A modified tabu search algorithm is also proposed to obtain solutions within a reasonable amount of computation time. We theoretically and numerically examine the impacts of carbon trading, carbon cap, and carbon price on truck routing decision, carbon emissions, and total cost. From the results of numerical experiments, we derive interesting observations about how to control the total cost and reduce carbon emissions.

  1. Electrohydrodynamic fibrillation governed enhanced thermal transport in dielectric colloids under a field stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Purbarun; Maganti, Lakshmi Sirisha; Harikrishnan, A R

    2018-05-30

    Electrorheological (ER) fluids are known to exhibit enhanced viscous effects under an electric field stimulus. The present article reports the hitherto unreported phenomenon of greatly enhanced thermal conductivity in such electro-active colloidal dispersions in the presence of an externally applied electric field. Typical ER fluids are synthesized employing dielectric fluids and nanoparticles and experiments are performed employing an in-house designed setup. Greatly augmented thermal conductivity under a field's influence was observed. Enhanced thermal conduction along the fibril structures under the field effect is theorized as the crux of the mechanism. The formation of fibril structures has also been experimentally verified employing microscopy. Based on classical models for ER fluids, a mathematical formalism has been developed to predict the propensity of chain formation and statistically feasible chain dynamics at given Mason numbers. Further, a thermal resistance network model is employed to computationally predict the enhanced thermal conduction across the fibrillary colloid microstructure. Good agreement between the mathematical model and the experimental observations is achieved. The domineering role of thermal conductivity over relative permittivity has been shown by proposing a modified Hashin-Shtrikman (HS) formalism. The findings have implications towards better physical understanding and design of ER fluids from both 'smart' viscoelastic as well as thermally active materials points of view.

  2. The Effect of Suspended Sediment Transport and Deposition on Streambed Clogging Under Losing and Gaining Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, A.; Packman, A. I.; Preziosi-Ribero, A.; Li, A.; Arnon, S.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment transport and deposition in streams can affect streambed hydraulic characteristics due to clogging, reduce water fluxes through the hyporheic zone, and thus expected to affect biogeochemical processes. Processes affecting deposition of suspended particles were systematically studied under various overlying velocities but without taking into account the interactions with groundwater. This is despite the fact that the interaction with groundwater were shown to play an important role in deposition patterns of fine sediments in field studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of losing and gaining fluxes on suspended sediment depositional patterns and on hyporheic exchange fluxes. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory flume system (640 cm long and 30 cm wide) that has a capacity to enforce losing or gaining flow conditions. The flume was packed with homogenous sand, while suspended sediment deposition was evaluated by adding kaolinite particles to the water and following the deposition rate by particle disappearance from the bulk water. Consecutive additions of kaolinite were done, while hyporheic exchange fluxes were evaluated by conducting NaCl tracer experiments between each kaolinite additions. Furthermore, dye injections were used to visualize the flow patterns in the streambed using time-lapse photography through the transparent sidewalls of the flume. Hyporheic exchange and particle tracking simulations were done to assess the results of particle deposition and feedbacks between hyporheic flow, particle transport, and streambed clogging. Experimental results showed that the deposition of clay decreases with increasing amount of clay concentration in the sediment. Hyporheic exchange flux decreases linearly with increasing amount of clay added to the system and the region of active hyporheic exchange was confined to the upper part of the sediment. Understanding the particle deposition mechanisms under losing and gaining flow

  3. Overnight storage of whole blood: cooling and transporting blood at room temperature under extreme temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, L; Beauséjour, A; Jacques, A; Ducas, E; Tremblay, M

    2014-02-01

    Many countries allow the overnight storage of whole blood (WB) at ambient temperature. Some countries, such as Canada, also require a rapid cooling of WB with an active cooling system. Given the significant operational constraints associated with current cooling systems, an alternative method for cooling and transporting WB at 20-24°C was evaluated. Phase 22 cooling packs (TCP Reliable Inc., USA) were used in combination with vacuum-insulated panel (VIP) boxes. Temperature profiles of simulated WB units were studied in extreme temperatures (-35 and 40°C). The quality of blood components prepared using Phase 22 packs and CompoCool-WB (Fresenius HemoCare, Germany) was studied. Phase 22 packs reduced the temperature of simulated WB bags from 37 to 24°C in 1·7 ± 0·2 h. Used in combination with VIP boxes, Phase 22 packs maintain the temperature of bags between 20 and 24°C for 15 and 24 h, compared to 2 and 11 h with CompoCool-WB, when exposed at -35 and 40°C, respectively. The quality of platelet concentrates and plasma was comparable, regardless of the cooling system used. For red blood cell units, per cent haemolysis on day 42 was slightly higher in products prepared after cooling with Phase 22 packs compared to CompoCool-WB (0·33 ± 0·15% vs. 0·21 ± 0·06%; P environmental conditions. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  4. Magnetic configuration effects on plasma transport under Neutral Beam Injection at TJ-II (Simulation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Fuentes, C.; Liniers, M.

    2001-01-01

    A systematic analysis of magnetic configurations (27 in total), using a Transport model including impurity dynamics and sputtering effects has been done. For small size configurations or those close to rational t values there is radioactive collapse, independently of the external gas puffing (GP) strategy chosen. The reason is the insufficiency of observed power, either by the high shine through losses due to their low radii, or by the increase of fast ion orbit losses near the resonances. For the majority of configurations without collapse, fast ion orbit losses for CO injection (going in the same direction than the toroidal magnetic field) are higher, and in consequence the power absorption and the plasma β achieved are laser, than for the opposite direction. Nevertheless in the region placed just above the main resonances (1/3 and 1/2 per period) this situation reverses. The reasons have been analysed and explained at previous studies. A consequence of this fact is that the optima of confinement for the Counter case are shifted towards higher t values than the CO one, with higher plasma β, except near the resonances. As usual the balanced case is in between. The optima achieving stationary state are very close (and often are coincident) with those lacking that restriction. The best configuration (highest average β for balanced injection, with =1.1% and central value 3.2%, although in this region the results are rather insensitive to configuration and GP strategy. the configurations placed around the 100 4 4 would need also the lowest power entering the torus in order to avoid collapse and to achieve an acceptable NBI absorption level. (Author) 12 refs

  5. Neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine treatment: Noradrenaline levels and in vitro 3H-catecholamine synthesis in discrete brain regions of adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, D.H.G.; Ree, J.M. van; Provoost, Abraham P.; Jong, Wybren de

    1974-01-01

    Endogenous noradrenaline levels are elevated in medulla oblongata, mesencephalon, pons and thalamus of adult rats which had been treated with 6-hydroxydopamine on days 1, 2, 8 and 15 after birth. Levels in spinal cord, cerebellum, hippocampus/amygdala and cortex are depressed, whereas no significant

  6. Dopamine and noradrenaline efflux in the prefrontal cortex in the light and dark period: Effects of novelty and handling and comparison to the nucleus accumbens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, M. G.; Botterblom, M. H.; Mastenbroek, S.

    2000-01-01

    We used on-line microdialysis measurements of dopamine and noradrenaline extracellular concentrations in the medial prefrontal cortex of awake, freely moving rats during the dark and the light period of the day to study whether (i) basal efflux would be higher in the active, dark period than in the

  7. Ca2+ influx insensitive to organic Ca2+ entry blockers contributes to noradrenaline-induced contractions of the isolated guinea pig aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, M. A.; Wilffert, B.; Wermelskirchen, D.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    We determined the contribution of intracellular Ca2+ to the noradrenaline (NA, 3 X 10(-5) mmol/l)-induced contraction of the isolated guinea pig aorta. Since only about 55% of the NA-induced contraction could be attributed to intracellular Ca2+ release, we assumed that a Ca2+ influx component

  8. Ca2+influx insensitive to organic Ca2+entry blockers contributes to noradrenaline-induced contractions of the isolated guinea pig aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, M.A.M.; Wilffert, B.; Wermelskirchen, D.; Van Zwieten, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    We determined the contribution of intracellular Ca2+to the noradrenaline (NA, 3 x 10-5mmol/l)-induced contraction of the isolated guinea pig aorta. Since only about 55% of the NA-induced contraction could be attributed to intracellular Ca2+release, we assumed that a Ca2+influx component contributes

  9. Plasma cortisol and noradrenalin concentrations in pigs: automated sampling of freely moving pigs housed in PigTurn versus manually sampled and restrained pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimizing the effects of restraint and human interaction on the endocrine physiology of animals is essential for collection of accurate physiological measurements. Our objective was to compare stress-induced cortisol (CORT) and noradrenalin (NorA) responses in automated versus manual blood sampling...

  10. Design retrofit to prevent damage due to heat transport pump operation under conditions of significant void

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general review of certain key design areas which address the safety concerns of HT pump operation under conditions of significant void. To illustrate the challenges confronting designers and analysts, some of the highlights during the design of a protective system to prevent damage to HT piping and pump supports at Bruce NGS 'A' are outlined. The effects of this protective system on reactor safety are also discussed. HI pump operation under conditions of significant void offers a major challenge to designers and analysts to ensure that pump induced vibration and its effects on pump and piping are addressed. For an in-service station the search for a practical solution is often limited by existing. station equipment design and Layout. The diversity of design verification process requires a major commitment of engineering resources to ensure all. safety aspects meet the requirements of regulatory body. Work currently undertaken at Ontario Hydro Research Pump Test Complex on two-phase flow in pumps and piping may provide better prediction of vibration characteristics so that inherent conservativeness in fatigue Life prediction of HI system components can be reduced

  11. Design retrofit to prevent damage due to heat transport pump operation under conditions of significant void

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, K F [Bruce Engineering Department, In-Service Nuclear Projects, Ontario Hydro, North York, ON (Canada)

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general review of certain key design areas which address the safety concerns of HT pump operation under conditions of significant void. To illustrate the challenges confronting designers and analysts, some of the highlights during the design of a protective system to prevent damage to HT piping and pump supports at Bruce NGS 'A' are outlined. The effects of this protective system on reactor safety are also discussed. HI pump operation under conditions of significant void offers a major challenge to designers and analysts to ensure that pump induced vibration and its effects on pump and piping are addressed. For an in-service station the search for a practical solution is often limited by existing. station equipment design and Layout. The diversity of design verification process requires a major commitment of engineering resources to ensure all. safety aspects meet the requirements of regulatory body. Work currently undertaken at Ontario Hydro Research Pump Test Complex on two-phase flow in pumps and piping may provide better prediction of vibration characteristics so that inherent conservativeness in fatigue Life prediction of HI system components can be reduced.

  12. Effect of Leu-enkephalin and delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) on endogenous noradrenaline release by rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozhanets, V.V.; Anosov, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The nonapeptide delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) causes specific changes in the encephalogram of recipient animals: It prolongs the phase of long-wave or delta sleep. The cellular mechanism of action of DSIP has not yet been explained. To test the hyporhesis that this peptide or its degradation product may be presynaptic regulators of catecholamine release, the action of Leu-enkephaline, DSIP, and amino acids composing DSIP on release of endogenous noradrenalin (NA) from synaptosomes during depolarization was compared. Subcellular fractions from cerebral hemisphere of noninbred male albino rats were isolated. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was determined in the suspension of synaptosomes before and after addition of 0.5% Triton X-100. The results were subjected to statistical analysis, using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney nonparametric test

  13. The radioenzymatic determination of adrenaline and noradrenaline in plasma and its use in the diagnostic of pheochromocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhaus, C.P.E.

    1982-01-01

    The radioenzymatic determination of adrenaline and noradrenaline in human plasma for the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas was put to use after improvements were made with respect to extraction and separation steps. The plasma catecholamines at rest were distinctly higher in patients with pheochromocytomas. The plasma catecholamine level showed a significant increase as well with the glucagon test between the second and fifth minute. The method was not well suited for the localisation diagnostic where the plasma catecholamines were determined in selectively taken blood from the lower vena cava. Overall, however, the radioenzymatic determination of catecholamines in plasma proved itself to be a relatively ponderous, but exact and sensitive method for the measuring of basal catecholamine level and its changes. In the clinical area it is used as a valuable supplement to the contemporary diagnostic of pheochromocytomas. (orig./TRV) [de

  14. Simultaneous determination of the content of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline in pancreatic islets isolated from fed and starved mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S E; Hedeskov, C J [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark)

    1977-01-01

    A highly sensitive double isotope method for the simultaneous determination of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline has been developed. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The mentioned biogenic amines are all present in isolated pancreatic islet tissue from albino mice in concentrations ranging from approximately 5-30 ..mu..mol per kg wet weight (0.8-5 x 10/sup -3/ pmol/ng DNA). A somewhat higher content of these amines, especially dopamine, was found in pancreatic acinar tissue. The hypothesis that the impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion during starvation partly is caused by an increased content of biogenic amines in the pancreatic islets was not supported by our experiments which showed an unchanged islet content of these amines after 48 h starvation.

  15. Simultaneous determination of the content of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline in pancreatic islets isolated from fed and starved mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S.E.; Hedeskov, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    A highly sensitive double isotope method for the simultaneous determination of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline has been developed. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The mentioned biogenic amines are all present in isolated pancreatic islet tissue from albino mice in concentrations ranging from approximately 5-30 μmol per kg wet weight (0.8-5 x 10 -3 pmol/ng DNA). A somewhat higher content of these amines, especially dopamine, was found in pancreatic acinar tissue. The hypothesis that the impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion during starvation partly is caused by an increased content of biogenic amines in the pancreatic islets was not supported by our experiments which showed an unchanged islet content of these amines after 48 h starvation. (author)

  16. Transport properties of Heusler Compound Mn3Si under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaesu, Y; Uchima, K; Nakamura, S; Yogi, M; Niki, H; Hedo, M; Nakama, T; Tomiyoshi, S

    2014-01-01

    The electrical resistivity ρ and the thermopower S of the single crystalline sample of the Heusler compound Mn 3 Si have been measured in the temperature range between 2 and 300 K under high pressures up to 2.2 GPa. The temperature variations of ρ and S indicate the characteristic features at the Néel temperature T N . An additional anomaly in S(T), related to the 3Q satellites in SDW, is observed at P > 1 GPa, and it disappears at P > 1 GPa. The Néel temperature, obtained from ρ(T) and S(T) curves, increases with increasing pressure. The pressure dependences of the residual resistivity and the thermopower at T = 2 K show the discontinuous changes at P ≈ 1 GPa, indicating a pressure induced phase transition

  17. Turbulence and pollutant transport in urban street canyons under stable stratification: a large-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.

    2014-12-01

    Thermal stratification of the atmospheric surface layer has strong impact on the land-atmosphere exchange of turbulent, heat, and pollutant fluxes. Few studies have been carried out for the interaction of the weakly to moderately stable stratified atmosphere and the urban canopy. This study performs a large-eddy simulation of a modeled street canyon within a weakly to moderately stable atmosphere boundary layer. To better resolve the smaller eddy size resulted from the stable stratification, a higher spatial and temporal resolution is used. The detailed flow structure and turbulence inside the street canyon are analyzed. The relationship of pollutant dispersion and Richardson number of the atmosphere is investigated. Differences between these characteristics and those under neutral and unstable atmosphere boundary layer are emphasized.

  18. The effects of compound stimulus extinction and inhibition of noradrenaline reuptake on the renewal of alcohol seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, T M; Pan, M J; Corbit, L H

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related stimuli can trigger relapse of alcohol-seeking behaviors even after extended periods of abstinence. Extinction of such stimuli can reduce their impact on relapse; however, the expression of extinction can be disrupted when testing occurs outside the context where extinction learning took place, an effect termed renewal. Behavioral and pharmacological methods have recently been shown to augment extinction learning; yet, it is not known whether the improved expression of extinction following these treatments remains context-dependent. Here we examined whether two methods, compound–stimulus extinction and treatment with the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine, would reduce the vulnerability of extinction to a change in context. Following alcohol self-administration, responding was extinguished in a distinct context. After initial extinction, further extinction was given to a target stimulus presented in compound with another alcohol-predictive stimulus intended to augment prediction error (Experiment 1) or after a systemic injection of atomoxetine (1.0 mg kg−1; Experiment 2). A stimulus extinguished as part of a compound elicited less responding than a stimulus receiving equal extinction alone regardless of whether animals were tested in the training or extinction context; however, reliable renewal was not observed in this paradigm. Importantly, atomoxetine enhanced extinction relative to controls even in the presence of a reliable renewal effect. Thus, extinction of alcohol-seeking behavior can be improved by extinguishing multiple alcohol-predictive stimuli or enhancing noradrenaline neurotransmission during extinction training. Importantly, both methods improve extinction even when the context is changed between extinction training and test, and thus could be utilized to enhance the outcome of extinction-based treatments for alcohol-use disorders. PMID:26327688

  19. Lead intoxication induces noradrenaline depletion, motor nonmotor disabilities, and changes in the firing pattern of subthalamic nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbar, M; Delaville, C; De Deurwaerdère, P; Benazzouz, A; Lakhdar-Ghazal, N

    2012-05-17

    Lead intoxication has been suggested as a high risk factor for the development of Parkinson disease. However, its impact on motor and nonmotor functions and the mechanism by which it can be involved in the disease are still unclear. In the present study, we studied the effects of lead intoxication on the following: (1) locomotor activity using an open field actimeter and motor coordination using the rotarod test, (2) anxiety behavior using the elevated plus maze, (3) "depression-like" behavior using sucrose preference test, and (4) subthalamic nucleus (STN) neuronal activity using extracellular single unit recordings. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated once a day with lead acetate or sodium acetate (20 mg/kg/d i.p.) during 3 weeks. The tissue content of monoamines was used to determine alteration of these systems at the end of experiments. Results show that lead significantly reduced exploratory activity, locomotor activity and the time spent on the rotarod bar. Furthermore, lead induced anxiety but not "depressive-like" behavior. The electrophysiological results show that lead altered the discharge pattern of STN neurons with an increase in the number of bursting and irregular cells without affecting the firing rate. Moreover, lead intoxication resulted in a decrease of tissue noradrenaline content without any change in the levels of dopamine and serotonin. Together, these results show for the first time that lead intoxication resulted in motor and nonmotor behavioral changes paralleled by noradrenaline depletion and changes in the firing activity of STN neurons, providing evidence consistent with the induction of atypical parkinsonian-like deficits. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oocyte transport: Developmental competence of bovine oocytes arrested at germinal vesicle stage by cycloheximide under air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shu; Kimura, Kouji; Iwata, Hisataka; Takakura, Ryo

    2003-02-01

    The effects of the medium (TCM 199 or SOFaa) and temperature (20 or 39 C) during meiotic arrest by cycloheximide (CHX) under air on the developmental competence of bovine oocytes after in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) were investigated. Oocytes were maintained in meiotic arrest by 10 microg/ml CHX in a 50-microl droplet of 25-mM HEPES-buffered TCM 199 (H199) at 39 C or synthetic oviduct fluid (HSOFaa) at 20 or 39 C in air for 24 h. After release from the arrest, the oocytes was matured and fertilized in vitro and their developmental competence was examined. The developmental rate of oocytes arrested in HSOFaa at 20 C to the blastocyst stage was similar to that of non-arrested oocytes but was significantly higher (Ptransport conditions, we also investigated the meiotic arrest of oocytes maintained in a 0.25-ml straw by CHX individually with 10 microl HSOFaa or as a group (40-50 oocytes) with 170-200 microl HSOFaa at 20 C in air for 24 h. After release from meiotic arrest, the developmental competence of these oocytes was assessed similarly. The developmental rate of oocytes treated with CHX individually was similar to that of those treated with CHX in 50-microl droplet of HSOFaa at 20 C. However, the developmental rate of oocytes treated with CHX as a group was lower than that of oocytes treated with CHX in a 50-microl droplet. Five blastocysts developed from oocytes maintained in meiotic arrest in a plastic straw were transferred to five recipient heifers. Consequently, three recipients became pregnant and 2 calves were delivered. The results of the present study indicate that bovine oocytes treated with CHX in HSOFaa at 20 C under air retain the same developmental competence as non-arrested oocytes.

  1. Analysis of the clinical backgrounds of patients who developed respiratory acidosis under high‐flow oxygen therapy during emergency transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Hirokazu; Yamano, Yasuhiko; Ishikawa, Genta; Tomishima, Yutaka; Jinta, Torahiko; Takahashi, Osamu; Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2015-01-01

    Aim High‐flow oxygen is often administered to patients during emergency transport and can sometimes cause respiratory acidosis with disturbed consciousness, thereby necessitating mechanical ventilation. Although oxygen titration in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients during emergency transport reduces mortality rates, the clinical risk factors for respiratory acidosis in emergency settings are not fully understood. Therefore, we analyzed the clinical backgrounds of patients who developed respiratory acidosis during pre‐hospital transport. Methods This was a retrospective study of patients who arrived at our hospital by emergency transport in 2010 who received high‐flow oxygen while in transit. Respiratory acidosis was defined by the following arterial blood gas readings: pH, ≤7.35; PaCO 2, ≥45 mmHg; and HCO 3 −, ≥24 mmol/L. The risk factors were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results In 765 study patients, 66 patients showed respiratory acidosis. The following risk factors for respiratory acidosis were identified: age, ≥65 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7–2.8); transportation time, ≥10 min (OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1–3.7); three digits on the Japan Coma Scale (OR 3.1; 95% CI, 1.7–5.8); percutaneous oxygen saturation, ≤90% (OR 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8–3.0); tuberculosis (OR 4.5; 95% CI, 1.4–15.1); asthma (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 0.6–5.3); pneumonia (OR 1.5; 95% CI, 0.7–3.1); and lung cancer (OR 3.9; 95% CI, 1.5–10.1). These underlying diseases as risk factors included both comorbid diseases and past medical conditions. Conclusions The factors identified may contribute to the development of respiratory acidosis. Further studies on preventing respiratory acidosis will improve the quality of emergency medical care. PMID:29123744

  2. A conformational study of protonated noradrenaline by UV-UV and IR dip double resonance laser spectroscopy combined with an electrospray and a cold ion trap method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako, Hiromichi; Ishiuchi, Shun-Ichi; Kato, Daichi; Féraud, Géraldine; Dedonder-Lardeux, Claude; Jouvet, Christophe; Fujii, Masaaki

    2017-05-03

    The conformer-selected ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectra of protonated noradrenaline were measured using an electrospray/cryogenic ion trap technique combined with photo-dissociation spectroscopy. By comparing the UV photo dissociation (UVPD) spectra with the UV-UV hole burning (HB) spectra, it was found that five conformers coexist under ultra-cold conditions. Based on the spectral features of the IR dip spectra of each conformer, two different conformations on the amine side chain were identified. Three conformers (group I) were assigned to folded and others (group II) to extended structures by comparing the observed IR spectra with the calculated ones. Observation of the significantly less-stable extended conformers strongly suggests that the extended structures are dominant in solution and are detected in the gas phase by kinetic trapping. The conformers in each group are assignable to rotamers of OH orientations in the catechol ring. By comparing the UV-UV HB spectra and the calculated Franck-Condon spectra obtained by harmonic vibrational analysis of the S 1 state, with the aid of relative stabilization energies of each conformer in the S 0 state, the absolute orientations of catechol OHs of the observed five conformers were successfully determined. It was found that the 0-0 transition of one folded conformer is red-shifted by about 1000 cm -1 from the others. The significant red-shift was explained by a large contribution of the πσ* state to S 1 in the conformer in which an oxygen atom of the meta-OH group is close to the ammonium group.

  3. Atomistic simulations of highly conductive molecular transport junctions under realistic conditions

    KAUST Repository

    French, William R.; Iacovella, Christopher R.; Rungger, Ivan; Souza, Amaury Melo; Sanvito, Stefano; Cummings, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    We report state-of-the-art atomistic simulations combined with high-fidelity conductance calculations to probe structure-conductance relationships in Au-benzenedithiolate (BDT)-Au junctions under elongation. Our results demonstrate that large increases in conductance are associated with the formation of monatomic chains (MACs) of Au atoms directly connected to BDT. An analysis of the electronic structure of the simulated junctions reveals that enhancement in the s-like states in Au MACs causes the increases in conductance. Other structures also result in increased conductance but are too short-lived to be detected in experiment, while MACs remain stable for long simulation times. Examinations of thermally evolved junctions with and without MACs show negligible overlap between conductance histograms, indicating that the increase in conductance is related to this unique structural change and not thermal fluctuation. These results, which provide an excellent explanation for a recently observed anomalous experimental result [Bruot et al., Nat. Nanotechnol., 2012, 7, 35-40], should aid in the development of mechanically responsive molecular electronic devices. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. The environment of nature reserves under anthropogenic load: air transport of pollution to the North of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, A. A.; Ivanova, Yu. A.; Veremeychik, A. O.

    2012-04-01

    Nature reserves are created to keep in their original states natural environment, flora and fauna of various ecological systems, territories, climatic zones, etc. Now natural objects everywhere exist under anthropogenic loading from man-made activities. It is impossible to avoid atmospheric or river transport of pollution to the environment of reserved territories. The main idea of the work is to analyze atmospheric transport of anthropogenic metals (Ni, Cu, Pb, Fe, Al), as well as of soot (black carbon - BC) from Russian large industrial areas (source-regions) to the territories of nature reserves at the North of European Russia - the Kostomukshsky reserve (KR) in Karelia (64.57°N, 30.67°E) and the Nenetzky reserve (NR) at the Pechora River mouth (68,5°N, 53,5°E). The basic data for these 2 points were back trajectories of air mass transport calculated for every day of January, April, July, and October during 10 years from 2001 to 2010. We used NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Data Files with HYSPLIT 4 model and two approaches for analyzing the trajectories. The main source-regions were chosen for each reserve. The annual source emissions for the last decade are generalized from the data published by Roshydromet of Russia (http://www.nii-atmosphere.ru/files/PUBL/Eg_2008.doc). The deposition velocity was a sum of dry and wet components. The equal values of deposition velocities onto the surface were assumed for all impurities because they are mainly on submicron aerosol particles under atmospheric transport for a long distance. The seasonal and spatial variations of averaged deposition velocity were accounted in accordance with surface properties and precipitation regimes. As a result, the maximal air concentrations of aerosol pollutants are observed in cold seasons, whereas the maximal fluxes onto the surface occur in warm period. Thus, it's possible that the cleanest air does not indicate the same surface. Fe and Al are the crust (dust or soil) elements. Thus, their main

  5. The effect of pre-plasma formation under nonlocal transport conditions for ultra-relativistic laser-plasma interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holec, M.; Nikl, J.; Vranic, M.; Weber, S.

    2018-04-01

    Interaction of high-power lasers with solid targets is in general strongly affected by the limited contrast available. The laser pre-pulse ionizes the target and produces a pre-plasma which can strongly modify the interaction of the main part of the laser pulse with the target. This is of particular importance for future experiments which will use laser intensities above 1021 W cm-2 and which are subject to the limited contrast. As a consequence the main part of the laser pulse will be modified while traversing the pre-plasma, interacting with it partially. A further complication arises from the fact that the interaction of a high-power pre-pulse with solid targets very often takes place under nonlocal transport conditions, i.e. the characteristic mean-free-path of the particles and photons is larger than the characteristic scale-lengths of density and temperature. The classical diffusion treatment of radiation and heat transport in the hydrodynamic model is then insufficient for the description of the pre-pulse physics. These phenomena also strongly modify the formation of the pre-plasma which in turn affects the propagation of the main laser pulse. In this paper nonlocal radiation-hydrodynamic simulations are carried out and serve as input for subsequent kinetic simulations of ultra-high intensity laser pulses interacting with the plasma in the ultra-relativistic regime. It is shown that the results of the kinetic simulations differ considerably whether a diffusive or nonlocal transport is used for the radiation-hydrodynamic simulations.

  6. Numerical modeling of solute transport in a sand tank physical model under varying hydraulic gradient and hydrological stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlabachew, Abunu; Shu, Longcang; Wu, Peipeng; Zhang, Yongjie; Xu, Yang

    2018-03-01

    This laboratory study improves the understanding of the impacts of horizontal hydraulic gradient, artificial recharge, and groundwater pumping on solute transport through aquifers. Nine experiments and numerical simulations were carried out using a sand tank. The variable-density groundwater flow and sodium chloride transport were simulated using the three-dimensional numerical model SEAWAT. Numerical modelling results successfully reproduced heads and concentrations observed in the sand tank. A higher horizontal hydraulic gradient enhanced the migration of sodium chloride, particularly in the groundwater flow direction. The application of constant artificial recharge increased the spread of the sodium chloride plume in both the longitudinal and lateral directions. In addition, groundwater pumping accelerated spreading of the sodium chloride plume towards the pumping well. Both higher hydraulic gradient and pumping rate generated oval-shaped plumes in the horizontal plane. However, the artificial recharge process produced stretched plumes. These effects of artificial recharge and groundwater pumping were greater under higher hydraulic gradient. The concentration breakthrough curves indicated that emerging solutions never attained the concentration of the originally injected solution. This is probably because of sorption of sodium chloride onto the silica sand and/or the exchange of sodium chloride between the mobile and immobile liquid domains. The fingering and protruding plume shapes in the numerical models constitute instability zones produced by buoyancy-driven flow. Overall, the results have substantiated the influences of hydraulic gradient, boundary condition, artificial recharge, pumping rate and density differences on solute transport through a homogeneous unconfined aquifer. The implications of these findings are important for managing liquid wastes.

  7. The effect of a micro bubble dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope transport in liquid metals under nuclear irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradera, J., E-mail: jfradera@ubu.es; Cuesta-López, S., E-mail: scuesta@ubu.es

    2013-12-15

    The present work intend to be a first step towards the understanding and quantification of the hydrogen isotope complex phenomena in liquid metals for nuclear technology. Liquid metals under nuclear irradiation in, e.g., breeding blankets of a nuclear fusion reactor would generate tritium which is to be extracted and recirculated as fuel. At the same time that tritium is bred, helium is also generated and may precipitate in the form of nano bubbles. Other liquid metal systems of a nuclear reactor involve hydrogen isotope absorption processes, e.g., tritium extraction system. Hence, hydrogen isotope absorption into gas bubbles modelling and control may have a capital importance regarding design, operation and safety. Here general models for hydrogen isotopes transport in liquid metal and absorption into gas phase, that do not depend on the mass transfer limiting regime, are exposed and implemented in OpenFOAM® CFD tool for 0D–3D simulations. Results for a 0D case show the impact of a He dispersed phase of nano bubbles on hydrogen isotopes inventory at different temperatures as well as the inventory evolution during a He nucleation event. In addition, 1D and 2D axisymmetric cases are exposed showing the effect of a He dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope permeation through a lithium lead eutectic alloy and the effect of vortical structures on hydrogen isotope transport at a backward facing step. Exposed results give a valuable insight on current nuclear technology regarding the importance of controlling hydrogen isotope transport and its interactions with nucleation event through gas absorption processes.

  8. Water transport through the intestinal epithelial barrier under different osmotic conditions is dependent on LI-cadherin trans-interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weth, Agnes; Dippl, Carsten; Striedner, Yasmin; Tiemann-Boege, Irene; Vereshchaga, Yana; Golenhofen, Nikola; Bartelt-Kirbach, Britta; Baumgartner, Werner

    2017-04-03

    In the intestine water has to be reabsorbed from the chymus across the intestinal epithelium. The osmolarity within the lumen is subjected to high variations meaning that water transport often has to take place against osmotic gradients. It has been hypothesized that LI-cadherin is important in this process by keeping the intercellular cleft narrow facilitating the buildup of an osmotic gradient allowing water reabsorption. LI-cadherin is exceptional among the cadherin superfamily with respect to its localization along the lateral plasma membrane of epithelial cells being excluded from adherens junction. Furthermore it has 7 but not 5 extracellular cadherin repeats (EC1-EC7) and a small cytosolic domain. In this study we identified the peptide VAALD as an inhibitor of LI-cadherin trans-interaction by modeling the structure of LI-cadherin and comparison with the known adhesive interfaces of E-cadherin. This inhibitory peptide was used to measure LI-cadherin dependency of water transport through a monolayer of epithelial CACO2 cells under various osmotic conditions. If LI-cadherin trans-interaction was inhibited by use of the peptide, water transport from the luminal to the basolateral side was impaired and even reversed in the case of hypertonic conditions whereas no effect could be observed at isotonic conditions. These data are in line with a recently published model predicting LI-cadherin to keep the width of the lateral intercellular cleft small. In this narrow cleft a high osmolarity can be achieved due to ion pumps yielding a standing osmotic gradient allowing water absorption from the gut even if the faeces is highly hypertonic.

  9. Soil organic carbon loss and selective transportation under field simulated rainfall events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaodong; Li, Zhongwu; Huang, Jinquan; Huang, Bin; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Wenming; Hu, Yanbiao; Zeng, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    The study on the lateral movement of soil organic carbon (SOC) during soil erosion can improve the understanding of global carbon budget. Simulated rainfall experiments on small field plots were conducted to investigate the SOC lateral movement under different rainfall intensities and tillage practices. Two rainfall intensities (High intensity (HI) and Low intensity (LI)) and two tillage practices (No tillage (NT) and Conventional tillage (CT)) were maintained on three plots (2 m width × 5 m length): HI-NT, LI-NT and LI-CT. The rainfall lasted 60 minutes after the runoff generated, the sediment yield and runoff volume were measured and sampled at 6-min intervals. SOC concentration of sediment and runoff as well as the sediment particle size distribution were measured. The results showed that most of the eroded organic carbon (OC) was lost in form of sediment-bound organic carbon in all events. The amount of lost SOC in LI-NT event was 12.76 times greater than that in LI-CT event, whereas this measure in HI-NT event was 3.25 times greater than that in LI-NT event. These results suggest that conventional tillage as well as lower rainfall intensity can reduce the amount of lost SOC during short-term soil erosion. Meanwhile, the eroded sediment in all events was enriched in OC, and higher enrichment ratio of OC (ERoc) in sediment was observed in LI events than that in HI event, whereas similar ERoc curves were found in LI-CT and LI-NT events. Furthermore, significant correlations between ERoc and different size sediment particles were only observed in HI-NT event. This indicates that the enrichment of OC is dependent on the erosion process, and the specific enrichment mechanisms with respect to different erosion processes should be studied in future.

  10. Modeling transport of nutrients & sediment loads into Lake Tahoe under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riverson, John; Coats, Robert; Costa-Cabral, Mariza; Dettinger, Mike; Reuter, John; Sahoo, Goloka; Schladow, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    The outputs from two General Circulation Models (GCMs) with two emissions scenarios were downscaled and bias-corrected to develop regional climate change projections for the Tahoe Basin. For one model—the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory or GFDL model—the daily model results were used to drive a distributed hydrologic model. The watershed model used an energy balance approach for computing evapotranspiration and snowpack dynamics so that the processes remain a function of the climate change projections. For this study, all other aspects of the model (i.e. land use distribution, routing configuration, and parameterization) were held constant to isolate impacts of climate change projections. The results indicate that (1) precipitation falling as rain rather than snow will increase, starting at the current mean snowline, and moving towards higher elevations over time; (2) annual accumulated snowpack will be reduced; (3) snowpack accumulation will start later; and (4) snowmelt will start earlier in the year. Certain changes were masked (or counter-balanced) when summarized as basin-wide averages; however, spatial evaluation added notable resolution. While rainfall runoff increased at higher elevations, a drop in total precipitation volume decreased runoff and fine sediment load from the lower elevation meadow areas and also decreased baseflow and nitrogen loads basin-wide. This finding also highlights the important role that the meadow areas could play as high-flow buffers under climatic change. Because the watershed model accounts for elevation change and variable meteorological patterns, it provided a robust platform for evaluating the impacts of projected climate change on hydrology and water quality.

  11. Effect of spin-orbit interactions on the structural stability, thermodynamic properties, and transport properties of lead under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, N. A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper investigates the role of spin-orbit interaction in the prediction of structural stability, lattice dynamics, elasticity, thermodynamic and transport properties (electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity) of lead under pressure with the FP-LMTO (full-potential linear-muffin-tin orbital) method for the first-principles band structure calculations. Our calculations were carried out for three polymorphous lead modifications (fcc, hcp, and bcc) in generalized gradient approximation with the exchange-correlation functional PBEsol. They suggest that compared to the scalar-relativistic calculation, the account for the SO effects insignificantly influences the compressibility of Pb. At the same time, in the calculation of phonon spectra and transport properties, the role of SO interaction is important, at least, for P ≲150 GPa. At higher pressures, the contribution from SO interaction reduces but not vanishes. As for the relative structural stability, our studies show that SO effects influence weakly the pressure of the fcc →hcp transition and much higher the pressure of the hcp →bcc transition.

  12. Heat transport in two-dimensional materials by directly solving the phonon Boltzmann equation under Callaway's dual relaxation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yangyu; Wang, Moran

    2017-10-01

    The single mode relaxation time approximation has been demonstrated to greatly underestimate the lattice thermal conductivity of two-dimensional materials due to the collective effect of phonon normal scattering. Callaway's dual relaxation model represents a good approximation to the otherwise ab initio solution of the phonon Boltzmann equation. In this work we develop a discrete-ordinate-method (DOM) scheme for the numerical solution of the phonon Boltzmann equation under Callaway's model. Heat transport in a graphene ribbon with different geometries is modeled by our scheme, which produces results quite consistent with the available molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo simulations, and experimental measurements. Callaway's lattice thermal conductivity model with empirical boundary scattering rates is examined and shown to overestimate or underestimate the direct DOM solution. The length convergence of the lattice thermal conductivity of a rectangular graphene ribbon is explored and found to depend appreciably on the ribbon width, with a semiquantitative correlation provided between the convergence length and the width. Finally, we predict the existence of a phonon Knudsen minimum in a graphene ribbon only at a low system temperature and isotope concentration so that the average normal scattering rate is two orders of magnitude stronger than the intrinsic resistive one. The present work will promote not only the methodology for the solution of the phonon Boltzmann equation but also the theoretical modeling and experimental detection of hydrodynamic phonon transport in two-dimensional materials.

  13. A multi-scale approach of mechanical and transport properties of cementitious materials under rises of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caratini, G.

    2012-01-01

    The modern industrial activities (storage of nuclear waste, geothermal wells, nuclear power plants,...) can submit cementitious materials to some extreme conditions, for example at temperatures above 200 C. This level of temperature will induce phenomena of dehydration in the cement paste, particularly impacting the CSH hydrates which led to the mechanical cohesion. The effects of these temperatures on the mechanical and transport properties have been the subject of this thesis.To understand these effects, we need to take into account the heterogeneous, porous, multi-scale aspects of these materials. To do this, micro-mechanics and homogenization tools based on the Eshelby problem's solution were used. Moreover, to support this multi-scale modeling, mechanical testing based on the theory of porous media were conducted. The measurements of modulus compressibility, permeability and porosity under confining pressure were used to investigate the mechanisms of degradation of these materials during thermal loads up to 400 C. (author)

  14. Transport and degradation of pesticides in a biopurification system under variable flux Part II: A macrocosm study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wilde, Tineke; Spanoghe, Pieter; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Jaeken, Peter; Springael, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Transport of bentazone, isoproturon, linuron, metamitron and metalaxyl were studied under three different flows in macrocosms. The aim was to verify the observations from Part I of the accompanying paper, with an increase in column volume and decrease in chemical and hydraulic load. Very limited breakthrough occurred in the macrocosms for all pesticides, except bentazone, at all flows. From batch degradation experiments, it was observed that the lag time of metamitron and linuron decreased drastically in time for all flows, indicating a growth in the pesticide degrading population. This in contrast to isoproturon and metalaxyl, where an increase in lag time could be observed in time for all flows. From the batch degradation experiments, it could be concluded that the influence of flow on the lag time was minimal and that the inoculation of the pesticide-primed soil had a little surplus value on degradation. - Retention and degradation of pesticides in macrocosms liable to different fluxes.

  15. Transport and degradation of pesticides in a biopurification system under variable flux Part II: A macrocosm study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wilde, Tineke, E-mail: dewilde.tineke@gmail.co [Laboratory of Crop Protection Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Spanoghe, Pieter [Laboratory of Crop Protection Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Ryckeboer, Jaak [Division Soil and Water Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, K.U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Jaeken, Peter [PCF-Royal Research Station of Gorsem, De Brede Akker 13, 3800 Sint-Truiden (Belgium); Springael, Dirk [Division Soil and Water Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, K.U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    Transport of bentazone, isoproturon, linuron, metamitron and metalaxyl were studied under three different flows in macrocosms. The aim was to verify the observations from Part I of the accompanying paper, with an increase in column volume and decrease in chemical and hydraulic load. Very limited breakthrough occurred in the macrocosms for all pesticides, except bentazone, at all flows. From batch degradation experiments, it was observed that the lag time of metamitron and linuron decreased drastically in time for all flows, indicating a growth in the pesticide degrading population. This in contrast to isoproturon and metalaxyl, where an increase in lag time could be observed in time for all flows. From the batch degradation experiments, it could be concluded that the influence of flow on the lag time was minimal and that the inoculation of the pesticide-primed soil had a little surplus value on degradation. - Retention and degradation of pesticides in macrocosms liable to different fluxes.

  16. Communication: Electronic and transport properties of molecular junctions under a finite bias: A dual mean field approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shuanglong; Feng, Yuan Ping; Zhang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    We show that when a molecular junction is under an external bias, its properties cannot be uniquely determined by the total electron density in the same manner as the density functional theory for ground state properties. In order to correctly incorporate bias-induced nonequilibrium effects, we present a dual mean field (DMF) approach. The key idea is that the total electron density together with the density of current-carrying electrons are sufficient to determine the properties of the system. Two mean fields, one for current-carrying electrons and the other one for equilibrium electrons can then be derived. Calculations for a graphene nanoribbon junction show that compared with the commonly used ab initio transport theory, the DMF approach could significantly reduce the electric current at low biases due to the non-equilibrium corrections to the mean field potential in the scattering region

  17. Sulfur deposition changes under sulfate geoengineering conditions: quasi-biennial oscillation effects on the transport and lifetime of stratospheric aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioni, Daniele; Pitari, Giovanni; Tuccella, Paolo; Curci, Gabriele

    2018-02-01

    Sustained injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the tropical lower stratosphere has been proposed as a climate engineering technique for the coming decades. Among several possible environmental side effects, the increase in sulfur deposition deserves additional investigation. In this study we present results from a composition-climate coupled model (University of L'Aquila Composition-Chemistry Model, ULAQ-CCM) and a chemistry-transport model (Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Transport Model, GEOS-Chem), assuming a sustained lower-stratospheric equatorial injection of 8 Tg SO2 yr-1. Total S deposition is found to globally increase by 5.2 % when sulfate geoengineering is deployed, with a clear interhemispheric asymmetry (+3.8 and +10.3 % in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and the Southern Hemisphere (SH), due to +2.2 and +1.8 Tg S yr-1, respectively). The two models show good consistency, both globally and on a regional scale under background and geoengineering conditions, except for S-deposition changes over Africa and the Arctic. The consistency exists with regard to time-averaged values but also with regard to monthly and interannual deposition changes. The latter is driven essentially by the variability in stratospheric large-scale transport associated with the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). Using an externally nudged QBO, it is shown how a zonal wind E shear favors aerosol confinement in the tropical pipe and a significant increase in their effective radius (+13 % with respect to W shear conditions). The net result is an increase in the downward cross-tropopause S flux over the tropics with dominant E shear conditions with respect to W shear periods (+0.61 Tg S yr-1, +42 %, mostly due to enhanced aerosol gravitational settling) and a decrease over the extratropics (-0.86 Tg S yr-1, -35 %, mostly due to decreased large-scale stratosphere-troposphere exchange of geoengineering sulfate). This translates into S-deposition changes that are significantly

  18. Transport of Silica Colloid through Saturated Porous Media under Different Hydrogeochemical and Hydrodynamic Conditions Considering Managed Aquifer Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Colloids may have an important role in regulating the structure and function of groundwater ecosystems, and may influence the migration of low solubility contaminants in groundwater. There is, however, a degree of uncertainty about how colloids behave under the variable hydrogeochemical and hydrodynamic conditions that occur during managed aquifer recharge. We used an online monitoring system to monitor the transport of silica colloid in saturated porous media under different hydrogeochemical conditions, including a range of pH values (5, 7, and 9, ionic strengths (<0.0005, 0.02, and 0.05 M, cation valences (Na+, Ca2+, flow rates (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mL/min. The results showed that silica colloid was more likely to deposit on the surface of porous media in acidic conditions (pH = 5 than in alkaline conditions (pH = 9, indicating that the risks of pollution from colloidal interactions would be higher when the pH of the recharge water was higher. Colloid deposition occurred when the ionic strength of the colloidal suspension increased, and bivalent cations had a greater effect than monovalent cations. This suggests that bivalent cation-rich recharge water might affect the porosity of the porous medium because of colloid deposition during the managed aquifer recharge process. As the flow rate increased, the migration ability of silica colloid increased. We simulated the migration of silica colloid in porous media with the COMSOL Multiphysics model.

  19. Antioxidant and oxidative stress parameters in brain of Heteropneustes fossilis under air exposure condition; role of mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan

    2013-09-01

    Many fishes are exposed to air in their natural habitat or during their commercial handling. In natural habitat or during commercial handling, the cat fish Heteropneustes fossilis is exposed to air for >24h. Data on its oxidative metabolism in the above condition are not available. Oxidative stress (OS) indices (lipid and protein oxidation), toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS: H2O2) generation, antioxidative status (levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase, ascorbic acid and non-protein sulfhydryl) and activities of electron transport chain (ETC) enzymes (complex I-IV) were investigated in brain tissue of H. fossilis under air exposure condition (0, 3, 6, 12 and 18 h at 25°C). Decreased activities of antioxidant (except catalase) and ETC enzymes (except complex II) with increased H2O2 and OS levels were observed in the tissue under water deprivation condition. Positive correlation was observed for complex II activity and non-protein thiol groups with time period of air exposure. The critical time period to induce OS and to reduce most of the studied antioxidant level in brain was found to be 3-6h air exposure. The data can be useful to minimize the stress generated during commercial handling of the live fishes those exposed to air in general and H. fossilis in particular. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Co-release of noradrenaline and dopamine in the cerebral cortex elicited by single train and repeated train stimulation of the locus coeruleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Pierluigi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies by our group suggest that extracellular dopamine (DA and noradrenaline (NA may be co-released from noradrenergic nerve terminals in the cerebral cortex. We recently demonstrated that the concomitant release of DA and NA could be elicited in the cerebral cortex by electrical stimulation of the locus coeruleus (LC. This study analyses the effect of both single train and repeated electrical stimulation of LC on NA and DA release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, occipital cortex (Occ, and caudate nucleus. To rule out possible stressful effects of electrical stimulation, experiments were performed on chloral hydrate anaesthetised rats. Results Twenty min electrical stimulation of the LC, with burst type pattern of pulses, increased NA and DA both in the mPFC and in the Occ. NA in both cortices and DA in the mPFC returned to baseline within 20 min after the end of the stimulation period, while DA in the Occ reached a maximum increase during 20 min post-stimulation and remained higher than baseline values at 220 min post-stimulation. Local perfusion with tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10 μM markedly reduced baseline NA and DA in the mPFC and Occ and totally suppressed the effect of electrical stimulation in both areas. A sequence of five 20 min stimulations at 20 min intervals were delivered to the LC. Each stimulus increased NA to the same extent and duration as the first stimulus, whereas DA remained elevated at the time next stimulus was delivered, so that baseline DA progressively increased in the mPFC and Occ to reach about 130 and 200% the initial level, respectively. In the presence of the NA transport (NAT blocker desipramine (DMI, 100 μM, multiple LC stimulation still increased extracellular NA and DA levels. Electrical stimulation of the LC increased NA levels in the homolateral caudate nucleus, but failed to modify DA level. Conclusion The results confirm and extend that LC stimulation induces a concomitant

  1. The behaviour of transport from the fission products caesium and strontium in coated particles for high temperature reactors under irradiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoller, P.

    1976-07-01

    At first survey is given about existing knowledge of the behaviour of caesium and strontium fission product transport in coated particles. In order to describe the complicated fission product transport mechanisms under irradiation conditions a suitable calculating model (SLIPPER) is taken over and modified to the special problems of an irradiation experiment. Fundamentally, the fission product transport is represented by the two contributions of diffusion and recoil, at which the diffusion is described by effective diffusion coefficients. In difference of that the possibility of a two-phase-diffusion is examined for the Cs diffusion in the fuel kernel. The model application on measuring results from irradiation experiments of KFA-Juelich and Mol-Belgien allowed the explanation from the characteristic of fission product transport in coated particles under irradiation conditions and produced effective diffusion coefficients for the fission products Cs and Sr. (orig.) [de

  2. Biogeochemical Attributes That Affect the Fate and Transport of Military Relevant Contaminants Under Freeze-thaw Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMonte, J.; Price, C. L.; Seiter, J.; Crocker, F. H.; Douglas, T.; Chappell, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The roles and missions that the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) undertakes in the Arctic are being reshaped by significant changes in the operational environment as a result of rising global temperatures and increased development of the vast training ranges available in Alaska. The Arctic is warming faster than any other region on Earth resulting in changing seasonality and precipitation patterns that, in turn, are leading to alterations in above ground vegetation, permafrost stability and summer sea ice extent. Collectively, these poorly defined ecosystem changes play critical roles in affecting the transport and eventual fate of persistent military relevant contaminants through unique Arctic and Subarctic terrestrial environments. As a result, management of military contaminants in a changing Arctic represents a unique and potentially significant liability to the Army and the DoD. The United States footprint in the Arctic region falls within the state of Alaska and U.S. Army Alaska manages 10% of all active Army training lands worldwide, which cover nearly 2,500 square miles in total land area. Primary recalcitrant contaminants of concern at active training ranges and at legacy sites include energetics (i.e. RDX and 2,4-dinitrotoluene) and heavy metals (i.e. antimony and lead). Through a series of field sampling and laboratory experiments, the objectives of this work are to: 1) quantify soil biogeochemical attributes that effect the physical fate and transport of military relevant contaminants in Arctic and subarctic soils under freeze-thaw conditions with a focus on near surface processes, and 2) quantify microbial diversity in Arctic and subarctic soils and the environmental constraints on community activity while exploring the effects of amendments on community function as they relate to contaminant transformation.

  3. 25 CFR Appendix A to Subpart G - List of Activities Eligible for Funding Under BIA Transportation Facility Maintenance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Transportation Facility Maintenance Program A Appendix A to Subpart G Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance Pt. 170... Transportation Facility Maintenance Program The following activities are eligible for BIA Transportation Facility...

  4. The utility industry's perspective on OCRWM's plans for developing the system for transporting spent fuel under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodnick, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The electric utility industry has a vital interest in the transport program to be developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The industry's interest stems in part from the fact that the DOE's transportation program is financed by the Nuclear Waste Fund which is made up of ratepayer funds. However, the industry is also vitally interested in the DOE's transportation program because it could impact the ongoing transportation operations of all nuclear utilities, and, perhaps most importantly, without the utility industry's input, DOE is not able to develop an optimal transportation program. The NWPA contemplates that the DOE conducts its transportation program in accordance with the existing federal and state regulatory structure. DOE has significant discretion, however, in creating and implementing the business, operational and institutional aspects of its NWPA transportation program. The utility industry intends to ensure that the DOE meets the challenge to develop a safe, efficient and economically sound program to transport spent fuel and high-level waste to the appropriate federal facilities

  5. Noradrenaline represses PPAR (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor) gamma2 gene expression in brown adipocytes: intracellular signalling and effects on PPARgamma2 and PPARgamma1 protein levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Eva M; Nielsen, Ronni; Petrovic, Natasa

    2004-01-01

    phases, with the highest mRNA levels being found at the time of transition between the phases. PPARgamma2 mRNA levels were downregulated by noradrenaline treatment (EC50, 0.1 microM) in both proliferative and differentiating cells, with a lagtime of 1 h and lasting up to 4 h, after which expression...... was thus to investigate the influence of noradrenaline on PPARgamma gene expression in brown adipocytes. In primary cultures of brown adipocytes, PPARgamma2 mRNA levels were 20-fold higher than PPARgamma1 mRNA levels. PPARgamma expression occurred during both the proliferation and the differentiation...... gradually recovered. The down-regulation was beta-adrenoceptor-induced and intracellularly mediated via cAMP and protein kinase A; the signalling pathway did not involve phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Src, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. Treatment...

  6. Hypofunction of prefrontal cortex NMDA receptors does not change stress-induced release of dopamine and noradrenaline in amygdala but disrupts aversive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Arco, Alberto; Ronzoni, Giacomo; Mora, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    A dysfunction of prefrontal cortex has been associated with the exacerbated response to stress observed in schizophrenic patients and high-risk individuals to develop psychosis. The hypofunction of NMDA glutamatergic receptors induced by NMDA antagonists produces cortico-limbic hyperactivity, and this is used as an experimental model to resemble behavioural abnormalities observed in schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether injections of NMDA antagonists into the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat change (1) the increases of dopamine, noradrenaline and corticosterone concentrations produced by acute stress in amygdala, and (2) the acquisition of aversive memory related to a stressful event. Male Wistar rats were implanted with guide cannulae to perform microdialysis and bilateral microinjections (0.5 μl/side) of the NMDA antagonist 3-[(R)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl]-propyl-1-phophonic acid (CPP) (25 and 100 ng). Prefrontal injections were performed 60 min before restraint stress in microdialysis experiments, or training (footshock; 0.6 mA, 2 s) in inhibitory avoidance test. Retention latency was evaluated 24 h after training as an index of aversive memory. Acute stress increased amygdala dialysate concentrations of dopamine (160% of baseline), noradrenaline (145% of baseline) and corticosterone (170% of baseline). Prefrontal injections of CPP did not change the increases of dopamine, noradrenaline or corticosterone produced by stress. In contrast, CPP significantly reduced the retention latency in the inhibitory avoidance test. These results suggest that the hypofunction of prefrontal NMDA receptors does not change the sensitivity to acute stress of dopamine and noradrenaline projections to amygdala but impairs the acquisition of aversive memory.

  7. Analysis of microdialysate monoamines, including noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin, using capillary ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Barbara; Gifu, Elena-Patricia; Sandu, Ioana; Denoroy, Luc; Parrot, Sandrine

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical methods are very often used to detect catecholamine and indolamine neurotransmitters separated by conventional reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The present paper presents the development of a chromatographic method to detect monoamines present in low-volume brain dialysis samples using a capillary column filled with sub-2μm particles. Several parameters (repeatability, linearity, accuracy, limit of detection) for this new ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method with electrochemical detection were examined after optimization of the analytical conditions. Noradrenaline, adrenaline, serotonin, dopamine and its metabolite 3-methoxytyramine were separated in 1μL of injected sample volume; they were detected above concentrations of 0.5-1nmol/L, with 2.1-9.5% accuracy and intra-assay repeatability equal to or less than 6%. The final method was applied to very low volume dialysates from rat brain containing monoamine traces. The study demonstrates that capillary UHPLC with electrochemical detection is suitable for monitoring dialysate monoamines collected at high sampling rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Increase in serum noradrenaline concentration by short dives with bradycardia in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin Tursiops aduncus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Miwa; Tomoshige, Mika; Ito, Miki; Koga, Sotaro; Yanagisawa, Makio; Bungo, Takashi; Makiguchi, Yuya

    2017-07-01

    In cetaceans, diving behavior immediately induces a change in blood circulation to favor flow to the brain and heart; this is achieved by intense vasoconstriction of the blood vessels that serve other organs. This blood circulation response is allied to a decrease in heart rate in order to optimize oxygen usage during diving. Vasoconstrictors are present in all mammals and stimulate the contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of blood vessels. The most important of these vasoconstrictors are the hormones adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA), and angiotensin II (ANG II). At present, the contribution of these hormones to vasoconstriction during diving in cetaceans is unclear. To elucidate their possible roles, changes in serum levels of A, NA and ANG II were monitored together with heart rate in the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin Tursiops aduncus during 90 and 180s dives. Both brief diving periods induced an increase in serum NA concentration and a decrease in heart rate; however, no changes were detected in serum levels of A or ANG II. These data indicate that NA may play a role in diving-induced vasoconstriction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Noradrenaline and acetylcholine responsiveness of glucose-monitoring and glucose-insensitive neurons in the mediodorsal prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Bernadett; Szabó, István; Csetényi, Bettina; Hormay, Edina; Papp, Szilárd; Keresztes, Dóra; Karádi, Zoltán

    2014-01-16

    The mediodorsal prefrontal cortex (mdPFC), as part of the forebrain glucose-monitoring (GM) system, plays important role in several regulatory processes to control the internal state of the organism and to initiate behavioral outputs accordingly. Little is known, however, about the neurochemical sensitivity of neurons located in this area. Substantial evidence indicates that the locus ceruleus - noradrenaline (NA) projection system and the nucleus basalis magnocellularis - cholinergic projection system regulate behavioral state and state dependent processing of sensory information, various cognitive functions already associated with the mdPFC. The main goal of the present study was to examine noradrenergic and cholinergic responsiveness of glucose-monitoring and glucose-insensitive (GIS) neurons in the mediodorsal prefrontal cortex. One fifth of the neurons tested changed in firing rate to microelectrophoretically applied NA. Responsiveness of the GM cells to this catecholamine proved to be significantly higher than that of the GIS units. Microiontophoretic application of acetylcholine (Ach) resulted in activity changes (predominantly facilitation) of more than 40% of the mdPFC neurons. Proportion of Ach sensitive units among the GM and the GIS neurons was found to be similar. The glucose-monitoring neurons of the mdPFC and their distinct NA and remarkable Ach sensitivity are suggested to be of particular significance in prefrontal control of adaptive behaviors. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Analysis of an optimal public transport structure under a carbon emission constraint: a case study in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linling; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Yang, Tong

    2018-02-01

    Along with the rapid development of the transportation industry, the problems of the energy crisis and transport emissions have become increasingly serious. The success of traffic emission reduction is related to the realization of global low-carbon goals. Placing priority on public transport is the internationally recognized traffic development model. This paper takes Shanghai, China, as an example to examine the optimal public transport structure. Five factors were selected from personal and public perspectives, including travel costs, crowding degree, occupied area, traffic emissions, and operating subsidies. The objective functions of these factors were transformed into satisfaction functions, and a multi-objective programming model was used to solve for the optimal proportions of the ground bus and rail transit, and the carbon emission reduction potential was analyzed in different scenarios. The study showed that the actual proportion of rail transit in Shanghai was slightly lower than the optimal value, and accompanied by low satisfaction with each factor relative to the optimal value. It was difficult to achieve the traffic emission reduction targets by only reducing satisfaction with other factors except carbon emissions assuming a fixed proportion of public transport. As the proportion of total travel represented by public transport increased, rail transit became the main mode of public transport and the usage trend was more obvious, but the structure of public transport gradually reached a relatively stable state after a certain level of development. Compared to reducing carbon emissions by changing satisfaction with other factors, it was easier to achieve traffic emission reduction targets by increasing the proportion of public transport. To increase the proportion of public transport travel and achieve the goal of traffic reduction in the future, further improvements are needed in the quality of public transport system services, public transport

  11. A novel ion transport membrane reactor for fundamental investigations of oxygen permeation and oxy-combustion under reactive flow conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchen, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Ion transport membrane (ITM) reactors present an attractive technology for combined air separation and fuel conversion in applications such as syngas production, oxidative coupling or oxy-combustion, with the promise of lower capital and operating costs, as well higher product selectivities than traditional technologies. The oxygen permeation rate through a given ITM is defined by the membrane temperature and oxygen chemical potential difference across it. Both of these parameters can be strongly influenced by thermochemical reactions occurring in the vicinity of the membrane, though in the literature they are often characterized in terms of the well mixed product stream at the reactor exit. This work presents the development of a novel ITM reactor for the fundamental investigation of the coupling between fuel conversion and oxygen permeation under well defined fluid dynamic and thermodynamic conditions, including provisions for spatially resolved, in-situ investigations. A planar, finite gap stagnation flow reactor with optical and probe access to the reaction zone is used to facilitate in-situ measurements and cross-validation with detailed numerical simulations. Using this novel reactor, baseline measurements are presented to elucidate the impact of the sweep gas fuel (CH4) fraction on the oxygen permeation and fuel conversion. In addition, the difference between well-mixed gas compositions measured at the reactor outlet and those measured in the vicinity of the membrane surface are discussed, demonstrating the unique utility of the reactor. © 2012 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Solid waste leach characteristics and contaminant-sediment interactions Volume 2: Contaminant transport under unsaturated moisture contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenmeier, C.W.; Serne, R.J.; Conca, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    The objectives of this report and subsequent volumes include describing progress on (1) development and optimization of experimental methods to quantify the release of contaminants from solid wastes and their subsequent interactions with unsaturated sediments and (2) the creation of empirical data that become input parameters to performance assessment (PA) analyses for future Hanford Site disposal units and baseline risk assessments for inactive and existing solid waste disposal units. For this report, efforts focused on developing methodologies to evaluate contaminant transport in Trench 8 (W-5 Burial Ground) sediments under unsaturated (vadose zone) conditions. To accomplish this task, a series of flow-through column tests were run using standard saturated column systems, Wierenga unsaturated column systems (both commercial and modified), and the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA). The reactants investigated were 85 Sr, 236 U, and 238 U as reactive tracers, and tritium as a non-reactive tracer. Results indicate that for moderately unsaturated conditions (volumetric water contents >50 % of saturation), the Wierenga system performed reasonably well such that long water residence times (50-147 h) were achieved, and reasonably good steady-state flow conditions were maintained. The major drawbacks in using this system for reactive tracer work included (1) the inability to achieve reproducible and constant moisture content below 50% of saturation, (2) the four to six month time required to complete a single test, and (3) the propensity for mechanical failure resulting from laboratory power outages during the prolonged testing period

  13. International regulations on labour health and safety applied to fishing and maritime transport sectors. Are maritime workers under-protected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Julio Louro; Portela, Rosa Mary de la Campa; Pardo, Guadalupe Martín

    2012-01-01

    The work activity developed on board is of great importance in our nearby environment, and it has a series of peculiarities that determine the service rendering of sea workers. On the other hand, work at sea is developed on an international basis. Nowadays such work becomes a completely globalised industrial sector in relation to the elements that make up the ship's operation, including manpower. For that reason several relevant international organisations have paid attention to this industrial sector and have adopted a broad regulation on this matter. In the case of the European Union, the Community procedure emphasises enormous interest in providing specific and comprehensive training to seafarers, as well as in regulating working time on board with the aim of minimising the safety problems caused by fatigue. In the present article a schematic presentation of regulations on workers' health and occupational safety protection derived from the European Union, the International Maritime Organisation, and the International Labour Organisation has been done. Also it shows what parts of these regulations are not applicable to the work on board, and it reveals how the workers of fishing and maritime transport sectors are under-protected with regard to the guarantee of their health and occupational safety compared to workers in other sectors.

  14. Rapid ammonia gas transport accounts for futile transmembrane cycling under NH3/NH4+ toxicity in plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T; Li, Mingyuan; Becker, Alexander; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2013-12-01

    Futile transmembrane NH3/NH4(+) cycling in plant root cells, characterized by extremely rapid fluxes and high efflux to influx ratios, has been successfully linked to NH3/NH4(+) toxicity. Surprisingly, the fundamental question of which species of the conjugate pair (NH3 or NH4(+)) participates in such fluxes is unresolved. Using flux analyses with the short-lived radioisotope (13)N and electrophysiological, respiratory, and histochemical measurements, we show that futile cycling in roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is predominately of the gaseous NH3 species, rather than the NH4(+) ion. Influx of (13)NH3/(13)NH4(+), which exceeded 200 µmol g(-1) h(-1), was not commensurate with membrane depolarization or increases in root respiration, suggesting electroneutral NH3 transport. Influx followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics for NH3 (but not NH4(+)), as a function of external concentration (Km = 152 µm, Vmax = 205 µmol g(-1) h(-1)). Efflux of (13)NH3/(13)NH4(+) responded with a nearly identical Km. Pharmacological characterization of influx and efflux suggests mediation by aquaporins. Our study fundamentally revises the futile-cycling model by demonstrating that NH3 is the major permeating species across both plasmalemma and tonoplast of root cells under toxicity conditions.

  15. Particles and solutes migration in porous medium : radionuclides and clayey particles simultaneous transport under the effect of a salinity gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with the radiation protection of high-level and long-life radioactive waste storages. The colloids presence in ground waters can accelerate the radionuclides migration in natural geological deposits. The aim of this thesis is then to control particularly the particles motion in porous medium in order to anticipate quantitatively their migration. Liquid chromatography columns are filled with a clayey sand and fed with a decreasing concentration sodium chloride solution in order to study the particles outlet under a salinity gradient. When the porous medium undergoes a decrease of salinity it deteriorates. The adsorption of the cations : sodium 22, calcium 45, cesium 137 and neptunium 237 is then studied by the ions exchange method. The radionuclide solution is injected before the decrease of the feed solution salinity. The decrease of the sodium chloride concentration leads to the decrease of the radionuclides concentration because the adsorption competition between the sodium ion and the injected cation is lower. The particles transport, without fouling of the porous medium, is carried out in particular physical and chemical conditions which are described. (O.L.). 71 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs

  16. Reduced capacity of cardiac efferent sympathetic neurons to release noradrenaline and modify cardiac function in tachycardia-induced canine heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, R; Nadeau, R; Laurent, C; Boudreau, G; Armour, J A

    1996-09-01

    To investigate the capacity of efferent sympathetic neurons to modulate the failing heart, stellate ganglion stimulation was performed in dogs with biventricular heart failure induced by rapid ventricular pacing (240 beats/min) for 4-6 weeks. Less noradrenaline was released from cardiac myoneural junctions into coronary sinus blood in response to left stellate ganglion stimulation in anesthetized failing heart preparations (582 pg/mL, lower and upper 95% confidence intervals of 288 and 1174 pg/mL, n = 19) compared with healthy heart preparations (6391 pg/mL, 95% confidence intervals of 4180 and 9770 pg/mL, n = 14; p < 0.001). There was substantial adrenaline extraction by failing hearts (49 +/- 6%), although it was slightly lower than in healthy heart preparations (65 +/- 9%, p = 0.055). In contrast with healthy heart preparations, no net release of adrenaline occurred during stellate ganglion stimulation in any of the failing heart preparations, and ventricular tissue levels of adrenaline fell below the sensitivity limit of the HPLC technique. In failing heart preparations, maximal electrical stimulation of right or left stellate ganglia resulted in minimal augmentation of left ventricular intramyocardial (17%) and chamber (12%) systolic pressures. These indices were augmented by 145 and 97%, respectively, following exogenous noradrenaline administration. Thus, the cardiac efferent sympathetic neurons' reduced capacity to release noradrenaline and modify cardiac function can contribute to reduction of sympathetic support to the failing heart.

  17. Towards real time spatially resolved data on sediment transport: 1) tracing the motion of the fluorescent soil particles under rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, John; Hardy, Rob; Pates, Jackie; James, Mike

    2017-04-01

    Understanding where sediment originates from and where it travels to, in what quantities and at which rate is at the heart of many questions surrounding sediment transport, including the connectivity problem. Progress towards unravelling these questions and deepening our understanding has come from a wide range of approaches, including laboratory and field experiments conducted at a variety of scales. In seeking to understand the connectivity of sources and sinks of sediment scientists have spent considerable energy in developing tracing technologies. These have included numerous studies that have relied on the chemical properties of the soil and sediment to establish source-sink connectivity, and the use of 137Ceasium, from radioactive fall-out, to map sediment redistribution. More recently there has been an upsurge in interest in the use of artificially applied soil tracers, including rare earth element oxides and magnetic minerals. However all these tracing methods have a significant drawback: they rely on the collection of samples to assess their concentration. This means that their spatial distribution cannot easily be established in situ and that the environment that is being studied is damaged by the sampling process; nor can data be collected in real time which allows a dynamic understanding of erosion and transport processes to be developed. In this paper we present a methodology for use with a commercially available fluorescent tracer. The tracer is produced in a range of sizes and fluorescent signatures and can be applied to the soil surface. Here we report on an application that combines novel fluorescent videography techniques with custom image processing to trace the motion of the fluorescent soil particles under rainfall. Here we demonstrate the tracking of multiple sub-millimetre particles simultaneously, establishing their position 50 times a second with submillimetre precision. From this we are able to visualise and quantify parameters such as

  18. Catchment-scale contaminant transport under changing hydro-climatic conditions in the Aral Sea Drainage Basin, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarsjö, Jerker; Törnqvist, Rebecka; Su, Ye

    2013-04-01

    Dependable projections of future water availability and quality are essential in the management of water resources. Changes in land use, water use and climate can have large impacts on water and contaminant flows across extensive catchments that may contain different administrative regions where shared water resources must be managed. We consider the extensive Aral Sea Drainage Basin (ASDB) and the Amu Darya River Delta in Central Asia, which are currently under severe water stress due to large-scale irrigation expansion. We interpret data on hydro-climatic conditions, main contaminants of surface water and shallow groundwater systems, location of rivers and canal networks, and groundwater flow directions. The data are used together with climate change projections from general circulation models (GCMs) as input to hydrological and (advective) transport modelling. The main goal is to assess how regional transport pathways and travel times have changed, and are likely to change further, in response to past and projected future hydro-climatic changes. More specifically, the hydrological modelling was based on temperature and precipitation change (ΔT and ΔP) results from 65 GCM projections of 21st century conditions (specifically considering time periods around 2025, 2050, and 2100), relative to reference conditions around 1975 (taken from the reference period 1961-1990). Whereas ΔT is robustly projected to increase with time, the projected magnitude of ΔP differs more among projections for the distant future (2100) than for the near future (2025), with uncertainty remaining even about the direction of change (i.e., positive or negative ΔP). However, mainly due to the projected temperature-driven increases in evapotranspiration, ensemble average results show that the Amu Darya river discharge Q in the downstream ASDB is likely to show a decreasing trend throughout the 21st century. Notably, projected changes in the upstream, mountainous regions have a relatively

  19. Characterizing the transplanar and in-plane water transport properties of fabrics under different sweat rate: Forced Flow Water Transport Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, K. P. M.; Chau, K. H.; Kan, C. W.; Fan, J. T.

    2015-11-01

    The water absorption and transport properties of fabrics are critical to wear comfort, especially for sportswear and protective clothing. A new testing apparatus, namely Forced Flow Water Transport Tester (FFWTT), was developed for characterizing the transplanar and in-plane wicking properties of fabrics based on gravimetric and image analysis technique. The uniqueness of this instrument is that the rate of water supply is adjustable to simulate varying sweat rates with reference to the specific end-use conditions ranging from sitting, walking, running to other strenuous activities. This instrument is versatile in terms of the types of fabrics that can be tested. Twenty four types of fabrics with varying constructions and surface finishes were tested. The results showed that FFWTT was highly sensitive and reproducible in differentiating these fabrics and it suggests that water absorption and transport properties of fabrics are sweat rate-dependent. Additionally, two graphic methods were proposed to map the direction of liquid transport and its relation to skin wetness, which provides easy and direct comparison among different fabrics. Correlation analysis showed that FFWTT results have strong correlation with subjective wetness sensation, implying validity and usefulness of the instrument.

  20. Knock-down of a tonoplast localized low-affinity nitrate transporter OsNPF7.2 affects rice growth under high nitrate ssupply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The large nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter family (NPF has been shown to transport diverse substrates, including nitrate, amino acids, peptides, phytohormones, and glucosinolates. However, the rice (Oryza sativa root-specific expressed member OsNPF7.2 has not been characterized. Here, our data show that OsNPF7.2 is a tonoplast localized low-affinity nitrate transporter, and affects rice growth under high nitrate supply. The expression analysis showed that OsNPF7.2 was mainly expressed in the elongation and maturation zones of roots, especially in the root sclerenchyma, cortex and stele. It was also induced by high concentrations of nitrate. Subcellular localization analysis showed that OsNPF7.2 was localized on the tonoplast of large and small vacuoles. Heterogenous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes suggested that OsNPF7.2 was a low-affinity nitrate transporter. Knock-down of OsNPF7.2 retarded rice growth under high concentrations of nitrate. Therefore, we deduce that OsNPF7.2 plays a role in intracellular allocation of nitrate in roots, and thus influences rice growth under high nitrate supply.

  1. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... This analysis starts with a review of ocean transportation demand and supply including projections of ship capacity demand and world shipbuilding capacity under various economic and political assumptions...

  2. Low temperature carrier transport study of monolayer MoS{sub 2} field effect transistors prepared by chemical vapor deposition under an atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xinke, E-mail: xkliu@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: wujing026@gmail.com; He, Jiazhu; Tang, Dan; Lu, Youming; Zhu, Deliang; Liu, Wenjun; Cao, Peijiang; Han, Sun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Technology of Ceramics, Nanshan District Key Lab for Biopolymer and Safety Evaluation, Shenzhen University, 3688 Nanhai Ave, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Liu, Qiang; Wen, Jiao; Yu, Wenjie [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, CAS, 865 Chang Ning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Liu, Wenjun [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Department of Microelectronics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Jing, E-mail: xkliu@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: wujing026@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Road, 117576 Singapore (Singapore); He, Zhubing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, 1088 Xueyuan Road, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Ang, Kah-Wee [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, 117583 Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-09-28

    Large size monolayer Molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub 2}) was successfully grown by chemical vapor deposition method under an atmospheric pressure. The electrical transport properties of the fabricated back-gate monolayer MoS{sub 2} field effect transistors (FETs) were investigated under low temperatures; a peak field effect mobility of 59 cm{sup 2}V{sup −1}s{sup −1} was achieved. With the assist of Raman measurement under low temperature, this work identified the mobility limiting factor for the monolayer MoS{sub 2} FETs: homopolar phonon scattering under low temperature and electron-polar optical phonon scattering at room temperature.

  3. Dispersion and transport of tropospheric aerosol and pollutants in the Western Mediterranean: the role of the Po Valley under different transport regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Silvia; Fierli, Federico; Ravetta, François; Raut, Jean Christophe; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Decesari, Stefano; Diliberto, Luca; Größ, Johannes; Pap, Ines; Weinhold, Kay; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Cairo, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    This work reports a characterization of the vertical variability of tropospheric aerosol and gaseous pollutants, over the western Mediterranean, during the 2012 summer season. In particular, we investigate the role of the Po Valley region as a receptor and emissive region of both natural and anthropogenic aerosol. The observational analysis, based on a comprehensive database of meteorological, aerosol and chemical measurements, is integrated with a model analysis using the Lagrangian transport system FLEXPART combined with emission databases, and WRF-Chem, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry. Observations have been performed in the framework of the Supersito project by Regional Agency of Prevention and Environment of the Emilia Romagna region (ARPA-ER, Ital), the TRAQA campaign (TRAnsport et Qualité de l'Air au dessus du bassin Méditerranéen) performed in the ChArMEx (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) project, and the european project PEGASOS (Pan-European Gas-AeroSOl-climate interaction Study). An alternation between different transport regimes characterized the 2012 summer, resulting in a large variability of aerosol and pollution at different time and spatial scales. Particles of different nature have been discriminated basing on optical properties retrieved from lidar data and supported by in-situ observations and transport analysis. Results show that, during the analysed season, aerosol in the Po Valley was mainly confined below 2000 m and dominated (50% of detections) by spherical particles. Two events of dust advection from northern Africa were identified (19th-21th June and 29th June-2nd July), with intrusion and mixing with local pollution in the PBL and a non-negligible occurrence (~7%) of dust at the ground. Frequent events (22% of occurrence) of non-spherical particles resuspension, likely due to uplift of mineral soil particles, were observed from the ground to 2000 m during afternoon and evening. In the

  4. Dopamine, Noradrenaline and Serotonin Receptor Densities in the Striatum of Hemiparkinsonian Rats following Botulinum Neurotoxin-A Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, T; Zilles, K; Dikow, H; Hellfritsch, A; Cremer, M; Piel, M; Rösch, F; Hawlitschka, A; Schmitt, O; Wree, A

    2018-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) that causes a dopamine (DA) deficit in the caudate-putamen (CPu) accompanied by compensatory changes in other neurotransmitter systems. These changes result in severe motor and non-motor symptoms. To disclose the role of various receptor binding sites for DA, noradrenaline, and serotonin in the hemiparkinsonian (hemi-PD) rat model induced by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection, the densities of D 1 , D 2 /D 3 , α 1 , α 2 , and 5HT 2A receptors were longitudinally visualized and measured in the CPu of hemi-PD rats by quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography. We found a moderate increase in D 1 receptor density 3 weeks post lesion that decreased during longer survival times, a significant increase of D 2 /D 3 receptor density, and 50% reduction in 5HT 2A receptor density. α 1 receptor density remained unaltered in hemi-PD and α 2 receptors demonstrated a slight right-left difference increasing with post lesion survival. In a second step, the possible role of receptors on the known reduction of apomorphine-induced rotations in hemi-PD rats by intrastriatally injected Botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) was analyzed by measuring the receptor densities after BoNT-A injection. The application of this neurotoxin reduced D 2 /D 3 receptor density, whereas the other receptors mainly remained unaltered. Our results provide novel data for an understanding of the postlesional plasticity of dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic receptors in the hemi-PD rat model. The results further suggest a therapeutic effect of BoNT-A on the impaired motor behavior of hemi-PD rats by reducing the interhemispheric imbalance in D 2 /D 3 receptor density. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline adjust actions of myelinated afferents via modulation of presynaptic inhibition in the mouse spinal cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L García-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Gain control of primary afferent neurotransmission at their intraspinal terminals occurs by several mechanisms including primary afferent depolarization (PAD. PAD produces presynaptic inhibition via a reduction in transmitter release. While it is known that descending monoaminergic pathways complexly regulate sensory processing, the extent these actions include modulation of afferent-evoked PAD remains uncertain. We investigated the effects of serotonin (5HT, dopamine (DA and noradrenaline (NA on afferent transmission and PAD. Responses were evoked by stimulation of myelinated hindlimb cutaneous and muscle afferents in the isolated neonatal mouse spinal cord. Monosynaptic responses were examined in the deep dorsal horn either as population excitatory synaptic responses (recorded as extracellular field potentials; EFPs or intracellular excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs. The magnitude of PAD generated intraspinally was estimated from electrotonically back-propagating dorsal root potentials (DRPs recorded on lumbar dorsal roots. 5HT depressed the DRP by 76%. Monosynaptic actions were similarly depressed by 5HT (EFPs 54%; EPSCs 75% but with a slower time course. This suggests that depression of monosynaptic EFPs and DRPs occurs by independent mechanisms. DA and NA had similar depressant actions on DRPs but weaker effects on EFPs. IC50 values for DRP depression were 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 µM for 5HT, DA and NA, respectively. Depression of DRPs by monoamines was nearly-identical in both muscle and cutaneous afferent-evoked responses, supporting a global modulation of the multimodal afferents stimulated. 5HT, DA and NA produced no change in the compound antidromic potentials evoked by intraspinal microstimulation indicating that depression of the DRP is unrelated to direct changes in the excitability of intraspinal afferent fibers, but due to metabotropic receptor activation. In summary, both myelinated afferent-evoked DRPs and monosynaptic

  6. Electron scattering in graphene by defects in underlying h-BN layer: First-principles transport calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Tomoaki; Ohno, Takahisa

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the electronic structure and the transport properties of graphene adsorbed onto h-BN with carbon impurities or atomic vacancies using density functional theory and the non-equilibrium Green's function method. We find that the transport properties are degraded due to carrier doping and scattering off of localized defect states in h-BN. When graphene is doped by introducing defects in h-BN, the transmission spectra become asymmetric owing to the reduction of the electronic density of states, which contributes significantly to the degradation of graphene transport properties as compared with the effect of defect levels.

  7. A novel ion transport membrane reactor for fundamental investigations of oxygen permeation and oxy-combustion under reactive flow conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchen, Patrick; Apo, Daniel J.; Hunt, Anton; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2013-01-01

    Ion transport membrane (ITM) reactors present an attractive technology for combined air separation and fuel conversion in applications such as syngas production, oxidative coupling or oxy-combustion, with the promise of lower capital and operating

  8. An assessment of transportation issues under exceptional conditions : the case of the mass media and the Northridge Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    This study explores how the mass media covered transportation issues following the 1994 Northridge earthquake. The mass media were a vital channel for travel information, and they provided considerable information to the public about the safety of tr...

  9. Transpiration flow controls Zn transport in Brassica napus and Lolium multiflorum under toxic levels as evidenced from isotopic fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couder, Eléonore; Mattielli, Nadine; Drouet, Thomas; Smolders, Erik; Delvaux, Bruno; Iserentant, Anne; Meeus, Coralie; Maerschalk, Claude; Opfergelt, Sophie; Houben, David

    2015-11-01

    Stable zinc (Zn) isotope fractionation between soil and plant has been used to suggest the mechanisms affecting Zn uptake under toxic conditions. Here, changes in Zn isotope composition in soil, soil solution, root and shoot were studied for ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.) grown on three distinct metal-contaminated soils collected near Zn smelters (total Zn 0.7-7.5%, pH 4.8-7.3). The Zn concentrations in plants reflected a toxic Zn supply. The Zn isotopic fingerprint of total soil Zn varied from -0.05‰ to +0.26 ± 0.02‰ (δ66Zn values relative to the JMC 3-0749L standard) among soils, but the soil solution Zn was depleted in 66Zn, with a constant Zn isotope fractionation of about -0.1‰ δ66Zn unit compared to the bulk soil. Roots were enriched with 66Zn relative to soil solution (δ66Znroot - δ66Znsoil solution = Δ66Znroot-soil solution = +0.05 to +0.2 ‰) and shoots were strongly depleted in 66Zn relative to roots (Δ66Znshoot-root = -0.40 to -0.04 ‰). The overall δ66Zn values in shoots reflected that of the bulk soil, but were lowered by 0.1-0.3 ‰ units as compared to the latter. The isotope fractionation between root and shoot exhibited a markedly strong negative correlation (R2 = 0.83) with transpiration per unit of plant weight. Thus, the enrichment with light Zn isotopes in shoot progressed with increasing water flux per unit plant biomass dry weight, showing a passive mode of Zn transport by transpiration. Besides, the light isotope enrichment in shoots compared to roots was larger for rape than for rye grass, which may be related to the higher Zn retention in rape roots. This in turn may be related to the higher cation exchange capacity of rape roots. Our finding can be of use to trace the biogeochemical cycles of Zn and evidence the tolerance strategies developed by plants in Zn-excess conditions.

  10. Studies of the disruption prevention by ECRH at plasma current rise stage in limiter discharges/Possibility of an internal transport barrier producing under dominating electron transport in the T-10 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikaev, V.V.; Borshegovskij, A.A.; Chistyakov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    'Studies of the Disruption Prevention by ECRH at Plasma Current Rise Stage in Limiter Discharges' - Studies of disruption prevention by means of ECRH in T-10 at the plasma current rise phase in limiter discharges with circular plasma cross-section were performed. Reliable disruption prevention by ECRH at HF power (P HF ) min level equal to 20% of ohmic heating power P OH was demonstrated. m/n=2/1 mode MHD-activity developed before disruption (with characteristic time ∼ 120 ms) can be considered as disruption precursor and can be used in a feedback system. 'Possibility of an Internal Transport Barrier Producing under Dominating Electron Transport in the T-10 Tokamak' - The reversed shear experiments were carried out on T-10 at the HF power up to 1MW. The reversed shear in the core was produced by on-axis ECCD in direction opposite to the plasma current. There are no obvious signs of Internal Transport Barriers formation under condition when high-k turbulence determines the electron transport. (author)

  11. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-12-11

    -GEECO, the other demand sectors (such as residential or industry) are also represented. In this thesis, a comprehensive analysis was conducted of alternative fuels, vehicle technologies as well as transport infrastructure for the transport sector of Gauteng. As a result, there are many possibilities of reducing GHG emissions and/or of increasing energy efficiency in the transport sector by using alternative fuels or vehicle technologies. In scenario analysis, it was recognized that under current policies significant growth in both energy consumption and climate emissions can be expected in Gauteng. Marginal GHG abatement cost curves have been calculated, which permit the identification of least-cost mitigation measures for the transport sector under consideration of the whole energy system. It was shown that biofuels from waste cooking oil and cellulosic biomass as well as the substitution of fossil synthetic fuels with crude oil products could result in significant GHG emission reductions. Moreover, hybrid vehicles offer prospects for increasing energy efficiency and reducing GHG emissions at low marginal mitigation costs, where, it was identified that measures should first be applied for vehicles with high annual mileages such as buses, minibuses and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs). However, the analysis also showed that the transport sector is not the first sector to address for GHG mitigation as significant mitigation potentials with low associated costs lie in the provision of electricity and in the supply of fuels.

  12. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    -GEECO, the other demand sectors (such as residential or industry) are also represented. In this thesis, a comprehensive analysis was conducted of alternative fuels, vehicle technologies as well as transport infrastructure for the transport sector of Gauteng. As a result, there are many possibilities of reducing GHG emissions and/or of increasing energy efficiency in the transport sector by using alternative fuels or vehicle technologies. In scenario analysis, it was recognized that under current policies significant growth in both energy consumption and climate emissions can be expected in Gauteng. Marginal GHG abatement cost curves have been calculated, which permit the identification of least-cost mitigation measures for the transport sector under consideration of the whole energy system. It was shown that biofuels from waste cooking oil and cellulosic biomass as well as the substitution of fossil synthetic fuels with crude oil products could result in significant GHG emission reductions. Moreover, hybrid vehicles offer prospects for increasing energy efficiency and reducing GHG emissions at low marginal mitigation costs, where, it was identified that measures should first be applied for vehicles with high annual mileages such as buses, minibuses and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs). However, the analysis also showed that the transport sector is not the first sector to address for GHG mitigation as significant mitigation potentials with low associated costs lie in the provision of electricity and in the supply of fuels.

  13. Experimental observations of Lagrangian sand grain kinematics under bedload transport: statistical description of the step and rest regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guala, M.; Liu, M.

    2017-12-01

    The kinematics of sediment particles is investigated by non-intrusive imaging methods to provide a statistical description of bedload transport in conditions near the threshold of motion. In particular, we focus on the cyclic transition between motion and rest regimes to quantify the waiting time statistics inferred to be responsible for anomalous diffusion, and so far elusive. Despite obvious limitations in the spatio-temporal domain of the observations, we are able to identify the probability distributions of the particle step time and length, velocity, acceleration, waiting time, and thus distinguish which quantities exhibit well converged mean values, based on the thickness of their respective tails. The experimental results shown here for four different transport conditions highlight the importance of the waiting time distribution and represent a benchmark dataset for the stochastic modeling of bedload transport.

  14. Differential Activation in Amygdala and Plasma Noradrenaline during Colorectal Distention by Administration of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone between Healthy Individuals and Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Tanaka

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS often comorbids mood and anxiety disorders. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH is a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis, but it is not clear how CRH agonists change human brain responses to interoceptive stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that brain activation in response to colorectal distention is enhanced after CRH injection in IBS patients compared to healthy controls. Brain H215O- positron emission tomography (PET was performed in 16 male IBS patients and 16 age-matched male controls during baseline, no distention, mild and intense distention of the colorectum using barostat bag inflation. Either CRH (2 μg/kg or saline (1:1 was then injected intravenously and the same distention protocol was repeated. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, serum cortisol and plasma noradrenaline levels were measured at each stimulation. At baseline, CRH without colorectal distention induced more activation in the right amygdala in IBS patients than in controls. During intense distention after CRH injection, controls showed significantly greater activation than IBS patients in the right amygdala. Plasma ACTH and serum cortisol secretion showed a significant interaction between drug (CRH, saline and distention. Plasma noradrenaline at baseline significantly increased after CRH injection compared to before injection in IBS. Further, plasma noradrenaline showed a significant group (IBS, controls by drug by distention interaction. Exogenous CRH differentially sensitizes brain regions of the emotional-arousal circuitry within the visceral pain matrix to colorectal distention and synergetic activation of noradrenergic function in IBS patients and healthy individuals.

  15. Effect of space allowance during transport and fasting or non-fasting during lairage on welfare indicators in Merino lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozar, A.; Rodriguez, A.I.; Garijo, P.; Calvo, L.; Vergara, H.

    2016-11-01

    A total of 72 male lambs of Merina breed were sampled in a 3×2 factorial design, testing three different space allowances treatment (SA) during transport [0.16 m2/animal (SAL; n=24); 0.20 m2/animal (SAM; n=24) and 0.30 m2/animal (SAH; n=24)] and two lairage treatments (TL) during 18 h previous slaughter [fasting (FAST; n=36) vs feeding (FEED; n=36)] on welfare physiological indicators. After transport, glucose and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were highest in SAM group and lowest in SAH one (p<0.05). SAL showed intermediate values for both parameters. SA did not affect the rest of the blood parameters studied. TL-FAST treatment decreased glucose values (p<0.001) while increased LDH (p<0.001). Fasting caused an increase (p<0.05) of Red Blood Cell Count values in SAM group. Feed deprivation did not affect cortisol or adrenaline values. Noradrenaline value was higher (p<0.001) in TL-FAST groups than in TL-FEED. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, a range of space allowance during transport between 0.16 and 0.30 m2/lamb could be recommended without showing major changes on welfare physiological indicators; and feeding could be more appropriate than fasting during lairage. (Author)

  16. Luminescence in amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes under double-injection dispersive-transport-controlled recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, D.; Wang, K.; Yeh, C.; Yang, L.; Deng, X.; Von Roedern, B.

    1997-01-01

    The temperature and electric-field dependence of the forward bias current and the electroluminescence (EL) in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n and n-i-p diodes have been studied. Both the current and the EL efficiency temperature dependence show three regions depending on either hopping-controlled or multiple-trapping or ballistic transport mechanisms. Comparing the thermalization-controlled geminate recombination processes of photoluminescence to the features of EL, the differences can be explained by transport-controlled nongeminate recombination in trap-rich materials. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Selective potentiation of noradrenaline in the guinea-pig vas deferens by 2-(4-methylaminobutoxy) diphenylmethane hydrochloride (MCI-2016), a new psychotropic drug.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohizumi, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Tobe, A.

    1982-01-01

    In the isolated vas deferens of the guinea-pig, the effects of 2-(4-methylaminobutoxy) diphenylmethane hydrochloride (MCI-2016), a new psychotropic drug, on the contractile response to various agonists or transmural electrical stimulation and on the release of noradrenaline (NA) from the tissue were examined and compared with cocaine. MCI-2016 (3 X 10(-6)M) and cocaine (3 X 10(-5)M) produced a leftward shift (15 and 20 times, respectively) of the dose-response curves for the contractile effec...

  18. Interrupting prolonged sitting with brief bouts of light walking or simple resistance activities reduces resting blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paddy C; Sacre, Julian W; Larsen, Robyn N; Straznicky, Nora E; Sethi, Parneet; Cohen, Neale D; Cerin, Ester; Lambert, Gavin W; Owen, Neville; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Dunstan, David W

    2016-12-01

    Prolonged sitting is increasingly recognized as a ubiquitous cardiometabolic risk factor, possibly distinct from lack of physical exercise. We examined whether interrupting prolonged sitting with brief bouts of light-intensity activity reduced blood pressure (BP) and plasma noradrenaline in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In a randomized crossover trial, 24 inactive overweight/obese adults with T2D (14 men; mean ± SD; 62 ± 6 years) consumed standardized meals during 3 × 8 h conditions: uninterrupted sitting (SIT); sitting + half-hourly bouts of walking (3.2 km/h for 3-min) (light-intensity walking); and sitting + half-hourly bouts of simple resistance activities for 3 min (SRAs), each separated by 6-14 days washout. Resting seated BP was measured hourly (mean of three recordings, ≥20-min postactivity). Plasma noradrenaline was measured at 30-min intervals for the first hour after meals and hourly thereafter. Compared with SIT, mean resting SBP and DBP were significantly reduced (P light-intensity walking (mean ± SEM; -14 ± 1/-8 ± 1 mmHg) and SRA (-16 ± 1/-10 ± 1 mmHg), with a more pronounced effect for SRA (P light-intensity walking). Similarly, mean plasma noradrenaline was significantly reduced for both light-intensity walking (-0.3 ± 0.1 nmol/l) and SRA (-0.6 ± 0.1 nmol/l) versus SIT, with SRA lower than light-intensity walking (P light-intensity walking (-3 ± 1 bpm; P light-intensity walking or SRA reduces resting BP and plasma noradrenaline in adults with T2D, with SRA being more effective. Given the ubiquity of sedentary behaviors and poor adherence to structured exercise, this approach may have important implications for BP management in patients with T2D.

  19. Radioenzymatic assay of plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline: evidence for a catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibiting factor associated with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, J.J.M.L.; Willemsen, J.J.; Thien, Th.; Benraad, Th.J.

    1982-01-01

    During the evaluation of a modified radioenzymatic determination of plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline, it has been found that there exists a highly significant (p 0 C, but only in plasma from patients with essential hypertension. Plasma from normotensive persons exhibits a complete lack of correlation between these factors. The consequences of the hypertension-associated COMT-inhibiting factor for the assays' specifications are discussed and data are presented for comparison with a recently-described uremia-associated COMT-inhibitor (Demassieux et al, Clin Chim Acta 115, 377-391; 1981). (Auth.)

  20. Advective transport of CO2 in permeable media induced by atmospheric pressure fluctuations: 2. Observational evidence under snowpacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Massman; J. M. Frank

    2006-01-01

    Meadow and forest CO2 amounts sampled beneath an approximately meter deep (steady state) snowpack at a subalpine site in southern Rocky Mountains of Wyoming are observed to vary by nearly 200 ppm over periods ranging from 4 to 15 days. This work employs the model of periodic, pressure-induced, advective transport in permeable media developed in...

  1. Transport of E. coli D21g with runoff water under different solution chemistry conditions and surface slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracer and indicator microbe runoff experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of solution chemistry on the transport, retention, and release of Escherichia coli D21g. Experiments were conducted in a chamber (2.25 m long, 0.15 m wide, and 0.16 m high) packed with ultrapure quartz sand (...

  2. Phloem flow and sugar transport in Ricinus communis L. is inhibited under anoxic conditions of shoot or roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peuke, A.D.; Gessler, A.; Trumbore, S.; Windt, C.W.; Homan, N.; Gerkema, E.; As, van H.

    2015-01-01

    Anoxic conditions should hamper the transport of sugar in the phloem, as this is an active process. The canopy is a carbohydrate source and the roots are carbohydrate sinks.By fumigating the shoot with N2 or flooding the rhizosphere, anoxic conditions in the source or sink, respectively, were

  3. Transport properties of Lu.sub.2./sub.Fe.sub.17./sub. single crystals under extreme conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skorokhod, Yuriy; Arnold, Zdeněk; Kamarád, Jiří; Andreev, Alexander V.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2004), s. 471-475 ISSN 1027-5495 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/02/0943 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : transport properties * magnetotransport properties * pressure effect * single crystals * intermetallic compounds Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  4. Transport and retention of biochar nanoparticles in a paddy soil under environmentally-relevant solution chemistry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Dengjun; Yang, Fan; Xu, Xiaoyun; Xu, Nan; Cao, Xinde

    2017-11-01

    Land application of biochar has been increasingly recommended as a powerful strategy for carbon sequestration and soil remediation. However, the biochar particles, especially those in the nanoscale range, may migrate or carry the inherent contaminants along the soil profile, posing a potential risk to the groundwater. This study investigated the transport and retention of wood chip-derived biochar nanoparticles (NPs) in water-saturated columns packed with a paddy soil. The environmentally-relevant soil solution chemistry including ionic strength (0.10-50 mM), electrolyte type (NaCl and CaCl 2 ), and natural organic matter (0-10 mg L -1 humic acid) were tested to elucidate their effects on the biochar NPs transport. Higher mobility of biochar NPs was observed in the soil at lower ionic strengths, with CaCl 2 electrolyte being more effective than NaCl in decreasing biochar NPs transport. The retained biochar NPs in NaCl was re-entrained (∼57.7%) upon lowering transient pore-water ionic strength, indicating that biochar NPs were reversibly retained in the secondary minimum. In contrast, negligible re-entrainment of biochar NPs occurred in CaCl 2 due to the primary minimum and/or particle aggregation. Humic acid increased the mobility of biochar NPs, likely due to enhanced electrosteric repulsive interactions. The transport behaviors of biochar NPs can be well interpreted by a two-site kinetic retention model that assumes reversible retention for one site, and irreversible retention for the other site. Our findings indicated that the transport of wood chip biochar NPs is significant in the paddy soil, highlighting the importance of understanding the mobility of biochar NPs in natural soils for accurately assessing their environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A field study of flow turbulence and sediment transport dynamics on a beach surface in the lee of a coastal foredune under offshore winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, A. C.; Jackson, D.; Cooper, J. A.; Lynch, K.; Delgado-Fernandez, I.; Beyers, M.; Lee, Z. S.

    2010-12-01

    The past decade has seen a growing body of research on the relation between turbulence in the wind and the resultant transport of sediment over active sand surfaces. Widespread use of sonic anemometry and high-frequency sand transport sensors and traps have facilitated recent field studies over dunes and beach surfaces, to move beyond monitoring of mean wind speed and bulk transport to more detailed measurements at much higher spatio-temporal resolutions. In this paper we present results of a field study conducted in the recirculation flow and re-attachment zone on a beach behind a foredune at Magilligan Strand, Northern Ireland. The offshore winds over the foredune at this site are associated with flow separation and reversal located over the beach surface in the lee of the dune row, often strong enough to induce sand transport toward the toe of the foredune (‘against’ the overall offshore flow). The re-attachment and recirculation zone are associated with strongly turbulent fluid flow and complex streamlines that do not follow the underlying topography. High frequency (25 Hz) wind and sand transport data were collected at a grid of point locations distributed over the beach surface between 35 m to 55 m distance from the 10 m high dune crest, using ultrasonic anemometers at 0.5 m height and co-located load cell traps and Safires at the bed surface. The wind data are used to investigate the role of Reynolds shear stresses and quadrant analysis techniques for identifying burst-sweep events in relation to sand transport events. This includes an assessment of the issues involved with data rotations for yaw, pitch, and roll corrections relative to complex flow streamlines, and the subsequently derived turbulence parameters based on fluctuating vector components (u’, v’, w’). Results illustrate how transport may exist under threshold mean velocities because of the role played by coherent flow structures, and the findings corroborate previous findings that

  6. Evaluation of stability of allergen extracts for sublingual immunotherapy during transport under unfavourable temperature conditions with an innovative thermal insulating packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinelli, P; Natoli, V; Dell'albani, I; Scurati, S; Incorvaia, C; Barbieri, S; Masieri, S; Frati, F

    2013-10-01

    Many pharmaceutical and biotechnological products are temperature-sensitive and should normally be kept at a controlled temperature, particularly during transport, in order to prevent the loss of their stability and activity. Therefore, stability studies should be performed for temperature-sensitive products, considering product characteristics, typical environmental conditions, and anticipating environmental extremes that may occur during product transport in a specific country. Staloral products for sublingual immunotherapy are temperature sensitive and are labelled for maintenance under refrigerated conditions (2-8°C). Given the peculiar climatic context of Italy and the great temperature fluctuations that may occur during transport, this study was aimed at evaluating the impact of a new engineered thermal insulating packaging for Staloral. In particular, the purpose was to assess whether the new packaging could create a container condition able to preserve the stability and immunological activity of the product during the transport phase throughout Italy. The results showed that the range of temperatures that can affect the product, in the area surrounding the product packaging, may reach a peak of 63°C during transport under the most unfavourable climatic conditions, i.e. in a non-refrigerated van during the summer season, from the site of production in France to the patient's house in Catania, the city with the highest temperatures in Italy. However, the highest temperature reached inside the vaccine did not exceed 45°C over a period of about 2 h. The ELISA inhibition test on samples subjected to the extreme temperature conditions previously defined (45°C) showed an immunological activity higher than 75% of that initially measured and was comparable to those obtained with samples stored at controlled temperature (5°C). This means that, even in the worst case scenario, the structure of the allergen extracts is not influenced and the vaccine potency is

  7. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Under current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulation, it is not sufficient for used nuclear fuel (UNF) to simply maintain its integrity during the storage period, it must maintain its integrity in such a way that it can withstand the physical forces of handling and transportation associated with restaging the fuel and moving it to treatment or recycling facilities, or a geologic repository. Hence it is necessary to understand the performance characteristics of aged UNF cladding and ancillary components under loadings stemming from transport initiatives. Researchers would like to demonstrate that enough information, including experimental support and modeling and simulation capabilities, exists to establish a preliminary determination of UNF structural performance under normal conditions of transport (NCT). This research, development and demonstration (RD&D) plan describes a methodology, including development and use of analytical models, to evaluate loading and associated mechanical responses of UNF rods and key structural components. This methodology will be used to provide a preliminary assessment of the performance characteristics of UNF cladding and ancillary components under rail-related NCT loading. The methodology couples modeling and simulation and experimental efforts currently under way within the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC). The methodology will involve limited uncertainty quantification in the form of sensitivity evaluations focused around available fuel and ancillary fuel structure properties exclusively. The work includes collecting information via literature review, soliciting input/guidance from subject matter experts, performing computational analyses, planning experimental measurement and possible execution (depending on timing), and preparing a variety of supporting documents that will feed into and provide the basis for future initiatives. The methodology demonstration will focus on structural performance evaluation of

  8. Erythromycin and azithromycin transport into Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 19418 under conditions of depressed proton motive force (delta mu H)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capobianco, J.O.; Goldman, R.C. (Abbott Laboratories, IL (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The effect of collapsing the electrochemical proton gradient (delta mu H) on ({sup 3}H)erythromycin and ({sup 14}C)azithromycin transport in Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 19418 was studied. The proton gradient and membrane potential were determined from the distribution of (2-{sup 14}C)dimethadione and rubidium-86, respectively. delta mu H was reduced from 124 to 3 mV in EDTA-valinomycin-treated cells at 22{degrees}C with 150 mM KCl and 0.1 mM carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. During the collapse of delta mu H, macrolide uptake increased. Erythromycin efflux studies strongly suggested that this increase was not due to an energy-dependent efflux pump but was likely due to increased outer membrane permeability. These data indicated that macrolide entry was not a delta mu H-driven active transport process but rather a passive diffusion process.

  9. ProbeZT: Simulation of transport coefficients of molecular electronic junctions under environmental effects using Büttiker's probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, Roman; Kilgour, Michael; Segal, Dvira

    2018-03-01

    We present our in-house quantum transport package, ProbeZT. This program provides linear response coefficients: electrical and electronic thermal conductances, as well as the thermopower of molecular junctions in which electrons interact with the surrounding thermal environment. Calculations are performed based on the Büttiker probe method, which introduces decoherence, energy exchange and dissipation effects phenomenologically using virtual electrode terminals called probes. The program can realize different types of probes, each introducing various environmental effects, including elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons. The molecular system is described by an arbitrary tight-binding Hamiltonian, allowing the study of different geometries beyond simple one-dimensional wires. Applications of the program to study the thermoelectric performance of molecular junctions are illustrated. The program also has a built-in functionality to simulate electron transport in double-stranded DNA molecules based on a tight-binding (ladder) description of the junction.

  10. Stowing of radioactive materials package during road transport on vehicles of a total weight under 38 tons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, P.; Chevalier, G.; Pouard, M.

    1985-01-01

    Results of testing allow the formulation of recommendations for stowing radioactive material packaging for severe accidental conditions during land transport. For frontal impact kinetic energy acquired by deceleration should be totally absorbed by the packaging, as this energy is proportional to its mass it will stay on the vehicle. For side impact, the packaging should yield because kinetic energy to absorb, if fasteners are not deformed before rupture, can be largely over the packaging mass and damage could be very severe

  11. SpaceLiner - a Visionary Concept of an Ultra Fast Passenger Transport under Investigation in FAST20XX

    OpenAIRE

    Sippel, Martin

    2009-01-01

    A strategic vision has been proposed by DLR which ultimately has the potential to enable sustainable low-cost space transportation to orbit. The baseline idea is simple and quite conventional: Strongly surging the number of launches per year and hence dramatically shrinking manufacturing and operating cost of launcher hardware. The obvious challenge of the vision is to identify the very application creating this new, large-size market. All recent assessments of the launch business are soberin...

  12. Resonant electronic transport through a triple quantum-dot with Λ-type level structure under dual radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Chun; Xing, Yunhui; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Zhongshui

    2014-01-01

    Due to quantum interference, light can transmit through dense atomic media, a phenomenon known as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We propose that EIT is not limited to light transmission and there is an electronic analog where resonant transparency in charge transport in an opaque structure can be induced by electromagnetic radiation. A triple-quantum-dots system with Λ-type level structure is generally opaque due to the level in the center dot being significantly higher and therefore hopping from the left dot to the center dot is almost forbidden. We demonstrate that an electromagnetically induced electron transparency (EIET) in charge of transport can indeed occur in the Λ-type system. The direct evidence of EIET is that an electron can travel from the left dot to the right dot, while the center dot apparently becomes invisible. We analyze EIET and the related shot noise in both the zero and strong Coulomb blockade regimes. It is found that the EIET (position, height, and symmetry) can be tuned by several controllable parameters of the radiation fields, such as the Rabi frequencies and detuning frequencies. The result offers a transparency/opaque tuning technique in charge transport using interfering radiation fields

  13. Accumulation of radioactivity after repeated infusion of 3H-adrenaline and 3H-noradrenaline in the rat as a model animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepschy, M; Filip, T; Palme, R G

    2014-10-01

    Besides enzymatic inactivation, catecholamines bind non-enzymatically and irreversible to proteins. The physiological impact of these catecholamine adducts is still unclear. We therefore collected basic data about the distribution of catecholamine adducts in the rat after repeated intravenous administration of (3)H-adrenaline and (3)H-noradrenaline. In all animals radioactivity in blood increased until the last injection on Day 7 and decreased then slowly close to background values (plasma) or remained higher (erythrocytes). In all sampled tissues radioactivity could be found, but only in hair high amounts remained present even after 3 weeks. Half-life of rat serum albumin loaded with (3)H-adrenaline or (3)H-noradrenaline was not altered. This study provides basic knowledge about the distribution of catecholamines or their adducts, but physiological effects could not be demonstrated. However, for the first time deposition and accumulation of catecholamines (adducts) in the hair could be proven, suggesting that hair might be used for evaluating long term stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence for a dihydropyridine-sensitive and conotoxin-insensitive release of noradrenaline and uptake of calcium in adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, P. J.; Marriott, D. B.; Boarder, M. R.

    1989-01-01

    1. It has been suggested that neuronal voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) may be divided into dihydropyridine (DHP)-sensitive (L) and DHP-insensitive (N and T), and that both the L and the N type channels are attenuated by the peptide blocker omega-conotoxin. Here the effects of omega-conotoxin on release of noradrenaline and uptake of calcium in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells were investigated. 2. Release of noradrenaline in response to 25 mM K+, 65 mM K+, 10 nM bradykinin or 10 microM prostaglandin E1 was not affected by omega-conotoxin in the range 10 nM-1 microM. 3. 45Ca2+ uptake stimulated by high K+ and prostaglandin was attenuated by 1 microM nitrendipine and enhanced by 1 microM Bay K 8644; these calcium fluxes were not modified by 20 nM omega-conotoxin. 4. With superfused rat brain striatal slices in the same medium as the above cell studies, release of dopamine in response to 25 mM K+ was attenuated by 20 nM omega-conotoxin. 5. These results show that in these neurone-like cells, release may be effected by calcium influx through DHP-sensitive but omega-conotoxin-insensitive VSCC, a result inconsistent with the suggestion that omega-conotoxin blocks both L-type and N-type neuronal calcium channels. PMID:2470457

  15. Assessment of key transport parameters in a karst system under different dynamic conditions based on tracer experiments: the Jeita karst system, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doummar, Joanna; Margane, Armin; Geyer, Tobias; Sauter, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Artificial tracer experiments were conducted in the mature karst system of Jeita (Lebanon) under various flow conditions using surface and subsurface tracer injection points, to determine the variation of transport parameters (attenuation of peak concentration, velocity, transit times, dispersivity, and proportion of immobile and mobile regions) along fast and slow flow pathways. Tracer breakthrough curves (TBCs) observed at the karst spring were interpreted using a two-region nonequilibrium approach (2RNEM) to account for the skewness in the TBCs' long tailings. The conduit test results revealed a discharge threshold in the system dynamics, beyond which the transport parameters vary significantly. The polynomial relationship between transport velocity and discharge can be related to the variation of the conduit's cross-sectional area. Longitudinal dispersivity in the conduit system is not a constant value (α = 7-10 m) and decreases linearly with increasing flow rate because of dilution effects. Additionally, the proportion of immobile regions (arising from conduit irregularities) increases with decreasing water level in the conduit system. From tracer tests with injection at the surface, longitudinal dispersivity values are found to be large (8-27 m). The tailing observed in some TBCs is generated in the unsaturated zone before the tracer actually arrives at the major subsurface conduit draining the system. This work allows the estimation and prediction of the key transport parameters in karst aquifers. It shows that these parameters vary with time and flow dynamics, and they reflect the geometry of the flow pathway and the origin of infiltrating (potentially contaminated) recharge.

  16. [Function of transport H+-ATPases in plant cell plasma and vacuolar membranes of maize under salt stress conditions and effect of adaptogenic preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybchenko, Zh I; Palladina, T O

    2011-01-01

    Participations of electrogenic H+-pumps of plasma and vacuolar membranes represented by E1-E2 and V-type H+-ATPases in plant cell adaptation to salt stress conditions has been studied by determination of their transport activities. Experiments were carried out on corn seedlings exposed during 1 or 10 days at 0.1 M NaCl. Preparations Methyure and Ivine were used by seed soaking at 10(-7) M. Plasma and vacuolar membrane fractions were isolated from corn seedling roots. In variants without NaCl a hydrolytical activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPase was increased with seedling age and its transport one was changed insignificantly, wherease the response of the weaker vacuolar H+-ATPase was opposite. NaCl exposition decreased hydrolytical activities of both H+-ATPases and increased their transport ones. These results demonstrated amplification of H+-pumps function especially represented by vacuolar H+-ATPase. Both preparations, Methyure mainly, caused a further increase of transport activity which was more expressed in NaCl variants. Obtained results showed the important role of these H+-pumps in plant adaptation under salt stress conditions realized by energetical maintenance of the secondary active Na+/H+ -antiporters which remove Na+ from cytoplasm.

  17. Effects of fasting on plasma catecholamine, corticosterone and glucose concentrations under basal and stress conditions in individual rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; Koopmans, S.J.; Slangen, J L; Van der Gugten, J

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A), corticosterone (CS) and glucose concentrations were determined in blood sampled via a cardiac catheter from freely moving male rats under ad lib fed and 24 hr food deprived conditions using a repeated measures within-subject design. Resting plasma NA and

  18. The effect of recombination under short-circuit conditions on the determination of charge transport properties in nanostructured photoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Cab, J; Anta, J A; Oskam, G

    2016-01-28

    We report on the commonly unaccounted for process of recombination under short-circuit conditions in nanostructured photoelectrodes with special attention to the charge collection efficiency. It is observed that when recombination under short circuit conditions is significant, small perturbation methods overestimate the charge-collection efficiency, which is related to the inaccurate determination of the electron diffusion coefficient and diffusion length.

  19. Combined Study of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Transport and Toxicity on Microbial Nitrifying Communities under Single and Repeated Exposures in Soil Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, Marie; Martins, Jean M F; Uzu, Gaëlle; Vince, Erwann; Richaume, Agnès

    2016-10-04

    Soils are exposed to nanoparticles (NPs) as a result of their increasing use in many commercial products. Adverse effects of NPs on soil microorganisms have been reported in several ecotoxicological studies using microcosms. Although repeated exposures are more likely to occur in soils, most of these previous studies were performed as a single exposure to NPs. Contrary to single contamination, the study of multiple NP contaminations in soils requires the use of specialized setups. Using a soil column experiment, we compared the influence of single and repeated exposures (one, two, or three exposures that resulted in the same final concentration applied) on the transport of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) NPs through soil and the effect of these different exposure scenarios on the abundance and activity of soil nitrifying microbial communities after a 2 month incubation. The transport of TiO 2 NPs was very limited under both single and repeated exposures and was highest for the lowest concentration injected during the first application. Significant decreases in nitrification activity and ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria populations were observed only for the repeated exposure scenario (three TiO 2 NP contaminations). These results suggest that, under repeated exposures, the transport of TiO 2 NPs to deep soil layers and groundwater is limited and that a chronic contamination is more harmful for the soil microbiological functioning than a single exposure.

  20. Soil-gas phase transport and structure parameters for soils under different management regimes and at two moisture levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eden, Marie; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of diffusive and convective gas transport parameters can be used to describe soil functional architecture and reveal key factors for soil structure development. Undisturbed 100-cm(3) soil samples were sampled at the Long-term Research on Agricultural Systems experiment located...... displayed markedly lower D-P/D-0 values at similar air-filled porosity, illustrating soil structure effects on D-P/D-0. The Currie tortuosity-connectivity parameter, X=Log(D-P/D-0)/Log(epsilon), decreased with increasing bulk density in the intact samples at both moisture conditions, suggesting less...

  1. Transport of barium through dolomite rocks under the presence of guar gum and brine salinities of hydraulic fracturing wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, P.; Vilcaez, J.

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing wastewater (HFW) containing high concentrations of Ba, is commonly disposed into the deep saline aquifers. We investigate the effect of brine salinity, competing cations (Ca and Mg), and guar gum (most common fracturing viscosifier) on the sorption and transport of Ba through dolomite rocks. To this aim, we have conducted batch sorption and core-flooding experiments at both ambient (22°C) and deep subsurface (60°C) temperature conditions. The effect of mineral composition is assessed by comparing batch and core-flooding experimental results obtained with sandstone and dolomite rocks. Batch sorption experiments conducted using powdered dolomite rocks (500-600 µm particle size) revealed that Ba sorption on dolomite greatly decreases with increasing brine salinity (0 - 180,000 mg-NaCl/L), and that at brine salinities of HFW, chloro-complexation reactions between Ba and Cl ions and changes in pH (that results from dolomite dissolution) are the controlling factors of Ba sorption on dolomite. Organo-complexation reactions between Ba and guar gum, and competition of Ba with common cations (Ca and Mg) for hydration sites of dolomite, play a secondary role. This finding is in accordance with core-flooding experimental results, showing that the transport of Ba through synthetic dolomite rocks of high flow properties (25-29.6% porosity, 9.6-13.7 mD permeability), increases with increasing brine salinity (0-180,000 mg-NaCl/L), while the presence of guar gum (50-500 mg/L) does not affect the transport of Ba. On the other hand, core-flooding experiments conducted using natural dolomite core plugs (6.5-8.6% porosity, 0.06-0.3 mD permeability), indicates that guar gum can clog the pore throats of tight dolomite rocks retarding the transport of Ba. Results of our numerical simulation studies indicate that the mechanism of Ba sorption on dolomite can be represented by a sorption model that accounts for both surface complexation reactions on three distinct

  2. Comparison of carrier transport mechanism under UV/Vis illumination in an AZO photodetector and an AZO/p-Si heterojunction photodiode produced by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shasti, M.; Mortezaali, A., E-mail: mortezaali@alzahra.ac.ir; Dariani, R. S. [Department of Physics, Alzahra University, Tehran 1993893973 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-14

    In this study, Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) layer is deposited on p-type silicon (p-Si) by spray pyrolysis method to fabricate ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) photodetector as Al doping process can have positive effect on the photodetector performance. Morphology, crystalline structure, and Al concentration of AZO layer are investigated by SEM, XRD, and EDX. The goal of this study is to analyze the mechanism of carrier transport by means of current-voltage characteristics under UV/Vis illumination in two cases: (a) electrodes connected to the surface of AZO layer and (b) electrodes connected to cross section of heterojunction (AZO/p-Si). Measurements indicate that the AZO/p-Si photodiode exhibits a higher photocurrent and lower photoresponse time under visible illumination with respect to AZO photodetector; while under UV illumination, the above result is inversed. Besides, the internal junction field of AZO/p-Si heterojunction plays an important role on this mechanism.

  3. Comparison of carrier transport mechanism under UV/Vis illumination in an AZO photodetector and an AZO/p-Si heterojunction photodiode produced by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shasti, M.; Mortezaali, A.; Dariani, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) layer is deposited on p-type silicon (p-Si) by spray pyrolysis method to fabricate ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) photodetector as Al doping process can have positive effect on the photodetector performance. Morphology, crystalline structure, and Al concentration of AZO layer are investigated by SEM, XRD, and EDX. The goal of this study is to analyze the mechanism of carrier transport by means of current-voltage characteristics under UV/Vis illumination in two cases: (a) electrodes connected to the surface of AZO layer and (b) electrodes connected to cross section of heterojunction (AZO/p-Si). Measurements indicate that the AZO/p-Si photodiode exhibits a higher photocurrent and lower photoresponse time under visible illumination with respect to AZO photodetector; while under UV illumination, the above result is inversed. Besides, the internal junction field of AZO/p-Si heterojunction plays an important role on this mechanism

  4. Molecular interaction of selected phytochemicals under the charged environment of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Saumya K; Khedkar, Vijay M; Jha, Prakash C; Jasrai, Yogesh T; Pandya, Himanshu A; George, Linz-Buoy; Highland, Hyacinth N; Skelton, Adam A

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals of Catharanthus roseus Linn. and Tylophora indica have been known for their inhibition of malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum in cell culture. Resistance to chloroquine (CQ), a widely used antimalarial drug, is due to the CQ resistance transporter (CRT) system. The present study deals with computational modeling of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) protein and development of charged environment to mimic a condition of resistance. The model of PfCRT was developed using Protein homology/analogy engine (PHYRE ver 0.2) and was validated based on the results obtained using PSI-PRED. Subsequently, molecular interactions of selected phytochemicals extracted from C. roseus Linn. and T. indica were studied using multiple-iterated genetic algorithm-based docking protocol in order to investigate the translocation of these legends across the PfCRT protein. Further, molecular dynamics studies exhibiting interaction energy estimates of these compounds within the active site of the protein showed that compounds are more selective toward PfCRT. Clusters of conformations with the free energy of binding were estimated which clearly demonstrated the potential channel and by this means the translocation across the PfCRT is anticipated.

  5. A study to estimate the fate and transport of bacteria in river water from birds nesting under a bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayamatullah, M M M; Bin-Shafique, S; Sharif, H O

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of input parameters, such as the number of bridge-dwelling birds, decay rate of the bacteria, flow at the river, water temperature, and settling velocity, a parametric study was conducted using a water quality model developed with QUAL2Kw. The reach of the bacterial-impaired section from the direct droppings of bridge-nesting birds at the Guadalupe River near Kerrville, Texas was estimated using the model. The concentration of Escherichia coli bacteria were measured upstream, below the bridge, and downstream of the river for one-and-a-half years. The decay rate of the indicator bacteria in the river water was estimated from the model using measured data, and was found to be 6.5/day. The study suggests that the number of bridge-dwelling birds, the decay rate, and flow at the river have the highest impact on the fate and transport of bacteria. The water temperature moderately affects the fate and transport of bacteria, whereas, the settling velocity of bacteria did not show any significant effect. Once the decay rates are estimated, the reach of the impaired section was predicted from the model using the average flow of the channel. Since the decay rate does not vary significantly in the ambient environment at this location, the length of the impaired section primarily depends on flow.

  6. The coupling of the neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE to the nuclear fuels performance application BISON under the MOOSE framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleicher, Frederick N.; Williamson, Richard L.; Ortensi, Javier; Wang, Yaqi; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Novascone, Stephen R.; Hales, Jason D.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2014-10-01

    The MOOSE neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE was coupled to the fuels performance application BISON to provide a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulation. This project is motivated by the desire to couple a high fidelity core analysis program (based on the self-adjoint angular flux equations) to a high fidelity fuel performance program, both of which can simulate on unstructured meshes. RATTLESNAKE solves self-adjoint angular flux transport equation and provides a sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux with resonance treatment during burnup or a fast transient. BISON solves the coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter scale. Both applications are able to solve their respective systems on aligned and unaligned unstructured finite element meshes. The power density and local burnup was transferred from RATTLESNAKE to BISON with the MOOSE Multiapp transfer system. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way data transfer from RATTLESNAKE to BISON. The eigenvalues are shown to agree well with values obtained from the lattice physics code DRAGON. The one-way data transfer of power density is shown to agree with the power density obtained from an internal Lassman-style model in BISON.

  7. Validation of CFD-methods to predict heat transfer and temperatures during the transport and storage of casks under a cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leber, A.; Graf, W.; Hueggenberg, R.

    2004-01-01

    With respect to the transport of casks for radioactive material, the proof of the safe heat removal can be accomplished by validated calculation methods. The boundary conditions for thermal tests for type B packages are specified in the ADR based on the regulations defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The varying boundary conditions under transport or storage conditions are based on the varying thermal conditions true for different cask types. In most cases the cask will be transported in lying position under a cover (e.g. canopy or tarpaulin) and stored in standing position in an array with other casks. The main heat transport mechanisms are natural convection and thermal radiation. The cover or the storage building are furnished with vents that create an air flow, which will improve the natural convection. Depending on the thermal boundary conditions, the cask design and the heat power, about 50 - 95% of the heat power will be removed from the finned cask surface by natural convection. Consequently the convection by air flow is the main heat transport mechanism. The air flow can be approximated with analytical methods by solving the integral heat and flow balances for the domain. In a stationary state the overpressure due the buoyancy and the pressure loss in the flow resistances are equal. Based on the air flow, the relevant temperatures of the cask can be calculated in an iterative process. Due to the fast development of numerical calculation methods and computer hardware, the use of Computational- Fluid-Dynamics(CFD) calculations plays an important role. CFD-calculations are based on solving the equations of conservation (Navier-Stokes equations) using a finite element mesh or a finite volume mesh of the model. For a finned cask lying under a cover, where the main contributing element for heat removal is natural convection in combination with the thermal radiation, a CFD-calculation can be the most appropriate method. Common CFD-Codes are FLUENT

  8. Circumvention of over-excitation of PSII by maintaining electron transport rate in leaves of four cotton genotypes developed under long-term drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitao, M; Lei, T T

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the patterns of response to a long-term drought in the field in cotton cultivars (genotypes) with known differences in their drought tolerance. Four cotton genotypes with varying physiological and morphological traits, suited to different cropping conditions, were grown in the field and subjected to a long-term moderate drought. In general, cotton leaves developed under drought had significantly higher area-based leaf nitrogen content (N (area)) than those under well irrigation. Droughted plants showed a lower light-saturated net photosynthetic rate (A (sat)) with lower stomatal conductance (g (s)) and intercellular CO (2) concentration (C (i)) than irrigated ones. Based on the responses of A (sat) to g (s) and C (i), there was no decreasing trend in A (sat) at a given g (s) and C (i) in droughted leaves, suggesting that the decline in A (sat) in field-grown cotton plants under a long-term drought can be attributed mainly to stomatal closure, but not to nonstomatal limitations. There was little evidence of an increase in thermal energy dissipation as indicated by the lack of a decrease in the photochemical efficiency of open PSII (F (v)'/F (m)') in droughted plants. On the basis of electron transport (ETR) and photochemical quenching (q (P)), however, we found evidence indicating that droughted cotton plants can circumvent the risk of excessive excitation energy in photosystem (PS) II by maintaining higher electron transport rates associated with higher N (area), even while photosynthetic rates were reduced by stomatal closure.

  9. Regulation of glucose transporter protein-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor by hypoxia inducible factor 1α under hypoxic conditions in Hep-2 human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ou; Li, Xiaoming; Qu, Yongtao; Liu, Shuang; An, Jie; Wang, Maoxin; Sun, Qingjia; Zhang, Wen; Lu, Xiuying; Pi, Lihong; Zhang, Min; Shen, Yupeng

    2012-12-01

    The present study evaluated the regulation of glucose transporter protein-1 (Glut-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) under hypoxic conditions in Hep-2 human cells to explore the feasibility of these three genes as tumor markers. Hep-2 cells were cultured under hypoxic and normoxic conditions for 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h. The proliferation of Hep-2 cells was evaluated using an MTT assay. The protein and mRNA expression levels of HIF-1α, Glut-1 and VEGF were detected using the S-P immunocytochemical method, western blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results revealed that the expression levels of HIF-1α, Glut-1 and VEGF protein in Hep-2 cells were significantly elevated under hypoxic conditions compared with those under normoxic conditions over 36 h. Under hypoxic conditions, mRNA levels of HIF-1α were stable, while mRNA levels of Glut-1 and VEGF changed over time. In conclusion, Glut-1 and VEGF were upregulated by HIF-1α under hypoxic conditions in a time-dependent manner in Hep-2 cells and their co-expression serves as a tumor marker.

  10. Foxtail Millet [Setaria italica (L. Beauv.] Grown under Low Nitrogen Shows a Smaller Root System, Enhanced Biomass Accumulation, and Nitrate Transporter Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Nadeem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (FM [Setaria italica (L. Beauv.] is a grain and forage crop well adapted to nutrient-poor soils. To date little is known how FM adapts to low nitrogen (LN at the morphological, physiological, and molecular levels. Using the FM variety Yugu1, we found that LN led to lower chlorophyll contents and N concentrations, and higher root/shoot and C/N ratios and N utilization efficiencies under hydroponic culture. Importantly, enhanced biomass accumulation in the root under LN was in contrast to a smaller root system, as indicated by significant decreases in total root length; crown root number and length; and lateral root number, length, and density. Enhanced carbon allocation toward the root was rather for significant increases in average diameter of the LN root, potentially favorable for wider xylem vessels or other anatomical alterations facilitating nutrient transport. Lower levels of IAA and CKs were consistent with a smaller root system and higher levels of GA may promote root thickening under LN. Further, up-regulation of SiNRT1.1, SiNRT2.1, and SiNAR2.1 expression and nitrate influx in the root and that of SiNRT1.11 and SiNRT1.12 expression in the shoot probably favored nitrate uptake and remobilization as a whole. Lastly, more soluble proteins accumulated in the N-deficient root likely as a result of increases of N utilization efficiencies. Such “excessive” protein-N was possibly available for shoot delivery. Thus, FM may preferentially transport carbon toward the root facilitating root thickening/nutrient transport and allocate N toward the shoot maximizing photosynthesis/carbon fixation as a primary adaptive strategy to N limitation.

  11. Foxtail Millet [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.] Grown under Low Nitrogen Shows a Smaller Root System, Enhanced Biomass Accumulation, and Nitrate Transporter Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Faisal; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Wang, Ruifeng; Han, Jienan; Shen, Qi; Chang, Feiran; Diao, Xianmin; Zhang, Fusuo; Li, Xuexian

    2018-01-01

    Foxtail millet (FM) [ Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.] is a grain and forage crop well adapted to nutrient-poor soils. To date little is known how FM adapts to low nitrogen (LN) at the morphological, physiological, and molecular levels. Using the FM variety Yugu1, we found that LN led to lower chlorophyll contents and N concentrations, and higher root/shoot and C/N ratios and N utilization efficiencies under hydroponic culture. Importantly, enhanced biomass accumulation in the root under LN was in contrast to a smaller root system, as indicated by significant decreases in total root length; crown root number and length; and lateral root number, length, and density. Enhanced carbon allocation toward the root was rather for significant increases in average diameter of the LN root, potentially favorable for wider xylem vessels or other anatomical alterations facilitating nutrient transport. Lower levels of IAA and CKs were consistent with a smaller root system and higher levels of GA may promote root thickening under LN. Further, up-regulation of SiNRT1.1, SiNRT2.1, and SiNAR2.1 expression and nitrate influx in the root and that of SiNRT1.11 and SiNRT1.12 expression in the shoot probably favored nitrate uptake and remobilization as a whole. Lastly, more soluble proteins accumulated in the N-deficient root likely as a result of increases of N utilization efficiencies. Such "excessive" protein-N was possibly available for shoot delivery. Thus, FM may preferentially transport carbon toward the root facilitating root thickening/nutrient transport and allocate N toward the shoot maximizing photosynthesis/carbon fixation as a primary adaptive strategy to N limitation.

  12. Spin-polarized charge transport in HgTe/CdTe quantum well topological insulator under a ferromagnetic metal strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenhua; Luo, Kun; Yu, Jiahan; Wu, Xiaobo; Lin, Liangzhong

    2018-02-01

    Electron tunneling through a single magnetic barrier in a HgTe topological insulator has been theoretically investigated. We find that the perpendicular magnetic field would not lead to spin-flip of the edge states due to the conservation of the angular moment. By tuning the magnetic field and the Fermi energy, the edge channels can be transited from switch-on states to switch-off states and the current from unpolarized states can be filtered to fully spin polarized states. These features offer us an efficient way to control charge/spin transport in a HgTe/CdTe quantum well, and pave a way to construct the nanoelectronic devices utilizing the topological edge states.

  13. Changes in chemical quality indices during long-term storage of palm-olein oil under heated storage and transport-type conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, GH

    2004-01-15

    Full Text Available of Food and Agriculture J Sci Food Agric 84:52?58 (online: 2003) DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.1609 Changes in chemical quality indices during long-term storage of palm-olein oil under heated storage and transport-type conditions Gretel H van der Merwe,1asteriskmath... Lourens M du Plessis1 and John RN Taylor2 1CSIR Bio/Chemtek, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 2Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa Abstract: Six quality indices, namely free fatty acids (FFA), peroxide...

  14. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport- Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Fuel Performance Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geelhood, Ken [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bignell, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flores, Gregg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Jy-An [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sanborn, Scott [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Spears, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Klymyshyn, Nick [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This document addresses Oak Ridge National Laboratory milestone M2FT-13OR0822015 Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Nuclear Fuel Performance Characterization. This report provides results of the initial demonstration of the modeling capability developed to perform preliminary deterministic evaluations of moderate-to-high burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) mechanical performance under normal conditions of storage (NCS) and normal conditions of transport (NCT) conditions. This report also provides results from the sensitivity studies that have been performed. Finally, discussion on the long-term goals and objectives of this initiative are provided.

  15. Protective effects of potassium transport in mitochondria from rat myometrium under activation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Vadzyuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated using PBFI K+-sensitive fluorescent probe an enhancement of both components of K+-cycle – the ATP-sensitive K+-uptake and quinine-sensitive K+/H+-exchange – under the Ca2+ induced opening­ of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP in rat myometrium mitochondria. Addition of CaCl2 (100 μM to K+-free medium results in the enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS production, which was eliminated by cyclosporine A. Addition of CaCl2 to K+-rich medium did not increase the rate of ROS production, but blocking of mitoK+ATP-channels with glybenclamide (10 μM increased production of ROS. We conclude that K+-cycle exerts a protective influence in mitochondria from rat myometrium by regulation of matrix volume and rate of ROS production under the condition of Ca2+-induced MPTP.

  16. Transport and degradation of pesticides in a biopurification system under variable flux, part I: A microcosm study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wilde, Tineke, E-mail: dewilde.tineke@gmail.co [Laboratory of Crop Protection Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Spanoghe, Pieter [Laboratory of Crop Protection Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Ryckeboer, Jaak [Division Soil and Water Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Catholic University Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Jaeken, Peter [PCF-Royal Research Station of Gorsem, De Brede Akker 13, 3800 Sint-Truiden (Belgium); Springael, Dirk [Division Soil and Water Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Catholic University Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    The efficiency of a biopurification system, developed to treat pesticide contaminated water, is to a large extent determined by the chemical and hydraulic load. Insight into the behaviour of pesticides under different fluxes is necessary. The behaviour of metalaxyl, bentazone, linuron, isoproturon and metamitron was studied under three different fluxes with or without the presence of pesticide-primed soil in column experiments. Due to the time-dependent sorption process, retention of the pesticides with intermediate mobility was significantly influenced by the flux. The higher the flux, the slower pesticides will be sorbed, which resulted in a lower retention. Degradation of the intermediate mobile pesticides was also submissive to variations in flux. An increase in flux, led to a decrease in retention, which in turn decreased the opportunity time for biodegradation. Finally, the presence of pesticide-primed soil was only beneficial for the degradation of metalaxyl. - Retention and degradation of pesticides in microcosms liable to different fluxes.

  17. 5-HT has contrasting effects in the frontal cortex, but not the hypothalamus, on changes in noradrenaline efflux induced by the monoamine releasing-agent, d-amphetamine, and the reuptake inhibitor, BTS 54 354.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géranton, Sandrine M; Heal, David J; Stanford, S Clare

    2004-03-01

    There is extensive evidence for functional interactions between central noradrenergic and serotonergic neurones. Here, dual-probe microdialysis was used in freely-moving rats to compare the effects of 5-HT on noradrenergic transmission in the rat frontal cortex and hypothalamus. We studied the effects of the 5-HT synthesis inhibitor, para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA; which depleted 5-HT stores in both the frontal cortex and the hypothalamus), on spontaneous efflux of noradrenaline and on the noradrenergic responses to d-amphetamine, and the monoamine reuptake inhibitor, BTS 54 354. pCPA pretreatment alone did not affect spontaneous noradrenaline efflux in either brain region, whether or not alpha2-autoreceptors were inactivated by administration of the alpha2-antagonist, atipamezole (1 mg/kg i.p). However, in the frontal cortex, pCPA pretreatment augmented the amplitude of, and prolonged, the noradrenergic response to local infusion of d-amphetamine (10 microM). In contrast, pCPA abolished the increase in cortical noradrenaline efflux induced by local infusion of BTS 54 354 (50 microM). In the hypothalamus, pCPA did not affect the amplitude of the response to either of these agents but did prolong the effects of d-amphetamine on noradrenaline efflux. These findings suggest that serotonergic transmission has complex effects on the noradrenergic response to drugs that increase noradrenergic transmission in the frontal cortex, but has less influence in the hypothalamus.

  18. A high-resolution non-invasive approach to quantify oxygen transport across the capillary fringe and within the underlying groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberer, Christina M; Rolle, Massimo; Liu, Sanheng; Cirpka, Olaf A; Grathwohl, Peter

    2011-03-25

    Oxygen transport across the capillary fringe is relevant for many biogeochemical processes. We present a non-invasive technique, based on optode technology, to measure high-resolution concentration profiles of oxygen across the unsaturated/saturated interface. By conducting a series of quasi two-dimensional flow-through laboratory experiments, we show that vertical hydrodynamic dispersion in the water-saturated part of the capillary fringe is the process limiting the mass transfer of oxygen. A number of experimental conditions were tested in order to investigate the influence of grain size and horizontal flow velocity on transverse vertical dispersion in the capillary fringe. In the same setup, analogous experiments were simultaneously carried out in the fully water-saturated zone, therefore allowing a direct comparison with oxygen transfer across the capillary fringe. The outcomes of the experiments under various conditions show that oxygen transport in the two zones of interest (i.e., the unsaturated/saturated interface and the saturated zone) is characterized by very similar transverse dispersion coefficients. An influence of the capillary fringe morphology on oxygen transport has not been observed. These results may be explained by the narrow grain size distribution used in the experiments, leading to a steep decline in water saturation at the unsaturated/saturated interface and to the absence of trapped gas in this transition zone. We also modeled flow (applying the van Genuchten and the Brooks-Corey relationships) and two-dimensional transport across the capillary fringe, obtaining simulated profiles of equivalent aqueous oxygen concentration that were in good agreement with the observations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Steroidogenic disruptive effects of the serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors duloxetine, venlafaxine and tramadol in the H295R cell assay and in a recombinant CYP17 assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islin, Julie; Munkboel, Cecilie Hurup; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the steroidogenic endocrine disrupting effect of the three most widely used serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors duloxetine, venlafaxine and tramadol, using two in vitro models, the H295R assay and a recombinant CYP17 enzyme assay. Steroid hormones were...... quantified using LC-MS/MS. Duloxetine showed endocrine disrupting effects at 5-20μM with CYP17 being the main target. Venlafaxine also affected the steroidogenesis, mainly by affecting the CYP17 lyase reaction, although at much higher concentrations i.e. 100μM. Tramadol only exerted minor effects...... on the steroidogenesis with the lowest observed effect at 314μM. Based on the H295R results, the inhibition of CYP17 by duloxetine and venlafaxine was investigated in a recombinant CYP17 assay with the use of the 4 major CYP17 substrates pregnenolone, progesterone, 17α-hydroxypregnenolone and 17α...

  20. Two-dimensional finite element solution for the simultaneous transport of water and solutes through a nonhomogeneous aquifer under transient saturated unsaturated flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gureghian, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model of ground water transport through an aquifer is presented. The solute of interest is a metal tracer or radioactive material which may undergo decay through a sorbing unconfined aquifer. The subject is developed under the following headings: flow equation, solute equation, boundary conditions, finite element formulation, element formulation, solution scheme (flow equation, solute equation), results and discussions, water movement in a ditch drained aquifer under transient state, water and solute movement in a homogeneous and unsaturated soil, transport of 226 Ra in nonhomogeneous aquifer, tailings pond lined, and tailings pond unlined. It is concluded that this mathematical model may have a wide variety of applications. The uranium milling industry may find it useful to evaluate the hydrogeological suitability of their disposal sites. It may prove suited for the design of clay disposal ponds destined to hold hazardous liquids. It may also provide a means of estimating the long-term impact of radionuclides or other pollutants on the quality of ground water. 31 references, 9 figures, 3 tables

  1. Numerical simulation of the insulation material transport to a PWR core under loss of coolant accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Höhne, Thomas; Grahn, Alexander; Kliem, Sören; Rohde, Ulrich; Weiss, Frank-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Detailed results of a numerical simulation of the insulation material transport to a PWR core are shown. ► The spacer grid is modeled as a strainer which completely retains the insulation material carried by coolant. ► The CFD calculations showed that the fibers at the upper spacer grid plane are not uniformly distributed. ► Furthermore the pressure loss does not exceed a critical limit. ► The PWR core coolablity can be guaranteed all the time during the transient. -- Abstract: In 1992, strainers on the suction side of the ECCS pumps in Barsebäck NPP Unit 2 became partially clogged with mineral wool because after a safety valve opened the steam impinged on thermally insulated equipment and released mineral wool. This event pointed out that strainer clogging is an issue in the course of a loss-of-coolant accident. Modifications of the insulation material, the strainer area and mesh size were carried out in most of the German NPPs. Moreover, back flushing procedures to remove the mineral wool from the strainers and differential pressure measurements were implemented to assure the performance of emergency core cooling during the containment sump recirculation mode. Nevertheless, it cannot be completely ruled out, that a limited amount of small fractions of the insulation material is transported into the RPV. During a postulated cold leg LOCA with hot leg ECC injection, the fibers enter the upper plenum and can accumulate at the fuel element spacer grids, preferably at the uppermost grid level. This effect might affect the ECC flow into the core and could result in degradation of core cooling. It was the aim of the numerical simulations presented to study where and how many mineral wool fibers are deposited at the upper spacer grid. The 3D, time dependent, multi-phase flow problem was modeled applying the CFD code ANSYS CFX. The CFD calculation does not yet include steam production in the core and also does not include re-suspension of the

  2. 2D statistical analysis of Non-Diffusive transport under attached and detached plasma conditions of the linear divertor simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Ohno, N.; Tsuji, Y.; Kajita, S.

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed the 2D convective motion of coherent structures, which is associated with plasma blobs, under attached and detached plasma conditions of a linear divertor simulator, NAGDIS-II. Data analysis of probes and a fast-imaging camera by spatio-temporal correlation with three decomposition and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was carried out to determine the basic properties of coherent structures detached from a bulk plasma column. Under the attached plasma condition, the spatio-temporal correlation with three decomposition based on the probe measurement showed that two types of coherent structures with different sizes detached from the bulk plasma and the azimuthally localized structure radially propagated faster than the larger structure. Under the detached plasma condition, movies taken by the fast-imaging camera clearly showed the dynamics of a 2D spiral structure at peripheral regions of the bulk plasma; this dynamics caused the broadening of the plasma profile. The POD method was used for the data processing of the movies to obtain low-dimensional mode shapes. It was found that the m=1 and m=2 ring-shaped coherent structures were dominant. Comparison between the POD analysis of both the movie and the probe data suggested that the coherent structure could be detached from the bulk plasma mainly associated with the m=2 fluctuation. This phenomena could play an important role in the reduction of the particle and heat flux as well as the plasma recombination processes in plasma detachment (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Alternative electron transports participate in the maintenance of violaxanthin de-epoxidase activity of Ulva sp. under low irradiance

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xiujun; Gu, Wenhui; Gao, Shan; Lu, Shan; Li, Jian; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce; Shen, Songdong

    2013-01-01

    The xanthophyll cycle (Xc), which involves violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) and the zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP), is one of the most rapid and efficient responses of plant and algae to high irradiance. High light intensity can activate VDE to convert violaxanthin (Vx) to zeaxanthin (Zx) via antheraxanthin (Ax). However, it remains unclear whether VDE remains active under low light or dark conditions when there is no significant accumulation of Ax and Zx, and if so, how the ΔpH required for activ...

  4. Strontium and caesium transport in unsaturated soil from Chernobyl Pilot Site under steady flow conditions; Transfert de radioelements en zone non saturee. Etude experimentale et modelisation appliquees au Site Pilote de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szenknect, St

    2003-10-15

    This work is devoted to the quantification and the identification of the predominant processes involved in strontium and caesium transport in unsaturated soil from Chernobyl Pilot Site under steady flow conditions. The transport and fate of radionuclides in the subsurface is affected by various physical and chemical processes including advective and diffusive transport as well as chemical and biological transformations. Laboratory experiments and the use of a multiple tracer approach allow to isolate the contributions of each elementary process and to control the physico-chemical conditions in the system. To be more representative of the field conditions, we decided to perform column miscible displacement experiments. We perform batch and flow-through reactor experiments to characterize the radionuclides sorption mechanisms. Miscible displacement experiments within homogeneous columns and modeling allow to characterize the hydrodynamic properties of the soil and to describe the radionuclides behaviour under dynamic conditions at different water contents. We show that the water content of porous media affect the transport behaviour of inert and strongly sorbing radionuclides. Our results demonstrate that a parametrized transport model that was calibrated under completely saturated conditions was not able to describe the advective-dispersive transport of reactive solutes under unsaturated steady state conditions. Under our experimental conditions, there is no effect of a decrease of the mean water content on the sorption model parameters, but the transport parameters are modified. We established for the studied soil the relation between hydrodynamic dispersion and water content and the relation between pore water velocity and water content. (author)

  5. Mechanobiology of LDL mass transport in the arterial wall under the effect of magnetic field, part I: Diffusion rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminfar, Habib, E-mail: hh_aminfar@tabrizu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadpourfard, Mousa, E-mail: Mohammadpour@tabrizu.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 5166616471 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajeh, Kosar, E-mail: k.khajeh.2005@tabrizu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    It is well-known that the Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) can accumulate and penetrate into the arterial wall. Here, we have investigated the diffusion rate of macromolecules across the porous layer of blood vessel under the effects of magnetic force. By using a finite volume technique, it was found that magnetic field makes alterations in diffusion rate of LDLs, also surface concentration of macromolecules on the walls. As well, the influence of different value of Re and Sc number in the presence of a magnetic field have shown as nondimensional concentration profiles. Magnetic field considered as a body force, porous layer simulated by using Darcy's law and the blood regarded as nano fluid which was examined as a single phase model. - Highlights: • LDLs mass transfer across the arterial wall under magnetic field has simulated numerically. • Arterial wall assumed as a homogeneous porous layer by using Darcy's law. • Blood containing 4% Vol. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} regarded as nanofluid and has examined by single phase model. • Magnetic field significantly affects the diffusion rate of LDLs through porous arterial wall.

  6. Study of Bubble Size, Void Fraction, and Mass Transport in a Bubble Column under High Amplitude Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrouz Mohagheghian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertical vibration is known to cause bubble breakup, clustering and retardation in gas-liquid systems. In a bubble column, vibration increases the mass transfer ratio by increasing the residence time and phase interfacial area through introducing kinetic buoyancy force (Bjerknes effect and bubble breakup. Previous studies have explored the effect of vibration frequency (f, but minimal effort has focused on the effect of amplitude (A on mass transfer intensification. Thus, the current work experimentally examines bubble size, void fraction, and mass transfer in a bubble column under relatively high amplitude vibration (1.5 mm < A <9.5 mm over a frequency range of 7.5–22.5 Hz. Results of the present work were compared with past studies. The maximum stable bubble size under vibration was scaled using Hinze theory for breakage. Results of this work indicate that vibration frequency exhibits local maxima in both mass transfer and void fraction. Moreover, an optimum amplitude that is independent of vibration frequency was found for mass transfer enhancements. Finally, this work suggests physics-based models to predict void fraction and mass transfer in a vibrating bubble column.

  7. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  8. Transport properties of LiF under strong compression: modeling using advanced electronic structure methods and classical molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Thomas R.; Jones, Reese; Ward, Donald; Spataru, Catalin; Shulenburger, Luke; Benedict, Lorin X.

    2015-06-01

    Window materials are ubiquitous in shock physics and with high energy density drivers capable of reaching multi-Mbar pressures the use of LiF is increasing. Velocimetry and temperature measurements of a sample through a window are both influenced by the assumed index of refraction and thermal conductivity, respectively. We report on calculations of index of refraction using the many-body theory GW and thermal ionic conductivity using linear response theory and model potentials. The results are expected to increase the accuracy of a broad range of high-pressure shock- and ramp compression experiments. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Water movement and solute transport in deep vadose zone under four irrigated agricultural land-use types in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Leilei; Shen, Yanjun; Pei, Hongwei; Wang, Ping

    2018-04-01

    Groundwater-fed agriculture has caused water table declines and groundwater quality degradation in the North China Plain. Based on sediment sampling in deep vadose zone (with a maximum depth of 11.0 m), groundwater recharge, seepage velocity, solute inventory and transport under four typical irrigated agricultural land-use types (winter wheat and summer maize, WM; pear orchards, PO; outdoor vegetables, VE; and cotton, CO) were investigated in this study. The results reveal that there are many solutes stored in the vadose zone. Nitrate storage per unit depth in the vadose zone is highest under PO (1703 kg/ha), followed by VE (970 kg/ha), WM (736 kg/ha) and CO (727 kg/ha). However, the amount of annual leached nitrate under the four land-use types results in a different order (VE, 404 kg/ha; WM, 108 kg/ha; PO, 23 kg/ha; CO, 13 kg/ha). The estimated average recharge rates are 180 mm/yr for WM, 27 mm/yr for CO, 320 mm/yr for VE and 49 mm/yr for PO. The seepage velocity under VE (2.22 m/yr) exceeds the values under the other three land-use types (WM, 0.85 m/yr; PO, 0.49 m/yr; CO, 0.09 m/yr). The highest seepage velocity under VE caused significant nitrate contamination in groundwater, whereas the other two land-use types (WM and PO) had no direct influence on groundwater quality. The results of this work could be used for groundwater resources management.

  10. Assurance of risk assessment and protection distant transportation and fall out of pollutants under large anthropogenic on nuclear power stations due to mountainous regional peculiarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitskishvili, M.; Tsitskishvili, N.; Kordzakhia, G.; Valiaev, A.; Kazakov, S.; Aitmatov, I.; Petrov, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: All types of industrial activities require the norms of protection, assessment of corresponding risks to preserve the pollution and degradation of corresponding areas. To make available the sustainable development of the country the risk assessment of possible accidents on the big enterprises is foreseen that provides preparedness of the country and possibility of the prevention measures and mitigation of the accidents. While big anthropogenic accidents in mountainous countries - the main paths for transportation of the pollution are the rivers and sea basins. Due to overpopulation of these areas assessment of the pollution risks are very important. Problem of forecast and distant atmospheric transportation of the toxic products and corresponding risk assessment under anthropogenic damages is multi-component and depends on meteorological conditions and frontier layer of atmosphere. Generally, for real relief and basic fields the problem is not solved yet especially taking into consideration the big level and shortest time of the process being of the natural anthropogenic accidents in mountainous regions. Usually, geostropic drawing for determined relief is used. Integral differential equations taking into consideration a physical- chemical characteristic of the pollutants, their transformations, fall out, coagulations, washing out and self rectification in general cannot be solved. In last time essential success in formalization of above-mentioned equations i.e. carrying out some simplifications give possibility to establish necessary modeling on the basis of numerical calculations. In the most general case forecasting model is essentially limited because of bulky size of accounting schemes and necessity of powerful and high-speed computers. Main ways of achievement of further success is connected with so called 'seasonal typification' with applied a priory calculation of probabilistic picture of the pollutants concentration fields, as well as

  11. Description of the blowdown test facility COG program on in-reactor fission product release, transport, and deposition under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbach, P.J.; Wood, J.C.

    1987-06-01

    Loss-of-coolant accidents with additional impairment of emergency cooling would probably result in high fuel temperatures leading to severe fuel damage (SFD) and significant fission product activity would then be transported along the PHTS to the break where a fraction of it would be released and transport under such conditions, there are many interacting and sometimes competing phenomena to consider. Laboratory simulations are being used to provide data on these individual phenomena, such as UO 2 oxidation and Zr-UO 2 interaction, from which mathematical models can be constructed. These are then combined into computer codes to include the interaction effects and assess the overall releases. In addition, in-reactor tests are the only source of data on release and transport of short-lived fission product nuclides, which are important in the consequence analysis of CANDU reactor accidents. Post-test decontamination of an in-reactor test facility also provides a unique opportunity to demonstrate techniques and obtain decontamination data relevant to post-accident rehabilitation of CANDU power reactors. Specialized facilities are required for in-reactor testing because of the extensive release of radioactive fission products and the high temperatures involved (up to 2500 degrees Celsius). To meet this need for the Canadian program, the Blowdown Test Facility (BTF) has been built in the NRU reactor at Chalk River. Between completion of construction in mid-1987 and the first Zircaloy-sheathed fuel test in fiscal year 1987/88, several commissioning tests are being performed. Similarly, extensive development work has been completed to permit application of instrumentation to irradiated fuel elements, and in support of post-test fuel assembly examination. A program of decontamination studies has also been developed to generate information relevant to post-accident decontamination of power reactors. The BTF shared cost test program funded by the COG High Temperature

  12. Diversity in growth and expression pattern of PoHKT1 and PoVHA transporter genes under NaCl stress in Portulaca oleracea taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Bakatoushi R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth and the expression of two transporter genes; PoHKT1 and PoVHA transcripts in root and shoot tissues were studied under salt stress of three Portulaca oleracea s.l. taxa. The study showed no significant differences in ratios between root lengths in saline and non-saline treatments of the three taxa, which was correlated with a clear down-regulation of the PoHKT1 transcripts in the root after 150mM NaCl. All measured growth parameters except root length increased in P. oleraceae, decreased in P. granulatostellulata and remain unchanged after 100mM NaCl in P. nitida compared to control under saline conditions. The result was consistent with the type of taxon which had significant effect on the shoot length, number of leaves and dry weight (P< 0.05. All measured growth parameters except root length showed a significant negative correlation with the shoot fold change of PoHKT1 transcripts (r = -0.607, -0.693 and -0.657 respectively. The regulation of PoVHA in root and shoot tissues in the three taxa are significantly different. Under salt stress, both decreased uptake of Na+ into the cytosol by decreasing the expression of PoHKT1 and increased vascular compartmentalization ability of Na+ by inducing the expression of PoVHA seem to work more efficiently in P. oleraceae and P. nitida than in P. granulato-stellulata.

  13. Design for limit stresses of orange fruits (Citrus sinensis under axial and radial compression as related to transportation and storage design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Chukwutoo Ihueze

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article employed the Hertz contact stress theory and the finite element method to evaluate the maximum contact pressure and the limit stresses of orange fruit under transportation and storage. The elastic properties of orange fruits subjected to axial and axial contact were measured such that elastic limit force, elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio and bioyield stress were obtained as 18 N, 0.691 MPa, 0.367, 0.009 MPa for axial compression and for radial loading were 15.69 N, 0.645 MPa, 0.123, 0.010 MPa. The Hertz maximum contact pressure was estimated for axial and radial contacts as 0.036 MPa. The estimated limiting yield stress estimated as von Mises stresses for the induced surface stresses of the orange topologies varied from 0.005 MPa–0.03 MPa. Based on the distortion energy theory (DET the yield strength of orange fruit is recommended as 0.03 MPa while based on the maximum shear stress theory (MSST is 0.01 MPa for the design of orange transportation and storage system.

  14. Role of riverine colloids in macronutrient and metal partitioning and transport, along an upland–lowland land-use continuum, under low-flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvie, H.P.; Neal, C.; Rowland, A.P.; Neal, M.; Morris, P.N.; Lead, J.R.; Lawlor, A.J.; Woods, C.; Vincent, C.; Guyatt, H.; Hockenhull, K.

    2012-01-01

    An assessment is made of the role of riverine colloids in macronutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon), metal and trace element partitioning and transport, for five rivers in the Ribble and Wyre catchments in north-western England, under baseflow/near-baseflow conditions. Cross-flow ultrafiltration was used to separate colloidal ( 1 kDa) and truly dissolved ( 0.45 μm, suspended) fractions. Of these operationally-defined fractions measured, colloids were generally more important for both macronutrient and metal transport in the upland than in the lowland rivers. The results suggest that organic moieties in truly dissolved form from sewage effluent may have a greater capacity to chelate metals. Organic-rich colloids in the upland moorlands and metal oxide colloidal precipitates in the industrial rivers had a higher capacity for binding metals than the colloidal fractions in the urban and agricultural lowland rivers. Aggregation of these colloids may provide an important mechanism for formation of larger suspended particulates, accounting for a higher degree of metal enrichment in the acid-available particulate fractions of the upland moorland and lowland industrial rivers, than in the lowland agricultural and urban rivers. This mechanism of transfer of contaminants to larger aggregates via colloidal intermediates, known as ‘colloidal pumping’ may also provide a mechanism for particulate P formation and the high proportion of P being transported in the particulate fraction in the uplands. The cross-flow ultrafiltration data also allowed refinement of partition coefficients, by accounting for colloids within the solids phase and replacing the filtered (< 0.45 μm) fraction with the truly dissolved (< 1 kDa) concentrations. These provided a clearer description of the controls on metal and P partitioning along the upland-lowland continuum. -- Highlights: ► Using cross-flow ultrafiltration, we assess the role of colloids in macronutrient and metal partitioning

  15. Brain neurotransmitters and hippocampal proteome in pigs under stress and environmental enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Arroyo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress and wellbeing are psychological conditions that are mediated by the central nervous system. In the brain, stress is mediated mainly by the hypothalamus, which will activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, leading to the secretion of cortisol, the paradigmatic stress hormone. Other brain areas as the amygdala, the hippocampus or the prefrontal cortex (PFC are involved in emotions such as happiness, anxiety and fear. Communication between brain areas is achieved by chemical neurotransmitters (NTs, which are secreted by presynaptic neurons to reach postsynaptic neurons, where they will cause a variation in membrane polarization and other cell signaling actions, leading to physiological responses. Amongst these NTs, catecholamines (noradrenaline and dopamine and serotonin play an important role. On the other hand, the adverse effects of stress may be counteracted by housing the individuals under environmental enrichment conditions. This long-term situation should have an effect, not only on NTs, but also on the brain proteome. Under the hypothesis that different stress situations will lead to changes in NT composition that will be specific for crucial brain areas, we have tested the effects of transport stress, handling stress at the slaughterhouse, and the stress-susceptible genotype (Ryr1 on the amine NT concentration in amygdala, hippocampus, PFC and hypothalamus of pigs. The effects of living under environmentally enriched or control conditions on the NT concentration in several brain regions and on the hippocampus proteome has been also analyzed. In conclusion, genetic factors as well as management conditions related to housing, transport and slaughterhouse alter in different degree the catecholaminergic and the serotoninergic neurotransmission in the brain, and give clues about how different individual types are able to react to external challenges. Likewise, environmental enrichment leads to changes in the proteome

  16. Increased Ratio of Electron Transport to Net Assimilation Rate Supports Elevated Isoprenoid Emission Rate in Eucalypts under Drought1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Kaidala Ganesha Srikanta; Jamie, Ian McLeod; Prentice, Iain Colin; Atwell, Brian James

    2014-01-01

    Plants undergoing heat and low-CO2 stresses emit large amounts of volatile isoprenoids compared with those in stress-free conditions. One hypothesis posits that the balance between reducing power availability and its use in carbon assimilation determines constitutive isoprenoid emission rates in plants and potentially even their maximum emission capacity under brief periods of stress. To test this, we used abiotic stresses to manipulate the availability of reducing power. Specifically, we examined the effects of mild to severe drought on photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) and net carbon assimilation rate (NAR) and the relationship between estimated energy pools and constitutive volatile isoprenoid emission rates in two species of eucalypts: Eucalyptus occidentalis (drought tolerant) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (drought sensitive). Isoprenoid emission rates were insensitive to mild drought, and the rates increased when the decline in NAR reached a certain species-specific threshold. ETR was sustained under drought and the ETR-NAR ratio increased, driving constitutive isoprenoid emission until severe drought caused carbon limitation of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. The estimated residual reducing power unused for carbon assimilation, based on the energetic status model, significantly correlated with constitutive isoprenoid emission rates across gradients of drought (r2 > 0.8) and photorespiratory stress (r2 > 0.9). Carbon availability could critically limit emission rates under severe drought and photorespiratory stresses. Under most instances of moderate abiotic stress levels, increased isoprenoid emission rates compete with photorespiration for the residual reducing power not invested in carbon assimilation. A similar mechanism also explains the individual positive effects of low-CO2, heat, and drought stresses on isoprenoid emission. PMID:25139160

  17. Large scale groundwater flow and hexavalent chromium transport modeling under current and future climatic conditions: the case of Asopos River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokou, Zoi; Karagiorgi, Vasiliki; Karatzas, George P; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, high concentrations of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), have been observed in the groundwater system of the Asopos River Basin, raising public concern regarding the quality of drinking and irrigation water. The work described herein focuses on the development of a groundwater flow and Cr(VI) transport model using hydrologic, geologic, and water quality data collected from various sources. An important dataset for this goal comprised an extensive time series of Cr(VI) concentrations at various locations that provided an indication of areas of high concentration and also served as model calibration locations. Two main sources of Cr(VI) contamination were considered in the area: anthropogenic contamination originating from Cr-rich industrial wastes buried or injected into the aquifer and geogenic contamination from the leaching process of ophiolitic rocks. The aquifer's response under climatic change scenario A2 was also investigated for the next two decades. Under this scenario, it is expected that rainfall, and thus infiltration, will decrease by 7.7 % during the winter and 15 % during the summer periods. The results for two sub-scenarios (linear and variable precipitation reduction) that were implemented based on A2 show that the impact on the study aquifer is moderate, resulting in a mean level decrease less than 1 m in both cases. The drier climatic conditions resulted in higher Cr(VI) concentrations, especially around the industrial areas.

  18. Role of riverine colloids in macronutrient and metal partitioning and transport, along an upland-lowland land-use continuum, under low-flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvie, H.P., E-mail: hpj@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Neal, C. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Rowland, A.P. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Neal, M.; Morris, P.N. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Lead, J.R. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Science, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Lawlor, A.J.; Woods, C.; Vincent, C.; Guyatt, H.; Hockenhull, K. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-15

    An assessment is made of the role of riverine colloids in macronutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon), metal and trace element partitioning and transport, for five rivers in the Ribble and Wyre catchments in north-western England, under baseflow/near-baseflow conditions. Cross-flow ultrafiltration was used to separate colloidal (< 0.45 Micro-Sign m > 1 kDa) and truly dissolved (< 1 kDa) fractions from river water. Clear patterns were observed, along the upland-lowland land use continuum, in the partitioning and transport of macronutrients and metals between the colloidal, truly dissolved and acid-available particulate (> 0.45 {mu}m, suspended) fractions. Of these operationally-defined fractions measured, colloids were generally more important for both macronutrient and metal transport in the upland than in the lowland rivers. The results suggest that organic moieties in truly dissolved form from sewage effluent may have a greater capacity to chelate metals. Organic-rich colloids in the upland moorlands and metal oxide colloidal precipitates in the industrial rivers had a higher capacity for binding metals than the colloidal fractions in the urban and agricultural lowland rivers. Aggregation of these colloids may provide an important mechanism for formation of larger suspended particulates, accounting for a higher degree of metal enrichment in the acid-available particulate fractions of the upland moorland and lowland industrial rivers, than in the lowland agricultural and urban rivers. This mechanism of transfer of contaminants to larger aggregates via colloidal intermediates, known as 'colloidal pumping' may also provide a mechanism for particulate P formation and the high proportion of P being transported in the particulate fraction in the uplands. The cross-flow ultrafiltration data also allowed refinement of partition coefficients, by accounting for colloids within the solids phase and replacing the filtered (< 0.45 {mu}m) fraction with the truly

  19. Ion transport under the effect of an electric field in porous medium: application to the separation of rare earths by focalization electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira-Nunes, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    Trivalent ions of rare earth elements have very similar properties and their difficult separation each from another is usually carried out by liquid-liquid extraction or ion exchange. Focalization electrophoresis represents an alternative route to the usual techniques. The purpose of this work consisted of the fundamental investigation of ion transport phenomena in electrophoretic processes. Focalization electrophoresis is suitable for separation of amphoteric species such as rare earth ions, using a pH gradient in the cell and upon addition of a complexed agent e. g. EDTA. This technique relies upon the difference in iso-electrical points of the considered species, being under the form of free cation near the anode, and in the form of anionic complexed species closer to the cathode. Rare earth species are submitted to the antagonist effects of diffusion and migration, enabling their focalization to occur at the iso-electrical point, corresponding to nil value of their effective mobility. Following a literature survey on rare earth elements and electrophoresis processes, the document describes theoretical and experimental investigations of complexation equilibria of some rare earth elements, namely lanthanum, neodymium, praseodymium and cerium, depending on pH. Values for the iso-electrical points could be estimated. Transport and focalization phenomena in view of rare earth separation, are dealt in the last chapter. Investigations were first carried out without forced circulation of the electrolyte solution and the transient behavior of the system allowed operating conditions to be design and built-up of a continuous device, more suitable to separation, and provided with 42 potential and 42 temperature sensors: the results of the preliminary runs, in form of variable profiles, are presented and discussed. (author)

  20. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) under boron toxicity revealed candidate genes responsible in boron uptake, transport and detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Kubilay; Uylaş, Senem

    2016-12-01

    Boron (B) is an essential nutrient for normal growth of plants. Despite its low abundance in soils, it could be highly toxic to plants in especially arid and semi-arid environments. Poplars are known to be tolerant species to B toxicity and accumulation. However, physiological and gene regulation responses of these trees to B toxicity have not been investigated yet. Here, B accumulation and tolerance level of black poplar clones were firstly tested in the current study. Rooted cutting of these clones were treated with elevated B toxicity to select the most B accumulator and tolerant genotype. Then we carried out a microarray based transcriptome experiment on the leaves and roots of this genotype to find out transcriptional networks, genes and molecular mechanisms behind B toxicity tolerance. The results of the study indicated that black poplar is quite suitable for phytoremediation of B pollution. It could resist 15 ppm soil B content and >1500 ppm B accumulation in leaves, which are highly toxic concentrations for almost all agricultural plants. Transcriptomics results of study revealed totally 1625 and 1419 altered probe sets under 15 ppm B toxicity in leaf and root tissues, respectively. The highest induction were recorded for the probes sets annotated to tyrosine aminotransferase, ATP binding cassette transporters, glutathione S transferases and metallochaperone proteins. Strong up regulation of these genes attributed to internal excretion of B into the cell vacuole and existence of B detoxification processes in black poplar. Many other candidate genes functional in signalling, gene regulation, antioxidation, B uptake and transport processes were also identified in this hyper B accumulator plant for the first time with the current study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the effects of storage in two different swab fabrics and under three different transport conditions on recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, E.; Leeuwen, M. van; Meijer-Severs, G.J.; Wilkinson, M.H.F.; Degener, J.E.

    Recovery of six anaerobic and five aerobic pathogens from viscose swabs and polyurethane swabs (Culturette EZ) was evaluated quantitatively, and transport in aerobic dry tubes, aerobic Amies transport medium (Transwab), and anaerobic universal transport medium (Port-a-Cul) was compared. The

  2. Role of sodium ion transporters and osmotic adjustments in stress alleviation of Cynodon dactylon under NaCl treatment: a parallel investigation with rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Swarnendu; Chakraborty, Usha

    2018-01-01

    Comparative analyses of the responses to NaCl in Cynodon dactylon and a sensitive crop species like rice could effectively unravel the salt tolerance mechanism in the former. C. dactylon, a wild perennial chloridoid grass having a wide range of ecological distribution is generally adaptable to varying degrees of salinity stress. The role of salt exclusion mechanism present exclusively in the wild grass was one of the major factors contributing to its tolerance. Salt exclusion was found to be induced at 4 days when the plants were treated with a minimum conc. of 200 mM NaCl. The structural peculiarities of the salt exuding glands were elucidated by the SEM and TEM studies, which clearly revealed the presence of a bicellular salt gland actively functioning under NaCl stress to remove the excess amount of Na + ion from the mesophyll tissues. Moreover, the intracellular effect of NaCl on the photosynthetic apparatus was found to be lower in C. dactylon in comparison to rice; at the same time, the vacuolization process increased in the former. Accumulation of osmolytes like proline and glycine betaine also increased significantly in C. dactylon with a concurrent check on the H 2 O 2 levels, electrolyte leakage and membrane lipid peroxidation. This accounted for the proper functioning of the Na + ion transporters in the salt glands and also in the vacuoles for the exudation and loading of excess salts, respectively, to maintain the osmotic balance of the protoplasm. In real-time PCR analyses, CdSOS1 expression was found to increase by 2.5- and 5-fold, respectively, and CdNHX expression increased by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively, in plants subjected to 100 and 200 mM NaCl treatment for 72 h. Thus, the comparative analyses of the expression pattern of the plasma membrane and tonoplast Na + ion transporters, SOS1 and NHX in both the plants revealed the significant role of these two ion transporters in conferring salinity tolerance in Cynodon.

  3. Five Patients With Burning Mouth Syndrome in Whom an Antidepressant (Serotonin-Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitor) Was Not Effective, but Pregabalin Markedly Relieved Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mikiko; Tokura, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Keizo; Nagashima, Wataru; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Umemura, Eri; Tachibana, Masako; Miyauchi, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Yuka; Arao, Munetaka; Ozaki, Norio; Kurita, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) causes idiopathic pain or a burning sensation in clinically normal oral mucosa. Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic disease with an unknown etiology. Burning mouth syndrome is also idiopathic, and a consensus regarding diagnosis/treatment has not been reached yet. Recent studies have supported the suggestion that BMS is a neuropathic pain disorder in which both the peripheral and central nervous systems are involved. Tricyclic antidepressants (nortriptyline and amitriptyline), serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (duloxetine and milnacipran), and antiepileptic drugs, potential-dependent calcium channel α2δ subunit ligands (gabapentine and pregabalin), are currently recommended as the first-choice drugs for neuropathic pain. In this study, we report 5 patients with BMS in whom there was no response to SNRI (milnacipran or duloxetine), or administration was discontinued because of adverse reactions, but in whom pregabalin therapy markedly reduced or led to the disappearance of pain in a short period. Pregabalin, whose mechanism of action differs from that of SNRIs, may become a treatment option for BMS patients who are not responsive to or are resistant to SNRIs.

  4. Toxicity of noradrenaline, a novel anti-biofouling component, to two non-target zooplankton species, Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overturf, C L; Wormington, A M; Blythe, K N; Gohad, N V; Mount, A S; Roberts, A P

    2015-05-01

    Noradrenaline (NA) is the active component of novel antifouling agents and acts by preventing attachment of fouling organisms. The goal of this study was to examine the toxicity of NA to the non-target zooplankton D. magna and C. dubia. Neonates were exposed to one of five concentrations of NA and effects on survival, reproduction and molting were determined. Calculated LC50 values were determined to be 46 and 38 μM in C. dubia and D. magna, respectively. A 10-day C. dubia study found that reproduction metrics were significantly impacted at non-lethal concentrations. In D. magna, concentrations greater than 40 μM significantly impacted molting. A toxicity test was conducted with D. magna using oxidized NA, which yielded similar results. These data indicate that both NA and oxidized NA are toxic to non-target zooplankton. Results obtained from this study can be used to guide future ecological risk assessments of catecholamine-based antifouling agents. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Mercuric chloride-induced alterations of levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine esterase activity in different regions of rat brain during postnatal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmana, M.K. (Department of Neurophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore (India)); Desiraju, T. (Department of Neurophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore (India)); Raju, T.R. (Department of Neurophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore (India))

    1993-07-01

    Wistar rats were fed mercuric chloride, 4 mg/kg body weight per day chronically from postnatal day 2 to 60 by gastric intubation. Mercury consumption was then discontinued until 170 days to allow time for recovery. Since mercury caused reduction in body weight, an underweight group was also included besides the normal saline group. Levels of noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and the activity of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) were assayed in various brain regions in different age groups. By 60 days of age, the mercury group showed elevations of NA levels in olfactory bulb (OB), visual cortex (VC) and brain stem (BS) but not in striatumaccumbens (SA) and hippocampus (HI). DA levels were also increased in OB, HI, VC and BS but not in SA. AChE activity was decreased in the mercury group only in HI and VC at 20 days of age. The Mercury group showed no behavioural abnormality outwardly; however, operant conditioning relevated a dificiency in performance. Nevertheless, all these changes disappeared after discontinuation of mercury intake. Thus the changes occurring in the brain at this level of oral mercuric chloride intake seem to reflect adaptive neural mechanisms rather than pathological damage. (orig.)

  6. In vivo analysis of NH4+ transport and central N-metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under aerobic N-limited conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto-Rojas, H F; Maleki Seifar, R; Ten Pierick, A; van Helmond, W; Pieterse M, M; Heijnen, J J; Wahl, S A

    2016-09-16

    Ammonium is the most common N-source for yeast fermentations. Although, its transport and assimilation mechanisms are well documented, there have been only few attempts to measure the in vivo intracellular concentration of ammonium and assess its impact on gene expression. Using an isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS)-based method we were able to measure the intracellular ammonium concentration in N-limited aerobic chemostat cultivations using three different N-sources (ammonium, urea and glutamate) at the same growth rate (0.05 h -1 ). The experimental results suggest that, at this growth rate, a similar concentration of intracellular ammonium, about 3.6 mmol NH 4 + /L IC , is required to supply the reactions in the central N-metabolism independent of the N-source. Based on the experimental results and different assumptions, the vacuolar and cytosolic ammonium concentrations were estimated. Furthermore, we identified a futile cycle caused by NH 3 leakage to the extracellular space, which can cost up to 30% of the ATP production of the cell under N-limited conditions, and a futile redox cycle between reactions Gdh1 and Gdh2. Finally, using shotgun proteomics with labeled reference-relative protein expression, differences between the various environmental conditions were identified and correlated with previously identified N-compound sensing mechanisms. In our work, we study central N-metabolism using quantitative approaches. First, intracellular ammonium was measured under different N-sources. The results suggest that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells keep a constant NH 4 + concentration (around 3 mmol NH 4 + /L IC ), independent of the applied nitrogen source. We hypothesize that this amount of intracellular ammonium is required to obtain sufficient thermodynamic driving force.Furthermore, our calculations based on thermodynamic analysis of the transport mechanisms of ammonium suggest that ammonium is not equally distributed, indicating a high degree of

  7. Modulation of redox regulatory molecules and electron transport chain activity in muscle of air breathing fish Heteropneustes fossilis under air exposure stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan

    2014-01-01

    Responses of redox regulatory system to long-term survival (>18 h) of the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis in air are not yet understood. Lipid and protein oxidation level, oxidant (H2O2) generation, antioxidative status (levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase, ascorbic acid and non-protein sulfhydryl) and activities of respiratory complexes (I, II, III and IV) in mitochondria were investigated in muscle of H. fossilis under air exposure condition (0, 3, 6, 12 and 18 h at 25 °C). The increased levels of both H2O2 and tissue oxidation were observed due to the decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes in muscle under water deprivation condition. However, ascorbic acid and non-protein thiol groups were the highest at 18 h air exposure time. A linear increase in complex II activity with air exposure time and an increase up to 12 h followed by a decrease in activity of complex I at 18 h were observed. Negative correlation was observed for complex III and V activity with exposure time. Critical time to modulate the above parameters was found to be 3 h air exposure. Dehydration induced oxidative stress due to modulation of electron transport chain and redox metabolizing enzymes in muscle of H. fossilis was clearly observed. Possible contribution of redox regulatory system in muscle tissue of the fish for long-term survival in air is elucidated. Results of the present study may be useful to understand the redox metabolism in muscle of fishes those are exposed to air in general and air breathing fishes in particular.

  8. Study of Transport and Micro-structural properties of Magnesium Di-Boride Strand under react and bend mode and bend and react mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Ananya; Kumar Das, Subrat; Bano, Anees; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-01-01

    I-V characterization of commercial multi-filamentary Magnesium Di-Boride (MgB 2 ) wire of diameter 0.83 mm were studied in Cryocooler at self-field I-V characterization system under both react and bend mode and bend and react mode for a range of temperature 6 K - 25 K. This study is of practical technical relevance where the heat treatment of the superconducting wire makes the wire less flexible for winding in magnet and in other applications. In the present work the bending diameter was varied from 40 mm to 20 mm and for each case critical current (I c ) of the strand is measured for above range of temperature. A customized sample holder is fabricated and thermally anchored with the 2 nd cold stage of Cryocooler. It is observed from the measurement that the strand is more susceptible to degradation for react and bend cases. The transport measurement of the strand was accompanied by SEM analyses of bend samples. Also the tensile strength of the raw strands and the heat treated strands were carried out at room temperature in Universal Testing Machine (UTM) to have an estimate about the limiting winding tension value during magnet fabrication. (paper)

  9. Rapid Ammonia Gas Transport Accounts for Futile Transmembrane Cycling under NH3/NH4+ Toxicity in Plant Roots1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T.; Li, Mingyuan; Becker, Alexander; Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Futile transmembrane NH3/NH4+ cycling in plant root cells, characterized by extremely rapid fluxes and high efflux to influx ratios, has been successfully linked to NH3/NH4+ toxicity. Surprisingly, the fundamental question of which species of the conjugate pair (NH3 or NH4+) participates in such fluxes is unresolved. Using flux analyses with the short-lived radioisotope 13N and electrophysiological, respiratory, and histochemical measurements, we show that futile cycling in roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is predominately of the gaseous NH3 species, rather than the NH4+ ion. Influx of 13NH3/13NH4+, which exceeded 200 µmol g–1 h–1, was not commensurate with membrane depolarization or increases in root respiration, suggesting electroneutral NH3 transport. Influx followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics for NH3 (but not NH4+), as a function of external concentration (Km = 152 µm, Vmax = 205 µmol g–1 h–1). Efflux of 13NH3/13NH4+ responded with a nearly identical Km. Pharmacological characterization of influx and efflux suggests mediation by aquaporins. Our study fundamentally revises the futile-cycling model by demonstrating that NH3 is the major permeating species across both plasmalemma and tonoplast of root cells under toxicity conditions. PMID:24134887

  10. Properties of the mitochondrial carrier of adenine-nucleotide after purification. Study of the transport protein under isolated form and reincorporated form in phospho-lipidic vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandolin, Gerard

    1983-01-01

    The first part of this research thesis addresses the reconstitution of the ADP/ATP transport by incorporation of the specific carrier, isolated in presence of detergent, in phospholipids vesicles. Fundamental properties of the reconstituted transport are identical to that of transport in mitochondria, notably as far as the exchange stoichiometry, the turn over and the transport Km are concerned, as well as the asymmetric orientation of the carrier in the membrane. The second part of this research addresses the study of interactions of specific ligands with the ADP/ATP transport protein in presence of detergent. The study of the variations of the intrinsic fluorescence of the isolated ADP/ATP carrier highlights conformational changes exclusively induced by the presence of transportable nucleotides which are modulated in a different manner by carboxy-atractyloside or bongkrekic acid. Moreover, by using the isolated protein, a detailed analysis of binding parameters of fluorescent analogues of ATP is reported [fr

  11. First field demonstration of cloud datacenter workflow automation employing dynamic optical transport network resources under OpenStack and OpenFlow orchestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyrkowiec, Thomas; Autenrieth, Achim; Gunning, Paul; Wright, Paul; Lord, Andrew; Elbers, Jörg-Peter; Lumb, Alan

    2014-02-10

    For the first time, we demonstrate the orchestration of elastic datacenter and inter-datacenter transport network resources using a combination of OpenStack and OpenFlow. Programmatic control allows a datacenter operator to dynamically request optical lightpaths from a transport network operator to accommodate rapid changes of inter-datacenter workflows.

  12. Functional, structural and phylogenetic analysis of domains underlying the Al-sensitivity of the aluminium-activated malate/anion transporter, TaALMT1

    Science.gov (United States)

    TaALMT1 (Triticum aestivum Aluminum Activated Malate Transporter) is the founding member of a novel gene family of anion transporters (ALMTs) that mediate the efflux of organic acids. A small subgroup of root-localized ALMTs, including TaALMT1, is physiologically associated with in planta aluminum (...

  13. Atomoxetine treatment may decrease striatal dopaminergic transporter availability after 8 weeks: pilot SPECT report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akay AP

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aynur Pekcanlar Akay,1 Gamze Capa Kaya,2,3 Burak Baykara,1 Yusuf Demir,2,3 Handan Özek,1 Sevay Alsen,1 Mine Sencan Eren,2,3 Neslihan Inal Emiroglu,1 Turkan Ertay,2,3 Yesim Ozturk,4 Suha Miral,1 Hatice Durak,2,3 Evren Tufan4 1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, 3Department of Pediatrics, Dokuz Eylul University Medical Faculty, Izmir, 4Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Abant İzzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey Abstract: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. The pathophysiology is thought to involve noradrenaline and dopamine. The role of dopamine transporter (DAT was evaluated in imaging studies using mostly dopamine reuptake inhibitors. Atomoxetine is a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor. Here we report the results of a pilot study conducted to evaluate changes in striatal DAT after 8 weeks of atomoxetine treatment. Our results suggest that 8 weeks of atomoxetine treatment may change striatal DAT bioavailability as measured via SPECT but that change was not correlated with genotype or clinical improvement. Keywords: neuroimaging, dopamine, noradrenaline, SLC6A3 protein, human, pragmatic clinical trial, pilot study

  14. Dopamine, Noradrenaline and Differences in Sexual Behavior between Roman High and Low Avoidance Male Rats: A Microdialysis Study in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Bratzu, Jessica; Piludu, Maria A; Corda, Maria G; Melis, Maria R; Giorgi, Osvaldo; Argiolas, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Roman High- (RHA) and Low-Avoidance (RLA) outbred rats, which differ for a respectively rapid vs. poor acquisition of the active avoidance response in the shuttle-box, display differences in sexual activity when put in the presence of a sexually receptive female rat. Indeed RHA rats show higher levels of sexual motivation and copulatory performance than RLA rats, which persist also after repeated sexual activity. These differences have been correlated to a higher tone of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system of RHA rats vs. RLA rats, revealed by the higher increase of dopamine found in the dialysate obtained from the nucleus accumbens of RHA than RLA rats during sexual activity. This work shows that extracellular dopamine and noradrenaline (NA) also, increase in the dialysate from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of male RHA and RLA rats put in the presence of an inaccessible female rat and more markedly during direct sexual interaction. Such increases in dopamine (and its main metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, DOPAC) and NA were found in both sexually naïve and experienced animals, but they were higher: (i) in RHA than in RLA rats; and (ii) in sexually experienced RHA and RLA rats than in their naïve counterparts. Finally, the differences in dopamine and NA in the mPFC occurred concomitantly to those in sexual activity, as RHA rats displayed higher levels of sexual motivation and copulatory performance than RLA rats in both the sexually naïve and experienced conditions. These results suggest that a higher dopaminergic tone also occurs in the mPFC, together with an increased noradrenergic tone, which may be involved in the different copulatory patterns found in RHA and RLA rats, as suggested for the mesolimbic dopaminergic system.

  15. The influence of μ-opioid and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition in the modulation of pain responsive neurones in the central amygdala by tapentadol in rats with neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Leonor; Friend, Lauren V.; Dickenson, Anthony H.

    2015-01-01

    Treatments for neuropathic pain are either not fully effective or have problematic side effects. Combinations of drugs are often used. Tapentadol is a newer molecule that produces analgesia in various pain models through two inhibitory mechanisms, namely central μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonism and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition. These two components interact synergistically, resulting in levels of analgesia similar to opioid analgesics such as oxycodone and morphine, but with more tolerable side effects. The right central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is critical for the lateral spinal ascending pain pathway, regulates descending pain pathways and is key in the emotional-affective components of pain. Few studies have investigated the pharmacology of limbic brain areas in pain models. Here we determined the actions of systemic tapentadol on right CeA neurones of animals with neuropathy and which component of tapentadol contributes to its effect. Neuronal responses to multimodal peripheral stimulation of animals with spinal nerve ligation or sham surgery were recorded before and after two doses of tapentadol. After the higher dose of tapentadol either naloxone or yohimbine were administered. Systemic tapentadol resulted in dose-dependent decrease in right CeA neuronal activity only in neuropathy. Both naloxone and yohimbine reversed this effect to an extent that was modality selective. The interactions of the components of tapentadol are not limited to the synergy between the MOR and α2-adrenoceptors seen at spinal levels, but are seen at this supraspinal site where suppression of responses may relate to the ability of the drug to alter affective components of pain. PMID:25576174

  16. Noradrenaline from Locus Coeruleus Neurons Acts on Pedunculo-Pontine Neurons to Prevent REM Sleep and Induces Its Loss-Associated Effects in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanday, Mudasir Ahmad; Somarajan, Bindu I; Mehta, Rachna; Mallick, Birendra Nath

    2016-01-01

    Normally, rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) does not appear during waking or non-REMS. Isolated, independent studies showed that elevated noradrenaline (NA) levels inhibit REMS and induce REMS loss-associated cytomolecular, cytomorphological, psychosomatic changes and associated symptoms. However, the source of NA and its target in the brain for REMS regulation and function in health and diseases remained to be confirmed in vivo . Using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-siRNA and virus-coated TH-shRNA in normal freely moving rats, we downregulated NA synthesis in locus coeruleus (LC) REM-OFF neurons in vivo . These TH-downregulated rats showed increased REMS, which was prevented by infusing NA into the pedunculo-pontine tegmentum (PPT), the site of REM-ON neurons, normal REMS returned after recovery. Moreover, unlike normal or control-siRNA- or shRNA-injected rats, upon REMS deprivation (REMSD) TH-downregulated rat brains did not show elevated Na-K ATPase (molecular changes) expression and activity. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first in vivo findings in an animal model confirming that NA from the LC REM-OFF neurons (1) acts on the PPT REM-ON neurons to prevent appearance of REMS, and (2) are responsible for inducing REMSD-associated molecular changes and symptoms. These observations clearly show neuro-physio-chemical mechanism of why normally REMS does not appear during waking. Also, that LC neurons are the primary source of NA, which in turn causes some, if not many, REMSD-associated symptoms and behavioral changes. The findings are proof-of-principle for the first time and hold potential to be exploited for confirmation toward treating REMS disorder and amelioration of REMS loss-associated symptoms in patients.

  17. Effects of articaine on [3H]noradrenaline release from cortical and spinal cord slices prepared from normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and compared to lidocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végh, D; Somogyi, A; Bányai, D; Lakatos, M; Balogh, M; Al-Khrasani, M; Fürst, S; Vizi, E S; Hermann, P

    2017-10-01

    Since a significant proportion of diabetic patients have clinical or subclinical neuropathy, there may be concerns about the use of local anaesthetics. The present study was designed to determine and compare the effects of articaine, a widely used anaesthetic in dental practice, and lidocaine on the resting and axonal stimulation-evoked release of [ 3 H]noradrenaline ([ 3 H]NA) in prefrontal cortex slices and the release of [ 3 H]NA in spinal cord slices prepared from non-diabetic and streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic (glucose level=22.03±2.31mmol/l) rats. The peak of allodynia was achieved 9 weeks after STZ-treatment. Articaine and lidocaine inhibited the stimulation-evoked release in a concentration-dependent manner and increased the resting release by two to six times. These effects indicate an inhibitory action of these anaesthetics on Na + - and K + -channels. There was no difference in clinically important nerve conduction between non-diabetic and diabetic rats, as measured by the release of transmitter in response to axonal stimulation. The uptake and resting release of NA was significantly higher in the brain slices prepared from diabetic rats, but there were no differences in the spinal cord. For the adverse effects, the effects of articaine on K + channels (resting release) are more pronounced compared to lidocaine. In this respect, articaine has a thiophene ring with high lipid solubility, which may present potential risks for some patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative study of Monte Carlo particle transport code PHITS and nuclear data processing code NJOY for PKA energy spectra and heating number under neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Y.; Ogawa, T.

    2016-01-01

    The modelling of the damage in materials irradiated by neutrons is needed for understanding the mechanism of radiation damage in fission and fusion reactor facilities. The molecular dynamics simulations of damage cascades with full atomic interactions require information about the energy distribution of the Primary Knock on Atoms (PKAs). The most common process to calculate PKA energy spectra under low-energy neutron irradiation is to use the nuclear data processing code NJOY2012. It calculates group-to-group recoil cross section matrices using nuclear data libraries in ENDF data format, which is energy and angular recoil distributions for many reactions. After the NJOY2012 process, SPKA6C is employed to produce PKA energy spectra combining recoil cross section matrices with an incident neutron energy spectrum. However, intercomparison with different processes and nuclear data libraries has not been studied yet. Especially, the higher energy (~5 MeV) of the incident neutrons, compared to fission, leads to many reaction channels, which produces a complex distribution of PKAs in energy and type. Recently, we have developed the event generator mode (EGM) in the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System PHITS for neutron incident reactions in the energy region below 20 MeV. The main feature of EGM is to produce PKA with keeping energy and momentum conservation in a reaction. It is used for event-by-event analysis in application fields such as soft error analysis in semiconductors, micro dosimetry in human body, and estimation of Displacement per Atoms (DPA) value in metals and so on. The purpose of this work is to specify differences of PKA spectra and heating number related with kerma between different calculation method using PHITS-EGM and NJOY2012+SPKA6C with different libraries TENDL-2015, ENDF/B-VII.1 and JENDL-4.0 for fusion relevant materials

  19. Experimental determination of the hydrothermal solubility of ReS2 and the Re–ReO2 buffer assemblage and transport of rhenium under supercritical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Scott A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the aqueous species important for transport of rhenium under supercritical conditions, we conducted a series of solubility experiments on the Re–ReO2 buffer assemblage and ReS2. In these experiments, pH was buffered by the K–feldspar–muscovite–quartz assemblage; in sulfur-free systems was buffered by the Re–ReO2 assemblage; and and in sulfur-containing systems were buffered by the magnetite–pyrite–pyrrhotite assemblage. Our experimental studies indicate that the species ReCl40 is dominant at 400°C in slightly acidic to near-neutral, and chloride-rich (total chloride concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 M environments, and ReCl3+ may predominate at 500°C in a solution with total chloride concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 M. The results also demonstrate that the solubility of ReS2 is about two orders of magnitude less than that of ReO2. This finding not only suggests that ReS2 (or a ReS2 component in molybdenite is the solubility-controlling phase in sulfur-containing, reducing environments but also implies that a mixing process involving an oxidized, rhenium-containing solution and a solution with reduced sulfur is one of the most effective mechanisms for deposition of rhenium. In analogy with Re, TcS2 may be the stable Tc-bearing phase in deep geological repositories of radioactive wastes.

  20. A review on ab initio studies of static, transport, and optical properties of polystyrene under extreme conditions for inertial confinement fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Boehly, T. R.; Ding, Y. H.; Radha, P. B.; Goncharov, V. N.; Karasiev, V. V.; Collins, G. W.; Regan, S. P.; Campbell, E. M.

    2018-05-01

    Polystyrene (CH), commonly known as "plastic," has been one of the widely used ablator materials for capsule designs in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Knowing its precise properties under high-energy-density conditions is crucial to understanding and designing ICF implosions through radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. For this purpose, systematic ab initio studies on the static, transport, and optical properties of CH, in a wide range of density and temperature conditions (ρ = 0.1 to 100 g/cm3 and T = 103 to 4 × 106 K), have been conducted using quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations based on the density functional theory. We have built several wide-ranging, self-consistent material-properties tables for CH, such as the first-principles equation of state, the QMD-based thermal conductivity (κQMD) and ionization, and the first-principles opacity table. This paper is devoted to providing a review on (1) what results were obtained from these systematic ab initio studies; (2) how these self-consistent results were compared with both traditional plasma-physics models and available experiments; and (3) how these first-principles-based properties of polystyrene affect the predictions of ICF target performance, through both 1-D and 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. In the warm dense regime, our ab initio results, which can significantly differ from predictions of traditional plasma-physics models, compared favorably with experiments. When incorporated into hydrocodes for ICF simulations, these first-principles material properties of CH have produced significant differences over traditional models in predicting 1-D/2-D target performance of ICF implosions on OMEGA and direct-drive-ignition designs for the National Ignition Facility. Finally, we will discuss the implications of these studies on the current small-margin ICF target designs using a CH ablator.

  1. The Use of the Hanford Onsite Packaging and Transportation Safety Program to Meet Cleanup Milestones Under the Hanford Site Cleanup 2015 Vision and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 - 12403

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, John C. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Edwards, W. Scott [Areva Federal Services, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Macbeth, Paul J.; Self, Richard J. [U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); West, Lori D. [Materials and Energy Corporation, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Hanford Site presents unique challenges in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) 2015 Cleanup Vision. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), its subcontractors, and DOE-RL were challenged to retrieve, transport and remediate a wide range of waste materials. Through a collaborative effort by all Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members, disposition pathways for diverse and seemingly impossible to ship wastes were developed under a DOE Order 460.1C-compliant Hanford Onsite Transportation Safety Program. The team determined an effective method for transporting oversized compliant waste payloads to processing and disposition facilities. The use of the onsite TSD packaging authorizations proved to be vital to safely transporting these materials for processing and eventual final disposition. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provided additional resources to expedite planning and execution of these important cleanup milestones. Through the innovative and creative use of the TSD, the Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members have developed and are executing an integrated project plan that enables the safe and compliant transport of a wide variety of difficult-to-transport waste items, accelerating previous cleanup schedules to meet cleanup milestones. (authors)

  2. [Biogenic amines in the epiphysis and hypothalamus under normal conditions and following ovariectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishchenko, V I; Koliada, L D; Demidenko, D I

    1977-01-01

    Melatonin content in the epiphysis, serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine-in the hypothalamus, gonadotropins--in the hypophysis of rats was studied under normal conditions and following ovariectomy; regularly of the estral cycle phases was studied as well. Two series of experiments were conducted on 120 rats with regular estral cycles. The animals were divided into groups according to the estral cycle phase. Melatonin concentration in the epiphysis, serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine--in the hypothalamus was subject to variations coinciding with the estral cycle phases. Serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine content decreased in the hypophysis of ovariectomized rats in comparison with control; melatonin content rose in the epiphysis. There was no complete extinction of the estral cycle in the course of investigation (20 days). The action of castration on the sexual cycle depended on the phase at which the rats were subjected to ovariectomy. A reverse relationship existed between the melatonin content in the epiphysis and serotonin content in the hypothalamus, this serving as one of the important factors in the regulation of the sexual function.

  3. Modeling of the pollutant transport in fissured-porous media under consideration of colloids using the transport codes FRAME and COFRAME; Modellierung des Schadstofftransports in geklueftet-poroesen Medien unter Beruecksichtigung von Kolloiden mit den Transportprogrammen FRAME und COFRAME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Tatiana; Noseck, Ulrich; Wolf, Jens Wilhelm

    2014-05-15

    For the long-term safety analysis of final nuclear waste repositories the transport of pollutants from the repository into the biosphere three mostly independent subsystems are considered: the near field, the geosphere and the biosphere. Normally rocks include fissures or other disturbances. Porous materials in the rock matrix have usually a high water content and acts as storage for pollutants due to sorption and diffusion processes. The aim of the project is the development of calculation modules for the code RepoTREND that simulate the pollutant transport in saturated fissured-porous media taking into account the effect of colloids. FRAME describes the pollutant dispersion in a fissured-porous medium and COFRAME the colloid influenced transport in a fissured-porous medium.

  4. The effect of bedload transport rates on bedform and planform morphological development in a laboratory meandering stream under varying flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, C.; Good, R. G. R.; Binns, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment transport processes in streams provides valuable insight into the temporal evolution of planform and bedform geometry. The majority of previous experimental research in the literature has focused on bedload transport and corresponding bedform development in rectangular, confined channels, which does not consider planform adjustment processes in streams. In contrast, research conducted with laboratory streams having movable banks can investigate planform development in addition to bedform development, which is more representative of natural streams. The goal of this research is to explore the relationship between bedload transport rates and the morphological adjustments in meandering streams. To accomplish this, a series of experimental runs were conducted in a 5.6 m by 1.9 m river basin flume at the University of Guelph to analyze the bedload impacts on bed formations and planform adjustments in response to varying flow conditions. In total, three experimental runs were conducted: two runs using steady state conditions and one run using unsteady flow conditions in the form of a symmetrical hydrograph implementing quasi steady state flow. The runs were performed in a series of time-steps in order to monitor the evolution of the stream morphology and the bedload transport rates. Structure from motion (SfM) was utilized to capture the channel morphology after each time-step, and Agisoft PhotoScan software was used to produce digital elevation models to analyze the morphological evolution of the channel with time. Bedload transport rates were quantified using a sediment catch at the end of the flume. Although total flow volumes were similar for each run, the morphological evolution and bedload transport rates in each run varied. The observed bedload transport rates from the flume are compared with existing bedload transport formulas to assess their accuracy with respect to sediment transport in unconfined meandering channels. The measured sediment transport

  5. Nucleation, growth and transport modelling of helium bubbles under nuclear irradiation in lead–lithium with the self-consistent nucleation theory and surface tension corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradera, J.; Cuesta-López, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The work presented in this manuscript provides a reliable computational tool to quantify the He complex phenomena in a HCLL. • A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) is exposed. It includes radiation induced nucleation modelling and surface tension corrections. • Results informed reinforce the necessity of conducting experiments to determine nucleation conditions and bubble transport parameters in LM breeders. • Our findings and model provide a good qualitative insight into the helium nucleation phenomenon in LM systems for fusion technology and can be used to identify key system parameters. -- Abstract: Helium (He) nucleation in liquid metal breeding blankets of a DT fusion reactor may have a significant impact regarding system design, safety and operation. Large He production rates are expected due to tritium (T) fuel self-sufficiency requirement, as both, He and T, are produced at the same rate. Low He solubility, local high concentrations, radiation damage and fluid discontinuities, among other phenomena, may yield the necessary conditions for He nucleation. Hence, He nucleation may have a significant impact on T inventory and may lower the T breeding ratio. A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) with a surface tension curvature correction model has been implemented in OpenFOAM ® CFD code. A modification through a single parameter of the necessary nucleation condition is proposed in order to take into account all the nucleation triggering phenomena, specially radiation induced nucleation. Moreover, the kinetic growth model has been adapted so as to allow for the transition from a critical cluster to a macroscopic bubble with a diffusion growth process. Limitations and capabilities of the models are shown by means of zero-dimensional simulations and sensitivity analyses to key parameters under HCLL breeding unit conditions. Results provide a good qualitative insight into the helium nucleation

  6. Ionizing radiation induces mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production accompanied by upregulation of mitochondrial electron transport chain function and mitochondrial content under control of the cell cycle checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamori, Tohru; Yasui, Hironobu; Yamazumi, Masayuki; Wada, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yoshinari; Nakamura, Hideo; Inanami, Osamu

    2012-07-15

    Whereas ionizing radiation (Ir) instantaneously causes the formation of water radiolysis products that contain some reactive oxygen species (ROS), ROS are also suggested to be released from biological sources in irradiated cells. It is now becoming clear that these ROS generated secondarily after Ir have a variety of biological roles. Although mitochondria are assumed to be responsible for this Ir-induced ROS production, it remains to be elucidated how Ir triggers it. Therefore, we conducted this study to decipher the mechanism of Ir-induced mitochondrial ROS production. In human lung carcinoma A549 cells, Ir (10 Gy of X-rays) induced a time-dependent increase in the mitochondrial ROS level. Ir also increased mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial ATP production, suggesting upregulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) function after Ir. Although we found that Ir slightly enhanced mitochondrial ETC complex II activity, the complex II inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid failed to reduce Ir-induced mitochondrial ROS production. Meanwhile, we observed that the mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial DNA level were upregulated after Ir, indicating that Ir increased the mitochondrial content of the cell. Because irradiated cells are known to undergo cell cycle arrest under control of the checkpoint mechanisms, we examined the relationships between cell cycle and mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level. We found that the cells in the G2/M phase had a higher mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level than cells in the G1 or S phase, regardless of whether the cells were irradiated. We also found that Ir-induced accumulation of the cells in the G2/M phase led to an increase in cells with a high mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level. This suggested that Ir upregulated mitochondrial ETC function and mitochondrial content, resulting in mitochondrial ROS production, and that

  7. Sensitivity to grid resolution in the ability of a chemical transport model to simulate observed oxidant chemistry under high-isoprene conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Formation of ozone and organic aerosol in continental atmospheres depends on whether isoprene emitted by vegetation is oxidized by the high-NOx pathway (where peroxy radicals react with NO or by low-NOx pathways (where peroxy radicals react by alternate channels, mostly with HO2. We used mixed layer observations from the SEAC4RS aircraft campaign over the Southeast US to test the ability of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at different grid resolutions (0.25°  ×  0.3125°, 2°  ×  2.5°, 4°  ×  5° to simulate this chemistry under high-isoprene, variable-NOx conditions. Observations of isoprene and NOx over the Southeast US show a negative correlation, reflecting the spatial segregation of emissions; this negative correlation is captured in the model at 0.25°  ×  0.3125° resolution but not at coarser resolutions. As a result, less isoprene oxidation takes place by the high-NOx pathway in the model at 0.25°  ×  0.3125° resolution (54 % than at coarser resolution (59 %. The cumulative probability distribution functions (CDFs of NOx, isoprene, and ozone concentrations show little difference across model resolutions and good agreement with observations, while formaldehyde is overestimated at coarse resolution because excessive isoprene oxidation takes place by the high-NOx pathway with high formaldehyde yield. The good agreement of simulated and observed concentration variances implies that smaller-scale non-linearities (urban and power plant plumes are not important on the regional scale. Correlations of simulated vs. observed concentrations do not improve with grid resolution because finer modes of variability are intrinsically more difficult to capture. Higher model resolution leads to decreased conversion of NOx to organic nitrates and increased conversion to nitric acid, with total reactive nitrogen oxides (NOy changing little across model resolutions. Model concentrations in the

  8. Nucleation, growth and transport modelling of helium bubbles under nuclear irradiation in lead–lithium with the self-consistent nucleation theory and surface tension corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradera, J., E-mail: jfradera@ubu.es; Cuesta-López, S., E-mail: scuesta@ubu.es

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The work presented in this manuscript provides a reliable computational tool to quantify the He complex phenomena in a HCLL. • A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) is exposed. It includes radiation induced nucleation modelling and surface tension corrections. • Results informed reinforce the necessity of conducting experiments to determine nucleation conditions and bubble transport parameters in LM breeders. • Our findings and model provide a good qualitative insight into the helium nucleation phenomenon in LM systems for fusion technology and can be used to identify key system parameters. -- Abstract: Helium (He) nucleation in liquid metal breeding blankets of a DT fusion reactor may have a significant impact regarding system design, safety and operation. Large He production rates are expected due to tritium (T) fuel self-sufficiency requirement, as both, He and T, are produced at the same rate. Low He solubility, local high concentrations, radiation damage and fluid discontinuities, among other phenomena, may yield the necessary conditions for He nucleation. Hence, He nucleation may have a significant impact on T inventory and may lower the T breeding ratio. A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) with a surface tension curvature correction model has been implemented in OpenFOAM{sup ®} CFD code. A modification through a single parameter of the necessary nucleation condition is proposed in order to take into account all the nucleation triggering phenomena, specially radiation induced nucleation. Moreover, the kinetic growth model has been adapted so as to allow for the transition from a critical cluster to a macroscopic bubble with a diffusion growth process. Limitations and capabilities of the models are shown by means of zero-dimensional simulations and sensitivity analyses to key parameters under HCLL breeding unit conditions. Results provide a good qualitative insight into the helium

  9. Study of transport and micro-structural properties of magnesium di-boride strand under react and bend mode and bend and react mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Ananya; Das, Subrat Kumar; Bano, Anees; Pradhan, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    I-V characterization of commercial multi-filamentary Magnesium Di-Boride (MgB 2 ) wire of diameter 0.83 mm were studied in cryocooler based self-field characterization system under both react and bent mode and bent and react mode for a range of temperature 6 K - 25 K. This study is of practical technical relevance where the heat treatment of the superconducting wire makes the sample less flexible for winding in magnet and in other applications. There are limited reported data, available on degradation of MgB 2 wire with bending induced strain in react and wind and wind and react method. In the present work the bending diameter were varied from 80 mm to 20 mm in the interval of 10 mm change of bending diameter and for each case critical current (Ic) of the strand is measured for the above range of temperature. An ETP copper made customized sample holder for mounting the MgB 2 strand was fabricated and is thermally anchored to the cooling stage of the cryocooler. It is seen from the experimental data that in react and bent mode the critical current degrades from 105 A to 87 A corresponding to bending diameter of 80 mm and 20 mm respectively. The corresponding bending strain was analytically estimated and compared with the simulation result. It is also observed that in react and bent mode, the degradation of the transport property of the strand is less as compared to react and bent mode. For bent and react mode in the same sample, the critical current (Ic) was measured to be ∼145 A at 15 K for bending diameter of 20 mm. Apart from studying the bending induced strain on MgB 2 strand, the tensile test of the strand at RT was carried out. The electrical characterizations of the samples were accompanied by the microstructure analyses of the bent strand to examine the bending induced degradation in the grain structure of the strand. All these experimental findings are expected to be used as input to fabricate prototype MgB 2 based magnet. (author)

  10. Transport by SLC5A8 with subsequent inhibition of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and HDAC3 underlies the antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Karunakaran, Senthil K; Itagaki, Shiro; Gopal, Elangovan; Elangovan, Selvakumar; Prasad, Puttur D; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2009-10-15

    3-bromopyruvate is an alkylating agent with antitumor activity. It is currently believed that blockade of adenosine triphosphate production from glycolysis and mitochondria is the primary mechanism responsible for this antitumor effect. The current studies uncovered a new and novel mechanism for the antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate. The transport of 3-bromopyruvate by sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter SMCT1 (SLC5A8), a tumor suppressor and a sodium (Na+)-coupled, electrogenic transporter for short-chain monocarboxylates, was studied using a mammalian cell expression and the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression systems. The effect of 3-bromopyruvate on histone deacetylases (HDACs) was monitored using the lysate of the human breast cancer cell line MCF7 and human recombinant HDAC isoforms as the enzyme sources. Cell viability was monitored by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis and colony-formation assay. The acetylation status of histone H4 was evaluated by Western blot analysis. 3-Bromopyruvate is a transportable substrate for SLC5A8, and that transport process is Na+-coupled and electrogenic. MCF7 cells did not express SLC5A8 and were not affected by 3-bromopyruvate. However, when transfected with SLC5A8 or treated with inhibitors of DNA methylation, these cells underwent apoptosis in the presence of 3-bromopyruvate. This cell death was associated with the inhibition of HDAC1/HDAC3. Studies with different isoforms of human recombinant HDACs identified HDAC1 and HDAC3 as the targets for 3-bromopyruvate. 3-Bromopyruvate was transported into cells actively through the tumor suppressor SLC5A8, and the process was energized by an electrochemical Na+ gradient. Ectopic expression of the transporter in MCF7 cells led to apoptosis, and the mechanism involved the inhibition of HDAC1/HDAC3. Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  11. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique and X-ray microanalysis provide direct evidence of contrasting Na+ transport ability from root to shoot in salt-sensitive cucumber and salt-tolerant pumpkin under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bo; Huang, Yuan; Sun, Jingyu; Xie, Junjun; Niu, Mengliang; Liu, Zhixiong; Fan, Molin; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-12-01

    Grafting onto salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock can increase cucumber salt tolerance. Previous studies have suggested that this can be attributed to pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. However, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the transport of Na(+) in salt-tolerant pumpkin and salt-sensitive cucumber plants under high (200 mM) or moderate (90 mM) NaCl stress. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique showed that pumpkin roots exhibited a higher capacity to extrude Na(+), and a correspondingly increased H(+) influx under 200 or 90 mM NaCl stress. The 200 mM NaCl induced Na(+)/H(+) exchange in the root was inhibited by amiloride (a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter inhibitor) or vanadate [a plasma membrane (PM) H(+) -ATPase inhibitor], indicating that Na(+) exclusion in salt stressed pumpkin and cucumber roots was the result of an active Na(+)/H(+) antiporter across the PM, and the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter system in salt stressed pumpkin roots was sufficient to exclude Na(+) X-ray microanalysis showed higher Na(+) in the cortex, but lower Na(+) in the stele of pumpkin roots than that in cucumber roots under 90 mM NaCl stress, suggesting that the highly vacuolated root cortical cells of pumpkin roots could sequester more Na(+), limit the radial transport of Na(+) to the stele and thus restrict the transport of Na(+) to the shoot. These results provide direct evidence for pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  12. Transport via SLC5A8 with Subsequent Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC3 Underlies the Antitumor Activity of 3-Bromopyruvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Karunakaran, Senthil K.; Itagaki, Shiro; Gopal, Elangovan; Elangovan, Selvakumar; Prasad, Puttur D.; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2009-01-01

    Background 3-Bromopyruvate is an alkylating agent with antitumor activity. It is currently believed that blockade of ATP production from glycolysis and mitochondria is the primary mechanism responsible for this antitumor effect. The present studies have uncovered a new and novel mechanism for the antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate. Methods Transport of 3-bromopyruvate via SLC5A8, a tumor suppressor and a Na+-coupled electrogenic transporter for short-chain monocarboxylates, was studied using a mammalian cell expression and the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression systems. The effect of 3-bromopyruvate on histone deacetylases (HDACs) was monitored using the lysate of the human breast cancer cell line MCF7 and human recombinant HDAC isoforms as the enzyme sources. Cell viability was monitored by FACS analysis and colony formation assay. Acetylation status of histone H4 was evaluated by Western blot. Results 3-Bromopyruvate is a transportable substrate for SLC5A8, with the transport process being Na+-coupled and electrogenic. MCF7 cells do not express SLC5A8 and are not affected by 3-bromopyruvate. However, when transfected with SLC5A8 or treated with inhibitors of DNA methylation, these cells undergo apoptosis in the presence of 3-bromopyruvate. This cell death is associated with inhibition of HDAC1/HDAC3. Studies with different isoforms of human recombinant HDACs identify HDAC1 and HDAC3 as the targets for 3-bromopyruvate. Conclusions 3-Bromopyruvate is transported into cells actively via the tumor suppressor SLC5A8 and the process is energized by an electrochemical Na+ gradient. Ectopic expression of the transporter in MCF7 cells leads to apoptosis, and the mechanism involves inhibition of HDAC1/HDAC3. PMID:19637353

  13. DIRECTIONS, CONDITIONS, AND RISKS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TRANSPORT MEGA-PROJECTS “NORTH-SOUTH” AND “EAST-WEST” UNDER THE NEW GEOPOLITICAL REALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Tulokhonov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the prospect of the development of Russia’s transport infrastructure mega-projects in the context of the Eurasian Economic Union and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization formation. The paper focuses on the country’s interests in the area of influence of the Silk and the Tea Roads. Economic cooperation with the countries of the Asia-Pacific region on the Trans-Siberian Railway-Mongolia-China direction, with diversification of transport routes to all four oceans and five continents, is the most effective policy for Russia.

  14. Formation of nitrosyl non-heme iron-sulphur complexes of a mitrochondria electron-transport chain in a liver and kidneys under prolonged permanent action of radiation contamination in the Chernobyl region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorik, E.P.; Burlaka, A.P.; Druzhina, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    No-complexes with iron-sulfur protein of the N-type (EPR signal g=2.03 at 77 K) have been revealed in a mitochondria electron transport chain in a liver and kidneys of animals which were hold for 1.5 years in the Chernobyl area under action of low intensity ionizing radiation as a result of incorporated radionuclides. These alterations in protein give evidence of changes in oxidation and phosphorylation in tissues

  15. Magnetic and transport properties of PrRu.sub.2./sub.Si.sub.2./sub. single crystal under high pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejpravová, J.; Kamarád, Jiří; Prchal, J.; Sechovsky, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, suppl. A (2007), s. 49-50 ISSN 0031-9015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : pressure effect * magnetic properties * transport properties * single crystal Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.212, year: 2007

  16. Functional, structural and phylogenetic analysis of domains underlying the Al sensitivity of the aluminum-activated malate/anion transporter, TaALMT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligaba, Ayalew; Dreyer, Ingo; Margaryan, Armine; Schneider, David J; Kochian, Leon; Piñeros, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    Triticum aestivum aluminum-activated malate transporter (TaALMT1) is the founding member of a unique gene family of anion transporters (ALMTs) that mediate the efflux of organic acids. A small sub-group of root-localized ALMTs, including TaALMT1, is physiologically associated with in planta aluminum (Al) resistance. TaALMT1 exhibits significant enhancement of transport activity in response to extracellular Al. In this study, we integrated structure-function analyses of structurally altered TaALMT1 proteins expressed in Xenopus oocytes with phylogenic analyses of the ALMT family. Our aim is to re-examine the role of protein domains in terms of their potential involvement in the Al-dependent enhancement (i.e. Al-responsiveness) of TaALMT1 transport activity, as well as the roles of all its 43 negatively charged amino acid residues. Our results indicate that the N-domain, which is predicted to form the conductive pathway, mediates ion transport even in the absence of the C-domain. However, segments in both domains are involved in Al(3+) sensing. We identified two regions, one at the N-terminus and a hydrophobic region at the C-terminus, that jointly contribute to the Al-response phenotype. Interestingly, the characteristic motif at the N-terminus appears to be specific for Al-responsive ALMTs. Our study highlights the need to include a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis when drawing inferences from structure-function analyses, as a significant proportion of the functional changes observed for TaALMT1 are most likely the result of alterations in the overall structural integrity of ALMT family proteins rather than modifications of specific sites involved in Al(3+) sensing. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Transportation Business Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Transportation Business Plan is a step in the process of procuring the transportation system. It sets the context for business strategy decisions by providing pertinent background information, describing the legislation and policies governing transportation under the NWPA, and describing requirements of the transportation system. Included in the document are strategies for procuring shipping casks and transportation support services. In the spirit of the NWPA directive to utilize the private sector to the maximum extent possible, opportunities for business ventures are obvious throughout the system development cycle

  18. Report by the AERES on the unit: Unit of researches on neutron transport and radioactivity confinement in nuclear installations under the supervision of the establishments and bodies: IRSN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory whose activity is organized in three departments: neutron transport and criticality (themes: numerical methods, maths and statistics related to the simulation of neutral particle propagation, nuclear data, uncertainty propagation and bias estimation, code qualification and associated experimental programs, neutron transport in reactors and fuel cycle, criticality accidents), radionuclide transfer in radioactive waste disposals (site identification strategy, hydro-mechanical phenomena affecting storage performance, physical-chemical evolution factors, storage modelling), and metrology and confinement of radioactive gases and aerosols. The authors discuss an assessment of the unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, aspects to be improved and recommendations, productions and publications. A more detailed assessment is presented for each department in terms of scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project

  19. Ion transport in thin cell electrodeposition: modelling three-ion electrolytes in dense branched morphology under constant voltage and current conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, G. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012 (United States) and Laboratorio de Sistemas Complejos, Departamento de Computacion, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: marshalg@mail.retina.ar; Molina, F.V. [INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Soba, A. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Complejos, Departamento de Computacion, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-05-30

    Electrochemical deposition (ECD) and spatially coupled bipolar electrochemistry (SCBE) experiments in thin-layer cells are known to produce complex ion transport patterns concomitantly with the growth of dendrite-like structures. Here we present a macroscopic model of ECD and SCBE with a three-ion electrolyte in conditions of dense branched morphology. The model describes ion transport and deposit growth through the one-dimensional Nernst-Planck equations for ion transport, the Poisson equation for the electric field and, for ECD, a growth law for deposit evolution. We present numerical simulations for typical electrochemical deposition experiments: dense branched morphology in ECD and the incubation period in SCBE. In ECD the model predicts cation, anion and proton concentration profiles, electric field variations and deposit growth speed, that are in qualitative agreement with experiments; the predicted evolution and collision of the deposit and proton fronts reveal a time scaling close to those observed in experiments. In SCBE, the model predicts that the inverse of the incubation time scales linearly with the applied voltage. Such behaviour was observed in experiments.

  20. Sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1 in the kidney medullary thick ascending limb cell line is upregulated under acidic conditions and enhances ammonium transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soojung; Lee, Hye Jeong; Yang, Han Soo; Thornell, Ian M; Bevensee, Mark O; Choi, Inyeong

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of bicarbonate transporters on ammonium/ammonia uptake in the medullary thick ascending limb cell line ST-1. Cells were treated with 1 mm ouabain and 0.2 mM bumetanide to minimize carrier-mediated NH(4)(+) transport, and the intracellular accumulation of (14)C-methylammonium/methylammonia ((14)C-MA) was determined. In CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)-free solution, cells at normal pH briefly accumulated (14)C-MA over 7 min and reached a plateau. In CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) solution, however, cells markedly accumulated (14)C-MA over the experimental period of 30 min. This CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)-dependent accumulation was reduced by the bicarbonate transporter blocker, 4,4-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonate (DIDS; 0.5 mM). Replacing Cl(-) with gluconate reduced the accumulation, but the reduction was more substantial in the presence of DIDS. Incubation of cells at pH 6.8 (adjusted with NaHCO(3) in 5% CO(2)) for 24 h lowered the mean steady-state intracellular pH to 6.96, significantly lower than 7.28 for control cells. The presence of DIDS reduced (14)C-MA accumulation in control conditions but had no effect after acidic incubation. Immunoblotting showed that NBCn1 was upregulated after acidic incubation and in NH(4)Cl-containing media. The Cl(-)-HCO(3)(-) exchanger AE2 was present, but its expression remained unaffected by acidic incubation. Expressed in Xenopus oocytes, NBCn1 increased carrier-mediated (14)C-MA transport, which was abolished by replacing Na(+). Two-electrode voltage clamp of oocytes exhibited negligible current after NH(4)Cl application. These results suggest that DIDS-sensitive HCO(3)(-) extrusion normally governs NH(4)(+)/NH(3) uptake in the medullary thick ascending limb cells. We propose that, in acidic conditions, DIDS-sensitive HCO(3)(-) extrusion is inactivated, while NBCn1 is upregulated to stimulate NH(4)(+) transport.

  1. Transport properties of PrxOs4Sb12 single crystals with high Pr-site filling fraction grown under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kenya; Namiki, Takahiro; Saito, Takashi; Tatsuoka, Sho; Imamura, Atsushi; Kuwahara, Keitaro; Aoki, Yuji; Sato, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    We have succeeded in growing Pr x Os 4 Sb 12 single crystals under ∼4GPa with high Pr-site filling fraction x. The electrical resistance measurements clearly show that the superconducting (SC) transition is sharper and the onset temperatures is lower in the single crystal samples grown under high pressure compared to that of the sample grown under ambient pressure. These results suggest that the double SC transition ascribed to sample inhomogeneity is suppressed in the sample grown under high pressure. The change of 4f-electron crystalline electric field energy splitting between the Γ 1 ground state and the Γ 4 (2) first excited state in the sample made under high pressure is proposed as one o