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Sample records for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal

  1. Hemospray application in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Lyn A; Stanley, Adrian J; Bergman, Jacques J

    2013-01-01

    in combination with other hemostatic modalities at the endoscopists' discretion. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients (44 men, 19 women), median age 69 (range, 21 to 98) years with NVUGIB requiring endoscopic hemostasis were treated with TC-325. There were 30 patients with bleeding ulcers and 33 with other NVUGIB......BACKGROUND: Hemospray TM (TC-325) is a novel hemostatic agent licensed for use in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) in Europe. GOALS: We present the operating characteristics and performance of TC-325 in the largest registry to date of patients presenting with NVUGIB in everyday...... pathology. Fifty-five (87%) were treated with TC-325 as monotherapy; 47 [85%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 76%-94%] of them achieved primary hemostasis, and rebleeding rate at 7 days was 15% (95% CI, 5%-25%). Primary hemostasis rate for TC-325 in patients with ulcer bleeds was 76% (95% CI, 59%-93%). Eight...

  2. Predictors of Early Rebleeding after Endoscopic Therapy in Patients with Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Secondary to High-Risk Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Maggio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In an era of increasingly shortened admissions, data regarding predictors of early rebleeding among patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB exhibiting high-risk stigmata (HRS having undergone endoscopic hemostasis are lacking.

  3. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

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    Jae, Hwan Jun; Chung, Jin Wook; Jung, Ah Young; Lee, Whal; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Between March 1999 and December 2002, TAE for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding was performed in 93 patients. The endoscopic approach had failed or was discarded as an approach for control of bleeding in all study patients. Among the 93 patients NBCA was used as the primary embolic material for TAE in 32 patients (28 men, four women; mean age, 59.1 years). The indications for choosing NBCA as the embolic material were: inability to advance the microcatheter to the bleeding site and effective wedging of the microcatheter into the bleeding artery. TAE was performed using 1:1 1:3 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil. The angiographic and clinical success rate, recurrent bleeding rate, procedure related complications and clinical outcomes were evaluated. The angiographic and clinical success rates were 100% and 91% (29/32), respectively. There were no serious ischemic complications. Recurrent bleeding occurred in three patients (9%) and they were managed with emergency surgery (n = 1) and with a successful second TAE (n = 2). Eighteen patients (56%) had a coagulopathy at the time of TAE and the clinical success rate in this group of patients was 83% (15/18). TAE with NBCA is a highly effective and safe treatment modality for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, especially when it is not possible to advance the microcatheter to the bleeding site and when the patient has a coagulopathy.

  4. Application of endoscopic hemoclips for nonvariceal bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract

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    Guo, Shi-Bin; Gong, Ai-Xia; Leng, Jing; Ma, Jing; Ge, Lin-Mei

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate acute nonvariceal bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract and evaluate the effects of endoscopic hemoclipping. METHODS: Sixty-eight cases of acute nonvariceal bleeding in the upper GI tract were given endoscopic treatment with hemoclip application. Clinical data, endoscopic findings, and the effects of the therapy were evaluated. RESULTS: The 68 cases (male:female = 42:26, age from 9 to 70 years, average 54.4) presented with hematemesis in 26 cases (38.2%), melena in nine cases (13.3%), and both in 33 cases (48.5%). The causes of the bleeding included gastric ulcer (29 cases), duodenal ulcer (11 cases), Dieulafoy’s lesion (11 cases), Mallory-Weiss syndrome (six cases), post-operative (three cases), post-polypectomy bleeding (five cases), and post-sphincterotomy bleeding (three cases); 42 cases had active bleeding. The mean number of hemoclips applied was four. Permanent hemostasis was obtained by hemoclip application in 59 cases; 6 cases required emergent surgery (three cases had peptic ulcers, one had Dieulafoy’s lesion, and two were caused by sphincterotomy); three patients died (two had Dieulafoy’s lesion and one was caused by sphincterotomy); and one had recurrent bleeding with Dieulafoy’s lesion 10 mo later, but in a different location. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic hemoclip application was an effective and safe method for acute nonvariceal bleeding in the upper GI tract with satisfactory outcomes. PMID:19750577

  5. Effect of Transfusion Strategy in Acute Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Rasmus; Svenningsen, Peter; Hillingsø, Jens

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is a common cause of admissions as well as aggressive transfusion of blood products. Whether the transfusion strategy in NVUGIB impacts on hemostasis is unknown and constitutes the focus of this study. METHOD: Retrospective...... analysis of all hospital admissions in Denmark between 2011 and 2013 where hemostatic endoscopic interventions in either the stomach or duodenum had been employed. Regression modeling was used to predict the effect of units transfused of packed red blood cells (PRBC), fresh frozen plasma (FFP......), and platelets (PLT) on primary outcome 30-day mortality as well as secondary hemostasis-related outcomes and need for re-endoscopy and conversion to surgery. The model was corrected for confounders, including transfusion of other blood products (PRBC, FFP, and PLT, respectively), patient age as well as pre...

  6. Embolization for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage: A systematic review

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    Mirsadraee, S.; Tirukonda, P.; Nicholson, A. [Department of Radiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); Everett, S.M. [Department of Gastroenterology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); McPherson, S.J., E-mail: simon.mcpherson@leedsth.nhs.u [Department of Radiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Aim: To assess the published evidence on the endovascular treatment of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Materials and methods: An Ovid Medline search of published literature was performed (1966-2009). Non-English literature, experimental studies, variceal haemorrhage and case series with fewer than five patients were excluded. The search yielded 1888 abstracts. Thirty-five articles were selected for final analysis. Results: The total number of pooled patients was 927. The technical and clinical success of embolization ranged from 52-100% and 44-100%, respectively. The pooled mean technical/clinical success rate in primary upper gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage (PUGITH) only, trans-papillary haemorrhage (TPH) only, and mixed studies were 84%/67%, 93%/89%, and 93%/64%, respectively. Clinical outcome was adversely affected by multi-organ failure, shock, corticosteroids, transfusion, and coagulopathy. The anatomical source of haemorrhage and procedural variables did not affect the outcome. A successful embolization improved survival by 13.3 times. Retrospective comparison with surgery demonstrated equivalent mortality and clinical success, despite embolization being applied to a more elderly population with a higher prevalence of co-morbidities. Conclusions: Embolization is effective in this very difficult cohort of patients with outcomes similar to surgery.

  7. Greek results of the “ENERGIB” European study on non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodoridis, George; Akriviadis, Evangelos; Evgenidis, Nikolaos; Kapetanakis, Anargyros; Karamanolis, Demetrios; Kountouras, Jannis; Mantzaris, Gerassimos; Potamianos, Spyros; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Tzathas, Charalambos

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-variceal upper gastro-intestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is a common and challenging emergency situation. We aimed to describe the characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with NVUGIB in Greece. Methods ENERGIB (NCT00797641) was an epidemiological survey conducted in 7 European countries including Greece. It included adult patients with overt NVUGIB from 10 tertiary hospitals across Greece. Data for each patient were collected on admission and up to 30 days thereafter. Results 201 patients were enrolled. A previous history of NVUGIB was reported by 14% of patients, while 61% had ≥ 1 co-morbidities. At presentation, 59% were on therapy that could harm the gastrointestinal mucosa, 14% on anticoagulant(s) and 42% had sign(s) of hemodynamic instability. 54% of patients showed stigmata of recent hemorrhage. Therapeutic endoscopy was performed in 25% and blood product(s) transfusions were required in 86% of cases. Proton pump inhibitors were administered before and after endoscopy in 70% and 95% of patients, respectively. Uncontrolled bleeding or rebleeding was observed in 11% being more common in elderly, hospitalized patients and patients with ≥1 co-morbidities. Second-look endoscopy was performed in 20%, angiographic intervention in 1.5% and surgical intervention in 4% of patients. Only 5/201 (2.5%) patients died during hospitalization and none died during the 30-day post-hospitalization period. Conclusions The majority of patients with NVUGIB in tertiary Greek hospitals are elderly, with co-morbidities, hemodynamic instability and required transfusion(s), while one fourth undergoes therapeutic endoscopic interventions. However, NVUGIB is associated with moderate degrees of continued bleeding/re-bleeding, low surgical rates and, most importantly, low mortality. PMID:24714268

  8. Therapeutic Decision-Making in Endoscopically Unmanageable Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defreyne, Luc; Schrijver, Ignace De; Decruyenaere, Johan; Maele, Georges Van; Ceelen, Wim; Looze, Danny De; Vanlangenhove, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify endoscopic and clinical parameters influencing the decision-making in salvage of endoscopically unmanageable, nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) and to report the outcome of selected therapy. We retrospectively retrieved all cases of surgery and arteriography for arrest of endoscopically unmanageable UGIH. Only patients with overt bleeding on endoscopy within the previous 24 h were included. Patients with preceding nonendoscopic hemostatic interventions, portal hypertension, malignancy, and transpapillar bleeding were excluded. Potential clinical and endoscopic predictors of allocation to either surgery or arteriography were tested using statistical models. Outcome and survival were regressed on the choice of rescue and clinical variables. Forty-six arteriographed and 51 operated patients met the inclusion criteria. Univariate analysis revealed a higher number of patients with a coagulation disorder in the catheterization group (41.4%, versus 20.4% in the laparotomy group; p = 0.044). With multivariate analysis, the identification of a bleeding peptic ulcer at endoscopy significantly steered decision-making toward surgical rescue (OR = 5.2; p = 0.021). Taking into account reinterventions, hemostasis was achieved in nearly 90% of cases in both groups. Overall therapy failure (no survivors), rebleeding within 3 days (OR = 3.7; p = 0.042), and corticosteroid use (OR = 5.2; p = 0.017) had a significant negative impact on survival. The odds of dying were not different for embolotherapy or surgery. In conclusion, decision-making was endoscopy-based, with bleeding peptic ulcer significantly directing the choice of rescue toward surgery. Unsuccessful hemostasis and corticosteroid use, but not the choice of rescue, negatively affected outcome.

  9. [Clinical signification of a modified dilution method (MDM) for blood loss assessment in the cases of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding].

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    Geogiev, G; Shishenkov, M; Ninov, B; Dosheva, I

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the modified dilution method (MDM) for in vivo bloodless assessment with the accepted in the clinical practice methods. We measured 148 blood samples from 134 patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) and 21 blood samples from healthy persons as a negative control. In the randomized group of 53 patients with NUGB we compared accuracy of the blood loss determination by means of erythrocyte mass loss (estimated with MDM), Allgower-Burri index and American College of Surgeon Index (ACSI). The obtained results give us a reason to recommend a combination between American College of Surgeon classification for blood loss in patients with NUGB and a parallel measurement of the MDM values.

  10. Validation of the Rockall scoring system for outcomes from non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a Canadian setting.

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    Enns, Robert-A; Gagnon, Yves-M; Barkun, Alan-N; Armstrong, David; Gregor, Jamie-C; Fedorak, Richard-N

    2006-12-28

    To validate the Rockall scoring system for predicting outcomes of rebleeding, and the need for a surgical procedure and death. We used data extracted from the Registry of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Endoscopy including information of 1869 patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding treated in Canadian hospitals. Risk scores were calculated and used to classify patients based on outcomes. For each outcome, we used chi2 goodness-of-fit tests to assess the degree of calibration, and built receiver operating characteristic curves and calculated the area under the curve (AUC) to evaluate the discriminative ability of the scoring system. For rebleeding, the chi2 goodness-of-fit test indicated an acceptable fit for the model [chi2 (8) = 12.83, P = 0.12]. For surgical procedures [chi2 (8) = 5.3, P = 0.73] and death [chi2 (8) = 3.78, P = 0.88], the tests showed solid correspondence between observed proportions and predicted probabilities. The AUC was 0.59 (95% CI: 0.55-0.62) for the outcome of rebleeding and 0.60 (95% CI: 0.54-0.67) for surgical procedures, representing a poor discriminative ability of the scoring system. For the outcome of death, the AUC was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.69-0.78), indicating an acceptable discriminative ability. The Rockall scoring system provides an acceptable tool to predict death, but performs poorly for endpoints of rebleeding and surgical procedures.

  11. Validation of the Rockall scoring system for outcomes from non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a Canadian setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Robert A; Gagnon, Yves M; Barkun, Alan N; Armstrong, David; Gregor, Jamie C; Fedorak, Richard N; Group, RUGBE Investigators

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To validate the Rockall scoring system for predicting outcomes of rebleeding, and the need for a surgical procedure and death. METHODS: We used data extracted from the Registry of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Endoscopy including information of 1869 patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding treated in Canadian hospitals. Risk scores were calculated and used to classify patients based on outcomes. For each outcome, we used χ2 goodness-of-fit tests to assess the degree of calibration, and built receiver operating characteristic curves and calculated the area under the curve (AUC) to evaluate the discriminative ability of the scoring system. RESULTS: For rebleeding, the χ2 goodness-of-fit test indicated an acceptable fit for the model [χ2 (8) = 12.83, P = 0.12]. For surgical procedures [χ2 (8) = 5.3, P = 0.73] and death [χ2 (8) = 3.78, P = 0.88], the tests showed solid correspondence between observed proportions and predicted probabilities. The AUC was 0.59 (95% CI: 0.55-0.62) for the outcome of rebleeding and 0.60 (95% CI: 0.54-0.67) for surgical procedures, representing a poor discriminative ability of the scoring system. For the outcome of death, the AUC was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.69-0.78), indicating an acceptable discriminative ability. CONCLUSION: The Rockall scoring system provides an acceptable tool to predict death, but performs poorly for endpoints of rebleeding and surgical procedures. PMID:17203520

  12. Effectiveness of the polysaccharide hemostatic powder in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Using propensity score matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Chul; Kim, Yeong Jin; Kim, Eun Hye; Lee, Jinae; Yang, Hyun Su; Kim, Eun Hwa; Hahn, Kyu Yeon; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Yong Chan

    2018-02-07

    Recently, the application of hemostatic powder to the bleeding site has been used to treat active upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). We aimed to assess the effectiveness of the polysaccharide hemostatic powder (PHP) in patients with non-variceal UGIB. We reviewed prospectively collected 40 patients with UGIB treated with PHP therapy between April 2016 and January 2017 (PHP group) and 303 patients with UGIB treated with conventional therapy between April 2012 and October 2014 (conventional therapy group). We compared the rate of successful hemostasis and the rebleeding between the two groups after as well as before propensity score matching using the Glasgow-Blatchford score and Forrest classification. Thirty patients treated with the PHP and 60 patients treated with conventional therapy were included in the matched groups. Baseline patient characteristics including comorbidities, vital signs, and bleeding scores were similar in the matched groups. The rate of immediate hemostasis and 7-day and 30-day rebleeding were also similar in the two groups before and after matching. In the subgroup analysis, no significant differences in immediate hemostasis or rebleeding rate were noted between PHP in monotherapy and PHP combined with a conventional hemostatic method. At 30 days after the therapy, there were no significant PHP-related complications or mortality. Given its safety, the PHP proved feasible for endoscopic treatment of UGIB, having similar effectiveness as that of conventional therapy. The PHP may become a promising hemostatic method for non-variceal UGIB. © 2018 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Management of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Current policies and future perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.L. Holster (Ingrid); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAcute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a gastroenterological emergency with a mortality of 6%-13%. The vast majority of these bleeds are due to peptic ulcers. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and Helicobacter pylori are the main risk factors for peptic ulcer disease.

  14. [Update on non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanas, Ángel

    2013-10-01

    This article summarizes the main studies in the field of non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding reported in the last American Congress of Gastroenterology (Digestive Disease Week) in 2013. Some of these studies have provided new knowledge and expertise in areas of uncertainty. In this context and among other findings, it has been reported that the administration of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) prior to endoscopy or the early performance of endoscopy-within 6 hours of admission in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) (or colonoscopy within 24 hours in patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding)-does not improve the prognosis of the event. It has also been reported that oral administration of a PPI after endoscopic hemostasis may produce a similar outcome to that of intravenously administered PPI in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). In the field of endoscopic therapy, the use of radiofrequency ablation for antral vascular ectasia is of interest. Regarding UGIB and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), new data confirm the risk of cardiovascular events by stopping treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) after an episode of UGIB, the increased risk of UGIB when associating gastrotoxic drugs, and the need to identify both the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risks of each NSAID and coxib when prescribing these agents. Finally, there is evidence that both environmental and genetic factors are involved in individual susceptibility to gastrointestinal bleeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of variceal and nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Suzane

    2014-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage remains the most common medical emergency managed by gastroenterologists. Causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in patients with liver cirrhosis can be grouped into two categories: the first includes lesions that arise by virtue of portal hypertension, namely gastroesophageal varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy; and the second includes lesions seen in the general population (peptic ulcer, erosive gastritis, reflux esophagitis, Mallory–Weiss syndrome, tumors, etc.). Emergency upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the standard procedure recommended for both diagnosis and treatment of UGIB. The endoscopic treatment of choice for esophageal variceal bleeding is band ligation of varices. Bleeding from gastric varices is treated by injection with cyanoacrylate. Treatment with vasoactive drugs as well as antibiotic treatment is started before or at the same time as endoscopy. Bleeding from portal hypertensive gastropathy is less frequent, usually chronic and treatment options include β-blocker therapy, injection therapy and interventional radiology. The standard of care of UGIB in patients with cirrhosis includes careful resuscitation, preferably in an intensive care setting, medical and endoscopic therapy, early consideration for placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and, sometimes, surgical therapy or hepatic transplant. PMID:25177367

  16. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Upper Gastrointestinal Nonvariceal Hemorrhage: Is Empiric Embolization Warranted?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrayeh, Elnasif; Fidelman, Nicholas, E-mail: nicholas.fidelman@ucsf.edu; Gordon, Roy L.; LaBerge, Jeanne M.; Kerlan, Robert K. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology (United States); Klimov, Alexander; Bloom, Allan I. [Hadassah Hospital, Department of Radiology (Israel)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To determine whether transcatheter arterial embolization performed in the setting of active gastric or duodenal nonvariceal hemorrhage is efficacious when the bleeding source cannot be identified angiographically. Methods: Records of 115 adult patients who underwent visceral angiography for endoscopically documented gastric (50 patients) or duodenal (65 patients) nonvariceal hemorrhage were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were subdivided into three groups according to whether angiographic evidence of arterial hemorrhage was present and whether embolization was performed (group 1 = no abnormality, no embolization; group 2 = no abnormality, embolization performed [empiric embolization]; and group 3 = abnormality present, embolization performed). Thirty-day rates and duration of primary hemostasis and survival were compared.ResultsFor patients with gastric sources of hemorrhage, the rate of primary hemostasis at 30 days after embolization was greater when embolization was performed in the setting of a documented angiographic abnormality than when empiric embolization was performed (67% vs. 42%). The rate of primary hemostasis at 30 days after angiography was greater for patients with duodenal bleeding who either underwent empiric embolization (60%) or embolization in the setting of angiographically documented arterial hemorrhage (58%) compared with patients who only underwent diagnostic angiogram (33%). Patients with duodenal hemorrhage who underwent embolization were less likely to require additional invasive procedures to control rebleeding (p = 0.006). Conclusion: Empiric arterial embolization may be advantageous in patients with a duodenal source of hemorrhage but not in patients with gastric hemorrhage.

  17. The Progetto Nazionale Emorragia Digestiva (PNED) system vs. the Rockall score as mortality predictors in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: A multicenter prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Omaña, R; Alfaro-Reynoso, J A; Cruz-Chávez, C E; Velarde-Ruiz Velasco, A; Flores-Ramírez, D I; Romero-Hernández, I; Donato-Olguín, I; García-Samper, X; Bautista-Santos, A; Reyes-Bastidas, M; Millán-Marín, E

    The predictive scale for mortality risk in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) proposed by Italy's PNED (Progetto Nazionale Emorragia Digestiva) group has not been validated in Latin America since its original publication. To compare the PNED system and the Rockall score as mortality predictors in patients hospitalized for NVUGIB. A multicenter, prospective, cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted that recruited patients diagnosed with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding within the time frame of 2011 to 2015. Six Mexican hospital centers participated in the study. The Rockall and PNED system scores were calculated, classifying the patients as having mild, moderate, or severe disease. The association between mortality and risk was determined through the chi-square test and relative risk (RR) calculation. Statistical significance was set at a P<.05. Information on 198 patients was collected. Only 8 patients (4%) died from causes directly associated with bleeding. According to the Rockall score, 46 patients had severe disease (23.2%), 5 of whom died, with a RR of 5.5 (CI 1.35-22.02, P=.006). In relation to the PNED, only 8 patients had severe disease (4%), 5 of whom died, with a RR of 38.7 (CI 11.4-137.3, P=.001). The PNED system was more selective for classifying a case as severe, but it had a greater predictive capacity for mortality, compared with the Rockall score. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of Nonvariceal Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage by Transcatheter Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Muhammad; Ul Haq, Tanveer; Salam, Basit; Beg, Madiha; Sayani, Raza; Azeemuddin, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the sensitivity of mesenteric angiography, technical success of hemostasis, clinical success rate, and complications of transcatheter embolization for the treatment of acute nonvariceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Material and Methods. A retrospective review of 200 consecutive patients who underwent mesenteric arteriography for acute nonvariceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage between February 2004 and February 2011 was done. Results. Of 200 angiographic studies, 114 correctly revealed the bleeding site with mesenteric angiography. 47 (41%) patients had upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and 67 (59%) patients had lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Out of these 114, in 112 patients (98%) technical success was achieved with immediate cessation of bleeding. 81 patients could be followed for one month. Clinical success was achieved in 72 out of these 81 patients (89%). Seven patients rebled. 2 patients developed bowel ischemia. Four patients underwent surgery for bowel ischemia or rebleeding. Conclusion. The use of therapeutic transcatheter embolization for treatment of acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage is highly successful and relatively safe with 98% technical success and 2.4% postembolization ischemia in our series. In 89% of cases it was definitive without any further intervention

  19. Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: clinical, therapeutic and evolution aspects. Comparison between a tertiary medical center and a municipal hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Cornelia; Matei, Daniela; Tőrők-Vistai, Tünde; Lazar, Mircea; Pascu, Oliviu

    2013-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is one of the most common emergencies in gastroenterology practice. In recent years, the introduction of urgent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE) and of the treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in high doses has resulted in an improvement of the treatment outcome in patients with UGIB, but without a significant improvement in mortality rates. In our study we compared the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects in patients with non-variceal UGIB admitted over a period of one year in a tertiary center where urgent UGIE is a routine procedure and in a municipal hospital where UGIE with endoscopic hemostasis is not available. Patients admitted to the tertiary medical center had more clinical and endoscopic severity factors compared to those from the municipal hospital: they were older, with more frequent intake of NSAIDs, several comorbidities, some of them severe, and more severe posthemorrhagic anemia. The endoscopic examination revealed that active bleeding and stigmata of recent hemorrhage were more frequent in these patients. Urgent UGIE and, where necessary because of lesions, endoscopic hemostasis were performed in most of these patients. Patients admitted to the municipal hospital were treated more frequently with high-dose intravenous PPIs. Patients undergoing urgent UGIE and endoscopic therapy had a shorter duration of hospitalization. However, there were no differences regarding the need for surgery or mortality rates. The results of our study are consistent with the literature.

  20. Effects of different omeprazole dosing on gastric pH in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: A randomized prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwiesko, Adam; Charkiewicz, Radoslaw; Niklinski, Jacek; Luczaj, Wojciech; Skrzydlewska, Elzbieta; Milewski, Robert; Baniukiewicz, Andrzej; Wroblewski, Eugeniusz; Rosolowski, Mariusz; Dabrowski, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to identify the best method of omeprazole (OME) application with respect to intragastric pH, cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) genotype and phenotype. The patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) were prospectively enrolled. After the achievement of endoscopic hemostasis, the patients were randomized to 40-mg intravenous (i.v.) OME bolus injection every 12 h or 8-mg/h continuous i.v. infusion for 72 h after an 80-mg i.v. OME bolus administration. The intragastric pH was recorded for 72 h. The CYP2C19 variant alleles (*2, *3, *17) were analyzed and the serum concentrations of OME and 5-hydroxyomeprazole (5-OH OME) were determined. Altogether 41 Caucasians (18 in the OME infusion [OI] group and 23 in the OME bolus [OB] group) were analyzed. The median percentage of time with an intragastric pH > 4.0 was higher in the infusion group than in the OB group over 48 h (100% vs 96.6%, P = 0.009) and 72 h (100% vs 87.6%, P = 0.006), and that at an intragastric pH >6.0 was higher in the OI group than the OB group over 72 h (97.9% vs 63.5%, P = 0.04). Helicobacter pylori infection was correlated with the fastest increase in intragastric pH, especially in the OI group. In both groups, CYP2C19 genotypes (*1/*1, *1/*17, *17/*17) had no essential effect on intragastric pH. In patients with NVUGIB, OME i.v. bolus followed by continuous infusion is more effective than OME i.v. bolus every 12 h in maintaining higher intragastric pH, regardless of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms. H. pylori infection accelerates the initial elevation of intragastric pH. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Bleeding and starving: fasting and delayed refeeding after upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Jorge; Meira, Tânia; Nunes, Ana; Santos, Carla Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Early refeeding after nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding is safe and reduces hospital stay/costs. The aim of this study was obtaining objective data on refeeding after nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. From 1 year span records of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients that underwent urgent endoscopy: clinical features; rockall score; endoscopic data, including severity of lesions and therapy; feeding related records of seven days: liquid diet prescription, first liquid intake, soft/solid diet prescription, first soft/solid intake. From 133 patients (84 men) Rockall classification was possible in 126: 76 score ≥5, 50 score gastrointestinal bleeding patients must be refed earlier, according to guidelines.

  2. Outcome of acute nonvariceal gastrointestinal haemorrhage after nontherapeutic arteriography compared with embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defreyne, Luc; Vanlangenhove, Peter; Decruyenaere, Johan; Van Maele, Georges; De Vos, Martine; Troisi, Roberto; Pattyn, Piet

    2003-01-01

    In acute nonvariceal gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, immediate arteriographic haemostasis is presently assumed to be a therapeutic advantage. This study assesses whether the risk of a delayed haemostasis, caused by arteriographic findings precluding embolization, might influence patient outcome. We performed a 5.5-year retrospective database search to find all patients referred for arteriography to arrest acute nonvariceal GI bleeding with embolization. The embolized and nonembolized patients were compared for differences in baseline characteristics and bleeding parameters. In both groups the outcome of all endoscopic or surgical interventions after catheterization was included in the follow-up. Clinical success (at 30 days, after all therapy) and in-hospital mortality in the embolized and nonembolized group were compared. We retrieved 63 nonembolized bleedings in 58 patients and 49 embolized bleedings in 49 patients. In the nonembolized group, transfusion need and haemodynamic instability were significantly less severe. Forty-two of 63 (66%) nonembolized bleedings persisted requiring haemostasis by surgery (n=23), endoscopy (n=13) or supportive transfusions. Thirteen of 49 (27%) embolized bleedings recurred and were managed by surgery (n=7), endoscopy (n=3) or transfusion. Overall clinical success rate was 88.9% (56 of 63) in the nonembolized and 87.8% (43 of 49) in the embolized group. Mortality rate was 17.2% (10 of 58) in the nonembolized vs 30.6% (15 of 49) in the embolized patients (P=0.115). Whether or not arteriographic findings afforded the opportunity to embolize, outcome of acute nonvariceal GI bleeding did not differ significantly; however, patients undergoing embolization were more critically bleeding and ill. (orig.)

  3. Primary non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in NSAID and low-dose aspirin users: development and validation of risk scores for either medication in two large Dutch cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Nicolette L; Hagenaars, Matthijs P; Smeets, Hugo M; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Siersema, Peter D; van Oijen, Martijn G H

    2014-02-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) have several adverse gastrointestinal (GI) effects, including upper GI bleeding. We aimed to develop a simple risk score to identify high risk NSAID and ASA users for primary upper GI bleeding. Using data from two large anonymized health insurance databases, we defined a development and validation cohort with NSAID and ASA users which were followed-up for the occurrence of a primary upper GI bleeding. Cox regression analyses identified risk factors which were combined into simple risk scores. C-statistics were used to evaluate the discriminative ability of these scores in a validation cohort. In total, 421 cases of upper GI bleeding were identified in the initial cohort of 784,263 NSAID users (incidence rate 54.2 per 10,000 person-years), while 1,295 cases of upper GI bleeding were identified in 235,531 ASA users (incidence rate 37.9 per 10,000 person-years). The risk of upper GI bleeding increased with a higher risk score, which for NSAID users included age, male gender, anemia and concomitant use of ASA or anticoagulants. For ASA users, age, anemia, diabetes and concomitant use of other antiplatelet drugs or anticoagulants were included in the risk score. The C-statistics in the validation cohort were 0.68 and 0.63 or NSAID and ASA users, respectively. Risk factors for primary upper GI bleeding are to a large extent similar for NSAID and ASA users. Using a risk score based on these risk factors, patients at the highest risk can be identified with moderate accuracy.

  4. Do statins protect against upper gastrointestinal bleeding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulmez, Sinem Ezgi; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Aalykke, Claus

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Recently, an apparent protective effect of statins against upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) was postulated in a post hoc analysis of a randomized trial. We aimed to evaluate the effect of statin use on acute nonvariceal UGB alone or in combinations with low-dose aspirin and other...... antithrombotic drugs. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted in the County of Funen, Denmark. Cases (n = 3652) were all subjects with a first discharge diagnosis of serious UGB from a hospital during the period 1995 to 2006. Age- and gender-matched controls (10 for each case) (n = 36 502...... significant protective effect was observed for concurrent users of low-dose aspirin [OR 0.43 (0.18-1.05)]. CONCLUSION: Statins do not prevent UGB, except possibly in users of low-dose aspirin....

  5. Management of non variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: position statement of the Catalan Society of Gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Iglesias, Pilar; Botargues, Josep-Maria; Feu Caballé, Faust; Villanueva Sánchez, Càndid; Calvet Calvo, Xavier; Brullet Benedi, Enric; Cánovas Moreno, Gabriel; Fort Martorell, Esther; Gallach Montero, Marta; Gené Tous, Emili; Hidalgo Rosas, José-Manuel; Lago Macía, Amelia; Nieto Rodríguez, Ana; Papo Berger, Michel; Planella de Rubinat, Montserrat; Saló Rich, Joan; Campo Fernández de Los Ríos, Rafel

    2017-05-01

    In recent years there have been advances in the management of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding that have helped reduce rebleeding and mortality. This document positioning of the Catalan Society of Digestologia is an update of evidence-based recommendations on management of gastrointestinal bleeding peptic ulcer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  6. Recent Update of Embolization of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hoon [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding is a frequent complication with significant morbidity and mortality. Although endoscopic hemostasis remains the initial treatment modality, severe bleeding despite endoscopic management occurs in 5-10% of patients, necessitating surgery or interventional embolotherapy. Endovascular embolotherapy is now considered the first-line therapy for massive UGI bleeding that is refractory to endoscopic management. Interventional radiologists need to be familiar with the choice of embolic materials, technical aspects of embolotherapy, and the factors affecting the favorable or unfavorable outcomes after embolotherapy for UGI bleeding.

  7. Endoscopic findings of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadayat, R.; Rehman, A.U.; Gandapur, A.

    2015-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common medical emergency. A common risk factor of upper GI bleeding is cirrhosis of liver, which can lead to variceal haemorrhage. 30-40% of cirrhotic patients who bleed may have non-variceal upper GI bleeding and it is frequently caused by peptic ulcers, portal gastropathy, Mallory-Weiss tear, and gastro-duodenal erosions. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings among patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding with liver cirrhosis. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Gastroenterology and Hepatology Department of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from February 2012 to June 2013. 252 patients diagnosed with cirrhosis, presenting with upper GI bleed, age ?50 years of either gender, and were included in the study. Non-probability consecutive sampling was used. Endoscopy was performed on each patient and the findings documented. Results: The mean age was 57.84 ± 6.29 years. There were 158 (62.7%) males and 94 (37.3%) females. The most common endoscopic finding was oesophageal varices (92.9%, n=234) followed by portal hypertensive gastropathy (38.9%, n=98) with almost equal distribution among males and females. Gastric varices were found in 33.3% of patients (n=84). Among other non-variceal lesions, peptic ulcer disease was seen in 26 patients (10.3%) while gastric erosions were found in 8 patients (3.2%). Conclusion: In patients with acute upper GI bleeding and liver cirrhosis, the most common endoscopic finding is oesophageal varices, with a substantially higher value in our part of the country, apart from other non-variceal causes. (author)

  8. National variation in transfusion strategies in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinthorsdottir, Kristin J; Svenningsen, Peter; Fabricius, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An optimal transfusion strategy for patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) has yet to be established. The national guidelines contain recommendations for patients with life-threating bleeding in general, but no specific recommendations for patients with UGIB. We...... hypothesised that there are variations in transfusion strategies for patients with UGIB across the Danish regions. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, register-based, analysis on transfusions given to all patients with non-variceal UGIB in Denmark in 2011-2013. We compared the results from the five regions...... in Denmark in order to discover regional differences. RESULTS: A total of 5,292 admissions with treatment for non-variceal UGIB were identified, and analysis was made for the total group and a massive transfusions group (330 admissions). In the Capital Region, transfusion of platelets was more likely than...

  9. National variation in transfusion strategies in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinthorsdottir, Kristin Julia; Svenningsen, Peter Olsen; Fabricius, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    hypothesised that there are variations in transfusion strategies for patients with UGIB across the Danish regions. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, register-based, analysis on transfusions given to all patients with non-variceal UGIB in Denmark in 2011-2013. We compared the results from the five regions......INTRODUCTION: An optimal transfusion strategy for patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) has yet to be established. The national guidelines contain recommendations for patients with life-threating bleeding in general, but no specific recommendations for patients with UGIB. We...... in Denmark in order to discover regional differences. RESULTS: A total of 5,292 admissions with treatment for non-variceal UGIB were identified, and analysis was made for the total group and a massive transfusions group (330 admissions). In the Capital Region, transfusion of platelets was more likely than...

  10. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard barium upper GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast upper GI series, which uses both air and ... evenly coat your upper GI tract with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast study, you will swallow gas-forming crystals that ...

  11. Upper Gastrointestinal Stent

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Gyun; Yang, Chang-Hun

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) stent has been developed for palliation of obstructive symptoms in various diseases causing obstruction of GI tract. Self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) has replaced old type of plastic stent, and endoscopic insertion of stent has replaced fluoroscopy-guided insertion. Nowadays, newly-designed SEMSs have been developed for prevention of complications such as stent migration and re-obstruction, and indications of stent recently have been widened into benign conditions as we...

  12. Effect of low-dose proton pump inhibitor on preventing upper gastrointestinal bleeding in chronic kidney disease patients receiving aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Baik, Gwang Ho; Park, Ji Won; Kang, Ho Suk; Moon, Sung Hoon; Park, Choong Kee

    2015-03-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) leads to significant morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This study determined the efficacy of using a low-dose proton pump inhibitor (PPI) to reduce the risk of non-variceal UGIB in CKD patients receiving aspirin. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 500 CKD patients who received aspirin between January 2008 and March 2013. Cumulative incidence analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method was performed to analyze the rate of non-variceal UGIB and association with the administration of low-dose PPI. Of the 500 patients, 191 received low-dose PPI. Over the follow-up period, which lasted 1067 person-years, three patients in the low-dose PPI group (8.9 per 1000 person-years) and 19 patients in the non-PPI group (25.9 per 1000 person-years) developed non-variceal UGIB, respectively (P = 0.113). Low-dose PPI use did not decrease the risk of UGIB in CKD patients, including patients who did not receive dialysis (P = 0.127). However, according to the subgroup analysis of 230 patients who received dialysis, the low-dose PPI group (14.4 per 1000 person-years) demonstrated significantly reduced incidence and risk of non-variceal UGIB in comparison with the non-PPI group (53.8 per 1000 person-years) (P = 0.032). Prophylactic low-dose PPI can reduce the risk of non-variceal UGIB in dialysis patients receiving aspirin. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage has a variety of causes (Table 1) and is the commonest complication of peptic ulceration and portal hypertension. Peptic ulceration in the duodenum or stomach and oesophageal varices are the conditions most often responsible for patients who have the potential to present.

  14. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage has a variety of causes (Table 1) and is the commonest complication of peptic ulceration and portal hypertension. Peptic ulceration in the duo- denum or stomach and oesophageal varices are the conditions most often responsible for patients who have the potential to present.

  15. Diagnostic indications for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Aim: Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy now assumes a prominent role in the diagnosis and therapy of upper GI diseases. Some indications for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy include dyspepsia, dysphagia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study aimed to review the ...

  16. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Upper GI Tract Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography or ... X-ray? What is Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Radiography? Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography, also called an upper ...

  17. Appropriateness of Referrals for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Uncomplicated dyspepsia has a low predictive value in diagnosing upper gastrointestinal organic disease making early endoscopy essential. Objective: To assess the reliability of clinical information in the diagnosis of organic disease in patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Methods: Patients ...

  18. Unsedated Flexible Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To determine the incidence of oxygen desaturation and whether routine oxygen monitoring is necessary during unsedated diagnostic flexible upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Methods: A prospective study involving 54 consecutive in and out patients who had diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at ...

  19. Upper gastrointestinal fiberoptic endoscopy in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolla, J C; Diehl, A S; Bemvenuti, G A; Loguercio, S V; Magalhães, D S; Silveira, T R

    1983-11-01

    Upper gastrointestinal fiberendoscopy in pediatric patients is done safely and under local anesthesia in most instances. This study of 47 children confirmed the value of fiberendoscopy in establishing the etiology of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and the presence of esophageal varices. It also contributed significantly to the management of patients with disphagia, pyrosis, epigastric pain, and ingestion of foreign bodies. No significant morbidity was caused.

  20. Identifying Emergency Department Patients at Low Risk for a Variceal Source of Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Lauren R; Money, Joel; Maharaj, Kaveesh; Robinson, Aaron; Lai, Tarissa; Driver, Brian E

    2017-11-01

    Assessing the likelihood of a variceal versus nonvariceal source of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) guides therapy, but can be difficult to determine on clinical grounds. The objective of this study was to determine if there are easily ascertainable clinical and laboratory findings that can identify a patient as low risk for a variceal source of hemorrhage. This was a retrospective cohort study of adult ED patients with UGIB between January 2008 and December 2014 who had upper endoscopy performed during hospitalization. Clinical and laboratory data were abstracted from the medical record. The source of the UGIB was defined as variceal or nonvariceal based on endoscopic reports. Binary recursive partitioning was utilized to create a clinical decision rule. The rule was internally validated and test characteristics were calculated with 1,000 bootstrap replications. A total of 719 patients were identified; mean age was 55 years and 61% were male. There were 71 (10%) patients with a variceal UGIB identified on endoscopy. Binary recursive partitioning yielded a two-step decision rule (platelet count > 200 × 10 9 /L and an international normalized ratio [INR] low risk for a variceal source of hemorrhage. For the bootstrapped samples, the rule performed with 97% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI] = 91%-100%) and 49% specificity (95% CI = 44%-53%). Although this derivation study must be externally validated before widespread use, patients presenting to the ED with an acute UGIB with platelet count of >200 × 10 9 /L and an INR of low risk for a variceal source of their upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  1. The management of low-risk primary upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in the community: a 5-year observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cara; Vine, Louisa; Chapman, Luke; Deering, Paula; Whittaker, Sam; Beckly, John; Fortun, Paul; Murray, Iain A; Hussaini, S Hyder; Michell, Nick P; Stableforth, Bill; Thatcher, Peter; Hare, Nicola C; Palmer, Jo; Dalton, Harry R

    2012-03-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage is a common medical emergency, initially managed with inpatient care. Bleeding stops spontaneously in over 80% of cases, indicating that patients with low-risk upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage may be more optimally managed in the community, without the need for admission to hospital. To assess the safety of managing patients with low-risk upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage without admission to hospital. Prospective/retrospective study of all patients presenting to a UK teaching hospital with low-risk upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage who were managed without admission to hospital over 5 years. Low risk was defined as Glasgow Blatchford Score of 2 or less, age below 70 years, no other active medical problems, not taking warfarin and suspected nonvariceal bleed. Outcome measures were the need for intervention (blood transfusion, endoscopic therapy or surgery) and death. One hundred and forty-two patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and were managed without admission to hospital. No patients required endoscopic intervention, blood transfusion or surgery. The 28-day mortality was nil. Forty-one patients had normal endoscopic examination and 11 had significant endoscopic findings (peptic ulceration=10, oozing Mallory-Weiss tear=1) but did not require intervention. Patients presenting with a primary upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage aged below 70 years with a Glasgow Blatchford Score of 2 or less are at a low risk, and can be safely managed in the community.

  2. Unusual foreign bodies of upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhawan, S; Rai, R R; Agarwal, S; Vijayvergiya, R

    1995-01-01

    We report management of unusual foreign bodies of upper gastrointestinal tract, namely beer bottle cap, raisins and pistachu, mango peel, betelnut and plum seed at a university hospital in Northern India.

  3. Hypoalbuminemia in the outcome of patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. González-González

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Patients with hypoalbuminemia presenting with NVUGB have a greater in-hospital mortality rate. The serum albumin level and the Rockall score perform equally in regard to identifying the mortality rate.

  4. Copper Deficiency Myelopathy After Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Dominic; Siau, Keith; Senthil, Latha; Kane, Katherine F; Cooper, Sheldon C

    2017-06-01

    A well-functioning alimentary canal is required for adequate nutrient absorption. Disruption to the upper gastrointestinal tract through surgery can lead to micronutrient malnourishment. Copper deficiency has been noted in up to 10% of those undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, but sequalae are not frequently reported. The resultant deficiency states can have profound and long-term consequences if not realized early and managed appropriately. Here we present a case of copper deficiency myelopathy, a condition indistinguishable from subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, following upper gastrointestinal bypass surgery for gastric ulceration, further complicated by inadequate nutrition.

  5. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among adult patients with dyspepsia in northern Tanzania. ... Endoscopy (EGD) for initial work up. Study on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of H. pylori is recommended to guide choices for evidence based treatment option.

  6. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in autoimmune gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Sacchi, Maria Carlotta; Severi, Carola; Annibale, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Autoimmune gastritis is often suspected for its hematologic findings, and rarely the diagnosis is made for the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess in a large cohort of patients affected by autoimmune gastritis the occurrence and the pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms and to evaluate whether symptomatic patients are characterized by specific clinical features. Gastrointestinal symptoms of 379 consecutive autoimmune gastritis patients were systematically assessed and classified following Rome III Criteria. Association between symptoms and anemia pattern, positivity to gastric autoantibodies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant autoimmune disease were evaluated. In total, 70.2% of patients were female, median age 55 years (range 17–83). Pernicious anemia (53.6%), iron deficiency anemia (34.8%), gastric autoantibodies (68.8%), and autoimmune disorders (41.7%) were present. However, 56.7% of patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, 69.8% of them had exclusively upper symptoms, 15.8% only lower and 14.4% concomitant upper and lower symptoms. Dyspepsia, subtype postprandial distress syndrome was the most represented, being present in 60.2% of symptomatic patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age gastritis is associated in almost 60% of cases with gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is strictly related to younger age, no smoking, and absence of anemia. PMID:28072728

  7. Systematic review: tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingenberg, S.L.; Langholz, S.E.; Gluud, Lise Lotte

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid may reduce upper gastrointestinal bleeding and stabilize patients before endoscopic treatments. AIM: To review randomized trials on tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. METHODS: Manual and electronic searches of The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and...

  8. Surgical treatment of massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a potentially life-threatening abdominal emergency condition. More immediately life-threatening is massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding resulting in cardiovascular compromise causing dizziness, syncope and shock. The causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding include bleeding ...

  9. Weekend effect in upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ching Shih

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the weekend effect on the mortality of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding(UGIB. Methods The review protocol has been registered in the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (registration number: CRD42017073313 and was written according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA statement. We conducted a search of the PUBMED, COCHRANE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases from inception to August 2017. All observational studies comparing mortality between UGIB patients with weekend versus weekday admissions were included. Articles that were published only in abstract form or not published in a peer-reviewed journal were excluded. The quality of articles was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We pooled results from the articles using random-effect models. Heterogeneity was evaluated by the chi-square-based Q-test and I2test. To address heterogeneity, we performed sensitivity and subgroup analyses. Potential publication bias was assessed via funnel plot. Results Eighteen observational cohort studies involving 1,232,083 study patients were included. Weekend admission was associated with significantly higher 30-day or in-hospital mortality in all studies (OR = 1.12, 95% CI [1.07–1.17], P < 0.00001. Increased in-hospital mortality was also associated with weekend admission (OR = 1.12, 95% CI [1.08–1.17], P < 0.00001. No significant difference in in-hospital mortality was observed between patients admitted with variceal bleeding during the weekend or on weekdays (OR = 0.99, 95% CI [0.91–1.08], P = 0.82; however, weekend admission was associated with a 15% increase in in-hospital mortality for patients with non-variceal bleeding (OR = 1.15, 95% CI [1.09–1.21], P < 0.00001. The time to endoscopy for weekday admission was significantly less than that obtained for weekend admission (MD = −2.50, 95% CI [−4

  10. Corrosive injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Lal Meena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosive injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a worldwide clinical problem, mostly occurring in children. Alkaline agents produce deeper injuries whereas acidic agents produce superficial injuries usually. Hoarseness, stridor, and respiratory distress indicate airway injury. Dysphagia, odynophagia, and drooling of saliva suggest esophageal injury whereas abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are indicative of stomach injury. X-rays should be done to rule out perforation. Endoscopy is usually recommended in the first 12–48 h although it is safe up to 96 h after caustic ingestion. Endoscopy should be performed with caution and gentle insufflation. Initial management includes getting intravenous access and replacement of fluids. Hyperemia and superficial ulcerations have excellent recovery while deeper injuries require total parenteral nutrition or feeding jejunostomy. Patients suspected of perforation should be subjected to laparotomy. Common complications after corrosive injury are esophageal stricture, gastric outlet obstruction, and development of esophageal and gastric carcinoma.

  11. Barium appendicitis after upper gastrointestinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Nathan M; Lillemoe, Keith D; Falimirski, Mark E

    2010-02-01

    Barium appendicitis (BA) is a rarely seen entity with fewer than 30 reports in the literature. However, it is a known complication of barium imaging. To report a case of BA in a patient whose computed tomography (CT) scan was initially read as foreign body ingestion. An 18-year-old man presented with right lower quadrant pain after upper gastrointestinal imaging 2 weeks prior. A CT scan was obtained of his abdomen and pelvis that revealed a finding that was interpreted as a foreign body at the area of the terminal ileum. A plain X-ray study of the abdomen revealed radiopaque appendicoliths. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of barium appendicitis. BA is a rare entity and the pathogenesis is unclear. Shorter intervals between barium study and presentation with appendicitis usually correlate with fewer complications. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pattern of Endoscopic Findings of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UGT) including gastro esophageal reflux (GERD), peptic ulcer diseases (PU), and upper gastrointestinal malignancies was not studied recently in Sudan. Objectives: The aim of this study is to know the pattern of endoscopic findings of upper ...

  13. Patterns of upper gastrointestinal diseases based on endoscopy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal complaints are common in Kenya. Though these have remained unchanged over the last 20 years, the pattern of upper gastrointestinal disease on endoscopic examination seems to be changing. There appears to be progressive increase in oesophagitis and cancer of the stomach. Peptic ulcer ...

  14. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings in patients referred with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dyspepsia is one of the major indications for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Other indications include dysphagia, odynophagia and gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopy is an expensive procedure that is out of reach of many patients in resource constrained region such as western Kenya. We reviewed ...

  15. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings in adolescents at Lacor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endoscopic diagnose included duodenal ulcer (14.8%) and gastritis (12.6%); duodenal scarring (5.2%), bile reflux (5.2%) duodenitis (4.4%) and miscellaneous 6.4%. Conclusion: In Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a diagnostic procedure in children with gastrointestinal disorder. Gastritis and duodenal disease are ...

  16. Risk stratification in upper gastrointestinal bleeding; prediction, prevention and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, N.L.

    2013-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis we developed a novel prediction score for predicting upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in both NSAID and low-dose aspirin users. Both for NSAIDs and low-dose aspirin use risk scores were developed by identifying the five most dominant predictors. The risk of upper

  17. Haemorrhagic cholecystitis: an unusual cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Natalie

    2014-01-17

    Haemorrhagic cholecystitis is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is a difficult diagnosis to make. This case report describes an orthopaedic patient, who developed deranged liver function tests and anaemia after a hemiarthroplasty of the hip. The patient had upper abdominal pain and black stools which clinically appeared to be melaena. An ultrasound scan of the abdomen was inconclusive, and therefore a CT was performed and the potential diagnosis of haemorrhagic cholecystitis was raised. An endoscopic evaluation of the upper gastrointestinal tract showed no evidence of other causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Following an emergency laparotomy and cholecystectomy, she recovered well. This report aims to increase awareness about the uncommon condition of haemorrhagic cholecystitis, and to educate regarding clinical and radiological signs which lead to this diagnosis.

  18. [Gastrointestinal bleeding, NSAIDs, aspirin and anticoagulants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanas, Ángel

    2014-09-01

    The studies presented at the recent American Congress of Gastroenterology in the field of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (associated or not to NSAIDs or ASA use) have not been numerous but interesting. The key findings are: a) rabeprazole, the only PPI that had few studies in this field, is effective in the prevention of gastric ulcers; b) famotidine could also be effective in the prevention of complications by AAS; c) the new competitive inhibitors of the acid potassium pump are effective (as much as PPIs) on the recurrence of peptic ulcers by ASA; d) early endoscop (<8 h) in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding seems to offer no better results than those made in the first 24 h; e) endoscopic therapy in Forrest 1a ulcers does not obliterate the bleeding artery in 30% of cases and is the cause of bleeding recurrence; f) alternative therapies with glue or clotting products are being increasingly used in endoscopic therapy of gastrointestinal bleeding; g) liberal administration of blood in the GI bleeding is associated with poor prognosis; h) lesions of the small intestine are frequent cause of gastrointestinal bleeding when upper endoscopy shows no positive stigmata; and i) capsule endoscopy studies have high performance in gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin, if performed early in the first two days after the beginning of the bleeding episode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Systematic review: tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingenberg, S.L.; Langholz, S.E.; Gluud, Lise Lotte

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid may reduce upper gastrointestinal bleeding and stabilize patients before endoscopic treatments. AIM: To review randomized trials on tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. METHODS: Manual and electronic searches of The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE...... were unclearly reported. Data from three of the included trials suggested that tranexamic acid did not significantly increase the risk of thromboembolic disease. CONCLUSIONS: The present review suggests that tranexamic acid may reduce all-cause mortality. However, because of limitations in the internal...... and external validity of included trials, additional evidence is needed before treatment recommendations can be made Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5...

  20. Haemorrhage from Pancreatic Pseudocysts Presenting as Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Garcea

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Haemorrhage is a rare but frequently fatal complication of pancreatic pseudocysts. The high mortality associated with pancreatic haemorrhage makes prompt and aggressive management essential. Occasionally, haemorrhage may present atypically, leading to delay in its diagnosis and management. This report details a case of pancreatic haemorrhage presenting as an upper gastrointestinal bleed and discusses the subsequent management. When managing patients with pancreatic pseudocysts who present with the stigmata of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the possibility that the bleeding originates from the pancreas must always be borne in mind.

  1. Advances in gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanas, Ángel

    2016-09-01

    The main innovations of the latest meeting of the Gastroenterological Association (2016) concerning upper gastrointestinal bleeding from the clinician's perspective can be summarised as follows: a) The Glasgow-Blatchford scale has the best accuracy in predicting the need for surgical intervention and hospital mortality; b) Prognostic scales for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding are also useful for lower gastrointestinal bleeding; c) Preliminary data suggest that treatment with hemospray does not seem to be superior to current standard treatment in controlling active peptic ulcer bleeding; d) Either famotidine or a proton pump inhibitor may be effective in preventing haemorrhagic recurrence in patients taking aspirin, but this finding needs to be confirmed in further studies; e) There was confirmation of the need to re-introduce antiplatelet therapy as early as possible in patients with antiplatelet-associated gastrointestinal bleeding in order to prevent cardiovascular mortality; f) Routine clinical practice suggests that gastrointestinal or cardiovascular complications with celecoxib or traditional NSAIDs are very low; g) Dabigatran is associated with an increased incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding compared with apixaban or warfarin. At least half of the episodes are located in the lower gastrointestinal tract; h) Implant devices for external ventricular circulatory support are associated with early gastrointestinal bleeding in up to one third of patients; the bleeding is often secondary to arteriovenous malformations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Pancreatic Aetiology for Massive Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Zaborowski, Alexandra; Walsh, Siun M.; Ravi, Narayanasamy; Reynolds, John V.

    2016-01-01

    We present herein what we believe is the first reported case of massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding in pregnancy due to a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour causing left sided portal hypertension. A 37-year-old 27-week pregnant female presented with massive haematemesis and melaena requiring transfusion of 10 units of red cell concentrate. Gastric varices were evident at endoscopy. An MRI revealed a large mass infiltrating the pancreatic tail and spleen with massive upper abdominal varix fo...

  3. Endoscopic hemostasis state of the art - Nonvariceal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goelder, Stefan Karl; Brueckner, Juliane; Messmann, Helmut

    2016-02-25

    New endoscopic techniques for hemostasis in nonvariceal bleeding were introduced and known methods further improved. Hemospray and Endoclot are two new compounds for topical treatment of bleeding. Initial studies in this area have shown a good hemostatic effect, especially in active large scale oozing bleeding, e.g., tumor bleedings. For further evaluation larger prospective studies comparing the substanced with other methods of endoscopic hemostasis are needed. For localized active arterial bleeding primary injection therapy in the area of ​​bleeding as well as in the four adjacent quadrants offers a good method to reduce bleeding activity. The injection is technically easy to learn and practicable. After bleeding activity is reduced the bleeding source can be localized more clearly for clip application. Today many different through-the-scope (TTS) clips are available. The ability to close and reopen a clip can aid towards good positioning at the bleeding site. Even more important is the rotatability of a clip before application. Often multiple TTS clips are required for secure closure of a bleeding vessel. One model has the ability to use three clips in series without changing the applicator. Severe arterial bleeding from vessels larger than 2 mm is often unmanageable with these conventional methods. Here is the over-the-scope-clip system another newly available method. It is similar to the ligation of esophageal varices and involves aspiration of tissue into a transparent cap before closure of the clip. Thus a greater vascular occlusion pressure can be achieved and larger vessels can be treated endoscopically. Patients with severe arterial bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract have a very high rate of recurrence after initial endoscopic treatment. These patients should always be managed in an interdisciplinary team of interventional radiologist and surgeons.

  4. Upper Gastrointestinal Disease in Nairobi and Nakuru Counties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gastric ulcer and esophageal cancer. A total of 152 interventional UGIEs (86% palliative stenting) were done. Conclusion: The pattern of disease mirrors that in previous studies with a predominance of gastritis as the major upper gastrointestinal morbidity. Esophageal varices, benign gastric ulcers and esophageal tumors ...

  5. Profiling lifetime episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profiling lifetime episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding among patients from rural Sub-Saharan Africa where schistosoma mansoni is endemic. ... female sex, history of blood transfusion, abdominal collaterals, esophageal varices, pattern x periportal fibrosis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia) significantly associated ...

  6. Upper gastrointestinal diseases in patients for endoscopy in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    urease test (CLO kit, a container impregnated with rap- id urease test manufactured by Cambridge Life Science. Ltd 14 St.Thomas' Place, Cambridgeshire Business ..... Afr J Health Sci.2005;12(1-. 2 PubMed ):49-54. 12. Hussein YA, Doumi EA. Upper Gastrointestinal. Endoscopy in El Obeid, Western Sudan. Analysis of.

  7. Clinical predictors of outcome in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Endoscopy has traditionally been used to risk stratify patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). This is problematic in resource-poor environments. The study aimed to identify patients who would not require urgent endoscopy by identifying clinical variables before endoscopy that predict uneventful ...

  8. Concepts and controversies in disorders of upper gastrointestinal tract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The upper gastrointestinal tract is one part of the digestive system where tremendous innovations and advancements in knowledge have been recorded in the last several decades. The discovery of Helicobacter pylori by Warren and Marshal in 1983 and the introduction of Rome process for the classification, diagnosis and ...

  9. Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers at Endoscopy in Kano, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer registration in Nigeria is poorly done, this is even so in North-Western Nigeria. It is only of recent that attempts are being made to know the profile of cancers seen in clinical practice in our environment. This study was done to establish the pattern of upper gastrointestinal cancers at Kano, North-Western Nigeria.

  10. Therapeutic upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy in Paediatric Gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Imdadur; Patel, Praful; Boger, Philip; Rasheed, Shahnawaz; Thomson, Mike; Afzal, Nadeem Ahmad

    2015-03-16

    Since the first report of use of endoscopy in children in the 1970s, there has seen an exponential growth in published experience and innovation in the field. In this review article we focus on modern age therapeutic endoscopy practice, explaining use of traditional as well as new and innovative techniques, for diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the paediatric upper gastrointestinal tract.

  11. International prospective observational study of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage: Does weekend admission affect outcome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Iain A.; Dalton, Harry R.; Stanley, Adrian J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Out of hours admissions have higher mortality for many conditions but upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage studies have produced variable outcomes. Methods Prospective study of 12 months consecutive admissions of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage from four international high volume ce...

  12. Performance of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk assessment scores in variceal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngu, Jing H.; Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Chin, YK

    2017-01-01

    Performance of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk assessment scores in variceal bleeding: a prospective international multicenter study.......Performance of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk assessment scores in variceal bleeding: a prospective international multicenter study....

  13. Low hemoglobin levels are associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Hasegawa, Rumiko; Shirai, Yoshinori; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2016-09-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding can be fatal. Blood test variables were reviewed in search of threshold values to detect the presence of occult upper GI bleeding. The records of 1,023 patients who underwent endoscopy at the National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital from October 2014, to September 2015, were retrospectively reviewed. Of those, 95 had upper GI bleeding. One-way analysis of variance was applied to blood test variables comparing patients with and without upper GI bleeding. Logistic regression analysis was applied to detect the association of blood test parameters with upper GI bleeding, and receiver-operator characteristics were applied to establish threshold values. White blood cell count (WBC), platelet (Plt) count, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were higher, and hemoglobin (Hb) and albumin (Alb) levels were lower in patients with upper GI bleeding. Logistic regression analysis showed that low Hb was significantly associated with upper GI bleeding and a Hb value of 10.8 g/dl was established as the threshold for the diagnosis. In patients with upper GI bleeding, WBC, Plt count, and BUN levels were higher and Hb and Alb levels were reduced. Hb at 10.8 g/dl was established as a threshold value to detect upper GI bleeding.

  14. Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding in Ilorin, Nigeria - a report of 30 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding in Ilorin, Nigeria - a report of 30 cases. A.B Olokoba, L.B Olokoba, A.A.G Jimoh. Abstract. Background: Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding refers to blood loss within the intraluminal gastrointestinal tract from any location between the upper oesophagus to the duodenum at the ligament ...

  15. A STUDY ON ENDOSCOPIC EVALUATION OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranaya Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB is one of the commonest gastrointestinal emergencies encountered by clinicians. Peptic ulcers are the most common cause of UGIB. Endoscopy has become the preferred method for diagnosis in patients with acute UGIB. This study is done in a diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE setup of a tertiary care hospital to ascertain the causes of UGIB prevalent in this part of our country which might differ from other studies. AIM To ascertain prevalent causes of UGIB in patients of this part of India admitted to a Govt. Tertiary Hospital with a provisional diagnosis of UGIB. METHOD One hundred consecutive patients with UGIB were subjected to UGIE to find out the aetiology. The clinical profile and endoscopic findings were analysed and compared with the data on UGIB from other studies. RESULTS The mean age of patients was 47.03 years with male: female ratio of 2.33:1. 58% of patients were first time bleeders. Majority of patients presented with melaena. Visualisation of active bleeding achieved to 85.7% when endoscopy was done within first 24 hrs. The commonest cause of UGIB was duodenal ulcer (DU which accounted for 41% cases. Gastric ulcer was responsible in 13% of cases. Portal hypertension was responsible for bleed in only 13%. Neoplasms accounted for 25% of cases. Other less common causes were erosive gastritis (3%, gastric polyp (3%, Mallory-Weiss tear (1%, and Dieulafoy’s lesion (1%. Among bleeding peptic ulcers, 27.8% of cases were classified as Forrest IIa and 20.4% in Forrest IIb & IIc each. Acid peptic disease was past history elicited in majority (33% followed by NSAID (26% and alcohol (26%. CONCLUSION The present study has diagnosed various causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in this part of country. The incidence of gastric carcinoma as a cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is significantly high compared to those in other studies. UGI endoscopy should be done in every case

  16. Endoscopic Findings of Upper Gastrointestinal Involvement in Primary Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Kim, Do Hoon; Chun, Joo Hyun; Ahn, Ji Yong; Choi, Kwi-Sook; Jung, Kee Wook; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Jin Ho; Song, In Hye; Kim, Yong-Gil

    2016-07-15

    Gastrointestinal involvement in vasculitis may result in life-threatening complications. However, its variable clinical presentations and endoscopic features, and the rarity of the disease, often result in delayed diagnosis. Clinical characteristics, endoscopic features, and histopathological findings were reviewed from medical records. Of 6,477 patients with vasculitis, 148 were diagnosed as primary vasculitis with upper gastrointestinal involvement. Of these, 21 cases (14.2%) were classified as large-vessel vasculitis, 17 cases (11.5%) as medium-vessel vasculitis, and 110 cases (74.3%) as small-vessel vasculitis. According to the specific diagnosis, IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schönlein purpura) was the most common diagnosis (56.8%), followed by Takayasu arteritis (14.1%), microscopic polyangiitis (10.1%), and polyarteritis nodosa (6.8%). Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 113 subjects (76.4%), with abdominal pain (78.8%) the most common symptom. Erosion and ulcers were striking endoscopic features, and the second portion of the duodenum was the most frequently involved site. Biopsy specimens were obtained from 124 patients, and only eight (5.4%) presented histopathological signs of vasculitis. Diagnosis of vasculitis involving the upper gastrointestinal tract is difficult. Because of the widespread use of endoscopy, combining clinical features with endoscopic findings may facilitate making appropriate diagnoses; however, the diagnostic yield of endoscopic biopsy is low.

  17. Oligometastatic Disease in Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer - How to Proceed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapponi, Costanza; Berlth, Felix; Plum, Patrick S; Betzler, Christopher; Stippel, Dirk L; Popp, Felix; Bruns, Christiane J

    2017-03-01

    In the present study we review and discuss the current evidence and suggest how to proceed in the management of oligometastatic disease in upper gastrointestinal cancer. An electronic search of the PubMed database for relevant articles was performed. Both the search for 'oligometastasis', 'oligometastases', 'oligometastatic', 'oligometastatic disease' as well as 'esophageal' and 'esophageal cancer' and the search for 'oligometastasis', 'oligometastases', 'oligometastatic', 'oligometastatic disease' as well as 'gastric', 'gastric cancer', 'stomach', and 'stomach cancer' yielded very few studies. Most data need to be extrapolated in general studies on oligometastatic diseases of different origins. No randomized controlled trial could be found. In the absence of data to formulate recommendations on how to proceed in the treatment of oligometastatic disease in upper gastrointestinal cancer, a more aggressive treatment of oligometastatic disease can be considered in patients whose tumors show a more favorable neoplastic behavior after the 'test of time'. The RENAISSANCE study will certainly deliver important data regarding this aspect.

  18. Adverse effects of anticoagulation treatment: clinically significant upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skok

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the last years, the use of oral anticoagulant treatment has increased dramatically, principally for the prevention of venous thrombosis and thrombembolic events. This treatment is demanding, especially among the elderly with concommitant diseases and different medication. Aim of the study to evaluate the rate of serious complications, clinically significant hemorrhage from upper gastointestinal tract in patients treated with oral antiocoagulants in a prospective cohort study.Patients and methods: Included were patients admitted to our institution between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2003 due to gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Emergency endoscopy and laboratory testing was performed in all patients.Results: 6416 patients were investigated: 2452 women (38.2 % and 3964 men (61.8 %, mean age 59.1 years, SD 17.2. Among our patients, 55 % were aged over 60 years. In 86.4 % of patients the source of bleeding was confirmed in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In the last week prior to bleeding, 20.4 % (1309/6416 of all patients were regularly taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticoagulant therapy or antiplatelet agents in single daily doses at least. 6.3 % of patients (82/1309 with abundant hemorrhage from upper gastrointestinal tract were using oral anticoagulant therapy and had INR > 5 at admission, 25.6 % of them had INR > 10. The mortality of patients using oral anticoagulants and INR > 5 was 17.1 %.Conclusions: Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a serious complication of different medications, particularly in elderly patients. Safe use of anticoagulant therapy is based on careful selection of patients and correct intake of the prescribed drugs.

  19. Barium peritonitis following upper gastrointestinal series: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Su Jin; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Yong Jin; Hong, Seong Sook [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    We report a rare case of barium peritonitis following an upper gastrointestinal (GI) series and its imaging findings in a 74-year-old female. Barium peritonitis is a rare but life-threatening complication of GI contrast investigation. Therefore, clinical awareness of barium peritonitis as a complication of GI tract contrast investigation would help to prevent such a complication and manage the patients properly.

  20. Outcome of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery With or Without Nasogastric Intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M A; Rahman, M A; Chowdhury, L H; Mohammed, S; Hasan, M I

    2017-07-01

    Nasogastric intubation is a common procedure with both merits and demerits. Controversies exist about the routine use of nasogastric intubation following upper gastrointestinal surgery. Good numbers of literatures were published in favour of selective nasogastric intubation pointing out some complications of routine use of nasogastric tube. In 1995, Cheatham et al. concluded in a meta-analysis that although patients may develop abdominal distension or vomiting without a nasogastric tube, this is not associated with an increase in complications or length of hospital stay. For every patient requiring insertion of a nasogastric tube in the postoperative period, at least 20 patients will not require nasogastric decompression. In July 2004, Cochrane database of systemic review published the result of their systemic review on the prophylactic decompression after abdominal surgery, that review was revised and updated in 2007. According to this database, routine nasogastric intubation should be abandoned in favour of selective use of nasogastric tube. In our country some surgeons are practicing it routinely and some are not. This observation prompted us to conduct this study in order to see and compare the outcome of upper gastrointestinal surgery with and without nasogastric intubation. This will help us to make decision whether nasogastric intubation will be done routinely or not following upper gastrointestinal surgery.

  1. A 12 years audit of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurram, M.; Khaar, H.B.; Hasan, Z.; Umar, M.; Javed, S.; Asghar, T.; Minhas, Z.; Akbar, A.; Atta, N.; Nassar, F.; Sultana, Q.; Pervaiz, A.; Masoom, A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy in terms of indications, diagnostic efficacy, and diseases diagnosed. Results: Of the 8481 patients, 4935 (58.2%) were female and 3546 (41.8%) male. Mean patient age was 40.5 years. Dyspepsia (42.6%), upper GI bleed (32.8%), and evaluation of chronic liver disease (10.2%) were common indications of the procedure. An endoscopic diagnosis was possible in 82.6% patients. Varices, gastritis, duodenitis, and combined lesions were common endoscopic diagnosis. Gastritis and duodenitis were most frequent causes of upper GI bleed. We noted more gastric ulcers compared to duodenal ulcers. Females had significantly more normal endoscopies, p-value = 0.02. Conclusion: Upper GI endoscopy is an effective procedure. Dyspepsia evaluation is commonest indication for upper GI endoscopy in our patients. Etiology of upper GI bleed, and incidence of duodenal ulcer compared to gastric ulcer in our patients are different than described in literature. Females have significantly more normal endoscopies. (author)

  2. [High risk factors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding after neurosurgical procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kang; Wu, Gang; Cheng, Neng-neng; Yao, Cheng-jun; Zhou, Liang-fu

    2005-12-21

    To analyze high risk factors of postoperative upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding after neurosurgery so as to give guidance for prevention of GI bleeding. A questionnaire was developed to investigate the medical records of 1500 patients who were hospitalized and underwent neurosurgical operations in 1997. Logistic regression analysis was made. 1430 valid questionnaires were obtained. Postoperative upper GI bleeding occurred in 75 patients (5.24%). The incidence of upper GI bleeding were 6.64% (54/813) in the male patients and 3.40% (21/617) in the female persons (P = 0.007); 9.88% (41/415) in those aged > 50 and 3.35% in those aged hematoma, intraventricular hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, and extradural hematoma were 15.7%, 10.0%, 6.00%, and 2.94% respectively (P = 0.02). The incidence of upper GI bleeding of the patients with tumors of fourth ventricle of cerebrum, brainstem, cerebral hemisphere, and sellar hypothalamus were 15.79% (3/19), 7.89%, 5.71%, and 3.74% respectively. In the emergent cases, the incidence of upper GI bleeding was higher in those with hypertension. The incidence of upper GI bleeding was 5.46% in the patients undergoing adrenocortical hormone treatment, significantly higher than that in those who did not receive such treatment (2.13%). Patients who are at high risk of developing postoperative upper GI bleeding including that: age greater than 50 years; male; Glasgow Coma Score less than 10 pre and post operation; The lesion was located in brain stem and forth ventricle; Hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage; Intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhagic brain trauma; Postoperative pneumonia, brain edema, encephalic high pressure, pyogenic infection of the central nervous system and other postoperative complications. The mortality of patients with postoperative upper GI bleeding was evidently higher than that of the patients without postoperative upper GI bleeding.

  3. Mortality from nonulcer bleeding is similar to that of ulcer bleeding in high-risk patients with nonvariceal hemorrhage: a prospective database study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmo, Riccardo; Del Piano, Mario; Rotondano, Gianluca; Koch, Maurizio; Bianco, Maria Antonia; Zambelli, Alessandro; Di Matteo, Giovanni; Grossi, Enzo; Cipolletta, Livio; Prometeo Investigators

    2012-02-01

    Nonulcer causes of bleeding are often regarded as minor, ie, associated with a lower risk of mortality. To assess the risk of death from nonulcer causes of upper GI bleeding (UGIB). Secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from 3 national databases. Community and teaching hospitals. Consecutive patients admitted for acute nonvariceal UGIB. Early endoscopy, medical and endoscopic treatment as appropriate. Thirty-day mortality, recurrent bleeding, and need for surgery. A total of 3207 patients (65.8% male), mean (standard deviation) age 68.3 (16.4) years, were analyzed. Overall mortality was 4.45% (143 patients). According to the source of bleeding, mortality was 9.8% for neoplasia, 4.8% for Mallory-Weiss tears, 4.8% for vascular lesions, 4.4% for gastroduodenal erosions, 4.4% for duodenal ulcer, and 3.1% for gastric ulcer. Frequency of death was not different among benign endoscopic diagnoses (overall P = .567). Risk of death was significantly higher in patients with neoplasia compared with benign conditions (odds ratio 2.50; 95% CI, 1.32-4.46; P Society of Anesthesiologists score (1-2 vs 3-4, P Society of Anesthesiologists class score in the Prometeo study. Nonulcer causes of nonvariceal UGIB have a risk of death, similar to bleeding peptic ulcers in the clinical context of a high-risk patient. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anesthesia for Routine and Advanced Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Christopher D; Tayler, Ezekiel; Ginsberg, Gregory G

    2017-12-01

    This article aims to detail the breadth and depth of advanced upper gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. It will focus on sedation and airway management concerns pertaining to this emerged and emerging class of minimally invasive interventions. The article will also cover endoscopic hemostasis, endoscopic resection, stenting and Barrett eradication therapy plus endoscopic ultrasound. It additionally will address the nuances of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and new natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery procedures including endoscopic cystgastrostomy and the per-oral endoscopic myotomy procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitino, Iole; Randazzo, Cinzia Lucia; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Lo Curto, Alberto; Faulks, Richard Martin; Le Marc, Yvan; Bisignano, Carlo; Caggia, Cinzia; Wickham, Martin Sean John

    2010-12-01

    In the present study six probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains were investigated for their ability to survive in the human upper gastrointestinal tract through a dynamic gastric model of digestion. MRS broth was used as delivery vehicle and survival was investigated during in vitro gastric and gastric plus duodenal digestion. Results highlighted that all tested strains showed good survival rate during both gastric and duodenal digestion. In particular, three strains exhibited a great survival showing a recovery percentage in the range between 117 and 276%. In agreement with survival data, high lactic acid production was detected for all strains, confirming their metabolic activity during digestion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Extensive papillomatosis of the bovine upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirimonaki, E; O'Neil, B W; Williams, R; Campo, M S

    2003-01-01

    Extensive papillomatosis was identified in a heifer born and raised in Scotland and a steer born and raised in England. In both cases, the papillomas extended from the mouth and tongue to the reticulum. Although cases of florid papillomatosis of the upper gastrointestinal tract occur relatively frequently in cattle grazing on bracken fern in the Scottish Highlands, no such cases have been reported previously in English cattle. Histopathological examination of the papillomas showed that the lesions were wholly epithelial, with acanthosis, hyperkeratosis and the pathognomonic koilocytes characteristic of papillomavirus infection. Bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) was identified by molecular amplification and sequencing of the viral genome.

  7. Nanotechnology advances in upper gastrointestinal, liver and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Paul D; Neoptolemos, John P; Costello, Eithne; Halloran, Christopher M

    2012-06-01

    Cancers of the upper GI tract, liver and pancreas have some of the poorest prognoses of any malignancies. Advances in diagnosis and treatment are sorely needed to improve the outcomes of patients. Nanotechnology offers the potential for constructing tailor-made therapies capable of targeting specific cancers. The particles themselves may be endowed with multifunctional properties that can be exploited for both diagnosis and treatment. Although development of therapies is still in the early stages, the use of nanoparticles (NPs) is widespread in diagnostic applications and will probably involve all areas of medicine in the future. Research into NPs is ongoing for upper gastrointestinal, liver and pancreatic cancers, and their use is becoming increasingly popular as contrast media for radiological investigations. Although more sophisticated technologies capable of active targeting are still in the early stages of assessment for clinical use, a small number of NP-based therapies are in clinical use.

  8. Does Ramadan fasting increase acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, S; Durukan, P; Akdur, O; Vardar, A; Torun, E; Ikizceli, I

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiological characteristics and clinical results of patients who presented with acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (AUGIH) during the month of Ramadan (October 2007) were compared with those who presented with AUGIH during another, non-Ramadan, month (December 2007). The following were evaluated: age, gender, symptoms, gastrointestinal disease history, risk factors, co-existing diseases, results of rectal, nasogastric and endoscopic examinations, treatment modalities and clinical outcomes. Significantly more patients were diagnosed with AUGIH during Ramadan compared with the non-Ramadan month (43 versus 28, respectively). Significantly more patients diagnosed during Ramadan had a history of previous haemorrhage compared with the non-Ramadan month (72.1% versus 42.9%, respectively). Peptic ulcer was the most common event in both groups and overall endoscopy findings differed between the groups. No other significant differences were found. In conclusion, the number of patients presenting with AUGIH during Ramadan was significantly higher than that of an ordinary month, which suggests that fasting during Ramadan reactivates and aggravates pre-existing gastrointestinal diseases.

  9. Pancreatic Aetiology for Massive Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Zaborowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present herein what we believe is the first reported case of massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding in pregnancy due to a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour causing left sided portal hypertension. A 37-year-old 27-week pregnant female presented with massive haematemesis and melaena requiring transfusion of 10 units of red cell concentrate. Gastric varices were evident at endoscopy. An MRI revealed a large mass infiltrating the pancreatic tail and spleen with massive upper abdominal varix formation secondary to splenic vein invasion. A caesarean section was performed, followed by a radical en bloc partial pancreatectomy and splenectomy with resection of the fundus of the stomach and ligation of gastric and splenic varices. Her postoperative course was uncomplicated. Histology revealed a well differentiated grade 2 neuroendocrine tumour with final staging of T4N0. This case highlights an infrequently encountered cause of massive gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnosis and management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, due to their rarity and variable clinical presentation, can be challenging particularly in the setting of pregnancy where the wellbeing of a second patient must also be considered. A multidisciplinary approach with input from obstetricians and general surgeons is required when deciding optimum management, while also taking into account the patient’s preferences.

  10. The Results of Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Performed in Bayburt Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Ayar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We analyzed the results of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy performed between November 2011 and January 2013 in the endoscopy unit at Bayburt State Hospital. Methods: Endoscopic analyses were done with a PENTAX EPK 100P equipment. The results were assessed retrospectively. Results: A total of 1008 patients (664 women, 344 men aged between 17 and 88 (mean: 50±18 years have undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. 186 (18.4% patients were diagnosed with pangastritis, 81 - with esophagitis (8%, 68 - with antral gastritis (6.7%, 67 - with duodenal ulcer (6.6%, 57 - with gastric ulcer (5.6%, 35 - with alkaline reflux gastritis (3.6%, 21 - with duodenitis (2.1%, 5 - with gastric cancer (0.5%, 4 - with esophagial cancer (0.4%, 4 - with gastric polyp (0.4% and 3 patients were diagnosed with esophagial ulcer (0.3%. Conclusion: Lesions were most commonly observed in the stomach. Gastritis, esophagitis, duodenal and gastric ulcer were frequently observed in our city. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2013; 51: 116-9

  11. Oligometastatic Disease in Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer – How to Proceed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapponi, Costanza; Berlth, Felix; Plum, Patrick S.; Betzler, Christopher; Stippel, Dirk L.; Popp, Felix; Bruns, Christiane J.

    2017-01-01

    Background In the present study we review and discuss the current evidence and suggest how to proceed in the management of oligometastatic disease in upper gastrointestinal cancer. Methods An electronic search of the PubMed database for relevant articles was performed. Results Both the search for ‘oligometastasis', ‘oligometastases', ‘oligometastatic’, ‘oligometastatic disease’ as well as ‘esophageal’ and ‘esophageal cancer’ and the search for ‘oligometastasis', ‘oligometastases', ‘oligometastatic’, ‘oligometastatic disease’ as well as ‘gastric’, ‘gastric cancer’, ‘stomach’, and ‘stomach cancer’ yielded very few studies. Most data need to be extrapolated in general studies on oligometastatic diseases of different origins. No randomized controlled trial could be found. Conclusion In the absence of data to formulate recommendations on how to proceed in the treatment of oligometastatic disease in upper gastrointestinal cancer, a more aggressive treatment of oligometastatic disease can be considered in patients whose tumors show a more favorable neoplastic behavior after the ‘test of time’. The RENAISSANCE study will certainly deliver important data regarding this aspect. PMID:28612014

  12. Development of cholecystokinin binding sites in rat upper gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, P.H.; Moran, T.H.; Goldrich, M.; McHugh, P.R.

    1987-04-01

    Autoradiography using /sup 125/I-labeled Bolton Hunter-CCK-33 was used to study the distribution of cholecystokinin binding sites at different stages of development in the rat upper gastrointestinal tract. Cholecystokinin (CCK) binding was present in the distal stomach, esophagus, and gastroduodenal junction in the rat fetus of gestational age of 17 days. In the 20-day fetus, specific binding was found in the gastric mucosa, antral circular muscle, and pyloric sphincter. Mucosal binding declined during postnatal development and had disappeared by day 15. Antral binding declined sharply between day 10 and day 15 and disappeared by day 50. Pyloric muscle binding was present in fetal stomach and persisted in the adult. Pancreatic CCK binding was not observed before day 10. These results suggest that CCK may have a role in the control of gastric emptying and ingestive behavior in the neonatal rat.

  13. ENDOSCOPIC DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Benedeto-Stojanov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB is a common medical emergency problem with significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this paper is to establish the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in relation to sex and age, determine the prevalence of bleeding lesions and perform analysis of bleeding peptic ulcer in relation to the location, age, gender, Forrest classification and the need for endoscopic hemostasis. Thе prospective study included 70 patients with UGB, 42 men and 28 women, mean age 68.64±13.66 years. The diagnosis of bleeding lesions was made exclusively by means of esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Forrest classification was used in the evaluation of the activity of bleeding ulcers of the stomach and duodenum. The largest number of bleeding patients was of male sex (60%. Bleeding most commonly occurred in patients older than 60 years (84.29%. Statistically, female patients were significantly older than patients of male gender (p=0.001. The most common cause of bleeding was peptic ulcer (65.71%. The average age of patients with gastric ulcer was 70.57±15.68 years, with a duodenal ulcer 63.78±16.70 years. In the duodenum, Forrest Ib, IIa and IIb ulcers were usually confirmed, whereas Forrest IIc ulcers were identified in the stomach. Endoscopic hemostasis was required in 55.56% of patients with duodenal and in 23.81% of patients with gastric ulcer. The incidence of UGB is higher in men and it increases with age. The most common cause of bleeding is ulcer disease. Patients with gastric ulcer are older than patients with duodenal ulcer, while both gastric and duodenal ulcers are found in the oldest patients. Duodenal ulcers cause serious bleeding and more often require endoscopic hemostasis.

  14. Use of health related quality of life tools in upper gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper concludes that use of validated and reliable health instruments in upper gastrointestinal surgery is directed at measuring the impact in a reproducible and valid fashion. Curative or palliative procedures should be offered to the patients of upper gastrointestinal disorders after the assessment by HR-QOL tools.

  15. Effects of Ramadan fasting on common upper gastrointestinal disorders: A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Najmeh Seifi; Mohammad Hashemi; Mohammad Safarian; Vahid Hadi; Mojtaba Raeisi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Ramadan is the ninth month of Muslim's calendar during which Muslims fast. Ramadan lasts 29-30 days based on the visual sightings of the crescent moon. Fasting during Ramadan has significant health effects. The present study aimed at reviewing the literature of the impact of Ramadan fasting on upper gastrointestinal disorders. Methods: MEDLINE and Google Scholar were searched  by using ((“Ramadan” R   fasting”) AND( "Upper Gastrointestinal Tract" OR "Gastrointestinal Diseases" O...

  16. Effect of Ramadan fasting on acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, El Mekkaoui; Kaoutar, Saâda; Ihssane, Mellouki; Adil, Ibrahimi; Dafr-Allah, Benajah

    2013-03-01

    Prolonged fasting may precipitate or exacerbate gastrointestinal complaints. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between Ramadan fasting and acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB), and to assess characteristics of those occurred in the holly month. Retrospective analysis was conducted for all patients, who underwent endoscopy for AUGIB in Ramadan (R) and the month before Ramadan (BR). Epidemiological, clinical and etiological characteristics and outcome of patients having AUGIB were compared between the two periods from 2001 to 2010. Two hundred and ninety-one patients had endoscopy for AUGIB during the two periods study. There was an increasing trend in the overall number of patients in Ramadan period (n = 132, 45.4% versus n = 159, 54.6%), especially with duodenal ulcer (n = 48, 37.2% versus n = 81, 62.8%). The most frequent etiology was peptic ulcer but it was more observed in group R than in group BR (46.2% versus 57.9%, P = 0.04), especially duodenal ulcer (36.4% versus 50.3%, P = 0.01); this finding persisted in multivariable modeling (adjusted odds ratio: 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.69, P = 0.03). In contrast, there was a decreasing trend in rate of variceal bleeding from BR period (26.5%) to R period (18.9%; P = 0.11). Regarding the outcome, there were no significant differences between the two periods of the study: Recurrent bleeding (10.6% versus 7.5%, P = 0.36) and mortality rate (5.3% versus 4.4%, P = 0.7). The most frequent etiology of AUGIB was peptic ulcer during Ramadan. However, Ramadan fasting did not influence the outcome of the patients. Prophylactic measures should be taken for people with risk factors for peptic ulcer disease.

  17. Effect of intragastric FODMAP infusion on upper gastrointestinal motility, gastrointestinal, and psychological symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome vs healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuy, I; Van Oudenhove, L; Tack, J; Biesiekierski, J R

    2018-01-01

    The low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyol (FODMAP) diet is a treatment strategy to reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Acute effects of FODMAPs on upper gastrointestinal motility are incompletely understood. Our objectives were to assess the acute effects of intragastric FODMAP infusions on upper gastrointestinal motility and gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms in healthy controls (HC) and IBS patients. A high-resolution solid-state manometry probe and an infusion tube were positioned into the stomach. Fructans, fructose, FODMAP mix, or glucose was intragastrically administered to HC, and fructans or glucose was administered to IBS patients until full satiation (score 0-5), in a randomized crossover fashion. Manometric measurements continued for 3 hours. Gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms were assessed by questionnaires at predefined time points. The study was registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02980406). Twenty HC and 20 IBS patients were included. Fructans induced higher postprandial gastric pressures compared with glucose over both groups (Panger (P=.030) and a stronger decrease in positive affect (P=.021). The upper gastrointestinal motility response varies between carbohydrates. Irritable bowel syndrome patients are more sensitive to fructan infusion, reflected in their higher gastrointestinal symptom scores. Acute carbohydrate infusion can have differential psychological effects in IBS and HC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cardioprotective aspirin users and their excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; García Rodríguez, Luis A

    2006-09-20

    To balance the cardiovascular benefits from low-dose aspirin against the gastrointestinal harm caused, studies have considered the coronary heart disease risk for each individual but not their gastrointestinal risk profile. We characterized the gastrointestinal risk profile of low-dose aspirin users in real clinical practice, and estimated the excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications attributable to aspirin among patients with different gastrointestinal risk profiles. To characterize aspirin users in terms of major gastrointestinal risk factors (i.e., advanced age, male sex, prior ulcer history and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), we used The General Practice Research Database in the United Kingdom and the Base de Datos para la Investigación Farmacoepidemiológica en Atención Primaria in Spain. To estimate the baseline risk of upper gastrointestinal complications according to major gastrointestinal risk factors and the excess risk attributable to aspirin within levels of these factors, we used previously published meta-analyses on both absolute and relative risks of upper gastrointestinal complications. Over 60% of aspirin users are above 60 years of age, 4 to 6% have a recent history of peptic ulcers and over 13% use other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The estimated average excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications attributable to aspirin is around 5 extra cases per 1,000 aspirin users per year. However, the excess risk varies in parallel to the underlying gastrointestinal risk and might be above 10 extra cases per 1,000 person-years in over 10% of aspirin users. In addition to the cardiovascular risk, the underlying gastrointestinal risk factors have to be considered when balancing harms and benefits of aspirin use for an individual patient. The gastrointestinal harms may offset the cardiovascular benefits in certain groups of patients where the gastrointestinal risk is high and the cardiovascular risk is low.

  19. Cardioprotective aspirin users and their excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Rodríguez Luis A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To balance the cardiovascular benefits from low-dose aspirin against the gastrointestinal harm caused, studies have considered the coronary heart disease risk for each individual but not their gastrointestinal risk profile. We characterized the gastrointestinal risk profile of low-dose aspirin users in real clinical practice, and estimated the excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications attributable to aspirin among patients with different gastrointestinal risk profiles. Methods To characterize aspirin users in terms of major gastrointestinal risk factors (i.e., advanced age, male sex, prior ulcer history and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, we used The General Practice Research Database in the United Kingdom and the Base de Datos para la Investigación Farmacoepidemiológica en Atención Primaria in Spain. To estimate the baseline risk of upper gastrointestinal complications according to major gastrointestinal risk factors and the excess risk attributable to aspirin within levels of these factors, we used previously published meta-analyses on both absolute and relative risks of upper gastrointestinal complications. Results Over 60% of aspirin users are above 60 years of age, 4 to 6% have a recent history of peptic ulcers and over 13% use other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The estimated average excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications attributable to aspirin is around 5 extra cases per 1,000 aspirin users per year. However, the excess risk varies in parallel to the underlying gastrointestinal risk and might be above 10 extra cases per 1,000 person-years in over 10% of aspirin users. Conclusion In addition to the cardiovascular risk, the underlying gastrointestinal risk factors have to be considered when balancing harms and benefits of aspirin use for an individual patient. The gastrointestinal harms may offset the cardiovascular benefits in certain groups of patients where the

  20. PROPOSAL OF A CLINICAL CARE PATHWAY FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Cavalcante FRANCO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Upper gastrointestinal bleeding implies significant clinical and economic repercussions. The correct establishment of the latest therapies for the upper gastrointestinal bleeding is associated with reduced in-hospital mortality. The use of clinical pathways for the upper gastrointestinal bleeding is associated with shorter hospital stay and lower hospital costs. Objective - The primary objective is the development of a clinical care pathway for the management of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, to be used in tertiary hospital. Methods - It was conducted an extensive literature review on the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, contained in the primary and secondary information sources. Results - The result is a clinical care pathway for the upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with evidence of recent bleeding, diagnosed by melena or hematemesis in the last 12 hours, who are admitted in the emergency rooms and intensive care units of tertiary hospitals. In this compact and understandable pathway, it is well demonstrated the management since the admission, with definition of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, passing through the initial clinical treatment, posterior guidance for endoscopic therapy, and referral to rescue therapies in cases of persistent or rebleeding. It was also included the care that must be taken before hospital discharge for all patients who recover from an episode of bleeding. Conclusion - The introduction of a clinical care pathway for patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding may contribute to standardization of medical practices, decrease in waiting time for medications and services, length of hospital stay and costs.

  1. Post-corrosive injuries of upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibishev, A; Simonovska, N; Shikole, A

    2010-01-01

    Acute poisonings with corrosive substances may cause serious chemical injuries to upper gastrointestinal tract, the most common location being the esophagus and the stomach. If the patient survives the acute phase of the poisoning, regenerative response may result in esophageal and/or gastric stenosis and increased risk for esophageal cancer. Acute corrosive intoxications pose a major problem in clinical toxicology since the most commonly affected population are the young with psychic disorders, suicidal intent and alcohol addiction. In establishing the diagnosis of acute corrosive poisonings, the severity of the post-corrosive endoscopic changes of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum is of major importance. According to Holinder and Fridman classification, post-corrosive endoscopic changes are classified in three degrees: First degree--superficial damage associated with hyperthermia, epithelial desquamation and mucous edema. Second degree--transmucous damage affecting all of the mucosal layers, followed by exudation, erosions and ulcerations. Third degree--transmural damage associated with ulcer's penetration in the deep layers of the tissue and neighboring organs. Severity of the lesions depends on the nature, quantity and concentration of the corrosive substance, the duration of exposure and current state of the exposed organs. Most often caustic injuries occur to the esophagus and stomach since the corrosive substance remains there for a longer period of time. Treatment of the acute corrosive intoxications include: neutralization of corrosive agents, antibiotics, corticosteroids, anti-secretory therapy, nutritional support, collagen synthesis inhibitors, esophageal dilation and stent placement, and surgery. The most common complications that may appear are: perforation, gastrointestinal bleeding, sepsis, esophageal strictures and stenosis, stenosis of gastric antrum and pylorus, cancer of the esophagus and the stomach. Today, owing to the substantially enhanced

  2. Laparoscopic ultrasonography--a method for staging of upper gastrointestinal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durup Scheel-Hincke, J; Mortensen, M B; Pless, T

    1999-01-01

    Laparoscopic ultrasonography (LUS) is a method that can be useful in the staging of upper gastrointestinal cancer. Dedicated transducers are available, and preliminary studies have proposed indications for the use of LUS staging of hepatic, esophageal, gastric, and pancreatic cancer disease....... In the staging and resectability assessment of upper gastrointestinal cancer LUS seems to provide important additional information thus avoiding futile laparotomies in non-resectable patients. This short review summarizes some of the most relevant references concerning the use of LUS in upper gastrointestinal...... tract cancer....

  3. Cost Analysis of Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kocoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Increasing healtcare costs reveal to consider the costs of present diagnostic and treatment modalities. In this study we analysed the costs of hospitalized patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIB who admitted to Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Education and Research Hospital. Material and Method: In this retrospective study, 524 UGIB patients who admitted to emergency department in 3 years were enrolled. Patients records that include gender, age, complaint at admission, history of medical drug use, presence of comorbidity, blood type, cost of hospitalization, mortality, endoscopic findings, endoscopic forrest’s classification, duration of hospitalization, number of blood transfusion were recorded. Obtained data were evaluated to determine their impact on cost of hospitalization. Results: This study was consisted of 362 male (69,1% and 162 female (30,9% patients. Mean duration of hospitalization was 6.35 ± 4.94 days, mean age was 54.70 ± 20.4 years, and mean number of transfused blood was 2.19 ± 2.25. Mortality rate was 4,2% (n = 22. Mean cost of hospitalization was 827.97 ± 747.11 Turkish Liras (TL. A statistical significance was determined between cost of hospitalization and age (p=0,001, duration of hospitalization (p=0,001, comorbidity (p<0,05, number of transfused blood (p=0,001, and hemoglobine levels at admission (p<0,05. Discussion: Predisposing drug use, presence of comorbidity, age, duration of hospitalization, number of transfused blood were determined as factors that have impact on mortality. Presence of comorbidity, number of comorbid diseases, age, number of transfused blood and hemoglobine levels at admission were determined as factors that have impact on cost of treatment. More studies are needed about duration of hospitalization and number of transfused blood in UGIB patients.

  4. Meta-analysis: antibiotic prophylaxis for cirrhotic patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding - an updated Cochrane review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavez-Tapia, N C; Barrientos-Gutierrez, T; Tellez-Avila, F

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis seems to decrease the incidence of bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis and upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is considered standard of care. However, there is no updated information regarding the effects of this intervention....

  5. Definitions and Outcome Measures in Pediatric Functional Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashid, Amara Nassar-Sheikh; Taminiau, Jan A.; Benninga, Marc A.; Saps, Miguel; Tabbers, Merit M.

    2016-01-01

    Functional disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract are frequently diagnosed in children. Four different clinical entities are addressed by the Rome III committee: functional dyspepsia (FD), cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS), adolescent rumination syndrome (ARS), and aerophagia. Management of

  6. Spironolactone and risk of upper gastrointestinal events: population based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); G. Mosis (Georgio); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To confirm and quantify any association between spironolactone and upper gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers. DESIGN: Population based case-control study. SETTING: A primary care information database in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: All people on the

  7. Effects of Ramadan fasting on acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to peptic ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    MH Emami; H Rahimi

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As, acid negatively affects duodenal and gastric mucosal defense, we designed this study to investigate if fasting during Ramadan can promote peptic ulcer and its complication, acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. METHODS: All patients files who had admitted to hospital with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding from 10th day of Ramadan till one month later, in 2002 to 2004 were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: fasting group who were fasting, at least 10 day...

  8. [Clinical epidemiological characteristics and change trend of upper gastrointestinal bleeding over the past 15 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinping; Cui, Yi; Wang, Jinhui; Chen, Baili; He, Yao; Chen, Minhu

    2017-04-25

    To investigate the clinical epidemiology change trend of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) over the past 15 years. Consecutive patients who was diagnosed as continuous UGIB in the endoscopy center of The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun-Yat University during the period from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 1998 and the period from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013 were enrolled in this study. Their gender, age, etiology, ulcer classification, endoscopic treatment and hospitalization mortality were compared between two periods. In periods from 1997 to 1998 and 2012 to 2013, the detection rate of UGIB was 9.99%(928/9 287) and 4.49%(1 092/24 318)(χ 2 =360.089, P=0.000); the percentage of male patients was 73.28%(680/928) and 72.44% (791/1 092) (χ 2 =0.179, P=0.672), and the onset age was (47.3±16.4) years and (51.4±18.2) years (t=9.214, P=0.002) respectively. From 1997 to 1998, the first etiology of UGIB was peptic ulcer bleeding, accounting for 65.2%(605/928)[duodenal ulcer 47.8%(444/928), gastric ulcer 8.3%(77/928), stomal ulcer 2.3%(21/928), compound ulcer 6.8%(63/928)],the second was cancer bleeding(7.0%,65/928), and the third was esophageal and gastric varices bleeding (6.4%,59/928). From 2012 to 2013, peptic ulcer still was the first cause of UGIB, but the ratio obviously decreased to 52.7%(575/1092)(χ 2 =32.467, P=0.000)[duodenal ulcer 31.9%(348/1092), gastric ulcer 9.4%(103/1092), stomal ulcer 2.8%(30/1092), compound ulcer 8.6%(94/1092)]. The decreased ratio of duodenal ulcer bleeding was the main reason (χ 2 =53.724, P=0.000). Esophageal and gastric varices bleeding became the second cause (15.1%,165/1 092, χ 2 =38.976, P=0.000), and cancer was the third cause (9.2%,101/1 092, χ 2 =3.352, P=0.067). The largest increasing amplitude of the onset age was peptic ulcer bleeding [(46.2±16.7) years vs. (51.9±18.9) years, t=-5.548, P=0.000), and the greatest contribution to the amplitude was duodenal ulcer bleeding [(43.4±15.9) years vs. (48.4±19

  9. Fluoroscopic studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract: techniques and indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carpintero de la Vega, M; García Villar, C

    Fluoroscopic studies of the gastrointestinal tract are becoming increasing less common due to the introduction of other imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and to the increased availability of endoscopy. Nevertheless, fluoroscopic studies of the gastrointestinal tract continue to appear in clinical guidelines and some of their indications are still valid. These studies are dynamic, operator-dependent examinations that require training to obtain the maximum diagnostic performance. This review aims to describe the technique and bring the indications for this imaging modality up to date. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis on actual state of selective upper gastrointestinal study in medical examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seong Ho; Son, Soon Yong; Joo, Mi Hwa; Kim, Chang Bok; Kim, Keon Chung [Asan Medical Center, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to present controversial point and reform measurements by analysing factors having important effect on selection of upper gastrointestinal study in total health promotion. We examined 200 persons for this study, who visited for upper gastrointestinal study from January to February in 1999. We classified this group into Endoscopy, Upper gastrointestinal series, and sleeping endoscopy. We also investigated standard of satisfaction and factors having effect on selection of each study. As is results, in the motive of selection, Item of 'making accurate observation' and 'without pain' was 39.3% and 34.7%, respectively. In this study, sleeping endoscopy was 45.7%, but on the other side upper gastrointestinal series was low 22.6%(P<0.05). In the standard of preference of study, the man was 55.7% in the endoscopy, and the woman was 61.8% in the upper gastrointestinal series(P<0.05). The standard of preference of upper gastrointestinal series show that it was satisfied on the whole irrespective of sex, dwelling place, age, occupation, and level of education. In the selection of study, one's own will was showed the highest frequency, and family inducement was showed second(P<0.05). Persons over 60% were examined before the same study. Selection of upper gastrointestinal series was 47.9% of person with normal findings, and endoscopy and sleeping endoscopy was over 70% with gastritis, gastric and duodenal(P<0.01). For one's accurate selection of examination, it is important that objective and credible information should be given to a recipient for examination.

  11. Analysis on actual state of selective upper gastrointestinal study in medical examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Ho; Son, Soon Yong; Joo, Mi Hwa; Kim, Chang Bok; Kim, Keon Chung

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present controversial point and reform measurements by analysing factors having important effect on selection of upper gastrointestinal study in total health promotion. We examined 200 persons for this study, who visited for upper gastrointestinal study from January to February in 1999. We classified this group into Endoscopy, Upper gastrointestinal series, and sleeping endoscopy. We also investigated standard of satisfaction and factors having effect on selection of each study. As is results, in the motive of selection, Item of 'making accurate observation' and 'without pain' was 39.3% and 34.7%, respectively. In this study, sleeping endoscopy was 45.7%, but on the other side upper gastrointestinal series was low 22.6%(P<0.05). In the standard of preference of study, the man was 55.7% in the endoscopy, and the woman was 61.8% in the upper gastrointestinal series(P<0.05). The standard of preference of upper gastrointestinal series show that it was satisfied on the whole irrespective of sex, dwelling place, age, occupation, and level of education. In the selection of study, one's own will was showed the highest frequency, and family inducement was showed second(P<0.05). Persons over 60% were examined before the same study. Selection of upper gastrointestinal series was 47.9% of person with normal findings, and endoscopy and sleeping endoscopy was over 70% with gastritis, gastric and duodenal(P<0.01). For one's accurate selection of examination, it is important that objective and credible information should be given to a recipient for examination

  12. Simple measures to prevent a massive upper gastrointestinal bleed

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Raghav; Vyas, Neil; Companioni, Rafael Antonio Ching; Rajnish, Ishita; Salehi, Ilnaz

    2017-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Nasogastric (NG) tube is frequently used in clinical practice for a variety of indications; however, NG tubes are not without risks, and there are a multitude of gastrointestinal complications that are associated with their use. Simple precautions can help prevent these NG tube?related injuries.

  13. Simple measures to prevent a massive upper gastrointestinal bleed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Raghav; Vyas, Neil; Companioni, Rafael Antonio Ching; Rajnish, Ishita; Salehi, Ilnaz

    2017-08-01

    Nasogastric (NG) tube is frequently used in clinical practice for a variety of indications; however, NG tubes are not without risks, and there are a multitude of gastrointestinal complications that are associated with their use. Simple precautions can help prevent these NG tube-related injuries.

  14. Functional dyspepsia, upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and transit in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitkara, Denesh K.; Delgado-Aros, Silvia; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Cremonini, Filippo; El-Youssef, Mounif; Freese, Deborah; Camilleri, Michael

    2003-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of abnormal gastric emptying and small bowel transit in children with functional dyspepsia at a tertiary care center, and the relationship between abnormal gastric and small bowel transit and symptoms in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders. Patients

  15. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in children: The Lagos University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    both diagnostic and therapeutic upper GI endoscopy services to both adult and paediatric populations from all over .... positive and had triple therapy with amoxicillin, clarithromycin and omeprazole. Four of the six subjects with .... Khan MR, Ahmed S, Ali SR, Maheshwari PK, Jamal MS. Spectrum of upper GI endoscopy in ...

  16. Effects of Ramadan fasting on common upper gastrointestinal disorders: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Seifi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ramadan is the ninth month of Muslim's calendar during which Muslims fast. Ramadan lasts 29-30 days based on the visual sightings of the crescent moon. Fasting during Ramadan has significant health effects. The present study aimed at reviewing the literature of the impact of Ramadan fasting on upper gastrointestinal disorders. Methods: MEDLINE and Google Scholar were searched  by using ((“Ramadan” R   fasting” AND( "Upper Gastrointestinal Tract" OR "Gastrointestinal Diseases" OR "Dyspepsia" OR "Gastroesophageal Reflux"  OR "Peptic Ulcer" OR "Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage" as keywords in the title and abstract. Relevant, non- duplicate full articles written in English were reviewed. Results: Gastric acid and pepsin secretion increase during Ramadan fasting, probably associated with dyspeptic symptoms. Regarding peptic ulcer frequency, results are inconsistent. However, peptic ulcer complications such as gastrointestinal bleeding and peptic ulcer perforation increase during Ramadan fasting. Conclusion: Fasting during Ramadan seems to be beneficial for healthy individuals, but in people with gastrointestinal disorders, it might be harmful as it increases the risk of complications. Therefore, taking medical advice before Ramadan fasting is highly recommended to people suffering from gastrointestinal symptoms.

  17. Quality standards in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: a position statement of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) and Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland (AUGIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, Sabina; Ragunath, Krish; Wyman, Andrew; Banks, Matthew; Trudgill, Nigel; Pritchard, D Mark; Riley, Stuart; Anderson, John; Griffiths, Helen; Bhandari, Pradeep; Kaye, Phillip; Veitch, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    This document represents the first position statement produced by the British Society of Gastroenterology and Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland, setting out the minimum expected standards in diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The need for this statement has arisen from the recognition that while technical competence can be rapidly acquired, in practice the performance of a high-quality examination is variable, with an unacceptably high rate of failure to diagnose cancer at endoscopy. The importance of detecting early neoplasia has taken on greater significance in this era of minimally invasive, organ-preserving endoscopic therapy. In this position statement we describe 38 recommendations to improve diagnostic endoscopy quality. Our goal is to emphasise practices that encourage mucosal inspection and lesion recognition, with the aim of optimising the early diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal disease and improving patient outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Upper Gastrointestinal Disease in Nairobi and Nakuru Counties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant differences in the two centers were in gastritis, hiatus hernia, esophageal varices, gastric ulcer and esophageal cancer. A total of 152 interventional UGIEs (86% palliative stenting) were done. Conclusion: The pattern of disease mirrors that in previous studies with a predominance of gastritis as the major upper ...

  19. Alarm symptoms of upper gastrointestinal cancer and contact to general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sanne; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Svendsen, Rikke Pilsgaard

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Survival of upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancer depends on early stage diagnosis. Symptom-based guidelines and fast-track referral systems have been implemented for use in general practice. To improve diagnosis of upper GI cancer, knowledge on prevalence of alarm symptoms in the gene......INTRODUCTION: Survival of upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancer depends on early stage diagnosis. Symptom-based guidelines and fast-track referral systems have been implemented for use in general practice. To improve diagnosis of upper GI cancer, knowledge on prevalence of alarm symptoms...... in the general population and subsequent healthcare-seeking is needed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A nationwide study of 100,000 adults, who were randomly selected from the general population were invited to participate in an internet-based survey. People aged ≥45 years were included in this study. Items regarding...

  20. Phase II trial of erlotinib and bevacizumab in patients with advanced upper gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrberg, Kristoffer S; Olesen, René K; Pfeiffer, Per

    2012-01-01

    Patients with upper gastrointestinal cancers have a poor prognosis and only few treatment options. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are valid targets in many solid tumours, and they have synergistic effects in preclinical studies....

  1. New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte; Feldager, Erik

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort mo...

  2. [Risk factors of upper gastrointestinal complications in outpatients on antiplatelet therapy: description and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrocq, G; Bigard, M-A; Marouene, S; Delaage, P-H; Fabry, C; Barthelemy, P; Steg, P-G

    2012-08-01

    Patients on antiplatelet therapy have a gastrointestinal bleeding risk. It is increased by risk factors. The frequency of those risk factors, the prevalence of upper digestive symptoms and their management in patients on antiplatelet agents is unknown. We performed an observational multi-centred prospective survey among 560 French cardiologists with private practice. Each cardiologist completed a questionnaire for the first four patients treated with antiplatelet agents in primary or secondary prevention. Among the 2182 patients included, (age = 67 ± 11 years; 74% male), 83% had at least one gastrointestinal bleeding risk factor and 38.9% had a history of upper digestive tract symptom. A history of gastrointestinal bleeding was reported in 3.4% and a history of documented gastro-duodenal ulcer in 5.5%. A proton pump inhibitor was already prescribed in 39% of the patients. At the time of the consultation, upper digestive symptoms were described in 21% of the patients. In those patients with symptoms, 85% had no modification in antiplatelet therapy and 62.7% were prescribed gastro-protective drugs (proton pump inhibitors: 51.8%, H(2)-blockers 3.6% other anti-acid medication: 7.3%). Among patients on antiplatelet agents, the prevalence of upper digestive symptoms and risk factors for gastrointestinal bleeding is high. Preventative management needs to be clarified in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The glasgow blatchford score is the most accurate assessment of patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Hansen, Jane Møller; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2012-01-01

    Risk scoring systems are used increasingly to assess patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). There have been comparative studies to identify the best system, but most have been retrospective and included small sample sizes, few patients with severe bleeding and with low mortality...

  4. Helicobacter pylori and risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding among users of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Michael; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B; Møller Hansen, Jane

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have reported a possible association between use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serious upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB). We conducted this case-control study to assess if Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) potentiates the risk of serious UGB in SSRI...

  5. Predictive Factors of Arterial Blood Oxygen Desaturation During Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Nonsedated Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Alimardani

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypoxemia can occur during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with or without pharmacological sedation. Pulse oximetry saturation (SpO2 levels were assessed in patients attending for routine unsedated diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to identify factors associated with oxygen desaturation. Methods: A total of 300 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy without sedation were monitored with continuous pulse oximetry. Factors related to the patient, the examination, and the monitoring data that could predict severe desaturation were evaluated. Results: Mild desaturation (SpO2 between 1-4% was found in 143(47.7% of the patients, while severe desaturation (SpO2≥5% and hypoxemia occurred in 65 (21.7% of patients, 40 (61.5% of those had previous illnesses (p<0.001. The variables found to predict severe desaturation were basal SpO2 <95%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anemia, age more than 60 years and coronary artery disease. Conclusion: The decrease in SpO2 is related to increase in age, basal SaO2 < 95%, respiratory disease, coronary artery disease, and anemia, .We recommend continuous monitoring of SpO2 in these high-risk patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

  6. [Sedation with intravenous midazolam during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy--changes in hemodynamics, oxygen saturation and memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Ju; Matsuki, Michiko; Gouda, Yoshinori; Nishiyama, Tomoki; Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2003-09-01

    Cardiorespiratory adverse effects are often observed in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with sedation. In this study, we examined hemodynamics, oxygen saturation and memory during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy under sedation with intravenous midazolam. Eight healthy outpatients without any obvious complications received intravenous midazolam 5 mg for sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Blood pressure, heart rate and percutaneous arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) were measured before, during and after endoscopy. After the arousal by intravenous flumazenil, we inquired the patients about the level of memory during the endoscopy. Blood pressure decreased significantly two minutes after midazolam administration, but increased significantly after the insertion of an endoscope which was not different from the control value. Heart rate increased significantly one and three minutes after the insertion of the endoscope. SpO2 decreased significantly after midazolam administration and stayed at around 95%. No patients remembered the procedure. Sedation with intravenous midazolam during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is useful to control the cardiovascular responses, and to obtain amnesia. However, a decrease in SpO2 should be watched carefully.

  7. Pediatric and staff dose evaluation in fluoroscopy upper gastrointestinal series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipov, Danielle; Nascimento, Eduarda X. do; Lacerda, Camila M., E-mail: diilipov@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UFTPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Schelin, Hugo R.; Ledesma, Jorge A.; Denyak, Valeriy; Legnani, Adriano, E-mail: ledesmajorgealberto@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Fluoroscopy upper GI series are widely used for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children. Pediatric radiological procedures bring concern due to the high life expectancy and radiosensitivity on children, as well as the risks to the exposed staff Important studies present the mean KAP values on patients and the European Commission (EC) recommends specific techniques for these procedures. For the occupational expositions, staffs doses must be within the annual limit, according to the CNEN 3.01. Based on those data, the aims of the current study are: analyzing the upper GI procedure; determining the KAP on the patient and estimating the annual equivalent dose on the staff's crystalline. LiF :Mg,Ti TLDs were positioned on the patient upper chest center, so that the entrance surface air kerma could be determined. The field size on the patient s surface and the kerma were multiplied so that the KAP was obtained. LiF:Mg,Cu,P dosimeters were used to estimate the equivalent dose on the staff s crystalline. The results showed discrepancy in the kVp range and in the exposure time when compared to the EC data. The mean KAP values for the 0-1,1-3 and 3-10 years old patients were, respectively: 102 ± 19 cGy.cm2, 142 ± 25 cGy.cm2 and 323 ± 39 cGy.cm2; which are higher than the KAPs presented in the studies used for comparison. The estimated annual equivalent dose in the staff s crystalline would be approximately 85% higher than the limit set by the CNEN. Analyzing the data, it becomes clear that an optimization implementation is necessary in order to reduce the radiation levels. (author)

  8. Capsule endoscopy in acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralnek, I M; Ching, J Y L; Maza, I; Wu, J C Y; Rainer, T H; Israelit, S; Klein, A; Chan, F K L; Ephrath, H; Eliakim, R; Peled, R; Sung, J J Y

    2013-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy may play a role in the evaluation of patients presenting with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in the emergency department. We evaluated adults with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage presenting to the emergency departments of two academic centers. Patients ingested a wireless video capsule, which was followed immediately by a nasogastric tube aspiration and later by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). We compared capsule endoscopy with nasogastric tube aspiration for determination of the presence of blood, and with EGD for discrimination of the source of bleeding, identification of peptic/inflammatory lesions, safety, and patient satisfaction. The study enrolled 49 patients (32 men, 17 women; mean age 58.3 ± 19 years), but three patients did not complete the capsule endoscopy and five were intolerant of the nasogastric tube. Blood was detected in the upper gastrointestinal tract significantly more often by capsule endoscopy (15 /18 [83.3 %]) than by nasogastric tube aspiration (6 /18 [33.3 %]; P = 0.035). There was no significant difference in the identification of peptic/inflammatory lesions between capsule endoscopy (27 /40 [67.5 %]) and EGD (35 /40 [87.5 %]; P = 0.10, OR 0.39 95 %CI 0.11 - 1.15). Capsule endoscopy reached the duodenum in 45 /46 patients (98 %). One patient (2.2 %) had self-limited shortness of breath and one (2.2 %) had coughing on capsule ingestion. In an emergency department setting, capsule endoscopy appears feasible and safe in people presenting with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Capsule endoscopy identifies gross blood in the upper gastrointestinal tract, including the duodenum, significantly more often than nasogastric tube aspiration and identifies inflammatory lesions, as well as EGD. Capsule endoscopy may facilitate patient triage and earlier endoscopy, but should not be considered a substitute for EGD. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Impact of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) on surgical decision-making in upper gastrointestinal tract cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Michael Bau; Edwin, B; Hünerbein, M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is an integrated part of the pretherapeutic evaluation program for patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer. Whether the clinical impact of EUS differs between surgeons from different countries is unknown. The same applies to the potential...... patients with upper GI tract cancer were randomly selected from all upper GI tract cancer patients treated at Odense University Hospital between 1997 and 2000. Based on patient records and EUS database results, a case story was created with and without the EUS result for each patient. Four surgeons were...

  10. Development of a method to calculate organ doses for the upper gastrointestinal fluoroscopic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleiman, O.H.

    1989-01-01

    A method was developed to quantitatively measure the upper gastrointestinal fluoroscopic examination in order to calculate organ doses. The dynamic examination was approximated with a set of discrete x-ray fields. Once the examination was segmented into discrete x-ray fields appropriate organ dose tables were generated using an existing computer program for organ dose calculations. This, along with knowledge of the radiation exposures associated with each of the fields, enabled the calculation of organ doses for the entire dynamic examination. The protocol involves videotaping the examination while fluoroscopic technique factors, tube current and tube potential, are simultaneously recorded on the audio tracks of the videotape. Subsequent analysis allows the dynamic examination to be segmented into a series of discrete x-ray fields uniquely defined by field size, projection, and anatomical region. The anatomical regions associated with the upper gastrointestinal examination were observed to be the upper, middle, and lower esophagus, the gastroesophageal junction, the stomach, and the duodenum

  11. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in autoimmune gastritis: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Sacchi, Maria Carlotta; Severi, Carola; Annibale, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune gastritis is often suspected for its hematologic findings, and rarely the diagnosis is made for the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess in a large cohort of patients affected by autoimmune gastritis the occurrence and the pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms and to evaluate whether symptomatic patients are characterized by specific clinical features.Gastrointestinal symptoms of 379 consecutive autoimmune gastritis patients were systematically assessed and classified following Rome III Criteria. Association between symptoms and anemia pattern, positivity to gastric autoantibodies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant autoimmune disease were evaluated.In total, 70.2% of patients were female, median age 55 years (range 17-83). Pernicious anemia (53.6%), iron deficiency anemia (34.8%), gastric autoantibodies (68.8%), and autoimmune disorders (41.7%) were present. However, 56.7% of patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, 69.8% of them had exclusively upper symptoms, 15.8% only lower and 14.4% concomitant upper and lower symptoms. Dyspepsia, subtype postprandial distress syndrome was the most represented, being present in 60.2% of symptomatic patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age gastritis is associated in almost 60% of cases with gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is strictly related to younger age, no smoking, and absence of anemia.

  12. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for dyspepsia: Εxploratory study of factors influencing patient compliance in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouroumalis Elias

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the most preferable diagnostic examination for patients over fifty when upper gastrointestinal symptoms appear. However, limited knowledge exists in concerns to the compliance of primary care patients' to the doctors' recommendations for endoscopy. Methods Patients who visited primary care practices in Greece and experienced upper gastrointestinal symptoms within a 10 days screening study, were referred for an upper endoscopy exam. The patients which refused to complete the endoscopy exam, were interviewed by the use of an open- ended translated and validated questionnaire, the Identification of Dyspepsia in General Population (IDGP questionnaire. A qualitative thematic analysis grounded on the theory of planned behavior was performed to reveal the reasons for patients' refusal, while socio-demographic predictors were also assessed. Results Nine hundred and ninety two patients were recorded, 159 of them (16% were found positive for dyspepsia and gastro-esophageal reflux disease according to the IDGP questionnaire. Out of the above, 131 (83.6% patients refused further investigation with endoscopy. Patients who refused upper endoscopy were predominantly female (87.8% (p = 0.036 and over the age of 50. The lack of severe symptoms, fear of pain, concerns of sedation, comorbidity and competing life demands were reported by patients as barriers to performing an endoscopic investigation. Conclusions Patients with dyspepsia in rural Greece tend to avoid upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with two major axons considered to be the causes of patients' refusal: their beliefs towards endoscopy and their personal capability to cope with it. Future research examining reasons of low compliance should be carried out in combination with modern behavioral theories so as to investigate into the above.

  13. Incidence of and risk factors for upper gastrointestinal complications in patients taking low-dose aspirin in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Nobutaka; Inamori, Masahiko; Endo, Hiroki; Uchiyama, Takashi; Hosono, Kunihiro; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Tomimoto, Ayako; Koyama, Sigeru; Sawabe, Aya; Tanida, Emiko; Yanagisawa, Shogo; Hata, Yasuo; Okada, Kazuhisa; Atsukawa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Seitaro; Kawamura, Harunobu; Higurashi, Takuma; Nagase, Hajime; Akimoto, Keiko; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Low-dose aspirin is widely used for the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, administration of low-dose aspirin is associated with an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal complications, such as upper gastrointestinal erosions, ulcers and bleeding. The aim of this study was to clarify the prevalence and various clinical factors of upper gastrointestinal complications associated with low-dose aspirin treatment. A total of 1213 patients taking low-dose aspirin were evaluated with upper endoscopic examinations. We studied retrospectively the incidence of and risk factors for upper gastrointestinal complications associated with low-dose aspirin use. Of the 1213 patients taking low-dose aspirin, 598 patients and 72 patients were found to have gastroduodenal erosions (57.3%) and peptic ulcers (5.9%), respectively. Of these 72 peptic ulcers, 27 were diagnosed as hemorrhagic ulcers. Previous ulcer history was identified as a risk factor for peptic ulcer and upper gastrointestinal bleeding during low-dose aspirin therapy. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms and no use of gastroprotective agents were also identified as risk factors for peptic ulcers. In this study, the use of a histamine-2 receptor antagonist was indicated as a protective factor for peptic ulcers. Low-dose aspirin therapy is associated with an increased risk of developing upper gastrointestinal complications. Administration of a histamine-2 receptor antagonist was effective for the prevention of low-dose aspirin induced peptic ulcers.

  14. UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT HEMORRHAGE AND NONSTEROIDALANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDs – A 5-YEAR PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skok

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adverse effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are a common cause of digestive tract hemorrhage.Study aims. The purpose of the study was to ascertain the percent of patients taking NSAIDs with upper digestive tract hemorrhage.Type of study. Prospective, analytical.Patients and methods. The study includes patients in which urgent endoscopic investigations of the upper digestive tract were carried out due to gastrointestinal hemorrhage between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1998.Results. 3366 patients were investigated: 1222 women and 2144 men; the average age of our patients was 57.5 years (SD ± 17.1, a 2–97 year span. In 2905 patients (86.3% the source of bleeding was confirmed in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Among our patients 55% were aged over 60 years, 26.7% were older than 80 years. Sequelae of peptic ulcer disease were the most significant cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, in 47.7% of our patients (1387/2905. In the last week prior to bleeding, 19% of patients (552/2905 were taking regularly NSAIDs, corticosteroids, salycilates or anticoagulant therapy at least in single daily dose. The majority of patients, 94.5%, were taking NSAIDs or salycilates. Among NSAIDs they were taking most often ketoprofen, diclofenac or naproxen/ naproxen natrium, less often ibuprofen, nabumeton, etodolac or piroxicam.Conclusions. Upper digestive tract hemorrhage is a serious complication of NSAIDs medication, particularly in older patients

  15. Association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and upper gastrointestinal bleeding: population based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abajo, Francisco José; Rodríguez, Luis Alberto García; Montero, Dolores

    1999-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Design Population based case-control study. Setting General practices included in the UK general practice research database. Subjects 1651 incident cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and 248 cases of ulcer perforation among patients aged 40 to 79 years between April 1993 and September 1997, and 10 000 controls matched for age, sex, and year that the case was identified. Interventions Review of computer profiles for all potential cases, and an internal validation study to confirm the accuracy of the diagnosis on the basis of the computerised information. Main outcome measures Current use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or other antidepressants within 30 days before the index date. Results Current exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors was identified in 3.1% (52 of 1651) of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding but only 1.0% (95 of 10 000) of controls, giving an adjusted rate ratio of 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1 to 4.4). This effect measure was not modified by sex, age, dose, or treatment duration. A crude incidence of 1 case per 8000 prescriptions was estimated. A small association was found with non-selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (relative risk 1.4, 1.1 to 1.9) but not with antidepressants lacking this inhibitory effect. None of the groups of antidepressants was associated with ulcer perforation. The concurrent use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increased the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding beyond the sum of their independent effects (15.6, 6.6 to 36.6). A smaller interaction was also found between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and low dose aspirin (7.2, 3.1 to 17.1). Conclusions Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors increase the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The absolute effect is, however

  16. Antithrombotic drugs and non-variceal bleeding outcomes and risk scoring systems: comparison of Glasgow Blatchford, Rockall and Charlson scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ali S; McCloskey, Caroline; Craigen, Theresa; Angerson, Wilson J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Antithrombotic drugs (ATDs) cause non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). Risk scoring systems have not been validated in ATD users. We compared Blatchford, Rockall and Charlson scores in predicting outcomes of NVUGIB in ATD users and controls. Methods A total of 2071 patients with NVUGIB were grouped into ATD users (n=851) and controls (n=1220) in a single-centre retrospective analysis. Outcomes included duration of hospital admission, the need for blood transfusion, rebleeding requiring surgery and 30-day mortality. Results Duration of admission correlated with all scores in controls, but correlations were significantly weaker in ATD users. Rank correlation coefficients in control versus ATD: 0.45 vs 0.20 for Blatchford; 0.48 vs 0.32 for Rockall and 0.42 vs 0.26 for Charlson (all p<0.001). The need for transfusion was best predicted by Blatchford (p<0.001 vs Rockall and Charlson in both ATD users and controls), but all scores performed less well in ATD users. Area under the receiver operation characteristic curve (AUC) in control versus ATD: 0.90 vs 0.85 for Blatchford; 0.77 vs 0.61 for Rockall and 0.69 vs 0.56 for Charlson (all p<0.005). In predicting surgery, Rockall performed best; while mortality was best predicted by Charlson with lower AUCs in ATD patients than controls (p<0.05). Stratification showed the scores' performance to be age-dependent. Conclusions Blatchford score was the strongest predictor of transfusion, Rockall's had the strongest correlation with duration of admission and with rebleeding requiring surgery and Charlson was best in predicting 30-day mortality. Modifications of these systems should be explored to improve their efficiency in ATD users. PMID:28839866

  17. A rare cause of anemia due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Cameron lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Özaydın

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic large hiatal hernias may lead to iron deficiency anemia due to occult and massive bleeding from linear gastric erosions or ulcers on the mucosal folds at the level of the diaphragm called the Cameron lesions. The diagnosis is usually made during upper gastrointestinal system endoscopies. Current therapy includes the medication with proton pump inhibitors in combination with oral iron supplements and in some cases surgical reconstruction of hiatal hernia with fundoplication. We present a case of a 78-year-old woman who was admitted to the outpatient clinic with the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia without signs of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. She was treated with medication and her follow-up gastroscopy showed a total cure. She is asymptomatic for two years after treatment with proton pump inhibitors and iron supplements. Cameron lesions should be kept in mind as an unusual cause of iron deficiency anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding. 

  18. Unusual Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding due to Late Metastasis from Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tsan Chang

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A case of recurrent massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding originating from metastatic renal cell carcinoma is reported. A 63-year-old woman underwent right nephrectomy 9 years previously and experienced no recurrence during follow-up. A gradually enlarging ulcerative tumor over the bulb of the duodenum and four subsequent episodes of massive bleeding from this tumor occurred between June 2001 and March 2002. The patient underwent surgery in April 2002 for intractable bleeding from the tumor. Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the duodenum was confirmed from the surgical specimen. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to malignancy is very rare and the duodenum is the least frequently involved site. Furthermore, a solitary late renal cell carcinoma metastasis 9 years after a nephrectomy is extremely uncommon. This case suggests that life-long follow-up of renal cell carcinoma patients is necessary, owing to unpredictable behavior and the possibility of long disease-free intervals. In nephrectomized patients suffering from gastrointestinal bleeding, complete evaluation, especially endoscopic examination, is indicated. The possibility of late recurrent renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract should be kept in mind, although it is rare. If the patient is fit for surgery, metastatectomy is the first choice of treatment.

  19. Comparison of risk scoring systems for patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Adrian J; Laine, Loren; Dalton, Harry R

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the predictive accuracy and clinical utility of five risk scoring systems in the assessment of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. DESIGN: International multicentre prospective study. SETTING: Six large hospitals in Europe, North America, Asia, and Oceania....... PARTICIPANTS: 3012 consecutive patients presenting over 12 months with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of pre-endoscopy scores (admission Rockall, AIMS65, and Glasgow Blatchford) and post-endoscopy scores (full Rockall and PNED) for their ability to predict predefined...... clinical endpoints: a composite endpoint (transfusion, endoscopic treatment, interventional radiology, surgery, or 30 day mortality), endoscopic treatment, 30 day mortality, rebleeding, and length of hospital stay. Optimum score thresholds to identify low risk and high risk patients were determined...

  20. Haemosuccus pancreaticus due to true splenic artery aneurysm: a rare cause of massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Roy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available “Haemosuccus pancreaticus” is an unusual cause of severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding and results from rupture of splenic artery aneurysm into the pancreatic duct. More commonly, it is a pseudoaneurysm of the splenic artery which develops as sequelae of pancreatitis. However, true aneurysm of the splenic artery without pancreatitis has rarely been incriminated as the etiologic factor of this condition. Owing to the paucity of cases and limited knowledge about the disease, diagnosis as well as treatment become challenging. Here we describe a 60-year-old male presenting with severe recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding and abdominal pain, which, after considerable delay, was diagnosed to be due to splenic artery aneurysm. Following an unsuccessful endovascular embolisation, the patient was cured by distal pancreatectomy and ligation of aneurysm.

  1. Development of optimal management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to pancreatic sinistral portal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of pancreatic sinistral portal hypertension (PSPH is quite different from that of cirrhotic portal hypertension, and PSPH is the only curable type of portal hypertension. Gastric variceal bleeding is a less common manifestation of PSPH; however, it probably exacerbates the patient’s condition and leads to critical illness, and inappropriate management would result in death. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the optimal management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in PSPH patients. Splenectomy is considered as a definitive procedure, together with surgical procedures to treat underlying pancreatic diseases. For patients in poor conditions or ineligible for surgery, splenic artery coil embolization is a preferable and effective method to stop bleeding before second-stage operation. The therapeutic decision should be made individually, and the further multi-center study to optimize the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding from PSPH is warranted.

  2. Three-dimensional motion tracking correlates with skill level in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Sif H.; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Konge, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aim: Feedback is an essential part of training in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Virtual reality simulators provide limited feedback, focusing only on visual recognition with no feedback on the procedural part of training. Motion tracking identifies patterns of movement...... untrained medical students) were tested using a virtual reality simulator. A motion sensor was used to collect data regarding the distance between the hands, and height and movement of the scope hand. Test characteristics between groups were explored using Kruskal-Wallis H and Man-Whitney U exact tests....... Results: All motion-tracking metrics showed discriminative ability primarily between experts and novices in specific sequences. Conclusion: Motion tracking can discriminate between operators with different experience levels in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Motion tracking can be used to provide...

  3. Frequency of peptic ulcer disease in patients of dyspepsia an analysis of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, S.O.; Ambreen, S.; Ashraf, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency of peptic ulcer disease in patients of dyspepsia on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. A convenient non probability sampling was done and one hundred patients were selected from out patient department presenting within six months of dyspeptic symptoms. They were all subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy Of all patients 61% (n=61) were males and 39% (n=39) were females with age ranging between 20 - 45 years. Study revealed functional dyspepsia (76%), duodenal ulcer (11%), gastric ulcer (4%) and esophagitis including gastoesophageal reflux disease (9%). This showed an overall frequency of peptic ulcer disease to be 15% in the studied population.Conclusion: Peptic ulcer disease is a common structural cause of dyspepsia and was responsible for 15% of dyspepsia. (author)

  4. A study on the application of prone compression study for obese patients in upper gastrointestinal series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Soon Yong; Jung, Hong Ryang

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the application of prone compression study using compression paddle for obese patients in upper gastrointestinal series. Prone compression study using compression paddle was performed in fifty patients, who were not examined completely erect compression study for obesity. The radiographs of stomach were classified into the lower, middle, and high body, and then we gave five points included 'very poor', 'poor', 'suspicious', 'good', and 'complete' according to level of detection for area gastric and mucosal fold. Statistic analysis was performed using T-test and ANOVA, and confidence rate was fixed in 95%(P 0.05). As these results, the prone compression study in upper gastrointestinal series seem to be an useful study for obese patients, because it decreases pain and the feeling of uneasiness, and improve compression efficiency remarkably

  5. Upper gastrointestinal obstruction secondary to aortoduodenal syndrome owing to a noninflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, Kevin

    2012-01-31

    Aortoduodenal syndrome is a rare complication of an abdominal aortic aneurysm wherein the aneurysm sac obstructs the patient\\'s duodenum. It presents with the symptoms of an upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction and requires surgical intervention to relieve it. Previously, gastric bypass surgery was advocated, but now aortic replacement is the mainstay of treatment. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman whose aortoduodenal syndrome was successfully managed and review the literature on this topic.

  6. Cause of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Bleeding in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Elza Febria; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Nainggolan, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    Dengue fever is an acute mosquito-transmitted disease caused by the dengue fever virus which had clinical manifestations range from fever to severe hemorrhage, shock, and death.1 There were 500,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever and 25,000 deaths due to dengue annually worldwide. Bleeding is one of the major problems encountered in dengue fever. The reported prevalence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in dengue patients varies from 5% to 30%. The pathogenesis of hemorrhage could be mult...

  7. Impact of acid suppression on upper gastrointestinal pH and motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, Whitney; Semler, John R; Kuo, Braden

    2011-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), widely prescribed to patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms, alter intragastric pH, and may affect upper gastrointestinal transit and motility parameters in addition to affecting the ability to determine Wireless Motility Capsule (WMC) gastric emptying time. To assess PPI effect on motility parameters of the upper gastrointestinal tract and to determine if PPIs confound ability of WMC to measure gastric emptying time. Twenty healthy subjects were treated with esomeprazole 40 mg bid for 1 week. Another 50 healthy subjects underwent evaluation in absence of PPIs. All subjects underwent WMC test after meal ingestion. After a rapid, sustained luminal pH rise ≥ 0.5 pH units, marking potential gastric emptying time of WMC, an abdominal X-ray (KUB) was taken for gastric emptying time confirmation. Mean pH, pressure and transit time were compared between PPI-treated and untreated groups. There was no difference in gastric emptying time, small bowel transit time (SBTT), or pressure profiles between the groups. The pH in all cases rose ≥ 0.5 pH units. Distal small bowel pH was significantly lower in subjects on PPIs. Gastric emptying time was identified in all subjects treated with PPIs. Pressure and slope criteria were developed to confirm the time of emptying. PPI therapy does not have a significant impact on upper gastrointestinal transit and motility but it does decrease distal small bowel pH. The medication reduced the magnitude of pH change at gastric emptying time but using additional criteria based on slope and contraction frequency, WMC was able to measure gastric emptying time in all patients treated with PPIs.

  8. [Gastric schwannoma: rare differenzial diagnosis of acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyros, Orestis; Schickel, Stephan; Schierle, Katrin; Hoffmeister, Albrecht; Gockel, Ines

    2017-08-01

    Schwannomas are benign tumors derived from Schwann cells and their typical site of origin is the subcutaneous tissue of the extremities. Gastrointestinal localization of Schwannomas is extremely rare and the stomach is the prevalent site. Gastric schwannomas primarily occur in the gastric submucosa and are usually asymptomatic.We present a rare case of a solitary gastric schwannoma in a 51-year old male, which initially manifested with hematemesis by acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The upper GI-Endoscopy revealed a gastric submucosal tumor, 7 cm in size, located in the proximal corpus and fundus. In the endoscopical Ultrasound (EUS-Examination), the lesion appeared to arise from the fourth proper muscle layer (Muscularis propria). The fourth layer origin and the isoechogenicity, as compared to the normal muscle layer, are endoscopic ultrasonographic characteristics of gastric schwannomas and help in distinguishing them from gastrointestinal tumors (GIST). Because of the unclear histological identity, the patient underwent a "rendezvous" endoscopic-laparoscopic surgical resection of the tumor in toto. The histomorphological features of the lesion and the strong expression of S100 in combination with absence of DOG1 expression indicated the diagnosis of gastric schwannoma. There was no evidence of malignancy. The postoperative course was uncomplicated.This is a very rare manifestation of gastric schwannoma, representing a rare differenzial diagnosis in a case of acute upper GI-Bleeding. Only 14 % of gastric schwanommas are presented with gastrointestinal bleeding, including mainly melena rather than hematemesis. This case is considered to be worthy of presentation owing to the rare and unusual cause of upper GI bleeding implied in it. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. 'Horses for courses' in the upper gastrointestinal tract: a rational approach to diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelson, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    In Australia, the number of barium studies performed in teaching hospitals has fallen markedly while in the community at large a 113% increase occurred in the number of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures performed between 1980 and 1986. Protagonists of primary endoscopy cite studies that report on the superiority of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in patients with dyspepsia and related symptoms but several studies have shown that upper gastrointestinal barium studies miss very few important lesions. Fibreoptic endoscopy and radiology each have strengths and weaknesses which determine their respective places in the investigation of the different symptom complexes that are referable to the upper gastrointestinal tract. Double-contrast barium-meal examination is the suggested imaging modality for simple dyspepsia, for the oesophagitis-reflux-hiatus hernia complex and for dysphagia; while oesophagogastroduodenoscopy is the method of choice for the investigation of complicated dyspepsia, haematemesis and melaena. In patients who have previously undergone gastric surgery, endoscopy and radiology are complementary procedures - the former more accurate in the diagnosis of recurrent disease like ulceration, and the later useful for the delineation of anatomical changes. The time for the across-the-board replacement of barium studies by primary endoscopy has not yet arrived. 57 refs

  10. Glossopharyngeal Nerve Block versus Lidocaine Spray to Improve Tolerance in Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Ortega Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study. To compare the effect of glossopharyngeal nerve block with topical anesthesia on the tolerance of patients to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Methods. We performed a clinical trial in one hundred patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: (1 treatment with bilateral glossopharyngeal nerve block (GFNB and intravenous midazolam or (2 treatment with topical anesthetic (TASS and intravenous midazolam. We evaluated sedation, tolerance to the procedure, hemodynamic stability, and adverse symptoms. Results. We studied 46 men and 54 women, from 17 to 78 years of age. The procedure was reported without discomfort in 48 patients (88% in the GFNB group and 32 (64% in the TAAS group; 6 patients (12% in GFNB group and 18 (36% in TAAS group reported the procedure as little discomfort (χ2=3.95, P=0.04. There was no difference in frequency of nausea (4% in both groups and retching, 4% versus 8% for GFNB and TASS group, respectively (P=0.55. Conclusions. The use of glossopharyngeal nerve block provides greater comfort and tolerance to the patient undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. It also reduces the need for sedation.

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection status had no influence on upper gastrointestinal symptoms: a cross-sectional analysis of 3,005 Japanese subjects without upper gastrointestinal lesions undergoing medical health checkups

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, Tomomi; Takeshita, Eri; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Hara, Megumi; Akutagawa, Kayo; Sakata, Natsuko; Endo, Hiroyoshi; Ohyama, Takashi; Matsunaga, Keiji; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Shirai, Shinpei; Ito, Yoichiro; Tsuruoka, Nanae; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Kusano, Motoyasu

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the influence of Helicobacter pylori infection and its eradication on the upper gastrointestinal symptoms of relatively healthy Japanese subjects. Methods A total of 3,005 subjects (male/female: 1,549/1,456) undergoing medical health checkups were enrolled in the present study, at five hospitals in Saga, Japan, from January to December 2013. They had no significant findings following upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. All subjects completed a questionnai...

  12. Cardiovascular responses, arterial oxygen saturation and plasma catecholamine concentration during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy using conscious sedation with midazolam or propofol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei-Lim, V. L.; Kalkman, C. J.; Bartelsman, J. F.; Res, J. C.; van Wezel, H. B.

    1998-01-01

    Hypoventilation as a consequence of deep intravenous sedation is the most frequently reported cause of cardiac arrest during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE). Haemodynamic stress can contribute to myocardial ischaemia; therefore, this study was designed to observe prospectively the

  13. Early Relief of Upper Gastrointestinal Dyspeptic Symptoms: A Survey of Empirical Therapy with Pantoprazole in Canadian Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Armstrong

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal symptoms attributable to gastroesophageal reflux disease or peptic ulcer are common, but the outcome of proton pump inhibitor therapy in clinical practice is not well documented.

  14. The peculiarities of combined pathology of the upper gastrointestinal tract with allergic dermatoses in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The recent studies indicate that one of the causes of allergic dermatoses (AD in children and adults is pathology of the gastrointestinal tract. However, many problems of the emergence of these combinations have not yet been resolved. The purpose of the study was to establish the incidence and the nature of lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT in children with allergic dermatoses. Materials and methods. On the base of the Chernivtsi Regional Children’s Hospital, 40 children with allergic dermatoses combined with the pathology of the upper gastrointestinal tract and 20 patients with AD, but without the UGIT pathology, aged 3 to 18 years were examined. A clinical and laboratory studies were conducted twice (routine clinical tests, chamber scratch test with non-infectious allergens during AD remission, as well as fibrogastroduodenoscopy, ultrasound, pH-measuring biochemical blood tests (alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutaminetransferase (GGTP, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, identification of H.pylori. Results. It was indicated that out of 40 examined children with AD, 30 (75 % persons had various lesions of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. In 10 (25 % children, the functional changes, such as duodenogastral reflex (70 % and failure of the cardia (30 %, were detected. A multiple nature of reflux was observed in 85.7 % of children with chronic gastroduodenitis and in 100 % of children with esophagitis and duodenal ulcer disease. The contamination with H.pylori was detected in 72.5 % of cases. The increased activity of ALT and AST, GGTP, alkaline phosphatase and serum cholesterol was established. Conclusion. In 75 % of children with allergic dermatoses, an organic pathology of the upper gastrointestinal tract was diagnosed, thus, a gastroenterological examination should be recommended to all patients.

  15. Cecal perforation with an ascending colon cancer caused by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Miyatani

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Hiroyuki Miyatani1, Yukio Yoshida1, Hirokazu Kiyozaki21Department of Gastroenterology, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan; 2Department of Surgery, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, JapanAbstract: Colonic perforation caused by upper gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy is extremely rare. A 69-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of abdominal fullness. Colonoscopy could be performed only up to the hepatic flexure due to an elongated colon and residual stools. Because her symptoms improved, upper GI endoscopy was performed 11 days later. The patient developed severe abdominal pain two hours after the examination. Abdominal X-ray and computed tomography showed massive free air. Immediate laparotomy was performed for the intestinal perforation. After removal of stool, a perforation site was detected in the cecum with an invasive ascending colon cancer. Therefore, a right hemicolectomy, ileostomy, and transverse colostomy were performed. Although she developed postoperative septicemia, the patient was discharged 38 days after admission. Seven months postoperatively, the patient died of lung, liver, and brain metastases. Even in cases with a lesion that is not completely obstructed, it is important to note that air insufflations during upper GI endoscopy can perforate the intestinal wall in patients with advanced colon cancer.Keywords: colonic perforation, colon cancer, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, fecal peritonitis

  16. Burden of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients receiving low-dose acetylsalicylic acid for cardiovascular risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytzer, Peter; Pratt, Stephen; Elkin, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Continuous low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin; ASA) is a mainstay of cardiovascular (CV) risk management. It is well established, however, that troublesome upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly experienced among low-dose ASA users.......Continuous low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin; ASA) is a mainstay of cardiovascular (CV) risk management. It is well established, however, that troublesome upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly experienced among low-dose ASA users....

  17. Safety and efficacy of lansoprazole injection in upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a postmarketing surveillance conducted in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, Ari F; Setiawati, Arini

    2013-04-01

    to assess the safety and effectiveness of lansoprazole injection (Prosogan®) in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to peptic ulcers or erosive gastritis. this study was a multicenter observational postmarketing study of lansoprazole (Prosogan®) injection. Patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to peptic ulcers or erosive gastritis were given intravenous lansoprazole for a maximum of 7 days or until the bleeding stopped and the patients were able to take oral doses of lansoprazole. Primary outcome of the study was cessation of bleeding. Some laboratory parameters were also measured. among a total of 204 patients evaluable for safety, there was no adverse event reported during the study. A total of 200 patients were eligible for efficacy evaluation, 125 patients (62.5%) were males. Among these patients, upper GI bleeding stopped in 20 patients (10.0%) on day 1, in 71 patients (35.5%) on day 2, 75 patients (37.5%) on day 3, 24 patients (12.0%) on day 4, and 7 patients (3.5%) on day 5, making a cumulative of 197 patients (98.5%) on day 5. The hemostatic effect was rated as 'excellent' if the bleeding stopped within 3 days, and 'good' if the bleeding stopped within 5 days. Thus, the results were 'excellent' in 166 patients (83.0%) and 'good' in 31 patients (15.5%). These results were not different between males and females, between age below 60 years and 60 years and above, and between baseline Hb below 10 g/dL and 10 g/dL and above. the results of this observational postmarketing study in 200 patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to peptic ulcers or erosive gastritis demonstrated that intravenous lansoprazole twice a day was well tolerated and highly effective.

  18. Evaluation of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sinan Dal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of gastrointestinal complications especially gastric bleeding increased in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF. The aim of this study was to comparatively investigate upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB in patients with non-hemodialysis CRF and the patients without CRF.Materials and Methods: Seventy-six patients (55 men and 21 women with and without CRF and UGB was included. The first group who had CRF consisted of 23 patients and the control group 53. All patients were evaluated in the view point of age, gender, smoking status, other illnesses, medicine usage, laboratory parameters, endoscopic evidence and endoscopic intervention (scleroteraphy.Results: Calcium levels of patients with a history of previous UGB was significantly lower compared with those bleeding for the first time (p<0.05. The mean parathormon level was higher in patients with CRF (171.24 ± 141.96 pg/ml (p<0.05. Serum albumin level was negatively correlated with urea and creatinine (p<0.001, and positively correlated with hemoglobin and hematocrit levels (p=0.003 and p=0.005. The patients undergoing sclerotherapy more frequently needed transfusions (p<0.05. The hospitalization time found to be shortening with increasing hemoglobin, hematocrit, calcium and albumin levels; and lengthens with increased urea and creatinine.Conclusion: The history of previous gastrointestinal bleeding and detection of pathological findings in endoscopy were more frequent in patients with CRF. Gastrointestinal bleeding risk did not reduce using by gastric protection against acetylsalicylic acid and other non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Also, low albumin levels and secondary hiperparathyroidism in these patients may be risky for gastrointestinal bleeding. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:207-13

  19. Developmental biology informs cancer: the emerging role of the hedgehog signaling pathway in upper gastrointestinal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Keping; Abbruzzese, James L

    2003-10-01

    The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays many roles in invertebrate and vertebrate development. For example, specific inhibition of sonic Hh expression is critical during early stages of pancreas organogenesis, but an active Hh pathway appears to be required for maintenance of adult endocrine functions. Mutational inactivation of the Hh pathway has been demonstrated in human malignancies of the skin, cerebellum, and skeletal muscle. Now, two papers implicate aberrant Hh signaling in human upper gastrointestinal cancers including those developing from the esophagus, stomach, biliary tract, and pancreas.

  20. Intraabdominal anastomotic leak after upper gastro-intestinal surgery: Definition, diagnosis, management and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Ramos, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Cirugía. Fecha de lectura: 25-09-2015 The augmenting number of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) procedures, specially due to bariatric surgery, entails an expected increase in the absolute number of surgical complications. Among the most devastating complications is that of a postsurgical leak, increasing morbidity and mortality thus affecting long-term survival rate and treatment’s cost. C...

  1. Hyaluronic acid solution injection for upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding after failed conventional endoscopic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyung Hun

    2014-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid solution injection can be an additional endoscopic modality for controlling bleeding in difficult cases when other techniques have failed. We evaluated 12 cases in which we used hyaluronic acid solution injection for stopping bleeding. Immediately following hyaluronic acid solution injection, bleeding was controlled in 11 out of 12 cases. There was no clinical evidence of renewed bleeding in 11 cases during follow up.Hyaluronic acid solution injection can be a simple and efficient additional method for controlling upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding after failed endoscopic therapy. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  2. Biomarkers in tissue from patients with upper gastrointestinal cancers treated with erlotinib and bevacizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrberg, Kristoffer Staal; Pappot, Helle; Lassen, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    Malignancies in the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract are amongst the most aggressive cancers and only few treatment options exist. We have recently analysed data from a phase II trial where patients with UGI cancers were treated with erlotinib and bevacizumab. The combination therapy could......: 1.0-1.9). EGFR expression and KRAS mutation status were not correlated to response or survival. We conclude that VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 could potentially be predictive markers in patients with UGI cancers treated with erlotinib and bevacizumab....

  3. New insights on an old medical emergency: non-portal hypertension related upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Cúrdia-Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB is a potentially life-threatening condition and the most common medical emergency managed by gastroenterologists. Despite being one of the most antique medical problems, recent studies have been slowly changing the management of these patients, which should nowadays include not only initial resuscitation, but also risk stratification, pre-endoscopic therapy, endoscopy treatment, and post-procedure care. The aim of this paper is to review the extended approach to the patient with non-portal hypertension related UGIB.

  4. Role of endoscopy in evaluating upper gastrointestinal tract lesions in rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharanabasavaraj Javali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Before the advent of endoscopy direct access to the lesion for the confirmation of the diagnosis was difficult, this posed difficulty in contemplating adequate and appropriate surgery. Endoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool has grown in recent years. Upper gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy is one of the most fascinating branch which serves not only as a means of resolving or amplifying the diagnosis made clinically or by X-ray, but also a primary diagnostic procedure for conditions not otherwise diagnosable on unoperated case. Fiber optic upper GI endoscopy has already become firmly established as a reliable, quick and inexpensive tool. This study was done to detect the upper gastrointestinal lesions in rural population of Kolar District, the distribution pattern of various upper GI lesions in patients presenting with upper GI symptoms and to follow the endoscopic diagnosis for medical and surgical management. Materials and Methods: The study group includes patients reporting to outpatient department and also the inpatients in wards of General Surgery and other departments, who have upper GI symptoms, were advised endoscopy at R. L. JALAPPA Hospital and Research Centre, Kolar, from a period of December 2011 to August 2013. Results: Of the 600 cases, 370 were males, and 230 were females. Disease incidence was highest in 51-70 years age group, that is, 21.6%. Pain abdomen was the most common symptom. Epigastric tenderness was the most common sign among the patients clinically. Reflux esophagitis and diffuse gastritis formed most common cases (307 cases. The incidence of duodenitis - 7.83%, peptic ulcer -3.3%, esophageal varices - 1.5%, the incidence of carcinoma esophagus and carcinoma stomach was approximately same that is, 4.5% and 4.6% respectively. The incidence of esophageal candidiasis was 4.16%. The majority of the patients had a normal study that is, 14.5%. Conclusion: Upper GI lesions were more common in

  5. An Unusual Cause of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Acute Esophageal Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil R. Kalva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN, also called “black esophagus,” is a condition characterized by circumferential necrosis of the esophagus with universal distal involvement and variable proximal extension with clear demarcation at the gastroesophageal junction. It is an unusual cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is recognized with distinct and striking mucosal findings on endoscopy. The patients are usually older and are critically ill with shared comorbidities, which include atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic renal insufficiency, and malnutrition. Alcoholism and substance abuse could be seen in younger patients. Patients usually have systemic hypotension along with upper abdominal pain in the background of clinical presentation of hematemesis and melena. The endoscopic findings confirm the diagnosis and biopsy is not always necessary unless clinically indicated in atypical presentations. Herein we present two cases with distinct clinical presentation and discuss the endoscopic findings along with a review of the published literature on the management of AEN.

  6. Low-dose aspirin and upper gastrointestinal damage: epidemiology, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanas, Angel; Scheiman, James

    2007-01-01

    Low-dose aspirin (75-325 mg/day) is widely used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, due to its action on cyclo-oxygenase (COX), aspirin is associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI) side effects including ulcers and bleeding. This was a comprehensive review of the literature available on the side effects associated with low-dose aspirin, together with the available treatment and prevention options, which was based on the authors' expertise in the field and a supplementary PubMed search limited to papers published in English during the last 10 years, up to November 2006. Although the risk of upper GI side effects is smaller with low-dose aspirin compared with non-selective, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), it is nevertheless a substantial healthcare issue. Factors associated with an increased risk of upper GI complications during low-dose aspirin therapy include aspirin dose, history of ulcer or upper GI bleeding, age > 70 years, concomitant use of NSAIDs (including COX-2-selective NSAIDs), and Helicobacter pylori infection. Co-administration of a gastroprotective agent such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may be useful for alleviating the upper GI side effects associated with use of low-dose aspirin. Eradication of H. pylori also appears to reduce the risk of these side effects, especially in those at high risk. The use of other antiplatelet agents such as clopidogrel does not seem to provide a safer alternative to low-dose aspirin in at-risk patients. Prophylactic low-dose aspirin therapy is associated with an increased risk of developing upper GI side effects. Administration of a PPI seems the most effective therapy for the prevention and/or relief of such side effects in at-risk patients. H. pylori eradication therapy further reduces the risk of upper GI bleeding in these patients.

  7. Upper Gastrointestinal Complications and Cardiovascular/Gastrointestinal Risk Calculator in Patients with Myocardial Infarction Treated with Aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Aspirin is widely used for the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases for the past few years. However, much attention has been paid to the adverse effects associated with aspirin such as gastrointestinal bleeding. How to weigh the benefits and hazards? The current study aimed to assess the feasibility of a cardiovascular/gastrointestinal risk calculator, AsaRiskCalculator, in predicting gastrointestinal events in Chinese patients with myocardial infarction (MI),...

  8. [Percutaneous transsplenic varices embolization in treatment of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage of schistosomiasis cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Xue, Ji; Ying, Li; Shuai, Ju; Jin-Wei, Qiang

    2017-03-27

    To evaluate the application value of percutaneous transsplenic varices embolization (PTSVE) in the treatment of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in patients with schistosomiasis cirrhosis. Sixteen schistosomiasis cirrhosis patients (12 males and 4 females) with portal hypertension complicated with esophageal and upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage were selected as the investigation subjects, all the patients had been treated by esophageal vein ligation and sclerotherapy, but with bleeding again post-operation. The patients were treated by PTSVE under the guidance of X-ray fluoroscopy. The success rate of PTSVE and the rate of complications were observed. In addition, the patients received PTSVE were reexamined with abdominal CT one month post-operation, and the degrees of varices were compared before and after PTSVE. Fourteen cases (87.50%) were successfully treated with PTSVE. Two cases (12.50%) failed, and one case had an abdominal bleeding 1 week post-operation. The abdominal CT showed the degrees of esophageal varices ( P bared main portal vein and even the branches.

  9. Systematic Review and Net-Work Meta-Analysis of Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyuan Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGH is a serious medical condition which affects a large number of individuals. Endoscopic therapy accompanied by medication is a standard approach that is used to improve the prognosis of UGH patients and a few medications have been developed including proton pump inhibitors (PPIs, histamine H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA, somatostatin analogues and tranexamic acid. This study is set to compare the efficacy and safety of various medical interventions that are used to manage upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Methods: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase for relevant articles. Eligible studies were determined by using both the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Both traditional pair-wise meta-analysis and net-work analysis were carried out to evaluate the corresponding interventions. Results and Conclusion: PPI is an effective medication for UGH patients and intravenous PPI exhibits equivalent effectiveness and safety in comparison to oral PPI. H2RA is not recommended for UGH patients as patients treated with H2RA are associated with an increased risk of adverse events including rebleeding, need for surgery and all-cause mortality. Moreover, patients treated with H2RA exhibit an increased length of average hospital stay and blood transfusion amount compared to those treated with PPI. Tranexamic acid is also considered as another promising medication for UGH.

  10. Performance of New Thresholds of the Glasgow Blatchford Score in Managing Patients With Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Stig B; Dalton, Harry R; Murray, Iain A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) is a common cause of hospital admission. The Glasgow Blatchford score (GBS) is an accurate determinant of patients' risk for hospital-based intervention or death. Patients with a GBS of 0 are at low risk for poor outcome and could be man...... a protocol for outpatient management, based on one of these scores, could reduce hospital admissions by 15% to 20%.......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) is a common cause of hospital admission. The Glasgow Blatchford score (GBS) is an accurate determinant of patients' risk for hospital-based intervention or death. Patients with a GBS of 0 are at low risk for poor outcome and could...... be managed as outpatients. Some investigators therefore have proposed extending the definition of low-risk patients by using a higher GBS cut-off value, possibly with an age adjustment. We compared 3 thresholds of the GBS and 2 age-adjusted modifications to identify the optimal cut-off value or modification...

  11. Palliation of Malignant Upper Gastrointestinal Obstruction with Self-Expandable Metal Stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Soichiro; Suzuki, Azumi; Nakase, Kojiro; Yasuda, Kenjiro

    2012-01-01

    To assess the technical success, ability to eat, complications and clinical outcomes of patients with self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placed for malignant upper gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction. Data was collected retrospectively on patients who underwent SEMS placement for palliation of malignant upper GI obstruction by reviewing hospital charts from June 1998 to May 2011. Main outcome measurements were technical success, gastric outlet obstruction scoring system (GOOSS) score before and after treatment, complications, and survival. A total of 82 patients underwent SEMS placement with malignant upper GI obstruction. The initial SEMS placement was successful in 77 patients (93.9%). The mean GOOSS score was 0.56 before stenting and 1.92 (p < 0.001) after treatment. Complications arose in 12 patients (14.6%): stent migration in 1 patient (1.2%), perforation in 1 (1.2%), and obstruction of stent due to tumor ingrowth in 10 (12.2%). The median survival time after stenting was 52 days (6-445). SEMS placement is an effective and safe treatment for palliation of malignant upper GI obstruction. It provides lasting relief in dysphagia and improves the QOL of patients.

  12. Palliation of Malignant Upper Gastrointestinal Obstruction with Self-Expandable Metal Stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Soichiro; Suzuki, Azumi; Nakase, Kojiro; Yasuda, Kenjiro [Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    To assess the technical success, ability to eat, complications and clinical outcomes of patients with self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placed for malignant upper gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction. Data was collected retrospectively on patients who underwent SEMS placement for palliation of malignant upper GI obstruction by reviewing hospital charts from June 1998 to May 2011. Main outcome measurements were technical success, gastric outlet obstruction scoring system (GOOSS) score before and after treatment, complications, and survival. A total of 82 patients underwent SEMS placement with malignant upper GI obstruction. The initial SEMS placement was successful in 77 patients (93.9%). The mean GOOSS score was 0.56 before stenting and 1.92 (p < 0.001) after treatment. Complications arose in 12 patients (14.6%): stent migration in 1 patient (1.2%), perforation in 1 (1.2%), and obstruction of stent due to tumor ingrowth in 10 (12.2%). The median survival time after stenting was 52 days (6-445). SEMS placement is an effective and safe treatment for palliation of malignant upper GI obstruction. It provides lasting relief in dysphagia and improves the QOL of patients.

  13. Epidemiology of Upper Gastrointestinal Damage Associated with Low-Dose Aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ping-I; Tsai, Tzung-Jiun

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose aspirin, commonly defined as 75-325 mg daily, is widely used for cardiovascular (CV) protection. It reduced the risk of CV events and death in patients with coronary and cerebrovascular diseases and has the advantages of both low cost and long duration of antiplatelet action. However, low-dose aspirin therapy is associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, which range from dyspepsia (point prevalence: 31%), gastroduodenal erosions (point prevalence: 60%), endoscopic peptic ulcer (3-month incidence: 7%) to symptomatic or complicated ulcers (annual incidence of upper GI bleeding: 0.6%; relative risk of upper GI bleeding: 2.6). The important factors that increase the risk of low-dose aspirin-related ulcer complications include a history of bleeding peptic ulcer, prior peptic ulcer, age > 70 years, H pylori infection, and concomitant drug therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, other antiplatelet agents (e.g., clopidogrel) or anticoagulants. The use of enteric-coated or buffered preparations do not reduce the risk of upper GI complications. Assessment of GI risk for patients is a crucial step in preventing complications of antiplatelet agents. Patients with a high GI risk should prevent peptic ulcer or ulcer complications by co-therapy with an antisecretory agent, especially proton pump inhibitors. H pylori eradication is recommended for patients requiring long-term low-dose aspirin therapy who have a prior history of peptic ulcer or GI bleeding.

  14. The diagnosis and therapy of intractable upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by hepatic arterioportal vein fistulas in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Pengfei; Chen Xiaoming; Lu Ligong; Hu Baoshan; Li Yong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hemodynamics of increasing portal venous pressure(PVP) in hepatocellular carcinoma patients complicated with hepatic arterioportal vein fistulas (HAPVF) and the diagnosis and therapy of intractable upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by HAPVF. Methods: One hundred and fifteen cases of hepatocellular carcinoma with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage were checked by hepatic arteriography and were treated through orifices embolization in cases with severe HAPCF by coils and/or ethanol. Results: Twenty-six out of 31 patients suffering intractable upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage have severe HAPVF (the main stem of portal veins are visible). However, there are only 15 patients with light HAPVF among the 84 patients who have mild upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (the main stem of portal veins are invisible). After the embolization, all of the 26 patients who have severe HAPVF stopped bleeding. Among them, the main stem of hepatic arteries are occluded in 2 patients. Conclusion: The existence of severe HAPVF should be taken into consideration when intractable upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage occurs in hepatocellular carcinoma patients, and it can be diagnosed through hepatic artery DSA. Orifice embolization is the most effective method for such kind of hemorrhage. (authors)

  15. Multicenter experience with upper gastrointestinal polyps in pediatric patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Thomas M; Cuffari, Carmen; Tajouri, Tanya; Stoner, Julie A; Eisenberg, Marcia T; Yardley, John H; Abraham, Susan C; Perry, Deborah; Vanderhoof, Jon; Lynch, Henry

    2004-04-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a hereditary cancer syndrome that includes gastro-duodenal involvement, polyposis, and a propensity to adenocarcinoma necessitating endoscopic surveillance. There are few data describing pediatric upper gastrointestinal FAP resulting in conflicting screening recommendations. To characterize pediatric gastroduodenal FAP and to investigate the association between symptoms at endoscopy and APC mutation analysis with endoscopic-histologic findings warranting surveillance. A retrospective chart review was performed, including all children with FAP who underwent upper endoscopy (EGD) at two institutions; (UNMC: 1992-2002, JHH: 1983-2002), all biopsies were reviewed and the APC mutations present in the cohort of patients were correlated to the pattern of severity of endoscopic findings and the frequency of APC mutations identified through commercially available testing for FAP (Labcorp: 1998-2002). Twenty-four patients from 21 families underwent 49 EGDs. Eighty-three percent were asymptomatic at the time of endoscopy. The most common finding was fundic gland polyposis (FGP) (51%), of which 42% and 15% harbored dysplasia and changes indefinite for dysplasia, respectively. Periampullary duodenal adenomata were present in 41% of patients with one patient necessitating ampullectomy. Symptoms at endoscopy were not predictive of premalignant changes. In 15 patients where the APC mutation was known patients with dysplastic FGP, gastric, or duodenal adenoma were more likely to harbor a mutation between codons 1225-1694 than the reference population (p= 0.006). All pediatric patients with FAP warrant upper gastrointestinal screening and surveillance endoscopy from the time of initial colonoscopy irrespective of referable symptoms. Patients with APC mutation between codon 1225-1694 may be more susceptible to aggressive gastroduodenal involvement in FAP.

  16. The mechanism of combination with hemocoagulase and pantoprazole in upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ke Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Through the combination with hemocoagulase and pantoprazole on gastrointestinal bleeding, to observe the changes of serum BUN (blood urea nitrogen, LPO (LPO, NO (nitric oxide, TNF-α(TNF alpha, hs-CRP (high sensitivity C reactive protein and cortisol levels, and to explore the mechanism of combination. Methods: 110 cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in our hospital from January 2015 to September 2016 were selected and divided into the control group and the observation group, 55 cases for each group. Patients were treated with bed rest, fasting, intravenous nutrition, oxygen, and according to the individual situation actively supplement blood capacity, and the control group were treated with 40 mg intravenous pantoprazole treatment, 2 times/d; the patients in the observation group were treated with 2 kU hemocoagulase injection based on the treatment of control group, 2 times of intravenous injection per day, and all patients were treated for 3 d, and then the BUN, LPO, NO, TNF-α, hs-CRP and cortisol were detected. Results: (1 There were no significantly differences of the serum levels of BUN, LPO, and NO of the two groups before treatment (P>0.05. After treatment, the serum levels the two groups were significantly lower than before treatment, and LPO, BUN, and NO levels in the observation group were significantly better than the control group (P0.05. After treatment, the serum levels in the two groups were significantly lower than before treatment, and TNF-α, hs-CRP, and cortisol levels in the observation group were significantly better than the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: The treatment of patients with combined use of hemocoagulase and pantoprazole on gastrointestinal bleeding, can significantly improve the serum levels of BUN, LPO, NO, TNF-α, hs-CRP and cortisol levels, and further illustrates the synergistic effect of the combination, also shows that the combination of two drugs for patients with upper

  17. Tongue diagnosis indices for upper gastrointestinal disorders: Protocol for a cross-sectional, case-controlled observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzu-Chan; Wu, Keng-Liang; Hu, Wen-Long; Sheen, Jer-Ming; Lu, Cheng-Nan; Chiang, John Y; Hung, Yu-Chiang

    2018-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal disorders are common in clinical practice, for example, gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Panendoscopy or upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is viewed as the primary tool for examining the upper gastrointestinal mucosa, and permitting biopsy and endoscopic therapy. Although panendoscopy is considered to be a safe procedure with minimal complications, there are still some adverse effects, and patients are often anxious about undergoing invasive procedures. Traditional Chinese medicine tongue diagnosis plays an important role in differentiation of symptoms because the tongue reflects the physiological and pathological condition of the body. The automatic tongue diagnosis system (ATDS), which noninvasively captures tongue images, can provide objective and reliable diagnostic information. This protocol is a cross-sectional, case-controlled observational study investigating the usefulness of the ATDS in clinical practice by examining its efficacy as a diagnostic tool for upper gastrointestinal disorders. Volunteers over 20 years old with and without upper gastrointestinal symptoms will be enrolled. Tongue images will be captured and the patients divided into 4 groups according to their panendoscopy reports, including a gastritis group, peptic ulcer disease group, gastroesophageal reflux disease group, and healthy group. Nine primary tongue features will be extracted and analyzed, including tongue shape, tongue color, tooth mark, tongue fissure, fur color, fur thickness, saliva, ecchymosis, and red dots. The aim of this protocol is to apply a noninvasive ATDS to evaluate tongue manifestations of patients with upper gastrointestinal disorders and examine its efficacy as a diagnostic tool. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiological spectrum of late sequelae of corrosive injury to upper gastrointestinal tract. A pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagi, B.; Kochhar, R.; Thapa, B.R.; Singh, K.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the radiological spectrum of sequelae of corrosive acid and alkali injury to the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract using barium contrast examination. Barium contrast radiographic films of 155 patients with a history of corrosive ingestion, acid in 120 and alkali in 35 patients with grade 2b and 3 injury on initial endoscopy, were retrospectively evaluated. Barium contrast examination of the upper GI tract was performed in the course of follow-up, beyond 3 weeks of corrosive ingestion. The esophagus was involved in 131 patients and the stomach in 74. Fifty patients had simultaneous involvement of esophagus and stomach. Radiological findings in the esophagus were solitary or multiple strictures of varying length, intramural pseudo diverticula, and carcinoma in long-standing corrosive injury. The stomach showed cicatrization, predominantly involving the antrum, linitis plastica type deformity with multiple pseudo diverticula. There was no difference in the radiological findings as to the type of corrosive ingested. Barium examination of the upper GI tract is useful in the evaluation of late sequelae of corrosive injury (acid/alkali). There was no difference in the radiological findings as to the type of corrosive ingested. Thus, contrary to general belief, we found that acid and alkali damage both the esophagus and the stomach with equal degree of severity

  19. Barium sulphate preparations for use in double contrast examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, W.; Harthill, J.E.; James, W.B.; Montgomery, D.

    1980-01-01

    Physical properties relevant to upper gastrointestinal radiology have been compared for five barium sulphate preparations and related to radiographic results. Evaluation of particles (size and stability) and whole suspension (dispersibility and fluidity) resulted in ranking of the preparations generally in accord with that based on radiological experience in double contrast examinations of the stomach. Experiments with extirpated pig stomach revealed a tendency for large particles in a low viscosity barium sulphate suspension to settle in mucosal grooves. This is believed to contribute to good radiographic definition of both the areae gastricae and small lesions. Particle size is therefore important and susceptibility to flocculation, a possible cause of random change in size during use, was assessed by measuring particle electrophoretic mobility under varying conditions; quantitative differences in suspension flow and dispersibility were also demonstrated. Fluidity and dispersibility together with rapid sedimentation of suitably sized particles resistant to flocculation underlie the successful use of low viscosity high density barium sulphate suspensions. (U.K.)

  20. Provocative food study (Dreyfuss test): An adjunct to the upper gastrointestinal examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.R.; Hall, D.A.; Wittenberg, J.; Silverman, S.B.; Saini, S.; Cardenosa, G.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Fifty-two patients with upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms and previously normal barium studies were examined with a provocative food and barium study to assess the functional component of their complaints. Food was given in such nature, quantity, and timing as the clinical history indicated would provoke the exact symptoms or pain that the patient perceived. A position study most often disclosed distension of a previously normal segment of bowel or a hold up of the food in an area of the esophagus or stomach that was associated with recrudescence of the patient's symptoms. Twenty-one of 52 patients (40%) had undergone previous surgery; most often in the esophagus [13 of 52(25%)] or stomach [eight of 52(15%)]. Twelve of 52 patients (23%) had positive studies. Of these, seven (13%) were treated with surgical reconstruction or resection of the abnormal area. The provocative food study, when yielding either positive or negative results, has proved useful

  1. Bupivacaine Lozenge Compared with Lidocaine Spray as Topical Pharyngeal Anesthetic before Unsedated Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salale, Nesrin; Treldal, Charlotte; Mogensen, Stine

    2014-01-01

    Unsedated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) can induce patient discomfort, mainly due to a strong gag reflex. The aim was to assess the effect of a bupivacaine lozenge as topical pharyngeal anesthetic compared with standard treatment with a lidocaine spray before UGE. Ninety-nine adult...... outpatients undergoing unsedated diagnostic UGE were randomized to receive either a bupivacaine lozenge (L-group, n = 51) or lidocaine spray (S-group, n = 42). Primary objective was assessment of patient discomfort including acceptance of the gag reflex during UGE. The L-group assessed the discomfort...... significantly lower on a visual analog scale compared with the S-group (P = 0.02). There was also a significant difference in the four-point scale assessment of the gag reflex (P = 0.03). It was evaluated as acceptable by 49% in the L-group compared with 31% in the S-group. A bupivacaine lozenge compared...

  2. Massive upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to direct visceral erosion of splenic artery aneurysm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahani R

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Six male patients (age group: 30-60 years with aneurysm of the splenic artery presented with massive upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage. Five patients presented with hematemesis and one with melena. Chronic pancreatitis was noted in all the patients, four of whom were chronic alcoholics. Endoscopy was not useful in diagnosis. Bleeding through the Ampulla of Vater was seen in the patient with melena. Angiography was diagnostic in all. Pancreatic resection including the aneurysm(2, and bipolar ligation with underrunning of the aneurysm (3 were the operative procedures. Distal pancreatectomy with pancreatogastrostomy was carried out in the patient with hemosuccus pancreaticus. If endoscopy is inconclusive, angiography and early intervention is recommended to reduce the high mortality associated with conservative management.

  3. Endoscopic band ligation therapy for upper gastrointestinal bleeding related to Mallory-Weiss syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, N; Akahoshi, K; Sumida, Y; Kubokawa, M; Motomura, Y; Kimura, M; Matsumoto, M; Nakamura, K; Nawata, H

    2006-09-01

    No consensus exists as to the best endoscopic treatment for Mallory-Weiss syndrome. Endoscopic band ligation is a readily available and easily learned technique. This prospective study evaluated the efficacy and safety of endoscopic band ligation therapy for Mallory-Weiss syndrome. From August 1998 to June 2005, a clinical trial assessed 37 patients with a diagnosis of Mallory-Weiss syndrome who had active bleeding, exposed vessels, or both. Their lesions were treated using endoscopic band ligation. Endoscopic band ligation was successful in 36 of 37 cases, with a follow-up period ranging from 1 to 24 months. The remaining patient had severe liver failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The patient bled again at 12 h and subsequently died. Except for this case, no recurrent bleeding, perforation, or other complications occurred. The study results suggest that endoscopic band ligation is an effective, safe, and easily learned procedure for treating upper gastrointestinal bleeding related to Mallory-Weiss syndrome.

  4. Radiology of upper gastrointestinal tract with ASGB (adjustable silicone gastric banding) for morbid obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, Grzegorz; Maliborski, Artur; Żukowski, Paweł; Bogusławska, Romana

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a result of multiple risk factors of atherosclerosis and diabetes. Obesity is an especially well recognized etiological factor. A rapidly increasing number of obese people constitutes a major social health problem in the developed, as well as developing countries. Bariatric surgeries are among methods of obesity treatment that gain on popularity. They include adjustable silicone gastric banding (ASGB), and adjustable laparoscopic gastric banding (ALGB). The aim of our study was to analyze and present the most typical radiological images obtained during 130 upper gastrointestinal tract examinations in patients after ASGB or ALGB in the last three years. ASGB and ALGB are effective and safe. However, they are connected with some postoperative complications. Application of these surgical procedures requires periodic, long-term radiological evaluations and cooperation between surgeons and radiologists. The radiologist must be familiar with bariatric surgical techniques, their complications and typical radiological presentations

  5. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at the korle bu teaching hospital, accra, ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aduful, Hk; Naaeder, Sb; Darko, R; Baako, Bn; Clegg-Lamptey, Jna; Nkrumah, Kn; Adu-Aryee, Na; Kyere, M

    2007-03-01

    To study the indications for endoscopy, the endoscopic diagnosis and other lessons learnt. A retrospective and prospective audit of all upper gastrointestinal endoscopies performed in the Endoscopy Unit of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital from January 1995 to December 2002 was performed. A total of 6977 patients, 3777 males and 3200 females with age range 1 year 8 months to 93 years were endoscoped. The mean age of males was 43.5 +/- 0.5 and females 43.7 +/- 0.6 years. Epigastric pain (42.5%), dyspepsia (32.8%) and haematemesis and melaena (14.2%) were the commonest reasons for endoscopy. Chronic duodenal ulcer (19.6%), acute gastritis (12.7%), duodenitis (10.2%), oesophagitis (7.5%) were the commonest diagnoses. Normal endoscopy was reported in 41.1% patients, and was higher in the younger age group compared to the older (R = 0.973, P<0.001). Nine hundred and ninety (14.2%) patients were endoscoped for haematemesis and melaena of which chronic duodenal ulcer (32.1%), gastritis/gastric erosions (12.8%), oesophageal varices (9.8%), carcinoma of the stomach (6.4%), and duodenitis (4.2%), were the commonest causes. No lesion was found in 20.6% of these patients. Urease test was positive in 75% of all biopsy specimen and 85% in chronic duodenal ulcer, gastritis and duodenitis. The normal endoscopy rate is high and needs to be reduced in order to help prolong the lives of the endoscopes. Chronic duodenal ulcer is usually associated with H. pylori infection and is the commonest cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  6. Indications and efficacy of endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure therapy for upper gastrointestinal perforations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Geraldine; Burton, Paul; Packiyanathan, Andrew; Loh, Damien; Chen, Richard; Shaw, Kalai; Brown, Wendy; Nottle, Peter

    2018-04-01

    Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure (EndoVAC) therapy is a recent innovation described for use in upper gastrointestinal perforations and leaks, with reported success of 80-90%. It provides sepsis control and collapses the cavity preventing stasis, encouraging healing of the defect. Whilst promising, initial reports of this new technique have not established clear indications, feasibility and optimal technique. We analysed all patients who underwent EndoVAC therapy between 2014 and 2016. The technique involved a standard gastroscope, nasogastric tube and vacuum-assisted closure dressing kit, with endoscopic placement of the polyurethane sponge. Data were collected on indication, technique, sepsis control, outcomes and drainage volumes. Ten patients were treated. Average age was 56.7 ± 12.3 years. There were three mortalities. EndoVAC placement was feasible in nine patients and successful healing was observed in six patients. Failure was more likely in the cases of large (>8 cm), chronic or complex cavities. A three-phase response was seen in successful cases, with initial reduction in external drainage (average: 143-17 mL/day within 1 week), followed by a progressive reduction in inflammatory markers (2 weeks) and finally a healing phase with reduction in cavity size (3 weeks). EndoVAC therapy is a potentially useful adjunct to conventional treatments of a subset of upper gastrointestinal leaks and perforations when there is a contained cavity <8 cm. It appears less effective in an uncontained perforation or chronically established tract. It has clear advantages of being easily applied with readily available equipment and disposables. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  7. A 9 year prospective cohort study of endoscoped patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, Johanna I.; Duggan, Anne E.; Duggan, John M.; Westbrook, Mary T.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms and associated costs of diagnosis and management, evidence regarding long-term outcomes is scant. We studied symptom outcomes 18 months (FU1) and 8/9 years (FU2) post-index endoscopy to identify demographic, diagnostic and treatment factors associated with outcomes. A retrospective review of medical records at two Australian teaching hospitals identified a cohort of 302 patients who had an index endoscopy (performed by 23 endoscopists) 18 months previously. Patients were interviewed at FU1 and FU2. In total 34% (95%CI: 29.0-39.8) of patients were asymptomatic at FU1 and 41% (95%CI: 35.6-46.6) at FU2. For 63%, outcomes at FU1 predicted long-term outcome, with 19% (95%CI: 14.6--23.4) asymptomatic and 44% (95%CI: 38.4--50.0) symptomatic at both times. Those whose symptom status changed were as likely to deteriorate as improve (p > 0.05). Number and severity of presenting symptoms (F = 3.3, df = 3,277, p 2 Receptor Antagonists (H2RAs) than those who were asymptomatic. Use of PPIs at FU2 was associated with a significantly better outcome than use of H2RAs. However this impact was relatively small, with 69% of patients on PPIs and 84% on H2RAs symptomatic at FU2. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms prompting endoscopy are chronic for the majority of patients regardless of diagnosis. Endoscopic diagnosis is of limited value in predicting long-term outcomes. The association between poor outcome and use of H2RAs and PPIs challenges views about their long-term effectiveness in symptom control

  8. Evaluation of endoscopic hemostasis in upper gastrointestinal bleeding related to Mallory-Weiss syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, I K; Kim, E J; Hwang, K Y; Kim, I H; Kim, H S; Park, S H; Lee, M H; Kim, S J

    2002-06-01

    The endoscopic hemostatic method has been introduced as a safe and effective mechanical approach to hemostasis for upper gastrointestinal bleeding related to Mallory-Weiss syndrome (MWS). However, the indications for when to use endoscopic treatment are debatable because many patients need only medical observation. The study was designed to evaluate the necessity and efficacy of endoscopic hemostasis in upper gastrointestinal bleeding related to MWS. From July 1994 to May 2000, we conducted a clinical trial in 76 patients who were found by endoscopy to have active bleeding (I, spurting; II, oozing), protruding visible vessels (III), and/or adherent clots (IV). Two study periods can be differentiated: in the first 3 years endoscopic treatment (n = 30) was prospectively analyzed and in the final 3 years medical treatment (n = 46) was analyzed in both cases to compare the outcome in MWS bleeding II-IV. In the first study period, in addition, endoscopic treatment was randomised to an injection method, using a mixture of hypertonic saline and epinephrine (HSE) (n = 14) and a hemoclipping or band ligation method (n = 16). Rebleeding was observed in four of 14 patients who had received endoscopic hemostasis with HSE injection and one of 46 patients who had been managed with medical treatment. No rebleeding was found following hemoclipping or band ligation. While all rebleeding was in bleeding stigmata of the I (1) and II (4) grades, there was no rebleeding in protruding visible vessels (III) or in adherent clots (IV), regardless of treatment methods. Our results suggested that endoscopic hemostasis is not necessary in patients without active bleeding stigmata, and the mechanical hemostatic method is more effective than HSE injection in patients with active bleeding stigmata.

  9. Hyperammonemic coma after craniotomy: Hepatic encephalopathy from upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage or valproate side effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaopeng; Wei, Junji; Gao, Lu; Xing, Bing; Xu, Zhiqin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Postoperative coma is not uncommon in patients after craniotomy. It generally presents as mental state changes and is usually caused by intracranial hematoma, brain edema, or swelling. Hyperammonemia can also result in postoperative coma; however, it is rarely recognized as a potential cause in coma patients. Hyperammonemic coma is determined through a complicated differential diagnosis, and although it can also be induced as a side effect of valproate (VPA), this cause is frequently unrecognized or confused with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGH)-induced hepatic encephalopathy. We herein present a case of valproate-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy (VHE) to illustrate the rarity of such cases and emphasize the importance of correct diagnosis and proper treatment. Patient concerns and diagnoses: A 61-year-old woman with meningioma was admitted into our hospital. Radical resection of the tumor was performed, and the patient recovered well as expected. After administration of valproate for 7 days, the patient was suddenly found in a deep coma, and her mental state deteriorated rapidly. The diagnoses of hepatic encephalopathy was confirmed. However, whether it origins from upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage or valproate side effect is uncertain. Interventions and outcomes: The patient's condition fluctuated without improvement during the subsequent 3 days under the treatment of reducing ammonia. With the discontinuation of valproate treatment, the patient regained complete consciousness within 48 hours, and her blood ammonia decreased to the normal range within 4 days. Lessons subsections: VHE is a rare but serious complication in patients after craniotomy and is diagnosed by mental state changes and elevated blood ammonia. Thus, the regular perioperative administration of VPA, which is frequently neglected as a cause of VHE, should be emphasized. In addition, excluding UGH prior to providing a diagnosis and immediately discontinuing VPA

  10. Enterotomy closure using knotless and barbed suture in laparoscopic upper gastrointestinal surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Therese; Shabbir, Asim; Rao, Jaideepraj; So, Jimmy; Kono, Koji; Durai, Pradeep

    2016-04-01

    Barbed sutures are recently being employed in intracorporeal suturing in various laparoscopic digestive surgeries. The purpose of this paper was to present our initial experience of enterotomy closure with barbed sutures in upper gastrointestinal and bariatric surgeries, and share optimal technique of using such sutures for enterotomy closure. Fifty patients who underwent laparoscopic closure of enterotomies using barbed sutures were identified in two institutions in Singapore from January 2012 to December 2013. Patient demographics, short-term operative outcomes including anastomotic time, onset of diet, hospital stay, and early post-operative complications are reported. In 50 patients a total of 62 anastomotic sites were closed with barbed sutures. The barbed sutures appear to reduce mean anastomotic suturing time of the Roux-en-Y gastrojejunal closure (17.34 vs 44.55 min, p value 0.0001) and jejunojejunal closure (19.46 vs 31.01 min, p value 0.0013) when compared to a subgroup of patients with the same anastomotic sites closed using the standard non-barbed suture. The mean onset to start on diet was 2 ± 1.5 days and mean duration of hospital stay is 7 + 5.3 days. One (1.6%) anastomotic leak was observed day 3 after a gastric bypass in the series. This leak was the result of a technical error due to inappropriate suturing technique. There were no mortalities, other complications or readmission. While applying traction on the suture brings two tissue edges closer, we observed that pushing the tissues toward each other provided more apposition and prevented unnecessary tearing of tissues that could potentially result in complications Barbed closure sutures appear to be safe and effective in laparoscopic upper gastrointestinal procedures for closing enterotomies provided appropriate technique is used. The potential benefit is simplifying intracorporeal enterotomy closure.

  11. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in children: The Lagos University Teaching Hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafunmilayo Funke Adeniyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Paediatric endoscopy is now standard care in the developed world for the management of gastrointestinal (GI disorders. However, in developing countries endoscopy remains an underutilised tool. Objective. To determine the indications and the spectrum of endoscopic findings in children seen at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Methods. The indications for upper GI endoscopy and endoscopic findings in children ≤16 years old, referred for the procedure from June 2013 to June 2016, were documented. The endoscopic yield in these children was also determined. Results. In total 71 children were referred for upper GI endoscopy during the study period. There were 35 boys and 36 girls aged 3 months to 16 years. The indications for upper endoscopy were recurrent abdominal pain in 37 (52.1%, upper GI bleeding in 17 (23.9%, recurrent vomiting in 7 (9.9%, dyspepsia in 5 (7.0, heartburn in 2 (2.8%, dysphagia in 1 (1.4, portal hypertension in 1 (1.4 and ingestion of corrosives in 1 (1.4% of the subjects. Endoscopic findings were as follows: gastritis 19 (26.8%, hiatus hernia in 13 (18.3%, gastric erosions in 12 (16.9%, oesophageal varices 6 (8.4%, duodenitis in 4 (5.6%, gastric ulcer in 3 (4.2%, gastric polyp in 2 (2.8%. The overall endoscopic yield was 60.2%. Conclusion. There is a need to increase the awareness of the role of paediatric endoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of GI disorders in developing countries. Recurrent abdominal pain still remains a relevant indication for the procedure. The need to develop training programmes for paediatric endoscopy and paediatric gastroenterology in general in developing countries cannot be overemphasised.

  12. STUDY OF CORROSIVE POISONING AND ITS EFFECTS ON UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND SURGICAL MANAGEMENT- A SINGLE INSTITUTION EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Lingala; Ramesh Kota

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Corrosive injury to the upper gastrointestinal tract is an agonising experience for both the patient and surgeon. Caustic ingestion may cause wide spread injury to the lips, oral cavity, pharynx and the upper airway. The effect that these agents have on the oesophagus accounts for most of the serious injuries and on stomach, which may result in perforation and death in the acute phase. 1,2 If the patient survives the acute effects of caustic ingestion, the repa...

  13. Angiographically Negative Acute Arterial Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Incidence, Predictive Factors, and Clinical Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Shin, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Chae, Eun Young; Myung, Seung Jae; Ko, Gi Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Sung, Kyu Bo

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence, predictive factors, and clinical outcomes of angiographically negative acute arterial upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. From 2001 to 2008, 143 consecutive patients who underwent an angiography for acute arterial upper or lower GI bleeding were examined. The angiographies revealed a negative bleeding focus in 75 of 143 (52%) patients. The incidence of an angiographically negative outcome was significantly higher in patients with a stable hemodynamic status (p < 0.001), or in patients with lower GI bleeding (p = 0.032). A follow-up of the 75 patients (range: 0-72 months, mean: 8 ± 14 months) revealed that 60 of the 75 (80%) patients with a negative bleeding focus underwent conservative management only, and acute bleeding was controlled without rebleeding. Three of the 75 (4%) patients underwent exploratory surgery due to prolonged bleeding; however, no bleeding focus was detected. Rebleeding occurred in 12 of 75 (16%) patients. Of these, six patients experienced massive rebleeding and died of disseminated intravascular coagulation within four to nine hours after the rebleeding episode. Four of the 16 patients underwent a repeat angiography and the two remaining patients underwent a surgical intervention to control the bleeding. Angiographically negative results are relatively common in patients with acute GI bleeding, especially in patients with a stable hemodynamic status or lower GI bleeding. Most patients with a negative bleeding focus have experienced spontaneous resolution of their condition

  14. Epistaxis in end stage liver disease masquerading as severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Marine; Jensen, Dennis M; Matthews, Jason D; Ohning, Gordon V; Kovacs, Thomas O; Jutabha, Rome; Ghassemi, Kevin A; Machicado, Gustavo A; Dulai, Gareth S

    2014-10-14

    To describe the prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of end stage liver disease (ESLD) patients with severe epistaxis thought to be severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). This observational single center study included all consecutive patients with ESLD and epistaxis identified from consecutive subjects hospitalized with suspected UGIH and prospectively enrolled in our databases of severe UGIH between 1998 and 2011. A total of 1249 patients were registered for severe UGIH in the data basis, 461 (36.9%) were cirrhotics. Epistaxis rather than UGIH was the bleeding source in 20 patients. All patients had severe coagulopathy. Epistaxis was initially controlled in all cases. Fifteen (75%) subjects required posterior nasal packing and 2 (10%) embolization in addition to correction of coagulopathy. Five (25%) patients died in the hospital, 12 (60%) received orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and 3 (15%) were discharged without OLT. The mortality rate was 63% in patients without OLT. Severe epistaxis in patients with ESLD is (1) a diagnosis of exclusion that requires upper endoscopy to exclude severe UGIH; and (2) associated with a high mortality rate in patients not receiving OLT.

  15. Value of laboratory investigations in clinical suspicion of cytomegalovirus-induced upper gastrointestinal tract ulcerations in HIV-infected patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorigo-Zetsma, J. W.; van der Meer, J. T.; Tersmette, M.; ten Kate, F. J.; Wertheim-van Dillen, P. M.; van der Noordaa, J.

    1996-01-01

    To assess the value of laboratory investigations for the diagnosis and treatment of cytomegalovirus-induced upper gastrointestinal tract ulcerations, the medical records and biopsy material from HIV-infected patients were reviewed retrospectively during a 12-month period. Clinical diagnosis of

  16. Re-prescribing of causative drugs in persons discharged after serious drug-induced upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, M; Christensen, René dePont; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O B

    2012-01-01

    Several drug classes are known to be associated with serious upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), among others NSAID, low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), vitamin K antagonists (VKA), clopidogrel and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). There are few data on how and to what extent ...

  17. In vitro assessment of the performance of a new multiband mucosectomy device for endoscopic resection of early upper gastrointestinal neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schölvinck, D. W.; Belghazi, K.; Pouw, R. E.; Curvers, W. L.; Weusten, B. L. A. M.; Bergman, J. J. G. H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Multiband mucosectomy (MBM) is widely used for the endoscopic resection of early neoplasia in the upper gastrointestinal tract. A new MBM-device may have advantages over the current MBM-device with improved visualization, easier passage of accessories, and higher suction power due to different trip

  18. Interaction of Helicobacter pylori infection and low-dose aspirin in the upper gastrointestinal tract: implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung Ki, En-Ling; Chan, Francis K L

    2012-04-01

    Low-dose aspirin has been shown to increase the risk of upper gastrointestinal tract injury. Risk factors in upper gastrointestinal complications in low-dose aspirin users are less well defined than in other NSAID users, and there are enough intrinsic differences in the two agents to discuss them separately. In particularly, the role of Helicobacter pylori and the benefit of its eradication in decreasing the risk of upper gastrointestinal tract injury in low-dose ASA users remains controversial. Various consensus groups have recommended H. pylori testing and eradication in low-dose ASA users with a prior history of peptic ulcer or ulcer bleeding. The basis of this recommendation is derived from a limited, albeit expanding evidence on the role of H. pylori in upper gastrointestinal tract injury in low-dose ASA users and on the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication in reducing the risk of complications such as rebleeding in high-risk patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence and Outcome of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Post-coronary Artery Bypass Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljarallah, Badr; Wong, Winnie; Modry, Dennis; Fedorak, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), a potentially fatal occurrence, can sometimes follow coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. However, little has been published about its prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes. This study aimed to determine the rate, etiologies, predisposing factors, and outcomes of UGIB following CABG. The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of all UGIBs which followed CABGs performed at the University of Alberta Hospital from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2002. During the study period, 4,502 CABGs were performed at the UAH. Eighteen patients (0.4%) had a documented major UGIB (defined as evidence of melena, red or coffee-grounds emesis, blood per NG tube, or a decrease of Hgb by > 20 g/l and requiring a confirmation by endoscopy or radiological study). Two of these 18 patients (11%) had a past history of peptic ulcer disease, and one of these patients had had previous UGIB. Three patients (17%) had been taking proton pump inhibitors (PPI) before the UGIB occurred. At the time of UGIB, PPIs were prescribed for 16 patients (89%), and the PPIs achieved effective hemostasis as a single agent for 10 (62.5%). Of the 18 patients, 16 (89%) underwent upper GI endoscopy. Bleeding was found to be due to duodenal ulceration in 9 (56%), esophagitis in 4 (22%) and gastritis in 6 cases (33%); fifty percent of these patients had multiple sites of bleeding. Endoscopic therapeutic intervention was needed by 6 patients (37.5%), and successful hemostasis was achieved for 5 of these patients (83%). One patient had a recurrence of bleeding and required surgery. One patient underwent surgery as the primary hemostatic therapy after a diagnostic endoscopy. The overall surgical rate was 11.1% for this patient cohort. In this cohort, three patients died, two from multi-organ failure, and the third, a surgically managed patient, had a cardiac arrest 72 hours post-surgery. The number of complication increased as both cardiopulmonary bypass and cross

  20. Proton pump inhibitors in prevention of low-dose aspirin-associated upper gastrointestinal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Chen; Sun, Gang; Lu, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yan-Zhi; Sun, Xi; Yang, Yun-Sheng

    2015-05-07

    To determine the preventive effect and safety of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in low-dose aspirin (LDA)-associated gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers and bleeding. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register from inception to December 2013, and checked conference abstracts of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of PPIs in reducing adverse GI events (hemorrhage, ulcer, perforation, or obstruction) in patients taking LDA. The preventive effects of PPIs were compared with the control group [taking placebo, a cytoprotective agent, or an H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA)] in LDA-associated upper GI injuries. The meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.1 software. We evaluated 8780 participants in 10 RCTs. The meta-analysis showed that PPIs decreased the risk of LDA-associated upper GI ulcers (OR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.12-0.23) and bleeding (OR = 0.27; 95%CI: 0.16-0.43) compared with control. For patients treated with dual anti-platelet therapy of LDA and clopidogrel, PPIs were able to prevent the LDA-associated GI bleeding (OR = 0.36; 95%CI: 0.15-0.87) without increasing the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (OR = 1.00; 95%CI: 0.76-1.31). PPIs were superior to H2RA in prevention of LDA-associated GI ulcers (OR = 0.12; 95%CI: 0.02-0.65) and bleeding (OR = 0.32; 95%CI: 0.13-0.79). PPIs are effective in preventing LDA-associated upper GI ulcers and bleeding. Concomitant use of PPI, LDA and clopidogrel did not increase the risk of MACE.

  1. Computed tomography and upper gastrointestinal series findings of esophageal bronchi in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleran, Gabrielle C. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Our Lady' s Children' s Hospital Crumlin, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Ryan, Ciara E. [Our Lady' s Children' s Hospital Crumlin, Department of Pathology, Dublin (Ireland); Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Sweeney, Brian [Our Lady' s Children' s Hospital Crumlin, Department of Surgery, Dublin (Ireland); Rea, David; Brenner, Clare [Our Lady' s Children' s Hospital Crumlin, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2017-02-15

    Esophageal bronchus is a rare form of communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformation and a rare but important cause of an opaque hemithorax on chest radiography. A higher incidence of esophageal bronchus is associated with esophageal atresia, tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF) and VACTERL (vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities) association. In the presence of these conditions, the pediatric radiologist may be the first to consider the diagnosis of esophageal bronchus or esophageal lung. To describe the imaging features in five children with esophageal bronchus. We reviewed hospital records and teaching files at two large pediatric tertiary referral centers over the 24-year period from January 1992 to January 2016. We reviewed all imaging studies and tabulated findings on radiography, fluoroscopic upper gastrointestinal (GI) series and CT. We then described the imaging features of esophageal bronchi with emphasis on CT and upper GI findings in four infants and one toddler. Three cases were identified from one institution (cases 2, 3, 4) and two from another (cases 1, 5). All five cases occurred in association with other midline malformations: four of the five had VACTERL association and three of the five had esophageal atresia and TEF. Lung opacification, ipsilateral mediastinal shift, and an abnormal carina and anomalous vascular anatomy suggest an esophageal bronchus or an esophageal lung on CT. While esophageal bronchus is a rare cause of an opaque hemithorax, CT and upper GI imaging play key roles in its diagnosis. Associations with esophageal atresia with tracheo-esophageal fistula and VACTERL association are particularly pertinent. Early diagnosis of esophageal bronchus might prevent complications such as aspiration and infection, which can allow for parenchymal sparing surgery as opposed to pneumonectomy. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of the patients that followed up for upper gastrointestinal system bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Gölgeli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate demographic and laboratory characteristics of the patients with upper gastrointestinal system (GIS bleeding define the factors leading to bleeding. Methods: The study included 285 patients aged between 18 and 89 years who were followed and treated for upper GIS bleeding in our Internal Medicine Clinics. Patients’ demographic and aboratory data, endoscopic findings, treatment methods, ospitalization length and need for blood transfusions were determined. Results: The mean age was 62.7±18.3 years with the male/female ratio of 2.2/1. The most common finding was melena (45.3%, and the second melena with hematemesis (33%. 76.84% of the patients had the history of drug use, mostly non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs (45.26% and aspirin (23.86%. The mean hospitalization length was 8.3±4.9 days. Blood transfusion was required in 74.04% with the mean 3,14±1,41 units. Bleeding recurrence was seen in 10.25%. Duodenal ulcer was observed as the most common cause of GIS bleeding (29.82% and gastric ulcer was the second (21.75%. The treatment methods were medical in 73.34%, endoscopic sclerotherapy in 22.46%, hemoclips in 1.40% and band ligation in 0.70% of the patients. Upper GIS bleedings were mostly occurred in August (11.9% and least occurred in December (3.5%. Conclusion: The majority of the patients have history of drug use, like NSAIDs and aspirin leading to bleeding. We suggest that the usage of these drugs should be controlled and used only with accurate indications especially in elderly patients.

  3. Stepwise sedation for elderly patients with mild/moderate COPD during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Can-Xia; Chen, Xiong; Jia, Yan; Xiao, Ding-Hua; Zou, Hui-Fang; Guo, Qin; Wang, Fen; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Shen, Shou-Rong; Tong, Ling-Ling; Cao, Ke; Liu, Xiao-Ming

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate stepwise sedation for elderly patients with mild/moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. METHODS: Eighty-six elderly patients with mild/moderate COPD and 82 elderly patients without COPD scheduled for upper GI endoscopy were randomly assigned to receive one of the following two sedation methods: stepwise sedation involving three-stage administration of propofol combined with midazolam [COPD with stepwise sedation (group Cs), and non-COPD with stepwise sedation (group Ns)] or continuous sedation involving continuous administration of propofol combined with midazolam [COPD with continuous sedation (group Cc), and non-COPD with continuous sedation (group Nc)]. Saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2), blood pressure, and pulse rate were monitored, and patient discomfort, adverse events, drugs dosage, and recovery time were recorded. RESULTS: All endoscopies were completed successfully. The occurrences of hypoxemia in groups Cs, Cc, Ns, and Nc were 4 (9.3%), 12 (27.9%), 3 (7.3%), and 5 (12.2%), respectively. The occurrence of hypoxemia in group Cs was significantly lower than that in group Cc (P < 0.05). The average decreases in value of SpO2, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure in group Cs were significantly lower than those in group Cc. Additionally, propofol dosage and overall rate of adverse events in group Cs were lower than those in group Cc. Finally, the recovery time in group Cs was significantly shorter than that in group Cc, and that in group Ns was significantly shorter than that in group Nc (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The stepwise sedation method is effective and safer than the continuous sedation method for elderly patients with mild/moderate COPD during upper GI endoscopy. PMID:23922479

  4. Local Acetaldehyde—An Essential Role in Alcohol-Related Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko T. Nieminen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The resident microbiome plays a key role in exposure of the upper gastrointestinal (GI tract mucosa to acetaldehyde (ACH, a carcinogenic metabolite of ethanol. Poor oral health is a significant risk factor for oral and esophageal carcinogenesis and is characterized by a dysbiotic microbiome. Dysbiosis leads to increased growth of opportunistic pathogens (such as Candida yeasts and may cause an up to 100% increase in the local ACH production, which is further modified by organ-specific expression and gene polymorphisms of ethanol-metabolizing and ACH-metabolizing enzymes. A point mutation in the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene has randomized millions of alcohol consumers to markedly increased local ACH exposure via saliva and gastric juice, which is associated with a manifold risk for upper GI tract cancers. This human cancer model proves conclusively the causal relationship between ACH and upper GI tract carcinogenesis and provides novel possibilities for the quantitative assessment of ACH carcinogenicity in the human oropharynx. ACH formed from ethanol present in “non-alcoholic” beverages, fermented food, or added during food preparation forms a significant epidemiologic bias in cancer epidemiology. The same also concerns “free” ACH present in mutagenic concentrations in multiple beverages and foodstuffs. Local exposure to ACH is cumulative and can be reduced markedly both at the population and individual level. At best, a person would never consume tobacco, alcohol, or both. However, even smoking cessation and moderation of alcohol consumption are associated with a marked decrease in local ACH exposure and cancer risk, especially among established risk groups.

  5. Hospital discharge diagnostic and procedure codes for upper gastro-intestinal cancer: how accurate are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrou Efty

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-level health administrative datasets such as hospital discharge data are used increasingly to evaluate health services and outcomes of care. However information about the accuracy of Australian discharge data in identifying cancer, associated procedures and comorbidity is limited. The Admitted Patients Data Collection (APDC is a census of inpatient hospital discharges in the state of New South Wales (NSW. Our aim was to assess the accuracy of the APDC in identifying upper gastro-intestinal (upper GI cancer cases, procedures for associated curative resection and comorbidities at the time of admission compared to data abstracted from medical records (the ‘gold standard’. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 240 patients with an incident upper GI cancer diagnosis derived from a clinical database in one NSW area health service from July 2006 to June 2007. Extracted case record data was matched to APDC discharge data to determine sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV and agreement between the two data sources (κ-coefficient. Results The accuracy of the APDC diagnostic codes in identifying site-specific incident cancer ranged from 80-95% sensitivity. This was comparable to the accuracy of APDC procedure codes in identifying curative resection for upper GI cancer. PPV ranged from 42-80% for cancer diagnosis and 56-93% for curative surgery. Agreement between the data sources was >0.72 for most cancer diagnoses and curative resections. However, APDC discharge data was less accurate in reporting common comorbidities - for each condition, sensitivity ranged from 9-70%, whilst agreement ranged from κ = 0.64 for diabetes down to κ  Conclusions Identifying incident cases of upper GI cancer and curative resection from hospital administrative data is satisfactory but under-ascertained. Linkage of multiple population-health datasets is advisable to maximise case ascertainment and minimise false

  6. Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Children: A Tertiary United Kingdom Children’s Hospital Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Nasher

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the aetiology, presentation and management of these patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB at a tertiary children’s unit in the United Kingdom. This was a retrospective single-institution study on children (<16 years who presented with acute UGIB over a period of 5 years using known International Classification of Diseases (ICD codes. A total of 32 children (17 males, 15 females were identified with a total median age at presentation of 5.5 years. The majority (24/32 of patients presented as an emergency. A total of 19/32 presented with isolated haematemesis, 8/32 with isolated melaena and 5/32 with a combination of melaena and haematemesis. On admission, the mean haemoglobin of patients who presented with isolated haematemesis was 11 g/dL, those with isolated melaena 9.3 g/dL and those with a combination 7.8 g/dL. Blood transfusion was required in 3/19 with haematemesis and 3/5 with haematemesis and melaena. A total of 19/32 underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Endoscopic findings were oesophageal varices (5/19 of which 4 required banding; bleeding gastric ulcer (1/19 requiring clips, haemospray and adrenaline; gastric vascular malformation (1/19 treated with Argon plasma coagulation therapy; duodenal ulcer (3/19 which required surgery in two cases; oesophagitis (5/19; and gastritis +/− duodenitis (3/19. A total of 13/32 patients did not undergo endoscopy and the presumed aetiology was a Mallory–Weiss tear (4/13; ingestion of foreign body (2/13; gastritis (3/13; viral illness (1/13; unknown (2/13. While UGIB is uncommon in children, the morbidity associated with it is very significant. Melaena, dropping haemoglobin, and requirement for a blood transfusion appear to be significant markers of an underlying cause of UGIB that requires therapeutic intervention. A multi-disciplinary team comprising gastroenterologists and surgeons is essential.

  7. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in operated stomach: Outcome of 105 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Vassiliki N; Thomopoulos, Konstantinos C; Theocharis, George I; Arvaniti, Vassiliki A; Vagianos, Constantine E

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare the causes and clinical outcome of patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGB) and a history of gastric surgery to those with AUGB but without a history of gastric surgery in the past. METHODS: The causes and clinical outcome were compared between 105 patients with AUGB and a history of gastric surgery, and 608 patients with AUGB but without a history of gastric surgery. RESULTS: Patients who underwent gastric surgery in the past were older (mean age: 68.1±11.7 years vs 62.8±17.8 years, P = 0.001), and the most common cause of bleeding was marginal ulcer in 63 patients (60%). No identifiable source of bleeding could be found in 22 patients (20.9%) compared to 42/608 (6.9%) in patients without a history of gastric surgery (P = 0.003). Endoscopic hemostasis was permanently successful in 26 out of 35 patients (74.3%) with peptic ulcers and active bleeding or non-bleeding visible vessel. Nine patients (8.6%) were operated due to continuing or recurrent bleeding, compared to 23/608 (3.8%) in the group of patients without gastric surgery in the past (P = 0.028). Especially in peptic ulcer bleeding patients, emergency surgery was more common in the group of patients with gastric surgery in the past [9/73 (12.3%) vs 19/360 (5.3%), P = 0.025]. Moreover surgically treated patients in the past required more blood transfusion (3.3±4.0 vs 1.5±1.7, P = 0.0001) and longer hospitalization time (8.6±4.0 vs 6.9±4.9 d, P = 0.001) than patients without a history of gastric surgery. Mortality was not different between the two groups [4/105 (3.8%) vs 19/608 (3.1%)]. CONCLUSION: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding seems to be more severe in surgically treated patients than in non-operated patients. PMID:16052690

  8. Epidemic Trends of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Abnormalities: Hospital-based study on Endoscopic Data Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, Mohammed Khaliq; Chowdavaram, Suman; Bogadi, Varun; Prabhakar, Boddu; Rao, Kondadasula Pandu Ranga; Devi, Suneetha; Mohan, Vasavi

    2015-01-01

    To understand the epidemiology of different upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract related abnormalities through endoscopic data analysis. A retrospective study of three years from January 2009 to December 2011 was conducted with data from endoscopic surveillance of upper GI tract problems, collected from the Gastroenterology Unit, Osmania General Hospital, Hyderabad. MS excel and Medcalc software (comparison of proportions) were used for data analysis. A total of 10,029 (6,468 in males and 3,561 in females) endoscopies were performed during this three-year period. The male to female ratio was 1.8:1. Overall, ~30% of endoscopies evaluated showed patients with acid peptic disorders, 13.6% with vascular- related abnormalities, 10.6% showed structural abnormalities, followed by 6.3% with malignancies. Burden of malignancies was mostly observed in the older age group (60-69 years). Esophageal cancer cases decreased (p=0.0001) whereas stomach cancers increased over this period (p=0.0345). We also observed an increased incidence of acid peptic disease (APD) (p=0.0036) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (p=0.0002) cases during this period. Endoscopic diagnosis is useful for early detection of UGI anomalies and helpful for physicians to manage and treat varied kinds of UGI disorders. Analysis of data revealed changing trends in the incidence of various pathologies of the UGI tract. Functional dyspepsia and GERD definitely reduce the quality of life of the individual. The role of our diverse dietary habits and lifestyle associated with these problems have not yet been established, though there have been reports on the effect of coffee, spicy food, wheat-based diet, screening of UGI pathologies along with collection of complete personal and medical history details, can help in correlating the patients' condition with various aspects of lifestyle and diet.

  9. Comfort, safety and quality of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy after 2 hours fasting: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppe, Angélica Terezinha; Lubini, Marcio; Bonadeo, Nilton Maiolini; Moraes, Iran; Fornari, Fernando

    2013-11-09

    Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy has been performed after fasting 8 or more hours, which can be harmful to the patients. We assessed comfort, safety and quality of endoscopy under moderate sedation after 2 hours fasting for clear liquids. In this clinical trial, patients referred for elective endoscopy were randomly assigned to a fasting period of 8 hours (F8) or a shorter fasting (F2), in which 200 ml of clear liquids were ingested 2 hours before the procedure. Endoscopists blinded to patients fasting status carried out the endoscopies. Comfort was rated by the patients, whereas safety and quality were determined by the endoscopists. Ninety-eight patients were studied (aging 48.5 ± 16.5 years, 60% women): 50 patients (51%) in F2 and 48 in F8. Comfort was higher in F2 than F8 in regard to anxiety (8% vs. 25%; P = 0.029), general discomfort (18% vs. 42%; P = 0.010), hunger (44% vs. 67%; P = 0.024), and weakness (22% vs. 42%; P = 0.034). Regurgitation of gastric contents into the esophagus after endoscopic intubation did not differ between F2 and F8 (26% vs. 19%; P = 0.471). There was no case of pulmonary aspiration. Gastric mucosal visibility was normal in most patients either in F2 or F8 (96% vs. 98%; P = 0.999). Elective upper GI endoscopy after 2 hours fasting for clear liquids was more comfortable and equally safe compared to conventional fasting. This preparation might be cautiously applied for patients in regular clinical conditions referred for elective endoscopy. SAMMPRIS ClinicalTrial.gov number, NCT01492296.

  10. Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding from Gastric Amyloidosis in a Patient with Smoldering Multiple Myeloma

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    Mihajlo Gjeorgjievski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis is a common complication of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS, smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM, and multiple myeloma (MM. This proteinaceous material can be deposited intercellularly in any organ system, including the gastrointestinal (GI tract. In the GI tract, amyloidosis affects the duodenum most commonly, followed by the stomach and colorectum. Gastric amyloidosis causes symptoms of nausea, vomiting, early satiety, abdominal pain, and GI bleeding. A case of upper GI bleeding from gastric amyloidosis is presented in a patient with SMM. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed a gastric mass. Endoscopic biopsies revealed amyloid deposition in the lamina propria, consistent with gastric amyloidosis. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry performed on peptides extracted from Congo red-positive microdissected areas of paraffin-embedded stomach specimens revealed a peptide profile consistent with AL- (lambda- type amyloidosis. Based on this and multiple other case reports, we recommend that patients with GI bleeding and MGUS, SMM, or MM undergo EGD and pathologic examination of endoscopic biopsies of identified lesions using Congo red stains for amyloidosis for early diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Building a three-dimensional model of the upper gastrointestinal tract for computer simulations of swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelum, Alfonso; Mata, Lucely; Brito-de-la-Fuente, Edmundo; Delmas, Patrice; Vicente, William; Salinas-Vázquez, Martín; Ascanio, Gabriel; Marquez, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to provide realistic three-dimensional (3D) models to be used in numerical simulations of peristaltic flow in patients exhibiting difficulty in swallowing, also known as dysphagia. To this end, a 3D model of the upper gastrointestinal tract was built from the color cryosection images of the Visible Human Project dataset. Regional color heterogeneities were corrected by centering local histograms of the image difference between slices. A voxel-based model was generated by stacking contours from the color images. A triangle mesh was built, smoothed and simplified. Visualization tools were developed for browsing the model at different stages and for virtual endoscopy navigation. As result, a computer model of the esophagus and the stomach was obtained, mainly for modeling swallowing disorders. A central-axis curve was also obtained for virtual navigation and to replicate conditions relevant to swallowing disorders modeling. We show renderings of the model and discuss its use for simulating swallowing as a function of bolus rheological properties. The information obtained from simulation studies with our model could be useful for physicians in selecting the correct nutritional emulsions for patients with dysphagia.

  12. Upper gastrointestinal examinations: a radiographic study of clinically normal Beagle puppies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabayashi, T.; Morgan, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 24 upper gastrointestinal examinations were performed on four weanling beagle puppies over six weeks, using liquid barium (10 ml/kg body weight of 60 per cent w/v barium sulphate suspension] and barium food (8 g/kg of crushed kibble dog food and 7 ml/kg body weight of 60 per cent w/v barium sulphate suspension) as contrast media. The radiographic appearance was similar to that noted in adult dogs except for the consistent location of the pylorus on or near the midline. Duodenal pseudoulcers were seen more often with liquid barium and the caecal shadows were identified more often with the longer examination time with barium food. The stomach of the puppies appeared to have discriminatory emptying function; that is, semi-solid food was emptied from the stomach at a slower rate (210 to 450 minutes) than liquid (60 to 90 minutes). Solid meals emptied faster in puppies than in adult dogs. Dosages of 13 to 15 mg/kg body weight for the liquid barium examination and 14 g of ground kibble and 16 ml of barium sulphate suspension per m2 of body surface area for the barium food examination are suggested as more appropriate for contrast studies in puppies

  13. Symptoms of upper gastrointestinal dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, K M; McDonald, C M; Ingman, E; Haas, J

    1990-09-01

    A case-control study was undertaken to see if symptoms of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) (oropharyngeal, esophageal, and gastric) dysfunction occurred more frequently in males afflicted with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) than healthy controls. Subjects included 55 children with confirmed DMD and 55 age-matched controls without neuromuscular disease. All subjects and/or their parents responded to a standard set of questions concerning the frequency of symptoms of UGI dysfunction. Responses of the DMD and control groups were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. A significantly higher percentage of DMD patients experienced nasal quality to the voice, dysphagia, choking while eating, the need to clear the throat during or after eating, heartburn, and vomiting during or after meals, than did controls. Only one symptom--heartburn--was found significantly more frequently in the 33 nonambulatory than the 22 ambulatory DMD subjects. These findings document that feeding difficulty and symptoms consistent with oropharyngeal, esophageal, and gastric dysfunction are more frequent in the DMD population than healthy, age-matched controls.

  14. Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding from Gastric Amyloidosis in a Patient with Smoldering Multiple Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Purohit, Treta; Amin, Mitual B; Kurtin, Paul J; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a common complication of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), and multiple myeloma (MM). This proteinaceous material can be deposited intercellularly in any organ system, including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the GI tract, amyloidosis affects the duodenum most commonly, followed by the stomach and colorectum. Gastric amyloidosis causes symptoms of nausea, vomiting, early satiety, abdominal pain, and GI bleeding. A case of upper GI bleeding from gastric amyloidosis is presented in a patient with SMM. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed a gastric mass. Endoscopic biopsies revealed amyloid deposition in the lamina propria, consistent with gastric amyloidosis. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry performed on peptides extracted from Congo red-positive microdissected areas of paraffin-embedded stomach specimens revealed a peptide profile consistent with AL- (lambda-) type amyloidosis. Based on this and multiple other case reports, we recommend that patients with GI bleeding and MGUS, SMM, or MM undergo EGD and pathologic examination of endoscopic biopsies of identified lesions using Congo red stains for amyloidosis for early diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Effects of Ramadan fasting on peptic ulcer disease as diagnosed by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokakin, Ali Kagan; Kurt, Atilla; Akgol, Gunduz; Karakus, Boran Cihat; Atabey, Mustafa; Koyuncu, Ayhan; Topcu, Omer; Goren, Erdal

    2012-12-01

    The diagnostic methods such as upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) have played an important role in the evaluation of peptic ulcer (PU). Every year, millions of Muslims fast in Ramadan month. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fasting on PU via UGE. A total of 321 patients in the period from 2009 to 2011, who underwent UGE as a diagnostic work-up mainly for epigastric pain, were analysed. Patients were divided into three groups: Patients who have been evaluated by UGE, in the month just before Ramadan (group I, n=69), in Ramadan month (group II, n=132) and in the month just after Ramadan (group III, n=120). Continuous data were expressed as the mean±SD, and were compared with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test amongst groups. Categorical data were given as percentages and were compared with the chi-squared test. Epigastric pain was the most common indication for referral in each group. Interestingly, the indication 'bleeding' was found to be the least in group II, but was far from statistical significance. The highest prevalence of duodenal ulcers and duodenitis was found in group II; the differences to the other groups were statistically significant. Duodenal ulcers and duodenitis were found more during Ramadan month. We recommend that, the patients with epigastric pain may fast by taking their medications. Copyright © 2012 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Systematic review of factors influencing patient and practitioner delay in diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, S; Macleod, U; Campbell, N C; Weller, D; Mitchell, E

    2006-01-01

    As knowledge on the causation of cancers advances and new treatments are developed, early recognition and accurate diagnosis becomes increasingly important. This review focused on identifying factors influencing patient and primary care practitioner delay for upper gastrointestinal cancer. A systematic methodology was applied, including extensive searches of the literature published from 1970 to 2003, systematic data extraction, quality assessment and narrative data synthesis. Included studies were those evaluating factors associated with the time interval between a patient first noticing a cancer symptom and presenting to primary care, between a patient first presenting to primary care and being referred to secondary care, or describing an intervention designed to reduce those intervals. Twenty-five studies were included in the review. Studies reporting delay intervals demonstrated that the patient phase of delay was greater than the practitioner phase, whilst patient-related research suggests that recognition of symptom seriousness is more important than recognition of the presence of the symptom. The main factors related to practitioner delay were misdiagnosis, application and interpretation of tests, and the confounding effect of existing disease. Greater understanding of patient factors is required, along with evaluation of interventions to ensure appropriate diagnosis, examination and investigation. PMID:16622459

  17. Falling mortality when adjusted for comorbidity in upper gastrointestinal bleeding: relevance of multi-disciplinary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ali S; Saffouri, Eliana; McCloskey, Caroline; Craigen, Theresa; Angerson, Wilson J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The understanding of changes in comorbidity might improve the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB); such changes might not be detectable in short-term studies. We aimed to study UGIB mortality as adjusted for comorbidity and the trends in risk scores over a 14-year period. Methods Patients presenting with UGIB to a single institution, 1996–2010, were assessed. Those with multiple comorbidities were managed in a multi-disciplinary care unit since 2000. Trends with time were assessed using logistic regression, including those for Charlson comorbidity score, the complete Rockall score and 30-day mortality. Results 2669 patients were included. The Charlson comorbidity score increased significantly with time: the odds of a high (3+) score increasing at a relative rate of 4.4% a year (OR 1.044; p<0.001). The overall 30-day mortality was 4.9% and inpatient mortality was 7.1%; these showed no relationship with time. When adjusted for the increasing comorbidity, the odds of death decreased significantly at a relative rate of 4.5% per year (p=0.038). After the introduction of multi-disciplinary care, the raw mortality OR was 0.680 (p=0.08), and adjusted for comorbidity it was 0.566 (p=0.013). Conclusions 30-day mortality decreased when adjusted for the rising comorbidity in UGIB; whether this is related to the introduction of multi-disciplinary care needs to be considered. PMID:28839780

  18. Restrictive vs liberal transfusion for upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Bao, Yong-Xin; Bai, Ming; Zhang, Yong-Guo; Xu, Wen-Da; Qi, Xing-Shun

    2013-10-28

    To compare the outcome of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) between patients receiving restrictive and liberal transfusion. PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were employed to identify all relevant randomized controlled trials regarding the outcome of UGIB after restrictive or liberal transfusion. Primary outcomes were death and rebleeding. Secondary outcomes were length of hospitalization, amount of blood transfused, and hematocrit and hemoglobin at discharge or after expansion. Overall, 4 papers were included in this meta-analysis. The incidence of death was significantly lower in patients receiving restrictive transfusion than those receiving liberal transfusion (OR: 0.52, 95%CI: 0.31-0.87, P = 0.01). The incidence of rebleeding was lower in patients receiving restrictive transfusion than those receiving liberal transfusion, but this difference did not reach any statistical significance (OR: 0.26, 95%CI: 0.03-2.10, P = 0.21). Compared with those receiving liberal transfusion, patients receiving restrictive transfusion had a significantly shorter length of hospitalization (standard mean difference: -0.17, 95%CI: -0.30--0.04, P = 0.009) and a significantly smaller amount of blood transfused (standard mean difference: -0.74, 95%CI: -1.15--0.32, P = 0.0005) with a lower hematocrit and hemoglobin level at discharge or after expansion. Restrictive transfusion should be employed in patients with UGIB.

  19. [Changes in Upper Gastrointestinal Diseases according to Improvement of Helicobacter pylori Prevalence Rate in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Heon

    2015-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori can cause variety of upper gastrointestinal disorders such as peptic ulcer, mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-lymphoma, and gastric cancer. The prevalence of H. pylori infection has significantly decreased in Korea since 1998 owing to active eradication of H. pylori. Along with its decrease, the prevalence of peptic ulcer has also decreased. However, the mean age of gastric ulcer increased and this is considered to be due to increase in NSAID prescription. Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in Korea and Japan, and IARC/WHO has classified H. pylori as class one carcinogen of gastric cancer. Despite the decreasing prevalence of H. pylori infection, the total number of gastric cancer in Korea has continuously increased from 2006 to 2011. Nevertheless, the 5 year survival rate of gastric cancer patients significantly increased from 42.8% in 1993 to 67% in 2010. This increase in survival rate seems to be mainly due to early detection of gastric cancer and endoscopic mucosal dissection treatment. Based on these findings, the prevalence of peptic ulcer is expected to decrease even more with H. pylori eradication therapy and NSAID will become the main cause of peptic ulcer. Although the prevalence of gastric cancer has not changed along with decreased the prevalence of H. pylori, gastric cancer is expected to decrease in the long run with the help of eradication therapy and endoscopic treatment of precancerous lesions.

  20. Efficacy of retrievable metallic stent with fixation string for benign stricture after upper gastrointestinal surgery

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    KIm, Jeong Eun; KIm, Hyo Cheol; Lee, Myung Su; Hur, Sae Beom; KIm, Minuk; Lee, Sang Hwan; Cho, Soo Buem; KIm, Chan Sun; Han, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    To determine the efficacy of retrievable metallic stent with fixation string for benign anastomotic stricture after upper gastrointestinal (UGI) surgery. From June 2009 to May 2015, a total of 56 retrievable metallic stents with fixation string were placed under fluoroscopy guidance in 42 patients who were diagnosed with benign anastomotic stricture after UGI surgery. Clinical success was defined as achieving normal regular diet (NRD). The clinical success rate after the first stent placement was 57.1% (24/42). After repeated stent placement and/or balloon dilation, the clinical success rate was increased to 83.3% (35/42). Six (14.3%) patients required surgical revision to achieve NRD. One (2.4%) patient failed to achieve NRD. Stent migration occurred in 60.7% (34/56) of patients. Successful rate of removing the stent using fixation string and angiocatheter was 94.6% (53/56). Distal migration occurred in 12 stents. Of the 12 stents, 10 (83.3%) were successfully removed whereas 2 could not be removed. No complication occurred regarding distal migration. Using retrievable metallic stent with a fixation string is a feasible option for managing early benign anastomotic stricture after UGI surgery. It can reduce complications caused by distal migration of the stent.

  1. UPPER GASTRO-INTESTINAL BLEEDING IN THE YOUNG - GASTRIC GIST TUMOR OR PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE?

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    Ayodele Atolagbe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available GIST tumors is very unusual in the young and middle aged and a high index of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis in young patients who present with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Appropriate imaging such as a Computed tomographic scan (CT scan may identify this tumor which may easily be misdiagnosed as a bleeding Peptic Ulcer Disease in the young. We present a case of a healthy 38 year old man with no alcohol use who presented with epigastric pain and melena and subsequent torrential bleeding uncontrolled during endoscopy necessitating an emergency exploratory laparotomy by the general surgery team. The bleeding intraluminal component of the tumor with gross splenic and pancreatic involvement was identified and surgical management consisted of a wedge resection of the greater curvature of the stomach incorporating the tumor and the spleen with successful dissection of the tumor off the tail of the pancreas. Histology was positive for C-KIT and DOG-1 markers. Postoperative course was uneventful and he is presently on Imatinib Mesylate.

  2. Tumor markers for diagnosis, monitoring of recurrence and prognosis in patients with upper gastrointestinal tract cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jie-Xian; Wang, Yan; Xu, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Ting; Tian, Bao-Guo; Du, Li-Li; Zhao, Xian-Wen; Han, Cun-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the value of combined detection of serum CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS for the clinical diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) cancer and to analyze the efficacy of these tumor markers (TMs) in evaluating curative effects and prognosis. A total of 573 patients with upper GIT cancer between January 2004 and December 2007 were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS were examined preoperatively and every 3 months postoperatively by ELISA. The sensitivity of CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS were 26.8%, 36.2%, 42.9%, 2.84%, 25.4%, 34.6%, 34.2% and 30.9%, respectively. The combined detection of CEA+CA199+CA242+CA724 had higher sensitivity and specificity in gastric cancer (GC) and cardiac cancer, while CEA+CA199+CA242+SCC was the best combination of diagnosis for esophageal cancer (EC). Elevation of preoperative CEA, CA19-9 and CA24-2, SCC and CA72-4 was significantly associated with pathological types (pCEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, CA72-4 and SCC decreased obviously 3 months after operations. When metastasis and recurrence occurred, the levels of TMs significantly increased. On multivariate analysis, high preoperative CA72-4, CA24-2 and SCC served as prognostic factors for cardiac carcinoma, GC and EC, respectively. combined detection of CEA+CA199+CA242+SCC proved to be the most economic and practical strategy in diagnosis of EC; CEA+CA199+CA242+CA724 proved to be a better evaluation indicator for cardiac cancer and GC. CEA and CA19-9, CA24-2, CA72-4 and SCC, examined postoperatively during follow-up, were useful to find early tumor recurrence and metastasis, and evaluate prognosis. AFP, TPA and TPS have no significant value in diagnosis of patients with upper GIT cancer.

  3. Two forensic autopsy cases of death due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a comparison of postmortem computed tomography and autopsy findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hasegawa, Iwao; Hoshino, Norio; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2015-05-01

    In this report, we describe two autopsy cases of death due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (Case 1: gastric ulcer, Case 2: aortoduodenal fistula). Postmortem computed tomography (CT) images from both cases revealed pooling of gastric fluid, which contained high attenuation areas, although these images also mirrored the different sources of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Fluid collection was observed in the small intestine for both cases, although the high attenuation areas were only remarkable in Case 2. The autopsy in Case 1 revealed a peptic ulcer, with small vessels exposed on the surface of the ulcer. Melena was also observed throughout the intestine, although clotting was only observed inside the stomach. The autopsy in Case 2 revealed diffuse massive clotting from the stomach to the upper portion of the ileum, which was due to a primary aortoduodenal fistula. Given our autopsy findings, the extent of the high attenuation areas in the digestive tract during postmortem CT scanning may be correlated with the speed of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage before death. Carefully evaluating the radiodensity of the gastrointestinal contents during postmortem CT scanning may indicate the primary site of the hemorrhage before the autopsy, thereby facilitating the accurate identification of the cause of death during forensic autopsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gastric malignant schwannoma presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Takemura, Masashi; Yoshida, Kayo; Takii, Mamiko; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Kanazawa, Akishige

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction We report a case of gastric malignant schwannoma presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding. Case presentation A 70-year-old Japanese man presented with gastrointestinal bleeding to our hospital. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a protruding lesion in the gastric body. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of biopsy specimens from this lesion revealed sheets of spindle cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed that these cells were positive for S-100 protein and negative for c-Kit...

  5. The Role of Endoscopic Ultrasound in the Diagnostic Assessment of Subepithelial Lesions of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Dias de Castro

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: EUS is the method of choice in the study of subepithelial lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract, in most cases defining a diagnosis. The need for a definitive diagnosis or therapeutic approaches can be based on ultrasound risk features, presented, in the majority, at presentation. This study shows that EUS is capable of safely and accurately define those subepithelial lesions that can be managed only with surveillance ultrasound while waiting for better results with fine needle aspiration.

  6. Low Visceral Fat Content is Associated with Poor Prognosis in a Database of 507 Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuto; Baba, Yoshifumi; Ishimoto, Takatsugu; Kosumi, Keisuke; Tokunaga, Ryuma; Izumi, Daisuke; Ida, Satoshi; Imamura, Yu; Iwagami, Shiro; Miyamoto, Yuji; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Yoshida, Naoya; Watanabe, Masayuki; Baba, Hideo

    2015-11-01

    Excess visceral adipose tissue may promote cancer development and progression via an obesity-related metabolic derangements, including adipocytokine-related inflammation, insulin resistance, and hypoxia. The relationship between visceral fat content and patient prognosis has been reported in some types of cancers, but not in the upper gastrointestinal cancer. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationship between visceral fat status and clinical outcome in patients with upper gastrointestinal cancers (esophageal cancer and gastric cancer) treated by surgical resection. This retrospective study was conducted in a single, academic hospital in Kumamoto, Japan, and involved 507 patients with upper gastrointestinal cancers between April 2005 and December 2010. Preoperative visceral fat content was quantified by radiologic measures using standard computed tomography scans. Higher visceral fat mount was correlated with male sex, presence of preoperative comorbidity, absence of preoperative therapy, low tumor depth, low tumor stage, and gastric cancer. Compared to high visceral fat cases, low visceral fat cases experienced a higher overall mortality rate [log-rank p = 0.0050; univariate hazard ratio (HR) = 1.73, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.16-2.54; p = 0.0075; multivariate HR 1.57; 95 % CI 1.02-2.37; p = 0.031]. Interestingly, the influence of low visceral fat on patient outcome was modified by age at surgery (p for interaction = 0.036); low visceral fat was associated with a poor prognosis, especially in elderly patients (log-rank p upper gastrointestinal cancers was associated with a poor prognosis, thus suggesting that it has potential for use as a prognostic biomarker.

  7. The Use of Tranexamic Acid for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding by Medical and Surgical Intensivists: A Single Center Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Chertoff, Jason; Lowther, Grant; Alnuaimat, Hassan; Ataya, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background Tranexamic acid (TXA) may be beneficial in the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). We sought to investigate how frequently intensivists at our academic institution use TXA for patients with UGIB, and to investigate whether the utilization rate of TXA differs between surgical and medical intensivists, and provide an updated literature review on the subject. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted for UGIB to the surgical intensive car...

  8. Upper Gastrointestinal System Bleeding Associated with Mallory-Weiss Syndrome in a Patient with Prosthetic Mitral Valve Using Warfarin Sodium

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    Banu Şahin Yıldız

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mallory-Weiss syndrome refers to bleeding from tears in the mucosa at the junction of the stomach and esophagus. Bleeding has been recognised as the major treatment-limiting complication in patients with prosthetic mitral valve using anticoagulant treatment. We report that upper gastrointestinal system bleeding associated with Mallory-Weiss syndrome in patient with prosthetic mitral valve using warfarin sodium.

  9. Capturing and stitching images with a large viewing angle and low distortion properties for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Cheng; Chung, Chien-Kai; Lai, Jyun-Yi; Chang, Han-Chao; Hsu, Feng-Yi

    2013-06-01

    Upper gastrointestinal endoscopies are primarily performed to observe the pathologies of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. However, when an endoscope is pushed into the esophagus or stomach by the physician, the organs behave similar to a balloon being gradually inflated. Consequently, their shapes and depth-of-field of images change continually, preventing thorough examination of the inflammation or anabrosis position, which delays the curing period. In this study, a 2.9-mm image-capturing module and a convoluted mechanism was incorporated into the tube like a standard 10- mm upper gastrointestinal endoscope. The scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm was adopted to implement disease feature extraction on a koala doll. Following feature extraction, the smoothly varying affine stitching (SVAS) method was employed to resolve stitching distortion problems. Subsequently, the real-time splice software developed in this study was embedded in an upper gastrointestinal endoscope to obtain a panoramic view of stomach inflammation in the captured images. The results showed that the 2.9-mm image-capturing module can provide approximately 50 verified images in one spin cycle, a viewing angle of 120° can be attained, and less than 10% distortion can be achieved in each image. Therefore, these methods can solve the problems encountered when using a standard 10-mm upper gastrointestinal endoscope with a single camera, such as image distortion, and partial inflammation displays. The results also showed that the SIFT algorithm provides the highest correct matching rate, and the SVAS method can be employed to resolve the parallax problems caused by stitching together images of different flat surfaces.

  10. Profiling lifetime episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding among patients from rural Sub-Saharan Africa where schistosoma mansoni is endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opio, Christopher Kenneth; Kazibwe, Francis; Ocama, Ponsiano; Rejani, Lalitha; Belousova, Elena Nikolaevna; Ajal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Severe chronic hepatic schistosomiasis is a common cause of episodes upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, there is paucity of data on clinical epidemiology of episodes of UGIB from rural Africa despite on going public health interventions to control and eliminate schistosomiasis. Through a cross sectional study we profiled lifetime episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and associated factors at a rural primary health facility in sub-Saharan Africa were schistosomiasis is endemic. The main outcome was number of lifetime episodes of UGIB analyzed as count data. From 107 enrolled participants, 323 lifetime episodes of UGIB were reported. Fifty-seven percent experienced ≥ 2 lifetime episodes of UGIB. Ninety-four percent had severe chronic hepatic schistosomiasis and 80% esophageal varices. Alcohol use and viral hepatitis was infrequent. Eighty-eight percent were previously treated with praziquantel and 70% had a history of blood transfusion. No patient had ever had an endoscopy or treatment for prevention of recurrent variceal bleeding. Multivariable analysis identified a cluster of eight clinical factor variables (age ≥ 40, female sex, history of blood transfusion, abdominal collaterals, esophageal varices, pattern x periportal fibrosis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia) significantly associated (P-value < 0.05) with increased probability of experiencing two or more lifetime episodes of UGIB in our study. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common health problem in this part of rural SSA where schistosomiasis is endemic. The clinical profile described is unique and is important for improved case management, and for future research.

  11. Upper gastrointestinal lesions in chronic renal failure and frequency of helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badruddin, A.H.; Abbas, Z.; Tariq, N.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To highlight the commonest upper gastrointestinal (UGI) lesions in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and compare it to a control group of patients with symptoms of UGI disease without renal disease. And also to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection in both groups of patients. Design: a case-control prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: The Department of Nephrology, and the Department of Gastroenterology and pathology, medical unit III, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi, (Pakistan). Study conducted over a period of two years (01-97 to 31-12-98). Patients and methods: One hundred consecutive patients divided into two equal groups, those with CRF with or without symptoms of acid peptic disease (the study group), and the other (the control group) had symptoms of UGI disease with no evidence of renal disease. The stages of CRF, symptoms of acid peptic disease, type of UGI lesions, and the presence or absence of halicobacter pylori(HP) were noted. Result: The commonest UGI lesions in patients of CRF were gastric erosions 17(34%) followed by inflammatory lesions 16(32%), the incidence increasing with the severity of the renal disease. In the control Group 20 (42%) had gastric erosions and 17 (34%) had inflammatory lesions. HP infection occurred in 76-83% of patients in the study group, and in the control group it was found in 75-88% of patients. Conclusion: In both groups the commonest UGI lesions were gastric erosions, followed by inflammatory lesions mainly gastritis and esophagitis. These lesions occurred more frequently with increasing severity of renal disease. HP infection was common in both group almost equally. (author)

  12. Antibiotics resistance of Helicobacter pylori in children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms in Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiaoli; Yin, Guofeng; Liu, Mingnan; Peng, Kerong; Zhao, Hong; Jiang, Mizu

    2018-03-12

    The decreasing eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori is mainly because of the progressive increase in its resistance to antibiotics. Studies on antimicrobial susceptibility of H. pylori in children are limited. This study aimed to investigate the resistance rates and patterns of H. pylori strains isolated from children. Gastric mucosa biopsy samples obtained from children who had undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were cultured for H. pylori, and susceptibility to six antibiotics (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, furazolidone, metronidazole, and levofloxacin) was tested from 2012-2014. A total of 545 H. pylori strains were isolated from 1390 children recruited. The total resistance rates of H. pylori to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin were 20.6%, 68.8%, and 9.0%, respectively. No resistance to amoxicillin, gentamicin, and furazolidone was detected. 56.1% strains were single resistance, 19.6% were resistant to more than one antibiotic, 16.7% for double resistance, and 2.9% for triple resistance in 413 strains against any antibiotic. And the H. pylori resistance rate increased significantly from 2012-2014. There was no significant difference in the resistance rates to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin between different gender, age groups, and patients with peptic ulcer diseases or nonulcer diseases. Antibiotic resistance was indicated in H. pylori strains isolated from children in Hangzhou, and it increased significantly during the 3 years. Our data strongly support current guidelines, which recommend antibiotic susceptibility tests prior to eradication therapy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Self-medication of upper gastrointestinal symptoms: a community pharmacy study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehuys, E; Verrue, C; Van Borte, L; De Bolle, L; Van Tongelen, I; Remon, J P; De Looze, D

    2009-09-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are a common reason for self-treatment with over-the-counter (OTC) medication. However, data on the typology of GI complaints for which individuals seek self-medication and, more importantly, on the prevalence of alarm symptoms in this population are scarce. This study aimed to investigate: (i) the nature of GI symptoms people intend to self-medicate, (ii) prevalence of alarm symptoms, (iii) compliance with referral advice given by the pharmacist, and (iv) self-reported efficacy and frequency of use of OTC medication for minor complaints. This descriptive study was performed in 63 community pharmacies. Participants (n=592, aged 18-80 y) completed a questionnaire to assess symptom characteristics and previous medical consulting. Based on this information, the pharmacist referred subjects to a physician or advised self-treatment. Four weeks later, participants were presented a follow-up questionnaire, evaluating compliance with referral advice or efficacy of self-treatment. The most frequently reported GI complaints were burning retrosternal discomfort (49.2%), acid regurgitation (53.2%) and bothersome postprandial fullness (51.2%). At least 1 alarm symptom was present in 22.4% of the individuals, difficulty in swallowing being the most prevalent one (15.4%). Although twenty-one percent of the customers were referred, only 51.7% of these actually contacted a physician. Almost all of the remaining customers who were advised self-treatment reported symptom relief with the obtained OTC drug (95.1%). Mild GI symptoms will mostly resolve with self-treatment. Yet, the value of pharmacist counselling on OTC treatment should be recognized, as community pharmacists can play an important role in

  14. Self-medication of upper gastrointestinal symptoms: a community pharmacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehuys, Els; Van Bortel, Luc; De Bolle, Leen; Van Tongelen, Inge; Remon, Jean-Paul; De Looze, Danny

    2009-05-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are a common reason for self-treatment with over-the-counter (OTC) medication. However, data are scarce on the typology of GI complaints for which individuals seek self-medication and, more importantly, on the prevalence of alarm symptoms in this population. To investigate: (1) the nature of GI symptoms that people intend to self-medicate, (2) prevalence of alarm symptoms, (3) adherence to referral advice given by the pharmacist, and (4) self-reported efficacy and frequency of use of OTC medication for minor complaints. This descriptive study was performed in 63 community pharmacies. Participants (N = 592, aged 18-82 y) completed a questionnaire to assess symptom characteristics and previous medical consulting. Based on this information, the pharmacist referred subjects to a physician or advised self-treatment. Four weeks later, participants were presented a follow-up questionnaire evaluating their adherence to referral advice or efficacy of self-treatment. The most frequently reported GI symptoms were burning retrosternal discomfort (49.2%), acid regurgitation (53.2%), and bothersome postprandial fullness (51.2%). At least one alarm symptom was present in 22.4% of the individuals, with difficulty in swallowing being the most prevalent (15.4%). Although 21% of the customers were referred, only 51.7% of these contacted a physician. Almost all (95.1%) of the remaining customers who were advised self-treatment reported symptom relief with the OTC drug obtained. Mild GI symptoms will mostly resolve with self-treatment. Yet, the value of pharmacist counseling on OTC treatment should be recognized, as community pharmacists can play an important role in distinguishing symptoms that warrant further medical examination.

  15. Does Preendoscopy Rockall Score Safely Identify Low Risk Patients following Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage?

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    Matthew R. Johnston

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine if preendoscopy Rockall score (PERS enables safe outpatient management of New Zealanders with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (UGIH. Methods. Retrospective analysis of adults with UGIH over 59 consecutive months. PERS, diagnosis, demographics, need for endoscopic therapy, transfusion or surgery and 30-day mortality and 14-day rebleeding rate, and sensitivity and specificity of PERS for enabling safe discharge preendoscopy were calculated. Results. 424 admissions with UGIH. Median age was 74.3 years (range 19–93 years, with 55.1% being males. 30-day mortality was 4.6% and 14-day rebleeding rate was 6.0%. Intervention was required in 181 (46.6%: blood transfusion (147 : 37.9%, endoscopic intervention (75 : 19.3%, and surgery (8 : 2.1%. 42 (10.8% had PERS = 0 with intervention required in 15 (35.7%. Females more frequently required intervention, OR 1.73 (CI: 1.12–2.69. PERS did not predict intervention but did predict 30-day mortality: each point increase equated to an increase in mortality of OR 1.46 (CI: 1.11–1.92. Taking NSAIDs/aspirin reduced 30-day mortality, OR 0.22 (CI: 0.08–0.60. Conclusion. PERS identifies 10.8% of those with UGIH as low risk but 35.7% required intervention or died. It has a limited role in assessing these patients and should not be used to identify those suitable for outpatient endoscopy.

  16. Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy prior to Bariatric Surgery-Mandatory or Expendable? An Analysis of 801 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Stefan; Duprée, Anna; Miro, Jameel; Schroeder, Cornelia; Jansen, Marie-Isabelle; Schulze-Zur-Wiesch, Clarissa; Groth, Stefan; Izbicki, Jakob; Mann, Oliver; Busch, Philipp

    2017-08-01

    Upper gastrointestinal pathologies are common in bariatric patients. Preoperative esophagogastroduodenal endoscopy (EGD) should detect and treat pathologies that might alter the type of bariatric surgery. However, clinical consequences of these findings are often insignificant. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of preoperative endoscopy in our cohort and its clinical consequences. We conducted a retrospective analysis of endoscopic findings in patients under evaluation for bariatric surgery. Endoscopic findings were compared to preoperative risk factors as well as postoperative complications, and its clinical consequences were analyzed. Data was available for 801 patients. Abnormal endoscopic findings were found in 65.7% of all patients. The most common conditions were gastritis (32.1%) and gastroesophageal reflux (24.8%). Malignancies were observed in 0.5% of all patients. We observed early-stage adenocarcinoma of the esophagus in two patients through our routine preoperative evaluation. Helicobacter pylori infections were detected in preoperative biopsies in only 3.7% of all patients. Patients who reported reflux symptoms had a higher rate of pathological EGDs (74.2 vs. 64.9%, p .019). We did not find any other risk factors for a pathological endoscopy. The postoperative complication rate was 11.2%. Leakage rate was 1.1%. Mortality rate was 0.4%. We did not find any correlation between the incidence of postoperative complications and preoperative endoscopic findings. Relevant findings in routine preoperative endoscopy are rare but have significant influence on decision-making in bariatric patients and should be assessed as a necessary diagnostic tool.

  17. Impact of Ramadan on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy referrals in Brunei Darussalam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, V H

    2009-06-01

    Fasting during the month of Ramadan is one of the five holy pillars in the Islamic faith and is an obligation for all its followers. Prolonged fasting may precipitate or exacerbate gastrointestinal (GI) complaints. This study assessed the impact of Ramadan on referrals for upper GI endoscopy in a tertiary referral centre. 1,661 patients referred to the centre a month before, during and a month after the month of Ramadan over a four-year period (2004-07) were retrospectively studied. Significant endoscopic findings were taken as any bleeding lesions, severe or complicated oesophagitis, peptic ulcer disease, portal hypertension related pathologies and malignancies. Overall, there was significantly less workload generated during the fasting month (397 patients, 5.7 +/- 2.7 cases per list) compared to before (603 patients, 6.9 +/- 3.0 cases per list, p-value is equal to 0.036) and after (661 patients, 7.8 +/- 3.4 cases per list, p-value is less than 0.001) the fasting month. There was no significant difference between the period before and after the fasting month (p-value equal to 0.124). There were no significant differences in the mean age and gender of the patients. During the fasting month, there were differences in the ethnicity (fewer Malays and more Chinese, p-value is equal to 0.002) and referral sources (more wards and fewer clinics, p-value is less than 0.001). There were no differences in the referral indications, oesophageal and gastric findings, but there was a significant difference in the duodenal findings (p-value is equal to 0.001), especially ulcer disease, during the fasting month. This study showed that significantly less workload was generated during the fasting month of Ramadan compared to the non-fasting months. There were also some differences in the referral sources, ethnicity and the endoscopic findings.

  18. Bedside upper gastrointestinal series in critically ill low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Gopi K; Levin, Terry L; Kurian, Jessica; Kohli, Anirudh; Borenstein, Steven H; Goldman, Harold S

    2014-10-01

    The upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series is the preferred method for the diagnosis of malrotation. A bedside UGI technique was developed at our institution for use in low birth weight, critically ill neonates to minimize the risks of transportation from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) such as hypothermia and dislodgement of support lines and tubes. To determine the ability of a bedside UGI technique to identify the position of the duodenojejunal junction (DJJ) in low birth weight, critically ill infants in the NICU. We retrospectively reviewed bedside UGI examinations performed in premature infants weighing less than 1,500 g from 2008 to 2013 and correlated the findings with clinical data, imaging studies and surgical findings. Of 27 patients identified (weight range: 633-1,495 g), 21 (78%) bedside UGI series were diagnostic. Twenty of 27 cases (74%) demonstrated normal intestinal rotation. One case demonstrated malrotation with midgut volvulus, which was confirmed at surgery. In six cases (22%), the position of the DJJ could not be accurately determined. No cases of malrotation with midgut volvulus were missed. None of the patients with normal bedside UGI studies was found to have malrotation based on clinical follow-up (mean: 20 months), surgical findings or further imaging. The bedside UGI is a useful technique to exclude malrotation in critically ill neonates and minimizes potential risks of transportation to the radiology suite. Pitfalls that may preclude a diagnostic examination include incorrect timing of radiographs, patient rotation, suboptimal enteric tube position and bowel distention. In cases of diagnostic uncertainty, a follow-up study should be performed.

  19. Validation of a live animal model for training in endoscopic hemostasis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, M; Marteau, P; Pocard, M; Bal Dit Sollier, C; Lavergne-Slove, A; Thibault, A; Lecleire, S; Vienne, A; Coffin, B; Drouet, L; Dray, X

    2013-06-01

    The management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding requires training of the endoscopist. We aimed to validate a live animal model of bleeding ulcers for training in endoscopic hemostasis. Bleeding ulcers were created by repeated grasp-and-snare gastric mucosectomies in pigs rendered "bleeders" by preadministration of clopidogrel, aspirin, and unfractionated heparin. The feasibility and reproducibility of the model (proportion of bleeding ulcers, number of ulcers per animal, and time needed to produce a bleeding ulcer) were prospectively evaluated in six animals. Ten endoscopic experts assessed the similarity of this pig model to human bleeding ulcers (four-point Likert scale). The training capabilities of the model for hemostatic techniques (needle injection, bipolar electrocoagulation, and hemoclipping) were evaluated in 46 fellows (four-point Likert scale). A total of 53 gastric ulcers were created in 6 animals (8.8 ± 1.5 ulcers/animal). Successful active ulcer bleeding (Forrest Ib) was achieved in 96.2 % of cases. Bleeding was moderate to abundant in 79 % of cases. Ulcerations consistently reached the submucosal layer. The mean (± SD) time taken to create a bleeding ulcer was 3.8 ± 0.6 minutes. Endoscopic experts assessed the realism of the ulcers and bleeding at 3.2 ± 0.7 and 3.6 ± 0.7 respectively on a four-point Likert scale. The training significantly improved the endoscopic skills of the 46 fellows (P < 0.0001) in all hemostatic techniques. The live porcine model of bleeding ulcers was demonstrated to be realistic, reproducible, feasible, time efficient, and easy to perform. It was favorably assessed as an excellent model for training in endoscopic treatment of bleeding ulcers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Promoting the management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeds among junior doctors: a quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunsbury, Emma; Allison, Emma; Colleypriest, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Though they are knowledgeable, foundation year one (FY1) doctors can lack skills and confidence in acute situations due to inexperience. This was witnessed when a new FY1 on call attended an acute upper gastrointestinal bleed (UGIB), a common emergency with a 10% in hospital mortality rate. We aimed to improve FY1s' ability to manage these critical patients through simulation based teaching, before and after the introduction of an algorithm summarising current guidelines. After assessing the FY1s' perceived level of confidence in managing UGIBs, they individually attended a simulation session which evaluated specific aspects of their assessment and management plans. Immediate debriefing and subsequent teaching sessions reinforced learning points, with an algorithm instituted as an aide mémoire to improve efficiency. A repeat simulation session assessed improvements in both subjective confidence and objective management targets. All FY1s expressed improved confidence in managing patients with UGIBs. There were improvements across the board in their assessment and management, notably: verbalisation of concern for hypotension increased to 100% (from 60%), two points of intravenous access requested in 100% of cases (from 53%), and a 76 second reduction in time to call for senior support. Collectively, these individual aspects led to improved patient care. Effective management of acute patients is best learnt through exposure, and simulation based teaching provides a safe but powerful modality to aid transition from textbook theory to ward situations. Algorithms can streamline care and hasten the stabilisation of patients. This project reinforces generic competencies that FY1s can translate to their management of not only UGIBs, but many acute presentations, providing a convincing argument for broader simulation use in FY1 teaching.

  1. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in octogenarians: Clinical outcome and factors related to mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, George J; Arvaniti, Vassiliki; Assimakopoulos, Stelios F; Thomopoulos, Konstantinos C; Xourgias, Vassilis; Mylonakou, Irini; Nikolopoulou, Vassiliki N

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the aetiology, clinical outcome and factors related to mortality of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) in octogenarians. METHODS: We reviewed the records of all patients over 65 years old who were hospitalised with AUGIB in two hospitals from January 2006 to December of 2006. Patients were divided into two groups: Group A (65-80 years old) and Group B (> 80 years old). RESULTS: Four hundred and sixteen patients over 65 years of age were hospitalized because of AUGIB. Group A included 269 patients and Group B 147 patients. Co-morbidity was more common in octogenarians (P = 0.04). The main cause of bleeding was peptic ulcer in both groups. Rebleeding and emergency surgery were uncommon in octogenarians and not different from those in younger patients. In-hospital complications were more common in octogenarians (P = 0.05) and more patients died in the group of octogenarians compared to the younger age group (P = 0.02). Inability to perform endoscopic examination (P = 0.002), presence of high risk for rebleeding stigmata (P = 0.004), urea on admission (P = 0.036), rebleeding (P = 0.004) and presence of severe co-morbidity (P < 0.0001) were related to mortality. In multivariate analysis, only the presence of severe co-morbidity was independently related to mortality (P = 0.032). CONCLUSION: While rebleeding and emergency surgery rates are relatively low in octogenarians with AUGIB, the presence of severe co-morbidity is the main factor of adverse outcome. PMID:18609689

  2. Upper gastrointestinal dysmotility after spinal cord injury: Is diminished vagal sensory processing one culprit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M Holmes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the widely recognized prevalence of gastric, colonic and anorectal dysfunction after SCI, significant knowledge gaps persist regarding the mechanisms leading to post-SCI gastrointestinal (GI impairments. Briefly, the regulation of GI function is governed by a mix of parasympathetic, sympathetic and enteric neurocircuitry. Unlike the intestines, the stomach is dominated by parasympathetic (vagal control whereby gastric sensory information is transmitted via the afferent vagus nerve to neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. The NTS integrates this sensory information with signals from throughout the CNS. Glutamatergic and GABAergic NTS neurons project to other nuclei, including the preganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV. Finally, axons from the DMV project to gastric myenteric neurons, again, through the efferent vagus nerve. SCI interrupts descending input to the lumbosacral spinal cord neurons that modulate colonic motility and evacuation reflexes. In contrast, vagal neurocircuitry remains anatomically intact after injury. This review presents evidence that unlike the post-SCI loss of supraspinal control which leads to colonic and anorectal dysfunction, gastric dysmotility occurs as an indirect or secondary pathology following SCI. Specifically, emerging data points toward diminished sensitivity of vagal afferents to GI neuroactive peptides, neurotransmitters and, possibly, macronutrients. The neurophysiological properties of rat vagal afferent neurons are highly plastic and can be altered by injury or energy balance. A reduction of vagal afferent signaling to NTS neurons may ultimately bias NTS output toward unregulated GABAergic transmission onto gastric-projecting DMV neurons. The resulting gastroinhibitory signal may be one mechanism leading to upper GI dysmotility following SCI.

  3. Upper-gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to peptic ulcer disease: incidence and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Samuel; Frolkis, Alexandra; Milne, Kaylee; Molodecky, Natalie; Yang, Hong; Dixon, Elijah; Ball, Chad G; Myers, Robert P; Ghosh, Subrata; Hilsden, Robert; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2014-12-14

    To evaluate the incidence, surgery, mortality, and readmission of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) secondary to peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Administrative databases identified all hospitalizations for UGIB secondary to PUD in Alberta, Canada from 2004 to 2010 (n = 7079) using the International Classification of Diseases Codes (ICD-10). A subset of the data was validated using endoscopy reports. Positive predictive value and sensitivity with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Incidence of UGIB secondary to PUD was calculated. Logistic regression was used to evaluate surgery, in-hospital mortality, and 30-d readmission to hospital with recurrent UGIB secondary to PUD. Co-variants accounted for in our logistic regression model included: age, sex, area of residence (i.e., urban vs rural), number of Charlson comorbidities, presence of perforated PUD, undergoing upper endoscopy, year of admission, and interventional radiological attempt at controlling bleeding. A subgroup analysis (n = 6356) compared outcomes of patients with gastric ulcers to those with duodenal ulcers. Adjusted estimates are presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95%CI. The positive predictive value and sensitivity of ICD-10 coding for UGIB secondary to PUD were 85.2% (95%CI: 80.2%-90.2%) and 77.1% (95%CI: 69.1%-85.2%), respectively. The annual incidence between 2004 and 2010 ranged from 35.4 to 41.2 per 100000. Overall risk of surgery, in-hospital mortality, and 30-d readmission to hospital for UGIB secondary to PUD were 4.3%, 8.5%, and 4.7%, respectively. Interventional radiology to control bleeding was performed in 0.6% of patients and 76% of these patients avoided surgical intervention. Thirty-day readmission significantly increased from 3.1% in 2004 to 5.2% in 2010 (OR = 1.07; 95%CI: 1.01-1.14). Rural residents (OR rural vs urban: 2.35; 95%CI: 1.83-3.01) and older individuals (OR ≥ 65 vs ulcers had higher odds of dying (OR = 1.27; 95%CI: 1.05-1.53), requiring surgery (OR = 1.73; 95

  4. Extended depth of focus tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy for upper gastrointestinal tract imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Barry; Yin, Biwei; Beaulieu-Ouellet, Emilie; Liang, Chia Pin; Beatty, Matthew; Singh, Kanwarpal; Dong, Jing; Grant, Catriona N.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2017-02-01

    Endoscopy, the current standard of care for the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, is not ideal as a screening tool because it is costly, necessitates a team of medically trained personnel, and typically requires that the patient be sedated. Endoscopy is also a superficial macroscopic imaging modality and therefore is unable to provide detailed information on subsurface microscopic structure that is required to render a precise tissue diagnosis. We have overcome these limitations through the development of an optical coherence tomography tethered capsule endomicroscopy (OCT-TCE) imaging device. The OCT-TCE device has a pill-like form factor with an optically clear wall to allow the contained opto-mechanical components to scan the OCT beam along the circumference of the esophagus. Once swallowed, the OCT-TCE device traverses the esophagus naturally via peristalsis and multiple cross-sectional OCT images are obtained at 30-40 μm lateral resolution by 7 μm axial resolution. While this spatial resolution enables differentiation of squamous vs columnar mucosa, crucial microstructural features such as goblet cells ( 10 μm), which signify intestinal metaplasia in BE, and enlarged nuclei that are indicative of dysplasia cannot be resolved with the current OCT-TCE technology. In this work we demonstrate a novel design of a high lateral resolution OCT-TCE device with an extended depth of focus (EDOF). The EDOF is created by use of self-imaging wavefront division multiplexing that produces multiple focused modes at different depths into the sample. The overall size of the EDOF TCE is similar to that of the previous OCT-TCE device ( 11 mm by 26 mm) but with a lateral resolution of 8 μm over a depth range of 2 mm. Preliminary esophageal and intestinal imaging using these EDOF optics demonstrates an improvement in the ability to resolve tissue morphology including individual glands and cells. These results suggest that the use of EDOF optics may be a

  5. Acute interventional diagnosis and treatment of upper gastrointestinal arterial hemorrhage: its clinical value and influence factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongli; Cui Shitao; Zhang Jiaxing; Ru Fuming; Xu Jiahua; Xu Jichong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate emergent angiography and interventional management in treating massive upper gastrointestinal (GI) arterial hemorrhage, and to discuss the factors influencing the angiographic bleeding signs and the interventional therapeutic results. Methods: The clinical data of 56 patients with massive upper GI arterial hemorrhage, who underwent diagnostic arteriography and interventional management with trans-catheter vasopressin infusion and embolization, were retrospectively analyzed. Systolic blood pressure of both pre-and post-interventional therapy was recorded and statistically analyzed. The arteriographic positive rates were separately calculated according to the catheter tip's location, being placed at the 2nd grade branch or at the 3 rd -4 th grade branch of the artery, and the relation of the positive rate with the tip's location was analyzed. A comparison of the hemostatic effect between trans-catheter vasopressin infusion and trans-catheter embolization was made. Results: The average systolic blood pressure of pre-and post-procedure was (93.14 ± 18.63) mmHg and (11.64 ± 13.61) mmHg respectively, with a significant difference (P = 0.023). The angiographic bleeding signs were demonstrated in 12 cases (21.4%) with the catheter's tip at the 2nd grade branch and in 56 cases (100%) with the catheter's tip at the 3 rd -4 th grade branch,the difference between the two was of statistically significance (P < 0.05). The technical success rate and the clinical hemostasis rate of via catheter vasopressin infusion was 80% (16 / 20) and 55% (11/20) respectively. Of nine re-bleeding cases, seven were successfully controlled with embolization therapy by using microcatheter and two had to receive surgery because of arterial rupture which was proved by angiography. The technical and the clinical rates of success for transcatheter embolization therapy were 93% (42 / 45) and 89% (40 / 45) respectively. Recurrence of bleeding was seen in two patients who got

  6. Diagnostic yield of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in the evaluation of iron deficiency anemia in older children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulen, Huseyin; Kasirga, Erhun; Yildirim, Sule Aslan; Kader, Sebnem; Sahin, Gulseren; Ayhan, Semin

    2011-11-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is frequent in childhood. Inadequate nutrition and gastrointestinal malabsorption are the frequent causes of IDA in children. But reduced iron absorption and insidious blood loss from the gastrointestinal tract has been identified as the most frequent causes of IDA in older children and adolescents. Therefore the authors evaluated the frequency and etiologies of the upper gastrointestinal system pathologies causing IDA in older pediatric population. Patients with known hematological or chronic diseases, heavy menstrual flow, and obvious blood loss were excluded from the study. Forty-four children between the ages of 9.5 and 17.5 years and diagnosed with IDA were enrolled. They underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy from esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. Mean age and hemoglobin (Hb) levels of study group (32 boys, and 12 girls) were 14.6 ± 2.0 years and 7.9 ± 1.8 g/dL, respectively. Only 1 patient had a positive serology testing with anti-tissue transglutaminase and small bowel biopsy correlating with celiac disease. Endoscopy revealed abnormal findings in 25 (56.8%) patients (21 endoscopic antral gastritis, 2 active duodenal ulcers, and 2 duodenal polyps). Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection was identified by using antral histopathological evaluation in 19 of 44 children (43.2%). In 2 of duodenal samples, one patient had celiac disease, and the other one was diagnosed as giardiasis. In conclusion, there are different etiologies resulting in IDA in older children and adolescents. When older children and adolescents are found to have iron deficiency, HP infection and other gastrointestinal pathologies should be ruled out before iron deficiency treatment.

  7. An evaluation of the Integrated Pulmonary Index (IPI) for the detection of respiratory events in propofol sedated patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessen, Paul H H B; Knape, JTA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Monitoring of patients respiratory and ventilatory status during moderate-to-deep sedation in upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic procedures may enable early recognition of altered respiratory patterns with potential danger for vital functions. The current standards of care for

  8. Usefulness of catheterless radiotelemetry pH monitoring system to examine the relationship between duodenal acidity and upper gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimura, Takashi; Adachi, Kyoichi; Furuta, Kenji; Ohara, Shunji; Morita, Terumi; Koshino, Kenji; Miki, Masaharu; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the usefulness of a newly designed method for measuring intraduodenal pH to examine the relationship between duodenal acidity and upper gastrointestinal symptoms during intragastric acid infusion. The study subjects were six healthy volunteers. A Bravo pH capsule with thread fixed to the gastric wall was endoscopically introduced into the second portion of the duodenum, and intraduodenal acidity was measured during intragastric infusion of 300 mL of 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid or pure water through an elemental diet tube. The severity of several upper gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed by using a 10-cm visual analogue scale every 2 min for up to 30 min, and the area under the severity scale-time curve (cm×min.) were calculated. The percentage time during 30 min when the intraduodenal pH was gastrointestinal symptoms were observed during acid infusion (acid vs water epigastric heaviness, 29.1±12.0 vs 2.7±1.4; dull epigastric pain, 8.8±4.9 vs 0.7±0.7 cm×min/30 min). Intraduodenal pH below 4.0 was correlated with the severity of dull pain in the stomach (R(2)=0.342, P=0.044). The newly designed intraduodenal pH monitoring by using catheterless radiotelemetry system is useful to examine the relationship between duodenal acidity and upper gastrointestinal symptoms. © 2010 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Validity of peptic ulcer disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding diagnoses in administrative databases: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montedori, Alessandro; Abraha, Iosief; Chiatti, Carlos; Cozzolino, Francesco; Orso, Massimiliano; Luchetta, Maria Laura; Rimland, Joseph M; Ambrosio, Giuseppe

    2016-09-15

    Administrative healthcare databases are useful to investigate the epidemiology, health outcomes, quality indicators and healthcare utilisation concerning peptic ulcers and gastrointestinal bleeding, but the databases need to be validated in order to be a reliable source for research. The aim of this protocol is to perform the first systematic review of studies reporting the validation of International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision and 10th version (ICD-9 and ICD-10) codes for peptic ulcer and upper gastrointestinal bleeding diagnoses. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases will be searched, using appropriate search strategies. We will include validation studies that used administrative data to identify peptic ulcer disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding diagnoses or studies that evaluated the validity of peptic ulcer and upper gastrointestinal bleeding codes in administrative data. The following inclusion criteria will be used: (a) the presence of a reference standard case definition for the diseases of interest; (b) the presence of at least one test measure (eg, sensitivity, etc) and (c) the use of an administrative database as a source of data. Pairs of reviewers will independently abstract data using standardised forms and will evaluate quality using the checklist of the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) criteria. This systematic review protocol has been produced in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocol (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Ethics approval is not required given that this is a protocol for a systematic review. We will submit results of this study to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. The results will serve as a guide for researchers validating administrative healthcare databases to determine appropriate case definitions for peptic ulcer disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding, as well as to perform outcome research using

  10. STUDY OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY FINDINGS AND PRESENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION AMONG ADULT PATIENTS OF UPPER ABDOMINAL PAIN AND DYSPEPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dyspepsia is a common presenting complaint of various upper gastrointestinal disorders. The symptoms of causes of dyspepsia often overlap and this makes aetiological diagnosis difficult. Endoscopy is the ideal procedure for identifying organic diseases of the foregut and rapid urease test with endoscopy is a gold standard method for diagnosing the h.pylori infection. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with various upper gastrointestinal pathologies. MATERIALS AND METHODS This hospital-based case-controlled study was carried out in a tertiary hospital, Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar Hospital, which is attached to Pt. J.N.M. Medical College, Raipur, and which provides open access service to endoscopy. Eighty two consecutive adult outpatients and admitted patients under Department of Surgery and Medicine with upper abdominal pain and dyspepsia were screened for eligibility and underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy using forward-viewing endoscopes from March 2015 to September 2016. Patients with dyspepsia who are over 18 years of age should undergoendoscopy (EGD for initial work up and divided in case having endoscopic findings and control having normal findings, then apply rapid urease test to all of these patients. RESULTS The most commonly identified endoscopic findings were gastritis (36%, Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD (13.3%, oesophagitis (11%, duodenitis (7.3%. Gastric cancer was identified in 4.9% of patients and all of them were aged 18 years and above (p>0.05. H. pylori infection was detected in 51% (n=42 of patients. Gastritis andoesophagitis were statistically significantly associated with H. pylori (p0.05. Gastritis, GERD and PUD are the leading causes of dyspepsia. H. pylori infection is present in significant proportion of dyspeptic patients. CONCLUSION In present study, we are concluded that all upper abdominal pain is not due to acid peptic disease, but most of upper abdominal pain is due to acid peptic disease with H

  11. Predictive Risk Factors for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding with Simultaneous Myocardial Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chen Wu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to: (1 evaluate the epidemiology of simultaneous upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB and myocardial injury using parameters including troponin I (TnI; and (2 investigate the predictive risk factors of this syndrome. One hundred and fifty-five patients (101 men, 54 women; mean age, 64.7 ± 10.4 years; range, 38–94 years at the emergency department (ED with the major diagnosis of UGIB were included. They underwent serial electrocardiography (ECG and cardiac enzyme follow-up. Emergent gastroendoscopy was performed within 24 hours in most patients except for those who refused or were contraindicated. Mild myocardial injury was defined as the presence of any of the following: typical ST-T change on ECG, elevated creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB > 12U/L, or TnI > 0.2ng/dL. Moderate myocardial injury was defined as the presence of any two of the previously mentioned conditions. In total, 51 (32.9% and 12 (7.74% patients developed mild and moderate myocardial injuries, respectively. Myocardial injury was more common among patients with variceal bleeding (20/25 = 80.0% than those with ulcer bleeding (23/112 = 20.5%. It could partially be attributed to a higher baseline TnI level in cirrhotic patients. After adjusting for significant risk factors revealed by the univariate analysis, UGIB patients with a history of liver cirrhosis and more than three cardiac risk factors comprised a high-risk group for simultaneously developing myocardial injury. Other factors including age, gender, the color of nasogastric tube irrigation fluid, history of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, vasopressin or terlipressin administration, vital signs, and creatinine recorded at the ED were not significant predictors. Those who developed myocardial injury had a longer hospital stay (mean duration, 8.73 ± 6.94 vs. 6.34 ± 2.66 days; p = 0.03 and required transfusion of more units of packed erythrocytes.

  12. Effect of somatostatin combined with pantoprazole in treatment of liver cirrhosis with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage

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    GAO Chengguang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of somatostatin (SS combined with pantoprazole in the treatment of liver cirrhosis with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH. MethodsA total of 70 patients with liver cirrhosis and UGIH who were admitted to Jiangyan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine from January 2011 to August 2015 were enrolled and randomized into combination group and control group, with 35 patients in each group. After admission, the patients in both groups were given conventional basic treatment; the patients in the combination group were given SS combined with pantoprazole, and those in the control group were given SS alone. The treatment outcome, time to hemostasis, volume of blood transfusion, 48-hour rebleeding rate, length of hospital stay, and adverse events before and after treatment were observed and compared between the two groups. The t-test was applied for comparison of continuous data between groups, the chi-square test was applied for comparison of categorical data between groups, and the Wilcoxon rank sun test was applied for comparison of ranked data between groups. ResultsThe combination group had a significantly better treatment outcome compared with the control group, with overall response rates of 94.3% and 62.9%, respectively (χ2=10.27, P<0.05; the marked response rate was 600% in the combination group and 34.3% in the control group, and showed no significant difference between the two groups (χ2=280, P>0.05; the combination group had a significantly shorter time to hemostasis, a significantly lower volume of blood transfusion, and a significantly shorter length of hospital stay compared with the control group (t=9.036, 6.419, and 4.186, all P<0.05; the combination group had a lower 48-hour rebleeding rate than the control group, but the 48-hour rebleeding rate showed no significant difference between the two groups (χ2=0.22, P>0.05; the incidence rate of adverse events was similar between the

  13. Upper gastrointestinal cancer burden in Hebei Province, China: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dao-Juan; Liang, Di; Song, Guo-Hui; Li, Yong-Wei; Wen, Deng-Gui; Jin, Jing; He, Yu-Tong

    2017-04-14

    To investigate the incidence and mortality rates of upper gastrointestinal cancer (UGIC) in Hebei Province, China, and to identify high-risk populations to improve UGIC prevention and control. Data for UGIC patients were collected from 21 population-based cancer registries covering 15.25% of the population in Hebei Province. Mortality data were extracted from three national retrospective death surveys (1973-1975, 1990-1992 and 2004-2005). The data were stratified by 5-year age groups, gender and area (high-risk/non-high-risk areas) for analysis. The age-period-cohort and grey system model were used. The crude incidence rate of UGIC was 55.47/100000, and the adjusted rate (Segi's population) was 44.90/100000. Males in rural areas had the highest incidence rate (world age-standardized rate = 87.89/100000). The crude mortality rate of UGIC displayed a decreasing trend in Hebei Province from the 1970s to 2013, and the adjusted rate decreased by 43.81% from the 1970s (58.07/100000) to 2013 (32.63/100000). The mortality rate declined more significantly in the high-risk areas (57.26%) than in the non-high-risk areas (55.02%) from the 1970s to 2013. The median age at diagnosis of UGIC was 65.06 years in 2013. There was a notable delay in the median age at death from the 1970s (66.15 years) to 2013 (70.39 years), especially in the high-risk areas. In Cixian, the total trend of the cohort effect declined, and people aged 65-69 years were a population at relatively high risk for UGIC. We predicted that the crude mortality rates of UGIC in Cixian and Shexian would decrease to 98.80 and 133.99 per 100000 in 2018, respectively. UGIC was the major cause of cancer death in Hebei Province, and males in rural areas were a high-risk population. We should strengthen early detection and treatment of UGIC in this population.

  14. [Usefulness of monitoring anaesthesia with the bispectral index in upper gastrointestinal endoscopies with spontaneous breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alados-Arboledas, F J; Millán-Bueno, M P; Expósito-Montes, J F; Santiago-Gutierrez, C; Arévalo-Garrido, A; Pérez-Parras, A; Millán-Miralles, L; Martínez-Padilla, M C; de la Cruz-Moreno, J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this investigation is to determine whether bispectral index (BIS®) monitoring during intravenous anaesthesia with spontaneous breathing for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) in a pediatric population is useful for: a) decreasing the amount of drug, b) decreasing the time for awakening, and c) improving patient safety. A quasi-experimental case-control prospective study was conducted in the setting of a second level hospital pediatric intensive care unit. Children aged 1-13 years. ASA I patient who needed a diagnostic UGE; eligible, 36, participants, 30. historical cohort of patients who needed UGE (years 2008-2010): 50 patients. UGE performed with anaesthetic protocol, vital signs monitoring, sedation level (Ramsay scale) and BIS monitoring. propofol total dose (mg/kg), induction time, time in performing the UGE, awakening time (min); initial BIS (iBIS), and BIS during the UGE; adverse effects. There were no significant differences in sex, age or weight between case (B) and control (C) population. No significant differences in total propofol doses: (B 4.9 ± 1.4 mg/kg; C 5.2 ± 1.6 mg/kg, P=.492), awakening time (B 12.2 ± 4.6 min; C 12.8 ± 4.4 min, P=.402), time for execution of UGE (B 9.5 ± 4.8 min; C 11.3 ± 6.5 min, P=.335) and induction time (B 11.1 ± 2.6 min; C 10.1 ± 4.2 min, P=.059), iBIS 55.4 ± 6.9. There were no significant differences in adverse effects: 2 patients suffered from mild desaturation in the control group. BIS monitoring for diagnostic UGE in spontaneous breathing in a pediatric population is feasible, but does not appear to decrease awakening time or the amount of propofol needed. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant decrease in the number of adverse effects. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Tangweian Jianji on upper gastrointestinal remodeling in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gui-Fang; Zhao, Jing-Bo; Zhen, Zhong; Sha, Hong; Chen, Peng-Min; Li, Min; Zhang, Jia-Cheng; Yuan, Ming-Ze; Gao, Wen; Gregersen, Hans; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Tangweian Jianji (TWAJJ) on the biomechanical and morphometrical remodeling of the upper gastrointestinal tract in diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in 27 rats by injecting streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight), the animals were then divided into three groups (n = 9 in each group), i.e., diabetic control (DM); high dose (10 g/kg, T1) and low dose (5 g/kg, T2). Another 10 rats acted as normal controls (Control). TWAJJ was administered by gavage once daily. Blood glucose and serum insulin levels were measured. Circumferential length, wall thickness and opening angle were measured from esophageal, duodenal, jejunal and ileal ring segments. The residual strain was calculated from the morphometric data. Step-wise distension was carried out on esophageal and jejunal segments. The obtained data on the length, diameter and pressure changes were then used to calculate the circumferential and longitudinal stresses and strains. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the receptor of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) mRNA level in jejunal tissues. RESULTS: At the end of the experiment, the blood glucose level was significantly higher and the serum insulin level was significantly lower in DM, T1 and T2 groups than in the control group (Glucose: 30.23 ± 0.41 mmol/L, 27.48 ± 0.27 mmol/L and 27.84 ± 0.29 mmol/L vs 5.05 ± 0.04 mmol/L, P = 1.65 × 10-16, P = 5.89 × 10-19 and P = 1.63 × 10-18, respectively; Insulin: 1.47 ± 0.32 μg/L, 2.66 ± 0.44 μg/L, 2.03 ± 0.29 μg/L and 4.17 ± 0.54 μg/L, P = 0.0001, P = 0.029 and P = 0.025, respectively). However, these levels did not differ among the DM, T1 and T2 groups. The wet weight per unit length, wall thickness and opening angle of esophageal and intestinal segments in the DM group were significantly higher than those in the control group (from P = 0.009 to P = 0.004). These parameters in the T1 group were significantly lower than those in

  16. [Investigation into the effect of gastric secretion inhibitor for the prevention of upper gastrointestinal lesions associated with low-dose aspirin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hironori; Yokoyama, Haruko; Yaguchi, Takehiro; Suzuki, Yuji; Tokuoka, Kentaro; Watanabe, Masayuki; Kitagawa, Yasuhisa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of histamin H₂ receptor antagonist (H₂RA) or proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for the prevention of upper gastrointestinal lesions associated with low-dose aspirin. We carried out a retrospective study of 2811 patients who had been prescribed low-dose aspirin (Bayaspirin® 100 mg) for more than 30 days at Tokai University Hachioji Hospital from 2006 to 2008. We classified them into three groups: aspirin alone group (n=1103), aspirin with H₂RA group (n=844) and aspirin with PPI group (n=864). Patients who developed upper gastrointestinal lesions were diagnosed with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastritis or duodenitis by gastroscopy. We then compared the incidence of upper gastrointestinal lesions among the groups. The incidence in aspirin alone group, aspirin with H₂RA group and aspirin with PPI group was 2.54%, 1.54% and 1.04%, respectively; that of aspirin with PPI group being significantly lower (pupper gastrointestinal lesions were developed within two years in all groups. Our results suggest that the combined administration of low-dose aspirin and PPI is effective for the prevention of upper gastrointestinal lesions associated with low-dose aspirin. Also, the pharmacists should be especially careful for upper gastrointestinal lesions development within two years after administration of low-dose aspirin, regardless of combined whether H₂RA or PPI.

  17. Comfort, safety and quality of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy after 2 hours fasting: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Koeppe, Angélica Terezinha; Lubini, Marcio; Bonadeo, Nilton Maiolini; Moraes, Iran; Fornari, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Background Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy has been performed after fasting 8 or more hours, which can be harmful to the patients. We assessed comfort, safety and quality of endoscopy under moderate sedation after 2 hours fasting for clear liquids. Methods In this clinical trial, patients referred for elective endoscopy were randomly assigned to a fasting period of 8 hours (F8) or a shorter fasting (F2), in which 200 ml of clear liquids were ingested 2 hours before the procedure. Endoscopist...

  18. Gastric malignant schwannoma presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Masashi; Yoshida, Kayo; Takii, Mamiko; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Kanazawa, Akishige

    2012-01-25

    We report a case of gastric malignant schwannoma presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding. A 70-year-old Japanese man presented with gastrointestinal bleeding to our hospital. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a protruding lesion in the gastric body. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of biopsy specimens from this lesion revealed sheets of spindle cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed that these cells were positive for S-100 protein and negative for c-Kit and smooth muscle actin. Because mitosis was diffusely visible, this tumor was diagnosed as a gastric malignant schwannoma. Distal gastrectomy with lymph node dissection was performed and the patient's postoperative course was uneventful. However, five months after the surgery, he died from multiple liver metastases. Cases of gastric malignant schwannoma have rarely been reported. The efficacy of surgical resection and postoperative prognosis continues to remain unclear and should be investigated further.

  19. Gastric malignant schwannoma presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takemura Masashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report a case of gastric malignant schwannoma presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding. Case presentation A 70-year-old Japanese man presented with gastrointestinal bleeding to our hospital. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a protruding lesion in the gastric body. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of biopsy specimens from this lesion revealed sheets of spindle cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed that these cells were positive for S-100 protein and negative for c-Kit and smooth muscle actin. Because mitosis was diffusely visible, this tumor was diagnosed as a gastric malignant schwannoma. Distal gastrectomy with lymph node dissection was performed and the patient's postoperative course was uneventful. However, five months after the surgery, he died from multiple liver metastases. Conclusion Cases of gastric malignant schwannoma have rarely been reported. The efficacy of surgical resection and postoperative prognosis continues to remain unclear and should be investigated further.

  20. Comparative analysis of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography, and the titer of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG focusing on the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamichi, Nobutake; Hirano, Chigaya; Takahashi, Yu; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Nakayama, Chiemi; Matsuda, Rie; Shimamoto, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Chihiro; Kodashima, Shinya; Ono, Satoshi; Tsuji, Yosuke; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Wada, Ryoichi; Mitsushima, Toru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2016-04-01

    Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGI-ES) and double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography (UGI-XR) are two major image-based methods to diagnose atrophic gastritis, which is mostly induced by Helicobacter pylori infection. However, there have been few studies directly comparing them. Atrophic gastritis was evaluated using the data of 962 healthy subjects who underwent UGI-ES and UGI-XR within 1 year. Based on UGI-ES and UGI-XR, 602 subjects did not have atrophic gastritis and 254 subjects did have it. Considering UGI-ES-based atrophic gastritis as the standard, sensitivity and specificity of UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis were 92.0 % (254/276) and 92.8 % (602/649), respectively. The seven-grade Kimura-Takemoto classification of UGI-ES-based atrophic gastritis showed a strong and significant association with the four-grade UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis. Sensitivity and specificity of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG to detect UGI-ES/UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis were 89.4 % (227/254) and 99.8 % (601/602), indicating that atrophic gastritis can be overlooked according to serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG alone.

  1. Follow-up study and evaluation of benign stricture of upper gastrointestinal tract with interventional procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yingsheng; Li Minghua; Zhuang Qixin; Shang Kezhong; Chen Weixiong; Chen Niwei

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To make follow-up study and evaluation of benign stricture of upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT) with interventional procedure. Methods: There were 85 cases of benign stricture of UGIT with interventional procedure. There were 35 cases with pneumatic dilation (group A), 25 cases with permanent (group B) placement, and 25 cases with temporary (group C) placement of expandable metallic stent, respectively. All cases were completed under fluoroscopy. 35 cases of group A had 67 times dilations (mean 1.9 times). Fifteen partial covered and 10 uncovered expandable metallic stents were permanently placed in the 25 cases of group B. 25 partial covered expandable metallic stents were temporarily placed in the 25 cases of group C, and the stents were drawn out via gastroscopy 3-7 days later. All stents placement and drawing were technically successful. The most strictured diameters of UGIT were 0.7-8.5 mm before dilations and 5.1-20.0 mm after dilations. Dysphagia scores of all cases were from grade 2 to 4 before dilations, and from grade 0 to 1 after dilations. Follow-up time of all cases was from 6 months to 36 months (mean 19.1 months). Results: Complications in group A included chest pain (n =10), reflux (n = 8), and bleeding (n = 3). Seven (20%) in 35 cases of group A had dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 6 months; 32 (91%) in 35 cases of group A had dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 12 months; 19(95%) in 20 cases of group A had dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 36 months. Complications in group B included chest pain (n = 10), reflux (n = 15), bleeding (n = 3), and stent migration (n = 4). Five (20%) in 25 cases of group B had dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 6 months; 3(25%) in 12 cases of group B had dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 12 months; 3 (60%) in 5 cases of group B had dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 36 months. Complications in group C included chest pain (n = 10), reflux (n = 3), and bleeding (n = 4). 3

  2. Novel approaches to upper gastrointestinal conditions: a focus on bleeding and malignancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.L. Holster (Ingrid)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Gastrointestinal (GI) conditions account for substantial burden and use of healthcare resources. It is estimated that GI conditions are responsible for 15-20% of general practitioner visits, hospital admissions, and drug use. Many of those conditions are related to

  3. Impaired contractility and remodeling of the upper gastrointestinal tract in diabetes mellitus type-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frokjaer, Jens Brondum; Andersen, Soren-Due; Ejskjaer, Niels; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Drewes, Asbjorn-Mohr; Gregersen, Hans

    2007-09-28

    To investigate that both the neuronal function of the contractile system and structural apparatus of the gastrointestinal tract are affected in patients with longstanding diabetes and auto mic neuropathy. The evoked esophageal and duodenal contractile activity to standardized bag distension was assessed using a specialized ultrasound-based probe. Twelve type-1 diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy and severe gastrointestinal symptoms and 12 healthy controls were studied. The geometry and biomechanical parameters (strain, tension/stress, and stiffness) were assessed. The diabetic patients had increased frequency of distension-induced contractions (6.0 +/- 0.6 vs 3.3 +/- 0.5, P 0.14). The impaired contractile activity with an imbalance in the distension-induced contractions likely reflects neuronal abnormalities due to autonomic neuropathy. However, structural changes and remodeling of the gastrointestinal tract are also evident and may add to the neuronal changes. This may contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetic gut dysfunction and impact on future management of diabetic patients with gastrointestinal symptoms.

  4. Monitoring the stepwise phytate degradation in the upper gastrointestinal tract of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemme, P.A.; Schlemmer, U.; Mroz, Z.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    The degradation and formation of inositol phosphates as affected by microbial phytase and gastrointestinal enzyme activities during the passage of phytate through the stomach and small intestine were studied in two experiments with four barrows and three collection periods. The degradation and

  5. A rare giant gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach traversing the upper abdomen: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Lei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present the case of a 66-year-old woman with a huge gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach that traversed her upper abdomen. The predominant abdominal sign was a huge, palpable mass, but there were no other distinctive findings in her physical examination or her routine blood workup, including biochemical markers. It was difficult to judge the origin of the mass upon imaging. Furthermore, radiological findings revealed that the mass had a complex relationship with many major blood vessels. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a huge tumor protruding from the anterior wall of the stomach fundus, on the lesser curvature of the stomach, measuring approximately 21 × 34 × 11 cm in diameter and weighing 5.5 kg. A complete resection was performed and the tumor was characterized on immunohistochemistry as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach. Preoperative diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors can be difficult, and we hope that the presentation of this rare case and literature review will benefit other diagnosing clinicians having similar problems.

  6. Electrophysiological and mechanical activity of the upper gastrointestinal tract after duodenoplasty or segmental resection of benign gastric outlet stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiper, C; Titkova, S M; Polivoda, M; Anurov, M; Arlt, G; Ottinger, A P; Schumpelick, V

    2000-03-01

    In an animal experimental study we examined the postoperative recovery of the motility of the upper gastrointestinal tract after operative treatment of a benign gastric outlet obstruction. At 45 Days after induction, a duodenal stenosis was resected in six dogs, and resolved by Finney's duodenoplasty in another six dogs. Fourteen days after segmental resection, the gastric emptying was faster [half evacuation time (T1/2) for semisolid food = 44.4 +/- 16.8 min] than following duodenoplasty [T1/2 = 56.8 +/- 25.3). Here motor migrating complexes (MMCs) started in the antrum and could be traced down to the jejunum. After segmental resection we recognized MMC only distal to the anastomosis. The duration of the whole MMC cycle (69.0 +/- 18.6 min) as well as of the single phases was significantly shorter in the resection group than after duodenoplasty (108.0 +/- 15.1 min). At 28 days after operation the differences in the electromyographic findings were smaller (82.0 +/- 15.1 min vs. 111.4 +/- 11.2 min), but still significant. Obviously humoral transmitters and the extrinsic neural system lead to good propagation of the MMC across the anastomosis, even before the intramural pathways are reestablished. Concerning the fast recovery of the motility of the upper gastrointestinal tract, duodenoplasty is superior to segmental duodenal resection.

  7. Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Detection of Synchronous Multiple Primary Cancers in Esophagus and Stomach: Single Center Experience from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to clarify the prevalence and clinicopathological features of synchronous multiple primary cancers (SMPCs under upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination. We enrolled 45,032 consecutive patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination for digestive disease from January 2006 to December 2007 in our hospital and analyzed the clinicopathological features of SMPCs in esophagus and stomach. SMPCs are defined as two or over two different cancerous lesions developing in the same or other organs within 6 months. SMPCs were identified in 46 patients (0.1%. The gender ratio was 5.6 : 1 (male/female and the mean age was 59.4 years. Synchronous esophageal and gastric cancers were the most frequent, being seen in 32 patients (0.07%. The most common histological types of SMPCs were squamous cell carcinoma in esophagus and adenocarcinoma in stomach, respectively. There were 27 (59% SMPCs patients who had the history of simultaneous exposure to tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. Additionally, 32 (78% esophageal squamous cell cancers were associated with tobacco use. And 23 adenocarcinomas of the stomach were associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  8. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients on long-term oral anticoagulation therapy: Endoscopic findings, clinical management and outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomopoulos, Konstantinos C; Mimidis, Konstantinos P; Theocharis, George J; Gatopoulou, Anthie G; Kartalis, Georgios N; Nikolopoulou, Vassiliki N

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is a severe complication in patients receiving long-term oral anticoagulant therapy. The purpose of this study was to describe the causes and clinical outcome of these patients. METHODS: From January 1999 to October 2003, 111 patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) were hospitalized while on oral anticoagulants. The causes and clinical outcome of these patients were compared with those of 604 patients hospitalized during 2000-2001 with AUGIB who were not taking warfarin. RESULTS: The most common cause of bleeding was peptic ulcer in 51 patients (45%) receiving anticoagulants compared to 359/604 (59.4%) patients not receiving warfarin (P<0.05). No identifiable source of bleeding could be found in 33 patients (29.7%) compared to 31/604 (5.1%) patients not receiving anticoagulants (P = 0.0001). The majority of patients with concurrent use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (26/35, 74.3%) had a peptic ulcer as a cause of bleeding while 32/76 (40.8%) patients not taking a great dose of NSAIDs had a negative upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. Endoscopic hemostasis was applied and no complication was reported. Six patients (5.4%) were operated due to continuing or recurrent hemorrhage, compared to 23/604 (3.8%) patients not receiving anticoagulants. Four patients died, the overall mortality was 3.6% in patients with AUGIB due to anticoagulants, which was not different from that in patients not receiving anticoagulant therapy. CONCLUSION: Patients with AUGIB while on long-term anticoagulant therapy had a clinical outcome, which is not different from that of patients not taking anticoagulants. Early endoscopy is important for the management of these patients and endoscopic hemostasis can be safely applied. PMID:15761977

  9. Polymorphisms in genes encoding acetylsalicylic acid metabolizing enzymes are unrelated to upper gastrointestinal health in cardiovascular patients on acetylsalicylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oijen, Martijn G H; Huybers, Sylvie; Peters, Wilbert H M; Drenth, Joost P H; Laheij, Robert J F; Verheugt, Freek W A; Jansen, Jan B M J

    2005-01-01

    Background As acetylsalicylic acid is metabolized by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A6 (UGT1A6) and cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9), interindividual differences in activity of these enzymes may modulate the effects and side-effects of acetylsalicylic acid. The objective of this study was to assess whether polymorphisms in UGT1A6 and CYP2C9 genes are related to the prevalence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in cardiovascular patients using acetylsalicylic acid for secondary prevention of ischaemic heart disease. Methods Blood samples were taken from acetylsalicylic acid using patients admitted to the Coronary Care Unit. Dyspepsia-related health was evaluated at week 2, using a validated upper gastrointestinal complaint questionnaire. A subset of 160 patients responded to a survey and were eligible to participate in this study. DNA was isolated and UGT1A6 and CYP2C9 genotypes were determined using polymerase chain reaction restricted fragment length polymorphism techniques. Results Seventy per cent of the patients returned the questionnaire. UGT1A6 and CYP2C9 variant polymorphisms were found in 103 (63%) and 56 (35%) patients, respectively. There was no association between gastrointestinal symptoms and UGT1A6 (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.41–1.56) or CYP2C9 polymorphisms (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.44–1.67). Conclusions There was no association between polymorphisms in genes encoding for acetylsalicylic acid metabolizing enzymes on the prevalence of gastric complaints in cardiovascular patients on acetylsalicylic acid. PMID:16305586

  10. The use of endoluminal vacuum (E-Vac) therapy in the management of upper gastrointestinal leaks and perforations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Nathan R; Fleshman, James W; Leeds, Steven G; Burdick, J S

    2016-06-01

    Upper intestinal leaks and perforations are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Despite the growing experience using endoscopically placed stents, the treatment of these leaks and perforations remain a challenge. Endoluminal vacuum (E-Vac) therapy is a novel treatment that has been successfully used in Germany to treat upper gastrointestinal leaks and perforations. There currently are no reports on its use in the USA. E-Vac therapy was used to treat 11 patients with upper gastrointestinal leaks and perforations from September 2013 to September 2014. Five patients with leaks following sleeve gastrectomy were excluded from this study. A total of six patients were treated with E-Vac therapy; these included: (n = 2) iatrogenic esophageal perforations, (n = 1) iatrogenic esophageal and gastric perforations, (n = 1) iatrogenic gastric perforation, (n = 1) gastric staple line leak following a surgical repair of a traumatic gastric perforation, and (n = 1) esophageal perforation due to an invasive fungal infection. Four patients had failed an initial surgical repair prior to starting E-Vac therapy. All six patients (100 %) had complete closure of their perforation or leak after an average of 35.8 days of E-Vac therapy requiring 7.2 different E-Vac changes. No deaths occurred in the 30 days following E-Vac therapy. One patient died following complete closure of his perforation and transfer to an acute care facility due to an unrelated complication. There were no complications directly related to the use of E-Vac therapy. Only one patient had any symptoms of dysphagia. This patient had severe dysphagia from an esophagogastric anastomotic stricture prior to her iatrogenic perforations. Following E-Vac therapy, her dysphagia had actually improved and she could now tolerate a soft diet. E-Vac therapy is a promising new method in the treatment of upper gastrointestinal leaks and perforations. Current successes need to be validated through future

  11. Endoscopic sclerotherapy in upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to the Mallory-Weiss syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataller, R; Llach, J; Salmerón, J M; Elizalde, J I; Mas, A; Piqué, J M; Brullet, E; Terés, J; Bordas, J M; Rodés, J

    1994-12-01

    Therapeutic endoscopic techniques have changed the need for emergency surgery in gastrointestinal bleeding episodes. However, there is only little information about endoscopic therapies in severe gastrointestinal bleeding due to the Mallory-Weiss syndrome. The aim of this clinical study was to assess the usefulness of early endoscopic examination and sclerotherapy for severe or recurrent bleeding due to the Mallory-Weiss syndrome. We studied all 50 cases of gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to the Mallory-Weiss syndrome seen in 2175 consecutive emergency endoscopic examinations performed in a University Hospital over a 3-year period. Endoscopic sclerotherapy (1/10000 adrenaline + 1% polidocanol) was performed in all patients with active bleeding or visible vessel at endoscopic examination. The remaining patients were medically treated. Active bleeding or a visible vessel were found in 13 patients; definitive hemostasis was obtained in all cases with sclerotherapy. The remaining 37 patients were successfully treated by conservative therapy. On admission, the severity of the hemorrhagic episodes was significantly higher in patients treated with sclerotherapy than in those who did not require this procedure. An esophageal perforation, successfully managed by conservative means, was the only complication recorded in the subset of patients undergoing sclerotherapy. Severe bleeding due to Mallory-Weiss syndrome can be successfully treated by sclerotherapy. Early endoscopic examination is an accurate procedure in identifying patients who do not require sclerotherapy.

  12. Upper gastrointestinal bleed in a post menopausal woman due to combination of high first dose aspirin and clopidogrel prescribed for acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal R Tandon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combination of aspirin, clopidogrel and enoxaparin remains the standard treatment for acute coronary syndrome (ACS but is known to increase the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleed (UGIB. We hereby report an unusual case of gastrointestinal bleed (GIB as it resulted inspite of proton pump inhibitor (PPI prophylaxis within the second day of treatment in a post-menopausal woman (PMW with high first dose of aspirin clopidogrel dual combination in a patient of ACS.

  13. Restrictive versus liberal blood transfusion for gastrointestinal bleeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odutayo, Ayodele; Desborough, Michael J R; Trivella, Marialena; Stanley, Adrian J; Dorée, Carolyn; Collins, Gary S; Hopewell, Sally; Brunskill, Susan J; Kahan, Brennan C; Logan, Richard F A; Barkun, Alan N; Murphy, Michael F; Jairath, Vipul

    2017-05-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a leading indication for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion worldwide, although optimal thresholds for transfusion are debated. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and the Transfusion Evidence Library from inception to Oct 20, 2016, for randomised controlled trials comparing restrictive and liberal RBC transfusion strategies for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Main outcomes were mortality, rebleeding, ischaemic events, and mean RBC transfusion. We computed pooled estimates for each outcome by random effects meta-analysis, and individual participant data for a cluster randomised trial were re-analysed to facilitate meta-analysis. We compared treatment effects between patient subgroups, including patients with liver cirrhosis, patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and patients with ischaemic heart disease at baseline. We included four published and one unpublished randomised controlled trial, totalling 1965 participants. The number of RBC units transfused was lower in the restrictive transfusion group than in the liberal transfusion group (mean difference -1·73 units, 95% CI -2·36 to -1·11, p<0·0001). Restrictive transfusion was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR] 0·65, 95% CI 0·44-0·97, p=0·03) and rebleeding overall (0·58, 0·40-0·84, p=0·004). We detected no difference in risk of ischaemic events. There were no statistically significant differences in the subgroups. These results support more widespread implementation of restrictive transfusion policies for adults with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. None. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distinction between upper and lower gastrointestinal perforation: Usefulness of the periportal free air sign on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Yoon, Seong Eon; Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Hyewon; Lee, Young-Hwan; Yoon, Kwon-Ha

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of the periportal free air (PPFA) sign on computed tomography (CT) to distinguish upper from lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract perforation. Materials and methods: During a 30-month period, we retrospectively analyzed abdominal CT images of 53 consecutive patients with surgically proven GI tract perforation. We divided the patients into two groups, i.e. upper and lower GI tract perforation groups. According to the distribution of free air, we divided the peritoneal cavity into supramesocolic compartment and inframesocolic compartment. We observed the presence or absence of free air in each compartment in each group. When there was free air in the periportal area, it was defined as periportal free air (PPFA) and the sign was positive. To evaluate the usefulness of the PPFA sign, we compared the PPFA sign with the falciform ligament sign and the ligamentum teres sign, both of which are well-known CT signs of pneumoperitoneum. Statistical analyses were performed with univariate and multivariate analyses using SPSS version 11.5 for significant findings among the CT signs. Results: Free air was seen in supramesocolic compartment in 29 of 30 (97%) patients in the upper GI perforation group and in 17 of 23 (74%) in the lower GI perforation group. Free air in inframesocolic compartment did not show significant difference in either group (p = .16). The PPFA sign was seen in 28 of 30 (93%) patients with upper GI tract perforation, but in only 8 of 23 (35%) patients with lower GI tract perforation (p < .0001). The falciform ligament sign was seen in 24 of 30 (80%) patients with upper GI tract perforation and in 10 of 23 (43%) patients with lower GI tract perforation (p = .020). The ligamentum teres sign was seen in 16 of 30 (53%) patients with upper GI tract perforation and in 2 of 23 (8%) patients with lower GI tract perforation (p = .008). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the PPFA sign was the only variable, which

  15. Changes in the serum protein profile during radiotherapy to the upper respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, M.; Lobera, A.; Legrand, E.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with a cancer of the upper airways of upper gastro-intestinal tract present a state of malnutrition as a result of the disease itself and, more importantly, as a result of its localisation. Loco-regional radiotherapy often leads to an aggravation, of this state. The protein profile, consisting of nine serum proteins, was determined each week in 54 patients with cancer of the upper respirato-gastro-intestinal tract receiving radiotherapy. During the course of radiotherapy, the already altered nutritional state of these patients deteriorated further, as shown by a regular and significant downturn in the weight curve. The weekly monitoring of the protein profile showed a gradual and significant decrease in the levels of nutritional proteins (prealbumin, retinol binding protein, transferrin) and immunoglobulins (IgM, IgA) and a small variation in the levels of inflammatory proteins (haptoglobin, orosomucoid, C3 complement fraction, alpha 1 -antitrypsin). The protein profile, established on the basis of carefully selected proteins, can provide useful information in the monitoring of a patient's nutritional state [fr

  16. Clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients with upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies. A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M B; Pless, T; Durup, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Several studies have evaluated the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB) in the upper gastrointestinal tract, but so far no studies have specifically evaluated the clinical impact of EUS-FNAB in upper gastrointestinal tract...... cancer patients. In this consecutive and prospective study, EUS-FNAB was only performed if a positive malignant finding would change the therapeutic strategy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1997 and 1999, 307 consecutive patients were referred for EUS with a diagnosis or strong suspicion of esophageal...

  17. Review of Pure Endoscopic Full-Thickness Resection of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Fujihara, Shintaro; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) using flexible endoscopy has attracted attention as a minimally invasive surgical method that does not cause an operative wound on the body surface. However, minimizing the number of devices involved in endoscopic, compared to laparoscopic, surgeries has remained a challenge, causing endoscopic surgeries to gradually be phased out of use. If a flexible endoscopic full-thickness suturing device and a counter-traction device were developed to expand the surgical field for gastrointestinal-tract collapse, then endoscopic full-thickness resection using NOTES, which is seen as an extension of endoscopic submucosal dissection for full-thickness excision of tumors involving the gastrointestinal-tract wall, might become an extremely minimally invasive surgical method that could be used to resect only full-thickness lesions approached by the shortest distance via the mouth. It is expected that gastroenterological endoscopists will use this surgery if device development is advanced. This extremely minimally invasive surgery would have an immeasurable impact with regard to mitigating the burden on patients and reducing healthcare costs. Development of a new surgical method using a multipurpose flexible endoscope is therefore considered a socially urgent issue. PMID:26343069

  18. Expression of taste molecules in the upper gastrointestinal tract in humans with and without type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R L; Sutherland, K; Pezos, N; Brierley, S M; Horowitz, M; Rayner, C K; Blackshaw, L A

    2009-03-01

    Nutrient feedback from the small intestine modulates upper gastrointestinal function and energy intake; however, the molecular mechanism of nutrient detection is unknown. In the tongue, sugars are detected via taste T1R2 and T1R3 receptors and signalled via the taste G-protein alpha-gustducin (G alpha(gust)) and the transient receptor potential ion channel, TRPM5. These taste molecules are also present in the rodent small intestine, and may regulate gastrointestinal function. Absolute transcript levels for T1R2, T1R3, G alpha(gust) and TRPM5 were quantified in gastrointestinal mucosal biopsies from subjects with and without type 2 diabetes; immunohistochemistry was used to locate G alpha(gust). Effects of luminal glucose on jejunal expression of taste molecules were also quantified in mice. T1R2, T1R3, G alpha(gust) and TRPM5 were preferentially expressed in the proximal small intestine in humans, with immunolabelling for G alpha(gust) localised to solitary cells dispersed throughout the duodenal villous epithelium. Expression of T1R2, T1R3, TRPM5 (all p<0.05) and G alpha(gust) (p<0.001) inversely correlated with blood glucose concentration in type 2 diabetes subjects but, as a group, did not differ from control subjects. Transcript levels of T1R2 were reduced by 84% following jejunal glucose perfusion in mice (p<0.05). Taste molecules are expressed in nutrient detection regions of the proximal small intestine in humans, consistent with a role in "tasting". This taste molecule expression is decreased in diabetic subjects with elevated blood glucose concentration, and decreased by luminal glucose in mice, indicating that intestinal "taste" signalling is under dynamic metabolic and luminal control.

  19. Characteristics of the Human Upper Gastrointestinal Contents in the Fasted State Under Hypo- and A-chlorhydric Gastric Conditions Under Conditions of Typical Drug - Drug Interaction Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litou, Chara; Vertzoni, Maria; Goumas, Constantinos; Vasdekis, Vassilis; Xu, Wei; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Reppas, Christos

    2016-06-01

    Evaluate the impact of reduced gastric acid secretion after administration of two acid-reducing agents on the physicochemical characteristics of contents of upper gastrointestinal lumen of fasted adults. Eight healthy male adults, fasted from food for 12 h, participated in a three-phase crossover study. Phase 1: No drug treatment prior to aspirations. Phase 2: Oral administration of 40 mg pantoprazole at ~9 am the last 3 days prior to aspirations and at ~7 am on aspiration day. Phase 3: Oral administration of 20 mg famotidine at ~7 pm prior to aspirations and at ~7 am on aspiration day. Samples from the contents of upper gastrointestinal lumen were aspirated for 50 min, after administration of 240 ml table water at ~9 am. Reduction of gastric acid secretion was accompanied by reduced buffer capacity, chloride ion concentration, osmolality and surface tension in stomach and by increased pH (up to ~0.7 units) in upper small intestine during the first 50 min post-water administration. The mechanism of reduction of acid secretion seems to be important for the buffer capacity in stomach and for the surface tension in upper gastrointestinal lumen. Apart from gastric pH, reduced acid secretion affects physicochemical characteristics of contents of upper gastrointestinal lumen which may be important for the performance of certain drugs/products in the fasted state.

  20. Detection and localization of acute upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding with arterial phase multi-detector row helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeckle, T.; Stuber, G.; Hoffmann, M.H.K.; Jeltsch, M.; Schmitz, B.L.; Aschoff, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of multi-detector row helical CT (MDCT) for detection and localization of acute upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage or intraperitoneal bleeding. Thirty-six consecutive patients with clinical signs of acute bleeding underwent biphasic (16- or 40-channel) MDCT. MDCT findings were correlated with endoscopy, angiography or surgery. Among the 36 patients evaluated, 26 were examined for GI bleeding and 10 for intraperitoneal hemorrhage. Confirmed sites of GI bleeding were the stomach (n = 5), duodenum (n = 5), small bowel (n = 6), large bowel (n = 8) and rectum (n = 2). The correct site of bleeding was identifiable on MDCT in 24/26 patients with GI bleeding. In 20 of these 24 patients, active CM extravasation was apparent during the exam. Among the ten patients with intraperitoneal hemorrhage, MDCT correctly identified the bleeding source in nine patients. Our findings suggest that fast and accurate localization of acute gastrointestinal and intraperitoneal bleeding is achievable on MDCT. (orig.)

  1. Opium as a risk factor for upper gastrointestinal cancers: a population-based case-control study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibzadeh Tahami, Ahmad; Khanjani, Narges; Yazdi Feyzabadi, Vahid; Varzandeh, Masoomeh; Haghdoost, Ali-Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancers, including esophageal, gastric, liver and pancreatic are relatively common in Iran. Furthermore, consumption of opium and its derivatives (O&D) are considerable. This study, aimed to examine the association between consumption of O&D and the incidence of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancers. In a matched case-control study in Kerman (located in southeast of Iran), 142 patients with UGI cancers and 284 healthy people (matched in terms of age, sex and residence (urban/rural)) were recruited. Variables (using O&D, smoking, alcohol use and diet) were collected using a structured questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the above mentioned association. Opium use was associated with an increased risk of UGI cancers with an adjusted OR 4.0 (95% CI=2.2-7.0). A very strong dose-response relation was observed between consumption of O&D and the incidence of UGI cancers. (Three consumption levels-none, low and high; OR=18.7; 95% CI=5.5-63.3). This dose-response relationship was also strong even in patients with gastric cancers (OR=9.2; 95% CI=2.5-33.7). The results of this study showed that opium consumption can be a strong risk factor for UGI cancers in Iran.

  2. Mallory-Weiss syndrome. Characterization of 75 Mallory-weiss lacerations in 528 patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauer, C M

    1976-07-01

    Seventy-five Mallory-Weiss lacerations were visualized endoscopically in 58 of 528 patients evaluated acutely for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The Mallory-Weiss mucosal laceration is more common than generally recognized, is usually associated with hiatal hernia and a prodrome of retching or vomiting, and the ingestion of alcohol or acetylsalicyclic acid, or both. The lacerations are most commonly gastric and are associated with other mucosal lesions which may in fact be the instigating cause of the retching and vomiting. Although blood loss may be considerable, 90% or more patients with this lesion can be managed nonsurgically with appropriate blood component replacement and occasional use of systemic pitressin. There was one fatality in this series of 58 patients with Mallory-Weiss lacerations.

  3. Restrictive versus liberal blood transfusion for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (TRIGGER): a pragmatic, open-label, cluster randomised feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairath, Vipul; Kahan, Brennan C; Gray, Alasdair; Doré, Caroline J; Mora, Ana; James, Martin W; Stanley, Adrian J; Everett, Simon M; Bailey, Adam A; Dallal, Helen; Greenaway, John; Le Jeune, Ivan; Darwent, Melanie; Church, Nicholas; Reckless, Ian; Hodge, Renate; Dyer, Claire; Meredith, Sarah; Llewelyn, Charlotte; Palmer, Kelvin R; Logan, Richard F; Travis, Simon P; Walsh, Timothy S; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-07-11

    Transfusion thresholds for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding are controversial. So far, only three small, underpowered studies and one single-centre trial have been done. Findings from the single-centre trial showed reduced mortality with restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. We aimed to assess whether a multicentre, cluster randomised trial is a feasible method to substantiate or refute this finding. In this pragmatic, open-label, cluster randomised feasibility trial, done in six university hospitals in the UK, we enrolled all patients aged 18 years or older with new presentations of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, irrespective of comorbidity, except for exsanguinating haemorrhage. We randomly assigned hospitals (1:1) with a computer-generated randomisation sequence (random permuted block size of 6, without stratification or matching) to either a restrictive (transfusion when haemoglobin concentration fell below 80 g/L) or liberal (transfusion when haemoglobin concentration fell below 100 g/L) RBC transfusion policy. Neither patients nor investigators were masked to treatment allocation. Feasibility outcomes were recruitment rate, protocol adherence, haemoglobin concentration, RBC exposure, selection bias, and information to guide design and economic evaluation of the phase 3 trial. Main exploratory clinical outcomes were further bleeding and mortality at day 28. We did analyses on all enrolled patients for whom an outcome was available. This trial is registered, ISRCTN85757829 and NCT02105532. Between Sept 3, 2012, and March 1, 2013, we enrolled 936 patients across six hospitals (403 patients in three hospitals with a restrictive policy and 533 patients in three hospitals with a liberal policy). Recruitment rate was significantly higher for the liberal than for the restrictive policy (62% vs 55%; p=0·04). Despite some baseline imbalances, Rockall and Blatchford risk scores were identical between policies. Protocol adherence was 96% (SD 10) in

  4. Upper Gastro-Intestinal Endoscopy in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: An Audit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Accurate diagnosis of disease conditions using laboratory, imaging or endoscopic investigation is essential for appropriate treatment. There is paucity of data on upper GI endoscopy in Port-Harcourt. This audit of our early experience is intended to provide data on the pattern of endoscopy findings which is ...

  5. Management of overt upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a low resource setting: a real world report from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatise, Olusegun I; Aderibigbe, Adeniyi S; Adisa, Adewale O; Adekanle, Olusegun; Agbakwuru, Augustine E; Arigbabu, Anthony O

    2014-12-10

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) remains a common medical problem worldwide that has significant associated morbidity, mortality, and health care resource use. This study outlines the aetiology, clinical presentation, and treatment outcomes of patients with UGIB in a Nigerian low resource health facility. This was a descriptive study of consecutive patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy for upper GI bleeding in the endoscopy unit of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria from January 2007 to December 2013. During the study period, 287 (12.4%) of 2,320 patients who underwent upper GI endoscopies had UGIB. Of these, 206 (72.0%) patients were males and their ages ranged from 3 to 100 years with a median age of 49 years. The main clinical presentation included passage of melaena stool in 268 (93.4%) of individuals, 173 (60.3%) had haematemesis, 110 (38.3%) had haematochezia, and 161 (56.1%) were dizzy at presentation. Observed in 88 (30.6%) of UGIB patients, duodenal ulcer was the most common cause, followed by varices [52 (18.1%)] and gastritis [51 (17.1%)]. For variceal bleeding, 15 (28.8%) and 21 (40.4%) of patients had injection sclerotherapy and variceal band ligation, respectively. The overall rebleeding rate for endoscopic therapy for varices was 16.7%. For patients with ulcers, only 42 of 55 who had Forrest grade Ia to IIb ulcers were offered endoscopic therapy. Endoscopic therapy was áin 90.5% of the cases. No rebleeding followed endoscopic therapy for the ulcers. The obtained Rockall scores ranged from 2 to 10 and the median was 5.0. Of all patients, 92.7% had medium or high risk scores. An increase in Rockall score was significantly associated with length of hospital stay and mortality (p < 0.001). The overall mortality rate was 5.9% (17 patients). Endoscopic therapy for UGIB in a resource-poor setting such as Nigeria is feasible, significantly reduces morbidity and mortality

  6. Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectra of different anatomical locations in the upper gastrointestinal tract toward cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Ho, Khek Yu; Teh, Ming; Yeoh, Khay Guan; So, Jimmy Bok Yan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2011-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical vibrational technology capable of probing biomolecular changes of tissue associated with cancer transformation. This study aimed to characterize in vivo Raman spectroscopic properties of tissues belonging to different anatomical regions in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract and explore the implications for early detection of neoplastic lesions during clinical gastroscopy. A novel fiber-optic Raman endoscopy technique was utilized for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements of normal esophageal (distal, middle, and proximal), gastric (antrum, body, and cardia) as well as cancerous esophagous and gastric tissues from 107 patients who underwent endoscopic examinations. The non-negativity-constrained least squares minimization coupled with a reference database of Raman active biochemicals (i.e., actin, histones, collagen, DNA, and triolein) was employed for semiquantitative biomolecular modeling of tissue constituents in the upper GI. A total of 1189 in vivo Raman spectra were acquired from different locations in the upper GI. The Raman spectra among the distal, middle, and proximal sites of the esophagus showed no significant interanatomical variability. The interanatomical variability of Raman spectra among normal gastric tissue (antrum, body, and cardia) was subtle compared to cancerous tissue transformation, whereas biomolecular modeling revealed significant differences between the two organs, particularly in the gastroesophageal junction associated with proteins, DNA, and lipids. Cancerous tissues can be identified across interanatomical regions with accuracies of 89.3% [sensitivity of 92.6% (162/175) specificity of 88.6% (665/751)], and of 94.7% [sensitivity of 90.9% (30/33) specificity of 93.9% (216/230)] in the gastric and esophagus, respectively, using partial least squares-discriminant analysis together with the leave-one tissue site-out, cross validation. This work demonstrates that Raman endoscopy technique has

  7. Thirty-day Readmissions After Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: A National Perspective in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Smit D; Desai, Rupak; Patel, Upenkumar; Singh, Sandeep; Patel, Zinal; Patel, Neel; Zhang, Allan; Panwala, Amruta H; Khan, Vinshi N; Singh, Gagandeep; Shah, Nihar

    2018-03-20

    Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage (LGIH) are 2 of the most common reasons for hospital admissions across the United States. The 30-day readmission after index admission poses a major burden on the health care infrastructure, and thus, it is important to assess the causes of 30-day readmission for patients with UGIH and LGIH. The study cohort was derived from the 2013 National Readmission Database. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) Volume 3 diagnosis codes were utilized to identify UGIH and LGIH patients from this data set. Patients who were readmitted to the hospital within 30 days within the same calendar year were further analyzed. Categorical variables and continuous variables were assessed by the χ test and the student t test, respectively. The independent predictors of unplanned 30-day readmissions were recognized by multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for stratified cluster design of National Readmission Database. SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) was used for data analysis. The number of index admissions identified from the National Readmission Data 2013 were 82,290 for UGIH and 133,114 for LGIH. All-cause 30-day readmission rate for UGIH versus LGIH was 14.6% (readmitted N=12,046; 56.64% age 65 y and above) versus 14.4% (readmitted N=19,128; 70.21% age 65 y and above and 49.61% men). Gastrointestinal causes were most common (33.9% vs. 39.6%), followed by cardiac (13.3% vs. 15.3%), infectious (10.4% vs. 9.1%), and respiratory causes (7.8% vs. 7.1%) for 30-day readmission for UGIH and LGIH. Significant predictors of increased 30-day readmission (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, P-value) included metastatic disease (2.15, 1.75-2.64, P3 days (1.50, 1.38-1.63, P<0.001). Predictors for 30-day readmission for LGIH included metastatic disease (1.75, 1.48-2.06, P<0.001), liver disease (1.59, 1.49-1.71, P<0.001), and drug abuse (1.38, 1

  8. Outcome of index upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in patients presenting with dysphagia in a tertiary care hospital-A 10 years review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fielding John W

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with malignant tumours of the upper gastrointestinal tract tumours exhibit important alarm symptoms such as dysphagia that warrant clinical investigations. An endoscopic examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract will be required in most cases. This study evaluates the diagnostic potential of index endoscopy in a random population of patients with dysphagia. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data over 10 years. Patients with previous endoscopic evaluation or upper gastrointestinal pathology were excluded from the study. Data was analysed to see the number and frequency of abnormal findings in upper gastrointestinal tract, and their significance in relation to the presenting symptoms. Results Total number of index endoscopies was 13, 881. 913 patients were included in the study including 465 males (age range: 17–92 years, median: 55 years and 448 females (age range: 18–100, median: 59 years, with male to female ratio of 1.04: 1. Oesophagus was abnormal in 678 cases (74% and biopsies were taken in 428 patients (47%. Superficial oesophagitis, Barrett's oesophagus, oesophageal cancer, and oesophageal ulcer were main histological findings. Age more than 50 years and weight loss were significant predictors of oesophageal cancer (p Conclusion OGD is an effective initial investigation to assess patients with dysphagia, especially males above the age of 50 years. Patients may be started on treatment or referred for further investigations, for example, a barium meal in the absence of any anatomical abnormality.

  9. Nurse-Led Follow-Up at Home vs. Conventional Medical Outpatient Clinic Follow-Up in Patients With Incurable Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer: A Randomized Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Uitdehaag (Madeleen); P.G. van Putten (Paul); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); E.M.L. Verschuur (Els); A. van der Gaast (Ate); C.J. Pek (Chulja); C.C.D. van der Rijt (Carin); R.A. de Man (Robert); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); C. Laheij (Claudia); P.D. Siersema (Peter); M.C.W. Spaander (Manon); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractContext: Upper gastrointestinal cancer is associated with a poor prognosis. The multidimensional problems of incurable patients require close monitoring and frequent support, which cannot sufficiently be provided during conventional one to two month follow-up visits to the outpatient

  10. Risk of gastrointestinal cancer in patients with unexplained chest/epigastric pain and normal upper endoscopy: a Danish 10-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Estrid Muff; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    patients with chest/epigastric pain, normal upper endoscopy, and no prior discharge diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (N = 386), compared with population controls (N = 3860). The overall 10-year risk of gastrointestinal cancer (stomach, colorectal, liver, and pancreas) was 2.9% for patients...

  11. [Quality of diagnostic procedures and frequency of endoscopically defined diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, F; Hahn, H-J; Stolte, M; Schmidt-Wilcke, H A

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this clinical investigation was to register the frequency of endoscopically defined diseases of the upper intestinal tract in a given region (Münster and Münsterland) within the period of one year (1.8.1999-31.7.2000). Furthermore, we tried to get an impression on the quality of the upper intestinoscopies by standardised conditions which had been developed by a steering committee (endoscopists and pathologists). 20 physicians (internal specialists and gastroenterologists) examined non-preselected patients and registered all relevant findings in the upper intestinal tract. The following items were of special interest: sex, age, operations in the past, indication, way of preparation, local findings (in the upper intestinal tract), and histological assessment. The examination forms were gathered, checked for completeness and evaluated statistically. Within the given period 8859 examinations forms (45.2% male and 54% female) could be evaluated. In 16% of the patients a reflux oesophagitis was diagnosed, three times more frequently than could have been expected anamnestically regarding the patients' complaints. In 274 patients (3%) the endoscopist suspected a Barrett's oesophagus; the according histological examination confirmed this suspicion in only 125 cases. Furthermore 17 adenocarcinomas and 13 squamous cell carcinomas were found. Macroscopically 44 polyps were registered but not all of them were biopsied. In 257 patients oesophageal varices (of varying degrees) were described. Only in 30.7% of the patients a H. pylori infection (diagnosed by urease test and by histological examination) was detected in the mucosa of the stomach. In 172 patients a gastritis was macroscopically suspected but the following histological assessments were not sufficient. The prevalence of gastric ulcers was 10 %, higher than the prevalence of duodenal ulcers. Only in 50% of the patients with a duodenal ulcer a H. pylori infection could be detected. In 51 cases carcinomas

  12. Will mouth wash solutions of water, salt, sodiumbicarbonate or citric acid improve upper gastrointestinal symptoms in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Karen Joy

    2017-03-01

    Uraemic symptoms including taste changes, nausea and dry retching are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Taste buds detect five basic tastes: sweet, salty, sour, umami and bitter. Saliva in CKD usually has increased concentrations of urea, sodium, potassium, phosphate and higher pH levels. Genetic sensitivities to the bitter taste, with the changes in saliva can cause taste changes and impact uraemic symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess if mouth wash solutions of water, salt, sodium bicarbonate or citric acid improves upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in CKD patients. An interventional crossover study with 42 CKD patients (21 men, 21 women) complaining of upper GI symptoms were recruited. Subjects completed a questionnaire to assess symptoms and tested for genetic taste sensitivities. Saliva samples were analysed. Mouth rinse solutions of salt, bicarbonate, citric acid and de-ionised water were trialled in randomized order for patient reaction and symptom improvement. All 42 patients experienced anorexia, 39 (93%) reported taste changes, 27 (48%) nausea and 27 (48%) dry retching. All solutions improved symptoms in some patients. Sodium bicarbonate (P = 0.005) gave the greatest improvement in mouth feel and symptom control compared with the least favoured citric acid solution. Sixty-six percent of patients found sodium bicarbonate beneficial with 40% preference over other solutions. Simple mouthwashes can be used to relieve or eliminate some uraemic symptoms. Rinsing the mouth with a sodium bicarbonate solution cleanses receptors on taste buds and may alter mouth pH thereby reducing some upper GI symptoms that CKD patients can experience. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  13. Efficacy of omeprazole, famotidine, mosapride and teprenone in patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms: an omeprazole-controlled randomized study (J-FOCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakurai Kouichi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan, treatment guidelines are lacking for patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms. We aimed to compare the efficacy of different drugs for the treatment of uninvestigated upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, parallel-group multicenter study. Helicobacter pylori-negative, endoscopically uninvestigated patients ≥ 20 years of age with upper gastrointestinal symptoms of at least moderate severity (Global Overall Symptom score [GOS] ≥ 4 on a 7-point Likert scale were randomized to treatment with omeprazole (10 mg once daily, famotidine (10 mg twice daily, mosapride (5 mg three times daily or teprenone (50 mg three times daily. The primary endpoint was sufficient relief of upper gastrointestinal symptoms after 4 weeks of treatment (GOS ≤ 2. UMIN clinical trial registration number: UMIN000005399. Results Of 471 randomized patients, 454 were included in the full analysis set. After 4 weeks of treatment, sufficient symptom relief was achieved by 66.9% of patients in the omeprazole group, compared with 41.0%, 36.3% and 32.3% in the famotidine, mosapride and teprenone groups, respectively (all, p  Conclusions The favorable efficacy and safety profiles of omeprazole in relieving uninvestigated upper gastrointestinal symptoms support its use as first-line treatment in this patient group in Japan. Patients who show no improvement in symptoms despite PPI use, and those with alarm symptoms (such as vomiting, GI bleeding or acute weight loss should receive further investigation, including prompt referral for endoscopy. Trial registration UMIN000005399.

  14. Diagnostic Yield of Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Endoscopies in Children in a Tertiary Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Mike; Sharma, Shishu

    2017-06-01

    Endoscopy is integral to the diagnosis and management of many gastrointestinal problems in children. Recently the number of endoscopic procedures performed has increased considerably worldwide raising questions about their appropriateness and cost-efficacy. The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic yield (the likelihood that a procedure or test will provide information required to establish a diagnosis) of endoscopy in a paediatric population in a large tertiary referral centre and to determine the terminal ileum intubation (TII) rate of paediatric ileocolonosocopy (IC) in an active training environment and compare with previously calculated rates. Random selection of cases from a theatre electronic database from a 30-month period covering April 2012 to October 2014. The data were collected for initial presenting symptoms; age at diagnosis; indications for endoscopy; endoscopic findings; histopathological findings; and any change in management postendoscopic procedure. The diagnostic yield of the endoscopies and the TII rate of IC were calculated. Change in and contribution to management was assessed. Median age 9.58 (0.5-16.5) years and M:F ratio 1:1.42. The positive diagnostic yield was 18.9% for oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy alone, 32.6% for IC alone, and 39.2% when both occurred. In 45% management was actively changed due to endoscopy/histopathology findings and a significant management contribution occurred in all patients. TII was achieved in 98% of cases, which compares favourably to a TII rate of 89% at the same centre during the period 2009 to 2011. Diagnostic yield was 32.6% for IC and 39.2% when oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy also occurred. A TII rate of 98% should be achievable in children. A change in management occurred in 45% and as a significant negative finding may be as important as a positive diagnosis for exclusion of suspected disorders, with consequent reassurance and change in management. Contribution to management was therefore

  15. Restrictive vs liberal blood transfusion for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: rationale and protocol for a cluster randomized feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairath, Vipul; Kahan, Brennan C; Gray, Alasdair; Doré, Caroline J; Mora, Ana; Dyer, Claire; Stokes, Elizabeth A; Llewelyn, Charlotte; Bailey, Adam A; Dallal, Helen; Everett, Simon M; James, Martin W; Stanley, Adrian J; Church, Nicholas; Darwent, Melanie; Greenaway, John; Le Jeune, Ivan; Reckless, Ian; Campbell, Helen E; Meredith, Sarah; Palmer, Kelvin R; Logan, Richard F A; Travis, Simon P L; Walsh, Timothy S; Murphy, Michael F

    2013-07-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) is the commonest reason for hospitalization with hemorrhage in the UK and the leading indication for transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs). Observational studies suggest an association between more liberal RBC transfusion and adverse patient outcomes, and a recent randomised trial reported increased further bleeding and mortality with a liberal transfusion policy. TRIGGER (Transfusion in Gastrointestinal Bleeding) is a pragmatic, cluster randomized trial which aims to evaluate the feasibility and safety of implementing a restrictive versus liberal RBC transfusion policy in adult patients admitted with AUGIB. The trial will take place in 6 UK hospitals, and each centre will be randomly allocated to a transfusion policy. Clinicians throughout each hospital will manage all eligible patients according to the transfusion policy for the 6-month trial recruitment period. In the restrictive centers, patients become eligible for RBC transfusion when their hemoglobin is liberal centers patients become eligible for transfusion once their hemoglobin is <10 g/dL. All clinicians will have the discretion to transfuse outside of the policy but will be asked to document the reasons for doing so. Feasibility outcome measures include protocol adherence, recruitment rate, and evidence of selection bias. Clinical outcome measures include further bleeding, mortality, thromboembolic events, and infections. Quality of life will be measured using the EuroQol EQ-5D at day 28, and the costs associated with hospitalization for AUGIB in the UK will be estimated. Consent will be sought from participants or their representatives according to patient capacity for use of routine hospital data and day 28 follow up. The study has ethical approval for conduct in England and Scotland. Results will be analysed according to a pre-defined statistical analysis plan and disseminated in peer reviewed publications to relevant stakeholders. The results of this

  16. Trends in upper gastrointestinal diagnosis over four decades in Lusaka, Zambia: a retrospective analysis of endoscopic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayamba, Violet; Sinkala, Edford; Mwanamakondo, Stayner; Soko, Rose; Kawimbe, Boniface; Amadi, Beatrice; Zulu, Isaac; Nzaisenga, Jean-Baptiste; Banda, Themba; Mumbwe, Chipasha; Phiri, Evans; Munkonge, Philip; Kelly, Paul

    2015-10-06

    There a shortage of robust information about profiles of gastrointestinal disease in sub-Saharan Africa. The endoscopy unit of the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka has been running without interruption since 1977 and this 38-year record is largely intact. We report an analysis of endoscopic findings over this period. Written endoscopy records from 29th September 1977 to 16th December 2014 were recovered, computerised, coded by two experienced endoscopists and analysed. Temporal trends were analysed using tables, graphs, and unconditional logistic regression, with age, sex of patient, decade, and endoscopist as independent variables to adjust for inter-observer variation. Sixteen thousand nine hundred fifty-three records were identified and analysed. Diagnosis of gastric ulcer rose by 22 %, and that of duodenal ulcer fell by 14 % per decade. Endoscopically diagnosed oesophageal cancer increased by 32 % per decade, but gastric cancer rose only in patients under 60 years of age (21 % per decade). Oesophageal varices were the commonest finding in patients presenting with haematemesis, increasing by 14 % per decade in that patient group. Two HIV-related diagnoses, oesophageal candidiasis and Kaposi's sarcoma, rose from almost zero to very high levels in the 1990s but fell substantially after 2005 when anti-retroviral therapy became widely available. This useful dataset suggests that there are important trends in some endoscopic findings over four decades. These trends are not explained by inter-observer variation. Reasons for the divergent trends in incidence of peptic ulceration and apparent trends in diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal cancers merit further exploration.

  17. Tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy for upper gastrointestinal tract imaging by using ball lens probe (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Gora, Michalina J.; Reddy, Rohith; Trasischker, Wolfgang; Poupart, Oriane; Lu, Weina; Carruth, Robert W.; Grant, Catriona N.; Soomro, Amna R.; Tiernan, Aubrey R.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Nishioka, Norman S.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2016-03-01

    While endoscopy is the most commonly used modality for diagnosing upper GI tract disease, this procedure usually requires patient sedation that increases cost and mandates its operation in specialized settings. In addition, endoscopy only visualizes tissue superfically at the macroscopic scale, which is problematic for many diseases that manifest below the surface at a microscopic scale. Our lab has previously developed technology termed tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy (TCE) to overcome these diagnostic limitations of endoscopy. The TCE device is a swallowable capsule that contains optomechanical components that circumferentially scan the OCT beam inside the body as the pill traverses the organ via peristalsis. While we have successfully imaged ~100 patients with the TCE device, the optics of our current device have many elements and are complex, comprising a glass ferrule, optical fiber, glass spacer, GRIN lens and prism. As we scale up manufacturing of this device for clinical translation, we must decrease the cost and improve the manufacturability of the capsule's optical configuration. In this abstract, we report on the design and development of simplificed TCE optics that replace the GRIN lens-based configuration with an angle-polished ball lens design. The new optics include a single mode optical fiber, a glass spacer and an angle polished ball lens, that are all fusion spliced together. The ball lens capsule has resolutions that are comparable with those of our previous GRIN lens configuration (30µm (lateral) × 7 µm (axial)). Results in human subjects show that OCT-based TCE using the ball lens not only provides rapid, high quality microstructural images of upper GI tract, but also makes it possible to implement this technology inexpensively and on a larger scale.

  18. Analysis of Dosimetric Parameters Associated With Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity and Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients Treated With Gemcitabine-Based Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira; Shibuya, Keiko; Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Shiinoki, Takehiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the dosimetric parameters associated with gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) treated with gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The data from 40 patients were analyzed retrospectively. Chemoradiotherapy consisted of conventional fractionated three-dimensional radiotherapy and weekly gemcitabine. Treatment-related acute GI toxicity and upper GI bleeding (UGB) were graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Events, version 4.0. The dosimetric parameters (mean dose, maximal absolute dose which covers 2 cm 3 of the organ, and absolute volume receiving 10–50 Gy [V 10–50 ]) of the stomach, duodenum, small intestine, and a composite structure of the stomach and duodenum (StoDuo) were obtained. The planning target volume was also obtained. Univariate analyses were performed to identify the predictive factors for the risk of grade 2 or greater acute GI toxicity and grade 3 or greater UGB, respectively. Results: The median follow-up period was 15.7 months (range, 4–37). The actual incidence of acute GI toxicity was 33%. The estimated incidence of UGB at 1 year was 20%. Regarding acute GI toxicity, a V 50 of ≥16 cm 3 of the stomach was the best predictor, and the actual incidence in patients with V 50 3 of the stomach vs. those with V 50 of ≥16 cm 3 was 9% vs. 61%, respectively (p = 0.001). Regarding UGB, V 50 of ≥33 cm 3 of the StoDuo was the best predictor, and the estimated incidence at 1 year in patients with V 50 3 of the StoDuo vs. those with V 50 ≥33 cm 3 was 0% vs. 44%, respectively (p = 0.002). The dosimetric parameters correlated highly with one another. Conclusion: The irradiated absolute volume of the stomach and duodenum are important for the risk of acute GI toxicity and UGB. These results could be helpful in escalating the radiation doses using novel techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy, for the treatment of pancreatic

  19. Analysis of Dosimetric Parameters Associated With Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity and Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients Treated With Gemcitabine-Based Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Akira [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Shibuya, Keiko, E-mail: kei@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Shiinoki, Takehiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To identify the dosimetric parameters associated with gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) treated with gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The data from 40 patients were analyzed retrospectively. Chemoradiotherapy consisted of conventional fractionated three-dimensional radiotherapy and weekly gemcitabine. Treatment-related acute GI toxicity and upper GI bleeding (UGB) were graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Events, version 4.0. The dosimetric parameters (mean dose, maximal absolute dose which covers 2 cm{sup 3} of the organ, and absolute volume receiving 10-50 Gy [V{sub 10-50}]) of the stomach, duodenum, small intestine, and a composite structure of the stomach and duodenum (StoDuo) were obtained. The planning target volume was also obtained. Univariate analyses were performed to identify the predictive factors for the risk of grade 2 or greater acute GI toxicity and grade 3 or greater UGB, respectively. Results: The median follow-up period was 15.7 months (range, 4-37). The actual incidence of acute GI toxicity was 33%. The estimated incidence of UGB at 1 year was 20%. Regarding acute GI toxicity, a V{sub 50} of {>=}16 cm{sup 3} of the stomach was the best predictor, and the actual incidence in patients with V{sub 50} <16 cm{sup 3} of the stomach vs. those with V{sub 50} of {>=}16 cm{sup 3} was 9% vs. 61%, respectively (p = 0.001). Regarding UGB, V{sub 50} of {>=}33 cm{sup 3} of the StoDuo was the best predictor, and the estimated incidence at 1 year in patients with V{sub 50} <33 cm{sup 3} of the StoDuo vs. those with V{sub 50} {>=}33 cm{sup 3} was 0% vs. 44%, respectively (p = 0.002). The dosimetric parameters correlated highly with one another. Conclusion: The irradiated absolute volume of the stomach and duodenum are important for the risk of acute GI toxicity and UGB. These results could be helpful in escalating the radiation doses using novel

  20. [Is there an appropriate bispectral index for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in spontaneous breathing in the pediatric patient?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alados-Arboledas, F J; Millán-Bueno, M P; Expósito-Montes, J F; Arévalo-Garrido, A; Pérez-Parras, A; de la Cruz-Moreno, J

    2015-03-01

    The bispectral index (BIS) values that predict appropriate anesthetic level to perform an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in spontaneous breathing are not well established in Pediatrics. The objective of this study is to determine whether it is possible to find an appropriate, less profound, BIS level in the pediatric patient that would enable an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) to be performed in spontaneous breathing without causing gag reflex or motor response. A prospective study was designed and included 61 patients from 12-167 months old, and an ASAI-II who needed a diagnostic UGE. The study was conducted from October 2011 to March 2013. UGE performed with an anesthetic protocol using propofol. The vital signs measured were heart and respiratory rate, pulse oximetry, non-invasive blood pressure. The sedation level score (Ramsay scale) and BIS values were also measured. The first attempt was performed at BIS level 60-69, and this was not feasible, then the anesthetic was deepened and a second attempt made at BIS level 50-59. If this was still not possible a deeper anesthetic level was then achieved and a third attempt made at BIS level 45-49. Variables of interest were: effective BIS level (eBIS), BIS level at which UGE was performed without gag reflex or motor response; propofol total dose (mgkg(-1)), induction time (time from onset of sedation to effective start of UGE). A logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain an equation to estimate the possibility of UGE success. The distribution of the patient was: male 40%, female 60%, with 11 (18%) patients under 36 months. The statistical values are expressed as mean and standard deviation, with following results; age (months): 95.9±45.86; weight (kg): 30.5±14.68; effective BIS: 56.41±4.63; induction time (minutes): 11.07±2.69; total propofol dose (per kg): 4.86±1.21. An additional intra-procedure propofol bolus was given in 38 patients (62%), with 7/38 of them (18%) due to movement, and 31

  1. Comfort, safety and quality of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy after 2 hours fasting: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy has been performed after fasting 8 or more hours, which can be harmful to the patients. We assessed comfort, safety and quality of endoscopy under moderate sedation after 2 hours fasting for clear liquids. Methods In this clinical trial, patients referred for elective endoscopy were randomly assigned to a fasting period of 8 hours (F8) or a shorter fasting (F2), in which 200 ml of clear liquids were ingested 2 hours before the procedure. Endoscopists blinded to patients fasting status carried out the endoscopies. Comfort was rated by the patients, whereas safety and quality were determined by the endoscopists. Results Ninety-eight patients were studied (aging 48.5 ± 16.5 years, 60% women): 50 patients (51%) in F2 and 48 in F8. Comfort was higher in F2 than F8 in regard to anxiety (8% vs. 25%; P = 0.029), general discomfort (18% vs. 42%; P = 0.010), hunger (44% vs. 67%; P = 0.024), and weakness (22% vs. 42%; P = 0.034). Regurgitation of gastric contents into the esophagus after endoscopic intubation did not differ between F2 and F8 (26% vs. 19%; P = 0.471). There was no case of pulmonary aspiration. Gastric mucosal visibility was normal in most patients either in F2 or F8 (96% vs. 98%; P = 0.999). Conclusions Elective upper GI endoscopy after 2 hours fasting for clear liquids was more comfortable and equally safe compared to conventional fasting. This preparation might be cautiously applied for patients in regular clinical conditions referred for elective endoscopy. Trial registration SAMMPRIS ClinicalTrial.gov number, NCT01492296 PMID:24209639

  2. Bisphosphonates and Risk of Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer — A Case Control Study Using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ellen; Schofield, Peter T.; Seed, Paul; Molokhia, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Background Concerns have been raised as to the safety of bisphosphonates; in particular a possible link between bisphosphonate use and upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Two published studies using different study populations but drawn from earlier versions of the same national UK database, reached differing conclusions: one finding no evidence for an increase in the risk of gastric or oesophageal cancer in bisphosphonate users and one finding a small but significantly increased risk of oesophageal cancer linked to duration of bisphosphonate use. Methodology/ Principal Findings Design-A case control study comparing bisphosphonate prescribing in cases of upper GI cancer from 1995 to 2007 using UK primary care electronic health records (GPRD). Main Outcome Measure-Relative Risk (approximated to Odds Ratio for rare events) for oesophageal and gastric cancer development in bisphosphonate users compared to non–users. The odds of being a case of oesophageal cancer, adjusted for smoking status, were significantly increased in women who had had one or more bisphosphonate prescriptions, odds ratio 1·54 (95% CI 1·27–1·88) compared to non-users. There was no significant effect on gastric cancer in women, odds ratio adjusted for smoking status, 1.06 (95% CI 0.83–1.37) and also no apparent risk in men for either oesophageal or gastric cancer, odds ratio adjusted for smoking status 0.78 (95%CI 0.56–1.09) and 0.87 (95% CI 0.55–1.36) respectively. Conclusions/ Significance Our results support a small but significant increased risk of oesophageal cancer in women prescribed bisphosphonates and is based on the largest number of exposed cases to date in the UK. PMID:23112825

  3. Pregnancy does not influence colonic polyp multiplicity but may modulate upper gastrointestinal disease in patients with FAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraweera, Nirosha; Latchford, Andrew; McCart, Amy; Rogers, Pauline; Spain, Sarah; Sieber, Oliver; Phillips, Robin; Tomlinson, Ian; Silver, Andrew

    2007-08-01

    Reproductive factors have been shown by epidemiology studies to alter colorectal cancer risk in women. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients carry a germline adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutation predisposing to multiple adenoma formation in the intestine. The Min mouse provides a good model of FAP, and we recently reported a significant increase in intestinal tumour multiplicity in a recombinant line of mice following pregnancy. We considered whether reproduction modulates intestinal tract disease in a large cohort of female patients with FAP (n = 180). Multiple regression analysis showed that the number of colonic polyps observed was not related to the person's pregnancy status nor the position of their APC germline mutation. The proportion of women attaining a high Spigelman stage (3 or 4) was unrelated to having a pregnancy prior to attaining the maximum Spigelman stage (p = 0.6). On the other hand, having a pregnancy significantly increased the proportion of women that attained the highest Spigelman stage when their APC germline mutation occurred within the mutation cluster region or at or after codon 1020 (50%, 6/12, p = 0.005 and 42%, 13/31, p = 0.006, respectively; multivariable logistic regression). Our data suggest that reproduction may influence disease severity in the upper gastrointestinal tract in patients with FAP.

  4. [Is there a place for the Glasgow-Blatchford score in the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerraya, Hichem; Bousslema, Amine; Frikha, Foued; Dziri, Chadli

    2011-12-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a frequent cause for emergency hospital admission. Most severity scores include in their computation the endoscopic findings. The Glasgow-Blatchford score is a validated score that is easy to calculate based on simple clinical and biological variables that can identify patients with a low or a high risk of needing a therapeutic (interventional endoscopy, surgery and/ or transfusions). To validate retrospectively the Glasgow-Blatchford Score (GBS). The study examined all patients admitted in both the general surgery department as of Anesthesiology of the Regional Hospital of Sidi Bouzid. There were 50 patients, which the mean age was 58 years and divided into 35 men and 15 women. In all these patients, we calculated the GBS. Series were divided into 2 groups, 26 cases received only medical treatment and 24 cases required transfusion and / or surgery. Univariate analysis was performed for comparison of these two groups then the ROC curve was used to identify the 'Cut off point' of GBS. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) with confidence interval 95% were calculated. The SGB was significantly different between the two groups (p VPN. Indeed, if GBS <7, we must opt for medical treatment to the risk of being wrong in only 5% of cases. The Glasgow-Blatchford score is based on simple clinical and laboratory variables. It can recognize in the emergency department the cases that require medical treatment and those whose support could need blood transfusions and / or surgical treatment.

  5. Prevalence of Helicobacter (formerly Campylobacter) pylori infection in Saudia Arabia, and comparison of those with and without upper gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Moagel, M A; Evans, D G; Abdulghani, M E; Adam, E; Evans, D J; Malaty, H M; Graham, D Y

    1990-08-01

    A causative role is now accepted for Helicobacter (formerly Campylobacter) pylori in type B gastritis, and evidence is accumulating that H. pylori infection plays a major contributory role in duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and epidemic gastric cancer. The prevalence of H. pylori in any population remains unknown. We compared the prevalence of H. pylori infection in the Riyadh region of Saudia Arabia, using a specific and sensitive ELISA for IgG antibody against the high molecular weight cell-associated antigen of H. pylori (urease). Subjects were interviewed, demographic data were collected, and a serum sample was obtained. Subjects completed a questionnaire that included questions about level of education, smoking, medications used, presence and frequency of symptoms referable to the upper gastrointestinal tract, and family history of ulcer disease. We studied 557 individuals (ranging in age from 5 to 91 yr). The prevalence of H. pylori infection increased rapidly with age: from 40% of those ages 5-10 yr, to more than 70% of those 20 or older. H. pylori infection occurred with significantly more frequency in adults with less than 12 yr of schooling, compared with adults who had attended college. The high rate of acquisition of H. pylori infection in Saudia Arabia emphasizes that studies of H. pylori-disease associations must consider the baseline prevalence of H. pylori infection in that population.

  6. A comparison of analogue and digital techniques in upper gastrointestinal examinations: absorbed dose and diagnostic quality of the images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, B.; Hansson, I.B.; Boden, K.; Witt, H.H.; Fransson, S.G.; Persliden, J.

    2000-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether patient exposure and diagnostic quality of the image is significantly influenced by the introduction of digital image acquisition techniques. Evaluation was performed for three different techniques (analogue, analogue fluoro+digital radiography, digital) in examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The evaluation was done from data acquired in three different departments. Patient exposure was recorded as KERMA-area product (KAP) and the individual patient readings were normalised to a standard size patient. Image quality was assessed using visual grading with a reference image. The recorded KAP values were significantly higher (22.3 Gycm 2 ) for the fully digital technique compared to the others (analogue 6.8 Gycm 2 , analogue+digital 3.6 Gycm 2 ). This was due mostly to an increased number of exposures. The diagnostic quality of the image was, however, also regarded to be slightly lower for the technique giving the lowest patient dose with the smallest number of exposures (analogue+digital). The digital examination technique, as used in this study, thus resulted in significantly higher patient dose without any significant gain in diagnostic quality of the image. (orig.)

  7. Survival of probiotic lactobacilli in the upper gastrointestinal tract using an in vitro gastric model of digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Curto, Alberto; Pitino, Iole; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Dainty, Jack Richard; Faulks, Richard Martin; John Wickham, Martin Sean

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate survival of three commercial probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei subsp. shirota, L. casei subsp. immunitas, Lactobacillus acidophilus subsp. johnsonii) in the human upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract using a dynamic gastric model (DGM) of digestion followed by incubation under duodenal conditions. Water and milk were used as food matrices and survival was evaluated in both logarithmic and stationary phase. The % of recovery in logarithmic phase ranged from 1.0% to 43.8% in water for all tested strains, and from 80.5% to 197% in milk. Higher survival was observed in stationary phase for all strains. L. acidophilus subsp. johnsonii showed the highest survival rate in both water (93.9%) and milk (202.4%). Lactic acid production was higher in stationary phase, L. casei subsp. shirota producing the highest concentration (98.2 mM) after in vitro gastric plus duodenal digestion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of bovine papilloma viruses in wart-like lesions of upper gastrointestinal tract of cattle and buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Nagarajan, N; Saikumar, G; Arya, R S; Somvanshi, R

    2015-06-01

    In present investigation, etiopathological characterization of upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) tumours of cattle and buffaloes was undertaken. A total of 27 GIT wart-like lesions in rumen, reticulum, mouth and oesophagus of cattle and buffaloes revealed the presence of small nodular to larger spherical or slender growths with thin base present on mucosa and ruminal pillar. Histopathologically, these cases were diagnosed as fibropapilloma/papilloma. This is the first world record on ruminal papillomatosis in buffaloes. Ruminal warts of cattle and buffaloes revealed the presence of BPV-5, -1 & -2, which is the first report of presence of these BPVs in the ruminal warts from India. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that DNA samples of different GIT wart-like lesions contained varying amount of BPV DNA copy numbers. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the PCNA and Ki67 immunopositivity was present in the basal and spinosum layer of the fibropapilloma/papilloma, indicating these as the cellular proliferation site. In conclusion, the present investigation revealed that BPV-5, -1 & -2 are associated with certain ruminal wart-like lesions/growths in cattle and buffaloes, and the basal and spinosum layer of the ruminal fibropapilloma/papilloma were cellular proliferation sites. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. A benign gastric ulcer eroding into a splenic artery pseudoaneurysm presenting as a massive upper gastrointestinal bleed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Shareef M; Moradian, Simon; Ahmed, Mohammed; Ahmed, Umair; Shaheen, Samuel; Stalin, Vasanth

    2014-11-20

    Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding secondary to a ruptured splenic artery (SA) pseudoaneurysm into the stomach is a rare but a life-threatening condition. Owing to the low prevalence, it remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. A frail 77-year-old Caucasian female presented with epigastric pain and hematemesis. Endoscopy was non-diagnostic for an etiology. She then underwent diagnostic angiography that revealed an SA pseudoaneurysm with active contrast extravasation into the stomach. Subsequent transcatheter arterial coil embolization was conducted of the SA. The patient was subsequently taken for a partial gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy. She had an uncomplicated postoperative course. Diagnosis of an UGI bleeding secondary to a ruptured SA pseudoaneurysm into the stomach remains difficult. However, we report that in a hemodynamically stable patient, a multidisciplinary approach can be taken, with interval optimization of the patient prior to definitive surgery for a satisfactory outcome. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014.

  10. [Utility of urease rapid test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding from peptic ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Paredes, Eduar; Guzmán Rojas, Patricia; Gallegos López, Roxana; Corzo Maldonado, Manuel; Zegarra Chang, Arturo; Surco Ochoa, Yolanda; Piscoya Rivera, Alejandro; Huerta-Mercado Tenorio, Jorge; Prochazka Zárate, Ricardo; De Los Ríos Senmache, Raúl; Pinto Valdivia, José

    2011-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease is the main cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and Helicobacter pylori is its principal etiology. The sensitivity of the diagnostics tests is low for the detection of H. pylori en the setting of bleeding peptic ulcer. In addition there are different results among them. To validate the rapid urease test (RUT) in patients with bleeding peptic ulcer. We prospectively included patients older than 14 years old who presented with bleeding peptic ulcer and performed diagnostic studies of RUT and histology for the detection of H. pylori. Two biopsies were taken (one from the antrum and another one from the corpus) for RUT and four biopsies (two from both antrum and corpus) for histology. RESULTS Ninety-three patients were included, gastric ulcer was the most frequent site of the bleeding. 48 patients were positive for H. pylori by histology studies and 55 patients were positive to H. pylori by RUT. The sensitivity and specificity of the RUT were 89.6% (IC 77.3-96.5) y 73.3% (IC 58.0-85.4) respectively. The RUT has a high sensitivity for the detection of H. pylori en the setting of bleeding peptic ulcer.

  11. Tea, coffee, carbonated soft drinks and upper gastrointestinal tract cancer risk in a large United States prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, J S; Freedman, N D; Kamangar, F; Dawsey, S M; Hollenbeck, A R; Schatzkin, A; Abnet, C C

    2010-07-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between hot tea, iced tea, coffee and carbonated soft drinks consumption and upper gastrointestinal tract cancers risk in the NIH-AARP Study. During 2,584,953 person-years of follow-up on 481,563 subjects, 392 oral cavity, 178 pharynx, 307 larynx, 231 gastric cardia, 224 gastric non-cardia cancer, 123 Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC) and 305 Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma (EADC) cases were accrued. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by multivariate-adjusted Cox regression. Compared to non-drinking, the hazard ratio for hot tea intake of > or =1 cup/day was 0.37 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.70) for pharyngeal cancer. The authors also observed a significant association between coffee drinking and risk of gastric cardia cancer (compared to drinking >3 cups/day was 1.57 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.39)), and an inverse association between coffee drinking and EADC for the cases occurring in the last 3 years of follow-up (compared to drinking >3 cups/day was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.92)), but no association in earlier follow-up. In summary, hot tea intake was inversely associated with pharyngeal cancer, and coffee was directly associated with gastric cardia cancer, but was inversely associated with EADC during some follow-up periods. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. UsefuIIness of upper gastrointestinal series using indirect radiography in mass screening program for gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jeong Kyong; Chin, Soo Yil

    2004-01-01

    To compare the image quality of UGIS (upper gastrointestinal series) obtained by direct radiography with that of UGIS obtained by indirect radiography in a mass screening program for gastric cancer, and to assess the validity of UGIS by indirect radiography. A total of 994 persons participated in a mass screening test for gastric cancer between March 2003 and April 2003 at the Korea Association of Health Promotion (KAHP). Of these 994 persons, 494 underwent UGIS by direct radiography, while the remaining 500 underwent UGIS by indirect radiography (i.e. photofluorography using a mirror camera and a 100 mm-roll film). We compared the image quality of UGIS obtained by direct and indirect radiography with, in each case, the image quality being graded as 'excellent', 'good', 'fair', 'poor', or 'very poor'. The image quality of UGIS by both direct and indirect radiography was similar: most images in both groups were rated as either 'excellent','good', or 'fair', while the incidences of poorly rated images were similar in both cases (5% versus 6%, respectively); and there were no images rated as 'very poor', in either case. For certain sites of the stomach, the image quality of UGIS by direct radiography was superior to that of UGIS by indirect radiography, namely at the cardia (p 0.05). There was no significant difference in the image quality between UGIS by indirect and direct radiography. Therefore, UGIS by indirect radiography may be used as a method of mass screening for gastric cancer

  13. An in vitro biorelevant gastrointestinal transfer (BioGIT) system for forecasting concentrations in the fasted upper small intestine: Design, implementation, and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourentas, Alexandros; Vertzoni, Maria; Stavrinoudakis, Nick; Symillidis, Alexandros; Brouwers, Joachim; Augustijns, Patrick; Reppas, Christos; Symillides, Mira

    2016-01-20

    Design an in vitro methodology for studying gastrointestinal transfer in the fasted state and implement the methodology in vitro by using a biorelevant gastrointestinal transfer system(BioGIT); evaluate the usefulness of BioGIT in predicting luminal concentrations of lipophilic weak bases in the fasted upper small intestine. The methodology was designed after modeling existing luminal data. Its implementation in vitro was based on a three compartment setup. Reproducibility of the transfer process was evaluated under conditions where solutions and/or suspensions were present in gastric and/or duodenal compartment and by using ranitidine, dipyridamole, ketoconazole, and posaconazole as model drugs. The transfer process as well as concentrations of dipyridamole, ketoconazole and posaconazole measured in the duodenal compartment were compared with data previously collected in the upper small intestine, after administration of identical preparations/dosage forms to fasted adults. Using BioGIT, the transfer process was performed reproducibly in all cases (RSD b 12.9%); data with dipyridamole and ketoconazole were in line with luminal data in humans. Dipyridamole, ketoconazole and posaconazole concentrations in duodenal compartment were also in line with previously measured concentrations in the fasted upper small intestine of healthy adults. BioGIT system could be useful for the evaluation of the impact of gastrointestinal transfer on concentrations in the upper intestinal lumen during the first hour, after oral administration of dispersing/solution dosage forms of lipophilic weak bases.

  14. [Gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanas, Ángel

    2015-09-01

    In the Digestive Disease Week in 2015 there have been some new contributions in the field of gastrointestinal bleeding that deserve to be highlighted. Treatment of celecoxib with a proton pump inhibitor is safer than treatment with nonselective NSAID and a proton pump inhibitor in high risk gastrointestinal and cardiovascular patients who mostly also take acetylsalicylic acid. Several studies confirm the need to restart the antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy at an early stage after a gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The need for urgent endoscopy before 6-12 h after the onset of upper gastrointestinal bleeding episode may be beneficial in patients with hemodynamic instability and high risk for comorbidity. It is confirmed that in Western but not in Japanese populations, gastrointestinal bleeding episodes admitted to hospital during weekend days are associated with a worse prognosis associated with delays in the clinical management of the events. The strategy of a restrictive policy on blood transfusions during an upper GI bleeding event has been challenged. Several studies have shown the benefit of identifying the bleeding vessel in non varicose underlying gastric lesions by Doppler ultrasound which allows direct endoscopic therapy in the patient with upper GI bleeding. Finally, it has been reported that lower gastrointestinal bleeding diverticula band ligation or hemoclipping are both safe and have the same long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-Helicobacter pylori, non-NSAIDs peptic ulcers: a descriptive study on patients referred to Taleghani hospital with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabalinia, Hasan; Ghobakhlou, Mehdi; Nikpour, Shahriar; Dabiri, Reza; Bahriny, Rasoul; Sherafat, Somayeh Jahani; Moghaddam, Pardis Ketabi; Alizadeh, Amirhoushang Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the number and proportion of various causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and actual numbers of non-NSAID, non-Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) peptic ulcers seen in endoscopy of these patients. The number and the proportion of patients with non- H.pylori, non-NSAIDs peptic ulcer disease leading to upper gastrointestinal bleeding is believed to be increasing after eradication therapy for H.pylori. Medical records of patients referred to the emergency room of Taleghani hospital from 2010 with a clinical diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (hematemesis, coffee ground vomiting and melena) were included in this study. Patients with hematochezia with evidence of a source of bleeding from upper gastrointestinal tract in endoscopy were also included in this study. In this study, peptic ulcer disease (all kinds of ulcers) was seen in 61 patients which were about 44.85% of abnormalities seen on endoscopy of patients. Among these 61 ulcers, 44 were duodenal ulcer, 22 gastric ulcer (5 patients had the both duodenal and gastric ulcers). Multiple biopsies were taken and be sent to laboratory for Rapid Urease Test and pathological examination. About 65.53% of patients had ulcers associated with H.pylori, 9.83% had peptic ulcer disease associated with NSAIDs and 11.47% of patients had ulcers associated with both H.pylori and consumption of NSAIDs. 13.11% of patients had non-NSAIDs non- H.pylori peptic ulcer disease. The results of this study supports the results of other studies that suggest the incidence of H.pylori infection related with duodenal ulcer is common, and that non-H pylori and non-NSAIDs duodenal ulcer is also common.

  16. Association between oral leukoplakia and upper gastrointestinal cancers: a 28-year follow-up study in the Linxian General Population Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J-H; Wang, J-B; Qu, C-X; Zhang, Y-Q; Taylor, P R; Abnet, C C; Dawsey, S M; Qiao, Y-L

    2014-10-01

    Oral leukoplakia is a precancerous disorder that is common among residents in Linxian. However, the associations between oral leukoplakia and upper gastrointestinal cancers have not been reported. We investigated the relationships between oral leukoplakia and upper gastrointestinal cancers in the Linxian General Population Trial cohort. The Linxian General Population Trial cohort, with 29,584 healthy adults enrolled in 1985 and followed through the end of 2012. With collected baseline data, hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for developing upper gastrointestinal cancers were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. During 28 years of follow-up, we confirmed a total of 2924 incident esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases, 1644 gastric cardia cancers and 590 gastric non-cardia cancers. Overall, participants with oral leukoplakia had significantly higher risk of developing ESCC (HR=1.18, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.29). Among individuals ⩽52 years old at baseline, oral leukoplakia was associated with elevated risk of ESCC (HR=1.31, 95%CI: 1.15, 1.49). No significant associations were observed for gastric cardia or non-cardia cancers in either all subjects or subgroups. Oral leukoplakia was associated with increased risk of ESCC, particularly in younger population. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Severe Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage from Linear Gastric Ulcers in Large Hiatal Hernias: a Large Prospective Case Series of Cameron Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Marine; Jensen, Dennis M.; Ohning, Gordon V.; Kovacs, Thomas O.; Ghassemi, Kevin A.; Jutabha, Rome; Machicado, Gustavo A.; Dulai, Gareth S.; Hines, Joel O.

    2013-01-01

    Background and study aims Cameron ulcers are a rare but clinically significant cause of severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (SUGIH). Our aims were to describe (1) the diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of patients with Cameron ulcers causing hospitalization for SUGIH, (2) the differences between patients with occult vs. overt bleeding and (3) between patients treated surgically and medically. Patients and methods Over the past 17 years, all consecutive patients hospitalized in our two tertiary referral medical centers for severe UGIH or severe obscure GIH and entered into our large prospective databasis were screened for Cameron ulcer diagnosis. Results Cameron ulcers were diagnosed in 25 patients of 3960 patients with SUGIH (0.6%). 21 patients had follow-up (median [IQR] time of 20.4 months [8.5–31.8]). Patients were more often elderly females with chronic anemia, always had large hiatal hernias, and were usually referred for obscure SUGIH. Twelve (57.2%) patients were referred to surgery for rebleeding and recurrent blood loss while treated with high dose of proton pump inhibitors (PPI). 9 (42.8%) other patients continued PPI without any rebleeding during the follow-up. Patients with overt bleeding had significantly more prior hospitalizations for SUGIH, more often stigmata of hemorrhage on ulcers, and more red blood cell transfusions than patients with occult bleeding. However, there was no difference in rebleeding and mortality rates between the two groups. Conclusions Cameron ulcers in large hiatal hernias are an uncommon cause of SUGIH. Most of patients are referred for obscure GIH. The choice of medical vs. surgical therapy should be individualized. PMID:23616128

  18. Corrosive Injury of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract: Review of Surgical Management and Outcome in 14 Adult Cases

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    Mohammad Taghi Rajabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Caustic ingestion is responsible for a spectrum of upper gastrointestinal tract injury from self-limited to perforation. This study conducted to evaluate clinical characteristics as well as surgical outcomes in patients with caustic ingestion.   Materials and Methods: Between Nov1993 to march 2011, 14 adults with a clinical evidence of corrosive ingestion were admitted into our institutions (Omid and Ghaem hospitals. Patients evaluated for etiology of erosion, location, type of surgery, morbidity and mortality after surgery.   Results: 14 patients (10men and 4 women with a age range between18-53 years were evaluated. In 6 patients, the injury was accidental and in 8 patients ingestion was a suicide attempt. Ingested agent included nitric acid in 4 patients, hydrochloric acid in 7 patients, sulfuric acid in 2 patients and strong alkali in one patient. The location and extent of lesion varied included esophagus in 13 cases, stomach in 7 cases and the pharynx in 3 cases. Acute abdomen was developed In 2 patients and a procedure of total gasterectomy and blunt esophagectomy was performed. In the remaining patients, substernal esophageal bypass in 2 patients, esophageal resection and replacement surgery in 9 patients and gastroenterostomy in one patient performed to relieve esophageal stricture. Two patients died of mediastinitis after esophageal replacement surgery. Postoperative strictures were developed in 2 survived patients with hypopharyngeal reconstruction that was managed by per oral bougienage in one patient and KTP Laser and stenting in the other patient.   Conclusion:  Esophageal resection with replacement was safe and good technique for severe corrosive esophageal stricture with low mortality and morbidity.

  19. The Use of Tranexamic Acid for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding by Medical and Surgical Intensivists: A Single Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertoff, Jason; Lowther, Grant; Alnuaimat, Hassan; Ataya, Ali

    2017-08-01

    Tranexamic acid (TXA) may be beneficial in the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). We sought to investigate how frequently intensivists at our academic institution use TXA for patients with UGIB, and to investigate whether the utilization rate of TXA differs between surgical and medical intensivists, and provide an updated literature review on the subject. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted for UGIB to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) and the medical intensive care unit (MICU) at our academic healthcare facility (University of Florida Health - Shands Hospital) from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2016. The patients were categorized as receiving or not receiving TXA. The overall utilization rate of TXA was calculated, and the utilization rates for the MICU and SICU were compared using a two-sample test for equality of two proportions with continuity correction. The study cohort included a total of 1,829 patients with a diagnosis of UGIB. Of those, 988 were treated in the MICU and 841 were treated in the SICU. Of the 988 patients in the MICU, six received TXA (0.61%), while 10 (1.19%) of the 841 patients in the SICU received TXA. The overall utilization rate of TXA was 0.87%. The odds of receiving TXA in the SICU were 1.97 times greater than in the MICU (odds ratio (OR): 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74 - 5.2, P = 1.83). Our study suggests that TXA may be underused in the management of UGIB, and that the utilization rate does not differ significantly between surgical and medical intensivists.

  20. Endoscopic suturing for the prevention of stent migration in benign upper gastrointestinal conditions: a comparative multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Sharaiha, Reem Z; Sethi, Amrita; Siddiqui, Ali A; DiMaio, Christopher J; Gonzalez, Susana; Im, Jennifer; Rogart, Jason N; Jagroop, Sophia; Widmer, Jessica; Hasan, Raza Abbas; Laique, Sobia; Gonda, Tamas; Poneros, John; Desai, Amit; Tyberg, Amy; Kumbhari, Vivek; El Zein, Mohamad; Abdelgelil, Ahmed; Besharati, Sepideh; Hernaez, Ruben; Okolo, Patrick I; Singh, Vikesh; Kalloo, Anthony N; Kahaleh, Michel; Khashab, Mouen A

    2016-09-01

    Fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMSs) have increasingly been used in benign upper gastrointestinal (UGI) conditions; however, stent migration remains a major limitation. Endoscopic suture fixation (ESF) may prevent stent migration. The aims of this study were to compare the frequency of stent migration in patients who received endoscopic suturing for stent fixation (ESF group) compared with those who did not (NSF group) and to assess the impact of ESF on clinical outcome. This was a retrospective study of patients who underwent FCSEMS placement for benign UGI diseases. Patients were divided into either the NSF or ESF group. Outcome variables, including stent migration, clinical success (resolution of underlying pathology), and adverse events, were compared. A total of 125 patients (44 in ESF group, 81 in NSF group; 56 benign strictures, 69 leaks/fistulas/perforations) underwent 224 stenting procedures. Stent migration was significantly more common in the NSF group (33 % vs. 16 %; P = 0.03). Time to stent migration was longer in the ESF group (P = 0.02). ESF appeared to protect against stent migration in patients with a history of stent migration (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.09; P = 0.002). ESF was also significantly associated with a higher rate of clinical success (60 % vs. 38 %; P = 0.03). Rates of adverse events were similar between the two groups. Endoscopic suturing for stent fixation is safe and associated with a decreased migration rate, particularly in patients with a prior history of stent migration. It may also improve clinical response, likely because of the reduction in stent migration. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. [Prospective validation of the Rockall Scoring System in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Cayetano Heredia Hospital Lima- Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Ríos, Jorge; Huerta-Mercado Tenorio, Jorge; Huerta-Mercado Tenorio, Jorge; Lindo Ricce, Mayra; García Encinas, Carlos; Rios Matteucci, Sathya; Vila Gutierrez, Sandro; Pinto Valdivia, José; De Los Rios Senmache, Raúl; Piscoya Rivera, Alejandro; Bussalleu Rivera, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The present study intends to validate the Rockall Score in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) in our current medical setting and to find the value that best discriminates between patients with high or low risk of mortality, rebleeding and the need of more than two units of packed red blood cells (PRBC). A descriptive prospective study was made from patients who arrived to Cayetano Heredia Hospital's emergency department between February 2007 and January 2008 due to UGB symptoms (hematemesis, coffe ground remit melena or hematoquezia). The Rockall score was used to determine severity of UGB and to stratify patients with higher risk of mortality or rebleeding. All patients were interviewed and any additional information was gathered from medical history records and emergency and hospitalization endoscopic procedure reports. During the study all patients were evaluated for rebleeding, the number of units of PRBCs needed and mortality rate. 163 patients were included in our study, 107 (65.64%) were male and 56 (34.36%) female, 8 were excluded due to lack of an endoscopic procedure. The remaining 155 patients were studied to evaluate the discriminative ability of the scoring system, and to determine which value best distinguishes high and low severity patients using Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC) and calculated area under the curve. The data analysis showed patients with a Rockall Score e 5 had an increased mortality rate compared to lower score with an area under the curve of 0.807, meaning an accurate relationship between mortality and a score e 5. For rebleeding and the need of two packed red blood cells for transfusion, the area under the curve were 0.65 and 0.64 respectively showing a low predictive value. The Rockall scoring system is useful to identify patients with high mortality risk, but not to predict rebleeding or the need for blood transfusion in our hospital.

  2. STUDY OF CORROSIVE POISONING AND ITS EFFECTS ON UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND SURGICAL MANAGEMENT- A SINGLE INSTITUTION EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Lingala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Corrosive injury to the upper gastrointestinal tract is an agonising experience for both the patient and surgeon. Caustic ingestion may cause wide spread injury to the lips, oral cavity, pharynx and the upper airway. The effect that these agents have on the oesophagus accounts for most of the serious injuries and on stomach, which may result in perforation and death in the acute phase. 1,2 If the patient survives the acute effects of caustic ingestion, the reparative response leads to the development of oesophageal and gastric strictures. There is also an increased incidence of oesophageal and gastric cancer in the longterm. 3,4,5 These patients present with the most distressing symptoms of dysphagia and are not able to swallow even liquids sometimes. For a surgeon, it is necessary to restore the GI continuity, so that the patients may be relieved of symptoms and can take food naturally for the rest of their lives. An insight is made into the various modalities of treatments available for corrosive effects of oesophagus and stomach. 6,7 Even though majority of oesophageal strictures can be managed by modern endoscopic interventional methods, surgery is mandatory in few cases. Surgery is the only modality of treatment for gastric complications. Corrosive injuries continue to result in high morbidity and mortality until more conclusive diagnostic and treatment recommendations can be made. Present study was done to know the effects of corrosive poisoning on upper gastrointestinal tract to evaluate the common surgical procedures in the management of corrosive poisoning and to know the mortality and morbidity after corrosive poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a prospective observational study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in between December 2014 to December 2016. All the patients were evaluated by history, clinical examination and radiological examination. Treatment was given according to the severity of the injury. The modes

  3. Esomeprazole for prevention and resolution of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients treated with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid for cardiovascular protection: the OBERON trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, James M; Herlitz, Johan; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander J; Lanas, Angel; Agewall, Stefan; Nauclér, Emma C; Svedberg, Lars-Erik; Nagy, Péter

    2013-03-01

    Although low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is recommended for prevention of cardiovascular events in at-risk patients, its long-term use can be associated with the risk of peptic ulcer and upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that may impact treatment compliance. This prespecified secondary analysis of the OBERON study (NCT00441727) determined the efficacy of esomeprazole for prevention/resolution of low-dose ASA-associated upper GI symptoms. A post hoc analysis of predictors of symptom prevention/resolution was also conducted. Helicobacter pylori-negative patients taking low-dose ASA (75-325 mg) for cardiovascular protection who had ≥1 upper GI risk factor were eligible. The patients were randomized to once-daily esomeprazole 40 mg, 20 mg, or placebo, for 26 weeks; 2303 patients (mean age 67.6 years; 36% aged >70 years) were evaluable for upper GI symptoms. The proportion of patients with dyspeptic or reflux symptoms (self-reported Reflux Disease Questionnaire) was significantly lower (P 70 years (P upper GI symptoms at baseline (P upper GI symptoms. Together, these analyses demonstrate that esomeprazole is effective in preventing and resolving patient-reported upper GI symptoms in low-dose ASA users at increased GI risk.

  4. Pancreatic invasion of gastric carcinoma in emaciated patients: The value of combined analysis with CT and upper gastrointestinal series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1992-01-01

    The obliteration of a fat plane between the gastric carcinoma and the pancreas is a major criterion on CT scan for pancreatic invasion of gastric carcinoma. However, this sign is not always a reliable indicator of invasion, as the patients with gastric carcinoma are often emaciated, producing a false positive CT findings. The purpose of our study is to improve the diagnostic accuracy of pancreatic invasion of gastric carcinoma in cases which the fat plane between the gastric carcinoma and the pancreas is obliterated in conventional CT scan. The authors performed lateral decubitus as well as supine CT scans and upper gastrointestinal series(UGIS) in 49 pathologically proven cases in which the fat plane was obliterated between the gastric carcinoma and the pancreas on conventional supine CT scan. Pancreatic invasion was suggested when the fat plane was obliterated persistently in the lateral decubitus view as well as the spine CT images and the involved gastric wall and adjacent pancreas maintained constant approximation despite postural change(CT+), and when the gastric tumor moved downward on the erect view of the UGIS no more than 1.5 times the height of the first lumbar vertebral body(UGIS+). Among 49 cases in which the fat plane between the gastric carcinoma and the pancreas was obliterated on supine CT scan, pancreatic invasion was confirmed pathologically in 11 cases(22.4%). Eight of 11 cases proven as pancreatic invasion were correctly diagnosed as pancreatic invasion by this combined analysis(CT+/UGIS+, 72.7%). Twenty seven of 38 cases proven as no pancreatic invasion were correctly diagnosed as no pancreatic invasion(CT-/UGIS-, 71.1%). Twelve cases showed CT+/UGIS- or CT-/UGIS+, so it was inconclusive whether there was invasion or not. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 71.4%. In conclusion, combined analysis with supine and lateral decubitus CT and UGIS is useful for improving diagnostic accuracy for pancreatic invasion by gastric carcinoma in patients of

  5. Pancreatic invasion of gastric carcinoma in emaciated patients: The value of combined analysis with CT and upper gastrointestinal series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    The obliteration of a fat plane between the gastric carcinoma and the pancreas is a major criterion on CT scan for pancreatic invasion of gastric carcinoma. However, this sign is not always a reliable indicator of invasion, as the patients with gastric carcinoma are often emaciated, producing a false positive CT findings. The purpose of our study is to improve the diagnostic accuracy of pancreatic invasion of gastric carcinoma in cases which the fat plane between the gastric carcinoma and the pancreas is obliterated in conventional CT scan. The authors performed lateral decubitus as well as supine CT scans and upper gastrointestinal series(UGIS) in 49 pathologically proven cases in which the fat plane was obliterated between the gastric carcinoma and the pancreas on conventional supine CT scan. Pancreatic invasion was suggested when the fat plane was obliterated persistently in the lateral decubitus view as well as the spine CT images and the involved gastric wall and adjacent pancreas maintained constant approximation despite postural change(CT+), and when the gastric tumor moved downward on the erect view of the UGIS no more than 1.5 times the height of the first lumbar vertebral body(UGIS+). Among 49 cases in which the fat plane between the gastric carcinoma and the pancreas was obliterated on supine CT scan, pancreatic invasion was confirmed pathologically in 11 cases(22.4%). Eight of 11 cases proven as pancreatic invasion were correctly diagnosed as pancreatic invasion by this combined analysis(CT+/UGIS+, 72.7%). Twenty seven of 38 cases proven as no pancreatic invasion were correctly diagnosed as no pancreatic invasion(CT-/UGIS-, 71.1%). Twelve cases showed CT+/UGIS- or CT-/UGIS+, so it was inconclusive whether there was invasion or not. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 71.4%. In conclusion, combined analysis with supine and lateral decubitus CT and UGIS is useful for improving diagnostic accuracy for pancreatic invasion by gastric carcinoma in patients of

  6. Effectiveness of TC-325 (Hemospray) for treatment of diffuse or refractory upper gastrointestinal bleeding – a single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyadi, Oscar; Bauder, Markus; Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel; Schmidt, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims  TC-325 (Hemospray, Cook Medical) is a powder agent for endoscopic hemostasis in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Although most publications are based on case-reports and retrospective studies, data on efficacy are promising. Here we report our experience with TC-325 for diffuse or refractory UGIB. Patients and methods  Data on patients receiving TC-325 for endoscopic hemostasis from November 2013 to February 2017 at our center were analyzed retrospectively. Primary endpoints were technical success (successful immediate hemostasis) and clinical success (effective hemostasis and no recurrent bleeding). Secondary endpoints were recurrent bleeding within 3 and 7 days, hospital mortality and TC-325 associated complications. TC-325 was used for bleeding not amenable to standard endoscopic treatment (e. g. diffuse bleeding) or as salvage therapy after failure of conventional methods Results  Fifty-two patients received TC-325 treatment. Most of the patients were treated for peptic ulcer bleeding (18/52 patients, 34.6 %) and post-interventional bleeding (13/52 patients, 25 %). Hemospray was used in 23/52 (44.2 %) patients as monotherapy and in 29/52 (55.8 %) patients as a salvage therapy. Application of the powder on the bleeding source was successful in all patients with no therapy-related adverse events (AEs). Immediate hemostasis was achieved in 51/52 (98.1 %) patients. Recurrent bleeding within 3 and 7 days was observed in 22/51 and 25/51 patients respectively (43.1 % and 49 %). The overall clinical success was 56.9 % on day 3 and 51 % on day 7. Total mortality was 15.4 % (8 patients), bleeding associated mortality was 3.8 % (2 patients). There were no therapy-related AEs. Conclusions  TC-325 showed a high technical success rate as monotherapy for bleeding sources not amenable to standard methods or as an “add-on” therapy after unsuccessful hemostasis. However, rebleeding was frequent

  7. Gastrointestinal safety of celecoxib versus naproxen in patients with cardiothrombotic diseases and arthritis after upper gastrointestinal bleeding (CONCERN): an industry-independent, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Francis K L; Ching, Jessica Y L; Tse, Yee Kit; Lam, Kelvin; Wong, Grace L H; Ng, Siew C; Lee, Vivian; Au, Kim W L; Cheong, Pui Kuan; Suen, Bing Y; Chan, Heyson; Kee, Ka Man; Lo, Angeline; Wong, Vincent W S; Wu, Justin C Y; Kyaw, Moe H

    2017-06-17

    Present guidelines are conflicting for patients at high risk of both cardiovascular and gastrointestinal events who continue to require non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We hypothesised that a cyclooxygenase-2-selective NSAID plus proton-pump inhibitor is superior to a non-selective NSAID plus proton-pump inhibitor for prevention of recurrent ulcer bleeding in concomitant users of aspirin with previous ulcer bleeding. For this industry-independent, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised trial done in one academic hospital in Hong Kong, we screened patients with arthritis and cardiothrombotic diseases who were presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, were on NSAIDs, and require concomitant aspirin. After ulcer healing, an independent staff member randomly assigned (1:1) patients who were negative for Helicobacter pylori with a computer-generated list of random numbers to receive oral administrations of either celecoxib 100 mg twice per day plus esomeprazole 20 mg once per day or naproxen 500 mg twice per day plus esomeprazole 20 mg once per day for 18 months. All patients resumed aspirin 80 mg once per day. Both patients and investigators were masked to their treatments. The primary endpoint was recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding within 18 months. The primary endpoint and secondary safety endpoints were analysed in the modified intention-to-treat population. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00153660. Between May 24, 2005, and Nov 28, 2012, we enrolled 514 patients, assigning 257 patients to each study group, all of whom were included in the intention-to-treat population. Recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in 14 patients in the celecoxib group (nine gastric ulcers and five duodenal ulcers) and 31 patients in the naproxen group (25 gastric ulcers, three duodenal ulcers, one gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, and two bleeding erosions). The cumulative incidence of recurrent bleeding in 18 months

  8. Life-Style Habits in a High-Risk Area for Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers: a Population-Based Study from Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Kun; Yao, Shang-Man; Xu, Yi-Ran; Niu, Run-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a burden on humanity and ranks as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in China. Shanxi province has its unique cancer patterns and the burden is increasing. In this study, we aimed to assess the pattern of dietary habits and life-style in Shanxi, a high-risk area for upper gastrointestinal cancers in China and further evaluate the trends in cancer incidence and mortality based on registered data. Data on lifestyle, diet, physical activity were obtained from the household health survey at Zhongyang from 2013 to 2015. Cancer diagnoses were reported to Shanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SCDCP). Population-based cancer incidence data and mortality data of 2012 were collected from the SCDCP. All incidence and death rates were expressed per 100,000 populations. Univariate analysis was performed using the Chi-squared test or Fisherandapos;s exact test. Overall, deficiencies in fresh fruits and vegetable food, and intake of hot food, salted food, or pickled food are serious problems in Shanxi, especially in rural areas. Upper gastrointestinal cancers were the most commonly diagnosed cancers, and the incidence in rural areas is higher than those in urban areas. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer for females. Moreover, the agespecific incidence exhibited an increased trend before 40 years old. Consistent with the previous literature, our epidemiological investigation results suggest that lifestyle, nutrition deficient, and infections were major risk factors for upper gastrointestinal cancers or cervical cancer in Shanxi. Facing a serious situation, we further explored defensible recommendations for the general public in order to promote changes in environments that support healthful eating and physical activity habits, to reduce cancer risk. Our results present the current cancer trends in Shanxi and its related etiologic risk factors and provide a theoretical basis to guide public health efforts to prevent and control cancers in the

  9. Corneal Confocal Microscopy Detects Small Fibre Neuropathy in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer and Nerve Regeneration in Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ferdousi

    Full Text Available There are multiple neurological complications of cancer and its treatment. This study assessed the utility of the novel non-invasive ophthalmic technique of corneal confocal microscopy in identifying neuropathy in patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer before and after platinum based chemotherapy. In this study, 21 subjects with upper gastrointestinal (oesophageal or gastric cancer and 21 healthy control subjects underwent assessment of neuropathy using the neuropathy disability score, quantitative sensory testing for vibration perception threshold, warm and cold sensation thresholds, cold and heat induced pain thresholds, nerve conduction studies and corneal confocal microscopy. Patients with gastro-oesophageal cancer had higher heat induced pain (P = 0.04 and warm sensation (P = 0.03 thresholds with a significantly reduced sural sensory (P<0.01 and peroneal motor (P<0.01 nerve conduction velocity, corneal nerve fibre density (CNFD, nerve branch density (CNBD and nerve fibre length (CNFL (P<0.0001. Furthermore, CNFD correlated significantly with the time from presentation with symptoms to commencing chemotherapy (r = -0.54, P = 0.02, and CNFL (r = -0.8, P<0.0001 and CNBD (r = 0.63, P = 0.003 were related to the severity of lymph node involvement. After the 3rd cycle of chemotherapy, there was no change in any measure of neuropathy, except for a significant increase in CNFL (P = 0.003. Corneal confocal microscopy detects a small fibre neuropathy in this cohort of patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer, which was related to disease severity. Furthermore, the increase in CNFL after the chemotherapy may indicate nerve regeneration.

  10. Significance of Helicobacter pylori infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with bleeding from upper part of the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Gradimir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs use are considered to be the most important risk factors having influence on the onset of bleeding gastroduodenal lesions. Whether there is an interaction between H. pylori infection and the use of NSAIDs in the development of peptic ulcer disease is still controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of NSAIDs use and H. pylori infection in patients presented with bleeding gastroduodenal lesions. Methods. During the period from January 2003 - December 2003 we prospectively obtained data of all the patients (n=106 presented with signs of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. All the patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, with the endoscopy performed within 12 hours after admission. Histologic analysis was used for the detection of H. pylori infection. The NSAIDs and aspirin use data were obtained by anamnesis. Results. The results of our study revealed that the most common sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding were duodenal (57 patients, 53.77% and ventricular (36 patients, 33.96% ulcers. The majority of the examined cases were associated with both H. pylori infection and NSAIDs use. A statistically significant difference among the studied groups of patients was proven. Conclusion. The majority of bleeding gastroduodenal lesions were associated with the coexistence of H. pylori infection and NSAIDs use, while their independent influences were statistically less important. Eradication of H. pylori infection in patients using NSAIDs might prevent upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and reduce peptic ulcer bleeding risk. .

  11. Antibiotic prophylaxis for patients with liver cirrhosis and upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Is there evidence for its use?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Kronborg, Gitte

    2005-01-01

    Bakteriel infektion er en hyppig komplikation hos patienter med levercirrose. En særlig udsat gruppe er patienter, der både har levercirrose og øvre gastrointestinal blødning. Studier har vist, at op til 66% bliver bakterielt inficerede inden for en 14-dages-periode efter blødning. Der er ligeled...

  12. Do Clinical and Demographic Features of Patients with Upper-Gastrointestinal Cancer Affect their Health-related Quality of Life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramezan-Ali Esmaili-Hesari

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: SCC is predominant type of upper GI cancer in Khorasan provinces similar to the high risk area in Northern Iran. The specific health-related quality of life tool (EORTC QLQ-OG25 was able to distinguish most of the symptoms in patients with upper GI cancer .

  13. Longitudinal study of the impact of psychological distress symptoms on new-onset upper gastrointestinal symptoms in World Trade Center responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litcher-Kelly, Leighann; Lam, Yvette; Broihier, Julie A; Brand, Douglas L; Banker, Suvin V; Kotov, Roman; Bromet, Evelyn; Bucobo, Juan Carlos; Shaw, Robert D; Luft, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    Research on the health of workers involved in the cleanup after the attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, has documented high rates of psychological distress and upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. The current article examines the concurrent and longitudinal associations of psychological distress with development of new-onset upper GI symptoms in a large sample of WTC responders. A cohort of 10,953 WTC responders monitored by the WTC Health Program participated in the study. Two occupational groups were examined, police and nontraditional responders. The cohort was free of upper GI symptoms or diagnoses at their first visit (3 years after September 11, 2001). Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationships between concurrent and preceding psychological distress symptoms of depression, generalized anxiety, panic, and probable posttraumatic stress disorder with the development of new-onset upper GI symptoms at 3-year follow-up (6 years after September 11, 2001). Across both occupation groups, psychological distress symptoms at Visit 1 were significantly related to the development of GI symptoms by Visit 2 (odd ratios ranging from 1.9 to 5.4). The results for the concurrent relationships were similar. In addition, there were significant dose-response relationships between the number of co-occurring psychological distress symptoms at Visits 1 and 2, and increased new-onset upper GI symptoms at Visit 2. In this large sample of WTC responders, psychological distress symptoms assessed at 3 years after 9/11 are related to reporting upper GI symptoms 6 years after 9/11.

  14. The predictive capacity of the Glasgow-Blatchford score for the risk stratification of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in an emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Recio-Ramírez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the ability of the Glasgow Blatchford Score (GBS system to identify the need for urgent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB. Methods: An observational, retrospective study was carried out in all patients attended at the ER for suspected UGIB in one year. Patients were split into two categories -high-risk (>2 and low-risk (≤2- by means of the GBS system. Results: A total of 60 patients were included. Of these, 46 were classified as "high-risk" (> 2 and 14 as "low-risk" (≤ 2 subjects. The characteristics of patients in the low-risk group included: Mean age: 46.6 ± 13.7 (18-88 years. Males/females: 7/7. Urgent endoscopy revealed: normal (50%; n = 7; esophagitis (21.4%; n = 3; gastritis (14.2%; n = 2; Mallory-Weiss syndrome (7.1%; n = 1; non-bleeding varices (7.1%; n = 1. The characteristics of patients in the high-risk group included: Mean age: 68.7 ± 19.8 (31-91 years. Males/females: 30/16. Digestive endoscopy revealed: Gastric/duodenal ulcer (56.52%; n = 26; normal (17.39%; n = 8; esophagitis (8.69%; n = 4; gastritis (8.69%; n = 4; angioectasia (4.34%; n = 2; bleeding varices (4.34%; n = 2. Low-risk patients exhibited no lesions requiring urgent management during endoscopy, and the sensitivity of the GBS scale for high-risk UGIB detection was found to be 100% (95% CI: 86.27%, 99.71%, with a specificity of 48.28% (95% CI: 29.89, 67.1%. Conclusions: The GBS scale seems to accurately identify patients with low-risk UGIB, who may be managed on an outpatient basis and undergo delayed upper GI endoscopy at the outpatient clinic.

  15. Burden of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients receiving low-dose acetylsalicylic acid for cardiovascular risk management: a prospective observational study.

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    Bytzer, Peter; Pratt, Stephen; Elkin, Eric; Næsdal, Jørgen; Sörstadius, Elisabeth

    2013-02-01

    Continuous low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin; ASA) is a mainstay of cardiovascular (CV) risk management. It is well established, however, that troublesome upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly experienced among low-dose ASA users. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of upper GI symptoms, and their impact on well-being, among patients taking low-dose ASA for CV risk management. This was a multicenter, non-interventional, 12-week study carried out in primary-care, cardiology, and practice group centers in the USA, Canada, and France. Eligible patients were adults (age ≥18 years) at risk of or with confirmed CV disease, with physician-prescribed/-recommended low-dose ASA (75-325 mg) use. An electronic device (eDiary) was used to collect patient-reported outcome data three times per day (morning, afternoon, and evening; regular reports), including upper GI (gastroesophageal disease [GERD]-like or dyspepsia-like) symptoms and the impact of such symptoms on sleep quality, perceived stress, and emotions. In addition to regular reports, patients were able to self-initiate a report of upper GI symptoms (spontaneous reports). Overall, 81,282 eDiary reports (including 4,407 spontaneous reports of upper GI symptoms) were collected from 340 patients. Upper GI symptoms (most commonly GERD-like) were commonly blamed on food/drink (39 %), and around one-third of patients (37 %) used medication to relieve their symptoms. Analysis showed that upper GI symptoms had a negative impact on sleep quality, perceived stress, and emotions (all p low-dose ASA-experienced patients (41 % vs. 12 % of evening reports in patients naïve to low-dose ASA at baseline; p Upper GI symptoms impact negatively on well-being among low-dose ASA users, in terms of decreased quality of sleep, increases in perceived stress, and negative impact on emotions. Despite this, patients may not necessarily associate these symptoms with their low-dose ASA therapy and do not

  16. Impact of Protocol-Based Guidelines on the Management and Outcome of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage in a District General Hospital

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    RM Anwar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective audit of acute upper gastrointestinal (GI hemorrhage was conducted between January and September 2000 at Frimley Park Hospital to determine the impact of introducing an upper GI bleeding protocol based on Rockall’s initial risk scoring system. Fifty-seven patients and 52 patients were in the pre- and postprotocol phases of the study respectively. Fifty per cent (28 of the patients in the first phase and 40% (21 of the patients in the second phase belonged to the high risk group. In the preprotocol phase, endoscopy was performed in 86% (49 of cases with 60% of patients having an esophogastroduodenoscopy within 24 h. Thirty-three per cent of the high risk group failed to have an endoscopic examination within 24 h. Only two of 57 patients required surgery and the mortality was 14%. In the postprotocol phase, endoscopy was performed in 79% (42 of patients and 68% (36 patients had endoscopy within 24 h. Only four of 21 patients belonging to the high risk group had their endoscopy after 24 h of the admission. Patients were better monitored and mortality was reduced to 7.5%. Reduction of mortality from upper GI hemorrhage followed the introduction of an agreed protocol based on risk scoring.

  17. THE MICROBIOTA OF UPPER PARTS OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND ITS ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF OBESITY IN CHILDREN

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    T. A. Bokova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora of different habitats of the human body and definition of their role in the development of metabolic disorders are of great interest for investigators worldwide. The gut mi-crobiota is an obligatory contributor to the synthesis, recirculation and metabolism of steroid hormones, lipids, and bile acids. Infectious agents and their biologically active compounds initiate the atherogenesis. Disorders of lipid metabolism are associated with a change in bacterial entero-types. Microbiotal colonization of gastrointestinal tract starts at birth. Its composition in a newborn depends on a variety of environmental and nutritional factors, maternal health, the course of pregnancy and delivery. Infants born by cesarean section have a higher incidence of obesity, which is thought to be associated with a delay of bifido-bacterial colonization of gastrointestinal tract.Reduction of bifidobacteria counts in the gut in infants below 12 months of age predisposes to obesity in later life. Children born to mothers with obesity have significant differences in the composition of the gut microflora, compared to children born to normal weight mothers. This review presents the data on the association between metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, and persistence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Further in-depth research in this area would increase the knowledge on the mechanisms of hormonal and metabolic disorders in childhood and may help to develop algorithms for effective treatment and preventive measures.

  18. Comparison of stool immunoassay with standard methods for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with upper-gastrointestinal bleeding of peptic origin.

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    Griñó, Pilar; Pascual, Sonia; Such, José; Casellas, Juan A; Niveiro, María; Andreu, Mariano; Sáez, Jesús; Aparicio, José R; Griñó, Emilio; Compañy, Luis; Laveda, Raquel; Pérez-Mateo, Miguel

    2003-05-01

    To assess the accuracy of the determination of Helicobacter pylori infection by a stool immunoassay in patients with upper-gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) of peptic origin, in comparison with the routine histological study, serology, rapid urease and 13C-breath tests. Sixty-eight patients with endoscopically proven UGB of peptic origin were included. The presence of H. pylori was considered when observed on histology or, if negative, by the positive indications of two of the remaining tests (serology, rapid urease,13C-breath test). The accuracy of stool immunoassay was estimated according to results obtained with other diagnostic methods. Lesions causing gastrointestinal bleeding were 49 duodenal ulcers, 11 gastric ulcers, six pyloric channel ulcers, 13 acute lesions of the gastric mucosa, and 16 erosive duodenitis. H. pylori infection was present in 59 (86.76%) patients. Forty-one patients had received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic methods were 47.5% and 100% for the rapid urease test, 93% and 87.5% for the breath test, 86.4% and 77.7% for serology, 89.4% and 100% for histology, and 96.6% and 33.3% for the stool test. The detection of H. pylori antigen in stools in patients with UGB of peptic origin has a good sensitivity (96.6%) but a low specificity (33.3%) for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection, which probably makes this test an inadequate tool in this setting if utilized alone.

  19. Long-term follow-up of the potential benefits of early nutritional intervention in adults with upper gastrointestinal cancer: a pilot randomised trial.

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    Furness, Kate; Silvers, Mary Anne; Savva, June; Huggins, Catherine E; Truby, Helen; Haines, Terry

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the long-term survival of all patients who participated in a pilot randomised trial of an early nutritional intervention for adults with upper gastrointestinal cancer. It also sought to identify factors that predicted patient mortality. All participants (n = 21) who were randomised into the original study were followed for a maximum of 5 years and 2 months (final follow-up April 2016). The primary outcome measure was time from date of recruitment until date of death, ascertained by the Victorian Cancer Registry and/or Monash Health Scanned Medical Records. Secondary analyses were conducted to identify factors that adversely affected survival. At the end of the follow-up period, three patients were alive in the nutrition intervention group whilst only two patients were living from the standard care group. Visual evaluation of the Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated a possible survival benefit from being exposed to the intervention between 6 months and 1.4 years post-recruitment, though this benefit dissipated soon after. The intervention was not associated with increased survival in univariate analyses, but was after adjustment for other factors found to adversely impact on survival (adjusted hazard ratio 0.12 (95% CI 0.02-0.72) p = 0.02). These factors were being a smoker (14.2 (1.43 to 140.67), p = 0.02); low baseline physical functioning (1.11 (1.01 to 1.21), p = 0.03); high baseline fatigue (1.09 (1.02-1.16), p = 0.007); and high baseline dyspnoea (1.08 (1.02-1.13), p = 0.003). Early and intensive nutrition intervention may increase the survival of people with upper gastrointestinal cancer.

  20. Self-medication of upper gastrointestinal symptoms with hydrotalcite: a noninterventional community pharmacy study on drug usage and patient satisfaction.

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    Häcker, Franziska; Morck, Hartmut

    2012-02-01

    Acid-related gastrointestinal symptoms are widely prevalent. These complaints are often self-medicated with antacids. For the community pharmacy setting little is known about how patients' perceptions of self-treating symptoms are met, e.g., via patient satisfaction. Such outcomes are difficult to determine in clinical trials, therefore, non-interventional studies (NIS) are one applicable method for gaining data under real-world conditions. This study was conducted to investigate: (1) characteristics of gastrointestinal symptoms and patients' global health status, (2) drug usage and symptom relief, and (3) patient satisfaction with the medication. This prospective, cross-sectional NIS was performed in cooperation with 137 community pharmacies in Germany. Participants were recruited from customers, after they had purchased the antacid, and were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. Patient satisfaction with hydrotalcite was assessed by the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM) on the scales effectiveness, side effects, convenience, and global satisfaction. 548 patients answered the questionnaire. The following symptoms were reported most frequently: heartburn (65%) and acid regurgitation (37%). In comparison to the general population, more participants rated their global health in lower categories, e.g., satisfying (35% vs. 23%) or poor (12% vs. 5%). Drug usage patterns were found to be in accordance with the principles of self-medication. The majority of patients reported a noticeable symptom relief within 15 min after drug intake. TSQM mean scores were high in all four scales; an excellent score was achieved in the scale side effects. Study results also revealed that the self-perceived global health status of the patients had an impact on their global satisfaction with the medication. This NIS shows that patients (1) are often affected in their global health when suffering from acid-related symptoms, (2) observed a fast symptom

  1. Propofol versus midazolam for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in cirrhotic patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

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    Hsiao-Chien Tsai

    Full Text Available Sedation during gastrointestinal endoscopy is often achieved using propofol or midazolam in general population. However, impaired protein synthesis, altered drug metabolism, and compromised hepatic blood flow in patients with liver cirrhosis might affect the pharmacokinetics of sedatives, placing cirrhotic patients undergoing endoscopy at a greater risk of adverse events. The objective of this study was to assess comparative efficacies and safety of propofol and midazolam in cirrhotic patients undergoing endoscopy.Randomized, controlled trials comparing propofol with midazolam in cirrhotic patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy were selected. We performed the meta-analysis, using a random-effect model, the Review Manager, Version 5.2, statistical software package (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK according to the PRISMA guidelines.Five studies between 2003 and 2012, including 433 patients, were included. Propofol provided a shorter time to sedation (weight mean difference: -2.76 min, 95% confidence interval: -3.00 to -2.51 and a shorter recovery time (weight mean difference -6.17 min, 95% confidence interval: -6.81 to -5.54 than midazolam did. No intergroup difference in the incidence of hypotension, bradycardia, or hypoxemia was observed. Midazolam was associated with the deterioration of psychometric scores for a longer period than propofol.This meta-analysis suggests that Propofol sedation for endoscopy provides more rapid sedation and recovery than midazolam does. The risk of sedation-related side effects for propofol does not differ significantly from that of midazolam. The efficacy of propofol in cirrhotic patients undergoing endoscopy is superior to those of midazolam.

  2. [Vascular lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract in the national hospital Daniel A. Carrion (2007-2008)].

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    Guzman, Edson; Espinoza, Miguel; Monge, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    To display the experience of vascular lesions in the upper digestive tract in 2007-2008 at Daniel Alcides Carrión Hospital. Transverse study. All endoscopies performed in the indicated period were reviewed. Vascular lesions found were record. The OMED classification for vascular lesions was used in this research. 1.979 examinations were reviewed. 26 vascular injuries were found (prevalence = 13.13/1000 endoscopies). The most frequent location was in stomach (65.4%). The most common type of injury was vascular angiectasia(57.7%). Vascular lesions in the upper digestive tract were rare; these lesions were more common in the stomach. Vascular angiectasias were the most frequently reported.

  3. Upper GI Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Upper GI Series Urinary Tract Imaging Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Upper GI Endoscopy What is upper gastrointestinal ( ... endoscopy, a doctor obtains biopsies by passing an instrument through the endoscope to obtain a small piece ...

  4. Maintenance treatment with esomeprazole following initial relief of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-associated upper gastrointestinal symptoms: the NASA2 and SPACE2 studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkey, Christopher J; Talley, Nicholas J; Scheiman, James M; Jones, Roger H; Långström, Göran; Næsdal, Jorgen; Yeomans, Neville D

    2007-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, cause upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that are relieved by treatment with esomeprazole. We assessed esomeprazole for maintaining long-term relief of such symptoms. Six hundred and ten patients with a chronic condition requiring anti-inflammatory therapy who achieved relief of NSAID-associated symptoms of pain, discomfort, or burning in the upper abdomen during two previous studies were enrolled and randomly assigned into two identical, multicentre, parallel-group, placebo-controlled studies of esomeprazole 20 mg or 40 mg treatment (NASA2 [Nexium Anti-inflammatory Symptom Amelioration] and SPACE2 [Symptom Prevention by Acid Control with Esomeprazole] studies; ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers NCT00241514 and NCT00241553, respectively) performed at various rheumatology, gastroenterology, and primary care clinics. Four hundred and twenty-six patients completed the 6-month treatment period. The primary measure was the proportion of patients with relapse of upper GI symptoms, recorded in daily diary cards, after 6 months. Relapse was defined as moderate-to-severe upper GI symptoms (a score of more than or equal to 3 on a 7-grade scale) for 3 days or more in any 7-day period. Esomeprazole was significantly more effective than placebo in maintaining relief of upper GI symptoms throughout 6 months of treatment. Life-table estimates (95% confidence intervals) of the proportion of patients with relapse at 6 months (pooled population) were placebo, 39.1% (32.2% to 46.0%); esomeprazole 20 mg, 29.3% (22.3% to 36.2%) (p = 0.006 versus placebo); and esomeprazole 40 mg, 26.1% (19.4% to 32.9%) (p = 0.001 versus placebo). Patients on either non-selective NSAIDs or selective COX-2 inhibitors appeared to benefit. The frequency of adverse events was similar in the three groups. Esomeprazole maintains relief of NSAID-associated upper GI symptoms in patients taking continuous

  5. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug related upper gastrointestinal bleeding: types of drug use and patient profiles in real clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostres, Carlos; Carrera-Lasfuentes, Patrica; Lanas, Angel

    2017-10-01

    The best available evidence regarding non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-related gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding comes from randomized controlled trials including patients who use NSAIDs to manage chronic rheumatic diseases; however, patients with varying background profiles commonly take NSAIDs for many other reasons, often without prescription, and such usage has not been well studied. To define the characteristics of patients hospitalized for upper GI bleeding in clinical practice, we conducted a case-control study among patients with endoscopy-proven major upper GI bleeding due to gastroduodenal peptic lesions and control subjects. We used adjusted logistic regression models to estimate bleeding risks. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0. Our analysis included 3785 cases and 6540 controls, including 1270 cases (33.55%) and 834 controls (12.75%) reporting recent use (NSAIDs including high-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). NSAID use was associated with increased risk of upper GI bleeding, with an adjusted relative risk of 4.86 (95% CI, 4.32-5.46). Acute musculoskeletal pain (36.1%), chronic osteoarthritis (13.5%), and headache (13.6%) were the most common reasons for NSAID use. Among cases, only 17.31% took NSAIDs and 6.38% took high dose ASA due to chronic osteoarthritis. Demographic characteristics significantly differed between subjects with chronic vs. acute musculoskeletal pain. Proton pump inhibitor use was significantly higher in patients who used NSAIDs due to chronic osteoarthritis compared to patients with acute musculoskeletal pain. NSAID (65.15%) or high-dose ASA use (65.83%) preceding upper GI bleeding was most often short-term. In over half of cases (63.62%), the upper GI bleeding event was not preceded by dyspeptic warning symptoms. The majority of patients hospitalized due to NSAID-related upper GI bleeding reported short-term NSAID use for reasons other than chronic rheumatic disease. These findings suggest that current prevention

  6. Effect of listening to Vedic chants and Indian classical instrumental music on patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: A randomized control trial.

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    Padam, Anita; Sharma, Neetu; Sastri, O S K S; Mahajan, Shivani; Sharma, Rajesh; Sharma, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    A high level of preoperative anxiety is common among patients undergoing medical and surgical procedures. Anxiety impacts of gastroenterological procedures on psychological and physiological responses are worth consideration. To analyze the effect of listening to Vedic chants and Indian classical instrumental music on anxiety levels and on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and oxygen saturation in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was done on 199 patients undergoing upper GI endoscopy. On arrival, their anxiety levels were assessed using state and trait scores and various physiological parameters such as HR, BP, and SpO 2 . Patients were randomly divided into three groups: Group I of 67 patients who were made to listen prerecorded Vedic chants for 10 min, Group II consisting of 66 patients who listened to Indian classical instrumental music for 10 min, and Group III of 66 controls who remained seated for same period in the same environment. Thereafter, their anxiety state scores and physiological parameters were reassessed. A significant reduction in anxiety state scores was observed in the patients in Group I (from 40.4 ± 8.9 to 38.5 ± 10.7; P classical instrumental music has beneficial effects on alleviating anxiety levels induced by apprehension of invasive procedures and can be of therapeutic use.

  7. A small particle size diet reduces upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with diabetic gastroparesis: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Olausson, Eva A; Störsrud, Stine; Grundin, Håkan; Isaksson, Mats; Attvall, Stig; Simrén, Magnus

    2014-03-01

    Gastroparesis is a well-known complication to diabetes mellitus (DM). Dietary advice is considered to be of importance to reduce gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with diabetic gastroparesis, but no randomized controlled trials exist. Our aim was to compare GI symptoms in insulin treated DM subjects with gastroparesis eating a diet with small particle size ("intervention diet") with the recommended diet for DM ("control diet"). 56 subjects with insulin treated DM and gastroparesis were randomized to the intervention diet or the control diet. The patients received dietary advice by a dietitian at 7 occasions during 20 weeks. GI symptom severity, nutrient intake and glycemic control were measured before and after the intervention. A significantly greater reduction of the severity of the key gastroparetic symptoms-nausea/vomiting (P=0.01), postprandial fullness (P=0.02) and bloating (P=0.006)-were seen in patients who received the intervention diet compared with the control diet, and this was also true for regurgitation/heartburn (P=0.02), but not for abdominal pain. Anxiety was reduced after the intervention diet, but not after the control diet, whereas no effect on depression or quality of life was noted in any of the groups. A higher fat intake in the intervention group was noted, but otherwise no differences in body weight, HbA1c or nutrient intake were seen. A small particle diet improves the key symptoms of gastroparesis in patients with diabetes mellitus. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01557296).

  8. Decades of research in drug targeting to the upper gastrointestinal tract using gastroretention technologies: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Rajendra; Kulkarni, Giriraj T

    2016-01-01

    A major constraint in oral controlled release drug delivery is that not all the drug candidates are absorbed uniformly throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Drugs having "absorption window" are absorbed in a particular portion of GIT only or are absorbed to a different extent in various segments of the GIT. Thus, only the drug released in the region preceding and in close vicinity to the absorption window is available for absorption. The drug must be released from the dosage form in solution form; otherwise, it is generally not absorbed. Hence, much research has been dedicated to the development of gastroretentive drug delivery systems that may optimize the bioavailability and subsequent therapeutic efficacy of such drugs, as these systems have unique properties to bypass the gastric emptying process. These systems show excellent in vitro results but fail to give desirable in vivo performance. During the last 2-3 decades, researchers from the academia and industries are giving considerable importance in this field. Unfortunately, till date, few so-called gastroretentive dosage forms have been brought to the market in spite of numerous academic publications. The manuscript considers strategies that are commonly used in the development of gastroretentive drug delivery systems with a special attention on various parameters, which needs to be monitored during formulation development.

  9. Foreign bodies in upper gastrointestinal tract and urgent endoscopic interventions – review of a ten-year period

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    Pavel Skok

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foreign bodies in the upper digestive tube are rarely the cause of an urgent condition in gastroenterology. They usually enter the digestive tube during nutrition or by mistake. However, certain groups of the population such as convicts or psychiatric patients tend to swallow them intentionally. The authors aim was to assess the percentage of patients in which urgent endoscopic investigation revealed true foreign bodies in the upper digestive tube, to evaluate the success of endoscopic procedures and the resolution of eventual complications.Patients and methods: The study includes patients in which urgent endoscopic investigations of the upper digestive tract were performed in a 10-year period (1 January 1994 to 31 December 2003.Results: Altogether 6416 patients were investigated, mean age 59.3 years, SD ± 17.2 years, range 1–106 years, 2452 females and 3964 males. In 51 patients, 0.8% of all subjects, foreign bodies were detected in the esophagus or stomach. In these patients a total of 65 endoscopic investigations were performed, in 94% the foreign bodies were removed endoscopically (48/51 patients, in three cases the endoscopic procedures were not successful. Among the foreign bodies removed were various metal or plastic objects: coins, keys, screws, hooks, batteries, razor blades, needles, parts of kitchen, toilet or writing utensils, lighters, buttons, toys, a toothbrush as well as impacted pieces of bone. In the patients with successful endoscopic removal of the objects, no significant complications were noted. In 3 patients (3/48, 6.3% only mild hemorrhages from the region of the esophagogastric junction were observed.Conclusions: The technological development of endoscopic instruments made it possible to carry out different therapeutic procedures. The method has proved successful in removing foreign bodies from the upper digestive tube. Various factors affect the success of the procedure, the more important being adequate

  10. Factor Analysis Defines Distinct Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Symptom Groups Compatible With Rome IV Criteria in a Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevers, Egbert; Whitehead, William E; Palsson, Olafur S; Sperber, Ami D; Törnblom, Hans; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Tack, Jan; Simrén, Magnus

    2018-03-03

    The Rome IV criteria define functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders by specific combinations of symptoms. It is possible to empirically evaluate these symptom combinations by factor analysis (a statistical procedure that groups variables that correlate). However, this analysis has not been performed for the Rome IV criteria, and factor analyses based on the previous versions of the Rome criteria did not use population-based data. We therefore investigated symptom grouping by the Rome IV questionnaire using factor analysis of a population-based sample. The Rome IV questionnaire was completed online in English by 5931 respondents from the United Kingdom, United States, and Canada (49% female, age range, 18-92 years). We performed an exploratory factor analysis on the Rome IV questions. Next, we performed a confirmatory factor analysis to compare the exploratory factor result to that of the Rome IV criteria. The exploratory factor analysis identified 8 factors that accounted for 45% of the variance in response: constipation, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, abdominal pain, heartburn, nausea or vomiting, globus, and other upper GI symptoms. Most factors corresponded to distinct functional GI disorders defined by the Rome IV criteria-exceptions included abdominal pain and upper GI symptoms. In confirmatory factor analysis, the exploratory model fitted slightly better than that based on the Rome IV criteria (root mean square error of approximation, 0.063 vs 0.077). We used factor analysis to identify distinct upper and lower GI symptom groups that are compatible with the Rome IV criteria. Our findings support the use of the Rome IV criteria in research and clinical practice as a basis for development of diagnostics and management of patients. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of upper gastrointestinal symptoms on nonadherence to, and discontinuation of, low-dose acetylsalicylic acid in patients with cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Stephen; Thompson, Vincent J; Elkin, Eric P; Næsdal, Jørgen; Sörstadius, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    While low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA [aspirin]; 75-325 mg) is a mainstay of cardiovascular (CV) protection in patients at high risk of CV events, such protection may be compromised due to poor adherence (or discontinuation) resulting from gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events. To date, however, the link between GI adverse events and nonadherence to, and discontinuation of, low-dose ASA is not well established in the literature. The aim of this study was to characterize the real-world impact of upper GI symptoms on low-dose ASA nonadherence and discontinuation in patients with CV risk taking low-dose ASA for CV protection. Multicenter, observational, noninterventional study. Primary-care, cardiology, and practice group centers in the US, Canada, and France. Subjects aged ≥18 years at risk of, or with confirmed, CV disease, and who had been prescribed or recommended low-dose ASA (75-325 mg daily) by a physician. Adherence to low-dose ASA was assessed using 3 months of data prospectively collected using an electronic diary (completed at least three times/day). Adherence was defined as low-dose ASA intake of ≥75% over the 3-month eDiary phase. Discontinuation was defined as no reported low-dose ASA intake for ≥7 continuous days. The odds of daily adherence were calculated using a mixed-model analysis for repeated measures, and a Cox-proportional hazard model was used to assess the association between upper GI symptoms and time to discontinuation of low-dose ASA. Overall, 340 patients (mean age 50 years; 59% women) participated in the analysis. Most patients (75%) were low-dose ASA naïve at inclusion, and had not experienced upper GI symptoms within the previous 14 days. Among these patients, the onset of upper GI symptoms was rapid; symptoms were reported by 19% of patients on the first day of the study, rising to 46% of patients at the end of the first week. Over the 3-month study period, 18% of patients were nonadherent to low-dose ASA treatment. The

  12. Comparison of Glasgow-Blatchford score and full Rockall score systems to predict clinical outcomes in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding

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    Mokhtare M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marjan Mokhtare, Vida Bozorgi, Shahram Agah, Mehdi Nikkhah, Amirhossein Faghihi, Amirhossein Boghratian, Neda Shalbaf, Abbas Khanlari, Hamidreza Seifmanesh Colorectal Research Center, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Tehran, Iran Background: Various risk scoring systems have been recently developed to predict clinical outcomes in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB. The two commonly used scoring systems include full Rockall score (RS and the Glasgow-Blatchford score (GBS. Bleeding scores were assessed in terms of prediction of clinical outcomes in patients with UGIB. Patients and methods: Two hundred patients (age >18 years with obvious symptoms of UGIB in the emergency department of Rasoul Akram Hospital were enrolled. Full RS and GBS were calculated. We followed the patients for records of rebleeding and 1-month mortality. A receiver operating characteristic curve by using areas under the curve (AUCs was used to statistically identify the best cutoff point. Results: Eighteen patients were excluded from the study due to failure to follow-up. Rebleeding and mortality rate were 9.34% (n=17 and 11.53% (n=21, respectively. Regarding 1-month mortality, full RS was better than GBS (AUC, 0.648 versus 0.582; P=0.021. GBS was more accurate in terms of detecting transfusion need (AUC, 0.757 versus 0.528; P=0.001, rebleeding rate (AUC, 0.722 versus 0.520; P=0.002, intensive care unit admission rate (AUC, 0.648 versus 0.582; P=0.021, and endoscopic intervention rate (AUC, 0.771 versus 0.650; P<0.001. Conclusion: We found the full RS system is better for 1-month mortality prediction while GBS system is better for prediction of other outcomes. Keywords: full Rockall score, Glasgow-Blatchford score, gastrointestinal bleeding, mortality, prognosis

  13. Development and application of an in vitro methodology to determine the transit tolerance of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species in the upper human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charteris, W P; Kelly, P M; Morelli, L; Collins, J K

    1998-05-01

    An in vitro methodology which mimics in vivo human upper gastrointestinal transit was developed. The transit tolerance of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species was determined by exposing washed cell suspensions at 37 degrees C to a simulated gastric juice (pH 2.0), containing pepsin (0.3% w/v) and sodium chloride (0.5% w/v), and a simulated small intestinal juice (pH 8.0), containing pancreatin USP (1 g l-1) and sodium chloride (5 g l-1), and monitoring changes in total viable count periodically. The methodology was also employed to determine the effect of adding milk proteins (1 g l-1), hog gastric mucin (1 g l-1) and soyabean trypsinchymotrypsin inhibitor [SBTCI] (1 g l-1) on transit tolerance. The majority (14 of 15) of isolates lost > 90% viability during simulated gastric transit. Only one isolate, Lactobacillus fermentum KLD, was considered intrinsically resistant. The addition of milk proteins, singly and in combination, generally improved gastric transit tolerance. In this regard, two isolates, Lact. casei 212.3 and Bifidobacterium infantis 25962, exhibited 100% gastric transit tolerance in the presence of milk proteins. In general, the addition of hog gastric mucin did not influence simulated gastric transit tolerance of lactobacilli but tended to increase that of bifidobacteria. However, it increased that of Lact. casei 242 and Lact. salivarius 43338 but diminished that of B. bifidum 2715 and B. animalis Bo. Selected bile salts-resistant isolates were intrinsically tolerant to simulated small intestinal transit. Only Lact. casei F19 and B. adolescentis 15703T showed significant reduction in viability after 240 min. In general, the addition of milk proteins and SBTCI did not affect simulated small intestinal transit tolerance. However, they significantly improved the intrinsic resistance of Lact. casei F19 but diminished that of B. breve 15700T. It is concluded that, whereas the majority of bile salts-resistant lactobacilli and

  14. GWAS follow-up study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma identifies potential genetic loci associated with family history of upper gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin; Li, Wen-Qing; Hu, Nan; Zhao, Xue Ke; Wang, Zhaoming; Hyland, Paula L; Jiang, Tao; Kong, Guo Qiang; Su, Hua; Wang, Chaoyu; Wang, Lemin; Sun, Li; Fan, Zong Min; Meng, Hui; Zhang, Tang Juan; Ji, Ling Fen; Hu, Shou Jia; Han, Wei Li; Wu, Min Jie; Zheng, Peng Yuan; Lv, Shuang; Li, Xue Min; Zhou, Fu You; Burdett, Laurie; Ding, Ti; Qiao, You-Lin; Fan, Jin-Hu; Han, Xiao-You; Giffen, Carol; Tucker, Margaret A; Dawsey, Sanford M; Freedman, Neal D; Chanock, Stephen J; Abnet, Christian C; Taylor, Philip R; Wang, Li-Dong; Goldstein, Alisa M

    2017-07-05

    Based on our initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Han Chinese, we conducted a follow-up study to examine the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with family history (FH) of upper gastrointestinal cancer (UGI) cancer in cases with ESCC. We evaluated the association between SNPs and FH of UGI cancer among ESCC cases in a stage-1 case-only analysis of the National Cancer Institute (NCI, 541 cases with FH and 1399 without FH) and Henan GWAS (493 cases with FH and 869 without FH) data (discovery phase). The top SNPs (or their surrogates) from discovery were advanced to a stage-2 evaluation in additional Henan subjects (2801 cases with FH and 3136 without FH, replication phase). A total of 19 SNPs were associated with FH of UGI cancer in ESCC cases with P provide important insights into new low-penetrance susceptibility regions involved in the susceptibility of families with multiple UGI cancer cases.

  15. Pregnancy outcome after 1st-trimester inadvertent exposure to barium sulphate as a contrast media for upper gastrointestinal tract radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B H; Lee, K S; Han, J Y; Choi, J S; Ahn, H K; Ryu, H M; Yang, J H; Han, H W; Nava-Ocampo, A A

    2011-10-01

    Despite barium being used as a contrast media for decades, the specific assessment of its safety in pregnant women is scarce. We are reporting the favourable pregnancy outcome in women who were inadvertently exposed to barium swallow and associated ionising radiation, early in pregnancy. A control group of age- and gravidity-matched unexposed pregnant women was also included. There were 32 live-born babies in the exposed group and 94 in the control group. Women had undergone diagnostic upper gastrointestinal tract (UGT) fluoroscopic examination at 3.3 ± 1.5 weeks' gestation. Estimated maternal radiation dose secondary to barium swallow varied widely, the maximum dose was estimated to be 2.45 mSv. Similar pregnancy outcomes were observed between the groups. The number of babies born with major malformations was not significantly different (p = 1.0) between cases and controls: one (3.1%) vs three (3.2%), respectively. In conclusion, our small prospective cohort study of women suggests no association between inadvertent exposure to ionising radiation and barium sulphate during fluoroscopic barium swallow and adverse fetal outcomes.

  16. Massive Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding from a Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysm Caused by a Penetrating Gastric Ulcer: Case Report and Review of Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicki, Marcin; Marlicz, Wojciech; Czapla, Norbert; Łokaj, Marek; Skoczylas, Michał M.; Donotek, Maciej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Splenic artery aneurysm and pseudoaneurysm are rare pathologies. True aneurysms are usually asymptomatic. Aneurysm rupture occurring in 2–3% of cases results in bleeding into the lesser sack, peritoneal space or adjacent organs typically presenting as abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability. In contrast, pseudoaneurysms are nearly always symptomatic carrying a high risk of rupture of 37–47% and mortality rate of 90% if untreated. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential in the management of patients with splenic artery pseudoaneurysm. Typical causes include pancreatitis and trauma. Rarely, the rupture of a pseudoaneurysm presents as upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding. Among causes, peptic ulcer is the casuistic one. This report describes a very rare case of recurrent UGI bleeding from a splenic artery pseudoaneurysm caused by a penetrating gastric ulcer. After negative results of endoscopy and ultrasound, the diagnosis was established in CT angiography. The successful treatment consisted of surgical ligation of the bleeding vessel and suture of the ulcer with preservation of the spleen and pancreas, which is rarely tried in such situations. The most important factor in identifying a ruptured splenic artery pseudoaneurysm as a source of GI bleeding is considering the diagnosis. UGI hemorrhage from splenic artery pseudoaneurysm can have a relapsing course providing false negative results of endoscopy and ultrasound if performed between episodes of active bleeding. In such cases, immediate CT angiography is useful in establishing diagnosis and in application of proper therapy before possible recurrence

  17. Helicobacter pylori-associated upper gastrointestinal disease in Saudi Arabia: a pathologic evaluation of 298 endoscopic biopsies from 201 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satti, M B; Twum-Danso, K; al-Freihi, H M; Ibrahim, E M; al-Gindan, Y; al-Quorain, A; al-Ghassab, G; al-Hamdan, A; al-Idrissi, H Y

    1990-05-01

    In a prospective study, histopathological examination 298 upper gastrointestinal (UGI) biopsies, obtained from 201 consecutive patients, was made. Patients were referred with mild to severe dyspeptic symptoms. The aim of the study was to compare the rate of identification of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the histologically normal gastric mucosa with that in histologically confirmed gastritis or peptic ulcer disease. The gastroduodenal mucosa was histologically normal in 35 patients (17.4%); among those patients, H. pylori was identified in only three (9%). Chronic gastritis was histologically confirmed in 162 patients (80.6%). H. pylori was identified in 123 (76%) of those patients. The difference was statistically significant (p less than 0.00001). Furthermore, when cases with a histological diagnosis of superficial chronic active gastritis (SCAG) are considered separately, the identification rate of H. pylori increases to 88% (121 of 137). When this rate is compared with that of 8% (two of 25), found in superficial chronic quiescent gastritis (SCQG), the difference is highly significant (p less than 0.00001). Of 38 endoscopically diagnosed peptic ulcers, H. pylori was identified in the gastric mucosa of 34 (89%). The organisms were always seen in the antral gastric mucosa, but never in duodenal mucosa. Identification of H. pylori correlates significantly with the histologic activity of chronic gastritis, in both peptic ulcer disease and non-ulcer dyspepsia.

  18. Comparison of upper gastrointestinal contrast studies and pH/impedance tests for the diagnosis of childhood gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, Eva W

    2012-08-01

    The upper gastrointestinal (UGI) contrast study is used in the assessment of children with gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) and for detection of structural anomalies. The pH study is more sensitive than the UGI study for the diagnosis of GOR. The pH study has been replaced by the pH/impedance test, which detects both acid and nonacid reflux. To compare the UGI contrast study with the pH/impedance test for the diagnosis of GOR in children. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive records of children investigated for GOR from October 2008 to February 2010, and compared the findings of UGI studies with those of pH/impedance tests. The UGI studies revealed GOR in 116 of 579 children (20%). Of the children undergoing a UGI study, 66 also underwent a pH/impedance test. Using the pH/impedance tests as the reference for GOR, UGI had a sensitivity of 42.8% and a negative predictive value of 24%. There was no significant correlation (P > 0.05) between the reflux index and the number of reflux episodes in the pH/impedance tests and height of reflux in the UGI study. There were low incidences of malrotation (0.9%), hiatus hernia (1%) and delayed gastric emptying (0.4%). The UGI study had low sensitivity for the diagnosis of GOR and low yield for the diagnosis of structural anomalies.

  19. An open-label, single-arm study assessing the efficacy and safety of L: -menthol sprayed onto the gastric mucosa during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiki, Naoki; Kaminishi, Michio; Tanabe, Satoshi; Fujisaki, Junko; Yoshino, Junji; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Ashida, Kiyoshi; Kawabe, Takao; Kawano, Tatsuyuki; Nomura, Sachiyo; Yahagi, Naohisa; Tajiri, Hisao; Suzuki, Hiroaki

    2011-07-01

    The results of a phase III, placebo-controlled study demonstrated that endoscopic direct spraying of L: -menthol onto the gastric mucosa effectively suppressed gastric peristalsis in the study patients. The aim of the study reported here was to determine whether the anti-peristaltic effect of an L: -menthol preparation facilitates endoscopic examinations in a clinical setting. This was a multicenter, open-label, single-arm trial in which the study cohort comprised patients in whom L: -menthol was likely to be used to facilitate endoscopic examination in clinical settings. The primary outcome was the proportion of subjects with no peristalsis (Grade 1) after treatment and at the end of endoscopy (defined as the complete suppression of gastric peristalsis). This variable was assessed according to the level of anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, pepsinogen test results, whether sedation was performed, and whether subjects were considered unsuitable for the use of conventional antispasmodics. Of the 119 enrolled subjects, data from 112 were included in the primary efficacy analysis. Gastric peristalsis was completely suppressed in 37.5% of the patients [42/112 patients; 95% confidence interval (CI) 28.5-47.1]. Subgroup analyses revealed that the rate of peristalsis suppression was significantly higher in patients with elevated levels of anti-H. pylori IgG antibody (26/44, 59.1%; 95% CI 43.2-73.7); P peristalsis during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

  20. Provision of out-of-hours services for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in England: results of the 2014-2015 BSG/NHS England national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedjat-Shokouhi, Bahman; Glynn, Michael; Denton, Erika R E; Greenfield, Simon M

    2017-01-01

    There has been a drive to raise the standard of management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) in the UK, including three previous audits, sponsored by the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG). To review the results of the latest BSG/National Health Service (NHS) England national survey of endoscopy services in England between 2014 and 2015. All NHS hospitals accepting acute admissions in England (168) were invited to respond to the survey. Overall, 142 hospitals (84%) returned data. 85% of hospitals used a validated risk assessment score at the time of patient's admission. While 80% of hospitals provided a 24/7 endoscopy service for unstable patients, and another 10% were in network to provide an acute service, only 60% performed an endoscopy within 24 hours for stable acute admissions or inpatients with AUGIB. 11% of hospitals operated an out-of-hours ad hoc rota. 43% felt that pressure from routine work affected their ability to offer a next-day oesophagogastroduodenoscopy service, while 20% of hospitals struggled to recruit endoscopists. 28% of units reported that the previous national audit performed in 2013 had a positive influence on service development. This survey has revealed significant deficiencies in provision of services for patients with AUGIB in England, without a significant increase in number of hospitals providing an emergency AUGIB service since the last national audit in 2013.

  1. Provision of out-of-hours services for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in England: results of the 2014–2015 BSG/NHS England national survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedjat-Shokouhi, Bahman; Glynn, Michael; Denton, Erika R E; Greenfield, Simon M

    2017-01-01

    Background There has been a drive to raise the standard of management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) in the UK, including three previous audits, sponsored by the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG). Objective To review the results of the latest BSG/National Health Service (NHS) England national survey of endoscopy services in England between 2014 and 2015. Method All NHS hospitals accepting acute admissions in England (168) were invited to respond to the survey. Results Overall, 142 hospitals (84%) returned data. 85% of hospitals used a validated risk assessment score at the time of patient's admission. While 80% of hospitals provided a 24/7 endoscopy service for unstable patients, and another 10% were in network to provide an acute service, only 60% performed an endoscopy within 24 hours for stable acute admissions or inpatients with AUGIB. 11% of hospitals operated an out-of-hours ad hoc rota. 43% felt that pressure from routine work affected their ability to offer a next-day oesophagogastroduodenoscopy service, while 20% of hospitals struggled to recruit endoscopists. 28% of units reported that the previous national audit performed in 2013 had a positive influence on service development. Conclusions This survey has revealed significant deficiencies in provision of services for patients with AUGIB in England, without a significant increase in number of hospitals providing an emergency AUGIB service since the last national audit in 2013. PMID:28839878

  2. Positive predictive value of ICD-9th codes for upper gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation in the Sistema Informativo Sanitario Regionale database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaruzzi, C; Troncon, M G; Agostinis, L; García Rodríguez, L A

    1999-06-01

    We identified patients whose records in the Sistema Informativo Sanitario Regionale database in the Italian region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia showed a code of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) and perforation according to codes of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9th revision. The validity of site- and lesion-specific codes (531 to 534) and nonspecific codes (5780, 5781, and 5789) was ascertained through manual review of hospital clinical records. The initial group was made of 1779 potential cases of UGIB identified with one of these codes recorded. First, the positive predictive values (PPV) were calculated in a random sample. As a result of the observed high PPV of 531 and 532 codes, additional hospital charts were solely requested for all remaining potential cases with 533, 534, and 578 ICD-9 codes. The overall PPV reached a high of 97% for 531 and 532 site-specific codes, 84% for 534 site-specific codes, and 80% for 533 lesion-specific codes, and a low of 59% for nonspecific codes. These data suggest a considerable research potential for this new computerized health care database in Southern Europe.

  3. Nurse-led follow-up at home vs. conventional medical outpatient clinic follow-up in patients with incurable upper gastrointestinal cancer: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitdehaag, Madeleen J; van Putten, Paul G; van Eijck, Casper H J; Verschuur, Els M L; van der Gaast, Ate; Pek, Chulja J; van der Rijt, Carin C D; de Man, Rob A; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Laheij, Robert J F; Siersema, Peter D; Spaander, Manon C W; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2014-03-01

    Upper gastrointestinal cancer is associated with a poor prognosis. The multidimensional problems of incurable patients require close monitoring and frequent support, which cannot sufficiently be provided during conventional one to two month follow-up visits to the outpatient clinic. To compare nurse-led follow-up at home with conventional medical follow-up in the outpatient clinic for patients with incurable primary or recurrent esophageal, pancreatic, or hepatobiliary cancer. Patients were randomized to nurse-led follow-up at home or conventional medical follow-up in the outpatient clinic. Outcome parameters were quality of life (QoL), patient satisfaction, and health care consumption, measured by different questionnaires at one and a half and four months after randomization. As well, cost analyses were done for both follow-up strategies in the first four months. In total, 138 patients were randomized, of which 66 (48%) were evaluable. At baseline, both groups were similar with respect to clinical and sociodemographic characteristics and health-related QoL. Patients in the nurse-led follow-up group were significantly more satisfied with the visits, whereas QoL and health care consumption within the first four months were comparable between the two groups. Nurse-led follow-up was less expensive than conventional medical follow-up. However, the total costs for the first four months of follow-up in this study were higher in the nurse-led follow-up group because of a higher frequency of visits. The results suggest that conventional medical follow-up is interchangeable with nurse-led follow-up. A cost utility study is necessary to determine the preferred frequency and duration of the home visits. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Low-dose aspirin and upper gastrointestinal bleeding in primary versus secondary cardiovascular prevention: a population-based, nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kueiyu Joshua; De Caterina, Raffaele; García Rodríguez, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    The benefit-risk profile of low-dose aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is unclear. We sought to quantify upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) risk associated with low-dose aspirin in secondary versus primary prevention patients. We performed a population-based nested case-control study using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) Database between 2000 and 2007. We identified 2049 cases of UGIB and 20,000 controls, frequency-matched to the cases on age, sex, and calendar year, who were subdivided into primary (without previous cardiovascular disease) and secondary (with previous cardiovascular disease) prevention populations. We estimated the relative risk of UGIB associated with the use of low-dose aspirin by multivariate logistic regression. The UGIB risk in patients taking low-dose aspirin relative to nonusers was significantly higher in the primary (adjusted relative risk, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-2.26) than in the secondary (relative risk, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.72; P value for the difference=0.0014) prevention cohort. However, as the baseline risk of UGIB was lower in the primary than in the secondary prevention cohort, numbers needed to harm per 1 year of low-dose aspirin use were 601 and 391 for primary and secondary prevention, respectively. The relative risk of UGIB in patients taking low-dose aspirin is higher when used for primary than for secondary cardiovascular disease prevention, but this difference is more than compensated by the lower baseline risk in the primary prevention population. Such estimates are important for an assessment of the net clinical benefit in primary prevention.

  5. [The value of twenty-four hour intraoesophageal pH monitoring and manometry in the management of patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakner, Lilla; Döbrönte, Zoltán

    2009-10-25

    Functional gastroenterological examinations (intraoesophageal pH monitoring, oesophageal manometry, scintigraphy, impedance examination) play important role in the management of patients with upper gastrointestinal complaints. Four different cases are demonstrated where diagnose and therapy was developed by these examinations. Two patients had typical gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms and two others had dysphagia. Intraoesophageal pH monitoring was performed by Zinetics twenty-four hour one or two channel pH catheters and oesophageal manometry was carried out by Zinetics EMC four channel catheter with water perfusion method. In one of the patients with typical and extraoesophageal reflux symptoms, lower oesophageal sphincter incompetency by manometry and pathological acid reflux was observed by intraoesophageal pH monitoring, respectively. Furthermore, hiatal hernia was established, peristalsis of the oesophagus proved to be preserved. Because of incomplete efficacy of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy, antireflux surgery was indicated. An other patient with reflux symptoms had physiological pH monitoring and manometric values. Hypersensitive oesophagus was diagnosed and PPI therapy in double dose was applied. Both patients are symptom free up to now. Other two patients complained difficult swallowing and weight loss. Absence of lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation and hypomotility of the oesophagus was observed. After oesophageal dilatation, both patients with achalasia could easy swallow and eat. Our cases confirm the importance of the twenty-four hour intraoesophageal pH monitoring and oesophageal manometry in the diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, non-cardiac chest pain, other extraoesophageal manifestations and dysphagia. These examinations support the decision for the adequate therapeutic strategy (conventional treatment, surgery or operation or endoscopic intervention) and are important in the follow-up of patients.

  6. Multicenter phase II randomized study evaluating dose-response of antiperistaltic effect of L-menthol sprayed onto the gastric mucosa for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiki, Naoki; Kaminishi, Michio; Yasuda, Kenjiro; Uedo, Noriya; Kobari, Masumi; Sakai, Terufumi; Hiratsuka, Takashi; Ohno, Kyota; Honjo, Hajime; Nomura, Sachiyo; Yahagi, Naohisa; Tajiri, Hisao; Suzuki, Hiroaki

    2012-03-01

    Peppermint oil solution was found to be effective for reducing gastric spasm during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the gastric peristalsis-suppressing effect is dose-dependently induced by L-menthol, the major constituent of peppermint oil, and to determine the recommended dose of an L-menthol preparation. In this phase II, multicenter, double-blind, dose-response study, 131 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive 20 mL of 0.4% L-menthol (n = 32), 0.8% L-menthol (n = 35), 1.6% L-menthol (n = 30), or placebo (n = 34). The primary efficacy measure was the proportion of subjects with no peristalsis in two time periods, 75 to 105 s after treatment and immediately before the completion of endoscopy. The peristalsis-suppressing effect of L-menthol increased dose dependently (5.6%, 32.0%, 47.4% and 52.9% in the 0%, 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.6% groups, respectively: P peristalsis after administration was significantly higher in the 0.8% group (P = 0.015) and 1.6% group (P = 0.009). Adverse events in the L-menthol dose groups occurred with similar frequencies in the placebo group. L-menthol suppresses peristalsis in a dose-dependent manner, and the dose-response reaches a plateau at 0.8% L-menthol. Further Phase III studies are needed to establish the superiority of 0.8% L-menthol over placebo. © 2011 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2011 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  7. Reacquisition of E-cadherin expression in metastatic deposits of signet-ring cell carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal system: a potential anchor for metastatic deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yihong R; Siegal, Gene P; Wei, Shi

    2017-06-01

    To examine the expression of E-cadherin in paired primary and metastatic signet-ring cell carcinomas (SRCC) of various organ systems in order to explore the potential role of the molecule in metastatic dissemination of this unique tumour type. Thirty-seven consecutive cases of SRCC from various organs with paired primary and metastatic tumorous tissue available were retrieved. The intensity of membranous E-cadherin expression was semiquantitatively scored on a scale of 0-3+. Reduced E-cadherin expression was a distinct feature of primary SRCC and was observed in 78% of primary tumours. Interestingly, the E-cadherin reduction was less frequently seen in metastatic SRCC when compared with their primary counterparts, and was only found in 57% of tumours in lymph node metastases or at distant sites of relapse. Furthermore, the mean score of E-cadherin expression of primary SRCC was significantly lower than that of their metastatic counterparts (2.3 vs 1.8; p=0.008). When divided by organ systems, the reacquisition of E-cadherin expression in the metastatic deposits was most remarkable in the SRCC of upper gastrointestinal tract origin (2.3 vs 1.4; p=0.003), whereas no significant difference was observed in other organ systems. While the reduction of E-cadherin in primary SRCC supports its pivotal role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a process crucial in tumour progression and metastatic dissemination, the re-expression of this molecule in metastatic SRCC cells implies a reversal to their epithelial phenotype (thus mesenchymal-epithelial transition) which, in turn, theoretically helps tumour cells to anchor and form cohesive metastatic deposits. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Lean thinking transformation of the unsedated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy pathway improves efficiency and is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydes, Theresa; Hansi, Navjyot; Trebble, Timothy M

    2012-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy is a routine healthcare procedure with a defined patient pathway. The objective of this study was to redesign this pathway for unsedated patients using lean thinking transformation to focus on patient-derived value-adding steps, remove waste and create a more efficient process. This was to form the basis of a pathway template that was transferrable to other endoscopy units. A literature search of patient expectations for UGI endoscopy identified patient-derived value. A value stream map was created of the current pathway. The minimum and maximum time per step, bottlenecks and staff-staff interactions were recorded. This information was used for service transformation using lean thinking. A patient pathway template was created and implemented into a secondary unit. Questionnaire studies were performed to assess patient satisfaction. In the primary unit the patient pathway reduced from 19 to 11 steps with a reduction in the maximum lead time from 375 to 80 min following lean thinking transformation. The minimum value/lead time ratio increased from 24% to 49%. The patient pathway was redesigned as a 'cellular' system with minimised patient and staff travelling distances, waiting times, paperwork and handoffs. Nursing staff requirements reduced by 25%. Patient-prioritised aspects of care were emphasised with increased patient-endoscopist interaction time. The template was successfully introduced into a second unit with an overall positive patient satisfaction rating of 95%. Lean thinking transformation of the unsedated UGI endoscopy pathway results in reduced waiting times, reduced staffing requirements and improved patient flow and can form the basis of a pathway template which may be successfully transferred into alternative endoscopy environments with high levels of patient satisfaction.

  9. Laparoscopic T-tube feeding jejunostomy as an adjunct to staging laparoscopy for upper gastrointestinal malignancies: the technique and review of outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siow, Sze Li; Mahendran, Hans Alexander; Wong, Chee Ming; Milaksh, Nirumal Kumar; Nyunt, Myo

    2017-03-20

    In recent years, staging laparoscopy has gained acceptance as part of the assessment of resectability of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) malignancies. Not infrequently, we encounter tumours that are either locally advanced; requiring neoadjuvant therapy or occult peritoneal disease that requires palliation. In all these cases, the establishment of enteral feeding during staging laparoscopy is important for patients' nutrition. This review describes our technique of performing laparoscopic feeding jejunostomy and the clinical outcomes. The medical records of all patients who underwent laparoscopic feeding jejunostomy following staging laparoscopy for UGI malignancies between January 2010 and July 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The data included patient demographics, operative technique and clinical outcomes. Fifteen patients (11 males) had feeding jejunostomy done when staging laparoscopy showed unresectable UGI maligancy. Eight (53.3%) had gastric carcinoma, four (26.7%) had oesophageal carcinoma and three (20%) had cardio-oesophageal junction carcinoma. The mean age was 63.3 ± 7.3 years. Mean operative time was 66.0 ± 7.4 min. Mean postoperative stay was 5.6 ± 2.2 days. Laparoscopic feeding jejunostomy was performed without intra-operative complications. There were no major complications requiring reoperation but four patients had excoriation at the T-tube site and three patients had tube dislodgement which required bedside replacement of the feeding tube. The mean duration of feeding tube was 127.3 ± 99.6 days. Laparoscopic feeding jejunostomy is an important adjunct to staging laparoscopy that can be performed safely with low morbidity. Meticulous attention to surgical techniques is the cornerstone of success.

  10. Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid use and the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding: A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials and observational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkhoff, Vera E; Sturkenboom, Miriam CJM; Hill, Catherine; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (LDA, 75 mg/day to 325 mg/day) is recommended for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events, but has been linked to an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). OBJECTIVE: To analyze the magnitude of effect of LDA use on UGIB risk. METHODS: The PubMed and Embase databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting UGIB rates in individuals receiving LDA, and observational studies of LDA use in patients with UGIB. Studies were pooled for analysis of UGIB rates. RESULTS: Eighteen studies were included. Seven RCTs reported UGIB rates in individuals randomly assigned to receive LDA (n=22,901) or placebo (n=22,923). Ten case-control studies analyzed LDA use in patients with UGIB (n=10,816) and controls without UGIB (n=30,519); one cohort study reported 207 UGIB cases treated with LDA only. All studies found LDA use to be associated with an increased risk of UGIB. The mean number of extra UGIB cases associated with LDA use in the RCTs was 1.2 per 1000 patients per year (95% CI 0.7 to 1.8). The number needed to harm was 816 (95% CI 560 to 1500) for RCTs and 819 (95% CI 617 to 1119) for observational studies. Meta-analysis of RCT data showed that LDA use was associated with a 50% increase in UGIB risk (OR 1.5 [95% CI 1.2 to 1.8]). UGIB risk was most pronounced in observational studies (OR 3.1 [95% CI 2.5 to 3.7]). CONCLUSIONS: LDA use was associated with an increased risk of UGIB. PMID:23516680

  11. Routine upper gastrointestinal imaging is superior to clinical signs for detecting gastrojejunal leak after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Daniel B; Dorman, Robert B; Anderson, Joel; Serrot, Federico J; Kellogg, Todd A; Buchwald, Henry; Sampson, Barbara K; Slusarek, Bridget M; Ikramuddin, Sayeed

    2012-02-01

    There are myriad symptoms and signs of gastrojejunal leak; prompt recognition is essential. Many surgeons use clinical predictors to guide selective use of upper gastrointestinal imaging (UGI). The appropriate practice remains undefined. A review of patients who underwent primary laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass between January 2002 and December 2008 was conducted. All underwent routine UGI studies on postoperative day 1. Actual gastrojejunal leak within 7 days of surgery (actual leak [AL], radiologic leaks), operative reports, patient charts, and postoperative vital signs were retrospectively reviewed. There were 2,099 operations. Eight ALs (0.43%) occurred without associated mortality. UGI was positive in 7 AL patients and falsely positive in 6 patients. The AL patients underwent laparoscopy on postoperative days 1 and 3 (n = 5 and n = 1, respectively), laparotomy on postoperative day 3 (n = 1), and peritoneal drainage (n = 1). False-positive UGIs prompted laparoscopy (n = 3) and close observation (n = 3). Pulse was 100 to 120 beats per minute in 2 patients and fever (>38.5°C) was present in 0 AL patients. AL patients had osteogenesis imperfecta (n = 1), macronodular cirrhosis (n = 1), positive bubble test (n = 3), and concomitant splenectomy (n = 1). No jejunojejunostomy leaks were identified. Routine UGI after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass has greater sensitivity than clinical signs for detecting gastrojejunal leak. Delay in the diagnosis of leakage can impact mortality, and this suggests that indications for routine UGI might still exist. Tachycardia is not a reliable early marker of leak. There might be risk factors for leak in addition to vital signs, including patient medical history or intraoperative events, which should prompt routine UGI on postoperative day 1. Copyright © 2012 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Upper gastrointestinal sensitivity to meal-related signals in adult humans - relevance to appetite regulation and gut symptoms in health, obesity and functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2016-08-01

    Both the stomach and small intestine play important roles in sensing the arrival of a meal, and its physico-chemical characteristics, in the gastrointestinal lumen. The presence of a meal in the stomach provides a distension stimulus, and, as the meal empties into the small intestine, nutrients interact with small intestinal receptors, initiating the release of gut hormones, associated with feedback regulation of gastrointestinal functions, including gut motility, and signaling to the central nervous system, modulating eating behaviours, including energy intake. Lipid appears to have particularly potent effects, also in close interaction with, and modulating the effects of, gastric distension, and involving the action of gut hormones, particularly cholecystokinin (CCK). These findings have not only provided important, and novel, insights into how gastrointestinal signals interact to modulate subjective appetite perceptions, including fullness, but also laid the foundation for an increasing appreciation of the role of altered gastrointestinal sensitivities, e.g. as a consequence of excess dietary intake in obesity, or underlying the induction of gastrointestinal symptoms in functional dyspepsia (a condition characterized by symptoms, including bloating, nausea and early fullness, amongst others, after meals, particularly those high in fat, in the absence of any structural or functional abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract). This paper will review the effects of dietary nutrients, particularly lipid, on gastrointestinal function, and associated effects on appetite perceptions and energy intake, effects of interactions of gastrointestinal stimuli, as well as the role of altered gastrointestinal sensitivities (exaggerated, or reduced) in eating-related disorders, particularly obesity and functional dyspepsia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The Predictive Value of Preendoscopic Risk Scores to Predict Adverse Outcomes in Emergency Department Patients With Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, Rosa; Mukarram, Muhammad; Smith, Christine A M; Thiruganasambandamoorthy, Venkatesh

    2016-11-01

    Risk stratification of emergency department (ED) patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) using preendoscopic risk scores can aid ED physicians in disposition decision-making. We conducted a systematic review to assess the predictive value of preendoscopic risk scores for 30-day serious adverse events. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to March 2015. We included studies involving adult ED UGIB patients evaluating preendoscopic risk scores and excluded reviews, case reports, and animal studies. The composite outcome included 30-day mortality, recurrent bleeding, and need for intervention. In two phases (screening and full review), two reviewers independently screened articles for inclusion and extracted patient-level data. The consensus data were used for analysis. We reported sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratios with 95% confidence intervals. We identified 3,173 articles, of which 16 were included: three studied Glasgow Blatchford score (GBS); one studied clinical Rockall score (cRockall); two studied AIMS65; six compared GBS and cRockall; three compared GBS, a modification of the GBS, and cRockall; and one compared the GBS and AIMS65. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of the GBS were 0.98 and 0.16, respectively; for the cRockall they were 0.93 and 0.24, respectively; and for the AIMS65 they were 0.79 and 0.61, respectively. The GBS with a cutoff point of 0 had a sensitivity of 0.99 and a specificity of 0.08. The GBS with a cutoff point of 0 was superior over other cutoff points and risk scores for identifying low-risk patients but had a very low specificity. None of the risk scores identified by our systematic review were robust and, hence, cannot be recommended for use in clinical practice. Future prospective studies are needed to develop robust new scores for use in ED patients with UGIB. © 2016 by the

  14. Effective dose estimation for pediatric upper gastrointestinal examinations using an anthropomorphic phantom set and metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emigh, Brent; Gordon, Christopher L.; Falkiner, Michelle; Thomas, Karen E.; Connolly, Bairbre L.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for updated radiation dose estimates in pediatric fluoroscopy given the routine use of new dose-saving technologies and increased radiation safety awareness in pediatric imaging. To estimate effective doses for standardized pediatric upper gastrointestinal (UGI) examinations at our institute using direct dose measurement, as well as provide dose-area product (DAP) to effective dose conversion factors to be used for the estimation of UGI effective doses for boys and girls up to 10 years of age at other centers. Metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters were placed within four anthropomorphic phantoms representing children ≤10 years of age and exposed to mock UGI examinations using exposures much greater than used clinically to minimize measurement error. Measured effective dose was calculated using ICRP 103 weights and scaled to our institution's standardized clinical UGI (3.6-min fluoroscopy, four spot exposures and four examination beam projections) as determined from patient logs. Results were compared to Monte Carlo simulations and related to fluoroscope-displayed DAP. Measured effective doses for standardized pediatric UGI examinations in our institute ranged from 0.35 to 0.79 mSv in girls and were 3-8% lower for boys. Simulation-derived and measured effective doses were in agreement (percentage differences 0.18). DAP-to-effective dose conversion factors ranged from 6.5 x 10 -4 mSv per Gy-cm 2 to 4.3 x 10 -3 mSv per Gy-cm 2 for girls and were similarly lower for boys. Using modern fluoroscopy equipment, the effective dose associated with the UGI examination in children ≤10 years at our institute is < 1 mSv. Estimations of effective dose associated with pediatric UGI examinations can be made for children up to the age of 10 using the DAP-normalized conversion factors provided in this study. These estimates can be further refined to reflect individual hospital examination protocols through the use of direct organ

  15. Evaluation of the “CLARI-RES ASSAY” by real-time for the detection of clarithromycin -resistant Helicobacter pylori in the upper gastrointestinal biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Mucignat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Clarithromycin is recognized as the main drug of first-line therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori (Hp (Maastricht III Consensus 2006 and in vitro evaluation of its effectiveness is considered crucial. it was noted that some point mutations in domain V of 23S rRNA Hp are associated with resistance to macrolides and then is given the possibility of a molecular diagnostic capable, inter alia, to overcome some of the problems associated with classical microbiological techniques.They have been recently commercialized kit employing molecular methods able to identify some of these mutations, which are considered most often. Having assessed by sequencing, the relative frequency of mutations detected in local office, we wanted to compare the potential benefits of molecular diagnostics in comparison to cytological testing in normal use, and assess the frequency of strains with mutations linked to resistance to clarithromycin in population Local. Methods. 59 patients presenting disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract were subjected to gastroscopy, biopsies were taken on which it runs parallel with the direct cytology and molecular method. Cytology was performed according to traditional method.The extraction of nucleic acids was performed with QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen.The kit “H. pylori ClariRes assay” (Ingenetix GmbH.Vienna was used for the detection of mutations A2142C,A2142/3G by RealTime on LightCycler 2.0 instrument (Roche. Results. 91.5% of results are concordant with both methods (54/59. 41 are positive for the presence of Hp and 18 are negative. No sample test are positive direct and negative for nucleic acids, vice versa in 5 samples are found DNA of Hp while the direct examination was negative. Of the 41 patients positive for Molecular good 19 (46.3% appear to be carriers of Hp with mutations linked to resistance Clarithromycin. Conclusions.The molecular method is used and proved sensitive and reliable in

  16. Distribution of CD4(pos) -, CD8(pos) - and regulatory T cells in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauschmann, Martin; Prietl, Barbara; Treiber, Gerlies; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Kump, Patrizia; Högenauer, Christoph; Pieber, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal immune system is involved in the development of several autoimmune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Alterations in T-cell populations, especially regulatory T cells (Tregs), are often evident in patients suffering from these diseases. To be able to detect changes in T-cell populations in diseased tissue, it is crucial to investigate T-cell populations in healthy individuals, and to characterize their variation among different regions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. While limited data exist, quantitative data on biopsies systematically drawn from various regions of the GI tract are lacking, particularly in healthy young humans. In this report, we present the first systematic assessment of how T cells--including Tregs--are distributed in the gastrointestinal mucosa throughout the GI tract of healthy young humans by means of multi-parameter FACS analysis. Gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were performed on 16 healthy volunteers aged between 18 and 32. Biopsies were drawn from seven GI regions, and were used to determine the frequencies of CD8(+)-, CD4(+)- and Tregs in the gastrointestinal mucosa by means of multi-parameter FACS analysis. Our data show that there is significant variation in the baseline T-cell landscape along the healthy human gastrointestinal tract, and that mucosal T-cell analyses from a single region should not be taken as representative of the entire gastrointestinal tract. We show that certain T-cell subsets in the gastrointestinal mucosa vary significantly among regions; most notably, that Tregs are enriched in the appendiceal orifice region and the ascending colon, and that CD8(pos) T cells are enriched in the gastric mucosa.

  17. Antiagregation and anticoagulation, relationship with upper gastrointestinal bleeding Antiagregación y anticoagulación, relación con la hemorragia digestiva alta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Wikman-Jorgensen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the modern society brings a high prescription of platelet antiaggregation and anticoagulant medications. These treatments have been related to an increased incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleedings (UGB. Our aim was to estimate the fraction of UGB's presented to our hospital that was related to this kind of treatments and describe their clinical features in our environment. Material and methods: a retrospective search was performed in the archives of our hospital of all the patients with diagnosis of UGB admitted during the period 2004-2007 both years inclusive. Patients on antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant treatment were included. We analyzed the information regarding the use of medication, the bleeding lesion, the severity of the bleeding, recurrences, mortality and their clinical features. Results: we found 523 episodes of UGB. Of these 137 (26.1% were patients receiving platelet antiaggregation or anticoagulant drugs. The patients were male 60.2%, and had a mean age of 75.6 (± 10.8 years. The 65.5% (74 had HBP, 43.4% (49 diabetes mellitus and 37.2% (42 dislypemia and 13.3% (22 dementia. The drug most frequently implicated was ASA in 36.3% (41, followed by acenocumarol in 27.4% (31, clopidogrel 18.6% (21, double therapy (ASA + clopidogrel in 6.2% (7, triple therapy (ASA + clopidogrel + acenocumarol in 0.9% (1, triflusal 4.4% (5, low molecular weight heparin 5.3% (5, and ticlopidine in one patient (0.9%. Only 36.3% (41 were on treatment with proton pump inhibitors. There were 24 recurrences and 4 deaths. Conclusions: the 26.1% of the UGB attended in our environment were of iatrogenic origin. We also found a low use of proton pump inhibitors.Introducción: la alta prevalencia de la patología cardiovascular en las sociedades modernas conlleva una elevada prescripción y uso de medicamentos antiagregantes y anticoagulantes. Estos tratamientos se han relacionado con un aumento

  18. Gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.D.; Pointon, R.C.S.

    1985-01-01

    At the time of writing, radiotherapy is of only minor use in the management of adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract, for a number of reasons. First, an exploratory laparotomy is generally needed for diagnosis, and if possible the tumour is resected or by-passed. Second, radiotherapy planning in the upper abdomen is complicated by the proximity of small bowel, kidneys, and spinal cord. Third, it has been assumed that these tumours cause death largely as a result of distant metastases, so that local radiotherapy, even if effective, would contribute little to survival. The continued interest in radiotherapy for this group of tumours arises out of the poor survival rates following surgery, which have not changed for many years, and the morbidity associated with their resection. It was hoped that the addition of cytotoxic agents to radical surgery would improve survival rates in carcinoma of the stomach and intraperitoneal colon. Despite a large number of well-organised prospective trials, using a variety of cytotoxic drugs, there is so far no evidence that the addition of chemotherapy to radical surgery improves survival for either tumour site. The authors are therefore faced with a group of tumours which are not only common, but commonly fatal and many surgeons would accept that a new approach using modern radiotherapy techniques may well be justified. There is evidence that this movement is already taking place for carcinoma of the rectum, and the indications for radiotherapy in this condition will be dealt with below. Before considering these it is worth dwelling briefly on recent changes in surgical and radiological practices which, if they fulfil expectations, might allow radiotherapy to be used for carcinoma of the colon, stomach, and pancreas as it is now used for rectal cancer

  19. Microencapsulation increases survival of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506, but not Enterococcus faecium IS-27526 in a dynamic, computer-controlled in vitro model of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surono, I; Verhoeven, J; Verbruggen, S; Venema, K

    2018-02-23

    To test the effect of microencapsulation on the survival of two probiotic strains isolated from Dadih, Indonesian fermented buffalo milk, in a dynamic, computer-controlled in vitro model of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract (TIM-1), simulating human adults. Free or microencapsulated probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506 or Enterococcus faecium IS-27526, resuspended in milk were studied for survival in the complete TIM-1 system (stomach + small intestine) or in the gastric compartment of TIM-1 only. Hourly samples collected after the ileal-caecal valve or after the pylorus were plated on MRS agar (for Lactobacillus) or S&B agar (for Enterococcus). Survival of the free cells after transit through the complete TIM-1 system was on average for the E. faecium and L. plantarum 15·0 and 18·5% respectively. Survival of the microencapsulated E. faecium and L. plantarum was 15·7 and 84·5% respectively. The free cells were further assessed in only the gastric compartment of TIM-1. E. faecium and L. plantarum showed an average survival of 39 and 32%, respectively, after gastric passage. There is similar sensitivity to gastric acid as well as survival after complete upper GI tract transit of free cells, but microencapsulation only protected L. plantarum. Survival of microencapsulated L. plantarum IS-10506 is increased compared to free cells in a validated in vitro model of the upper GI tract. It increases its use as an ingredient of functional foods. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. ‘Nutrimune®’ and immune defence against pathogens in the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following an application from H.J. Heinz Supply Chain Europe B.V., submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the Netherlands, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked...... to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to ‘Nutrimune®’ and immune defence against pathogens in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and upper respiratory tract (URT). The food ‘Nutrimune®’ (a pasteurised cow’s skim milk fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74......) which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that immune defence against pathogens in GI tract and URT is a beneficial physiological effect. One human intervention study from which conclusions can be drawn showed an effect of ‘Nutrimune®’ on immune...

  1. Gastric polyps diagnosed by double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography mostly arise from the Helicobacter pylori-negative stomach with low risk of gastric cancer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Chihiro; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Shimamoto, Takeshi; Takahashi, Yu; Mitsushima, Toru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-03-01

    Double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography (UGI-XR) is a method broadly used for gastric cancer screening in Japan. Gastric polyp is one of the most frequent findings detected by UGI-XR, but how to handle it remains controversial. Gastric polyps of the 17,264 generally healthy subjects in Japan who underwent UGI-XR or upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGI-ES) in 2010 were analyzed. Of the 6,433 UGI-XR examinees (3,405 men and 3,028 women, 47.4 ± 9.0 years old), gastric polyps were detected in 464 men (13.6 %) and 733 women (24.2 %) and were predominantly developed on the non-atrophic gastric mucosa (p cancer occurred in 7 subjects (0.11 %), but none of them had gastric polyps at the beginning of the follow-up period. Of the 2,722 subjects with gastric polyps among the 10,831 UGI-ES examinees in the same period, 2,446 (89.9 %) had fundic, 267 (9.8 %) had hyperplastic, and 9 (0.3 %) had adenomatous/cancerous polyps. Gastric polyps diagnosed by UGI-XR predominantly arise on the Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric mucosa with a low risk of gastric cancer in Japan. In the prospective observation, none of the UGI-XR examinees with gastric polyps developed gastric cancer for at least 3 years subsequently.

  2. Study of the physicochemical and biological stability of pediocin PA-1 in the upper gastrointestinal tract conditions using a dynamic in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheadr, E; Zihler, A; Dabour, N; Lacroix, C; Le Blay, G; Fliss, I

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the survival of Pediococcus acidilactici UL5 and its ability to produce pediocin PA-1 during transit in an artificial gastrointestinal tract (GIT). To investigate the physicochemical and biological stability of purified pediocin PA-1 under GIT conditions. Skim milk culture of Ped. acidilactici UL5 was fed to a dynamic gastrointestinal (GI) model known as TIM-1, comprising four compartments connected by computer-controlled peristaltic valves and simulating the human stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum. This strain tolerated a pH of 2·7 in the gastric compartment, while lower pH reduced its viability. Bile salts in the duodenal compartment brought a further 4-log reduction after 180 min of digestion, while high viable counts (up to 5 × 10(7) CFU ml(-1) fermented milk) of Ped. acidilactici were found in both the jejunal and ileal compartments. Pediococcus acidilactici recovered from all four compartments was able to produce pediocin at the same level as unstressed cells. The activity of the purified pediocin in the gastric compartment was slightly reduced after 90 min of gastric digestion, while no detectable activity was found in the duodenal, jejunal and ileal compartments during 5 h of digestion. HPLC analysis showed partial degradation of the pediocin peptide in the duodenal compartment and massive breakdown in the jejunal and ileal compartments. Pediococcus acidilactici UL5 showed high resistance to GIT conditions, and its ability to produce pediocin was not affected, suggesting its potential as a probiotic candidate. The physicochemical and biological stability of pediocin was significantly poor under GIT conditions. Pediococcus acidilactici UL5 appears to be a potential probiotic candidate because its capacity to produce pediocin PA-1 is not affected by the GI conditions as well as the strain shows an acceptable survival rate. Meanwhile, purified pediocin PA-1 losses activity during GIT transit; microcapsules could be used to deliver it to the

  3. The impact of reduced gastric acid secretion on dissolution of salts of weak bases in the fasted upper gastrointestinal lumen: Data in biorelevant media and in human aspirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litou, Chara; Vertzoni, Maria; Xu, Wei; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Reppas, Christos

    2017-06-01

    To propose media for simulating the intragastric environment under reduced gastric acid secretion in the fasted state at three levels of simulation of the gastric environment and evaluate their usefulness in evaluating the intragastric dissolution of salts of weak bases. To evaluate the importance of bicarbonate buffer in biorelevant in vitro dissolution testing when using Level II biorelevant media simulating the environment in the fasted upper small intestine, regardless of gastric acid secretions. Media for simulating the hypochlorhydric and achlorhydric conditions in stomach were proposed using phosphates, maleates and bicarbonates buffers. The impact of bicarbonates in Level II biorelevant media simulating the environment in upper small intestine was evaluated so that pH and bulk buffer capacity were maintained. Dissolution data were collected using two model compounds, pioglitazone hydrochloride and semifumarate cocrystal of Compound B, and the mini-paddle dissolution apparatus in biorelevant media and in human aspirates. Simulated gastric fluids proposed in this study were in line with pH, buffer capacity, pepsin content, total bile salt/lecithin content and osmolality of the fasted stomach under partial and under complete inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Fluids simulating the conditions under partial inhibition of acid secretion were useful in simulating concentrations of both model compounds in gastric aspirates. Bicarbonates in Level III biorelevant gastric media and in Level II biorelevant media simulating the composition in the upper intestinal lumen did not improve simulation of concentrations in human aspirates. Level III biorelevant media for simulating the intragastric environment under hypochlorhydric conditions were proposed and their usefulness in the evaluation of concentrations of two model salts of weak bases in gastric aspirates was shown. Level II biorelevant media for simulating the environment in upper intestinal lumen led to

  4. Similar Efficacy of Proton-Pump Inhibitors vs H2-Receptor Antagonists in Reducing Risk of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding or Ulcers in High-Risk Users of Low-Dose Aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Francis K L; Kyaw, Moe; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Cheong, Pui Kuan; Lee, Vivian; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Naito, Yuji; Watanabe, Toshio; Ching, Jessica Y L; Lam, Kelvin; Lo, Angeline; Chan, Heyson; Lui, Rashid; Tang, Raymond S Y; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Tse, Yee Kit; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Handa, Osamu; Nebiki, Hiroko; Wu, Justin C Y; Abe, Takashi; Mishiro, Tsuyoshi; Ng, Siew C; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    It is not clear whether H 2 -receptor antagonists (H2RAs) reduce the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in aspirin users at high risk. We performed a double-blind randomized trial to compare the effects of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) vs a H2RA antagonist in preventing recurrent upper GI bleeding and ulcers in high-risk aspirin users. We studied 270 users of low-dose aspirin (≤325 mg/day) with a history of endoscopically confirmed ulcer bleeding at 8 sites in Hong Kong and Japan. After healing of ulcers, subjects with negative results from tests for Helicobacter pylori resumed aspirin (80 mg) daily and were assigned randomly to groups given a once-daily PPI (rabeprazole, 20 mg; n = 138) or H2RA (famotidine, 40 mg; n = 132) for up to 12 months. Subjects were evaluated every 2 months; endoscopy was repeated if they developed symptoms of upper GI bleeding or had a reduction in hemoglobin level greater than 2 g/dL and after 12 months of follow-up evaluation. The adequacy of upper GI protection was assessed by end points of recurrent upper GI bleeding and a composite of recurrent upper GI bleeding or recurrent endoscopic ulcers at month 12. During the 12-month study period, upper GI bleeding recurred in 1 patient receiving rabeprazole (0.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%-5.1%) and in 4 patients receiving famotidine (3.1%; 95% CI, 1.2%-8.1%) (P = .16). The composite end point of recurrent bleeding or endoscopic ulcers at month 12 was reached by 9 patients receiving rabeprazole (7.9%; 95% CI, 4.2%-14.7%) and 13 patients receiving famotidine (12.4%; 95% CI, 7.4%-20.4%) (P = .26). In a randomized controlled trial of users of low-dose aspirin at risk for recurrent GI bleeding, a slightly lower proportion of patients receiving a PPI along with aspirin developed recurrent bleeding or ulcer than of patients receiving an H2RA with the aspirin, although this difference was not statistically significant. ClincialTrials.gov no: NCT01408186. Copyright © 2017 AGA

  5. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding: risk factors for mortality in two urban centers in Latin America Hemorragia digestiva alta: factores de riesgo para mortalidad en dos centros urbanos de América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Morales Uribe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the experience with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB in two major Latin American hospitals; its main cuses, treatment and prognosis, while exploring some risk factors associated with death. Design: prospective cohort study. Patients and methods: We included 464 patients older than 15 years of age from two reference centers. We studied some demographic variables, history, clinical presentation, treatment and mortality. We explored the association betwen those variables and death. Results: The mean age was 57.9 years, and the male: female ratio was 1.4:1. Three hundred and fifty nine patients (77.4% were seen for gastrointestinal bleeding (outpatients bleeding and 105 patients (22.6% were inpatients seen for UGIB. A total of 71.6% of patients admitted with the diagnosis of upper GI bleeding underwent upper GI emdoscopy (EGD within 24 hours. The main causes of bleeding were peptic ulcer (190 patients, 40.9%, erosive disease (162 patients, 34.9% and variceal bleeding (47 patients, 10.1%. Forty four patients died (9.5%. Patient who presented with bleeding due to other causes during hospitalization has a higher mortality risk than those whose complaints were related to gastrointestinal bleeding (RR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.6. An increasing number of comorbidities such as those described in the Rockall Score, were also associated with a higher risk of mortality (RR 2.5 95% CI 1.1-5.4. Conclusion: Intrahospital upper GI bleeding and the presence of comorbilities ares risk factors for a fatal outcome. Identifying patients with a higher risk would help improve the management of patients with UGIB.Objetivo: presentar la experiencia con la hemorragia de vías digestivas alta (HDA en dos hospitales centros de referencia de un país latinoamericano, las principales causas, tratamiento, pronóstico y explorar algunos factores de riesgo asociados con la mortalidad. Diseño: estudio de cohortes prospectivo. Pacientes y métodos: se

  6. Diagnostic performance of Baveno IV criteria in cirrhotic patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding: analysis of the F7 liver-1288 study population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabut, D; D'Amico, G; Tan, P; De Franchis, R; Fabricius, S; Lebrec, D; Bosch, J; Bendtsen, F

    2010-12-01

    The definition of failure to control bleeding agreed upon at the Baveno IV consensus meeting, included the Adjusted Blood Requirement Index [ABRI: number of blood units/(final-initial hematocrit+0.01)]. ABRI ≥0.75 denotes failure. However, timing for hematocrit measurements was not defined. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the Baveno IV criteria performance to classify treatment success or failure to control bleeding at 5 days, (2) to determine the appropriate timing for hematocrit. Two hundred and forty-two cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal bleeding were independently classified by three clinical experts according to the Baveno IV criteria, by analysis of the database of a randomized trial. ABRI was calculated by using the closest hematocrit to the 5 day time point from the first trial product administration (ABRI-1) or after the latest transfusion within the 5-day period (ABRI-2). The gold standard for success/failure for 5-day control of bleeding was the clinical judgment of the three independent observers based on all the clinical and follow-up data. Inter-observer agreement for the final outcome assessment was 0.82 and a final consensus was obtained in 236/242 patients. Inter-observer agreement on patient classification with Baveno IV criteria was 0.70 with ABRI-1 and 0.84 with ABRI-2. c-statistics for correct patients classification were 0.86 for ABRI-1, 0.84 for ABRI-2, and 0.88 for Baveno IV criteria without ABRI. ABRI-1 caused misclassification of 27 patients and ABRI-2 of 39. Baveno IV criteria are accurate to assess outcome of patients with variceal bleeding. There is a substantial observer variability linked to timing of hematocrits for ABRI calculation. With the current definition ABRI does not add to the performance of the other criteria. Copyright © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gastrointestinal System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jepson, Mark A.; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) acts as a barrier to uptake of potentially dangerous material while allowing absorption of processed food. The gut may be exposed to a diverse range of engineered nanomaterials due to their deliberate addition to food and consumer products

  8. Psychophysiological Associations with Gastrointestinal Symptomatology in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Bradley J.; Marler, Sarah; Altstein, Lily L.; Lee, Evon Batey; Akers, Jill; Sohl, Kristin; McLaughlin, Aaron; Hartnett, Kaitlyn; Kille, Briana; Mazurek, Micah; Macklin, Eric A.; McDonnell, Erin; Barstow, Mariah; Bauman, Margaret L.; Margolis, Kara Gross

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often accompanied by gastrointestinal disturbances, which also may impact behavior. Alterations in autonomic nervous system functioning are also frequently observed in ASD. The relationship between these findings in ASD is not known. We examined the relationship between gastrointestinal symptomatology, examining upper and lower gastrointestinal tract symptomatology separately, and autonomic nervous system functioning, as assessed by heart rate variability and...

  9. Atrophic gastritis and enlarged gastric folds diagnosed by double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography are useful to predict future gastric cancer development based on the 3-year prospective observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamichi, Nobutake; Hirano, Chigaya; Ichinose, Masao; Takahashi, Yu; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Matsuda, Rie; Nakayama, Chiemi; Shimamoto, Takeshi; Kodashima, Shinya; Ono, Satoshi; Tsuji, Yosuke; Niimi, Keiko; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Kataoka, Yosuke; Saito, Itaru; Asada-Hirayama, Itsuko; Takeuchi, Chihiro; Yakabi, Seiichi; Kaikimoto, Hikaru; Matsumoto, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Kageyama-Yahara, Natsuko; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Wada, Ryoichi; Mitsushima, Toru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2016-07-01

    Double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography (UGI-XR) is the standard gastric cancer screening method in Japan. Atrophic gastritis and enlarged gastric folds are considered the two major features of Helicobacter pylori-induced chronic gastritis, but the clinical meaning of evaluating them by UGI-XR has not been elucidated. We analyzed healthy UGI-XR examinees without a history of gastrectomy, previous Helicobacter pylori eradication and usage of gastric acid suppressants. Of the 6433 subjects, 1936 (30.1 %) had atrophic gastritis and 1253 (19.5 %) had enlarged gastric folds. During the 3-year prospective observational follow-up, gastric cancer developed in seven subjects, six of whom (85.7 %) had atrophic gastritis with H. pylori infection and five of whom (71.4 %) had enlarged gastric folds with H. pylori infection. The Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank testing revealed that both UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis (p = 0.0011) and enlarged gastric folds (p = 0.0003) are significant predictors for future gastric cancer incidence.

  10. Development and validation of a Chinese translated questionnaire: A single simultaneous tool for assessing gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tract related illnesses in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S.Y. Lau, MSc

    2018-04-01

    لحصول على مؤشر صلاحية عملية الاستجابة للبند بمستوى ١.٠٠ لهذه الاستبانة من ٣٠ من المجيبين مما يدل على أن البنود كانت واضحة ومفهومة. الاستنتاجات: أظهرت هذه الدراسة مستوى جيدا من مؤشر الصلاحية في النسخة المترجمة الصينية، مما يدل على أنها أداة صالحة وموثوق بها لاستخدامها في التقييم المتزامن للأمراض ذات الصلة بالجهازين الهضمي والتنفسي في الأطفال الصغار ويمكن تطبيقها على سكان ماليزيا الصينيين والدول الأخرى الناطقة بالصينية. Abstract: Objectives: Children are prone to contagious illnesses that come from peers in nurseries, kindergartens, and day care centres. The administration of probiotics has been reported to decrease the episodes of such illnesses, leading to decreased absences and consumption of antibiotics. With less emphasis on, and preferences for, blood collection from young subjects, quantifiable data are merely obtained from surveys and questionnaires. Malaysia has a population which is 25% ethnic Chinese. We aimed to develop a single tool that enables simultaneous assessments of both gastrointestinal and respiratory tract-related illnesses among young Chinese children. Methods: The English-language validated questionnaires using data about demographics and monthly health records were translated into the Chinese language. Both forward and backward translated versions were validated. Results: The developed demographic and monthly health questionnaires showed an overall item-level content validity index (I-CVI of 0.99 and 0.97, respectively; while the translated Chinese versions showed I-CVI of 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. Item-level of response process validity index of 1.00 for this questionnaire was obtained from 30 respondents

  11. Upper intestinal and biliary tract endoprosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Bartelsman, J. F.; den Hartog Jager, F. C.; Huibregtse, K.; Mathus-Vliegen, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    The endoscopic insertion of an endoprosthesis is now a standard procedure in the ultimate palliation of malignant obstructing upper gastrointestinal and biliary malignancy. The commercially available prostheses and introducing devices are adequate for the majority of upper intestinal cancers. For

  12. Urban-Rural Disparity in Helicobacter Pylori Infection-Related Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer in China and the Decreasing Trend in Parallel with Socioeconomic Development and Urbanization in an Endemic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaoduo; Wen, Denggui; Yang, Yi; Chen, Yuetong; Wang, Guiying; Shan, Baoen

    Globally China has the largest urban-rural disparity in socioeconomic development, and the urban-rural difference in upper gastrointestinal cancer (UGIC) is similar to the difference between developed and developing countries. To describe urban-rural disparity in UGIC and to emphasize prevention by socioeconomic development and urbanization in China. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) of cancers in 2012 were compared between urban Shijiazhuang city and rural Shexian County, and trends from 2000-2015 in Shexian County were analyzed. Compared with urban Shijiazhuang city, the ASR of gastroesophageal cancers in rural Shexian County was 5.3 times higher in men (234.1 vs 44.2/100,000, P urban disparity in UGIC is associated with differences in socioeconomic development in annual gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of US$2700 vs US$6965, in urbanization rate of 48% vs 100%, and in adult Helicobacter pylori infection prevalence of 75% vs 50%. From 2000-2015, the GDP per capita in Shexian County increased from US$860 to US$3000, urbanization rate increased from 22.4% to 54.8%, and prevalence of H pylori infection among 3- to 10-year-old children decreased from 60% to 46.1% (P Urban-rural disparity in UGIC is related to inequity in socioeconomic development. Economic growth and urbanization is effective for prevention in endemic regions in China and should be a policy priority. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Localized gastrointestinal amyloidosis presenting with protein-losing enteropathy and massive hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Corrêa

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis of the gastrointestinal tract is usually a systemic disease. Localized gastrointestinal amyloidosis without evidence of extraintestinal involvement or an associated plasma cell dyscrasia is uncommon and does not usually cause death. We report a case of a patient with localized gastrointestinal amyloidosis who presented with protein-losing enteropathy and a fatal upper gastrointestinal bleed.

  14. [APPROACH TO PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, M; Hanževački, M; Jurčić, P; Budimir, I; Ljubičić, N

    2015-11-01

    In the developed Western countries, despite the accumulation of knowledge about the causes and treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding, as well as the experience of gastroenterologists-endoscopists using sophisticated endoscopic devices, the number of hospitalizations and mortality rates has not declined as expected. The most likely explanations are the following: aging population, increased prevalence of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity, Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance, using dual anti-aggregation therapy, anticoagulants, and excessive use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The aim of this paper is to show the incidence and the most common signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding. The aim is also to present initial clinical evaluation, diagnostic methods, the main causes of gastrointestinal bleeding, endoscopic hemostatic modalities and treatment of bleeding from the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Using the MEDLINE and Ovid databases, we searched the meta-analyses and systematic reviews published in English during the 2005-2015 period. Meta-analyses included results of randomized, double-blind studies on adults treated for gastrointestinal bleeding. Included were guidelines of the European and American Society of Gastroenterological Endoscopy, as well as recent expert work. In this review, we bring the state-of-the-art on gastrointestinal bleeding, new classification of gastrointestinal bleeding from the upper, mid and lower gut, controversy of nasogastric tube placement, use of prokinetic agents and inhibitor proton pumps in acute gastrointestinal bleeding from the upper tract, restrictive transfusion strategy, useful clinical stratification of the severity of bleeding, indications for hospitalization and outcome of using the clinical bleeding score, proper use of gastroprotection in patients at a high risk of peptic ulcer, the need of initial endoscopy, variceal assessment in newly diagnosed

  15. Cardiorespiratory changes during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mild to moderate hypoxia was found in 19 (47.5%) patients. Severe hypoxia was found in 5 (12.5%) patients.The variables that reached statistical significance for desaturation were age greater than 50 years and duration longer than 27 minutes. Changes in pulse rate were significant post-sedation, during probe insertion, ...

  16. Tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Klingenberg, Sarah Louise; Langholz, Ebbe

    2012-01-01

    Tranexamic acid reduces haemorrhage through its antifibrinolytic effects. In a previous version of the present review, we found that tranexamic acid may reduce mortality. The present review includes updated searches of randomised trials on tranexamic acid versus placebo, cimetidine or lansoprazole....

  17. Tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Cathy; Klingenberg, Sarah Louise; Langholz, Ebbe

    2014-01-01

    controlled trial from which data are not yet available. Control groups were randomly assigned to placebo (seven trials) or no intervention (one trial). Two trials also included a control group randomly assigned to antiulcer drugs(lansoprazole or cimetidine). The included studies were published from 1973...

  18. Endoscopic Findings in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %), forty five (52.9%) had peptic ulcer disease or erosions while gastric cancer and oesophageal cancer were seen in 3(3.5%) and 1(1.2%) of cases respectively. The probable cause of bleeding could not be found in 3 (3.5%) of the patients.

  19. upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings in patients referred

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-01

    Aug 1, 2014 ... quartz fibers a concept used by Hopkins in 1954 to build a model of a flexible fibre imaging device (2) the precursor of fibre-optic endoscope. Since then endoscopes and endoscopy have undergone great technical developments to the current new dimension in imaging of endoscopic ultrasonography ...

  20. Gastrointestinal malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Dolk, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the degree to which gestational age (GA) has been shortened due to prenatal diagnosis of gastrointestinal malformations (GIM). The data source for the study was 14 population-based registries of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). All liveborn infants with GIMs...... malformations, although not statistically significant for gastroschisis. There was little difference in median birthweight by GA for the pre- and postnatally diagnosed infants. The difference in GA at birth between prenatally and postnatally diagnosed infants with GIMs is enough to increase the risk...... of mortality for the prenatally diagnosed infants. Clinicians need to balance the risk of early delivery against the benefits of clinical convenience when making case management decisions after prenatal diagnosis. Very few studies have been able to show benefits of prenatal diagnosis of congenital...

  1. Associated factors of atrophic gastritis diagnosed by double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography: a cross-sectional study analyzing 6,901 healthy subjects in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamichi, Nobutake; Hirano, Chigaya; Shimamoto, Takeshi; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Takahashi, Yu; Nakayama, Chiemi; Matsuda, Rie; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Konno-Shimizu, Maki; Kato, Jun; Kodashima, Shinya; Ono, Satoshi; Niimi, Keiko; Mochizuki, Satoshi; Tsuji, Yosuke; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Asada-Hirayama, Itsuko; Takeuchi, Chihiro; Yakabi, Seiichi; Kakimoto, Hikaru; Wada, Ryoichi; Mitsushima, Toru; Ichinose, Masao; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography (UGI-XR) is one of the most widely conducted gastric cancer screening methods. It has been executed to find gastric cancer, but has not been usually executed to detect premalignant atrophic mucosa of stomach. To understand the meaning of UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis, we analyzed its association with several causative factors including Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. We evaluated 6,901 healthy adults in Japan. UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis was diagnosed based on the irregular shape of areae gastricae and its expansion in the stomach. Of the 6,433 subjects with no history of HP eradication and free from gastric acid suppressants, 1,936 were diagnosed as UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis (mild: 234, moderate: 822, severe: 880). These were univariately associated with serum HP IgG and serum pepsinogen I/II ratio with statistical significance. The multiple logistic analysis calculating standardized coefficients (β) and odds ratio (OR) demonstrated that serum HP IgG (β = 1.499, OR = 4.48), current smoking (β = 0.526, OR = 1.69), age (β = 0.401, OR = 1.49), low serum pepsinogen I/II ratio (β = 0.339, OR = 1.40), and male gender (β = 0.306, OR = 1.36) showed significant positive association with UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis whereas drinking and body mass index did not. Among the age/sex/smoking/drinking-matched 227 pairs derived from chronically HP-infected and successfully HP-eradicated subjects, UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis was detected in 99.1% of the former but in only 59.5% of the latter subjects (pContrastively, UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis was detected in 13 of 14 HP-positive proton pump inhibitor users (92.9%) and 33 of 34 HP-positive histamine H2-receptor antagonist users (97.1%), which are not significantly different from gastric acid suppressant-free subjects. The presence of UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis is positively associated with

  2. Associated Factors of Atrophic Gastritis Diagnosed by Double-Contrast Upper Gastrointestinal Barium X-Ray Radiography: A Cross-Sectional Study Analyzing 6,901 Healthy Subjects in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamichi, Nobutake; Hirano, Chigaya; Shimamoto, Takeshi; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Takahashi, Yu; Nakayama, Chiemi; Matsuda, Rie; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Konno-Shimizu, Maki; Kato, Jun; Kodashima, Shinya; Ono, Satoshi; Niimi, Keiko; Mochizuki, Satoshi; Tsuji, Yosuke; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Asada-Hirayama, Itsuko; Takeuchi, Chihiro; Yakabi, Seiichi; Kakimoto, Hikaru; Wada, Ryoichi; Mitsushima, Toru; Ichinose, Masao; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Background Double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography (UGI-XR) is one of the most widely conducted gastric cancer screening methods. It has been executed to find gastric cancer, but has not been usually executed to detect premalignant atrophic mucosa of stomach. To understand the meaning of UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis, we analyzed its association with several causative factors including Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. Methods We evaluated 6,901 healthy adults in Japan. UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis was diagnosed based on the irregular shape of areae gastricae and its expansion in the stomach. Results Of the 6,433 subjects with no history of HP eradication and free from gastric acid suppressants, 1,936 were diagnosed as UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis (mild: 234, moderate: 822, severe: 880). These were univariately associated with serum HP IgG and serum pepsinogen I/II ratio with statistical significance. The multiple logistic analysis calculating standardized coefficients (β) and odds ratio (OR) demonstrated that serum HP IgG (β = 1.499, OR = 4.48), current smoking (β = 0.526, OR = 1.69), age (β = 0.401, OR = 1.49), low serum pepsinogen I/II ratio (β = 0.339, OR = 1.40), and male gender (β = 0.306, OR = 1.36) showed significant positive association with UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis whereas drinking and body mass index did not. Among the age/sex/smoking/drinking-matched 227 pairs derived from chronically HP-infected and successfully HP-eradicated subjects, UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis was detected in 99.1% of the former but in only 59.5% of the latter subjects (pgastritis was detected in 13 of 14 HP-positive proton pump inhibitor users (92.9%) and 33 of 34 HP-positive histamine H2-receptor antagonist users (97.1%), which are not significantly different from gastric acid suppressant-free subjects. Conclusions The presence of UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis is positively associated with

  3. Associated factors of atrophic gastritis diagnosed by double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography: a cross-sectional study analyzing 6,901 healthy subjects in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutake Yamamichi

    Full Text Available Double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography (UGI-XR is one of the most widely conducted gastric cancer screening methods. It has been executed to find gastric cancer, but has not been usually executed to detect premalignant atrophic mucosa of stomach. To understand the meaning of UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis, we analyzed its association with several causative factors including Helicobacter pylori (HP infection.We evaluated 6,901 healthy adults in Japan. UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis was diagnosed based on the irregular shape of areae gastricae and its expansion in the stomach.Of the 6,433 subjects with no history of HP eradication and free from gastric acid suppressants, 1,936 were diagnosed as UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis (mild: 234, moderate: 822, severe: 880. These were univariately associated with serum HP IgG and serum pepsinogen I/II ratio with statistical significance. The multiple logistic analysis calculating standardized coefficients (β and odds ratio (OR demonstrated that serum HP IgG (β = 1.499, OR = 4.48, current smoking (β = 0.526, OR = 1.69, age (β = 0.401, OR = 1.49, low serum pepsinogen I/II ratio (β = 0.339, OR = 1.40, and male gender (β = 0.306, OR = 1.36 showed significant positive association with UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis whereas drinking and body mass index did not. Among the age/sex/smoking/drinking-matched 227 pairs derived from chronically HP-infected and successfully HP-eradicated subjects, UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis was detected in 99.1% of the former but in only 59.5% of the latter subjects (p<0.0001. Contrastively, UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis was detected in 13 of 14 HP-positive proton pump inhibitor users (92.9% and 33 of 34 HP-positive histamine H2-receptor antagonist users (97.1%, which are not significantly different from gastric acid suppressant-free subjects.The presence of UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis is positively

  4. Gastrointestinal bleeding from supraduodenal artery with aberrant origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Han, MD, PhD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Angiography and endovascular embolization play an important role in controlling acute arterial upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, particularly when endoscopic intervention fails to do so. In our case, the patient presented with recurrent life-threatening bleed in spite of multiple prior endoscopic interventions and gastroduodenal artery embolization. Our teaching points focus on the role of angiography in acute upper gastrointestinal bleed and when to conduct empiric embolization, while reviewing the supraduodenal artery as an atypical but important potential culprit for refractory upper gastrointestinal bleed.

  5. Predictors of gastrointestinal lesions on endoscopy in iron deficiency anemia without gastrointestinal symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasaya Rozina

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA due to occult gastrointestinal (GI blood loss usually remains unnoticed until patient become symptomatic. There is sparse data in IDA patients without gastrointestinal symptoms. This study was designed to find out the frequency and predictors of endoscopic lesions in IDA without gastrointestinal symptoms. Cross-sectional study performed on a convenience sample of consecutive subjects. Methods Ninety five consecutive patients with laboratory based diagnosis of IDA having no gastrointestinal symptoms were interviewed and their clinical and biochemical variables were recorded. All the study patients underwent esophago-gastroduodenoscopy (EGD and colonoscopy. Endoscopic findings were documented as presence/absence of bleeding related lesion and presence/absence of cause of IDA. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to identify variables significantly related to outcome variables. Results Possible cause of anaemia was found in 71% and bleeding related lesions were found in 53% of patients. Upper gastrointestinal tract lesions were found in 41% of patients with bleeding related lesions. On multivariable logistic regression; advancing age, low mean corpuscular volume (MCV ≤ 60 fl, and positive fecal occult blood test were predictive factors for bleeding related GI lesions and cause of IDA Conclusion Clinical and Biochemical markers can predict gastrointestinal lesions on endoscopy in IDA patients without gastrointestinal symptoms. High proportion of upper gastrointestinal involvement warrants EGD as initial endoscopic procedure however, this needs validation by further studies.

  6. Stress, Anxiety and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress has major role in functional gastrointestinal system disorders. The most typical example of this situation is Irritable bowel syndrome. Gastrointestinal system’s response to acute or short-term of stress is delay of gastric emptying and stimulation of colonic transition. While CRF2 receptors are mediate the upper section inhibition, CRF1 is responsible for the lower part colonic and anxiogenic response. Visceral hypersensitivity is managed by the emotional motor system, the amygdala plays a significant role and mucosal mast cells arise. But in people with symptoms of functional gastrointestinal, how is differ motility response in healthy individuals, this situation is due to lack of autonomous nervous system or an increased sensitivity of stress is not adequately understood. The brain-gastrointestinal axis frequency and severity of symptoms associated with negative emotions. American Gastroenterology Association is closely associated with the quality of life and is very difficult to treat the symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders, re-interpreted under the heading of 'Gastrointestinal Distress'. This review is defined as gastrointestinal distresses, physical, emotional, and behavioral components as a disorder in which, almost like an anxiety disorder are discussed. Physical component is pain, gas, and defecation problems, cognitive component is external foci control, catastrophization and anticipatory anxiety, the emotional component is somatic anxiety, hypervigilance, and avoidance of gastrointestinal stimuli as defined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 122-133

  7. Gastrointestinal scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    An easily prepared radiolabeled gastrointestinal scanning agent is described. Technetium-99m has ideal characteristics for imaging the upper and lower GI tract and determining stomach emptying and intestinal transit time when used with an insoluble particulate material. For example, crystalline and amorphous calcium phosphate particles can be effectively labeled in a one-step process using sup(99m)TcO 4 and SnCl 2 . These labeled particles have insignificant mass and when administered orally pass through the GI tract unchanged, without affecting the handling and density of the intestinal contents. Visualization of the esophageal entry into the stomach, the greater and lesser curvatures of the stomach, ejection into the duodenum, and rates of passage through the upper and lower GI tract are obtained. The slurry of sup(99m)TC particulate can be given rectally by enema. Good images of the cecum and the ascending, transverse, and descending colon are obtained. Mucosal folds and the splenic and hepatic flexures are visualized. The resilience of the large intestine is also readily visualized by pneumocolonographic techniques. (author)

  8. Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding Due to a Small Intestinal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in a Young Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mami Yamamoto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The source of most cases of gastrointestinal bleeding is the upper gastrointestinal tract. Since bleeding from the small intestine is very rare and difficult to diagnose, time is required to identify the source. Among small intestine bleeds, vascular abnormalities account for 70–80%, followed by small intestine tumors that account for 5–10%. The reported peak age of the onset of small intestinal tumors is about 50 years. Furthermore, rare small bowel tumors account for only 1–2% of all gastrointestinal tumors. We describe a 29-year-old man who presented with obscure anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent laparotomy. Surgical findings revealed a well-circumscribed lesion measuring 45 × 40 mm in the jejunum that initially appeared similar to diverticulosis with an abscess. However, the postoperative pathological diagnosis was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor with extramural growth.

  9. The Health Problems, Gastrointestinal and Blood Parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The report on the disease conditions in donkeys in most West African countries is scanty in literature. This study was conducted to identify the health related problems including gastrointestinal and blood parasites of donkeys at the Bolgatanga livestock market in the Upper East region of Ghana from July to December, 2012.

  10. Gastrointestinal events with clopidogrel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Würtz, Morten; Schwarz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events.......Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events....

  11. Prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in Angelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Laura W; Grocott, Olivia R; Kunz, Portia A; Larson, Anna M; Zella, Garrett; Ganguli, Kriston; Thibert, Ronald L

    2017-10-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, expressive speech impairment, movement disorder, epilepsy, and a happy demeanor. Children with AS are frequently reported to be poor feeders during infancy and as having gastrointestinal issues such as constipation, reflux, and abnormal food related behaviors throughout their lifetime. To assess the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with AS, we retrospectively analyzed medical records of 120 individuals seen at the Angelman Syndrome Clinic at Massachusetts General Hospital and 43 individuals seen at the University of North Carolina Comprehensive Angelman Clinic. The majority of patients' medical records indicated at least one symptom of gastrointestinal dysfunction, with constipation and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) the most common. Other gastrointestinal issues reported were cyclic vomiting episodes, difficulty swallowing, excessive swallowing, and eosinophilic esophagitis. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as GERD, swallowing difficulties, cyclic vomiting, and eosinophilic esophagitis were more common in those with deletions and uniparental disomy, likely related to the involvement of multiple genes and subsequent hypotonia. The frequency of constipation is consistent among all genetic subtypes while early feeding issues appear to mainly affect those with deletions. Caregivers and healthcare providers should be aware of the high prevalence of these issues, as proper treatment may improve not only gastrointestinal dysfunction but also sleep and behavioral issues. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Gastrointestinal Polyps in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Chun Wang; Hung-Chang Lee; Chun-Yan Yeung; Wai-Tao Chan; Chuen-Bin Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal polyps are common in children. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures, endoscopic findings, management, pathology, and recurrence of gastrointestinal polyps in children at Mackay Memorial Hospital. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 50 children with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal polyps managed at Mackay Memorial Hospital between January 1984 and April 2007. Demographic data; clinical features; polyp size...

  13. Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM® and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 encapsulated in chocolate during in vitro simulated passage of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klindt-Toldam, Stine; Larsen, Susanne K.; Saaby, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    dairy and juice based probiotic products, chocolate was an excellent carrier for probiotic delivery, because of very good survival of probiotics during simulated passage of the upper GI tract. The viability of B. lactis was slightly higher than Lb. acidophilus and survival rates were >6.5 log CFU...

  14. Gastrointestinal amyloidosis - a differential diagnostic problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, D.; Krug, B.; Stelzner, M.

    1986-11-01

    The diagnostic radiologist may have problems with the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal amyloidosis combined with only uncharacteristic clinical symptoms. In the stomach upper gastrointestinal series show in most cases stenosing submucosal masses in the gastric antrum with diminished peristalsis and pliability. Sonography reveals a circular thickening of the gastric antrum wall. Only a synopsis of radiologic changes, the patient's history, laboratory tests and biopsies render a clue to the correct diagnosis. In the small bowel segmental or total intestinal dilatation with sonographically demonstrable thickening of the bowel wall and diminished motility, prolonged transit and eventually obstruction or paralytic ileus can be demonstrated. In patients with simultaneous plasmocytoma the radiologist has to take a gastrointestinal involvement by concurrent amyloidosis into account.

  15. Gastrointestinal amyloidosis - a differential diagnostic problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, D.; Krug, B.; Stelzner, M.; Koeln Univ.

    1986-01-01

    The diagnostic radiologist may have problems with the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal amyloidosis combined with only uncharacteristic clinical symptoms. In the stomach upper gastrointestinal series show in most cases stenosing submucosal masses in the gastric antrum with diminished peristalsis and pliability. Sonography reveals a circular thickening of the gastric antrum wall. Only a synopsis of radiologic changes, the patient's history, laboratory tests and biopsies render a clue to the correct diagnosis. In the small bowel segmental or total intestinal dilatation with sonographically demonstrable thickening of the bowel wall and diminished motility, prolonged transit and eventually obstruction or paralytic ileus can be demonstrated. In patients with simultaneous plasmocytoma the radiologist has to take a gastrointestinal involvement by concurrent amyloidosis into account. (orig.) [de

  16. Gastrointestinal Polyps in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Wang

    2009-10-01

    Conclusion: Gastrointestinal polyps in children are usually benign. Pediatricians treating a child with a gastrointestinal polyp should pay attention to the immediate complications of the polyps, such as intussusception or bleeding, the extraintestinal manifestations and long-term risk for malignancy.

  17. Gastrointestinal polyposis in Cowden disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullnig, P.; Steiner, H.; Porsch, G.; Smolle, J.

    1987-01-01

    A case of Cowden disease (multiple hamartoma syndrome) with marked gastrointestinal polyposis is presented. The differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes is discussed. (orig.) [de

  18. Evaluation of two dynamic in vitro models simulating fasted and fed state conditions in the upper gastrointestinal tract (TIM-1 and tiny-TIM) for investigating the bioaccessibility of pharmaceutical compounds from oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwei, Miriam; Minekus, Mans; Zeijdner, Evelijn; Schilderink, Ronald; Havenaar, Robert

    2016-02-10

    Pharmaceutical research needs predictive in vitro tools for API bioavailability in humans. We evaluated two dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal models: TIM-1 and tiny-TIM. Four low-soluble APIs in various formulations were investigated in the TIM systems under fasted and fed conditions. API small-intestinal bioaccessibility profiles were evaluated between the two systems and in comparison with human data. Both TIM systems showed a higher bioaccessibility of ciprofloxacin and nifedipine during 3-4h after dosing immediate release (IR) compared to modified release (MR) formulations. Higher bioaccessibility levels from IR formulations were observed under fasted state in the first 30-90 min in tiny-TIM as compared to TIM-1, resulting in a tmax similar to clinical data. Absence (ciprofloxacin) or presence (posaconazole) of a food effect on bioaccessibility was observed in both TIM systems in line with human data. A higher bioaccessibility of fenofibrate from nano- vs micro-particle formulation was found in both TIM systems. This dataset shows the predictive quality of the TIM systems for clinical data on API small-intestinal bioaccessibility from IR and MR formulations and food effects. Tiny-TIM provides higher throughput and better prediction for IR formulations. TIM-1 provides detailed information on site-specific release of APIs, relevant for MR formulations and food effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a flexible cryo-instrument for gastrointestinal endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifton, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in therapeutic gastrointestinal endoscopy and cryosurgical techniques have caused an interest in creating a cryo-instrument for endoscopic use. The development of a prototype instrument for use in both upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy is described. This instrument is based on the expansion of high pressure carbon dioxide in a series of flexible tubes designed to fit through a 2.6 mm endoscopic accessory channel. This self-enclosed system has been used clinically for cryo-extraction of cauterized colonic polyps. Its potential use for treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies is discussed

  20. Probiotics and Gastrointestinal Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Britton, Robert A.; Versalovic, James

    2008-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The use of probiotics to prevent and treat a variety of diarrheal diseases has gained favor in recent years. Examples where probiotics have positively impacted gastroenteritis will be highlighted. However, the overall efficacy of these treatments and the mechanisms by which probiotics ameliorate gastrointestinal infections are mostly unknown. We will discuss possible m...

  1. iPad-based primary 2D reading of CT angiography examinations of patients with suspected acute gastrointestinal bleeding: preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggioni, L; Neri, E; Bargellini, I; Scalise, P; Calcagni, F; Mantarro, A; D'Ippolito, G; Bartolozzi, C

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA) for two-dimensional (2D) reading of CT angiography (CTA) studies performed for suspected acute non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding. 24 CTA examinations of patients with suspected acute gastrointestinal bleeding confirmed (19/24, 79.2%) or ruled out (5/24, 20.8%) by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were retrospectively reviewed by three independent readers on a commercial picture archiving communication system (PACS) workstation and on an iPad with Retina Display® 64 GB (Apple Inc.). The time needed to complete reading of every CTA examination was recorded, as well as the rate of detection of arterial bleeding and identification of suspected bleeding arteries on both devices. Overall, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values for bleeding detection were not significantly different while using the iPad and workstation (0.774 vs 0.847, 0.947 vs 0.895, 0.6 vs 0.8, 0.9 vs 0.944 and 0.750 vs 0.667, respectively; p > 0.05). In DSA-positive cases, the iPad and workstation allowed correct identification of the bleeding source in 17/19 cases (89.5%) and 15/19 cases (78.9%), respectively (p > 0.05). Finally, the time needed to complete reading of every CTA study was significantly shorter using the iPad (169 ± 74 vs 222 ± 70 s, respectively; p iPad-based preliminary 2D reading of CTA studies has comparable diagnostic accuracy for detection of acute gastrointestinal bleeding and can be significantly faster. The iPad could be used by on-call interventional radiologists for immediate decision on percutaneous embolization in patients with suspected acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

  2. Helmintos gastrointestinales en aves acuáticas de la subcuenca alta del río Lerma, México Gastrointestinal helminth in waterfowl of the upper Lerma river sub-basin, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Martínez-Haro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario y se calcularon los parámetros de infección de los helmintos gastrointestinales de 36 ejemplares de aves acuáticas pertenecientes a las familias Anatidae, Rallidae y Threskiornithidae, procedentes de la subcuenca alta del río Lerma, Estado de México, identificándose 20 especies: 9 tremátodos, 8 céstodos, 2 nemátodos y 1 acantocéfalo. De las 8 especies de céstodos, 6 son registros nuevos para el país y Pseudocorynosoma constrictum se registra por primera vez en Anas crecca, Anas discors, Oxyura jamaicensis y Fulica americana. Los helmintos que presentaron las prevalencias más altas fueron los céstodos Hymenolepis megalops y Sobolevicanthus krabbeella en Anas acuta, Anas clypeata, Anas cyanoptera y Anas crecca.A survey of helminth parasites in 36 waterfowl species from the upper Lerma River, in central Mexico was conducted. A total of 20 helminth species were recorded, including 9 trematodes, 8 cestodes, 2 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan. Six of the cestode species are recorded for the fisrt time from Mexican birds; the acanthocephalan Pseudocorynosoma constrictum is reported for the first time in Anas crecca, A. discors, Oxyura jamaicensis and Fulica americana. The highest prevalences were recorded for the cestodes Hymenolepis megalops and Sobolevicanthus krabbeella in Anas acuta, A. clypeata, A. cyanoptera and A. crecca.

  3. Gastrointestinal polyps in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chun; Lee, Hung-Chang; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Chan, Wai-Tao; Jiang, Chuen-Bin

    2009-10-01

    Gastrointestinal polyps are common in children. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures, endoscopic findings, management, pathology, and recurrence of gastrointestinal polyps in children at Mackay Memorial Hospital. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 50 children with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal polyps managed at Mackay Memorial Hospital between January 1984 and April 2007. Demographic data; clinical features; polyp size, number and location; endoscopic findings; management; pathology; and information on recurrences were extracted from the clinical records. The distribution of polyps in the 50 patients included gastric (4 patients), duodenal (2), ileocecal (4) and colorectal polyps (40). All patients with gastric polyps presented with vomiting, and three of the four patients with ileocecal polyps presented with intussusception. The mean age of the 40 patients with colorectal polyps was 6.8 years. The majority of those polyps were in the rectosigmoid colon; 36 patients presented with hematochezia. Solitary polyps were identified in 33 patients and multiple polyps were identified in seven patients. Most of the colorectal polyps were less than 2cm in diameter. Histologically, the most frequent type was juvenile polyp. Gastrointestinal polyps in children are usually benign. Pediatricians treating a child with a gastrointestinal polyp should pay attention to the immediate complications of the polyps, such as intussusception or bleeding, the extraintestinal manifestations and long-term risk for malignancy.

  4. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Moretti, E.S.; Austin, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the effect of the oxidation state of plutonium on its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. For mice and rats that have been starved prior to gastrointestinal administration, there is no significant difference between the absorption factors for Pu(IV) and Pu(VI). The value obtained for Pu(VI) is an order of magnitude lower than that reported previously. The value obtained for Pu(IV) is two orders of magnitude higher than those reported previously for nitrate solutions and the same as those reported for citrate solutions

  5. Hook worm caused chronic anemia found during the procedure of acute gastrointestinal bleeding: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Upper gastrointestinal bleeding with complicated factors is always difficult to find the primary origin. Case presentation Here we present a case of a 74-year-old male farmer suffered from acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by gastric ulcer and Mallory-Weiss syndrome and chronic anemia which was at last found caused by hook worm infection. Conclusion It tells us that considering multi-possibility when can not explain the symptom with monophyletism is very important for clinicians. PMID:19178754

  6. Screening examinations for double cancer in patients with oral cancer. Usefulness of gastrointestinal endoscopy and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hidenori; Umeda, Masahiro; Oguni, Akiko; Kataoka, Tomoko; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Shibuya, Yasuyuki; Komori, Takahide; Shigeta, Takashi; Ri, Shinsho

    2010-01-01

    Many patients with oral cancer have double cancers, especially in the upper gastrointestinal tract. We studied synchronous double cancers in 138 patients with oral cancer who underwent gastrointestinal endscopy and 161 who underwent positron emission tomography (PET) preoperatively. Fifteen patients (10.9%) had cancer or precancerous lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract on gastrointestinal endoscopy: 10 in the esophagus and 5 in the stomach. The histopathological diagnosis was severe epithelial dysplasia in 6 patients, carcinoma in situ in 4, and carcinoma in 5. These 15 lesions were asymptomatic and detected by gastrointestinal endscopy for the first time. Patients with severe epithelial dysplasia were observed, and those with carcinoma or carcinoma in situ underwent radical therapy. All of these gastrointestinal lesions were treated successfully, without any recurrence or metastasis. Double cancers were detected by PET in 3 patients (1.9%): lung and esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, and ovarian cancer in one patient each. These 3 cases also were detected by PET for the first time and were free of clinical symptoms. Radical therapy was performed in 2 patients. The other patient had advanced disease and received only palliative therapy. Although PET could not detect most cancers or precancerous lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract that could be detected by gastrointestinal endscopy, it was useful for detecting malignant lesions in sites other than the upper gastrointestinal tract. Our results suggest that preoperative gastrointestinal endscopy and PET examinations can detect double cancer in the early stage and contribute to better outcomes in patients with oral cancer. (author)

  7. Efficacy of Over-the-Scope Clips in Management of High-Risk Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandler, Justin; Baruah, Anushka; Zeb, Muhammad; Mehfooz, Ayesha; Pophali, Prachi; Wong Kee Song, Louis; AbuDayyeh, Barham; Gostout, Christopher; Mara, Kristin; Dierkhising, Ross; Buttar, Navtej

    2018-05-01

    Standard endoscopic therapies do not control bleeding or produce complications in as many as 20% of patients with nonvariceal gastrointestinal bleeding. Most bleeding comes from ulcers with characteristics such as high-risk vascular territories and/or large vessels. We evaluated the efficacy of using over-the-scope clips (OTSCs) as primary or rescue therapy for patients with bleeding from lesions that have a high risk for adverse outcomes. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 67 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding from high-risk lesions who were treated with OTSCs as primary (n = 49) or rescue therapy (n = 18) at a quaternary center, from December 2011 through February 2015. The definition of high-risk lesions was lesions that were situated in the area of a major artery and larger than 2 mm in diameter and/or a deep penetrating, excavated, fibrotic ulcer with high-risk stigmata, in which a perforation could not be ruled out or thermal therapy would cause perforation, or lesions that could not be treated by standard endoscopy. Clinical severity was determined based on the Rockall score and a modified Blatchford score. Our primary outcome was the incidence of rebleeding within 30 days after OTSC placement. We assessed risk factors for rebleeding using univariate hazard models followed by multivariable analysis. Of the 67 patients, 47 (70.1%) remained free of rebleeding at 30 days after OTSC placement. We found no difference in the proportion of patients with rebleeding who received primary or rescue therapy (hazard ratio, 0.639; 95% confidence interval, 0.084-4.860; P = .6653). Only 9 rebleeding events were linked clearly to OTSCs and required intervention, indicating an OTSC success rate of 81.3%. We found no significant associations between rebleeding and clinical scores. However, on multivariable analysis, patients with coronary artery disease had a higher risk of rebleeding after OTSC independent of international normalized ratio and

  8. Gastrointestinal endoscopy in Nigeria-a prospective two year audit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    Upper GI endoscopy findings included 14 (11.5%) cases of peptic ulcer disease, 5 complicated by gastric outlet obstruction, and 21 ... the implications on the diagnosis of gastrointestinal pathology and their treatment. Thus it has .... ulcerative colitis was seen and 2 patients had diverticular disease. (Table 3). Competency in ...

  9. Morphological classifications of gastrointestinal lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, Jasper L. A.; Hazewinkel, Yark; Dekker, Evelien

    2017-01-01

    In the era of spreading adoption of gastrointestinal endoscopy screening worldwide, endoscopists encounter an increasing number of complex lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. For decision-making on optimal treatment, precise lesion characterization is crucial. Especially the assessment of

  10. Synchronous Acromegaly and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüsniye Başer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acromegaly is a rare endocrine disorder characterized by the manifestations of sustained hypersecretion of growth hormone and concomitant elevations in circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1. It has been reported that patients with acromegaly are at the increased risk of developing malignant tumors, particularly colorectal cancer. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. An association between gastrointestinal stromal tumors and insulin-like growth factor system has been reported. Here, we report a patient diagnosed with synchronous acromegaly and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. A 59-year-old man with iron deficiency anemia presented with enlarged hands, coarse facial feature and several skin tags. Thyroid function tests were within normal range. Growth hormone was 5.14 ng/mL, insulin-like growth factor-1 was 820 ng/mL, and no growth hormone suppression was observed on 75g oral glucose tolerance test. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging revealed microadenoma, and the patient was diagnosed with acromegaly. Upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy revealed an ulcerovegetan mass in the duodenum and the results of the histopathologcal analysis was consistent with gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The association of synchronous and asynchronous gastrointestinal stromal tumors with other malignancies have been reported. The most common accompanying neoplasms are colorectal and gastric adenocarcinomas, as well as pancreatic tumors. However, in the literature, the number of reported cases of synchronous acromegaly and gastrointestinal stromal tumor are limited, and there are no sufficient data on this association. Turk Jem 2014; 2: 52-55

  11. An Unusual Case of Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin N. Fiorino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old boy presented with a 3-day history of worsening abdominal pain, fever, emesis and melena. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a right upper quadrant mass that was confirmed by computed tomography angiogram (CTA, which showed an 8 cm well-defined retroperitoneal vascular mass. 123Iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine (123MIBG scan indicated uptake only in the abdominal mass. Subsequent biopsy revealed a paraganglioma that was treated with chemotherapy. This case represents an unusual presentation of a paraganglioma associated with gastrointestinal (GI bleeding and highlights the utility of CTA and 123MIBG in evaluation and treatment.

  12. An unusual case of gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Kristin N; Lestini, Brian; Nichols, Kim E; Anupindi, Sudha A; Maqbool, Asim

    2011-01-01

    A 10-year-old boy presented with a 3-day history of worsening abdominal pain, fever, emesis and melena. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a right upper quadrant mass that was confirmed by computed tomography angiogram (CTA), which showed an 8 cm well-defined retroperitoneal vascular mass. (123)Iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)MIBG) scan indicated uptake only in the abdominal mass. Subsequent biopsy revealed a paraganglioma that was treated with chemotherapy. This case represents an unusual presentation of a paraganglioma associated with gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and highlights the utility of CTA and (123)MIBG in evaluation and treatment.

  13. An Unusual Case of Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Kristin N.; Lestini, Brian; Nichols, Kim E.; Anupindi, Sudha A.; Maqbool, Asim

    2011-01-01

    A 10-year-old boy presented with a 3-day history of worsening abdominal pain, fever, emesis and melena. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a right upper quadrant mass that was confirmed by computed tomography angiogram (CTA), which showed an 8 cm well-defined retroperitoneal vascular mass. 123Iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine (123MIBG) scan indicated uptake only in the abdominal mass. Subsequent biopsy revealed a paraganglioma that was treated with chemotherapy. This case represents an unusual presentation of a paraganglioma associated with gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and highlights the utility of CTA and 123MIBG in evaluation and treatment. PMID:22606522

  14. An Unusual Case of Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding in a Patient with Coeliac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gwiggner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the journey of a patient with coeliac disease who presented with overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy did not reveal a source of bleeding, but an abdominal CT scan detected abnormal lymphadenopathy and a wireless capsule endoscopy diagnosed a jejunal tumour, which was surgically removed. Gastrointestinal bleeding is rare in celiac disease. Malignant tumours of the small intestine are generally uncommon, but celiac disease represents a significant risk factor. Wireless capsule endoscopy has been a useful tool to investigate patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.

  15. [Microbiota and gastrointestinal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco Allué, I

    2015-12-01

    The bacterial colonisation is established immediately after birth, through direct contact with maternal microbiota, and may be influenced during lactation. There is emerging evidence indicating that quantitative and qualitative changes on gut microbiota contribute to alterations in the mucosal activation of the immune system, leading to intra- or extra-intestinal diseases. A balance between pathogenic and beneficial microbiota throughout childhood and adolescence is important to gastrointestinal health, including protection against pathogens, inhibition of pathogens, nutrient processing (synthesis of vitamin K), stimulation of angiogenesis, and regulation of host fat storage. Probiotics can promote an intentional modulation of intestinal microbiota favouring the health of the host. A review is presented on the modulation of intestinal microbiota on prevention, and adjuvant treatment of some paediatric gastrointestinal diseases. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOR (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eTornillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  17. [Probiotics in gastrointestinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Gábor; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2009-05-10

    Probiotics are preparations containing viable microorganisms that confer potential health benefits for the host. Alteration of bacterial flora both in terms of specific content and concentration may be beneficial in many gastrointestinal disorders. Probiotics are widely used for the management of these conditions in many countries. However, mechanisms of probiotics are incompletely understood. Benefits observed clinically with one species or combinations of species can not be generalized. The optimal dose of treatment has to be determined. Although probiotics are generally regarded safe, caution is needed when using these supplements routinely. It has been proved, that severe adverse events can occur as a complication of probiotic treatment. This review summarizes the recent knowledge concerning the use of probiotics in gastrointestinal disorders.

  18. Helicobacter pylori and upper digestive diseases - diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with various upper gastrointestinal problems was 84.7%. The use of medication that can reduce the H. pylori density was common among the infected patients, as history of antibiotics use, acid suppressant use and medications for eradication treatment were ...

  19. Gastrointestinal microphysiological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blutt, Sarah E; Broughman, James R; Zou, Winnie; Zeng, Xi-Lei; Karandikar, Umesh C; In, Julie; Zachos, Nicholas C; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Donowitz, Mark; Estes, Mary K

    2017-10-01

    Gastrointestinal diseases are a significant health care and economic burden. Prevention and treatment of these diseases have been limited by the available human biologic models. Microphysiological systems comprise organ-specific human cultures that recapitulate many structural, biological, and functional properties of the organ in smaller scale including aspects of flow, shear stress and chemical gradients. The development of intestinal microphysiological system platforms represents a critical component in improving our understanding, prevention, and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. This minireview discusses: shortcomings of classical cell culture models of the gastrointestinal tract; human intestinal enteroids as a new model and their advantages compared to cell lines; why intestinal microphysiological systems are needed; potential functional uses of intestinal microphysiological systems in areas of drug development and modeling acute and chronic diseases; and current challenges in the development of intestinal microphysiological systems. Impact statement The development of a gastrointestinal MPS has the potential to facilitate the understanding of GI physiology. An ultimate goal is the integration of the intestinal MPS with other organ MPS. The development and characterization of nontransformed human intestinal cultures for use in MPS have progressed significantly since the inception of the MPS program in 2012, and these cultures are a key component of advancing MPS. Continued efforts are needed to optimize MPS to comprehensively and accurately recapitulate the complexity of the intestinal epithelium within intestinal tissue. These systems will need to include peristalsis, flow, and oxygen gradients, with incorporation of vascular, immune, and nerve cells. Regional cellular organization of crypt and villus areas will also be necessary to better model complete intestinal structure.

  20. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Image Documentation in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Review of Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Susana; Bispo, Miguel; Pimentel-Nunes, Pedro; Chagas, Cristina; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, endoscopic image documentation has gained an important role in gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic reporting and has become an integral aspect of quality control. Since 2001, several important guidelines and statements, some from major endoscopic societies, have been published to standardize endoscopic image documentation. Therefore, and according to the most recent recommendations of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, we propose a set of images to be routinely captured in upper and lower GI endoscopy. Systematic acquisition of 10 and 9 photographs of specific landmarks is recommended in upper-GI endoscopy and colonoscopy, respectively. In addition to photo documentation of the normal endoscopic features, imaging of pathologic findings is also advocated. Considering accurate and adequate image documentation as an essential part of endoscopic reporting, it should be systematically performed in upper and lower GI endoscopy.

  2. Lower gastrointestinal endoscopies results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bozdağ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Endoscopic examinations have great potential in early diagnosis of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas with reducing to colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. We aimed to evaluate for diagnostic purposeful lower gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in the second step state hospital retrospectively Methods: Between June 2010 and June 2013, we evaluated 278 patients with rectal bleeding, constipation and abdominal pain detected by lower gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures retrospectively. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.8 ± 16.8 (15-90 year, respectively. 172 (61.9% of the patients were male and 106 (38.1% of the patients were female. 116 (41.7% of the patients was performed rectosigmoidoscopy and 162 (58.3% of the patients was performed colonoscopy. 51(18.3% of our patients were normal. 10 (3.6% of patients had colorectal cancer, 11(3.9% of patients had inflammatory bowel disease, 8 (2.9% of patients had parasitosis, 31(11.1% of patients had colorectal polyps, 12 (4.3% , in patients had diverticular disease, 2 (0.7% patients had rectal ulcer, 25 (9% patients had anal fissure and 159 (57.2% of the patients had hemorrhoidal disease. Conclusion: Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy is a method been the gold standard with a low complication rate and that can be easily applied in the evaluation to pathology of colorectal and anal canal. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 580-582

  3. Orexins and gastrointestinal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccari, M C

    2010-03-01

    Orexin A (OXA) and orexin B (OXB) are recently discovered neuropeptides that appear to play a role in various distinct functions such as arousal and the sleep-wake cycle as well as on appetite and regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis. Orexins were first described as neuropeptides expressed by a specific population of neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area, a region classically implicated in feeding behaviour. Orexin neurons project to numerous brain regions, where orexin receptors have been shown to be widely distributed: both OXA and OXB act through two subtypes of receptors (OX1R and OX2R) that belong to the G protein-coupled superfamily of receptors. Growing evidence indicates that orexins act in the central nervous system also to regulate gastrointestinal functions: animal studies have indeed demonstrated that centrally-injected orexins or endogenously released orexins in the brain stimulates gastric secretion and influence gastrointestinal motility. The subsequent identification of orexins and their receptors in the enteric nervous system (including the myenteric and the submucosal plexuses) as well as in mucosa and smooth muscles has suggested that these neuropeptides may also play a local action. In this view, emerging studies indicate that orexins also exert region-specific contractile or relaxant effects on isolated gut preparations. The aim of the proposed review is to summarize both centrally- and peripherally-mediated actions of orexins on gastrointestinal functions and to discuss the related physiological role on the basis of the most recent findings.

  4. Yttrium-90 microsphere induced gastrointestinal tract ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikabi Ali A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiomicrosphere therapy (RT utilizing yttrium-90 (90Y microspheres has been shown to be an effective regional treatment for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. We sought to determine a large academic institution's experience regarding the extent and frequency of gastrointestinal complications. Methods Between 2004 and 2007, 27 patients underwent RT for primary or secondary hepatic malignancies. Charts were subsequently reviewed to determine the incidence and severity of GI ulceration. Results Three patients presented with gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent upper endoscopy. Review of the pretreatment angiograms showed normal vascular anatomy in one patient, sclerosed hepatic vasculature in a patient who had undergone prior chemoembolization in a second, and an aberrant left hepatic artery in a third. None had undergone prophylactic gastroduodenal artery embolization. Endoscopic findings included erythema, mucosal erosions, and large gastric ulcers. Microspheres were visible on endoscopic biopsy. In two patients, gastric ulcers were persistent at the time of repeat endoscopy 1–4 months later despite proton pump inhibitor therapy. One elderly patient who refused surgical intervention died from recurrent hemorrhage. Conclusion Gastrointestinal ulceration is a known yet rarely reported complication of 90Y microsphere embolization with potentially life-threatening consequences. Once diagnosed, refractory ulcers should be considered for aggressive surgical management.

  5. Abdominal imaging findings in gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicek, Kristina T; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; De Petris, Giovanni D; Johnson, C Daniel

    2015-02-01

    To describe the abdominal imaging findings of patients with gastrointestinal Basidiobolus ranarum infection. A literature search was performed to compile the abdominal imaging findings of all reported worldwide cases of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis (GIB). In addition, a retrospective review at our institution was performed to identify GIB cases that had imaging findings. A radiologist aware of the diagnosis reviewed the imaging findings in detail. Additional information was obtained from the medical records. A total of 73 GIB cases have been published in the medical literature. The most common abdominal imaging findings were masses in the colon, the liver, or multiple sites and bowel wall thickening. Initially, many patients were considered to have either a neoplasm or Crohn disease. We identified 7 proven cases of GIB at our institution, of which 4 had imaging studies (4 computed tomography [CT] examinations, 4 abdominal radiographs, and an upper gastrointestinal study). Imaging studies showed abnormalities in all 4 cases. Three-fourths of our study patients had an abdominal mass at CT. Two of 3 masses involved the kidneys and included urinary obstruction. All masses showed an inflammatory component with adjacent soft tissue stranding, with or without abscess formation. Radiologists should consider GIB when a patient from an arid climate presents with abdominal pain, weight loss, and an inflammatory abdominal mass on CT. Abdominal masses of the colon or liver, bowel wall thickening, and abscesses are the most common imaging findings.

  6. ViewPoint: Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Malawi: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus the endoscope both provides macroscopic diagnostic information and can sample tissue for histopathological or microbiological analysis. In addition therapeutic techniques can be performed: ulcers can be injected through the biopsy channel, polyps removed, and varices injected or ligated with small rubber bands.

  7. Starch bioavailability in the upper gastrointestinal tract of colectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, L A; Marlett, J A

    1991-05-01

    Colectomized rats were used to compare the bioavailability of starch from canned peas, kidney beans, lima beans, corn, cooked rice and AIN-76A purified diet. Postoperative weight gains of colectomized and sham-operated rats were not different. Test meals of approximately 2 and approximately 3.3 g (dry weight) of each food containing chromic oxide (0.6 g/100 g) were administered to 4-6 rats by gastric intubation. Chromium recovery in ileal digesta 10 h after the meal ranged from 94 to 102%. Significant starch (11-15%) from peas, lima beans or kidney beans was recovered in the ileal digesta; 0.2-0.4% of starch from rice, corn or AIN-76A was in the ileal digesta. Pretreatment of kidney or lima beans with a heat-stable endo-alpha-amylase decreased the starch recovered in the ileal digesta to 2.7-4.3% of that fed; pretreatment with the amylase and pepsin had no further effect. Oligosaccharide extraction, the size of the test meal and the amount of starch did not affect starch bioavailability.

  8. Novel imaging strategies for upper gastrointestinal tract cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Michael Bau

    2015-01-01

    Accurate pretherapeutic imaging is the cornerstone of all cancer treatment. Unfortunately, modern imaging modalities have several unsolved problems and limitations. The differentiation between inflammation and cancer infiltration, false positive and false negative findings as well as lack...... of confirming biopsies in suspected metastases may have serious negative consequences in cancer patients. This review describes some of these problems and challenges the use of conventional imaging by suggesting new combined strategies that include selective use of confirming biopsies and complementary methods...

  9. Endoscopists’ Opinions of Indications for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd R Sutherland

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether endoscopists and general internists agreed with the characterization of appropriateness for endoscopy of various clinical scenarios, as previously reported by the RAND Corporation.

  10. Impact of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic ultrasound in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Ole Steen; Durup, Jesper; Qvist, Niels

    2008-01-01

    , 18 patients (12 boys, 6 girls; median age 12 years, range 0.5-15) underwent EUS. The indications were as follows: tumor (9), epigastric pain (3), recurrent pancreatitis (2), unexplained jaundice (2), hypoglycemia (1), and von Hippel-Lindau disease (1). We concluded that EUS had a significant impact...

  11. 1 Massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding and diffuse benign gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Benign gastric inflammatory hyperplasic polyps are benign lesions that rarely occur in young age. We report a case of diffuse benign gastric inflammatory hyperplastic polyps in a 19 year old male patient who presented with cough, nausea, and haematemesis. In the presented case symptoms such as nausea and.

  12. Patterns of upper gastrointestinal diseases based on endoscopy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the patients had abnormal findings with gastritis being the most common (25.8%). It is concluded that gastritis is an important cause of morbidity in Kenya. Oesophagitis, mainly due to gastroesopahageal reflux disease, seems to be on the increase. Gastric cancer is not as rare as previously thought and peptic ...

  13. Pattern and validity of clinical diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUD had the highest sensitivity value (0.72) while gastritis had the least (0.04). Specificity ranged from 0.40 for PUD to 1.00 for corrosive oesophagitis. Positive predictive value ranged from 0.29 (oesophageal cancer) to 0.67 (corrosive oesophagitis) and negative predictive value ranged from 0.66 for gastritis to 0.99 for ...

  14. Upper gastrointestinal diseases in patients for endoscopy in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common endoscopy finding was gastritis (40.2%), followed by normal examination (15.2%), oesophageal cancer (13.6%), gastric ulcer (7.6%) and gastric cancer (7.1%). Patients older than 40 years (n=110) had significant findings including gastritis (50.9%), oesophageal cancer (22.7%) and gastric cancer ...

  15. The management of low-risk acute upper gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed Gado

    2012-12-04

    Dec 4, 2012 ... Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the safety of managing patients with low risk AUGIH ... Rockall score is derived from age (0 to 2 points), shock (0 to ... Shock. 0. SBPa P100 mm Hg and pulse <100 beats per min. (no shock). 1. SBP P100 mm Hg and pulse P100 beats per min. (tachycardia). 2.

  16. Clinical Challenges in Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies after Bariatric Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.W. Tse (Win Hou W); H.M. Kroon (Herman); J.J.B. van Lanschot (Jan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground/Aims: The incidence of morbid obesity has exponentially increased over the last decades. Bariatric surgery (BS) has been proven effective in inducing weight loss and resolving comorbidities associated with morbid obesity. However, BS can also lead to major diagnostic and

  17. Helicobacter pylori and non-malignant upper gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasapolli, Riccardo; Malfertheiner, Peter; Kandulski, Arne

    2016-09-01

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has been further decreased over the last decades along with decreasing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori-associated PUD. A delayed H. pylori eradication has been associated with an increased risk of rehospitalization for complicated recurrent peptic ulcer and reemphasized the importance of eradication especially in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). PUB associated with NSAID/aspirin intake and H. pylori revealed an additive interaction in gastric pathophysiology which favors the "test-and-treat" strategy for H. pylori in patients with specific risk factors. The H. pylori-negative and NSAID-negative "idiopathic PUD" have been increasingly observed and associated with slower healing tendency, higher risk of recurrence, and greater mortality. Helicobacter pylori-associated dyspepsia has been further investigated and finally defined by the Kyoto consensus. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is advised as first option in this group of patients. Only in the case of symptom persistence or recurrence after eradication therapy, dyspeptic patients should be classified as functional dyspepsia (FD). There were few new data in 2015 on the role of H. pylori infection in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and in particular Barrett's esophagus. A lower prevalence of gastric atrophy with less acid output in patients with erosive esophagitis confirmed previous findings. In patients with erosive esophagitis, no difference was observed in healing rates neither between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients nor between patients that underwent eradication therapy compared to patients without eradication. These findings are in line with the current consensus guidelines concluding that H. pylori eradication has no effects on symptoms and does not aggravate preexisting GERD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Upper gastrointestinal motility: prenatal development and problems in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singendonk, Maartje M. J.; Rommel, Nathalie; Omari, Taher I.; Benninga, Marc A.; van Wijk, Michiel P.

    2014-01-01

    Deglutition, or swallowing, refers to the process of propulsion of a food bolus from the mouth into the stomach and involves the highly coordinated interplay of swallowing and breathing. At 34 weeks gestational age most neonates are capable of successful oral feeding if born at this time; however,

  19. The role of acid suppressants in upper gastrointestinal ulcer bleeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leerdam, M. E.; Rauws, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Re-bleeding and mortality remain significant in peptic ulcer haemorrhage despite the widespread use of endoscopic therapy. The acidic gastric environment interferes with coagulation. In vitro studies show that an intragastric pH of above 6 results in normal blood coagulation and platelet function.

  20. Campylobacter gastritis simulating Menetrier's disease by upper gastrointestinal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaloupka, J.C.; Gay, B.B. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Within this decade it has been determined that primary gastritis in both children and adults is frequently associated with infection of the gastric mucosa with Campylobacter pylori. It is characterized by a chronic inflammatory process in which the mucosa of the gastric antrum is typically most severely involved. Other regions of the stomach may be involved and associated peptic ulcers of the stomach and duodenal bulb are frequent. A case of C. pylori gastritis is reported in which involvement of the gastric fundus and body produced severe rugal hypertrophy that resembled Menetrier's disease. (orig.)

  1. Spironolactone use and the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulmez, Sinem E; Lassen, Annmarie T; Aalykke, Claus

    2008-01-01

    or in combination with low-dose aspirin and other antithrombotic drugs. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS * The current use of spironolactone is associated with an increased risk of nonvaricose UGB. * The effect is most pronounced for cases aged 55-74 years. * Persons with a high current dose have a higher risk. * The risk...... selected by risk set sampling. Data on all subjects' drug exposure and past medical history were retrieved from a prescription database and from the County's patient register. Confounders were controlled by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS The adjusted odds ratio (OR) associating current use...

  2. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in children: The Lagos University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    18.3%), gastric erosions in 12 (16.9%), oesophageal varices 6 (8.4%), duodenitis in 4 (5.6%), gastric ulcer in 3 (4.2%), gastric polyp in 2 (2.8%). The overall endoscopic yield was 60.2%. Conclusion. There is a need to increase the awareness of ...

  3. The characteristics of adults with upper gastrointestinal bleeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    53.9 years, p=0.001). The most common cause of UGIB was peptic ulcer (37.1%) of which duodenal ulcer was the most common (30.7% of all UGIB), especially amongst male patients (36.4%). The second most common cause was bleeding due to varices (29.8%), especially amongst females (35.1%). Additionally, smoking ...

  4. Aetiology of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in North-Eastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oesophageal varices were the most frequent cause of bleeding (45.3%) followed by non-ulcer peptic acid disease (23.7%) and peptic ulcer disease (16.9%). Gastric cancer and Mallory-Weiss syndrome were rare with each accounting for 1.9% of the cases. In 11 (10.4%) patients no source of bleeding could be identified.

  5. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Pattern of presentation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This study was carried out at the Medical Unit of the University College Hospital, Ibadan. Consecutive patients with any or all of haematemesis, melaena or haematochezia were recruited for the study. Demographic data, clinical presentation, history of NSAIDs ingestion, presence of other comorbid conditions were ...

  6. upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings in patients referred with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-01

    Aug 1, 2014 ... quartz fibers a concept used by Hopkins in 1954 to build a model of a flexible fibre imaging device (2) the precursor of fibre-optic endoscope. Since then endoscopes and endoscopy have undergone great technical developments to the current new dimension in imaging of endoscopic ultrasonography ...

  7. Predictors of mortality in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Variceal hemorrhage (VH) is a major complication of chronic liver disease. Several factors have been validated for the prediction of the outcome of an acute VH. The clinical risk characteristics reported in developed countries may be different from developing countries. Aim: The aim of this study was to ...

  8. Predictors of mortality in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed Gado

    2014-09-10

    Sep 10, 2014 ... Abstract Background: Variceal hemorrhage (VH) is a major complication of chronic liver disease. Several factors have been validated for the prediction of the outcome of an acute VH. The clinical risk characteristics reported in developed countries may be different from developing countries. Aim: The aim of ...

  9. Endoscopic findings in upper gastrointestinal bleeding patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the endoscopic findings in patients presenting with UGIB and its frequency among these patients according to gender and age in Lacor hospital, northern Uganda. Methods: The study was carried out at Lacor hospital, located at northern part of Uganda. The record of 224 patients who underwent ...

  10. Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Sudanese Infants and Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    65 out of 100 children who presented with failure to thrive, short stature, and persistent diarrhoea were found to have macroscopic duodenal lesions. 65 duodenal biopsies showed total villous atrophy. H. pylori infection andgastritis were found in 165out of 180 biopsies [91.7%]. Ultrasound abdomen was performed in the ...

  11. Diagnostic evaluatuin of gastrointestinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.; Tatsch, K.

    1998-01-01

    Prior to surgery of gastrointestinal tumors exact information about tumor localization, extent and possible infiltration in adjacent structures are important. The task for radiological and scintigraphic methods is predominantly the preoperative tumor staging. The upper (esophagus, stomach, duodenum) and the lower (colon, rectum) gastrointestinal tract should be routinely investigated by endoscopy and endosonography. CT or MRI imaging may add information about tumor extent, infiltration in adjacent structures and pathologically enlarged lymph nodes. The latter may be detected with similar or higher sensitivity by PET as well. Furthermore, with PET it is possible to differentiate a tumor recurrence from postoperative scar tissue earlier than with conventional morphological imaging techniques, for example in colorectal cancer. Liver tumors should primarily be inspected sonographically followed by an MRI scan if dignity is uncertain. The receptor scintigraphy with radioactive ligands allows to further characterize a detected tumor. Benigne liver lesions can be distinguished from malignant tumors (metastasis, hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) by the neogalactoalbumin-(NGA-)scintigraphy, because NGA binds exclusively to the liver galactose receptors of normally functioning hepatocytes. For the differentiation between liver metastasis and HCC insulin scintigraphy can be used, since insulin binds significantly in HCC due to an overexpression of insulin receptors in these tumors. If a malignant process is suspected, additionally CT-arterioportography may be recommended, because this newer radiological technique is capable to visualize lesions smaller than 1 cm. In such cases PET is sensitive as well and due to increased glucose metabolism even small foci can be detected with comparably high sepcificity. The method of choice for the detection of a pancreatic tumor is endoscopic sonography. In most cases the dignity of the tumor can be verified by ERCP, but sometimes it is very

  12. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufliarsky, J.

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the digestive tract. Better understanding of the molecular characteristics of GISTs led to the clinical development of imatinib for treating patients with this disease. New immuno markers and mechanisms of primary and secondary resistance were discovered. Adjuvant imatinib in intermediate or high risk GIST has improved the recurrence-free survival. Sunitinib in patients with intolerance or progression on imatinib demonstrated significant improvements in progression-free and overall survival versus placebo. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as sorafenib, dasatinib, and nilotinib, have shown activity in patients with imatinib- and sunitinib-resistant GIST. (author)

  13. Gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Scarsbrook, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fifth in the series of short reviews of internet-based radiological learning resources and will focus on gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary radiology. Below are details of a few of the higher quality resources currently available. Most of the sites cater for medical students and trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may be also be of interest to specialists, especially for use in teaching. Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (May 2006)

  14. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis has historically been considered a pulmonary disease, but with the increasing life expectancy of these patients, gastrointestinal manifestations are becoming more important. Furthermore, nutritional status is closely linked to pulmonary function and, thus, overall mortality. This article discusses gastrointestinal manifestations (which involve nutritional, pancreatic, hepatobiliary, and, in particular, gastrointestinal tract issues) of cystic fibrosis as well as management of the disease. In addition, the article discusses studies that have been critical to our understanding of gastrointestinal manifestations of cystic fibrosis. PMID:27330503

  15. Neonatal gastrointestinal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Padma

    2006-01-01

    Radiological imaging is an important part of the evaluation and management of neonates with suspected anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical presentation is often non-specific, commonly with abdominal distension and vomiting for which the underlying cause may or may not be clinically apparent. In a proportion of patients, the clinical assessment alone may suffice in providing the diagnosis and no further imaging is necessary. The reader must have an understanding of the normal radiographic appearances of the gastrointestinal tract in neonates and appreciate normal variants and differences to adults. In certain cases, the abdominal radiograph alone is diagnostic. In others, sonography and contrast studies are useful adjunct investigations and the indications for CT and MRI are few, but specific. Appropriate radiological investigation will help to establish the diagnosis and guide surgical intervention whilst also avoiding unnecessary radiation. Some of the conditions require transfer to specialist paediatric institutions for care. Thus, in some circumstances it is appropriate for imaging to be delayed and performed at the specialist centre with early referral often essential for the continued well being of the child

  16. [DRG and gastrointestinal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leardi, S; Altilia, F; Pietroletti, R; Risetti, A; Schietroma, M; Simi, M

    1999-01-01

    The diagnosis-related-groups (DRG) is the cost-based system for hospital reimbursement. However, the proceeds does not coincide with the costs. Aim of the study was to identify the profit, which we could gained with 147, 155, 158, 162, 165, 198 gastrointestinal surgery DRG. 30 consecutive patients, undergone to surgery in Clinica Chirurgica of L'Aquila University, had been studied. We had calculated the daily costs of medical and nursing practice, diagnostic tests, drugs, hospitalization, surgical instruments for every patient's therapy. The DRG-proceeds had been correlated with the DRG-costs. The "major gastrointestinal surgery" had not profit (147 DRG: anterior resection of rectum = -354428 Pounds, Miles = -94020 Pounds; 155 DRG: total gastrectomy = -1920641 Pounds). On the contrary, "minimal surgery" had good profits (158 DRG: hemorroidectomy with local anestesia = 1469605 Pounds;162 DRG: sutureless groin hernioplasty = 1561200 Pounds; 198 DRG: videolaparochole-cystectomy: 1208807 Pounds). The study seems to demonstrate the disparity of the reimbursement system related to DRG. However, the surgeons, as managers, must employ warily the resources for producing DRG.

  17. Upper extremity thrombosis in Behçet’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Küçük

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Behçet’s disease (BD is a systemic disease characterizedby oral aphthosis, genital ulcers, ocular lesions andalso gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, neurological andvessel involvements may develop. Venous manifestationsare more common than arterial involvement. Venousinvolvement often occurs in the veins of lower extremity.Upper extremity venous involvement is rare. In this paperwe report a case of BH presenting with upper extremitysuperficial vein thrombosis.Key words: Behçet’s disease, upper extremity, superficialvein thrombosis

  18. Gastrointestinal hyperactivity and its importance in the formationof chronic allergic gastritis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrova V.I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the clinical and pathogenetic role in the formation of gastrointestinal hyperactivity and chronic allergic gastritis in children. Patients and methods. We observed 82 children aged 6 to 16 years. To verify the diagnosis all the children performed endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract, intragastric pHmeter. To confirm the genesis of atopic disease of patients determined the level general IgE in the serum by ELISA. Results. As a result of studies we find, that in majority (92.7±2.9% patients examined early symptoms of gastrointestinal hyperactivity were diagnosed in the first six months of life. Gastrointestinal hyperactivity in infants is manifested by increased functional reaction of the gastrointestinal system, namely the disorders of the digestive and motorevacuation function of the gastrointestinal tract and symptoms of atopic dermatitis. In older children gastrointestinal hyperactivity transformed intoallergic gastritis, which is manifested by destructive changes of the gastric mucosa, increased production of hydrochloric acid , motility disorders of the gastrointestinal tract mainly in the form of duodenogastric reflux. It was found that the determining factors of the formation of allergic inflammation should be considered a high percentage of family history as a gastroenterological and allergic diseases, disorders physiological feeding graphics and nutrition of children from the first days of life. A characteristic feature of current gastroenterological diseases in patients with gastrointestinal hyperactivity was the absence of seasonal exacerbations, severe pain in the right upper quadrant, belching and flatulence, against the background of destructive changes in the gastric mucosa. Conclusions. We have identified specific clinical symptoms is pathognomonic for children with gastrointestinal hyperactivity and provides the opportunity to be watchful for the diagnosis of allergic changes in the gastric

  19. Estrogen and gastrointestinal malignancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M

    2012-02-01

    The concept that E2 exerts an effect on the gastrointestinal tract is not new and its actions on intestinal mucosa have been investigated for at least three decades. An attempt to consolidate results of these investigations generates more questions than answers, thus suggesting that many unexplored avenues remain and that the full capabilities of this steroid hormone are far from understood. Evidence of its role in esophageal, gastric and gallbladder cancers is confusing and often equivocal. The most compelling evidence regards the protective role conferred by estrogen (or perhaps ERbeta) against the development and proliferation of colon cancer. Not only has the effect been described but also many mechanisms of action have been explored. It is likely that, along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, hormonal manipulation will play an integral role in colon cancer management in the very near future.

  20. Lower gastrointestinal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, Bruce D.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: This refresher course will review the current knowledge as well as ongoing and future research strategies in lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Radiation therapy has a significant role in the adjuvant treatment of lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Furthermore, there are data to suggest that radiation therapy is an integral component of the conservative management (organ preservation) of rectal and anal cancers. 1. Colon cancer. The standard adjuvant treatment for node positive or high risk transmural colon cancer is postoperative 5-FU and Levamisole. There are retrospective data to suggest that certain subsets of high risk patients may benefit from postoperative radiation therapy. 2. Rectal cancer. Randomized trials have revealed an advantage of postoperative radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in transmural and/or node positive rectal cancer. In the adjuvant setting the use of continuous infusion 5-FU may be more beneficial compared with bolus 5-FU. Despite the improvement in survival, postoperative therapies are associated with an approximately 35% incidence of grade 3+ toxicity. Recent data suggest that the use of preoperative combined modality therapy may be associated with less toxicity as well as increase the chance of sphincter preservation. New Intergroup trials addressing these issues will be presented. In patients with locally advanced unresectable rectal cancer, the addition of intraoperative radiation therapy may further improve local control. 3. Anal cancer. The use of combined 5-FU/Mitomycin-C and pelvic radiation therapy is effective in the treatment of anal carcinoma. The RTOG has recently completed a randomized trial addressing the question of the effectiveness and toxicity of Mitomycin-C. The replacement Intergroup Phase III trial will be presented

  1. Lower gastrointestinal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, Bruce D.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: This refresher course will review the current knowledge as well as ongoing and future research strategies in lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Radiation therapy has a significant role in the adjuvant treatment of lower gastrointestinal malignancies. Furthermore, there are data to suggest that radiation therapy is an integral component of the conservative management (organ preservation) of rectal and anal cancers. 1. Colon cancer. The standard adjuvant treatment for node positive or high risk transmural colon cancer is postoperative 5-FU and Levamisole. There are retrospective data to suggest that certain subsets of high risk patients may benefit from postoperative radiation therapy. 2. Rectal cancer. Randomized trials have revealed an advantage of postoperative radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in transmural and/or node positive rectal cancer. In the adjuvant setting the use of continuous infusion 5-FU may be more beneficial compared with bolus 5-FU. Despite the improvement in survival, postoperative therapies are associated with an approximately 35% incidence of grade 3+ toxicity. Recent data suggest that the use of preoperative combined modality therapy may be associated with less toxicity as well as increase the chance of sphincter preservation. New Intergroup trials addressing these issues will be presented. In patients with locally advanced unresectable rectal cancer, the addition of intraoperative radiation therapy may further improve local control. 3. Anal cancer. The use of combined 5-FU/Mitomycin-C and pelvic radiation therapy is effective in the treatment of anal carcinoma. The RTOG has recently completed a randomized trial addressing the question of the effectiveness and toxicity of Mitomycin-C. The replacement Intergroup Phase III trial will be presented

  2. Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret H. Collins

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID are characterized pathologically by excess eosinophils in mucosal biopsies of one or multiple sites in the gastrointestinal (GI tract, simultaneously or sequentially. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE is the best characterized EGID, and in most patients it is an abnormal immune-mediated response to food antigens. Current recommendations for diagnosis include signs and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction that do not respond to proton-pump inhibitor therapy, and esophageal biopsies that exhibit at least 15 intraepithelial eosinophils in at least one high power field (HPF. Therapy consists of swallowed glucocorticoids or dietary elimination. Eosinophilic gastritis (EG is the second most common form of EGID, but like all forms of EGID except EoE consensus recommendations for either clinical or pathological diagnosis do not exist. EG may be associated clinically with peripheral blood eosinophilia, hypoalbuminemia, and anemia, and pathologically with marked expansion of lamina propria by dense eosinophilic infiltrates. Eosinophilic enteritis (EE may be subdivided into eosinophilic duodenitis, eosinophilic jejunitis, and eosinophilic ileitis. Most investigators believe that EE rarely, if ever, exists as a solitary form of EGID and is encountered only in patients who have at least one other affected portion of the GI tract. Eosinophilic colitis (EC is perhaps the most enigmatic EGID. Distinction of EC from inflammatory bowel disease may be problematic especially in children. Multiple possible etiologies for EGID include hypereosinophilic syndrome, drug reactions, etc. Currently, the only etiology that can be identified histologically is parasitic infestation, if a portion of an invasive parasite is found in mucosal biopsies. This review will provide guidelines for the pathologic diagnosis of the various forms of EGID.

  3. Non-specific gastrointestinal features: Could it be Fabry disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilz, Max J; Arbustini, Eloisa; Dagna, Lorenzo; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Goizet, Cyril; Lacombe, Didier; Liguori, Rocco; Manna, Raffaele; Politei, Juan; Spada, Marco; Burlina, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    Non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms, including pain, diarrhoea, nausea, and vomiting, can be the first symptoms of Fabry disease. They may suggest more common disorders, e.g. irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease. The confounding clinical presentation and rarity of Fabry disease often cause long diagnostic delays and multiple misdiagnoses. Therefore, specialists involved in the clinical evaluation of non-specific upper and lower gastrointestinal symptoms should recognize Fabry disease as a possible cause of the symptoms, and should consider Fabry disease as a possible differential diagnosis. When symptoms or family history suggest Fabry disease, in men, low alpha-galactosidase A enzyme levels, and in women, specific Fabry mutations confirm the diagnosis. In addition to symptomatic treatments, disease-specific enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human alpha-galactosidase A enzyme or chaperone therapy (migalastat) in patients with amenable mutations can improve the disease, including gastrointestinal symptoms, and should be initiated as early as possible after Fabry disease has been confirmed; starting enzyme replacement therapy at as young an age as possible after diagnosis improves long-term clinical outcomes. Improved diagnostic tools, such as a modified gastrointestinal symptom rating scale, may facilitate diagnosing Fabry disease in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms of unknown cause and thus assure timely initiation of disease-specific treatment. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of Non variceal Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage by Transcatheter Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Ul Haq, T.; Salam, B.; Beg, M.; Sayani, R.; Azeemuddin, M.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of mesenteric angiography, technical success of hemostasis, clinical success rate, and complications of transcatheter embolization for the treatment of acute non variceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Material and Methods. A retrospective review of 200 consecutive patients who underwent mesenteric arteriography for acute non variceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage between February 2004 and February 2011 was done. Results. Of 200 angiographic studies, 114 correctly revealed the bleeding site with mesenteric angiography. 47 (41%) patients had upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and 67 (59%) patients had lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Out of these 114, in 112 patients (98%) technical success was achieved with immediate cessation of bleeding. 81 patients could be followed for one month. Clinical success was achieved in 72 out of these 81 patients (89%). Seven patients rebled. 2 patients developed bowel ischemia. Four patients underwent surgery for bowel ischemia or rebleeding. Conclusion. The use of therapeutic transcatheter embolization for treatment of acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage is highly successful and relatively safe with 98% technical success and 2.4% post embolization ischemia in our series. In 89% of cases it was definitive without any further intervention.

  5. GASTROINTESTINAL MANIFESTATIONS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ziganshina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to highlight the current concepts of gastrointestinal manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction. The data available in Russian and foreign literature on the gastrointestinal manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction were analyzed. Functional digestive diseases are common in pediatric practice; however, their etiopathogenesis has not been adequately explored today. According to the literature, impaired cellular energy metabolism may underlie gastrointestinal motility disorders in cyclic vomiting syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux, gastric stasis, chronic diarrhea, constipation, intestinal pseudoobstruction, malabsorption syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, as well as diseases of the liver and pancreas.

  6. Radiological evaluation congenital gastrointestinal tract anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Hee; Kim, Ock [Hanil Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jung Wha [Seoul Nationl Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    With the improvements, during recent years, in the control of the infections and nutritional diseases the subject of congenital malformation becomes of increasing importance. The radiologic signs are crucial for prompt diagnosis of anomalies of alimentary tract and with early identification of resulting complication, surgical therapy is usually life-saving. 30 cases of congenital anomalies of alimentary tract in infants were reviewed in respect of age, sex, incidence and radiological findings. The results are summarized as follows; 1, The most common lesion was hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, followed by congenital megacolon and anorectal anomaly, tracheoesophageal fistula, intestinal atresia. 2. Male outnumbered female in most congenital anomalies of alimentary tract. 25 cases were under the age of 1 month. 3. Common symptoms of upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction are vomiting and abdominal distension. In the obstruction of lower gastrointestinal tract, abdominal distension and failure of meconium passage were noted. 4. Roentgenologic findings were as follows, a. Chest A-P and lateral view: In tracheoesophageal fistula, saccular dilatation of upper esophagus and displacement of trachea anterolaterally were the most common finding. b. Simple abdomen: Obstructive pattern of proximal portion of duodenum shows in 11 cases, of distal bowel shows in 16 cases. Duodenal atresia showed 'double bubble' sign, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis showed marked gastric distension, paucity of air in small bowel and increases gastric peristalsis were the most common findings. Hirschsprung's disease showed absenced of rectal gas almostly. The variable length between blind hindgut to anus was seen in anorectal anomalies. c. Esophagogram: Blind sac of upper esophagus was seen at the 4th thoracic spinal level and displacement of trachea anterolaterally. 1 case of tracheoesophageal fistula had an intact esophageal lumen. d. Upper G-I series: In hypertrophic pyloric

  7. Radiological evaluation congenital gastrointestinal tract anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Hee; Kim, Ock; Jang, Jung Wha

    1983-01-01

    With the improvements, during recent years, in the control of the infections and nutritional diseases the subject of congenital malformation becomes of increasing importance. The radiologic signs are crucial for prompt diagnosis of anomalies of alimentary tract and with early identification of resulting complication, surgical therapy is usually life-saving. 30 cases of congenital anomalies of alimentary tract in infants were reviewed in respect of age, sex, incidence and radiological findings. The results are summarized as follows; 1, The most common lesion was hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, followed by congenital megacolon and anorectal anomaly, tracheoesophageal fistula, intestinal atresia. 2. Male outnumbered female in most congenital anomalies of alimentary tract. 25 cases were under the age of 1 month. 3. Common symptoms of upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction are vomiting and abdominal distension. In the obstruction of lower gastrointestinal tract, abdominal distension and failure of meconium passage were noted. 4. Roentgenologic findings were as follows, a. Chest A-P and lateral view: In tracheoesophageal fistula, saccular dilatation of upper esophagus and displacement of trachea anterolaterally were the most common finding. b. Simple abdomen: Obstructive pattern of proximal portion of duodenum shows in 11 cases, of distal bowel shows in 16 cases. Duodenal atresia showed 'double bubble' sign, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis showed marked gastric distension, paucity of air in small bowel and increases gastric peristalsis were the most common findings. Hirschsprung's disease showed absenced of rectal gas almostly. The variable length between blind hindgut to anus was seen in anorectal anomalies. c. Esophagogram: Blind sac of upper esophagus was seen at the 4th thoracic spinal level and displacement of trachea anterolaterally. 1 case of tracheoesophageal fistula had an intact esophageal lumen. d. Upper G-I series: In hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, delayed

  8. CT of acute gastrointestinal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittenberg, J.

    1991-01-01

    The application of computerized tomography in gastrointestinal tract diseases are presented, including advantages in surgical belly that are: anatomic clarity, wide survey and rapid performance. (C.G.C.)

  9. Gastrointestinal perfusion in septic shock.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, E.M. van; Sleight, J.W.; Pickkers, P.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2007-01-01

    Septic shock is characterised by vasodilation, myocardial depression and impaired microcirculatory blood flow, resulting in redistribution of regional blood flow. Animal and human studies have shown that gastrointestinal mucosal blood flow is impaired in septic shock. This is consistent with

  10. Sleep Dysfunction and Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanijow, Vikesh; Prakash, Pia; Emsellem, Helene A; Borum, Marie L; Doman, David B

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation and impaired sleep quality have been associated with poor health outcomes. Many patients experience sleep disturbances, which can increase the risk of medical conditions such as hypertension, obesity, stroke, and heart disease as well as increase overall mortality. Recent studies have suggested that there is a strong association between sleep disturbances and gastrointestinal diseases. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6, have been associated with sleep dysfunction. Alterations in these cytokines have been seen in certain gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disorders, and colorectal cancer. It is important for gastroenterologists to be aware of the relationship between sleep disorders and gastrointestinal illnesses to ensure good care for patients. This article reviews the current research on the interplay between sleep disorders, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases.

  11. Scintigraphic assessment of gastrointestinal motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2014-01-01

    intestinal and colonic transit. This article reviews current imaging techniques, methods for data processing and principles for evaluating results when scintigraphy is used to assess gastrointestinal motility. Furthermore, clinical indications for performing scintigraphy are reviewed........ Dysmotility in the different major segments of the gastrointestinal tract may give rise to similar symptoms; hence, localizing transit abnormalities to a specific segment is a valuable element of diagnostic evaluation. Scintigraphy is an effective noninvasive tool to assess gastric emptying as well as small...