WorldWideScience

Sample records for nontarget aquatic insects

  1. Toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Frank B; Reddy, Gadi V P

    2015-11-01

    The toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects are mediated by several modes of entry of pyrethroids into aquatic ecosystems, as well as the toxicological characteristics of particular pyrethroids under field conditions. Toxicokinetics, movement across the integument of aquatic insects, and the toxicodynamics of pyrethroids are discussed, and their physiological, symptomatic and ecological effects evaluated. The relationship between pyrethroid toxicity and insecticide uptake is not fully defined. Based on laboratory and field data, it is likely that the susceptibility of aquatic insects (vector and non-vector) is related to biochemical and physiological constraints associated with life in aquatic ecosystems. Understanding factors that influence aquatic insects susceptibility to pyrethroids is critical for the effective and safe use of these compounds in areas adjacent to aquatic environments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Do insect repellents induce drift behaviour in aquatic non-target organisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick; Moelzner, Jana; Berghahn, Ruediger; von Elert, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic insect repellents are compounds applied to surfaces to discourage insects, mainly mosquitoes, from landing on those surfaces. As some of these repellents have repeatedly been detected in surface waters at significant concentrations, they may also exert repellent effects on aquatic non-target organisms. In running water systems, aquatic invertebrates actively enter downstream drift in order to avoid unfavourable environmental conditions. We thus tested the hypothesis that the widely used insect repellents DEET (N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide), EBAAP (3-[N-butyl-N-acetyl]-aminopropionic acid ethyl ester) and Icaridin (1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-methylpropyl ester) induce downstream drift behaviour in the aquatic invertebrates Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) and Cloeon dipterum (Insecta, Ephemeroptera), using a laboratory-scale drift assay. We found no clear increase in the drift behaviour of both invertebrate species across a concentration gradient of eight orders of magnitude and even beyond maximum environmental concentrations for any of the three repellents. We found no evidence for a direct drift-inducing activity of insect repellents on aquatic non-target organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 40 CFR 161.590 - Nontarget insect data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollinators (4) CR CR CR CR CR CR TEP TEP 141-5 Nontarget insect testing—aquatic insects Acute toxicity to aquatic insects (5) 142-1 Aquatic insect life-cycle study (5) 142-1 Simulated or actual field testing for aquatic insects (5) 142-3 Nontarget insect testing—predators and parasites (5) 143-1thru 143-3 Key: CR...

  4. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  5. Toxicological effects of chemical constituents from Piper against the environmental burden Aedes aegypti Liston and their impact on non-target toxicity evaluation against biomonitoring aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2018-04-01

    Dengue is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. The mosquito, Aedes aegypti, also spreads Yellow fever, Chikungunya, and Zika virus. As the primary vector for dengue, Ae. aegypti now occurs in over 20 countries and is a serious concern with reports of increasing insecticide resistance. Developing new treatments to manage mosquitoes are needed. Formulation of crude volatile oil from Piper betle leaves (Pb-CVO) was evaluated as a potential treatment which showed larvicidal, ovipositional, and repellency effects. Gut-histology and enzyme profiles were analyzed post treatment under in-vitro conditions. The Pb-CVO from leaves of field collected plants was obtained by steam distillation and separated through rotary evaporation. The Pb-CVO were evaluated for chemical constituents through GC-MS analyses revealed 20 vital compounds. The peak area was establish to be superior in Eudesm-7(11)-en-4-ol (14.95%). Pb-CVO were determined and tested as four different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/L) of Pb-CVO towards Ae. aegypti. The larvicidal effects exhibited dose dependent mortality being greatest at 1.5 mg Pb-CVO/10 g leaves. The LC 50 occurred at 0.63 mg Pb-CVO/L. Larva of Ae. aegypti exposed to Pb-CVO showed significantly reduced digestive enzyme actions of α- and β-carboxylesterases. In contrast, GST and CYP450 enzyme levels increased significantly as concentration increased. Correspondingly, oviposition deterrence index and egg hatch of Ae. aegypti exposed to sub-lethal doses of Pb-CVO demonstrated a strong effect suitable for population suppression. Repellency at 0.6 mg Pb-CVO applied as oil had a protection time of 15-210 min. Mid-gut histological of Ae. aegypti larvae showed severe damage when treated with 0.6 mg of Pb-CVO treatment compared to the control. Non-toxic effects against aquatic beneficial insects, such as Anisops bouvieri and Toxorhynchites splendens, were observed at the highest concentrations, exposed

  6. Spatial distribution of aquatic insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann

    (time since glacial disturbance and habitat stability) and question the generality of these processes for the understanding of species richness gradients in European rivers. Using regional distributions of European mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies this chapter demonstrates that differences...... and shape the habitat requirements and distribution of one of the most affected groups of freshwater species: aquatic insects. It comprises four chapters each addressing different spatial factors in relation to the occurrence of aquatic insects in Europe. Chapter I examine two spatial ecological processes...... niche is derived from local distribution patterns, without incorporating landscape history it can lead to an erroneous niche definition. Chapter III provides some of the first evidence for differences in dispersal phenology related to flight potential in aquatic insects. The chapter highlights...

  7. Aquatic wood -- an insect perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S. Cranston; Brendan McKie

    2006-01-01

    Immersed wood provides refugia and substrate for a diverse array of macroinvertebrates, and food for a more restricted genuinely xylophagous fauna. Worldwide, xylophages are found across aquatic insect orders, including Coleoptera, Diptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Xylophages often are specialised, feeding on the wood surface or mining deep within. Many feed...

  8. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  9. Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity. Aquatic Insect Biodiversity and Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Voshell, J. Reese

    2005-01-01

    Provides a description of the structure and appearance of aquatic insects, how they live and reproduce, the habitats they live in, how to collect them, why they are of importance, and threats to their survival; document also includes a brief illustrated summary of the eight major groups of aquatic insects and web links to more information. Part of a 12 part series on sustaining aquatic biodiversity in America.

  10. Bug City: Aquatic Insects [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  11. Freshwater biodiversity and aquatic insect diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B; Monaghan, Michael T; Pauls, Steffen U

    2014-01-01

    Inland waters cover less than 1% of Earth's surface but harbor more than 6% of all insect species: Nearly 100,000 species from 12 orders spend one or more life stages in freshwater. Little is known about how this remarkable diversity arose, although allopatric speciation and ecological adaptation are thought to be primary mechanisms. Freshwater habitats are highly susceptible to environmental change and exhibit marked ecological gradients. Standing waters appear to harbor more dispersive species than running waters, but there is little understanding of how this fundamental ecological difference has affected diversification. In contrast to the lack of evolutionary studies, the ecology and habitat preferences of aquatic insects have been intensively studied, in part because of their widespread use as bioindicators. The combination of phylogenetics with the extensive ecological data provides a promising avenue for future research, making aquatic insects highly suitable models for the study of ecological diversification.

  12. Why Care About Aquatic Insects: Uses, Benefits, and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayflies and other aquatic insects are common subjects of ecological research, and environmental monitoring and assessment. However, their important role in protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems is often challenged, because their benefits and services to humans are not obv...

  13. Book review: Aquatic insect ecology: 1. Biology and habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Arnett, Ross H.

    2010-01-01

    Book Review: A comprehensive treatment of the ecology of aquatic insects in one place is needed for both students and researchers. Professor Ward is doing this in two volumes. The first volume covers the biology and habitats, as indicated in the subtitle, of the 13 insect orders that are either entirely aquatic at some stage, or those with some members aquatic at some stage. The second volume will be devoted entirely to the feeding ecology of these aquatic species.

  14. Aquatic insect predators and mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaalan, Essam Abdel-Salam; Canyon, Deon V

    2009-12-01

    Mosquitoes are serious biting pests and obligate vectors of many vertebrate pathogens. Their immature larval and pupal life stages are a common feature in most tropical and many temperate water bodies and often form a significant proportion of the biomass. Control strategies rely primarily on the use of larvicides and environmental modification to reduce recruitment and adulticides during periods of disease transmission. Larvicides are usually chemical but can involve biological toxins, agents or organisms. The use of insect predators in mosquito control has been exploited in a limited fashion and there is much room for further investigation and implementation. Insects that are recognized as having predatorial capacity with regard to mosquito prey have been identified in the Orders Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera (primarily aquatic predators), and Hemiptera (primarily surface predators). Although their capacity is affected by certain biological and physical factors, they could play a major role in mosquito control. Furthermore, better understanding for the mosquitoes-predators relationship(s) could probably lead to satisfactory reduction of mosquito-borne diseases by utilizing either these predators in control programs, for instance biological and/or integrated control, or their kairomones as mosquitoes' ovipoisting repellents. This review covers the predation of different insect species on mosquito larvae, predator-prey-habitat relationships, co-habitation developmental issues, survival and abundance, oviposition avoidance, predatorial capacity and integrated vector control.

  15. Impact of fungicide and insecticide use on non-target aquatic organisms in rice paddy fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Cristina Dorneles Wandscheer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The intensive use of plant protection products in rice paddy fields ( Oryza sativa L. has caused concern about the environmental impact on communities of non-target organisms that are natural inhabitants in these agroecosystems. The purpose of this review is to analyze the data currently available in the literature about some important fungicides and insecticides (such as trifloxystrobin, tebuconazole, tricyclazole, lambda-cyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam, which are currently used to control pests and diseases in rice paddy fields, as well as their effects on the community of non-target aquatic organisms.

  16. Impacts of transgenic poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems upon target pests and non-target insects under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Liu, J X; Lu, Z Y; Li, C L; Comada, E; Yang, M S

    2015-07-27

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of cotton fields in China. With increasing acres devoted to transgenic insect-resistant poplar and transgenic insect-resistant cotton, studies examining the effects of transgenic plants on target and non-target insects become increasingly important. We systematically surveyed populations of both target pests and non-target insects for 4 different combinations of poplar-cotton eco-systems over 3 years. Transgenic Bt cotton strongly resisted the target insects Fall webworm moth [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)], Sylepta derogata Fabrieius, and American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), but no clear impact on non-target insect cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii). Importantly, intercrops containing transgenic Pb29 poplar significantly increased the inhibitory effects of Bt cotton on Fall webworm moth in ecosystem IV. Highly resistant Pb29 poplar reduced populations of the target pests Grnsonoma minutara Hubner and non-target insect poplar leaf aphid (Chaitophorus po-pulialbae), while Fall webworm moth populations were unaffected. We determined the effects of Bt toxin from transgenic poplar and cotton on target and non-target pests in different ecosystems of cotton-poplar intercrops and identified the synergistic effects of such combinations toward both target and non-target insects.

  17. Partitioning taxonomic diversity of aquatic insect assemblages ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological diversity can be divided into: alpha (α, local), beta (β, difference in assemblage composition among locals), and gamma (γ, total diversity). We assessed the partitioning of taxonomic diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) and of functional feeding groups (FFG) in Neotropical Savanna (southeastern Brazilian Cerrado) streams. To do so, we considered three diversity components: stream site (α), among stream sites (β1), and among hydrologic units (β2). We also evaluated the association of EPT genera composition with heterogeneity in land use, instream physical habitat structure, and instream water quality variables. The percent of EPT taxonomic α diversity (20.7%) was lower than the β1 and β2 diversities (53.1% and 26.2%, respectively). The EPT FFG α diversity (26.5%) was lower than the β1 diversity (55.8%) and higher than the β2 (17.7%) diversity. The collector-gatherer FFG was predominant and had the greatest β diversity among stream sites (β1, 55.8%). Our findings support the need for implementing regional scale conservation strategies in the Cerrado biome, which has been degraded by anthropogenic activities. Using adaptations of the US EPA’s National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) designs and methods, Ferreira and colleagues examined the distribution of taxonomic and functional diversity of aquatic insects among basins, stream sites within basins, and within stream sample reaches. They sampled 160 low-order stre

  18. Aquatic insect populations in the MUDA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozilah Ismail; Ahyaudin Ali

    2002-01-01

    Periodic sampling of aquatic insects was carried out in an experimental plot of the Muda rice agroecosystem. The study which was conducted from August to December 1995, investigated the impact of the pesticides Broadox and Trebon on aquatic insect populations during the rice growing period. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in abundance and diversity of aquatic insects between the treated and non-treated area. The four dominant aquatic insects were from the families; Chironomidae, Dysticidae, Corixidae and Belostomatidae. Water temperature and dissolved oxygen showed changes throughout the rice growing season and the values of these parameters decreased gradually towards the end of the rice growing season in January when the rice plants were maturing. (Author)

  19. Trophic Transfer of Arsenic from an Aquatic Insect to Terrestrial Insect Predators

    OpenAIRE

    Mogren, Christina L.; Walton, William E.; Parker, David R.; Trumble, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The movement of energy and nutrients from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems can be substantial, and emergent aquatic insects can serve as biovectors not only for nutrients, but also for contaminants present in the aquatic environment. The terrestrial predators Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Mantodea: Mantidae) and Tidarren haemorrhoidale (Araneae: Theridiidae) and the aquatic predator Buenoa scimitra (Hemiptera: Notonectidae) were chosen to evaluate the efficacy of arsenic transfer between aqu...

  20. Freshwater ecosystems and aquatic insects: a paradox in biological invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoglio, Stefano; Bonada, Núria; Guareschi, Simone; López-Rodríguez, Manuel J; Millán, Andrés; Tierno de Figueroa, J Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Biological invasions have increased significantly in response to global change and constitute one of the major causes of biodiversity loss. Insects make up a large fraction of invasive species, in general, and freshwaters are among the most invaded ecosystems on our planet. However, even though aquatic insects dominate most inland waters, have unparalleled taxonomic diversity and occupy nearly all trophic niches, there are almost no invasive insects in freshwaters. We present some hypotheses regarding why aquatic insects are not common among aquatic invasive organisms, suggesting that it may be the result of a suite of biological, ecological and anthropogenic factors. Such specific knowledge introduces a paradox in the current scientific discussion on invasive species; therefore, a more in-depth understanding could be an invaluable aid to disentangling how and why biological invasions occur. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. A review of chemosensation and related behavior in aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, José G

    2011-01-01

    Insects that are secondarily adapted to aquatic environments are able to sense odors from a diverse array of sources. The antenna of these insects, as in all insects, is the main chemosensory structure and its input to the brain allows for integration of sensory information that ultimately ends in behavioral responses. Only a fraction of the aquatic insect orders have been studied with respect to their sensory biology and most of the work has centered either on the description of the different types of sensilla, or on the behavior of the insect as a whole. In this paper, the literature is exhaustively reviewed and ways in which antennal morphology, brain structure, and associated behavior can advance better understanding of the neurobiology involved in processing of chemosensory information are discussed. Moreover, the importance of studying such group of insects is stated, and at the same time it is shown that many interesting questions regarding olfactory processing can be addressed by looking into the changes that aquatic insects undergo when leaving their aquatic environment.

  2. Oviposition of aquatic insects in a tropical high altitude stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Touma, Blanca; Encalada, A C; Prat, N

    2012-12-01

    The persistence of aquatic insect populations in streams depends on the recruitment of larval populations from egg masses deposited by adults, especially after disturbance. However, recruitment of aquatic populations by oviposition is a process that remains unstudied in streams and rivers. The objectives of our study were to document flying and oviposition patterns of aquatic insects in a high altitude tropical stream during both dry and wet seasons. In particular we studied 1) richness and abundance of adult forms of aquatic insects flying and ovipositing; 2) number of eggs (oviposition pattern), egg mass identity, and morphology; and 3) substrate preferences by ovipositing females. We found 2,383 aquatic insects corresponding to 28 families, with dipterans representing 89% of total individuals collected. Adult insects had lower richness (28 taxa) than larval diversity (up to 52 taxa) and distinct community composition. Richness and relative abundance of most taxa (adults) were not significantly different between seasons, behaviors, diel period, or all three. During both sampling periods we found females with eggs in a total of 15 different families (13 in the dry season and 14 in the wet season). There were no significant differences in the proportion of females with eggs between seasons, diel periods, or different behaviors (flying versus ovipositing traps) of the different female taxa. Few types of egg masses were found in rocks at the stream during both seasons, and most egg masses found corresponded to families Baetidae and Chironomidae. Finally, we provide the first description of eggs masses (size, shape, color, and number of eggs per female) of gravid females (10 taxa) and those found in the stream substrate (six taxa) of Andean macroinvertebrates. This is the first study reporting oviposition, adult diversity, and oviposition patterns of aquatic insects in the Andean region.

  3. Aquatic insect community of lake, Phulbari anua in Cachar, Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Susmita; Narzary, Rupali

    2013-05-01

    An investigation on the water quality and aquatic insect community of an oxbow lake (Phulbari anua) of south Assam, North-East India was carried out during February to April, 2010. Aquatic insect community of the oxbow lake was represented by 9 species belonging to 9 families and 4 orders during the study period. Order Ephemeroptera and Hemiptera were found to be dominant. Record of 5 species and 5 families from the order Hemiptera showed that this is the largest order in terms of aquatic insect diversity of the lake. Computation of dominance status of different species of aquatic insects of the lake based on Engelmann's Scale revealed that Anisops lundbladiana and Cloeon sp. were eudominant in the system. The Shannon- Weiner's Diversity Index (H') and Shannon evenness values (J') were found to range from 0.3-0.69 and 0.53 -0.97, respectively indicating perturbation of the system. Again in terms of physico-chemical properties of water the lake is in a satisfactory condition where all the parameters are well within the range of IS 10500. The DO values were found to range from 6.8 to 14.8 mgl(-1). Free CO2 fluctuated from 1 to 4.98 mgl(-1) and nitrate in water ranged from 0.4 to 2.1 mgl(-1). Margalef's water quality index values of most of the samplings also indicated clean water condition of the lake. Correlation coefficient analyses of the environmental variables, aquatic insect diversity and density of the lake revealed that aquatic insect diversity of the lake is mainly governed by dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and free carbon dioxide.

  4. Insect herbivory on native and exotic aquatic plants: phosphorus and nitrogen drive insect growth and nutrient release

    OpenAIRE

    Grutters, B.M.C.; Gross, E.M.; Bakker, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication and globalisation facilitate the dominance of exotic plants in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Aquatic omnivores can provide biotic resistance to plant invasions, but little is known about whether obligate aquatic herbivores can do the same. Herbivores such as insects can decimate aquatic vegetation, but may not be able to consume exotic plants due to their more or less specialised nature of feeding. We experimentally tested the larval feeding of an aquatic insect, the moth Parap...

  5. Using Aquatic Insects as Indicators of Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyche, Steven E.

    1977-01-01

    Described is a science field activity that studies the presence of certain aquatic insects, like stoneflies, as indicators of water quality. Equipment, materials, and methods are listed in detail, including suggestions for building certain supplies. Results of previous studies on the Yellowstone River are included. (MA)

  6. Quantifying aquatic insect deposition from lake to land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Jamin; Townsend, Philip A; Hook, James C; Hoekman, David; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Gratton, Claudio

    2015-02-01

    Adjacent ecosystems are influenced by organisms that move across boundaries, such as insects with aquatic larval stages and terrestrial adult stages, which transport energy and nutrients from water to land. However, the ecosystem-level effect of aquatic insects on land has generally been ignored, perhaps because the organisms themselves are individually small. At the naturally productive Lake Mývatn, Iceland, we used two readily measured quantities: total insect emergence from water and relative insect density on land, to demonstrate an approach for estimating aquatic insect deposition (e.g., kg N x m(-2) x yr(-1)) to shore. Estimates from emergence traps between 2008 and 20.11 indicated a range of 0.15-3.7 g x m(-2) x yr(-1), or a whole-lake emergence of 3.1-76 Mg/yr; all masses are given as dry mass. Using aerial infall trap measurements of midge relative abundance over land, we developed a local-maximum decay function model to predict proportional midge deposition with distance from the lake. The dispersal model predicted midge abundance with R2 = 0.89, a pattern consistent among years, with peak midge deposition occurring 20-25 m inland and 70% of midges deposited within 100 m of shore. During a high-midge year (2008), we estimate midge deposition within the first 50 m of shoreline to be 100 kg xha(-1) x yr(-1), corresponding to inputs of 10 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1) and 1 kg P x ha(-1) x yr(-1), or about three to five times above background terrestrial N deposition rates. Consistent with elevated N input where midges are most dense, we observed that soil available nitrate in resin bags decreases with increasing distance from the lake. Our approach, generalizable to other systems, shows that aquatic insects can be a major source of nutrients to terrestrial ecosystems and have the capacity to significantly affect ecosystem processes.

  7. Quantitative studies of Savannah River aquatic insects, 1959--1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltis, R. [ed.; Hart, D.; Nagy, T.

    1986-10-30

    As part of a long-term study of water quality patterns, scientists from the Academy of Natural Sciences have collected aquatic insects from artificial substrates placed at several stations in Savannah River. This report presents the first detailed compilation and analysis of this substantial data base, and examines patterns of variations of insect distribution and abundance (both spatial and temporal) during the last quarter century. Data on the number of individuals of various taxa found in the insect traps were obtained from tables in the Academy`s cursory reports. Computer data files created from these records were subjected to extensive statistical analyses in order to examine variation among stations, seasons and years in the abundances of major taxa and various aggregate properties of the insect assemblage. Although a total of 83 taxa were collected over the 27-year study, 10 taxa accounted for nearly 80% of the individuals collected from the traps, hence there 10 taxa were analyzed more intensively.

  8. Quantitative studies of Savannah River aquatic insects, 1959--1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltis, R. (ed.); Hart, D.; Nagy, T.

    1986-10-30

    As part of a long-term study of water quality patterns, scientists from the Academy of Natural Sciences have collected aquatic insects from artificial substrates placed at several stations in Savannah River. This report presents the first detailed compilation and analysis of this substantial data base, and examines patterns of variations of insect distribution and abundance (both spatial and temporal) during the last quarter century. Data on the number of individuals of various taxa found in the insect traps were obtained from tables in the Academy's cursory reports. Computer data files created from these records were subjected to extensive statistical analyses in order to examine variation among stations, seasons and years in the abundances of major taxa and various aggregate properties of the insect assemblage. Although a total of 83 taxa were collected over the 27-year study, 10 taxa accounted for nearly 80% of the individuals collected from the traps, hence there 10 taxa were analyzed more intensively.

  9. Elemental concentrations of aquatic insect larvae and attached algae on tone surfaces in an uncontaminated stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.; Sugihara, S.; Hibino, K.; Nakamura, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental concentrations of aquatic insect larvae and attached algae in an uncontaminated river were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) via the k 0 -standardization method. The aquatic insect larvae found were all intolerant species. No significant difference was observed int he elemental concentrations of aquatic insect larvae and attached algae long the river. Similar elemental concentrations were observed in the aquatic insect larvae collected at a fixed sampling point for two years. An analysis by the ratio-matching technique indicated a higher generic relationship between aquatic insect larvae and attached algae than river water. (author)

  10. Exposure-dependent variation in cryolite induced lethality in the nontarget insect, Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podder Sayanti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of toxicity testing of any chemical in an organism is the determination of its Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50. In the present study, LC50 of a fluorinated insecticide cryolite is determined in a non-target insect model, Drosophila melanogaster. Interestingly, the result shows that acute LC50 of cryolite was much greater in comparison to the chronic one in case of Drosophila larvae. Larvae which were exposed to 65,000 to 70,000 μg/ml cryolite through food showed 50% mortality after 18 hours of acute exposure, whereas only 150 to 160 μg/ml cryolite was sufficient to cause 50% mortality in case of chronic exposure. Thus cryolite in a small amount when applied once cannot produce noticeable changes in Drosophila, whereas the same amount when used continuously can be fatal. The non-feeding pupal stage was also seen to be affected by chemical treatment. This suggests that the test chemical affects the developmental fate and results in failure of adult emergence. Absence of chemical-induced mortality in adults assumes that the toxicity of cryolite might be restricted to the preimaginal stages of the organism. Reduction in body size of larvae after ingestion of cryolite (with food in acute treatment schedule is another interesting finding of this study. Some individuals consuming cryolite containing food cannot survive whereas the few survivors manifest a significant growth retardation which might be due to a tendency of refusal in feeding. Hence the present findings provide a scope of assessment of risk of other similar non-target groups

  11. Insect herbivory on native and exotic aquatic plants: phosphorus and nitrogen drive insect growth and nutrient release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, B.M.C.; Gross, E.M.; Bakker, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication and globalisation facilitate the dominance of exotic plants in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Aquatic omnivores can provide biotic resistance to plant invasions, but little is known about whether obligate aquatic herbivores can do the same. Herbivores such as insects can decimate

  12. Effect of seed kernel aqueous extract from Annona squamosa against three mosquito vectors and its impact on non-target aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran Ramanibai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the toxicity of Annona squamosa (A. squamosa aqueous (physiological saline seed soluble extract and its control of mosquito population. Methods: Ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of A. squamosa crude soluble seed kernel extract was determined according to World Health Organization. The mortality of each mosquito stage was recorded after 24 h exposured to plant material. Toxicity assay was used to assess the non-target organisms with different concentrations according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Results: The aqueous solubilized extracts of A. squamosa elicit the toxicity against all stages of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus, and the LC50 values against stages of egg, 1st-4th larvae were (1.45 and 1.26–2.5 mg/mL, (1.12 and 1.19–2.81 mg/ mL and (1.80 and 2.12–3.41 mg/mL respectively. The pupicidal activity also brought forth amended activity against all three mosquitoes species, and the LC50 values were consider to be 3.19, 2.42 and 4.47 mg/mL. Ultimately there was no mortality observed from non-target organism of Chironomus costatus. Conclusions: Based on the findings of the study, it suggests that the use of A. squamosa plant extract can act as an alternate insecticidal agents for controlling target mosquitoes without affecting the non-target aquatic insect. Further investigation to identify the active compounds and their mechanisms of action is recommended.

  13. Trophic Transfer of Arsenic from an Aquatic Insect to Terrestrial Insect Predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogren, Christina L; Walton, William E; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T

    2013-01-01

    The movement of energy and nutrients from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems can be substantial, and emergent aquatic insects can serve as biovectors not only for nutrients, but also for contaminants present in the aquatic environment. The terrestrial predators Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Mantodea: Mantidae) and Tidarren haemorrhoidale (Araneae: Theridiidae) and the aquatic predator Buenoa scimitra (Hemiptera: Notonectidae) were chosen to evaluate the efficacy of arsenic transfer between aquatic and terrestrial environments. Culex tarsalis larvae were reared in either control water or water containing 1000 µg l(-1) arsenic. Adults that emerged from the control and arsenic treatments were fed to the terrestrial predators, and fourth instar larvae were fed to the aquatic predator reared in control or arsenic contaminated water. Tenodera a. sinensis fed arsenic-treated Cx. tarsalis accumulated 658±130 ng g(-1) of arsenic. There was no significant difference between control and arsenic-fed T. haemorrhoidale (range 142-290 ng g(-1)). Buenoa scimitra accumulated 5120±406 ng g(-1) of arsenic when exposed to arsenic-fed Cx. tarsalis and reared in water containing 1000 µg l(-1) arsenic. There was no significant difference between controls or arsenic-fed B. scimitra that were not exposed to water-borne arsenic, indicating that for this species environmental exposure was more important in accumulation than strictly dietary arsenic. These results indicate that transfer to terrestrial predators may play an important role in arsenic cycling, which would be particularly true during periods of mass emergence of potential insect biovectors. Trophic transfer within the aquatic environment may still occur with secondary predation, or in predators with different feeding strategies.

  14. Trophic Transfer of Arsenic from an Aquatic Insect to Terrestrial Insect Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogren, Christina L.; Walton, William E.; Parker, David R.; Trumble, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The movement of energy and nutrients from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems can be substantial, and emergent aquatic insects can serve as biovectors not only for nutrients, but also for contaminants present in the aquatic environment. The terrestrial predators Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Mantodea: Mantidae) and Tidarren haemorrhoidale (Araneae: Theridiidae) and the aquatic predator Buenoa scimitra (Hemiptera: Notonectidae) were chosen to evaluate the efficacy of arsenic transfer between aquatic and terrestrial environments. Culex tarsalis larvae were reared in either control water or water containing 1000 µg l−1 arsenic. Adults that emerged from the control and arsenic treatments were fed to the terrestrial predators, and fourth instar larvae were fed to the aquatic predator reared in control or arsenic contaminated water. Tenodera a. sinensis fed arsenic-treated Cx. tarsalis accumulated 658±130 ng g−1 of arsenic. There was no significant difference between control and arsenic-fed T. haemorrhoidale (range 142–290 ng g−1). Buenoa scimitra accumulated 5120±406 ng g−1 of arsenic when exposed to arsenic-fed Cx. tarsalis and reared in water containing 1000 µg l−1 arsenic. There was no significant difference between controls or arsenic-fed B. scimitra that were not exposed to water-borne arsenic, indicating that for this species environmental exposure was more important in accumulation than strictly dietary arsenic. These results indicate that transfer to terrestrial predators may play an important role in arsenic cycling, which would be particularly true during periods of mass emergence of potential insect biovectors. Trophic transfer within the aquatic environment may still occur with secondary predation, or in predators with different feeding strategies. PMID:23826344

  15. Trophic Transfer of Arsenic from an Aquatic Insect to Terrestrial Insect Predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Mogren

    Full Text Available The movement of energy and nutrients from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems can be substantial, and emergent aquatic insects can serve as biovectors not only for nutrients, but also for contaminants present in the aquatic environment. The terrestrial predators Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Mantodea: Mantidae and Tidarren haemorrhoidale (Araneae: Theridiidae and the aquatic predator Buenoa scimitra (Hemiptera: Notonectidae were chosen to evaluate the efficacy of arsenic transfer between aquatic and terrestrial environments. Culex tarsalis larvae were reared in either control water or water containing 1000 µg l(-1 arsenic. Adults that emerged from the control and arsenic treatments were fed to the terrestrial predators, and fourth instar larvae were fed to the aquatic predator reared in control or arsenic contaminated water. Tenodera a. sinensis fed arsenic-treated Cx. tarsalis accumulated 658±130 ng g(-1 of arsenic. There was no significant difference between control and arsenic-fed T. haemorrhoidale (range 142-290 ng g(-1. Buenoa scimitra accumulated 5120±406 ng g(-1 of arsenic when exposed to arsenic-fed Cx. tarsalis and reared in water containing 1000 µg l(-1 arsenic. There was no significant difference between controls or arsenic-fed B. scimitra that were not exposed to water-borne arsenic, indicating that for this species environmental exposure was more important in accumulation than strictly dietary arsenic. These results indicate that transfer to terrestrial predators may play an important role in arsenic cycling, which would be particularly true during periods of mass emergence of potential insect biovectors. Trophic transfer within the aquatic environment may still occur with secondary predation, or in predators with different feeding strategies.

  16. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  17. Effects of insect growth regulators on the nontarget soil arthropod Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campiche, S; Becker-van Slooten, K; Ridreau, C; Tarradellas, J

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of several insect growth regulators (IGRs) on the nontarget soil arthropod Folsomia candida (Collembola). The survival and reproduction rates of F. candida were evaluated after 28 days of exposure to six IGRs (methoprene, fenoxycarb, precocene II, tebufenozide, hexaflumuron and teflubenzuron) and to one herbicide (diuron) in artificial soil. The differences in the sensitivity of F. candida to these different substances are high. The chitin synthesis inhibitors teflubenzuron and hexaflumuron were the most toxic compounds with an EC50 of 0.05 mg/kg (dry weight) for teflubenzuron and an EC50 of 0.6mg/kg for hexaflumuron. Teflubenzuron is toxic for F. candida at concentrations that are probably close to environmental levels of this insecticide. Inhibition of reproduction is strongly related to adult survival for the juvenile hormone agonist methoprene and for the antijuvenile hormone precocene II, with an EC50 of 173 mg/kg and a LC50 of 178mg/kg for methoprene and an EC50 of 15 mg/kg and a LC50 of 26 mg/kg for precocene II. Fenoxycarb, another juvenile hormone analog, showed a dose-response curve for mortality different from that of methoprene; at concentrations such as 3052 mg/kg no effect on adult survival was observed. However, the EC50 value of 113mg/kg is of the same order of magnitude as that obtained for methoprene. A test with compressed soil contaminated with fenoxycarb was conducted to observe parameters such as numbers of eggs laid and juveniles hatched. No differences were observed between these two endpoints for fenoxycarb. An EC50 of 109 mg/kg was obtained for the ecdysone agonist tebufenozide. The herbicide diuron showed a relatively high toxicity for F. candida with an EC50 of 20 mg/kg. Our results show that some of the tested IGRs can have effects on Collembola at environmentally relevant concentrations (toxicity/exposure ratios diuron).

  18. Activities and Ecological Role of Adult Aquatic Insects in the Riparian Zone of Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    John K. Jackson; Vincent H. Resh

    1989-01-01

    Most adult aquatic insects that emerge from streams live briefly in the nearby riparian zone. Adult activities, such as mating, dispersal, and feeding, influence their distribution in the terrestrial habitat. A study at Big Sulphur Creek, California, has shown that both numbers and biomass of adult aquatic insects are greatest in the near-stream vegetation; however,...

  19. Structural and functional effects of herbicides on non-target organisms in aquatic ecosystems with an emphasis on atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, James; Kortekamp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    for controlling nuisance aquatic vegetation. Although aquatic herbicide exposure has been widely documented, these exposures are not necessarily related to adverse non-target ecological effects on natural communities in aquatic environments. This chapter evaluates the potential for effects of herbicides on the structure and function of aquatic envrionments at the population, community, and ecosystem levels of biological organization. In this manuscript I examine several critical aspects of the subject matter area: primary herbicides in use and chemical modes of action; the regulatory process used for registration and risk assessment of herbicides; data regarding non-target risks and the relative sensitivity of aquatic plants, inveretebrates, and fish to herbicides; and emerging areas of science regarding the potential for endocrine-disrupting effects of herbicides on aquatic vertebrates. Much of the focus of this paper is on atrazine due to the extensive database which exists regarding its fate and effects. 

  20. Aquatic insects of New York salt marsh associated with mosquito larval habitat and their potential utility as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Dempsey, Mary E; Iwanejko, Tom; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2011-01-01

    The aquatic insect fauna of salt marshes is poorly characterized, with the possible exception of biting Diptera. Aquatic insects play a vital role in salt marsh ecology, and have great potential importance as biological indicators for assessing marsh health. In addition, they may be impacted by measures to control mosquitoes such as changes to the marsh habitat, altered hydrology, or the application of pesticides. Given these concerns, the goals of this study were to conduct the first taxonomic survey of salt marsh aquatic insects on Long Island, New York, USA and to evaluate their utility for non-target pesticide impacts and environmental biomonitoring. A total of 18 species from 11 families and five orders were collected repeatedly during the five month study period. Diptera was the most diverse order with nine species from four families, followed by Coleoptera with four species from two families, Heteroptera with three species from three families, then Odonata and the hexapod Collembola with one species each. Water boatmen, Trichocorixa verticalis Fieber (Heteroptera: Corixidae) and a shore fly, Ephydra subopaca Loew (Diptera: Ephydridae), were the two most commonly encountered species. An additional six species; Anurida maritima Guérin-Méneville (Collembola: Neanuridae), Mesovelia mulsanti White (Heteroptera: Mesovelidae), Enochrus hamiltoni Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Tropisternus quadristriatus Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), Dasyhelea pseudocincta Waugh and Wirth (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), and Brachydeutera argentata Walker (Diptera: Ephydridae), were found regularly. Together with the less common Erythrodiplax berenice Drury (Odonata: Libellulidae), these nine species were identified as the most suitable candidates for pesticide and environmental impact monitoring due to abundance, position in the food chain, and extended seasonal occurrence. This study represents a first step towards developing an insect-based index of biological integrity for

  1. The Identification, Types, Taxonomic Orders, Biodiversity and Importance of Aquatic Insects

    OpenAIRE

    J.F.N. Abowei; B.R. Ukoroije

    2012-01-01

    The identification, types, taxonomic orders, biodiversity and importance of aquatic insects was reviewed to facilitate sustainable culture fisheries management and practice. Aquatic insects contribute significantly to fresh water ecosystems, one of many groups of organisms that, together, must be considered in the study of aquatic ecology. As such their study may be a significant part of understanding the ecological state of a given ecosystem and in gauging how that ecosystem will respond to ...

  2. Patterning and predicting aquatic insect richness in four West-African coastal rivers using artificial neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Edia E.O.; Gevrey M.; Ouattara A.; Brosse S.; Gourène G.; Lek S.

    2010-01-01

    Despite their importance in stream management, the aquatic insect assemblages are still little known in West Africa. This is particularly true in South-Eastern Ivory Coast, where aquatic insect assemblages were hardly studied. We therefore aimed at characterising aquatic insect assemblages on four coastal rivers in South-Eastern Ivory Coast. Patterning aquatic insect assemblages was achieved using a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), an unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) method. This metho...

  3. Biodiversity of Aquatic Insects of Zayandeh Roud River and Its Branches, Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoreh Shayeghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic insects are the major groups of arthropods that spend some parts of their life cycle in the water. These insects play an important role for transmission of some human and animal diseases. There is few information about the aquatic insects fauna of Iran.To study the aquatic insects fauna, adult, nymphal and larval collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard technique in Zayandeh Roud River, Isfahan Province,central Iran, during summer 2011.In total, 741 speimens of aquatic insects were collected and morphologically identified. They include 7 families and 12 genera representing 2 Orders. The order of Diptera (92.31% and Coleoptera (7.69%. The families Culicidae, Syrphidae and Chironomidae from Diptera order, Gyrinidae, Dytiscidae, Haliplidae, Hydrophilidae from Coleoptera order were identified.Some aquatic insects play an important role for transmission of human and animal diseases. These insects also are important for biological control. Therefore ecological study on aquatic insects can provide information about ecology of insects in an area for any decision making.

  4. Fabrication of nano-mosquitocides using chitosan from crab shells: Impact on non-target organisms in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Anitha, Jaganathan; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Paulpandi, Manickam; Vadivalagan, Chitravel; Amuthavalli, Pandiyan; Wang, Lan; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Wei, Hui; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Kumar, Suresh; Pugazhendy, Kannaiyan; Higuchi, Akon; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Mosquitoes are arthropods of huge medical and veterinary relevance, since they vector pathogens and parasites of public health importance, including malaria, dengue and Zika virus. Currently, nanotechnology is considered a potential eco-friendly approach in mosquito control research. We proposed a novel method of biofabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using chitosan (Ch) from crab shells. Ch-AgNP nanocomposite was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD. Ch-AgNP were tested against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi obtaining LC50 ranging from 3.18 ppm (I) to 6.54 ppm (pupae). The antibacterial properties of Ch-AgNP were proved against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi, while no growth inhibition was reported in assays conducted on Proteus vulgaris. Concerning non-target effects, in standard laboratory considtions the predation efficiency of Danio rerio zebrafishes was 68.8% and 61.6% against I and II instar larvae of A. stephensi, respectively. In a Ch-AgNP-contaminated environment, fish predation was boosted to 89.5% and 77.3%, respectively. Quantitative analysis of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and LPO from hepatopancreas of fresh water crabs Paratelphusa hydrodromous exposed for 16 days to a Ch-AgNP-contaminated aquatic environment were conducted. Notably, deleterious effects of Ch-AgNP contaminating aquatic enviroment on the non-target crab P. hydrodromous were observed, particularly when doses higher than 8-10ppm are tested. Overall, this research highlights the potential of Ch-AGNP for the development of newer control tools against young instar populations of malaria mosquitoes, also highlighting some risks concerned the employ of nanoparticles in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. How low can you go? Impacts of a low-flow disturbance on aquatic insect communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Annika W; Post, David M

    2011-01-01

    The natural hydrology of streams and rivers is being extensively modified by human activities. Water diversion, dam construction, and climate change have the potential to increase the frequency and intensity of low-flow events. Flow is a dominant force structuring stream aquatic insect communities, but the impacts of water diversion are poorly understood. Here we report results of an experimental stream flow diversion designed to test how aquatic insect communities respond to a low-flow disturbance. We diverted 40% to 80% of the water in three replicate streams for three summers, leading to summer flow exceedance probabilities of up to 99.9%. Shifts in habitat availability appeared to be a major driver of aquatic insect community responses. Responses also varied by habitat type: total insect density decreased in riffle habitats, but there was no change in pool habitats. Overall, the total biomass of aquatic insects decreased sharply with lowered flow. Collector-filterers, collector-gatherers, and scrapers were especially susceptible, while predatory insects were more resistant. Despite extremely low flow levels, there was no shift in aquatic insect family richness. The experimental water withdrawal did not increase water temperature or decrease water quality, and some wetted habitat was always maintained, which likely prevented more severe impacts on aquatic insect communities.

  6. A Review on the Toxicity and Non-Target Effects of Macrocyclic Lactones in Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Errouissi, Faiek; Floate, Kevin; Römbke, Jörg; Wardhaugh, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The avermectins, milbemycins and spinosyns are collectively referred to as macrocyclic lactones (MLs) which comprise several classes of chemicals derived from cultures of soil micro-organisms. These compounds are extensively and increasingly used in veterinary medicine and agriculture. Due to their potential effects on non-target organisms, large amounts of information on their impact in the environment has been compiled in recent years, mainly caused by legal requirements related to their marketing authorization or registration. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the present knowledge about the acute and chronic ecotoxicological effects of MLs on organisms, mainly invertebrates, in the terrestrial and aquatic environment. Detailed information is presented on the mode-of-action as well as the ecotoxicity of the most important compounds representing the three groups of MLs. This information, based on more than 360 references, is mainly provided in nine tables, presenting the effects of abamectin, ivermectin, eprinomectin, doramectin, emamectin, moxidectin, and spinosad on individual species of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates as well as plants and algae. Since dung dwelling organisms are particularly important non-targets, as they are exposed via dung from treated animals over their whole life-cycle, the information on the effects of MLs on dung communities is compiled in an additional table. The results of this review clearly demonstrate that regarding environmental impacts many macrocyclic lactones are substances of high concern particularly with larval instars of invertebrates. Recent studies have also shown that susceptibility varies with life cycle stage and impacts can be mitigated by using MLs when these stages are not present. However information on the environmental impact of the MLs is scattered across a wide range of specialised scientific journals with research focusing mainly on ivermectin and to a lesser extent on abamectin

  7. The role of emergent vegetation in structuring aquatic insect communities in peatland drainage ditches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whatley, M.H.; van Loon, E.E.; Vonk, J.A.; van der Geest, H.G.; Admiraal, W.

    2014-01-01

    Availability of macrophyte habitat is recognized as an important driver of aquatic insect communities in peatland drainage ditches; however, eutrophication can lead to the decline of submerged vegetation. While emergent vegetation is able to persist in eutrophicated ditches, vegetation removal,

  8. Aquatic insects of lowland rainforest in Papua New Guinea: assemblage structure in relation to habitat type

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klečka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 12 (2015), s. 1621-1630 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : community structure * biodiversity * aquatic insects Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.719, year: 2015

  9. Environmental effects of fenitrothion use in forestry: impacts on insect pollinators, songbirds & aquatic organisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ernst, W. R; Pearce, P. A; Pollock, T. L

    1989-01-01

    The Team focused on insect pollinators and pollination, forest songbirds, and aquatic organisms because of a judgement that most well documented negative effects of fenitrothion spraying are in those...

  10. Aquatic Insects and their Potential to Contribute to the Diet of the Globally Expanding Human Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. Dudley; Williams, Siân S.

    2017-01-01

    Of the 30 extant orders of true insect, 12 are considered to be aquatic, or semiaquatic, in either some or all of their life stages. Out of these, six orders contain species engaged in entomophagy, but very few are being harvested effectively, leading to over-exploitation and local extinction. Examples of existing practices are given, ranging from the extremes of including insects (e.g., dipterans) in the dietary cores of many indigenous peoples to consumption of selected insects, by a wealthy few, as novelty food (e.g., caddisflies). The comparative nutritional worth of aquatic insects to the human diet and to domestic animal feed is examined. Questions are raised as to whether natural populations of aquatic insects can yield sufficient biomass to be of practicable and sustained use, whether some species can be brought into high-yield cultivation, and what are the requirements and limitations involved in achieving this? PMID:28754025

  11. Aquatic Insects and their Potential to Contribute to the Diet of the Globally Expanding Human Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D Dudley; Williams, Siân S

    2017-07-21

    Of the 30 extant orders of true insect, 12 are considered to be aquatic, or semiaquatic, in either some or all of their life stages. Out of these, six orders contain species engaged in entomophagy, but very few are being harvested effectively, leading to over-exploitation and local extinction. Examples of existing practices are given, ranging from the extremes of including insects (e.g., dipterans) in the dietary cores of many indigenous peoples to consumption of selected insects, by a wealthy few, as novelty food (e.g., caddisflies). The comparative nutritional worth of aquatic insects to the human diet and to domestic animal feed is examined. Questions are raised as to whether natural populations of aquatic insects can yield sufficient biomass to be of practicable and sustained use, whether some species can be brought into high-yield cultivation, and what are the requirements and limitations involved in achieving this?

  12. Concordance among different aquatic insect assemblages and the relative role of spatial and environmental variables

    OpenAIRE

    Chunyan Qin; Yong Zhang; Haiyan Yu; Beixin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Indicator groups are often used for biodiversity monitoring and conservation, however, the effectiveness of these groups in representing biodiversity is rarely tested. To explore community congruence among different aquatic insect groups and how this may be affected by spatial factors and environmental variables, we carried out an investigation on aquatic insects in April 2010 in 21 headwater streams within the Dongtiaoxi Basin, China. In total, we recorded 130 species from 92 genera, 44 fami...

  13. Aquatic insect assemblages associated with subalpine stream segment types in relict glaciated headwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Joshua S.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Bolton, Susan M.; Weekes, Anne A.; Gara, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    1. Aquatic habitats and biotic assemblages in subalpine headwaters are sensitive to climate and human impacts. Understanding biotic responses to such perturbations and the contribution of high-elevation headwaters to riverine biodiversity requires the assessment of assemblage composition among habitat types. We compared aquatic insect assemblages among headwater stream segment types in relict glaciated subalpine basins in Mt. Rainier National Park, Washington, USA. 2. Aquatic insects were collected during summer and autumn in three headwater basins. In each basin, three different stream segment types were sampled: colluvial groundwater sources, alluvial lake inlets, and cascade-bedrock lake outlets. Ward's hierarchical cluster analysis revealed high β diversity in aquatic insect assemblages, and non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that spatial and temporal patterns in assemblage composition differed among headwater stream segment types. Aquatic insect assemblages showed more fidelity to stream segment types than to individual basins, and the principal environmental variables associated with assemblage structure were temperature and substrate. 3. Indicator species analyses identified specific aquatic insects associated with each stream segment type. Several rare and potentially endemic aquatic insect taxa were present, including the recently described species, Lednia borealis (Baumann and Kondratieff). 4. Our results indicate that aquatic insect assemblages in relict glaciated subalpine headwaters were strongly differentiated among stream segment types. These results illustrate the contribution of headwaters to riverine biodiversity and emphasise the importance of these habitats for monitoring biotic responses to climate change. Monitoring biotic assemblages in high-elevation headwaters is needed to prevent the potential loss of unique and sensitive biota.

  14. [Aquatic insects and water quality in Peñas Blancas watershed and reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Meyer Guevara

    2011-06-01

    The aquatic insects have been used to evaluate water quality of aquatic environments. The population of aquatic insects and the water quality of the area were characterized according to the natural and human alterations present in the study site. During the monthly-survey, pH, DO, temperature, water level, DBO, PO4 and NO3 were measured. Biological indexes (abundance, species richness and the BMWP-CR) were used to evaluate the water quality. No relation between environmental and aquatic insects was detected. Temporal and spatial differences attributed to the flow events (temporal) and the presence of Peñas Blancas reservoir (spatial). In the future, the investigations in Peñas Blancas watershed need to be focused on determining the real influence of the flows, sediment release and the possible water quality degradation because of agriculture activities.

  15. Effect of emergent aquatic insects on bat foraging in a riparian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Dai; Murakami, Masashi; Nakano, Shigeru; Aoi, Toshiki

    2006-11-01

    1. Riparian zones serve several ecological functions for bats. They provide a source of prey and likely provide favourable structural habitats and shelter from predators. Many studies have shown that bats use the space above streams, ponds or riparian vegetation as feeding habitat. These studies, however, have never distinguished between the effects of habitat structure and prey availability on the foraging activities of bats. Such effects can only be distinguished by an experimental approach. We predicted that bat activity along a stream is influenced by the number of emerged aquatic insects. 2. We evaluated the response of terrestrial consumers, insectivorous bats, to changes in the abundance of emergent aquatic insects by conducting a manipulative field experiment. In a deciduous riparian forest in Japan, aquatic insect flux from the stream to the riparian zone was controlled with an insect-proof cover over a 1.2 km stream reach. 3. We estimated the abundance of emergent aquatic and flying terrestrial arthropods near the treatment and control reaches using Malaise traps. The foraging activity of bats was evaluated in both treatment and control reaches using ultrasonic detectors. 4. The insect-proof cover effectively reduced the flux of emergent aquatic insects to the riparian zone adjacent to the treatment reach. Adjacent to the control reach, adult aquatic insect biomass was highest in spring, and then decreased gradually. Terrestrial insect biomass increased gradually during the summer at both treatment and control reaches. 5. Foraging activity of bats was correlated with insect abundance. In spring, foraging activity of bats at the control reach was significantly greater than at the treatment reach, and increased at both sites with increasing terrestrial insect abundance. 6. Our result suggests that the flux of aquatic insects emerging from streams is one of the most important factors affecting the distribution of riparian-foraging bats. As is the case with

  16. Nutritional and antinutritional composition of the five species of aquatic edible insects consumed in Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantibala, T; Lokeshwari, R K; Debaraj, H

    2014-01-26

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  17. Flux of aquatic insect productivity to land: comparison of lentic and lotic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Claudio; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2009-10-01

    Recently, food web studies have started exploring how resources from one habitat or ecosystem influence trophic interactions in a recipient ecosystem. Benthic production in lakes and streams can be exported to terrestrial habitats via emerging aquatic insects and can therefore link aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we develop a general conceptual model that highlights zoobenthic production, insect emergence, and ecosystem geometry (driven principally by area-to-edge ratio) as important factors modulating the flux of aquatic production across the ecosystem boundary. Emerging insect flux, defined as total insect production emerging per meter of shoreline (g C x m(-1) x yr(-1)) is then distributed inland using decay functions and is used to estimate insect deposition rate to terrestrial habitats (g C x m(-2) x yr(-1)). Using empirical data from the literature, we simulate insect fluxes across the water-land ecosystem boundary to estimate the distribution of fluxes and insect deposition inland for lakes and streams. In general, zoobenthos in streams are more productive than in lakes (6.67 vs. 1.46 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1)) but have lower insect emergence to aquatic production ratios (0.19 vs. 0.30). However, as stream width is on average smaller than lake radius, this results in flux (F) estimates 2 1/2 times greater for lakes than for streams. Ultimately, insect deposition onto land (within 100 m of shore) adjacent to average-sized lakes (10-ha lakes, 0.021 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1)) is greater than for average-sized streams (4 m width, 0.002 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1)) used in our comparisons. For the average lake (both in size and productivity), insect deposition rate approaches estimates of terrestrial secondary production in low-productivity ecosystems (e.g., deserts and tundra, approximately 0.07 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1)). However, larger lakes (1300 ha) and streams (16 m) can have average insect deposition rates (approximately 0.01-2.4 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1

  18. Protection against Mycobacterium ulcerans lesion development by exposure to aquatic insect saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsollier, Laurent; Deniaux, Estelle; Brodin, Priscille; Marot, Agnès; Wondje, Christelle Mbondji; Saint-André, Jean-Paul; Chauty, Annick; Johnson, Christian; Tekaia, Fredj; Yeramian, Edouard; Legras, Pierre; Carbonnelle, Bernard; Reysset, Gilles; Eyangoh, Sara; Milon, Geneviève; Cole, Stewart T; Aubry, Jacques

    2007-02-01

    Buruli ulcer is a severe human skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. This disease is primarily diagnosed in West Africa with increasing incidence. Antimycobacterial drug therapy is relatively effective during the preulcerative stage of the disease, but surgical excision of lesions with skin grafting is often the ultimate treatment. The mode of transmission of this Mycobacterium species remains a matter of debate, and relevant interventions to prevent this disease lack (i) the proper understanding of the M. ulcerans life history traits in its natural aquatic ecosystem and (ii) immune signatures that could be correlates of protection. We previously set up a laboratory ecosystem with predatory aquatic insects of the family Naucoridae and laboratory mice and showed that (i) M. ulcerans-carrying aquatic insects can transmit the mycobacterium through bites and (ii) that their salivary glands are the only tissues hosting replicative M. ulcerans. Further investigation in natural settings revealed that 5%-10% of these aquatic insects captured in endemic areas have M. ulcerans-loaded salivary glands. In search of novel epidemiological features we noticed that individuals working close to aquatic environments inhabited by insect predators were less prone to developing Buruli ulcers than their relatives. Thus we set out to investigate whether those individuals might display any immune signatures of exposure to M. ulcerans-free insect predator bites, and whether those could correlate with protection. We took a two-pronged approach in this study, first investigating whether the insect bites are protective in a mouse model, and subsequently looking for possibly protective immune signatures in humans. We found that, in contrast to control BALB/c mice, BALB/c mice exposed to Naucoris aquatic insect bites or sensitized to Naucoris salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) displayed no lesion at the site of inoculation of M. ulcerans coated with Naucoris SGH components. Then using

  19. Protection against Mycobacterium ulcerans lesion development by exposure to aquatic insect saliva.

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    Laurent Marsollier

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer is a severe human skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. This disease is primarily diagnosed in West Africa with increasing incidence. Antimycobacterial drug therapy is relatively effective during the preulcerative stage of the disease, but surgical excision of lesions with skin grafting is often the ultimate treatment. The mode of transmission of this Mycobacterium species remains a matter of debate, and relevant interventions to prevent this disease lack (i the proper understanding of the M. ulcerans life history traits in its natural aquatic ecosystem and (ii immune signatures that could be correlates of protection. We previously set up a laboratory ecosystem with predatory aquatic insects of the family Naucoridae and laboratory mice and showed that (i M. ulcerans-carrying aquatic insects can transmit the mycobacterium through bites and (ii that their salivary glands are the only tissues hosting replicative M. ulcerans. Further investigation in natural settings revealed that 5%-10% of these aquatic insects captured in endemic areas have M. ulcerans-loaded salivary glands. In search of novel epidemiological features we noticed that individuals working close to aquatic environments inhabited by insect predators were less prone to developing Buruli ulcers than their relatives. Thus we set out to investigate whether those individuals might display any immune signatures of exposure to M. ulcerans-free insect predator bites, and whether those could correlate with protection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We took a two-pronged approach in this study, first investigating whether the insect bites are protective in a mouse model, and subsequently looking for possibly protective immune signatures in humans. We found that, in contrast to control BALB/c mice, BALB/c mice exposed to Naucoris aquatic insect bites or sensitized to Naucoris salivary gland homogenates (SGHs displayed no lesion at the site of inoculation of M. ulcerans

  20. Illustrated field guide for aquatic insects study: A collection that lets you view life

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    Andrea Castiblanco-Zerda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed from the aquatic insects collection (CIA of National Pedagogical University of Colombia, Bogotá. A field guide and ID portable key was outlined, which contributed to the study of aquatic insects with alternative collection methods, through the development of methodologies for observation of living organisms (in situ and in vivo for identification until taxonomic level of family during the field practice and its subsequent return to the habitat, taking into account students’ practical work needs in the field and the active use of Biology Department biological resources. It was concluded that the recognition of aquatic insects families allows articulation between collection and field practices, as well as students’ reflection on methods and goals of the collection, and evaluation of other procedural possibilities as those presented in this work.

  1. Atlas of Ohio Aquatic Insects: Volume II, Plecoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalt, R Edward; Grubbs, Scott A; Armitage, Brian J; Baumann, Richard W; Clark, Shawn M; Bolton, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We provide volume II of a distributional atlas of aquatic insects for the eastern USA state of Ohio. This treatment of stoneflies (Plecoptera) is companion to Armitage et al. (2011) on caddisflies (Trichoptera). We build on a recent analysis of Ohio stonefly diversity patterns based on large drainages (DeWalt et al. 2012), but add 3717 new records to the data set. We base most analyses on the United States Geological Survey Hierarchical Unit Code eight (HUC8) drainage scale. In addition to distributional maps for each species, we provide analyses of species richness versus HUC8 drainage area and the number of unique locations in a HUC8 drainage, species richness versus Ohio counties, analyze adult presence phenology throughout the year, and demonstrate stream size range affiliation for each species. This work is based on a total of 7797 specimen records gathered from 21 regional museums, agency data, personal collections, and from the literature Table 1. To our knowledge this is the largest stonefly data set available for a similarly sized geopolitical area anywhere in the world. These data are made available as a Darwin Core Archive supported by the Pensoft Integrated Publishing Toolkit (DeWalt et al. 2016b). All known published papers reporting stoneflies from Ohio are detailed in Suppl. material 1. We recovered 102 species from Ohio, including all nine Nearctic families Table 2​. Two species were removed from the DeWalt et al. (2012) list and two new state records added. Perlidae (32 spp.) was most speciose, compared to the low diversity Pteronarcyidae (2 spp.) and Peltoperlidae (1 sp.). The richest HUC8 drainages occurred in northeastern, south-central, and southern regions of the state where drainages were heavily forested, had the highest slopes, and were contained within or adjacent to the unglaciated Allegheny and Appalachian Plateaus. Species poor drainages occurred mainly in the northwestern region where Wisconsinan aged lake plains climaxed to an

  2. Flow management for hydropower extirpates aquatic insects, undermining river food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Lytle, D.A.; Miller, S.A.; Dibble, Kimberly L.; Kortenhoeven, Eric W.; Metcalfe, Anya; Baxter, Colden V.

    2016-01-01

    Dams impound the majority of rivers and provide important societal benefits, especially daily water releases that enable on-peak hydroelectricity generation. Such “hydropeaking” is common worldwide, but its downstream impacts remain unclear. We evaluated the response of aquatic insects, a cornerstone of river food webs, to hydropeaking using a life history–hydrodynamic model. Our model predicts that aquatic-insect abundance will depend on a basic life-history trait—adult egg-laying behavior—such that open-water layers will be unaffected by hydropeaking, whereas ecologically important and widespread river-edge layers, such as mayflies, will be extirpated. These predictions are supported by a more-than-2500-sample, citizen-science data set of aquatic insects from the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon and by a survey of insect diversity and hydropeaking intensity across dammed rivers of the Western United States. Our study reveals a hydropeaking-related life history bottleneck that precludes viable populations of many aquatic insects from inhabiting regulated rivers.

  3. Operational note effects of fipronil and lambda-cyhalothrin against larval Anopheles quadrimaculatus and nontarget aquatic mosquito predators in Arkansas small rice plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, James A; Bernhardt, John L; Meisch, Max V

    2003-06-01

    The effects of fipronil and lambda-cyhalothrin, applied at rates labeled for control of the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, on 3 nontarget indigenous insect species in Arkansas rice are described. Three replicates of untreated control checks and fipronil- and lambda-cyhalothrin-treated plots containing 3 sentinel cages each were performed. Ten 4th-stage larvae of Anopheles quadrimaculatus, 10 adult Tropisternus lateralis, or 10 adult Notonecta indica were placed within individual cages in small rice plots treated with ICON 6.2 FS (fipronil) at 0.025 lb active ingredient (AI)/acre (0.028 kg/ha) or KARATEZ 2.08 CS (lambda-cyhalothrin) at 0.03 lb AI/acre (0.033 kg/ha) applied over vegetation and water with a single-boom sprayer. At 24 h after treatment in fipronil plots, significantly higher control of An. quadrimaculatus and T. lateralis (69 and 48% control, respectively) was achieved, compared to N. indica (18%). In lambda-cyhalothrin plots 24 h after treatment, 100% reductions of both T. lateralis and N. indica were highly significant (P lambda-cyhalothrin plots 48 h after treatment, with 93 and 53% control of T. lateralis and N. indica, respectively, compared to 7% control of An. quadrimaculatus. A marked difference in susceptibility was found between selected nontarget organisms used in this study. When using lambda-cyhalothrin to control adult L. oryzophilus, populations of nontarget beneficial insects, such as T. lateralis and N. indica, could be adversely affected, whereas nontarget pestilent species, such as An. quadrimaculatus, could proliferate. Fipronil achieved higher percentages of control against An. quadrimaculatus, compared to lambda-cyhalothrin, and was less harmful to both nontarget predators.

  4. Using biodynamic models to reconcile differences between laboratory toxicity tests and field biomonitoring with aquatic insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwalter, D.B.; Cain, D.J.; Clements, W.H.; Luoma, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    Aquatic insects often dominate lotic ecosystems, yet these organisms are under-represented in trace metal toxicity databases. Furthermore, toxicity data for aquatic insects do not appear to reflect their actual sensitivities to metals in nature, because the concentrations required to elicit toxicity in the laboratory are considerably higher than those found to impact insect communities in the field. New approaches are therefore needed to better understand how and why insects are differentially susceptible to metal exposures. Biodynamic modeling is a powerful tool for understanding interspecific differences in trace metal bioaccumulation. Because bioaccumulation alone does not necessarily correlate with toxicity, we combined biokinetic parameters associated with dissolved cadmium exposures with studies of the subcellular compartmentalization of accumulated Cd. This combination of physiological traits allowed us to make predictions of susceptibility differences to dissolved Cd in three aquatic insect taxa: Ephemerella excrucians, Rhithrogena morrisoni, and Rhyacophila sp. We compared these predictions with long-term field monitoring data and toxicity tests with closely related taxa: Ephemerella infrequens, Rhithrogena hageni, and Rhyacophila brunea. Kinetic parameters allowed us to estimate steady-state concentrations, the time required to reach steady state, and the concentrations of Cd projected to be in potentially toxic compartments for different species. Species-specific physiological traits identified using biodynamic models provided a means for better understanding why toxicity assays with insects have failed to provide meaningful estimates for metal concentrations that would be expected to be protective in nature. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  5. Monitoring the effects of a lepidopteran insecticide, Flubendiamide, on the biology of a non-target dipteran insect, Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Saurabh; Roy, Sumedha

    2017-10-13

    Various organisms are adversely affected when subjected to chronic fluoride exposure. This highly electronegative ion present in several insecticide formulations is found to be lethal to target pests. In the present study, Drosophila melanogaster is treated with sub-lethal concentrations of a diamide insecticide formulation, Flubendiamide. Chronic exposure to the diamide (0.5-100 μg/mL) was found to be responsible for increase in fluoride ion concentration in larval as well as adult body fluid. Interestingly, 100 μg/mL Flubendiamide exposure resulted in 107 and 298% increase in fluoride ion concentration whereas only 23 and 52% of Flubendiamide concentration increase in larval and adult body fluid, respectively. Further, in this study, selected life cycle parameters like larval duration, pupal duration and emergence time showed minimal changes, whereas percentage of emergence and fecundity revealed significant treatment-associated variation. It can be noted that nearly 79% reduction in fecundity was observed with 100 μg/mL Flubendiamide exposure. The variations in these parameters indicate probable involvement of fluoride ion in detectable alterations in the biology of the non-target model insect, D. melanogaster. Furthermore, the outcomes of life cycle study suggest change in resource allocation pattern in the treated flies. The altered resource allocation might have been sufficient to resist changes in selective life cycle parameters, but it could not defend the changes in fecundity. The significant alterations indicate a definite trade-off pattern, where the treated individuals happen to compromise. Thus, survival is apparently taking an upper hand in comparison to reproductive ability in response to Flubendiamide exposure. Graphical abstract The figure demonstrates increase in Fluoride and Flubendiamide concentrations in Drosophila melanogaster after chronic sub-lethal exposure to Flubendiamide. Treatment-induced alterations in larval and pupal duration

  6. Aquatic insect emergence from headwater streams flowing through regeneration and mature forests in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Progar; Andrew R. Moldenke

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effect of canopy cover on adult aquatic insect emergence by collecting bi-weekly samples from twelve headwater stream reaches flowing either under a mature conifer canopy or streams flowing through ten-year-old regeneration in western Oregon from February to November 1997. Density and biomass generally followed a bimodal curve with peaks during early...

  7. Three responses to small changes in stream temperature by autumn-emerging aquatic insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judith L. Li; Sherri L. Johnson; Janel Banks. Sobota

    2011-01-01

    In this experimental study, conducted in coastal Oregon USA, we examined how small increases in summer water temperatures affected aquatic insect growth and autumn emergence. We maintained naturally fluctuating temperatures from 2 nearby streams and a 3rd regime, naturally fluctuating temperatures warmed by 3-5°C, in flow-through troughs from mid...

  8. Calcium uptake in aquatic insects: influences of phylogeny and metals (Cd and Zn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, Monica D; Buchwalter, David B

    2014-04-01

    Calcium sequestration in the hypo-osmotic freshwater environment is imperative in maintaining calcium homeostasis in freshwater aquatic organisms. This uptake process is reported to have the unintended consequence of potentially toxic heavy metal (Cd, Zn) uptake in a variety of aquatic species. However, calcium uptake remains poorly understood in aquatic insects, the dominant invertebrate faunal group in most freshwater ecosystems. Here, we examined Ca uptake and interactions with heavy metals (Cd, Zn) at low ambient Ca levels (12.5 μmol l(-1)) in 12 aquatic insect species within Ephemerellidae (mayfly) and Hydropsychidae (caddisfly), two families differentially responsive to trace metal pollution. We found Ca uptake varied 70-fold across the 12 species studied. Body mass and clade (family) were found to significantly influence both Ca uptake and adsorption (P≤0.05). Zn and Cd uptake rate constants (ku) exhibited a strong correlation (r=0.96, Pinsects generally differ from other freshwater taxa in that aqueous Ca uptake does not appear to be compromised by Cd or Zn exposure. It is important to understand the trace metal and major ion physiology of aquatic insects because of their ecological importance and widespread use as ecological indicators.

  9. Natural aquatic insect carriers of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakaran, R; Haribabu, P; Kumar, S Rajesh; Sarathi, M; Ahmed, V P Ishaq; Babu, V Sarath; Venkatesan, C; Hameedl, A S Sahul

    2008-04-01

    Five different species of aquatic insects were collected from nursery ponds containing the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV). The insects were screened as potential natural carriers of MrNV and XSV. RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) analysis gave positive results for MrNV and XSV in Belostoma sp., Aesohna sp., Cybister sp. and Notonecta sp., and negative results for Nepa sp. An Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line (C6/36) was used for infectivity assays, with viral inoculum prepared from the aquatic insects, since C6/36 cells have recently been shown to be susceptible to infection with MrNV and XSV. The C6/36 cells were harvested 4 d post-challenge for examination by electron microscopy. This revealed aggregation of viral particles throughout the cytoplasm for cells challenged with inocula from all the insect species except Nepa sp. Our results indicate that several aquatic insect species may present a risk for MrNV and XSV transmission to M. rosenbergii.

  10. The Relationship Between Grazing, Er osion and Adult Aquatic Insects in Streams in Mongolia.

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    Barbara Hayford

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Overgrazing along stream channels in Mongolia may impact streams by increasing stream channel erosion and in-stream sediments, water temperature, pH, and conductivity. Grazing and erosion impacts may impair stream insects. The Mongolian Aquatic Insect Survey sampled 250 streams during summer seasons in 2003-2006 and 2008. On-site identifi cations of aquatic insect families mostly based on collections of adults were recorded for each site, leading us to ask whether the family-level data were useful in biological assessment related to impacts and impairment from grazing and erosion. A double dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis was used to fi nd patterns in sites and aquatic insect communities. Sites did not group by sampling period, but some sites did group by stream size and elevation. However, elevation was not a signifi cant predictor of variation in aquatic insect metrics. Analysis of variance was used to determine whether insect metrics and water quality variables varied signifi cantly between categories of erosion in the stream channel. Plecoptera and Diptera richness decreased with increased erosion and Percent Diptera Richness was the only aquatic insect metric to vary signifi cantly between categories of erosion along the stream channel. Water temperature, conductivity, and pH also signifi cantly increased with increased erosion. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether aquatic insect metrics could be predicted by variation in landscape, water quality and stream reach variables. Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, and Coleoptera richness increased with increased erosion, conductivity, and pH, but not signifi cantly. Percent Diptera Richness formed the only signifi cant model in the multiple regression analysis, with conductivity the only signifi cant predictor of variation in Percent Diptera Richness. Family-level data generated in the fi eld indicated that sampling for Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera diversity would

  11. Diet and trophic groups of an aquatic insect community in a tropical stream

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    R. L. Motta

    Full Text Available The diet and trophic groups of an assemblage of aquatic insects were studied in a tropical stream. Genera of the orders Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, Lepidoptera, and Hemiptera showed feeding specialization. Others, such as Trichoptera, Coleoptera, and Diptera, showed great diet variation with genera of different trophic groups. Seasonal variation of insect diet, evident only for some genera of the orders Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Diptera, was due to the differences observed in community composition and to generalist habits of these genera. However, the seasonal comparison of trophic groups showed no significant statistical differences. The great importance of organic matter, a non-limited resource, in the diet of Ribeirão do Atalho aquatic insects may be the explanation for the trophic stability in this community organization.

  12. Large Scale Relationship between Aquatic Insect Traits and Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2015-01-01

    Climate is the predominant environmental driver of freshwater assemblage pattern on large spatial scales, and traits of freshwater organisms have shown considerable potential to identify impacts of climate change. Although several studies suggest traits that may indicate vulnerability to climate change, the empirical relationship between freshwater assemblage trait composition and climate has been rarely examined on large scales. We compared the responses of the assumed climate-associated traits from six grouping features to 35 bioclimatic indices (~18 km resolution) for five insect orders (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Trichoptera), evaluated their potential for changing distribution pattern under future climate change and identified the most influential bioclimatic indices. The data comprised 782 species and 395 genera sampled in 4,752 stream sites during 2006 and 2007 in Germany (~357,000 km² spatial extent). We quantified the variability and spatial autocorrelation in the traits and orders that are associated with the combined and individual bioclimatic indices. Traits of temperature preference grouping feature that are the products of several other underlying climate-associated traits, and the insect order Ephemeroptera exhibited the strongest response to the bioclimatic indices as well as the highest potential for changing distribution pattern. Regarding individual traits, insects in general and ephemeropterans preferring very cold temperature showed the highest response, and the insects preferring cold and trichopterans preferring moderate temperature showed the highest potential for changing distribution. We showed that the seasonal radiation and moisture are the most influential bioclimatic aspects, and thus changes in these aspects may affect the most responsive traits and orders and drive a change in their spatial distribution pattern. Our findings support the development of trait-based metrics to predict and detect climate

  13. Effects of dietary esfenvalerate exposures on three aquatic insect species representing different functional feeding groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Katherine R; Jenkins, Jeffrey J; Jepson, Paul C

    2008-08-01

    Given the chemical properties of synthetic pyrethroids, it is probable that compounds, including esfenvalerate, that enter surface waters may become incorporated into aquatic insect food sources. We examined the effect of dietary esfenvalerate uptake in aquatic insects representing different functional feeding groups. We used three field-collected aquatic insect species: A grazing scraper, Cinygmula reticulata McDunnough (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae); an omnivorous filter feeder, Brachycentrus americanus Banks (Trichoptera: Brachycentridae); and a predator, Hesperoperla pacifica Banks (Plecoptera: Perlidae). Laboratory-cultured algae were preexposed for 24 h to esfenvalerate concentrations of 0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 microg/L and provided to two C. reticulata age classes (small and final-instar nymphs). Reduction in small nymph growth was observed following three weeks of feeding on algae exposed to 0.05 and 0.1 microg/L of esfenvalerate, and the highest dietary exposure reduced egg production in final-instar nymphs. The diet for B. americanus and H. pacifica consisted of dead third-instar Chironomus tentans larvae preexposed for 24 h to esfenvalerate concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1.0 microg/L. Consumption of larvae exposed to 0.5 to 1.0 microg/L of esfenvalerate caused case abandonment and mortality in B. americanus caddisfly larvae. Although H. pacifica nymphs readily consumed esfenvalerate-exposed larvae, no adverse effects were observed during the present study. Furthermore, no evidence of esfenvalerate-induced feeding deterrence was found in any of the species tested, suggesting that aquatic insects may not be able to distinguish between pyrethroid-contaminated and uncontaminated food sources. These findings indicate that feeding deterrence is not a factor in regulating aquatic insect dietary exposures to synthetic pyrethroids.

  14. No association between the use of Bti for mosquito control and the dynamics of non-target aquatic invertebrates in French coastal and continental wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadic, Laurent; Schäfer, Ralf B; Roucaute, Marc; Szöcs, Eduard; Chouin, Sébastien; de Maupeou, Jérôme; Duchet, Claire; Franquet, Evelyne; Le Hunsec, Benoit; Bertrand, Céline; Fayolle, Stéphanie; Francés, Benoît; Rozier, Yves; Foussadier, Rémi; Santoni, Jean-Baptiste; Lagneau, Christophe

    2016-05-15

    The environmental safety of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is still controversial, mainly because most of the previous field studies on its undesired effects were spatially limited and did not address the relationship between community similarity and application time and frequency. No general statement can therefore be drawn on the usage conditions of Bti that insure protection of non-target organisms. The present study was conducted in eight sites distributed over the main geographical sectors where mosquito control is implemented in mainland France and Corsica. Changes in non-target aquatic invertebrates were followed at elapsed time after repeated applications of two Bti formulations (VectoBac® WDG or 12AS) up to four consecutive years. We examined the influence of both larvicide treatments and environmental variables on community dynamics and dissimilarity between treated and control areas. As it can be argued that chironomids are the most vulnerable group of non-target invertebrates, we scrutinised potential Bti-related effects on the dynamics of their community. The use of VectoBac® WDG and 12AS in coastal and continental wetlands had no immediate or long-term detectable effect on the taxonomic structure and taxa abundance of non-target aquatic invertebrate communities, including chironomids. This applied to the main habitats where mosquito larvae occur, regardless of their geographic location. Flooding, whose frequency and duration depend on local meteorological and hydrological conditions, was identified as the main environmental driver of invertebrate community dynamics. Our findings add support to the environmental safety of currently available Bti formulations when following recommended application rates and best mosquito control practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Can an aquatic macrophyte bioaccumulate glyphosate? A watershed scale study using a non-target hydrophyte Ludwigia peploides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Debora; Okada, Elena; Menone, Mirta; Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    The hydrophyte Ludwigia peploides is widely distributed in South America streams, and therefore, it can be used as a biomonitor for pesticides used in agricultural production. Glyphosate is one of the main pesticides used in Argentina. This has resulted in its occurrence in non-target wetland ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to: 1) establish and validate an extraction and quantification methodology for glyphosate in L.peploides plants, and 2) evaluated the role of this species as a glyphosate biomonitor in the agricultural watershed of the El Crespo stream. For the first objective, we collected plant material in the field. The leaves were dissected and oven dried at 60° C, grinded and sieved through a 0.5 mm mesh. Different solutions were tested for the extraction step. Labeled glyphosate was used as an internal standard to evaluate the recovery rate and the matrix effect of the different extraction methods. Glyphosate was derivatized with FMOC-Cl and then quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a mass tandem spectrometer (MS/MS). The method based on an aqueous phase extraction step 0.01 mg/mL of activated carbon as a clean-up to decrease the matrix interference had a recovery of 117 ± 20% and the matrix effect was less than 20%. This method was used to analyze the glyphosate levels in L.peploides in the El Crespo stream. For the second objective, plants of L.peploides were collected on March 2016 in eight monitoring sites of the stream from the headwaters to the stream mouth. Surface water and sediments samples were collected at the same time to calculate the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and biota-sediment bioaccumulation factors (BSAFs). The BCFs ranged between 28.57 - 280 L/Kg and the BSAFs ranged between 2.52- 30.66 at different sites. These results indicate that L.peploides can bioaccumulated glyphosate in its leaves and the major bioavailability is given mainly by the herbicide molecules present in surface

  16. Ubiquitous water-soluble molecules in aquatic plant exudates determine specific insect attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sérandour, Julien; Reynaud, Stéphane; Willison, John; Patouraux, Joëlle; Gaude, Thierry; Ravanel, Patrick; Lempérière, Guy; Raveton, Muriel

    2008-10-08

    Plants produce semio-chemicals that directly influence insect attraction and/or repulsion. Generally, this attraction is closely associated with herbivory and has been studied mainly under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand, the relationship between aquatic plants and insects has been little studied. To determine whether the roots of aquatic macrophytes release attractive chemical mixtures into the water, we studied the behaviour of mosquito larvae using olfactory experiments with root exudates. After testing the attraction on Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae, we chose to work with Coquillettidia species, which have a complex behaviour in nature and need to be attached to plant roots in order to obtain oxygen. This relationship is non-destructive and can be described as commensal behaviour. Commonly found compounds seemed to be involved in insect attraction since root exudates from different plants were all attractive. Moreover, chemical analysis allowed us to identify a certain number of commonly found, highly water-soluble, low-molecular-weight compounds, several of which (glycerol, uracil, thymine, uridine, thymidine) were able to induce attraction when tested individually but at concentrations substantially higher than those found in nature. However, our principal findings demonstrated that these compounds appeared to act synergistically, since a mixture of these five compounds attracted larvae at natural concentrations (0.7 nM glycerol, insect relationships in aquatic eco-systems.

  17. Diversity and Distribution of Aquatic Insects in Streams of the Mae Klong Watershed, Western Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witwisitpong Maneechan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and diversity of aquatic insects and water quality variables were studied among three streams of the Mae Klong Watershed. In each stream, two sites were sampled. Aquatic insects and water quality variables were randomly sampled seven times in February, May, September, and December 2010 and in January, April, and May 2011. Overall, 11,153 individuals belonging to 64 families and nine orders were examined. Among the aquatic insects collected from the three streams, the order Trichoptera was most diverse in number of individuals, followed by Ephemeroptera, Hemiptera, Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera, Plecoptera, Megaloptera, and Lepidoptera. The highest Shannon index of diversity of 2.934 and 3.2 was recorded in Huai Kayeng stream and the lowest was in Huai Pakkok stream (2.68 and 2.62. The high diversity of insect fauna in streams is an indication of larger microhabitat diversity and better water quality conditions prevailing in the streams. The evenness value was recorded as high in most sites. The high species diversity and evenness in almost all sites indicated good water quality.

  18. Nonnative trout impact an alpine-nesting bird by altering aquatic-insect subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epanchin, Peter N; Knapp, Roland A; Lawler, Sharon P

    2010-08-01

    Adjacent food webs may be linked by cross-boundary subsidies: more-productive donor systems can subsidize consumers in less-productive neighboring recipient systems. Introduced species are known to have direct effects on organisms within invaded communities. However, few studies have addressed the indirect effects of nonnative species in donor systems on organisms in recipient systems. We studied the direct role of introduced trout in altering a lake-derived resource subsidy and their indirect effects in altering a passerine bird's response to that subsidy. We compared the abundance of aquatic insects and foraging Gray-crowned Rosy-Finches (Leucosticte tephrocotis dawsoni, "Rosy-Finch") at fish-containing vs. fishless lakes in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California (USA). Introduced trout outcompeted Rosy-Finches for emerging aquatic insects (i.e., mayflies). Fish-containing lakes had 98% fewer mayflies than did fishless lakes. In lakes without fish, Rosy-Finches showed an aggregative response to emerging aquatic insects with 5.9 times more Rosy-Finches at fishless lakes than at fish-containing lakes. Therefore, the introduction of nonnative fish into the donor system reduced both the magnitude of the resource subsidy and the strength of cross-boundary trophic interactions. Importantly, the timing of the subsidy occurs when Rosy-Finches feed their young. If Rosy-Finches rely on aquatic-insect subsidies to fledge their young, reductions in the subsidy by introduced trout may have decreased Rosy-Finch abundances from historic levels. We recommend that terrestrial recipients of aquatic subsidies be included in conservation and restoration plans for ecosystems with alpine lakes.

  19. Aquatic insects as the main food resource of fish the community in a Neotropical reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Vidotto-Magnoni

    Full Text Available We evaluated the feeding of fish species of the Nova Avanhandava Reservoir, low Tietê River, São Paulo State, Brazil. Fishes were collected in two stretches of the reservoir: Santa Bárbara (14 samples and Bonito (two samples between September 2002 and March 2004, using gill and seining nets. The results of stomach contents analysis were expressed with the frequency of occurrence and gravimetric method, combined in the Alimentary Index (AI. The 20 species studied consumed 52 food items, grouped in 10 food categories: aquatic insects, terrestrial insects, crustaceans, fish, macroinvertebrates, microcrustaceans, algae, vegetal matter, detritus/sediment and scales. The aquatic insects (mainly Chironomidae, Odonata and Ephemeroptera were the most common food resources, consumed by 18 species. The diet composition of the community (species grouped indicated that the dominant food category in the diet of fishes was aquatic insects (AI = 77.6%, followed by crustaceans (AI = 7.1%. Four trophic guilds were identified according a cluster analysis (Pearson distance: insectivorous (10 species, omnivorous (4 species, detritivorous (3 species and piscivorous/carcinophagous (3 species. Despite the highest number of species, the insectivorous guild was responsible for more than 80% in captures in number and biomass (CPUEn and CPUEb. The low values of niche breadth presented by all species, along with the low values of diet overlap between species pairs indicate a high degree of food resources partitioning among species. The aquatic insects, despite being the main food resource of insectivorous fishes, also complemented the diet of other species, which demonstrate the importance of this food resource for the fish community, sustaining a high diversity, abundance and biomass of fishes.

  20. Effect of low pH on the survival and emergence of aquatic insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, H L

    1971-01-01

    Mature larvae and nymphs of 9 species of aquatic insects (dragonflies, stoneflies, caddisflies, and mayfly) were tested in the laboratory at pH values from 1.0 to 7.0. The tl/sub 50/ values (pH at which 50 per cent of the organisms died) at 30 days ranged from pH 2.45 (Brachycentrus americanus) to pH 5.38 (Ephemeralla subvaria). The range at which 50 per cent of the insects emerged was pH 4.0 -5.9. The 9 species tested were all more sensitive to low pH during the period of emergence.

  1. No association between the use of Bti for mosquito control and the dynamics of non-target aquatic invertebrates in French coastal and continental wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagadic, Laurent; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Roucaute, Marc; Szöcs, Eduard; Chouin, Sébastien; Maupeou, Jérôme de; Duchet, Claire

    2016-01-01

    The environmental safety of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is still controversial, mainly because most of the previous field studies on its undesired effects were spatially limited and did not address the relationship between community similarity and application time and frequency. No general statement can therefore be drawn on the usage conditions of Bti that insure protection of non-target organisms. The present study was conducted in eight sites distributed over the main geographical sectors where mosquito control is implemented in mainland France and Corsica. Changes in non-target aquatic invertebrates were followed at elapsed time after repeated applications of two Bti formulations (VectoBac® WDG or 12AS) up to four consecutive years. We examined the influence of both larvicide treatments and environmental variables on community dynamics and dissimilarity between treated and control areas. As it can be argued that chironomids are the most vulnerable group of non-target invertebrates, we scrutinised potential Bti-related effects on the dynamics of their community. The use of VectoBac® WDG and 12AS in coastal and continental wetlands had no immediate or long-term detectable effect on the taxonomic structure and taxa abundance of non-target aquatic invertebrate communities, including chironomids. This applied to the main habitats where mosquito larvae occur, regardless of their geographic location. Flooding, whose frequency and duration depend on local meteorological and hydrological conditions, was identified as the main environmental driver of invertebrate community dynamics. Our findings add support to the environmental safety of currently available Bti formulations when following recommended application rates and best mosquito control practices. - Highlights: • Bti is used in a variety of continental and coastal wetlands against mosquito larvae. • Bti dosages recommended for mosquito control do not affect non-target invertebrates.

  2. No association between the use of Bti for mosquito control and the dynamics of non-target aquatic invertebrates in French coastal and continental wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagadic, Laurent, E-mail: Laurent.Lagadic@rennes.inra.fr [INRA, UMR985 Écologie et Santé des Écosystèmes, Agrocampus Ouest, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, F-35042 Rennes (France); Schäfer, Ralf B. [Quantitative Landscape Ecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Roucaute, Marc [INRA, UMR985 Écologie et Santé des Écosystèmes, Agrocampus Ouest, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, F-35042 Rennes (France); Szöcs, Eduard [Quantitative Landscape Ecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Chouin, Sébastien; Maupeou, Jérôme de [Etablissement Interdépartemental pour la Démoustication du Littoral Atlantique, 1 rue Toufaire, F-17300 Rochefort-sur-Mer (France); Duchet, Claire [Entente Interdépartementale pour la Démoustication du Littoral Méditerranéen, 165 avenue Paul-Rimbaud, F-34184 Montpellier (France); and others

    2016-05-15

    The environmental safety of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is still controversial, mainly because most of the previous field studies on its undesired effects were spatially limited and did not address the relationship between community similarity and application time and frequency. No general statement can therefore be drawn on the usage conditions of Bti that insure protection of non-target organisms. The present study was conducted in eight sites distributed over the main geographical sectors where mosquito control is implemented in mainland France and Corsica. Changes in non-target aquatic invertebrates were followed at elapsed time after repeated applications of two Bti formulations (VectoBac® WDG or 12AS) up to four consecutive years. We examined the influence of both larvicide treatments and environmental variables on community dynamics and dissimilarity between treated and control areas. As it can be argued that chironomids are the most vulnerable group of non-target invertebrates, we scrutinised potential Bti-related effects on the dynamics of their community. The use of VectoBac® WDG and 12AS in coastal and continental wetlands had no immediate or long-term detectable effect on the taxonomic structure and taxa abundance of non-target aquatic invertebrate communities, including chironomids. This applied to the main habitats where mosquito larvae occur, regardless of their geographic location. Flooding, whose frequency and duration depend on local meteorological and hydrological conditions, was identified as the main environmental driver of invertebrate community dynamics. Our findings add support to the environmental safety of currently available Bti formulations when following recommended application rates and best mosquito control practices. - Highlights: • Bti is used in a variety of continental and coastal wetlands against mosquito larvae. • Bti dosages recommended for mosquito control do not affect non-target invertebrates.

  3. Dry mass estimates of some tropical aquatic insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cressa

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Relationships of body mass and head capsule width were developed for Thraulodes sp., Haplohyphes sp. (Ephemeroptera, Leptonema sp., Phylloicus sp. Nectopsyche sp. (Trichoptera, and Anacroneuria sp. (Plecoptera. The organisms were collected with a Surber net (0.1296 m² and 0.286 mm mesh size on the Orituco river, Venezuela. The number of specimens used in the analysis for the species studied, was different (from 84 to 103 specimens. Regression analysis indicated that all relationships were best expressed by a power function rather than by linear or exponential equation. Analyses of the relationships reveal interspecific differences among insects of the same order. Species-specific relationships are recommended to be used whenever possible since, depending on the species, the underestimation of mass could be as much as 56%.Se calcularon las relaciones entre la masa del cuerpo y el ancho de la capsula cefálica para Thraulodes sp., Haplohyphes sp. (Ephemeroptera, Leptonema sp., Phylloicus sp., Nectopsyche sp. (Trichoptera, y Anacroneuria sp. (Plecoptera. Los análisis de regresión indicaron que todas las relaciones se expresan adecuadamente mediante la función potencial en vez de la función exponencial o linear. El análisis de las relaciones obtenidas revela diferencias entre los insectos pertenecientes a un mismo Orden. Se recomienda el uso de relaciones específicas para cada especie siempre y cuando sea posible, debido a que, dependiendo de la especie, la subestimación de la masa puede llegar a ser hasta de un 56%.

  4. Recovery of aquatic insect-mediated methylmercury flux from ponds following drying disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Greenhill, Frank M; Kennedy, James H; Courville, Ashlyn E; Gober, Charlie A A; Lossau, Luke O

    2017-08-01

    Small ponds exist across a permanence gradient, and pond permanence is hypothesized to be a primary determinant of insect community structure and insect-mediated methylmercury (MeHg) flux from ponds to the surrounding terrestrial landscape. The present study describes the first experiment examining the recovery of insect-mediated MeHg flux following a drying disturbance that converted permanent ponds with insectivorous fish to semipermanent ponds without fish. Floating emergence traps were used to collect emergent insects for 10 wk in the spring and summer from 5 ponds with fish (permanent) and 5 ponds that were drained to remove fish, dried, and refilled with water (semipermanent). During the 73-d period after semipermanent ponds were refilled, total MeHg flux from semipermanent ponds was not significantly different than total MeHg flux from permanent ponds, indicating that insect-mediated MeHg flux had rapidly recovered in semipermanent ponds following the drying disturbance. Methylmercury fluxes from dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera) and phantom midges (Diptera: Chaoboridae) were significantly greater from newly refilled semipermanent ponds than permanent ponds, but the MeHg fluxes from the other 8 emergent insect taxa did not differ between treatments. The present study demonstrates the impact of drying disturbance and the effect of community structure on the cross-system transport of contaminants from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1986-1990. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  5. Aquatic Insects of New York Salt Marsh Associated with Mosquito Larval Habitat and their Potential Utility as Bioindicators

    OpenAIRE

    Rochlin, Ilia; Dempsey, Mary E.; Iwanejko, Tom; Ninivaggi, Dominick V.

    2011-01-01

    The aquatic insect fauna of salt marshes is poorly characterized, with the possible exception of biting Diptera. Aquatic insects play a vital role in salt marsh ecology, and have great potential importance as biological indicators for assessing marsh health. In addition, they may be impacted by measures to control mosquitoes such as changes to the marsh habitat, altered hydrology, or the application of pesticides. Given these concerns, the goals of this study were to conduct the first taxonom...

  6. Microbial ecology of the salmon necrobiome: evidence salmon carrion decomposition influences aquatic and terrestrial insect microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric

    2016-05-01

    Carrion decomposition is driven by complex relationships that affect necrobiome community (i.e. all organisms and their genes associated with a dead animal) interactions, such as insect species arrival time to carrion and microbial succession. Little is understood about how microbial communities interact with invertebrates at the aquatic-terrestrial habitat interface. The first objective of the study was to characterize internal microbial communities using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons for aquatic insects (three mayfly species) in streams with salmon carcasses compared with those in streams without salmon carcasses. The second objective was to assess the epinecrotic microbial communities of decomposing salmon carcasses (Oncorhynchus keta) compared with those of terrestrial necrophagous insects (Calliphora terraenovae larvae and adults) associated with the carcasses. There was a significant difference in the internal microbiomes of mayflies collected in salmon carcass-bearing streams and in non-carcass streams, while the developmental stage of blow flies was the governing factor in structuring necrophagous insect internal microbiota. Furthermore, the necrophagous internal microbiome was influenced by the resource on which the larvae developed, and changes in the adult microbiome varied temporally. Overall, these carrion subsidy-driven networks respond to resource pulses with bottom-up effects on consumer microbial structure, as revealed by shifting communities over space and time. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. ISOLATION OF FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH TWO COMMON EDIBLE AQUATIC INSECTS, HYDROPHILUS PICEUS AND DYTISCUS MARGINALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Gur

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Insects are widely used for their potential source of protein, lipids, carbohydrates and certain vitamins in many parts of the world. As in terrestial ones, aquatic insects can also carry fungal structures. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated microfungal flora of internal and external surface of Hydrophilus piceus and Dytiscus marginalis collected from their natural habitats in Erzurum (Turkey. We isolated total 19 different species of fungi belonging to Penicillium, Alternaria, Beauveria, Trichoderma, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Acremonium, Paecilomyces genera. The relationship between these fungi and edible insects was discussed further in the light of the existing literature. Among the isolated fungi, species that were recognized as pathogenic or toxigenic, and ones having biotechnological importance were found.

  8. [Responses of functional diversity of aquatic insect community to land use change in middle reach of Qiantang River, East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian-Bo; Liu, Dong-Xiao; Liu, Shuo-Ru; Zhang, Yong; Tong, Xiao-Li; Wang, Bei-Xin

    2013-10-01

    Based on the biological traits such as life history, resistance ability against environmental disturbance, and physiological characteristics of aquatic insects, and by using the fourth-corner statistical method, this paper studied the responses of the functional diversity of aquatic insect community to land use change in the middle reach of Qiantang River, Zhejiang Province of East China. For the test aquatic insect community, some of its biological traits were sensitive to land use change, and altered along human disturbance gradients as expected. With the increasing intensity of human disturbance, the maximal insect body length decreased gradually, the dominant respiration pattern evolved from gill respiration to tegument respiration, and the abundance of burrowers increased significantly. At the same time, the functional diversity measured as Rao's quadratic entropy was significantly higher in reference sites than in disturbed sites (P aquatic community were mainly induced by the land use change caused by human activities, which resulted in the decline of stream water quality and habitat quality and the variations of aquatic insect community composition and biological traits. The aquatic insect biological traits and functional diversity could be the potentially effective indicators in the stream health assessment in the future.

  9. Environmental effect of resort centres on the distribution of aquatic insect fauna in Ethiope River, Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edore Edwin Ito

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess water quality and diversity of aquatic insects relative to effluents discharge from resort centres in Ethiope River. Methods: Water samples collected from three study stations were analyzed using APHA methods while the kick sampling techniques were used for collection of aquatic insects. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis at significance level of 0.05. Results: Among the study stations, water temperature varied from 20 °C to 34 °C with a mean temperature of (26.17 ± 2.37 °C, while pH was recorded from 5.57 ± 0.18 to 5.94 ± 0.21. Statistically, water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and conductivity were significantly different (P 0.05 in the stations. Conclusions: Significant relationships were recorded between water quality parameters and occurrence of Neoperla spio, Caenis horaria, Baetis and Chironomus species. The observed changes in aquatic insect composition were principally due to alteration in water quality. The weak correlation between aquatic insects and water quality can be attributed to functional adaptations to environmental changes. Aquatic insects have been proved to be good bioindicator of pollution and long-term monitoring of the aquatic insects is necessary for water quality evaluation in Ethiope River.

  10. Patterning and predicting aquatic insect richness in four West-African coastal rivers using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edia E.O.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite their importance in stream management, the aquatic insect assemblages are still little known in West Africa. This is particularly true in South-Eastern Ivory Coast, where aquatic insect assemblages were hardly studied. We therefore aimed at characterising aquatic insect assemblages on four coastal rivers in South-Eastern Ivory Coast. Patterning aquatic insect assemblages was achieved using a Self-Organizing Map (SOM, an unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN method. This method was applied to pattern the samples based on the richness of five major orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera and Odonata. This permitted to identify three clusters that were mainly related to the local environmental status of sampling sites. Then, we used the environmental characteristics of the sites to predict, using a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP, trained by BackPropagation algorithm (BP, a supervised ANN, the richness of the five insect orders. The BP showed high predictability (0.90 for both Diptera and Trichoptera, 0.84 for both Coleoptera and Odonata, 0.69 for Ephemeroptera. The most contributing variables in predicting the five insect order richness were pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, water temperature, percentage of rock and the canopy. This underlines the crucial influence of both instream characteristics and riparian context.

  11. Comparative sodium transport patterns provide clues for understanding salinity and metal responses in aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibener, S A; Richardi, V S; Buchwalter, D B

    2016-02-01

    The importance of insects in freshwater ecosystems has led to their extensive use in ecological monitoring programs. As freshwater systems are increasingly challenged by salinization and metal contamination, it is important to understand fundamental aspects of aquatic insect physiology (e.g., osmoregulatory processes) that contribute to insect responses to these stressors. Here we compared the uptake dynamics of Na as NaCl, NaHCO3 and Na2SO4 in the caddisfly Hydropsyche betteni across a range of Na concentrations (0.06-15.22 mM) encompassing the vast majority of North American freshwater ecosystems. Sulfate as the major anion resulted in decreased Na uptake rates relative to the chloride and bicarbonate salts. A comparison of Na (as NaHCO3) turnover rates in the caddisfly Hydropsyche sparna and the mayfly Maccaffertium sp. revealed different patterns in the 2 species. Both species appeared to tightly regulate their whole body sodium concentrations (at ∼47±1.8 μmol/g wet wt) across a range of Na concentrations (0.06-15.22 mM) over 7 days. However, at the highest Na concentration (15.22 mM), Na uptake rates in H. sparna (419.1 μM Na g(-1) hr(-1) wet wt) appeared close to saturation while Na uptake rates in Maccaffertium sp. were considerably faster (715 g μM Na g(-1) hr(-1) wet wt) and appeared to not be close to saturation. Na efflux studies in H. sparna revealed that loss rates are commensurate with uptake rates and are responsive to changes in water Na concentrations. A comparison of Na uptake rates (at 0.57 mM Na) across 9 species representing 4 major orders (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Diptera) demonstrated profound physiological differences across species after accounting for the influence of body weight. Faster Na uptake rates were associated with species described as being sensitive to salinization in field studies. The metals silver (Ag) and copper (Cu), known to be antagonistic to Na uptake in other aquatic taxa did not generally

  12. Impact of environmental manipulation for Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald control on aquatic insect communities in southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, J G; Quiroz-Martínez, H; Rojas, J C; Valle, J; Ulloa, A; Williams, T

    2007-06-01

    Extraction of filamentous algae from river pools is highly effective for the control of Anophelespseudopunctipennis in southern Mexico. We determined the magnitude of changes to the aquatic insect community following single annual perturbations performed over two years. In 2001, algae were manually removed from all the pools in a 3 km long section of the River Coatán, Mexico, while an adjacent section was left as an untreated control. In 2002, the treatments of both zones were switched and algal extraction was repeated. The abundance of An. pseudopunctipennis larvae + pupae was dramatically reduced by this treatment and remained depressed for two to three months. A total of 11,922 aquatic insects from ten orders, 40 families, and 95 genera were collected in monthly samples taken over five months of each year. Algal extraction did not reduce the overall abundance of aquatic insects in river pools, but a greater abundance and a greater richness of taxa were observed in 2002 compared to the previous year. This was associated with reduced precipitation and river discharge in 2002 compared to 2001. Shannon diversity index values were significantly depressed following algal extraction for a period of three months, in both years, before returning to values similar to those of the control zone. However, differences between years were greater than differences between treatments within a particular year. When insects were classified by functional feeding group (FFG), no significant differences were detected in FFG densities between extraction and control zones over time in either year of the study. Similarly, percent model affinity index values were classified as "not impacted" by the extraction process. Discriminant function analysis identified two orders of insects (Diptera and Odonata), water temperature, dissolved oxygen and conductivity, and river volume (depth, width, and discharge) as being of significant value in defining control and treatment groups in both years

  13. Persistence of aquatic insects across managed landscapes: effects of landscape permeability on re-colonization and population recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galic, N.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Van den Brink, P.J.; Schmolke, A.; Thorbek, P.; Bruns, E.; Baveco, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Human practices in managed landscapes may often adversely affect aquatic biota, such as aquatic insects. Dispersal is often the limiting factor for successful re-colonization and recovery of stressed habitats. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of landscape permeability, assuming a

  14. Ubiquitous water-soluble molecules in aquatic plant exudates determine specific insect attraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Sérandour

    Full Text Available Plants produce semio-chemicals that directly influence insect attraction and/or repulsion. Generally, this attraction is closely associated with herbivory and has been studied mainly under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand, the relationship between aquatic plants and insects has been little studied. To determine whether the roots of aquatic macrophytes release attractive chemical mixtures into the water, we studied the behaviour of mosquito larvae using olfactory experiments with root exudates. After testing the attraction on Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae, we chose to work with Coquillettidia species, which have a complex behaviour in nature and need to be attached to plant roots in order to obtain oxygen. This relationship is non-destructive and can be described as commensal behaviour. Commonly found compounds seemed to be involved in insect attraction since root exudates from different plants were all attractive. Moreover, chemical analysis allowed us to identify a certain number of commonly found, highly water-soluble, low-molecular-weight compounds, several of which (glycerol, uracil, thymine, uridine, thymidine were able to induce attraction when tested individually but at concentrations substantially higher than those found in nature. However, our principal findings demonstrated that these compounds appeared to act synergistically, since a mixture of these five compounds attracted larvae at natural concentrations (0.7 nM glycerol, <0.5 nM uracil, 0.6 nM thymine, 2.8 nM uridine, 86 nM thymidine, much lower than those found for each compound tested individually. These results provide strong evidence that a mixture of polyols (glycerol, pyrimidines (uracil, thymine, and nucleosides (uridine, thymidine functions as an efficient attractive signal in nature for Coquillettidia larvae. We therefore show for the first time, that such commonly found compounds may play an important role in plant-insect relationships in aquatic eco-systems.

  15. Aquatic insect assemblages of man-made permanent ponds, Buenos Aires city, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanarrosa, M S; Collantes, M B; Bachmann, A O

    2013-02-01

    Freshwater habitats are important elements within urban green space and they are endangered by various types of human activity. With the aim to increase the knowledge about species biodiversity in urban ecosystems, we characterised the assemblages of aquatic insects in four permanent man-made ponds in Buenos Aires city (Argentina) during a 1-year period. We recorded 32 species with Sigara spp. (Hemiptera) as the most abundant. The removal of aquatic vegetation from the studied ponds may have affected both the establishment and permanence of the insect community. Swimmers were the dominant group in the studied sites, followed by burrowers and sprawlers, and only a few strictly climbers were collected. Therefore, all sampled ponds were dominated by collectors (principally gatherers), secondarily by predators and only few shredders were detected, which was much affected by the removal of macrophytes. Non-parametric abundance indexes estimated a number of species very close to the observed number in each site. Conversely, the incidence indexes estimated more species because there were many more taxa present only in one sample than those represented by few individual in a sample. Our data provides some insights on the community of man-made ponds that can improve the management of these aquatic urban habitats. Considering that macrophytes affect animal assemblages due to their role as physical structures that increase the complexity or heterogeneity of habitats, they should not be removed by authorities in order to promote biodiversity.

  16. Functional Process Zones Characterizing Aquatic Insect Communities in Streams of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B S; Simião-Ferreira, J; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2016-04-01

    Stream ecology studies see to understand ecological dynamics in lotic systems. The characterization of streams into Functional Process Zones (FPZ) has been currently debated in stream ecology because aquatic communities respond to functional processes of river segments. Therefore, we tested if different functional process zones have different number of genera and trophic structure using the aquatic insect community of Neotropical streams. We also assessed whether using physical and chemical variables may complement the approach of using FPZ to model communities of aquatic insects in Cerrado streams. This study was conducted in 101 streams or rivers from the central region of the state of Goiás, Brazil. We grouped the streams into six FPZ associated to size of the river system, presence of riparian forest, and riverbed heterogeneity. We used Bayesian models to compare number of genera and relative frequency of the feeding groups between FPZs. Streams classified in different FPZs had a different number of genera, and the largest and best preserved rivers had an average of four additional genera. Trophic structure exhibited low variability among FPZs, with little difference both in the number of genera and in abundance. Using functional process zones in Cerrado streams yielded good results for Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera communities. Thus, species distribution and community structure in the river basin account for functional processes and not necessarily for the position of the community along a longitudinal dimension of the lotic system.

  17. Comparative ecotoxicity of imidacloprid and dinotefuran to aquatic insects in rice mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Koji; Harada, Takaaki; Adachi, Yoshihiro; Mori, Miho; Ihara, Makoto; Hayasaka, Daisuke

    2017-04-01

    There are growing concerns about the impacts of neonicotinoid insecticides on ecosystems worldwide, and yet ecotoxicity of many of these chemicals at community or ecosystem levels have not been evaluated under realistic conditions. In this study, effects of two neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and dinotefuran, on aquatic insect assemblages were evaluated in experimental rice mesocosms. During the 5-month period of the rice-growing season, residual concentrations of imidacloprid were 5-10 times higher than those of dinotefuran in both soil and water. Imidacloprid treatment (10kg/ha) reduced significantly the populations of, Crocothemis servilia mariannae and Lyriothemis pachygastra nymphs, whereas those of Orthetrum albistylum speciosum increased slightly throughout the experimental period. However, Notonecta triguttata, which numbers were high from the start, later declined, indicating possible delayed chronic toxicity, while Guignotus japonicus disappeared. In contrast, dinotefuran (10kg/ha) did not decrease the populations of any species, but rather increased the abundance of some insects, particularly Chironominae spp. larvae and C. servilia mariannae nymphs, with the latter being 1.7x higher than those of controls. This was an indirect effect resulting from increased prey (e.g., chironomid larvae) and lack of competition with other dragonfly species. The susceptibilities of dragonfly nymphs to neonicotinoids, particularly imidacloprid, were consistent with those reported elsewhere. In general, imidacloprid had higher impacts on aquatic insects compared to dinotefuran. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of forest conversion on the assemblages' structure of aquatic insects in subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago R.N. Bertaso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of forest conversion to agricultural land uses on assemblages of aquatic insects were analyzed in subtropical streams. Organisms and environmental variables were collected in six low-order streams: three streams located in a forested area, and three in areas converted to agricultural land uses. We expected that the aquatic insects' assemblage attributes would be significantly affected by forest conversion, as well as by environmental variables. Streams in converted areas presented lower species richness, abundance and proportion of sensitive insect taxa. The ANOSIM test evidenced strong difference in EPT assemblage structure between streams of forested and converted areas. The ISA test evidenced several EPT genera with high specificity to streams in forested areas and only one genus related to streams in converted areas. Thus, the impacts of the conversion of forested area to agricultural land uses have significantly affected the EPT assemblages, while environmental variables were not affected. We suggest that the effects detected can be influenced by two processes related to vegetation cover: i lower input of allochthonous material, and ii increased input of fine sediments in streams draining converted areas.

  19. Soil persistence, plant and non-target insect uptake of endosulfan and lindane applied to soya bean and maize in field trials in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaranyika, M.F.; Mugari, P.

    1997-01-01

    The persistence of lindane and endosulfan in the soil, uptake by, and distribution in plants, and effects on and absorption by non-target insects, following application of the insecticides for the control of maize pests and soya bean respectively were determined under Zimbabwean weather conditions. No large scale effects on the non-target insects were observed though some small effects on the populations of semiloopers and orthoptera in the endosulfan treated soya bean plot were noted. Concentrations of the insecticides in spiders declined during the trial though those in grasshoppers and crickets appeared to increase. Concentrations of both insecticides in soil fell rapidly during the first 7 weeks after application but, after that, the rates of loss were much slower possibly owing to the drier conditions prevailing during this later period, reducing both physicochemical and microbial loss processes. Initial concentrations of both insecticides in all the vegetative parts of plants examined after spray application declined systematically to low levels during the 10 weeks of observations, probably owing to both metabolism within the plants and to crop volume dilution effects and will have declined to even lower levels by harvest time. Surprisingly, low concentrations of lindane and endosulfan were found in the harvested maize and soya bean seeds. At early stages after application, there were also traces of both insecticides in the vegetative parts of the plants from the untreated, control plots probably arising from uptake of soil residues from the previous year and/or spray drift but these became undetectable at later stages of growth. (author). 31 refs, 7 tabs

  20. Respiratory control in aquatic insects dictates their vulnerability to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberk, Wilco C E P; Bilton, David T

    2013-10-23

    Forecasting species responses to climatic warming requires knowledge of how temperature impacts may be exacerbated by other environmental stressors, hypoxia being a principal example in aquatic systems. Both stressors could interact directly as temperature affects both oxygen bioavailability and ectotherm oxygen demand. Insufficient oxygen has been shown to limit thermal tolerance in several aquatic ectotherms, although, the generality of this mechanism has been challenged for tracheated arthropods. Comparing species pairs spanning four different insect orders, we demonstrate that oxygen can indeed limit thermal tolerance in tracheates. Species that were poor at regulating oxygen uptake were consistently more vulnerable to the synergistic effects of warming and hypoxia, demonstrating the importance of respiratory control in setting thermal tolerance limits.

  1. Who eats whom in a pool? A comparative study of prey selectivity by predatory aquatic insects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klečka, Jan; Boukal S., David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2012), e37741 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Grant - others:EU Marie Curie European Reintegration Grant "AquaMod"(CZ) AquaMod to DSB (PERG04-GA-2008-239543); Grant Agency of the University of South Bohemia(CZ) GAJU 145/2010/P Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : aquatic insects Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0037741

  2. Impact of aquatic insect life stage and emergence strategy on sensitivity to esfenvalerate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Katherine R; Jepson, Paul C; Jenkins, Jeffrey J

    2008-08-01

    We investigated the impact of aquatic insect life stage and emergence strategy on sensitivity to esfenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, using field-collected Brachycentrus americanus Banks (Trichoptera: Brachycentridae) and Cinygmula reticulata McDunnough (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae) insects. Final-instar C. reticulata emergence was observed for one week following three environmentally relevant, 48-h esfenvalerate exposures (0.005, 0.01, and 0.015 microg/L). Emergence was significantly depressed following exposure to esfenvalerate and resulted from an increase in nymph mortality during the emergence process. This experiment was duplicated for late-instar C. reticulata nymphs, which were similar in size to the final-instar nymphs but were not near emergence. Late-instar C. reticulata mayflies were approximately fivefold less sensitive to esfenvalerate exposures as gauged by one-week mortality rates. Brachycentrus americanus pupal mortality was significantly increased over that in controls following 48-h esfenvalerate exposures of 0.1 and 0.2 microg/L. These response concentrations correlated closely with those for case-abandonment rates of fourth-instar B. americanus larvae (a sublethal effect of esfenvalerate exposure). Pupal mortality rates were approximately 16-fold higher than those observed in larvae. Adult female egg weight as a percentage of total body weight was significantly decreased following pupal esfenvalerate exposures of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 microg/L. These findings suggest that exposure to esfenvalerate may impair hemimetabolous insect emergence behaviors and may decrease fecundity in holometabolous aquatic insects.

  3. Environment and Spatial Influences on Aquatic Insect Communities in Cerrado Streams: the Relative Importance of Conductivity, Altitude, and Conservation Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B S; Queiroz, L L; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2017-04-01

    The aquatic insect community is an important element for stream functionality and diversity, but the effects of altitude and conservation areas on the aquatic insect community have been poorly explored in neotropical ecozone. The lack of studies about the relative importance of space and environment on community structure is another obstacle within aquatic insect ecology, which precludes the inclusion of these studies in more current frameworks, like the metacommunity dynamics. We evaluated the relationship between the aquatic insect community structure at 19 streams in the Brazilian Cerrado and spatial and environmental variables, namely geographical distance among sites, stream altitude, chemical variables, and environmental protection areas. We partitioned the variance explained by spatial and environmental components using a partial redundancy analysis. The environment exhibited a strong spatial structure for abundance and number of genera, increasing these community parameters with elevated water conductivity. Only community composition had a large unexplained portion of variance, with a small portion constrained by environmental (altitude and conductivity) and spatial factors. A relevant point in the result was the streams with high conductivity were located outside of the conservation areas. These results suggest that the relationship between number of genera and abundance with environmental conditions is always associated with spatial configuration of streams. Our study shows that altitude is an important determinant of community structure, as it exerts indirect influences, and electrical conductivity directly determines community composition, and that some national parks may be inefficient in maintaining the diversity of aquatic insects in the Cerrado region.

  4. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Maltchik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (~280 000km², and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from differrent ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.

  5. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltchik, Leonardo; Dalzochio, Marina Schmidt; Stenert, Cristina; Rolon, Ana Silvia

    2012-03-01

    The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (approximately 280 000km2), and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera) in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from different ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.

  6. Community structure of aquatic insects in the karstic Jadro River in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rađa, Biljana; Santić, Mate

    2014-04-19

    This study focused on the aquatic insect community in the longitudinal gradient and temporal scales of the Jadro River. The river was sampled for a period of ten years (2000- 2010), four times per year through the various seasons, along the river course. Sampling stations were selected in the upper, middle, and downstream parts of the river. A total of 21,852 specimens of aquatic insects belonging to six orders were obtained. The species determination confirmed 27 different species in the river. The data were analyzed by the multivariate methodologies of correspondence analysis and cluster analysis (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean) using the similarity index of Morosita for all ten years. Canonical correspondence analysis was applied to the data to check which of the mesured physicochemical variables significantly explained community variation. According to those data, significant variables for the upper station were water temperature and dissolved oxygen, and chlorides was the significant variable for the lower stations. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  7. Forecasting the impact of an invasive macrophyte species in the littoral zone through aquatic insect species composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo H. L. Saulino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Invasive macrophytes threaten freshwater ecosystem biodiversity. We analyzed the impact of the invasive white ginger lily (Hedychium coronarium J. König, Zingiberaceae on aquatic insect assemblages living in the littoral zone of a tropical reservoir. We took aquatic insect samples in the littoral zone on four main vegetal profile banks: white ginger monotypic bank, forest partially invaded, native macrophyte monotypic bank and riparian forest. At each vegetal bank, we measured abiotic variables such as dissolved oxygen, pH, water temperature and depth. We analyzed the aquatic insects through abundance, richness and Simpson diversity. We used the non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (nMDS analysis to analyze the spatial distribution of each assemblage, and Analysis of similarities (ANOSIM to verify differences amongst dissimilarity distances. Additionally, we analyzed the main taxa associated with invasive macrophytes through indicator species analyses using IndVal index. We observed that the invasive macrophyte banks presented higher abundance of associated specimens, as well as lower dissimilarity of aquatic insect assemblages. Additionally, invasive macrophytes shifted the water pH and littoral depth of reservoir banks. The IndVal index indicated eight aquatic insects as indicator species. Labrundinia unicolor Silva, 2013, Ablabesmyia depaulai Neubern, 2013 and Diastatops Rambur, 1842 were indicator species on banks. We concluded that invasion of white ginger lily caused loss of shallow littoral habitat and altered the pH of the surrounding water probably by high decomposition rate and high production of plant biomass. We suggest the use of species of aquatic insects as indicator species to monitor white ginger lily impact in freshwater systems.

  8. Mosquitoes and other aquatic insects in fallow field biotopes and rice paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, S Y; Matsuo, T; Takagi, M

    2013-03-01

    Fallow field biotopes that develop from abandoned rice fields are man-made wetlands that provide new habitats for various aquatic animals. Although consideration of such biotopes generally focuses on their positive aspects, this study evaluated the negative aspects of establishing fallow field biotopes with regard to mosquito breeding sites. To determine whether fallow field biotopes become breeding habitats for vector mosquitoes, we evaluated mosquito fauna in fallow field biotopes and adjacent rice fields. We found larvae of Anopheles lesteri, Anopheles sinensis and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (all: Diptera: Culicidae) in the biotopes. Although abundances of mosquito larvae in the biotopes and rice fields were statistically similar, mosquito abundances in rice fields increased dramatically in August when the water level reduced after the rainy season. The abundance and variety of the mosquitoes' natural predators were greater in biotopes than in rice fields because the former are a permanent and stable aquatic environment. A generalized linear mixed model showed a negative effect of predator diversity on mosquito larvae abundance in both habitats. Although fallow field biotopes become breeding habitats for vector mosquitoes, establishing biotopes from fallow fields in order to protect various aquatic animals, including mosquito insect predators, may help to control mosquito breeding. © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  9. Prey preferences of aquatic insects: potential implications for the regulation of wetland mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, N; Aditya, G; Saha, G K

    2014-03-01

    Wetlands are potential sites for mosquito breeding and are thus important in the context of public health. The use of chemical and microbial controls is constrained in wetlands in view of their potential impact on the diverse biota. Biological control using generalist aquatic insects can be effective, provided a preference for mosquito larvae is exhibited. The mosquito prey preferences of water bugs and larvae of odonate species were evaluated using chironomid larvae, fish fingerlings and tadpoles as alternative prey. Manly's selectivity (αi ) values with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to judge prey preference patterns. Multivariate analysis of variance (manova) and standardized canonical coefficients were used to test the effects of density on prey selectivity. The αi values indicated a significant preference (P insect predators tested for mosquito larvae over the alternative prey as a density-dependent function. On a comparative scale, chironomid larvae had the highest impact as alternative prey. In a multiple-prey experiment, predators showed a similar pattern of preference for mosquito larvae over alternative prey, reflecting a significant (P insect predators can effectively reduce mosquito density in the presence of multiple alternative prey. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Aquatic insect ecophysiological traits reveal phylogenetically based differences in dissolved cadmium susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwalter, David B; Cain, Daniel J; Martin, Caitrin A; Xie, Lingtian; Luoma, Samuel N; Garland, Theodore

    2008-06-17

    We used a phylogenetically based comparative approach to evaluate the potential for physiological studies to reveal patterns of diversity in traits related to susceptibility to an environmental stressor, the trace metal cadmium (Cd). Physiological traits related to Cd bioaccumulation, compartmentalization, and ultimately susceptibility were measured in 21 aquatic insect species representing the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. We mapped these experimentally derived physiological traits onto a phylogeny and quantified the tendency for related species to be similar (phylogenetic signal). All traits related to Cd bioaccumulation and susceptibility exhibited statistically significant phylogenetic signal, although the signal strength varied among traits. Conventional and phylogenetically based regression models were compared, revealing great variability within orders but consistent, strong differences among insect families. Uptake and elimination rate constants were positively correlated among species, but only when effects of body size and phylogeny were incorporated in the analysis. Together, uptake and elimination rates predicted dramatic Cd bioaccumulation differences among species that agreed with field-based measurements. We discovered a potential tradeoff between the ability to eliminate Cd and the ability to detoxify it across species, particularly mayflies. The best-fit regression models were driven by phylogenetic parameters (especially differences among families) rather than functional traits, suggesting that it may eventually be possible to predict a taxon's physiological performance based on its phylogenetic position, provided adequate physiological information is available for close relatives. There appears to be great potential for evolutionary physiological approaches to augment our understanding of insect responses to environmental stressors in nature.

  11. Comparative venom toxicity between Pteromalus puparum and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) toward the hemocytes of their natural hosts, non-target insects and cultured insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong; Ye, Gong-Yin; Cai, Jun; Hu, Cui

    2005-09-01

    Crude venoms from two parasitoid species, Pteromalus puparum and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) were assayed for biological activities toward hemocytes from two species of their natural hosts and eight species of their non-natural hosts as well as two lines of cultured Lepidoptera cells, respectively. By inhibiting the spreading and viability of insect hemocytes, the venom from P. puparum displayed significantly higher activities toward plasmatocytes and granular cells from both larvae and pupae of two natural hosts, Pieris rapae and Papilio xuthus, and lower activity toward those from Spodoptera litura, Musca domestica and Sarcophaga peregrina. However, no effect was found towards any type of hemocytes from other five insects tested, namely, Ectropis oblique, Galleria mellonella, Sesamia inferens, Bombyx mori and Parnara guttata. In contrast, the venom from N. vitripennis showed a narrower range of targeted insects. It appeared to have highly adverse effects on the spreading and viability of plasmatocytes and granular cells only from the natural hosts, M. domestica and S. peregrina, little toxicity to cells from P. rapae and P. xuthus, and no effect on any of the other insects tested. Pteromalus puparum venom also apparently presented a high ability to block the spreading of Tn-5B1-4 cells derived from Trichoplusia ni, and high cytotoxicity to the cells and Ha cells derived from Helicoverpa armigera. Nasonia vitripennis venom, however, only had a marked lethal effect to Ha cells. In addition, the possibility that the host range of a defined parasitoid could be assessed using our method of treating hemocytes from candidate insects with venom in vitro, and the potential of our venoms tested in the development of bio-insecticides, insect-resistant transgenic plants, are discussed.

  12. Bottom-up nutrient and top-down fish impacts on insect-mediated mercury flux from aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Taylor A; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Timmins, Gabrielle N; Nowlin, Weston H

    2013-03-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is one of the most hazardous contaminants in the environment, adversely affecting the health of wildlife and humans. Recent studies have demonstrated that aquatic insects biotransport MeHg and other contaminants to terrestrial consumers, but the factors that regulate the flux of MeHg out of aquatic ecosystems via emergent insects have not been studied. The authors used experimental mesocosms to test the hypothesis that insect emergence and the associated flux of MeHg from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems is affected by both bottom-up nutrient effects and top-down fish consumer effects. In the present study, nutrient addition led to an increase in MeHg flux primarily by enhancing the biomass of emerging insects whose tissues were contaminated with MeHg, whereas fish decreased MeHg flux primarily by reducing the biomass of emerging insects. Furthermore, the authors found that these factors are interdependent such that the effects of nutrients are more pronounced when fish are absent, and the effects of fish are more pronounced when nutrient concentrations are high. The present study is the first to demonstrate that the flux of MeHg from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems is strongly enhanced by bottom-up nutrient effects and diminished by top-down consumer effects. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  13. Curzerene, trans-β-elemenone, and γ-elemene as effective larvicides against Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus: toxicity on non-target aquatic predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Senthilmurugan, Sengamalai; Vijayan, Periasamy; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Khaled, Jamal M; Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    A wide number of studies dealing with mosquito control focus on toxicity screenings of whole plant essential oils, while limited efforts shed light on main molecules responsible of toxicity, as well as their mechanisms of action on non-target organisms. In this study, GC-MS shed light on main essential oil components extracted from leaves of the Suriname cherry Eugenia uniflora, i.e., curzerene (35.7%), trans-β-elemenone (11.5%), and γ-elemene (13.6%), testing them on Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus larvae. Non-target toxicity experiments were carried out on four species of aquatic larvivorous organisms, including fishes, backswimmers, and waterbugs. The essential oil from E. uniflora leaves tested on An. subpictus, Ae. Albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus showed LC 50 of 31.08, 33.50, and 36.35 μg/ml, respectively. Curzerene, trans-β-elemenone, and γ-elemene were extremely toxic to An. subpictus (LC 50  = 4.14, 6.13, and 10.53 μg/ml), Ae. albopictus (LC 50  = 4.57, 6.74, and 11.29 μg/ml), and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC 50  = 5.01, 7.32, and 12.18 μg/ml). The essential oil from E. uniflora leaves, curzerene, trans-β-elemenone, and γ-elemene showed low toxicity to larvivorous fishes, backswimmers, and waterbugs, with LC 50 ranging from 303.77 to 6765.56 μg/ml. Predator safety factor (PSF) ranged from 55.72 to 273.45. Overall, we believe that curzerene isolated from the essential oil from E. uniflora leaves can represent an ideal molecule to formulate novel mosquito larvicides, due to its extremely low LC 50 on all tested mosquito vectors (4.14-5.01 μg/ml), which far encompasses most of the botanical pesticides tested till now. Notably, the above-mentioned LC 50 did not damage the four aquatic predators tested in this study.

  14. Geographic analysis of thermal equilibria: A bioenergetic model for predicting thermal response of aquatic insect communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, B.W.; Newbold, J.D.; Vannote, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The thermal regime immediately downstream from bottom release reservoirs is often characterized by reduced diel and seasonal (winter warm/summer cool) conditions. These unusual thermal patterns have often been implicated as a primary factor underlying observed downstream changes in the species composition of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. The potential mechanisms for selective elimination of benthic species by unusual thermal regimes has been reviewed. Although the effects of temperature on the rate and magnitude of larval growth and development has been included in the list of potential mechanisms, only recently have field studies below dams focused on this interrelationship. This study investigates the overall community structure as well as the seasonal pattern of larval growth and development for several univoltine species of insects in the Delaware River below or near the hypolimnetic discharge of the Cannonsville and Pepeacton dams. These dams, which are located on the West and East branches of the Delaware River, respectively, produce a thermal gradient extending about 70 km downstream

  15. Successional colonization of temporary streams: An experimental approach using aquatic insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Bruno Spacek; Queiroz, Luciano Lopes; Lodi, Sara; Nascimento de Jesus, Jhonathan Diego; Oliveira, Leandro Gonçalves

    2016-11-01

    The metacommunity concept studies the processes that structure communities on local and regional scales. This concept is useful to assess spatial variability. However, temporal patterns (e.g., ecological succession and colonization) are neglected in metacommunity studies, since such patterns require temporally extensive, and hard to execute studies. We used experimental habitats in temporary streams located within the Brazilian Cerrado to evaluate the importance of succession for the aquatic insect metacommunity. Five artificial habitats consisting of wrapped crushed rock were set transversally to the water flow in five streams. The habitats were sampled weekly to assess community composition, and replaced after sampling to identify new potential colonizers. We analyzed the accumulation of new colonizers after each week using a logistic model. We selected pairs of experimental habitats and estimated the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index to assess the community composition trajectory during the experiment. We used the dissimilarity values in ANOVA tests, identifying the importance of time and space for the community. The number of new taxa stabilized in the third week, and we estimated a weekly increase of 1.61 new taxa in the community after stabilization. The overall pattern was a small change on community composition, but one stream had a higher weekly turnover. Our results showed a relevant influence of time in the initial communities of aquatic insects of temporary streams. However, we must observe the temporal pattern in a spatial context, once different streams have different successional history regarding number of taxa and community turnover. We highlight the importance of aerial dispersal and movement to seek oviposition sites as an important factor in determining colonization patterns.

  16. Genetically modified crops and aquatic ecosystems: considerations for environmental risk assessment and non-target organism testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Keri; Anderson, Jennifer; Bachman, Pamela; De Schrijver, Adinda; Dively, Galen; Federici, Brian; Hamer, Mick; Gielkens, Marco; Jensen, Peter; Lamp, William; Rauschen, Stefan; Ridley, Geoff; Romeis, Jörg; Waggoner, Annabel

    2012-08-01

    Environmental risk assessments (ERA) support regulatory decisions for the commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops. The ERA for terrestrial agroecosystems is well-developed, whereas guidance for ERA of GM crops in aquatic ecosystems is not as well-defined. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate how comprehensive problem formulation can be used to develop a conceptual model and to identify potential exposure pathways, using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as a case study. Within problem formulation, the insecticidal trait, the crop, the receiving environment, and protection goals were characterized, and a conceptual model was developed to identify routes through which aquatic organisms may be exposed to insecticidal proteins in maize tissue. Following a tiered approach for exposure assessment, worst-case exposures were estimated using standardized models, and factors mitigating exposure were described. Based on exposure estimates, shredders were identified as the functional group most likely to be exposed to insecticidal proteins. However, even using worst-case assumptions, the exposure of shredders to Bt maize was low and studies supporting the current risk assessments were deemed adequate. Determining if early tier toxicity studies are necessary to inform the risk assessment for a specific GM crop should be done on a case by case basis, and should be guided by thorough problem formulation and exposure assessment. The processes used to develop the Bt maize case study are intended to serve as a model for performing risk assessments on future traits and crops.

  17. Phototaxis and polarotaxis hand in hand: night dispersal flight of aquatic insects distracted synergistically by light intensity and reflection polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Pál; Horváth, Gábor; Kriska, György; Blahó, Miklós; Csabai, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Based on an earlier observation in the field, we hypothesized that light intensity and horizontally polarized reflected light may strongly influence the flight behaviour of night-active aquatic insects. We assumed that phototaxis and polarotaxis together have a more harmful effect on the dispersal flight of these insects than they would have separately. We tested this hypothesis in a multiple-choice field experiment using horizontal test surfaces laid on the ground. We offered simultaneously the following visual stimuli for aerial aquatic insects: (1) lamplit matte black canvas inducing phototaxis alone, (2) unlit shiny black plastic sheet eliciting polarotaxis alone, (3) lamplit shiny black plastic sheet inducing simultaneously phototaxis and polarotaxis, and (4) unlit matte black canvas as a visually unattractive control. The unlit matte black canvas trapped only a negligible number (13) of water insects. The sum (16,432) of the total numbers of water beetles and bugs captured on the lamplit matte black canvas (7,922) and the unlit shiny black plastic sheet (8,510) was much smaller than the total catch (29,682) caught on the lamplit shiny black plastic sheet. This provides experimental evidence for the synergistic interaction of phototaxis (elicited by the unpolarized direct lamplight) and polarotaxis (induced by the strongly and horizontally polarized plastic-reflected light) in the investigated aquatic insects. Thus, horizontally polarizing artificial lamplit surfaces can function as an effective ecological trap due to this synergism of optical cues, especially in the urban environment.

  18. Aquatic insects dealing with dehydration: do desiccation resistance traits differ in species with contrasting habitat preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Pallarés

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Desiccation resistance shapes the distribution of terrestrial insects at multiple spatial scales. However, responses to drying stress have been poorly studied in aquatic groups, despite their potential role in constraining their distribution and diversification, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. Methods We examined desiccation resistance in adults of four congeneric water beetle species (Enochrus, family Hydrophilidae with contrasting habitat specificity (lentic vs. lotic systems and different salinity optima from fresh- to hypersaline waters. We measured survival, recovery capacity and key traits related to desiccation resistance (fresh mass, % water content, % cuticle content and water loss rate under controlled exposure to desiccation, and explored their variability within and between species. Results Meso- and hypersaline species were more resistant to desiccation than freshwater and hyposaline ones, showing significantly lower water loss rates and higher water content. No clear patterns in desiccation resistance traits were observed between lotic and lentic species. Intraspecifically, water loss rate was positively related to specimens’ initial % water content, but not to fresh mass or % cuticle content, suggesting that the dynamic mechanism controlling water loss is mainly regulated by the amount of body water available. Discussion Our results support previous hypotheses suggesting that the evolution of desiccation resistance is associated with the colonization of saline habitats by aquatic beetles. The interespecific patterns observed in Enochrus also suggest that freshwater species may be more vulnerable than saline ones to drought intensification expected under climate change in semi-arid regions such as the Mediterranean Basin.

  19. Digestive enzyme activity and trophic behavior in two predator aquatic insects (Plecoptera, Perlidae): a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, M J; Trenzado, C E; Tierno de Figueroa, J M; Sanz, A

    2012-05-01

    Plecoptera (Perlidae) are among the major macroinvertebrate predators in stream ecosystems and one of the insect families with lower tolerance to environmental alterations, being usually employed as bioindicators of high water ecological quality. The differences in the trophic roles of the coexisting species have been exclusively studied from their gut contents, while no data are available on the comparative digestive capacity. In the present paper, we make a comparative study of the activity of several digestive enzymes, namely proteases (at different pH), amylase, lipase, trypsin and chymotrypsin, in two species of stoneflies, Perla bipunctata and Dinocras cephalotes, which cohabit in the same stream. The study of digestive enzyme activity together with the analysis of gut contents can contribute to a better understanding of the ecology of these aquatic insects and their role in freshwater food webs. Thus, our results show that the two studied predator species inhabiting in the same stream present specializations on their feeding behaviors, facilitating their coexistence, and also differences in their capacity of use the resources. One of the main findings of this study is that D. cephalotes is able to assimilate a wider trophic resource spectrum and this could be one of the reasons why this species has a wider global distribution in all its geographical range. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Diversity of mosquitoes and the aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites along the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, J Guillermo; Casas-Martínez, Mauricio; Quiroz-Martínez, Humberto; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Marina, Carlos F; Ulloa, Armando; Orozco-Bonilla, Arnoldo; Muñoz, Miguel; Williams, Trevor

    2014-01-22

    The abundance, richness and diversity of mosquitoes and aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites were surveyed along eight states of the Pacific coast of Mexico. Diversity was estimated using the Shannon index (H'), similarity measures and cluster analysis. Oviposition sites were sampled during 2-3 months per year, over a three year period. Field collected larvae and pupae were reared and identified to species following adult emergence. Aquatic insects present at oviposition sites were also collected, counted and identified to species or genus. In total, 15 genera and 74 species of mosquitoes were identified: Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, An. albimanus and Aedes aegypti were the most abundant and widely-distributed species, representing 47% of total mosquito individuals sampled. New species records for certain states are reported. Anopheline diversity was lowest in Sinaloa state (H' = 0.54) and highest in Chiapas (H' = 1.61) and Michoacán (H' = 1.56), whereas culicid diversity was lowest in Michoacán (H' = 1.93), Colima (H' = 1.95), Sinaloa (H' = 1.99) and Jalisco (H' = 2.01) and highest in Chiapas (H' = 2.66). In total, 10 orders, 57 families, 166 genera and 247 species of aquatic insects were identified in samples. Aquatic insect diversity was highest in Chiapas, Oaxaca and Michoacán (H' = 3.60-3.75). Mosquito larval/pupal abundance was not correlated with that of predatory Coleoptera and Hemiptera. This represents the first update on the diversity and geographic distribution of the mosquitoes and aquatic insects of Mexico in over five decades. This information has been cataloged in Mexico's National Biodiversity Information System (SNIB-CONABIO) for public inspection.

  1. Locomotion response of airborne, ambulatory and aquatic insects to thermal stimulation using piezoceramic microheaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvanathan, Karthik; Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports the locomotion response of airborne, ambulatory and aquatic insects to thermal stimulation. A finite element model has been developed to predict the variation of insect-stimulator interface temperature with input power. Piezothermal stimulators have been fabricated from lead zirconate titanate (PZT) using a batch mode micro ultrasonic machining process. Typical sizes range from 200 µm to 3.2 mm. For PZT stimulators, the temperature and thermal efficiency reach the maximum value around the resonance frequency which is typically in the range of 650 kHz to 47 MHz. Experiments have been conducted on green June beetles (GJBs), Madagascar hissing roaches and green diving beetles (GDBs) in order to show the versatility of the proposed technique. The stimulators have been implanted near the antennae of the GJBs and on either side of the thorax of the Madagascar hissing roaches and GDBs, respectively. In all cases, the insects move away from the direction of the actuated stimulator. The left and right turns are statistically similar. Thermal stimulation achieves an overall success rate of 78.7%, 92.8% and 61.6% in GJBs, roaches and GDBs, respectively. On average, thermal stimulation results in an angle turn of about 13.7°-16.2° on GJBs, 30°-45° on the roaches and 30°-50° on GDBs. The corresponding average input power is 360, 330 and 100 mW for GJBs, roach and GDBs, respectively. Scaling limits of the PZT stimulators for operating these stimulators are also discussed.

  2. Dispersal ability and habitat requirements determine landscape-level genetic patterns in desert aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipsen, Ivan C; Kirk, Emily H; Bogan, Michael T; Mims, Meryl C; Olden, Julian D; Lytle, David A

    2015-01-01

    Species occupying the same geographic range can exhibit remarkably different population structures across the landscape, ranging from highly diversified to panmictic. Given limitations on collecting population-level data for large numbers of species, ecologists seek to identify proximate organismal traits-such as dispersal ability, habitat preference and life history-that are strong predictors of realized population structure. We examined how dispersal ability and habitat structure affect the regional balance of gene flow and genetic drift within three aquatic insects that represent the range of dispersal abilities and habitat requirements observed in desert stream insect communities. For each species, we tested for linear relationships between genetic distances and geographic distances using Euclidean and landscape-based metrics of resistance. We found that the moderate-disperser Mesocapnia arizonensis (Plecoptera: Capniidae) has a strong isolation-by-distance pattern, suggesting migration-drift equilibrium. By contrast, population structure in the flightless Abedus herberti (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae) is influenced by genetic drift, while gene flow is the dominant force in the strong-flying Boreonectes aequinoctialis (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). The best-fitting landscape model for M. arizonensis was based on Euclidean distance. Analyses also identified a strong spatial scale-dependence, where landscape genetic methods only performed well for species that were intermediate in dispersal ability. Our results highlight the fact that when either gene flow or genetic drift dominates in shaping population structure, no detectable relationship between genetic and geographic distances is expected at certain spatial scales. This study provides insight into how gene flow and drift interact at the regional scale for these insects as well as the organisms that share similar habitats and dispersal abilities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Sulfate transport kinetics and toxicity are modulated by sodium in aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibener, Shane; Conley, Justin M; Buchwalter, David

    2017-09-01

    The salinization of freshwater ecosystems is emerging as a major ecological issue. Several anthropogenic causes of salinization (e.g. surface coal mining, hydro-fracking, road de-icing, irrigation of arid lands, etc.) are associated with biodiversity losses in freshwater ecosystems. Because insects tend to dominate freshwater ecology, it is important that we develop a better understanding of how and why different species respond to salinity matrices dominated by different major ions. This study builds upon previous work demonstrating that major ion toxicity to the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer was apparently due to the ionic composition of water rather than specific conductance. Synthetic waters with low Ca:Mg ratios and high SO 4 :Na ratios produced toxicity, whereas waters with higher Ca:Mg ratios and lower SO 4 :Na ratios were not toxic to mayflies at comparable conductivities. Here we used a radiotracer approach to show that Mg did not competitively exclude Ca uptake at environmentally realistic ratios in 4 aquatic insect species. We characterized SO 4 uptake kinetics in 5 mayflies and assessed the influence of different ions on SO 4 uptake. Dual label experiments show an inverse relationship between SO 4 and Na transport rates as SO 4 was held constant and Na was increased, suggesting that Na (and not Cl or HCO 3 ) is antagonistic to SO 4 transport. Based on this observation, we tested the hypothesis that increasing Na would protect against SO 4 induced toxicity in a Na-dependent manner. Increasing Na from 0.7 to 10.9mM improved 96-h survivorship associated with 20.8mM SO 4 from 44% to 73% in a concentration dependent manner. However, when Na reached 21.8mM, survivorship decreased to 16%, suggesting that other interactive effects of major ions caused toxicity under those conditions. Thus, the combination of elevated sulfate and low sodium commonly observed in streams affected by mountaintop coal mining has the potential to cause toxicity in sensitive aquatic

  4. Taxonomic survey and characterization of the habitat of aquatic insects in protected areas in a subtropical island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica da Rosa Pires

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic inventories are the basis of several ecological studies and they enable a better understanding of the local and regional biodiversity. This paper aimed to survey the aquatic insect fauna in a subtropical island, as well as to generate information on the habitats used by the taxa found. Two regions showing a good state of environmental conservation in the Santa Catarina Island, in Santa Catarina, Brazil, were selected: “Lagoa do Peri” Municipal Park and “Desterro” Environmental Protected Area. Aquatic invertebrates were collected by using a Surber sampler (in a lotic environment and an Eckman-Birge dredger (in a lentic environment between 2009 and 2012. Sixty taxa were found, belonging to eight taxonomic orders. Thus, there were 19 new registers of aquatic insect families for Santa Catarina. At the sites of this study, 13 families already known for Santa Catarina were not observed, according to a comparison with articles published until July 2014. As for the habitat, richness differed between the types of the habitats sampled, with lower richness in the substrate “sand”. The study represents a significant contribution to knowledge on aquatic insects in Santa Catarina, especially regarding the biodiversity in islands.

  5. Spatial distribution and functional feeding groups of aquatic insects in a stream of Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India

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    Barman B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic insects play important role in ecosystem functioning viz. nutrient cycling, primary production, decomposition and material translocation. The functional feeding group (FFG approach is an attempt to classify organisms, especially insects, according to their role in the processing of organic matter. An investigation during 2011–2013 was carried out on aquatic insects in different stretches of a stream of Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary located in western Assam, North East India which is designated as Key Biodiversity Area (KBA by IUCN. Physico-chemical properties of water of the stream like water temperature, dissolved oxygen, free-carbondioxide, pH, total alkalinity, electrical conductivity, phosphate and nitrate were estimated to correlate the aquatic insects of specific functional feeding groups with water quality. A total of seventeen species was recorded during the study period. Record of nine species in first year and fourteen species in second year under different functional feeding groups (FFG showed altitudinal variation. Highest percentage of predators was found in upstream. Collectors were recorded in upstream and downstream and shredders were recorded in midstream.

  6. Community structure of aquatic insects in the Esparza River, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Herrera-Vásquez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Community structure of aquatic insects in the Esparza River, Costa Rica. This study focused on the structure of the aquatic insect community in spatial and temporal scales in the Esparza River. The river was sampled for one full year throughout 2007. During the dry season low flow months, five sampling points were selected in two different habitats (currents and pools, with five replicates per sample site. During the wet season with peak rain, only the data in the "current habitat" were sampled at each site. Specimens present in the different substrates were collected and preserved in situ. A nested ANOVA was then applied to the data to determine richness and density as the response variables. The variations in temporal and spatial scales were analyzed using width, depth and discharge of the river, and then analyzed using a nested ANOVA. Only a correlation of 51% similarity in richness was found, while in spatial scale, richness showed significant variation between sampling sites, but not between habitats. However, the temporal scale showed significant differences between habitats. Density showed differences between sites and habitats during the dry season in the spatial scale, while in the temporal scale significant variation was found between sampling sites. Width varied between habitats during the dry season, but not between sampling points. Depth showed differences between sampling sites and season. This work studies the importance of community structure of aquatic insects in rivers, and its relevance for the quality of water in rivers and streams. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 133-139. Epub 2009 June 30.Se estudió la estructura de la comunidad de insectos acuáticos en el río Esparza, Costa Rica, en escalas espacial y temporal. Los muestreos se realizaron durante 2007 en 5 estaciones. En mayor sequía se recolectaron cinco réplicas en cada estación en dos tipos de hábitat: corriente y pozas. En mayor precipitación se utilizó este

  7. Divalent metal (Ca, Cd, Mn, Zn) uptake and interactions in the aquatic insect Hydropsyche sparna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, Monica D; Díaz-Jaramillo, Mauricio; Buchwalter, David B

    2012-05-01

    Despite their ecological importance and prevalent use as ecological indicators, the trace element physiology of aquatic insects remains poorly studied. Understanding divalent metal transport processes at the water-insect interface is important because these metals may be essential (e.g. Ca), essential and potentially toxic (e.g. Zn) or non-essential and toxic (e.g. Cd). We measured accumulation kinetics of Zn and Cd across dissolved concentrations ranging 4 orders of magnitude and examined interactions with Ca and Mn in the caddisfly Hydropsyche sparna. Here, we provide evidence for at least two transport systems for both Zn and Cd, the first of which operates at concentrations below 0.8 μmol l(-1) (and is fully saturable for Zn). We observed no signs of saturation of a second lower affinity transport system at concentrations up to 8.9 μmol l(-1) Cd and 15.3 μmol l(-1) Zn. In competition studies at 0.6 μmol l(-1) Zn and Cd, the presence of Cd slowed Zn accumulation by 35% while Cd was unaffected by Zn. At extreme concentrations (listed above), Cd accumulation was unaffected by the presence of Zn whereas Zn accumulation rates were reduced by 58%. Increasing Ca from 31.1 μmol l(-1) to 1.35 mmol l(-1) resulted in only modest decreases in Cd and Zn uptake. Mn decreased adsorption of Cd and Zn to the integument but not internalization. The L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers verapamil and nifedipine and the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor carboxyeosin had no influence on Ca, Cd or Zn accumulation rates, while Ruthenium Red, a Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor, significantly decreased the accumulation of all three in a concentration-dependent manner.

  8. Aquatic insect deversity and biomass in a stream marginally polluted by acid strip mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkiewicz, S.M. Jr.; Dunson, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    Upper Three Runs receives a point source of acid mine drainage from a small acid feeder stream and the pH of the main stream falls from above 6 to about 4.5. Over the 1.2 km study section below the introduction of acid drainage, the pH rises to 5.0. This moderate degree of mine acid pollution has severely affected aquatic insect populations. The acid feeder itself (pH near 3.2) was inhabited only by a chironomid, a megalopteran (Sialis), and the caddisfly Ptilostomis. Biomass was very low (140 mg dry weight/m/sup 2/). The drainage of the acid feeder into the stream caused a drop in the Shannon-Weiner diversity index from 3.10 to 1.95, and a drop in biomass from 6.5 g/m/sup 2/ to 2.2 g/m/sup 2/. At the two stations further downstream, the diversity index remained relatively constant and the biomass leveled off at about 1.2 g/m/sup 2/. The number of taxa declined steadily from 30 at the control station to 13 at the lowest site. Populations of Coleoptera, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera showed little or no recovery as the acid pollution ameliorated slightly. Representatives of the orders Diptera and Plecoptera (especially Nemoura) showed a decided recovery and increase in numbers near pH 5.0. If fish were able to survive in acid mine polluted waters of pH's between 4.5 and 5.0 they should find sufficient insect food for maintenance of a limited population.

  9. Functional feeding groups of aquatic insect families in Latin America: a critical analysis and review of existing literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Alonso; Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E

    2014-04-01

    Aquatic macroinvertebrates are involved in numerous processes within aquatic ecosystems. They often have important effects on ecosystem processes such as primary production (via grazing), detritus breakdown, and nutrient mineralization and downstream spiraling. The functional feeding groups (FFG) classification was developed as a tool to facilitate the incorporation of macroinvertebrates in studies of aquatic ecosystems. This classification has the advantage of combining morphological characteristics (e.g., mouth part specialization) and behavioral mechanisms (e.g., way of feeding) used by macroinvertebrates when consuming resources. Although recent efforts have greatly advanced our ability to identify aquatic macroinvertebrates, there is limited information on FFG assignment. Furthermore, there has been some variation in the use of the FFG classification, in part due to an emphasis on using gut content analysis to assign FFG, which is more appropriate for assigning trophic guilds. Thus, the main goals of this study are to (1) provide an overview of the value of using the FFG classification, (2) make an initial attempt to summarize available information on FFG for aquatic insects in Latin America, and (3) provide general guidelines on how to assign organisms to their FFGs. FFGs are intended to reflect the potential effects of organisms in their ecosystems and the way they consume resources. Groups include scrapers that consume resources that grow attached to the substrate by removing them with their mouth parts; shredders that cut or chew pieces of living or dead plant material, including all plant parts like leaves and wood; collectors-gatherers that use modified mouth parts to sieve or collect small particles (aquatic insects in Latin America, with an initial assignment to FFGs. We recommended caution when assigning FFGs based on gut contents, as it can provide misleading information. Overall, FFG is a very useful tool to understand the role of aquatic

  10. Clutch morphology and the timing of exposure impact the susceptibility of aquatic insect eggs to esfenvalerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Katherine R; Jenkins, Jeffrey J; Jepson, Paul C

    2008-08-01

    We investigated Baetis spp. (mayfly), Hesperoperla pacifica (stonefly), and Brachycentrus americanus (caddisfly) susceptibility at the egg stage to esfenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. Eggs were obtained from the field or from field-collected gravid females at sites near Corvallis (OR, USA) and the Metolius River at Camp Sherman (OR, USA) for static exposures under controlled conditions for temperature and light. Eggs were exposed to esfenvalerate for 48 h at concentrations ranging from 0.025 to 4.0 microg/L. No effect on mortality or posthatch growth was detected in H. pacifica eggs exposed to esfenvalerate concentrations up to 1.0 microg/L. Exposure to 0.07 microg/L of esfenvalerate, however, caused a significant increase in Baetis spp. egg mortality, and exposure of near-eclosion eggs to lower concentrations (0.025 and 0.05 microg/L) resulted in behavioral effects and reduced survivorship in newly hatched Baetis nymphs. Early stage B. americanus eggs were 10-fold more sensitive to esfenvalerate when removed from the gelatinous clutch before exposure, an indication that the gelatin affords protection from toxicant exposure. Exposures of near-hatch B. americanus clutches to esfenvalerate concentrations ranging between 0.035 and 0.2 microg/L, however, resulted in significant clutch death within clutches resulting from behavioral aberrations of first-instar larvae. The results of the present study suggest that aquatic insect egg clutch morphology can be a strong influence on susceptibility of embryos to esfenvalerate exposure.

  11. Genotoxic effects of vinclozolin on the aquatic insect Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Mónica; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2018-01-01

    Vinclozolin (Vz) is a pollutant found in aquatic environments whose antiandrogenic effects in reproduction are well known in mammals. Although its reproductive effects have been less studied in invertebrates, other effects, including genotoxicity, have been described. Therefore, in this work, we studied the genotoxic effects of Vz in the freshwater benthic invertebrate Chironomus riparius. DNA damage was evaluated with the comet assay (tail area, olive moment, tail moment and % DNA in tail), and the transcriptional levels of different genes involved in DNA repair (ATM, NLK and XRCC1) and apoptosis (DECAY) were measured by RT-PCR. Fourth instar larvae of C. riparius, were exposed to Vz for 24 h at 20 and 200 μg/L. The Vz exposures affected the DNA integrity in this organism, since a dose-response relationship occurred, with DNA strand breaks significantly increased with increased dose for tail area, olive moment and tail moment parameters. Additionally, the lower concentration of Vz produced a significant induction of the transcripts of three genes under study (ATM, NLK and XRCC1) showing the activation of the cellular repair mechanism. In contrast, the expression of these genes with the highest concentration were downregulated, indicating failure of the cellular repair mechanism, which would explain the higher DNA damage. These data report for the first time the alterations of Vz on gene transcription of an insect and confirm the potential genotoxicity of this compound on freshwater invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diversity and ecological aspects of aquatic insect communities from montane streams in southern Brazil

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    Bruna Marmitt Braun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: In this study, the diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Coleoptera communities was surveyed in the Toropi River basin, a watershed localized in a slope region, in southernmost Brazil. The influence of some local abiotic factors on the most common genera was also analyzed. METHODS: Samplings were conducted at 40 sites in 1st-4th order streams, along a short elevation gradient (70-500 m, with a Surber sampler. Water physico-chemical factors, as well as substrate type, were obtained at each site. RESULTS: At all, 5,320 specimens were collected, belonging to 18 families and 52 genera. The caddisflies Austrotinodes and Celaenotrichia, and an undescribed Elmidae, Genus M, are new records for the region. The caddisfly Smicridea was the most frequent genus in the study area. The mayflies Camelobaetidius, Paracloeodes and Americabaetis were influenced by stream order. Smicridea was related to air temperature, while the mayfly Thraulodes was influenced by high levels of electrical conductivity. CONCLUSIONS: The high diversity found in the study area, compared to other Brazilian regions, reflects the environmental heterogeneity in the region. These data show that hydrographic basins in slope areas from extreme Southern Brazil sustain high levels of diversity of aquatic insect communities.

  13. Calcified aquatic insect larval constructions in the Pleistocene tufa of Jebel El Mida, Gafsa, southern Tunisia: Recognition and paleoenvironmental significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ahmed, Walid; Henchiri, Mohsen; Mastouri, Amna; Slim S'himi, Najet

    2018-04-01

    Calcified aquatic larval cases were recognized and identified in the Pleistocene tufa masses of Jebel El Mida, Gafsa, southern Tunisia. These larval constructions belong to three main insect families: caddisflies (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae), midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) and aquatic moths (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) that inhabited tubes in the tufa and spun nets. Each insect community has its distinctive characteristics of larval constructions that allow their recognition. The larval constructions recognized comprise fixed and portable (for caddisflies) dwelling cases and silken retreats and feeding capture nets. These last-mentioned are almost completely eroded and only remnants are preserved. The spatial distribution of these larval cases within the tufa is not random but, rather imposed by some specific paleohydraulic conditions. It's the reason why aquatic insect larval constructions are considered as prominent tool for the reconstruction of tufa and travertine depositional environments. Chironomid fixed dwelling cases (diameters range from 0.6 mm for clustered tubes to 3 mm) indicate the deposition of tufa under lotic (flowing) or lentic (standing) water conditions. The later hydraulic condition is shared with hydropsychids with fixed retreats (0.2-4 mm in diameter). Portable case-building caddisflies (case length ranging from 5 to 20 mm, and diameter from 3 to 5 mm at the cephalic end) prefer lentic conditions and are almost completely missing in high-energy flowing water locations that are preferred by pyralids (tubes are between 5 and 10 mm long and 3 mm in diameter). These insect families benefit from inhabiting the tufa by the availability of construction materials of their cases and the necessary space for their development.

  14. Aquatic insects associated to Eichhornia azurea (Schwartz Kunth in wetlands of Atrato River, Chocó - Colombia

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    Zuleyma Mosquera Murillo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the aquatic insect community associated with Eichhornia azurea (Schwartz Kunth in four swamp of the middle and lower basin of the Atrato river (Chocó-Colombia during high and low water periods; the influence of environmental and physicochemical variables on this community was also evaluated. For two months, aquatic insects associated with the roots of E. azurea were collected, using a quadrant of one m2, provided with a mesh of 0.5 mm, with three replicates per swamp and simultaneously measured some physical and chemical variables of the water. The community consisted of 6 orders, 21 families and 28 genera. The highest number of organisms (55.39% and of taxa (23 were recorded in the low water period. The most abundant orders were Ephemeroptera (37.55% and Coleoptera (26.77%, standing out the families Baetidae and Noteridae respectively; while the greatest taxonomic richness was for Coleoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera. There were no significant differences in diversity and dominance between hydrological periods (p> 0.05, but in the specific richness (p <0.05. The most abundant functional groups were predators (54.81% and collectors (43.70%. The physicochemical variables did not show significant differences between hydrological periods and there were associations between the aquatic entomofauna and the abiotic variables analyzed, mainly with dissolved oxygen, conductivity and total dissolved solids.

  15. Nontarget effects of aerial mosquito adulticiding with water-based unsynergized pyrethroids on honey bees and other beneficial insects in an agricultural ecosystem of north Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; Thrasyvoulou, Andreas; Goras, Georgios; Tananaki, Chrysoula; Latham, Mark D; Kashefi, Javid; Pereira, Roberto M; Koehler, Philip G

    2014-05-01

    We assessed the nontarget effects of ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerial adulticiding with two new water-based, unsynergized pyrethroid formulations, Aqua-K-Othrine (FFAST antievaporant technology, 2% deltamethrin) and Pesguard S102 (10% d-phenothrin). A helicopter with GPS navigation technology was used. One application rate was tested per formulation that corresponded to 1.00 g (AI)/ha of deltamethrin and 7.50 g (AI)/ha of d-phenothrin. Three beneficial nontarget organisms were used: honey bees (domesticated hives), family Apidae (Apis mellifera L.); mealybug destroyers, family Coccinellidae (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant); and green lacewings, family Chrysopidae (Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens)). No significant nontarget mortalities were observed. No bees exhibited signs of sublethal exposure to insecticides. Beehives exposed to the insecticidal applications remained healthy and productive, performed as well as the control hives and increased in weight (25-30%), in adult bee population (14-18%), and in brood population (15-19%).

  16. Functional feeding groups of aquatic insect families in Latin America: a critical analysis and review of existing literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Ramírez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic macroinvertebrates are involved in numerous processes within aquatic ecosystems. They often have important effects on ecosystem processes such as primary production (via grazing, detritus breakdown, and nutrient mineralization and downstream spiraling. The functional feeding groups (FFG classification was developed as a tool to facilitate the incorporation of macroinvertebrates in studies of aquatic ecosystems. This classification has the advantage of combining morphological characteristics (e.g., mouth part specialization and behavioral mechanisms (e.g., way of feeding used by macroinvertebrates when consuming resources. Although recent efforts have greatly advanced our ability to identify aquatic macroinvertebrates, there is limited information on FFG assignment. Furthermore, there has been some variation in the use of the FFG classification, in part due to an emphasis on using gut content analysis to assign FFG, which is more appropriate for assigning trophic guilds. Thus, the main goals of this study are to (1 provide an overview of the value of using the FFG classification, (2 make an initial attempt to summarize available information on FFG for aquatic insects in Latin America, and (3 provide general guidelines on how to assign organisms to their FFGs. FFGs are intended to reflect the potential effects of organisms in their ecosystems and the way they consume resources. Groups include scrapers that consume resources that grow attached to the substrate by removing them with their mouth parts; shredders that cut or chew pieces of living or dead plant material, including all plant parts like leaves and wood; collectors-gatherers that use modified mouth parts to sieve or collect small particles (<1mm accumulated on the stream bottom; filterers that have special adaptations to remove particles directly from the water column; and predators that consume other organisms using different strategies to capture them. In addition, we provide

  17. Persistence of aquatic insects across managed landscapes: effects of landscape permeability on re-colonization and population recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nika Galic

    Full Text Available Human practices in managed landscapes may often adversely affect aquatic biota, such as aquatic insects. Dispersal is often the limiting factor for successful re-colonization and recovery of stressed habitats. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of landscape permeability, assuming a combination of riparian vegetation (edge permeability and other vegetation (landscape matrix permeability, and distance between waterbodies on the colonization and recovery potential of weakly flying insects. For this purpose, we developed two models, a movement and a population model of the non-biting midge, Chironomus riparius, an aquatic insect with weak flying abilities. With the movement model we predicted the outcome of dispersal in a landscape with several linear water bodies (ditches under different assumptions regarding landscape-dependent movement. Output from the movement model constituted the probabilities of encountering another ditch and of staying in the natal ditch or perishing in the landscape matrix, and was used in the second model. With this individual-based model of midge populations, we assessed the implications for population persistence and for recovery potential after an extreme stress event. We showed that a combination of landscape attributes from the movement model determines the fate of dispersing individuals and, once extrapolated to the population level, has a big impact on the persistence and recovery of populations. Population persistence benefited from low edge permeability as it reduced the dispersal mortality which was the main factor determining population persistence and viability. However, population recovery benefited from higher edge permeability, but this was conditional on the low effective distance that ensured fewer losses in the landscape matrix. We discuss these findings with respect to possible landscape management scenarios.

  18. Larval aquatic insect responses to cadmium and zinc in experimental streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Christopher A; Schmidt, Travis S; Balistrieri, Laurie S

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the risks of metal mixture effects to natural stream communities under ecologically relevant conditions, the authors conducted 30-d tests with benthic macroinvertebrates exposed to cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in experimental streams. The simultaneous exposures were with Cd and Zn singly and with Cd+Zn mixtures at environmentally relevant ratios. The tests produced concentration-response patterns that for individual taxa were interpreted in the same manner as classic single-species toxicity tests and for community metrics such as taxa richness and mayfly (Ephemeroptera) abundance were interpreted in the same manner as with stream survey data. Effect concentrations from the experimental stream exposures were usually 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than those from classic single-species tests. Relative to a response addition model, which assumes that the joint toxicity of the mixtures can be predicted from the product of their responses to individual toxicants, the Cd+Zn mixtures generally showed slightly less than additive toxicity. The authors applied a modeling approach called Tox to explore the mixture toxicity results and to relate the experimental stream results to field data. The approach predicts the accumulation of toxicants (hydrogen, Cd, and Zn) on organisms using a 2-pK a bidentate model that defines interactions between dissolved cations and biological receptors (biotic ligands) and relates that accumulation through a logistic equation to biological response. The Tox modeling was able to predict Cd+Zn mixture responses from the single-metal exposures as well as responses from field data. The similarity of response patterns between the 30-d experimental stream tests and field data supports the environmental relevance of testing aquatic insects in experimental streams. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:749-762. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the

  19. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, L W; Amaral-Rogers, V; Belzunces, L P; Bonmatin, J M; Downs, C A; Goulson, D; Kreutzweiser, D P; Krupke, C; Liess, M; McField, M; Morrissey, C A; Noome, D A; Settele, J; Simon-Delso, N; Stark, J D; Van der Sluijs, J P; Van Dyck, H; Wiemers, M

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the state of knowledge regarding the effects of large-scale pollution with neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on non-target invertebrate species of terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. A large section of the assessment is dedicated to the state of knowledge on sublethal effects on honeybees (Apis mellifera) because this important pollinator is the most studied non-target invertebrate species. Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Lumbricidae (earthworms), Apoidae sensu lato (bumblebees, solitary bees) and the section "other invertebrates" review available studies on the other terrestrial species. The sections on freshwater and marine species are rather short as little is known so far about the impact of neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on the diverse invertebrate fauna of these widely exposed habitats. For terrestrial and aquatic invertebrate species, the known effects of neonicotinoid pesticides and fipronil are described ranging from organismal toxicology and behavioural effects to population-level effects. For earthworms, freshwater and marine species, the relation of findings to regulatory risk assessment is described. Neonicotinoid insecticides exhibit very high toxicity to a wide range of invertebrates, particularly insects, and field-realistic exposure is likely to result in both lethal and a broad range of important sublethal impacts. There is a major knowledge gap regarding impacts on the grand majority of invertebrates, many of which perform essential roles enabling healthy ecosystem functioning. The data on the few non-target species on which field tests have been performed are limited by major flaws in the outdated test protocols. Despite large knowledge gaps and uncertainties, enough knowledge exists to conclude that existing levels of pollution with neonicotinoids and fipronil resulting from presently authorized uses frequently exceed the lowest observed adverse effect concentrations and are thus likely to have large

  20. Changes in aquatic insect emergence in response to whole-lake experimental manipulations of introduced trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Pope; Jonah Piovia-Scott; Sharon P. Lawler

    2009-01-01

    1. Insects emerging from mountain lakes provide an important food source for many terrestrial predators. The amount of insect subsidy that emerges from lakes is influenced by predator composition, but predator effects could be ameliorated by greater habitat complexity. We conducted a replicated whole-lake experiment to test the effects of introduced fish...

  1. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Maltchik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (~280 000km², and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from differrent ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.La selección de áreas prioritarias es un enorme desafío para la conservación de la biodiversidad. Métodos biogeográficos se han utilizado para identificar áreas prioritarias para la conservación, como la panbiogeografía. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo el empleo de herramientas panbiogeográficas, para identificar los patrones de distribución de los géneros de insectos acuáticos, en los sistemas de humedales de una extensa área de la región Neotropical (~280 000km², y así comparar la distribución de las

  2. Potential Use of Native and Naturalized Insect Herbivores and Fungal Pathogens of Aquatic and Wetland Plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freedman, Jan E; Grodowitz, Michael J; Swindle, Robin; Nachtrieb, Julie G

    2007-01-01

    ...) scientists to identify naturalized and/or native herbivores of aquatic plants in an effort to develop alternative management strategies through an understanding of the agents' biology and ecology...

  3. The rainy season increases the abundance and richness of the aquatic insect community in a Neotropical reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HS Santana

    Full Text Available Alterations in aquatic systems and changes in water levels, whether due to rains or dam-mediated control can cause changes in community structure, forcing the community to readjust to the new environment. This study tested the hypothesis that there is an increase in the richness and abundance of aquatic insects during the rainy season in the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, with the premise that increasing the reservoir level provides greater external material input and habitat diversity, and, therefore, conditions that promote colonization by more species. We used the paired t test to test the differences in richness, beta diversity, and abundance, and a Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS was performed to identify patterns in the community under study. Additionally, Pearson correlations were analyzed between the richness, abundance, and beta diversity and the level of the reservoir. We collected 35,028 aquatic insect larvae (9,513 in dry period and 25,515 in the rainy season, predominantly of the Chironomidae family, followed by orders Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Odonata. Among the 33 families collected, only 12 occurred in the dry season, while all occurred in the rainy season. These families are common in lentic environments, and the dominance of Chironomidae was associated with its fast colonization, their behavior of living at high densities and the great tolerance to low levels of oxygen in the environment. The hypothesis was confirmed, as the richness, beta diversity, and abundance were positively affected by the increase in water levels due to the rainy season, which most likely led to greater external material input, greater heterogeneity of habitat, and better conditions for colonization by several families.

  4. The rainy season increases the abundance and richness of the aquatic insect community in a Neotropical reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, H S; Silva, L C F; Pereira, C L; Simião-Ferreira, J; Angelini, R

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in aquatic systems and changes in water levels, whether due to rains or dam-mediated control can cause changes in community structure, forcing the community to readjust to the new environment. This study tested the hypothesis that there is an increase in the richness and abundance of aquatic insects during the rainy season in the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, with the premise that increasing the reservoir level provides greater external material input and habitat diversity, and, therefore, conditions that promote colonization by more species. We used the paired t test to test the differences in richness, beta diversity, and abundance, and a Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) was performed to identify patterns in the community under study. Additionally, Pearson correlations were analyzed between the richness, abundance, and beta diversity and the level of the reservoir. We collected 35,028 aquatic insect larvae (9,513 in dry period and 25,515 in the rainy season), predominantly of the Chironomidae family, followed by orders Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Odonata. Among the 33 families collected, only 12 occurred in the dry season, while all occurred in the rainy season. These families are common in lentic environments, and the dominance of Chironomidae was associated with its fast colonization, their behavior of living at high densities and the great tolerance to low levels of oxygen in the environment. The hypothesis was confirmed, as the richness, beta diversity, and abundance were positively affected by the increase in water levels due to the rainy season, which most likely led to greater external material input, greater heterogeneity of habitat, and better conditions for colonization by several families.

  5. Multibiomarker responses in aquatic insect Belostoma elegans (Hemiptera) to organic pollution in freshwater system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavarías, S; Ocon, C; van Oosterom, V López; Laino, A; Medesani, D A; Fassiano, A; Garda, H; Donadelli, J; de Molina, M Ríos; Capítulo, A Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    The present study analyzes a battery of biomarkers in the water bug Belostoma elegans from a stream polluted with organic matter (OMS), and another one considered as reference site (RS) during spring-summer season (December to March). Biochemical parameters of glucidic, lipidic and oxidative metabolic pathways were analyzed in males and females of this insect. In general, no significant differences were observed in all biomarkers assayed between both sexes, except lactate concentration which was higher in males than in females (p insects collected in both streams (p insects from RS compared to those from OMS (p insects collected from both streams. Nevertheless, the significant increase observed in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (p insects from RS compared to those from OMS with lower dissolved oxygen. Regarding those responding parameters, males accounted for the differences between the two sites during the study period. In conclusion, our results support that lipidic energetic reserves and antioxidant enzyme activities in B. elegans could be used as biomarkers of environmental pollution by organic matter.

  6. Influence of certain forces on evolution of synonymous codon usage bias in certain species of three basal orders of aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva Kumar, C; Nair, Rahul R; Sivaramakrishnan, K G; Ganesh, D; Janarthanan, S; Arunachalam, M; Sivaruban, T

    2012-12-01

    Forces that influence the evolution of synonymous codon usage bias are analyzed in six species of three basal orders of aquatic insects. The rationale behind choosing six species of aquatic insects (three from Ephemeroptera, one from Plecoptera, and two from Odonata) for the present analysis is based on phylogenetic position at the basal clades of the Order Insecta facilitating the understanding of the evolution of codon bias and of factors shaping codon usage patterns in primitive clades of insect lineages and their subtle differences in some of their ecological and environmental requirements in terms of habitat-microhabitat requirements, altitudinal preferences, temperature tolerance ranges, and consequent responses to climate change impacts. The present analysis focuses on open reading frames of the 13 protein-coding genes in the mitochondrial genome of six carefully chosen insect species to get a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary intricacies of codon bias. In all the six species, A and T contents are observed to be significantly higher than G and C, and are used roughly equally. Since transcription hypothesis on codon usage demands A richness and T poorness, it is quite likely that mutation pressure may be the key factor associated with synonymous codon usage (SCU) variations in these species because the mutation hypothesis predicts AT richness and GC poorness in the mitochondrial DNA. Thus, AT-biased mutation pressure seems to be an important factor in framing the SCU variation in all the selected species of aquatic insects, which in turn explains the predominance of A and T ending codons in these species. This study does not find any association between microhabitats and codon usage variations in the mitochondria of selected aquatic insects. However, this study has identified major forces, such as compositional constraints and mutation pressure, which shape patterns of codon usage in mitochondrial genes in the primitive clades of insect lineages.

  7. Longitudinal Distribution of the Functional Feeding Groups of Aquatic Insects in Streams of the Brazilian Cerrado Savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, L S; Juen, L; Batista, J D; Pavan, M G; Cabette, H S R

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate that the distribution of the functional feeding groups of aquatic insects is related to hierarchical patch dynamics. Patches are sites with unique environmental and functional characteristics that are discontinuously distributed in time and space within a lotic system. This distribution predicts that the occurrence of species will be based predominantly on their environmental requirements. We sampled three streams within the same drainage basin in the Brazilian Cerrado savanna, focusing on waterfalls and associated habitats (upstream, downstream), representing different functional zones. We collected 2,636 specimens representing six functional feeding groups (FFGs): brushers, collector-gatherers, collector-filterers, shredders, predators, and scrapers. The frequency of occurrence of these groups varied significantly among environments. This variation appeared to be related to the distinct characteristics of the different habitat patches, which led us to infer that the hierarchical patch dynamics model can best explain the distribution of functional feeding groups in minor lotic environments, such as waterfalls.

  8. An Investigation into the Physico-chemical Factors Affecting the Abundance and Diversity of Aquatic Insects in Organically Manured Aquadams and Their Utilization by Oreochromis mossambicus (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapatsa, M M; Moyo, N A G

    2015-08-01

    The interaction between the fish Oreochromis mossambicus (Percifomes: Cichlidae) and aquatic insects after application of chicken, cow, and pig manure was studied in 7,000-liter plastic aquadams. Principal component analysis showed that most of the variation in water quality after application of manure was accounted for by potassium, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, and alkalinity. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that Gyrinidae, Elminidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, and Athericidae were associated with high nutrient levels (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) characteristic of the chicken manure. However, the most abundant aquatic insects Gerridae, Notonectidae, and Culicidae were close to the centre of the ordination and not defined by any nutrient gradient. The Shannon-Wiener diversity was highest in the aquadams treated with chicken manure. The most frequently occurring aquatic insects in the diet of O. mossambicus were culicid mosquitoes in all the treatments. However, in the laboratory, Chironomidae were the most preferred because they lacked refuge. Notonectidae and Gerridae were not recorded in the diet of O. mossambicus despite their abundance. This may be because of their anti-predation strategies. Laboratory experiments showed that Notonectidae, Gyrinidae, and Gerridae fed on Chironomidae and Culicidae. This implies that aquatic predatory insects competed for food with O. mossambicus. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Identification of marine-derived lipids in juvenile coho salmon and aquatic insects through fatty acid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Ron A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic benefits enjoyed by consumers in streams with salmon runs depend on how those benefits are accrued. Adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. deliver significant amounts of nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) and carbon to streams when they spawn and die; these nutrient additions can have demonstrable effects on primary production in streams. Consumption of carcass tissues or eggs provides for direct energy subsidies to consumers and may have significant effects on their condition. In this study, comparisons of juvenile coho salmon O. kisutch and aquatic insects exposed to terrestrial and marine energy sources demonstrated that direct consumption of marine-derived lipids had a significant effect on the lipid reserves of consumers. Direct consumption of marine-derived tissues was verified through fatty acid analysis. Selected aquatic insects and juvenile coho salmon were reared for 6 weeks in experimental streams supplied with terrestrial or marine energy sources. Chironomid midges, nemourid stoneflies, and juvenile coho salmon exposed to the marine energy source altered their fatty acid compositions by incorporating the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that are characteristic of marine fish. The fatty acid composition of baetid mayflies was unaffected. The direct movement of specific fatty markers indicated that direct consumption of marine-derived tissues led to increased energy reserves (triacylglycerols) in consumers. Similar results were obtained for juvenile coho salmon sampled from natural streams before and after the arrival of adult salmon runs. These data indicate that marine-derived lipids from anadromous fish runs are an important source of reserve lipids for consumers that overwinter in streams.

  10. Aquatic Insect from Iran for Possible Use of Biological Control of Main Vector-Borne Disease of Malaria and Water Indicator of Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Saeidi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Iran has a wide variety of zoogeographical regions and different seasons. Here are some important mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes normally live in waters. Its aquatic insect fauna is highly unexplored. To being resolved this faunal gap, a variety of literature records from previous century in different parts of Iran was reviewed. In some southern and southeastern foci in Iran, Malaria is still a main endemic disease which is unstable with two seasonal spring and autumn peaks even though Iran is lunching Malaria elimination. This review article showed the wide variety of aquatic insects throughout the country. Researchers can discuss water pollutant and its quality by using aquatic insect fauna as well as biological control for vectors. Types of aquatic in­sects and macroinvertebrates sampling can be useful for water quality monitoring as indicators. Looking at aquatic insects’ life in water could be one of the most cost-effective and the easiest method to assess the water contaminations by different pollutants and will provide a guideline for scientific communities and environmental agencies for decision making.

  11. So small, so loud: extremely high sound pressure level from a pygmy aquatic insect (Corixidae, Micronectinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Jérôme; Mackie, David; Windmill, James F C

    2011-01-01

    To communicate at long range, animals have to produce intense but intelligible signals. This task might be difficult to achieve due to mechanical constraints, in particular relating to body size. Whilst the acoustic behaviour of large marine and terrestrial animals has been thoroughly studied, very little is known about the sound produced by small arthropods living in freshwater habitats. Here we analyse for the first time the calling song produced by the male of a small insect, the water boatman Micronecta scholtzi. The song is made of three distinct parts differing in their temporal and amplitude parameters, but not in their frequency content. Sound is produced at 78.9 (63.6-82.2) SPL rms re 2.10(-5) Pa with a peak at 99.2 (85.7-104.6) SPL re 2.10(-5) Pa estimated at a distance of one metre. This energy output is significant considering the small size of the insect. When scaled to body length and compared to 227 other acoustic species, the acoustic energy produced by M. scholtzi appears as an extreme value, outperforming marine and terrestrial mammal vocalisations. Such an extreme display may be interpreted as an exaggerated secondary sexual trait resulting from a runaway sexual selection without predation pressure.

  12. So small, so loud: extremely high sound pressure level from a pygmy aquatic insect (Corixidae, Micronectinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Sueur

    Full Text Available To communicate at long range, animals have to produce intense but intelligible signals. This task might be difficult to achieve due to mechanical constraints, in particular relating to body size. Whilst the acoustic behaviour of large marine and terrestrial animals has been thoroughly studied, very little is known about the sound produced by small arthropods living in freshwater habitats. Here we analyse for the first time the calling song produced by the male of a small insect, the water boatman Micronecta scholtzi. The song is made of three distinct parts differing in their temporal and amplitude parameters, but not in their frequency content. Sound is produced at 78.9 (63.6-82.2 SPL rms re 2.10(-5 Pa with a peak at 99.2 (85.7-104.6 SPL re 2.10(-5 Pa estimated at a distance of one metre. This energy output is significant considering the small size of the insect. When scaled to body length and compared to 227 other acoustic species, the acoustic energy produced by M. scholtzi appears as an extreme value, outperforming marine and terrestrial mammal vocalisations. Such an extreme display may be interpreted as an exaggerated secondary sexual trait resulting from a runaway sexual selection without predation pressure.

  13. Building a better sticky trap: description of an easy-to-use trap and pole mount for quantifying the abundance of adult aquatic insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua T.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Insect emergence is a fundamental process in freshwaters. It is a critical life-history stage for aquatic insects and provides an important prey resource for terrestrial and aquatic consumers. Sticky traps are increasingly being used to sample these insects. The most common design consists of an acetate sheet coated with a nondrying adhesive that is attached to a wire frame or cylinder. These traps must be prepared at the deployment site, a process that can be time consuming and difficult given the vagaries of field conditions. Our goals were to develop a sturdy, low-cost sticky trap that could be prepared in advance, rapidly deployed and recovered in the field, and used to estimate the flight direction of insects. We used 150-mm Petri dishes with lids. The dishes can be coated cleanly and consistently with Tangle-Trap® adhesive. Deploying traps is simple and requires only a pole set near the body of water being sampled. Four dishes can be attached to the pole using Velcro and aligned in 4 different directions to enable quantification of insect flight direction. After sampling, Petri dishes can be taped closed, packed in boxes, and stored indefinitely. Petri traps are comparable in price to standard acetate sheet traps at ∼US$0.50/directional deployment, but they require more space for storage than acetate sheet traps. However, a major benefit of Petri traps is that field deployment times are ⅓ those of acetate traps. Our study demonstrated that large Petri dishes are an ideal platform for sampling postemergent adult aquatic insects, particularly when the study design involves estimating flight direction and when rapid deployment and recovery of traps is critical.

  14. Effects of bromeliad flowering event on the community structuring of aquatic insect larvae associated with phytotelmata of Aechmea distichantha Lem. (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Emiliano Amadeo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: We aimed to understand how aquatic insect larvae communities associated with bromeliad phytotelmata are affected by plant architecture, predators and resources (local factors, and by geographical distance (regional factors in two different plant phenological phases. Bromeliad flowering results in plant structural changes, which favours insect dispersal. Considering that local and regional factors may affect the community of aquatic insect larvae, we expected that composition, beta diversity and the importance of those factors would differ in the vegetative growth and flowering phases. Methods We performed six samplings of the bromeliad associated fauna in 2010, three during the first semester - vegetative growth phase - and three during the second semester - flowering phase. In each sampling, we collected 12 plants along the rocky walls with similar location distribution, with a total of 72 bromeliads studied. Results Although beta diversity (PERMDISP did not differ between vegetative growth and flowering, NMDS followed by ANOSIM showed that composition was significantly different in the distinct phenological phases. IndVal results showed that three Diptera morphospecies were discriminant of the vegetative growth phase. In addition, pRDA revealed differences in the relative contribution of local and regional factors to explain insect larvae community structure. During the flowering phase, local factors predominated, while during vegetative growth, regional factors were more important. Conclusion Differences in dispersal rates between the two phenological phases, likely due to adult insect pollination and further oviposition, influenced community structuring. Therefore, flowering events account for differences not only in the composition, but also in community structuring of aquatic insect larvae inhabiting the phytotelmata of Aechmea distichantha Lem. (Bromeliaceae.

  15. Anaerobic metabolism at thermal extremes: a metabolomic test of the oxygen limitation hypothesis in an aquatic insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberk, W C E P; Sommer, U; Davidson, R L; Viant, M R

    2013-10-01

    Thermal limits in ectotherms may arise through a mismatch between supply and demand of oxygen. At higher temperatures, the ability of their cardiac and ventilatory activities to supply oxygen becomes insufficient to meet their elevated oxygen demand. Consequently, higher levels of oxygen in the environment are predicted to enhance tolerance of heat, whereas reductions in oxygen are expected to reduce thermal limits. Here, we extend previous research on thermal limits and oxygen limitation in aquatic insect larvae and directly test the hypothesis of increased anaerobic metabolism and lower energy status at thermal extremes. We quantified metabolite profiles in stonefly nymphs under varying temperatures and oxygen levels. Under normoxia, the concept of oxygen limitation applies to the insects studied. Shifts in the metabolome of heat-stressed stonefly nymphs clearly indicate the onset of anaerobic metabolism (e.g., accumulation of lactate, acetate, and alanine), a perturbation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (e.g., accumulation of succinate and malate), and a decrease in energy status (e.g., ATP), with corresponding decreases in their ability to survive heat stress. These shifts were more pronounced under hypoxic conditions, and negated by hyperoxia, which also improved heat tolerance. Perturbations of metabolic pathways in response to either heat stress or hypoxia were found to be somewhat similar but not identical. Under hypoxia, energy status was greatly compromised at thermal extremes, but energy shortage and anaerobic metabolism could not be conclusively identified as the sole cause underlying thermal limits under hyperoxia. Metabolomics proved useful for suggesting a range of possible mechanisms to explore in future investigations, such as the involvement of leaking membranes or free radicals. In doing so, metabolomics provided a more complete picture of changes in metabolism under hypoxia and heat stress.

  16. Ethoprophos fate on soil-water interface and effects on non-target terrestrial and aquatic biota under Mediterranean crop-based scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Sara; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Van den Brink, Paul J; Ribeiro, Rui; José Cerejeira, M; Sousa, José Paulo

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess the environmental fate of the insecticide and nematicide ethoprophos in the soil-water interface following the pesticide application in simulated maize and potato crops under Mediterranean agricultural conditions, particularly of irrigation. Focus was given to the soil-water transfer pathways (leaching and runoff), to the pesticide transport in soil between pesticide application (crop row) and non-application areas (between crop rows), as well as to toxic effects of the various matrices on terrestrial and aquatic biota. A semi-field methodology mimicking a "worst-case" ethoprophos application (twice the recommended dosage for maize and potato crops: 100% concentration v/v) in agricultural field situations was used, in order to mimic a possible misuse by the farmer under realistic conditions. A rainfall was simulated under a slope of 20° for both crop-based scenarios. Soil and water samples were collected for the analysis of pesticide residues. Ecotoxicity of soil and aquatic samples was assessed by performing lethal and sublethal bioassays with organisms from different trophic levels: the collembolan Folsomia candida, the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the cladoceran Daphnia magna. Although the majority of ethoprophos sorbed to the soil application area, pesticide concentrations were detected in all water matrices illustrating pesticide transfer pathways of water contamination between environmental compartments. Leaching to groundwater proved to be an important transfer pathway of ethoprophos under both crop-based scenarios, as it resulted in high pesticide concentration in leachates from Maize (130µgL(-1)) and Potato (630µgL(-1)) crop scenarios, respectively. Ethoprophos application at the Potato crop scenario caused more toxic effects on terrestrial and aquatic biota than at the Maize scenario at the recommended dosage and lower concentrations. In both crop-based scenarios, ethoprophos moved with the irrigation water flow to the

  17. Comparative functional analyses of ultrabithorax reveal multiple steps and paths to diversification of legs in the adaptive radiation of semi-aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khila, Abderrahman; Abouheif, Ehab; Rowe, Locke

    2014-08-01

    Invasion of new ecological habitats is often associated with lineage diversification, yet the genetic changes underlying invasions and radiations are poorly understood. Over 200 million years ago, the semi-aquatic insects invaded water surface from a common terrestrial ancestor and diversified to exploit a wide array of niches. Here, we uncover the changes in regulation and function of the gene Ultrabithorax associated with both the invasion of water surface and the subsequent diversification of the group. In the common ancestor of the semi-aquatic insects, a novel deployment of Ubx protein in the mid-legs increased their length, thereby enhancing their role in water surface walking. In derived lineages that specialize in rowing on the open water, additional changes in the timing of Ubx expression further elongated the mid-legs thereby facilitating their function as oars. In addition, Ubx protein function was selectively reversed to shorten specific rear-leg segments, thereby enabling their function as rudders. These changes in Ubx have generated distinct niche-specialized morphologies that account for the remarkable diversification of the semi-aquatic insects. Therefore, changes in the regulation and function of a key developmental gene may facilitate both the morphological change necessary to transition to novel habitats and fuel subsequent morphological diversification. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Is there a risk associated with the insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) commonly found in aquatic environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, S.D.; Watkinson, A.J.; Murby, E.J.; Kolpin, D.W.; Sandstrom, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is the active ingredient of most commercial insect repellents. This compound has commonly been detected in aquatic water samples from around the world indicating that DEET is both mobile and persistent, despite earlier assumptions that DEET was unlikely to enter aquatic ecosystems. DEET's registration category does not require an ecological risk assessment, thus information on the ecological toxicity of DEET is sparse. This paper reviews the presence of DEET in aqueous samples from around the world (e.g. drinking water, streams, open seawater, groundwater and treated effluent) with reported DEET concentrations ranging from 40–3000 ng L− 1. In addition, new DEET data collected from 36 sites in coastal waterways from eastern Australia (detections ranging from 8 to 1500 ng L− 1) are examined. A summary of new and existing toxicity data are discussed with an emphasis on preparing a preliminary risk assessment for DEET in the aquatic environment. Collated information on DEET in the aquatic environment suggests risk to aquatic biota at observed environmental concentrations is minimal. However, the information available was not sufficient to conduct a full risk assessment due to data deficiencies in source characterisation, transport mechanisms, fate, and ecotoxicity studies. These risks warrant further investigation due to the high frequency that this organic contaminant is detected in aquatic environments around the world.

  19. Dynamic role and importance of surrogate species for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wach, Michael; Hellmich, Richard L; Layton, Raymond; Romeis, Jörg; Gadaleta, Patricia G

    2016-08-01

    Surrogate species have a long history of use in research and regulatory settings to understand the potentially harmful effects of toxic substances including pesticides. More recently, surrogate species have been used to evaluate the potential effects of proteins contained in genetically engineered insect resistant (GEIR) crops. Species commonly used in GEIR crop testing include beneficial organisms such as honeybees, arthropod predators, and parasitoids. The choice of appropriate surrogates is influenced by scientific factors such as the knowledge of the mode of action and the spectrum of activity as well as societal factors such as protection goals that assign value to certain ecosystem services such as pollination or pest control. The primary reasons for using surrogates include the inability to test all possible organisms, the restrictions on using certain organisms in testing (e.g., rare, threatened, or endangered species), and the ability to achieve greater sensitivity and statistical power by using laboratory testing of certain species. The acceptance of surrogate species data can allow results from one region to be applied or "transported" for use in another region. On the basis of over a decade of using surrogate species to evaluate potential effects of GEIR crops, it appears that the current surrogates have worked well to predict effects of GEIR crops that have been developed (Carstens et al. GM Crops Food 5:1-5, 2014), and it is expected that they should work well to predict effects of future GEIR crops based on similar technologies.

  20. Colonization and diversification of aquatic insects on three Macaronesian archipelagos using 59 nuclear loci derived from a draft genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutschmann, Sereina; Detering, Harald; Simon, Sabrina; Funk, David H; Gattolliat, Jean-Luc; Hughes, Samantha J; Raposeiro, Pedro M; DeSalle, Rob; Sartori, Michel; Monaghan, Michael T

    2017-02-01

    The study of processes driving diversification requires a fully sampled and well resolved phylogeny, although a lack of phylogenetic markers remains a limitation for many non-model groups. Multilocus approaches to the study of recent diversification provide a powerful means to study the evolutionary process, but their application remains restricted because multiple unlinked loci with suitable variation for phylogenetic or coalescent analysis are not available for most non-model taxa. Here we identify novel, putative single-copy nuclear DNA (nDNA) phylogenetic markers to study the colonization and diversification of an aquatic insect species complex, Cloeon dipterum L. 1761 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae), in Macaronesia. Whole-genome sequencing data from one member of the species complex were used to identify 59 nDNA loci (32,213 base pairs), followed by Sanger sequencing of 29 individuals sampled from 13 islands of three Macaronesian archipelagos. Multispecies coalescent analyses established six putative species. Three island species formed a monophyletic clade, with one species occurring on the Azores, Europe and North America. Ancestral state reconstruction indicated at least two colonization events from the mainland (to the Canaries, respectively Azores) and one within the archipelago (between Madeira and the Canaries). Random subsets of the 59 loci showed a positive linear relationship between number of loci and node support. In contrast, node support in the multispecies coalescent tree was negatively correlated with mean number of phylogenetically informative sites per locus, suggesting a complex relationship between tree resolution and marker variability. Our approach highlights the value of combining genomics, coalescent-based phylogeography, species delimitation, and phylogenetic reconstruction to resolve recent diversification events in an archipelago species complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional feeding groups of aquatic insect families in Latin America: a critical analysis and review of existing literature

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Ramírez; Pablo E Gutiérrez-Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic macroinvertebrates are involved in numerous processes within aquatic ecosystems. They often have important effects on ecosystem processes such as primary production (via grazing), detritus breakdown, and nutrient mineralization and downstream spiraling. The functional feeding groups (FFG) classification was developed as a tool to facilitate the incorporation of macroinvertebrates in studies of aquatic ecosystems. This classification has the advantage of combining morphological charact...

  2. Mechanistic Approach to Understanding the Toxicity of the Azole Fungicide Triadimefon to a Nontarget Aquatic Insect and Implications for Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    We utilized mechanistic and stereoselective based in vitro metabolism assays and sublethal exposures of triadimefon to gain insight into the extent of carbonyl reduction and the toxic mode of action of triadimefon with black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) larvae.

  3. Quantifying differences in responses of aquatic insects to trace metal exposure in field studies and short-term stream mesocosm experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yuichi; Schmidt, Travis S.; Clements, William H.

    2018-01-01

    Characterizing macroinvertebrate taxa as either sensitive or tolerant is of critical importance for investigating impacts of anthropogenic stressors in aquatic ecosystems and for inferring causality. However, our understanding of relative sensitivity of aquatic insects to metals in the field and under controlled conditions in the laboratory or mesocosm experiments is limited. In this study, we compared the response of 16 lotic macroinvertebrate families to metals in short-term (10-day) stream mesocosm experiments and in a spatially extensive field study of 154 Colorado streams. Comparisons of field and mesocosm-derived EC20 (effect concentration of 20%) values showed that aquatic insects were generally more sensitive to metals in the field. Although the ranked sensitivity to metals was similar for many families, we observed large differences between field and mesocosm responses for some groups (e.g., Baetidae and Heptageniidae). These differences most likely resulted from the inability of short-term experiments to account for factors such as dietary exposure to metals, rapid recolonization in the field, and effects of metals on sensitive life stages. Understanding mechanisms responsible for differences among field, mesocosm, and laboratory approaches would improve our ability to predict contaminant effects and establish ecologically meaningful water-quality criteria.

  4. Selenium and other trace elements in aquatic insects in coal mine-affected streams in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayland, M.; Crosley, R. [Environmental Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2006-05-15

    We determined levels of Se, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn in aquatic insects at coal mine-impacted and reference sites in streams in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west central Alberta from 2001-2003. Selenium levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies but not in mayflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies and stoneflies but not in mayflies. Zn levels were higher at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in all three groups of insects. At coal mine-impacted sites, Se levels in mayflies and caddisflies were greater than those in stoneflies while at reference sites mayflies contained greater concentrations of Se than either caddisflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels in mayflies were greater than those in caddisflies at reference and coal mine-impacted sites and were greater than those in stoneflies at reference sites. At both types of sites Cd differed amongst insect taxa in the order of mayflies < caddisflies < stoneflies. The same was true of Zn at coal mine-affected sites. At reference sites, stoneflies had greater concentrations of Zn than both mayflies and caddisflies. At both types of sites, Pb levels were greater in mayflies and caddisflies than they were in stoneflies. Of the five trace elements considered in this study, only Se was sufficiently elevated in aquatic invertebrates to be of potential concern for consumers such as fish and aquatic birds. Such was the case at both coal mine-impacted and reference sites.

  5. Are leaves that fall from imidacloprid-treated maple trees to control Asian longhorned beetles toxic to non-target decomposer organisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzweiser, David P; Good, Kevin P; Chartrand, Derek T; Scarr, Taylor A; Thompson, Dean G

    2008-01-01

    The systemic insecticide imidacloprid may be applied to deciduous trees for control of the Asian longhorned beetle, an invasive wood-boring insect. Senescent leaves falling from systemically treated trees contain imidacloprid concentrations that could pose a risk to natural decomposer organisms. We examined the effects of foliar imidacloprid concentrations on decomposer organisms by adding leaves from imidacloprid-treated sugar maple trees to aquatic and terrestrial microcosms under controlled laboratory conditions. Imidacloprid in maple leaves at realistic field concentrations (3-11 mg kg(-1)) did not affect survival of aquatic leaf-shredding insects or litter-dwelling earthworms. However, adverse sublethal effects at these concentrations were detected. Feeding rates by aquatic insects and earthworms were reduced, leaf decomposition (mass loss) was decreased, measurable weight losses occurred among earthworms, and aquatic and terrestrial microbial decomposition activity was significantly inhibited. Results of this study suggest that sugar maple trees systemically treated with imidacloprid to control Asian longhorned beetles may yield senescent leaves with residue levels sufficient to reduce natural decomposition processes in aquatic and terrestrial environments through adverse effects on non-target decomposer organisms.

  6. Estimating benthic secondary production from aquatic insect emergence in streams affected by mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining recountours the Appalachian landscape, buries headwater stream channels, and degrades downstream water quality. The goal of this study was to compare benthic community production estimates, based on seasonal insect emergen...

  7. Aquatic insect community structure under the influence of small dams in a stream of the Mogi-Guaçu river basin, state of São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulino, H H L; Corbi, J J; Trivinho-Strixino, S

    2014-02-01

    The fragmentation of lotic systems caused by construction of dams has modified many aquatic communities. The objective of this study was to analyse changes in the aquatic insect community structure by discontinuity of habitat created by dams along the Ribeirão das Anhumas, a sub-basin of the Mogi-Guaçu River (state of São Paulo, Brazil). Entomofauna collection was carried out in 10 segments upstream and downstream of five dams along the longitudinal profile of the stream, with a quick sampling method using a D net (mesh 250 mm) with 2 minutes of sampling effort. The insects were sorted and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level and analysed by the Shannon diversity index, β diversity, richness estimated by rarefaction curves and relative participation of functional feeding groups. The results showed a slight reduction in diversity in the downstream segments, as well as along the longitudinal profile of the stream. However, there were no significant differences in abundance and richness between the upstream and downstream segments, indicating that the dams did not influence these variables. Differences were observed in the functional feeding groups along the longitudinal profile. Predator and gatherer insects were dominant in all segments analysed. The feeding group of shredders was more abundant in the segment DSIII with the participation of Marilia Müller (Odontoceridae - Trichoptera), although we observed a decrease of shredders and scrapers with the decrease of the canopy cover reducing values of β diversity in the continuum of Ribeirão das Anhumas. This result demonstrated the importance of the conservation of the riparian vegetation in order to maintain the integrity of the stream.

  8. Toxicological Evaluation of a New Lepidopteran Insecticide, Flubendiamide, in Non-Target Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Sarkar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flubendiamide, comparatively a new pesticide designed to eradicate lepidopteran insect pests is known to have low risk to birds, mammals, fish, algae, honey bees, non-target arthropods, earthworms, soil macro- and micro-organisms, non-target plants as well as sewage treatment organisms; however, the risk assessment for aquatic invertebrates from metabolite could not be finalized with available data. Methods: Different concentrations of flubendiamide (TATA TAKUMI®, Rallis, India were introduced to larvae, pupae, and adult flies. A wide range of comparatively higher concentrations was selected for acute LC50 than chronic LC50 due to their exposure duration. Furthermore, relatively lower concentrations were introduced to larvae for assessment of emergence. Results: At chronic exposure, the effect-concentration relationship exhibited a linear response when adult emergence was considered in Drosophila melanogaster. When acute LC50 of flubendiamide in 3rd instar larvae was compared with the chronic LC50 then it was seen to be approximately 21 fold higher whereas chronic LC50 for adult flies was nearly 19 times less than the adult acute LC50. Similarly, adult emergence was seen to lower by 91.95% at 1500 µg/mL concentration. The chronic LC50 of the flubendiamide in Drosophila was approximately 170303 times more than the reported No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC. Conclusion: Hence, the chemical, flubendiamide can induce its effects at very low concentration, far below the lethal ones. Thus, the study is of relevance for the non-target insects as well as the insect dependent organisms.

  9. NON-TARGET AND ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS CONTAINING PLANT INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS (PIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The risk of unintended and unexpected adverse impacts on non-target organisms and ecosystems is a key issue in environmental risk assessment of PIP crop plants. While there has been considerable examination of the effects of insect resistant crops on certain non-target organisms...

  10. Reed beds may facilitate transfer of tributyltin from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems through insect vectors in the Archipelago Sea, SW Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Thomas M; Meierjohann, Axel; Ruokolainen, Lasse; Peltonen, Jani; Vesterinen, Eero; Kronberg, Leif; Nikinmaa, Mikko

    2012-08-01

    Due to their adsorptive behavior, organotin compounds (OTCs), such as tributyltin (TBT), are accumulated in aquatic sediments. They resist biodegradation and, despite a ban in 2008, are a potential source for future exposure. Sediment OTCs have mostly been measured from sites of known high concentrations such as ports, shipping lanes, and marine dredging waste sites. The possible flow of OTCs from marine to terrestrial ecosystems, however, has not been studied. In the present study, the authors assessed whether sediments in common reed beds (Phragmites australis) accumulate TBT and whether chironomid (Diptera: Chironomidae) communities developing in reed-bed sediments act as vectors in the transfer of TBT from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems in the Airisto channel, Archipelago Sea. The authors also investigated whether distance from the only known source and depth and TBT concentration of the adjacent shipping lane affect reed-bed concentrations. Thirty-six sites along the Airisto channel were sampled at 2-km intervals with triplicate samples from reed beds and the adjacent shipping lane for sediment and seven reed-bed sites for chironomids, and these were analyzed with an solid phase extraction liquid chromatography tamdem mass spectrometry method. The closer to the source the sample site was, the higher the measured TBT concentrations were; and the deeper the shipping lane, the lower the concentration of TBT in reed-bed sediments. The chironomid TBT concentrations correlated with reed-bed sediment TBT concentrations and showed evidence of accumulation. Therefore, TBT may be transferred, through the food web, from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems relatively close to a source through ecosystem boundaries, such as common reed beds, which are areas of high insect biomass production in the Archipelago Sea. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  11. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in juvenile Chinook salmon and selected fish-forage organisms (aquatic insects) in the upper Sacramento River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; Thompson, Larry D.; Walsh, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the downstream extent andseverity of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn)contamination from acid mine drainage on juvenile chinook salmon(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and aquatic insects over aroughly 270-km reach of the Sacramento River below KeswickReservoir. During April–May 1998, salmon were collected fromfour sites in the river and from a fish hatchery that receiveswater from Battle Creek. Salmon from river sites were examinedfor gut contents to document their consumption of variousinvertebrate taxa, whereas salmon from river sites and thehatchery were used for metal determinations. Midge(Chironomidae) and caddisfly (Trichoptera) larvae and mayfly(Ephemeroptera) nymphs were collected for metal determinationsduring April–June from river sites and from Battle and Buttecreeks. The fish hatchery and Battle and Butte creeks served asreference sites because they had no history of receiving minedrainage. Salmon consumed mostly midge larvae and pupae (44.0%,damp-dry biomass), caddisfly larvae (18.9%), Cladocera (5.8%),and mayfly nymphs (5.7%). These results demonstrated thatinsects selected for metal determinations were important as fishforage. Dry-weight concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn weregenerally far higher in salmon and insects from the river thanfrom reference sites. Within the river, high metalconcentrations persisted as far downstream as South Meridian (thelowermost sampling site). Maximum concentrations of Cd (30.7 μg g-1) and Zn (1230 μg g-1),but not Cu (87.4 μg g-1), in insects exceeded amounts that other investigators reported as toxic when fed for prolonged periods to juvenile salmonids.

  12. Acute toxicity of birch tar oil on aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. HAGNER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Birch tar oil (BTO is a by-product of processing birch wood in a pyrolysis system. Accumulating evidence suggests the suitability of BTO as a biocide or repellent in terrestrial environments for the control of weeds, insects, molluscs and rodents. Once applied as biocide, BTO may end up, either through run-off or leaching, in aquatic systems and may have adverse effects on non-target organisms. As very little is known about the toxicity of BTO to aquatic organisms, the present study investigated acute toxicity (LC50/EC50 of BTO for eight aquatic organisms. Bioassays with the Asellus aquaticus (crustacean, Lumbriculus variegatus (oligochaeta worm, Daphnia magna (crustacean, Lymnea sp. (mollusc, Lemna minor (vascular plant, Danio rerio (fish, Scenedesmus gracilis (algae, and Vibrio fischeri (bacterium were performed according to ISO, OECD or USEPA-guidelines. The results indicated that BTO was practically nontoxic to most aquatic organisms as the median effective BTO concentrations against most organisms were >150 mg L-1. In conclusion, our toxicity tests showed that aquatic organisms are to some extent, invariably sensitive to birch tar oil, but suggest that BTO does not pose a severe hazard to aquatic biota. We deduce that, unless BTOs are not applied in the immediate vicinity of water bodies, no special precaution is required.;

  13. Genotoxic effects of environmental endocrine disruptors on the aquatic insect Chironomus riparius evaluated using the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Paz, Pedro; Morales, Mónica; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2013-12-12

    Genotoxicity is one of the most important toxic endpoints in chemical toxicity testing and environmental risk assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of various environmental pollutants frequently found in aquatic environments and characterized by their endocrine disrupting activity. Monitoring of DNA damage was undertaken after in vivo exposures of the aquatic larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius, a model organism that represents an abundant and ecologically relevant macroinvertebrate, widely used in freshwater toxicology. DNA-induced damage, resulting in DNA fragmentation, was quantified by the comet assay after short (24 h) and long (96 h) exposures to different concentrations of the selected toxicants: bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), pentachlorophenol (PCP), tributyltin (TBT) and triclosan (TCS). All five compounds were found to have genotoxic activity as demonstrated by significant increases in all the comet parameters (%DNA in tail, tail length, tail moment and Olive tail moment) at all tested concentrations. Persistent exposure did not increase the extent of DNA damage, except for TCS at the highest concentration, but generally there was a reduction in DNA damage thought to be associated with the induction of the detoxification processes and repairing mechanisms. Comparative analysis showed differences in the genotoxic potential between the chemicals, as well as significant time and concentration-dependent variations, which most likely reflect differences in the ability to repair DNA damage under the different treatments. The present report demonstrates the sensitivity of the benthic larvae of C. riparius to these environmental genotoxins suggesting its potential as biomonitor organism in freshwater ecosystems. The results obtained about the DNA-damaging potential of these environmental pollutants reinforce the need for additional studies on the genotoxicity of endocrine active substances that, by linking genotoxic

  14. Fear and loathing in the benthos: Responses of aquatic insect larvae to the pesticide imidacloprid in the presence of chemical signals of predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, João L T; Loureiro, Susana; Baird, Donald J; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2009-06-28

    The influence of interactions between pesticide exposure and perceived predation risk on the lethal and sub-lethal responses of two aquatic insects was investigated using the pesticide imidacloprid, and a combination of predator-release kairomones from trout and alarm substances from conspecifics. Laboratory experiments examined feeding and respiration rates of the caddisfly Sericostoma vittatum as well as the growth, emergence and respiration rates of the midge Chironomus riparius, exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of imidacloprid. The effects of the two stressors on burrowing behaviour of both species were also assessed. The results show significant effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of imidacloprid on all endpoints studied. Perceived predation risk also elicited sub-lethal effects in C. riparius and S. vittatum, the latter species being less responsive to predation cues. The effects of simultaneous exposure to both types of stressors were assessed using two different approaches: analysis of variance and conceptual models [concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA)] normally used for the evaluation of contaminant mixture exposure. Both statistical approaches showed no significant interactions on responses in simultaneous exposures in the majority of parameters assessed with only a signification deviation from the reference CA and IA models being found for C. riparius respiration data contrary to the ANOVA results. Exposure to imidacloprid also compromised antipredator behavioural responses of both insect species, with potential negative consequences in terms of mortality from predation in the field. The results obtained demonstrate that natural and anthropogenic stressors can be treated within the same framework providing compatible data for modelling. For an improved interpretation of ecological effects it will be important to expand the mechanistic study of effects of combined exposure to pesticides and perceived predation risk

  15. Impact of waste dump on surface water quality and aquatic insect diversity of Deepor Beel (Ramsar site), Assam, North-east India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Dharitri; Gupta, Susmita

    2017-10-06

    Water and aquatic insects were collected seasonally from site 1, the low-lying area of the dump near Deepor Beel, and from sites 2 and 3 of the main wetland and analysed. While dissolved oxygen (DO) increased from site 1 to site 3 in each season, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solid (TDS), total alkalinity (TA) and free CO 2 (F-CO 2 ) decreased. Pb and Cd were found to exceed the limits set for drinking water in all the sites and seasons. Species richness (SpR) was found highest (23) at site 2 and lowest (14) at site 1. Sensitive species was absent. The Shannon (H') values at site 1 were  1 in most of the seasons. Biological monitoring scores (Biological Monitoring Working Party and Stream Invertebrate Grade Number-Average Level) in different sites and seasons inferred severely poor to moderate water quality. At site 1, significant negative correlations were seen for Pb and Cr with SpR while Ni and Cu with insect density (ID). At site 2, TA had highly significant positive correlations with SpR and ID while Cu showed negative correlation with SpR. At site 3, ID had significant negative relationships with air temperature, water temperature, depth, TA, F-CO 2 , PO 4 3- and Cr. Canonical correspondence analysis triplot has clearly separated site 1 associated with tolerant species and highly influenced by TA, TDS, EC, F-CO 2, Cr, Ni, Cd and Zn confirming high anthropogenic activities on that site. Tolerant and semitolerant species were present at site 2 (influenced by depth and transparency) and site 3 (influenced by Pb and WT) both. Results of this study discerned that the dump site is the point source of pollution.

  16. Insectos acuáticos de la Meseta del Somuncura, Patagonia, Argentina. Inventario preliminar Aquatic insects from Somuncura plateau, Patagonia, Argentina. Preliminary inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Muzón

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Se brinda un inventario preliminar de los insectos acuáticos de la Meseta del Somuncura y su área de influencia (Patagonia, Argentina realizado sobre la base de colecciones y registros previos de especies pertenecientes a los órdenes Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (familias Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae y Psychodidae y Coleoptera. Se han relevado diversos tipos de ambientes en 14 localidades. El número de especies registrado asciende a 78, agrupadas en 51 géneros y 26 familias, de las cuales 33 se citan por primera vez del área. De los taxa registrados 83% de los géneros corresponden a grupos de amplia distribución (neotropicales, americanos o cosmopolitas, mientras que 41% de las especies presentan una distribución patagónica o andina.ABSTRACT. A preliminary inventory of the aquatic insects from the Somuncura plateau and its area of influence (Patagonia, Argentina is presented. It was done on the basis of the study of collections and previous records of species belonging to the orders Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera (families Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae, and Psychodidae and Coleoptera. Different kinds of environments were surveyed in 14 localities. Seventy eigth species grouped in 51 genera and 26 families were registered, and 33 species are new records for the area. Eighty three % of the registered genera are widely distributed (neotropical, american or cosmopolitan, while 41 % of the species exhibit patagonic or andean distribution.

  17. Distribution of aquatic insects in urban headwater streams Distribuição de insetos aquáticos em riachos urbanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ubiratan Hepp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of urban environments on the distribution and occurrence of aquatic Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT insects in six urban subtropical streams; METHODS: Organisms were collected with a Surber sampler in 2005 and 2006, over two hydrological cycles. We analyzed abundance values, taxonomic richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity and Pielou's evenness. A principal components analysis (PCA was performed to evaluate the environmental variability of streams. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA was performed to evaluate the possible effects of environmental variables; RESULTS: The PCA ordered the streams according to their quality, and Suzana and Nadau streams had higher concentrations of nutrients. The Baetidae (Ephemeroptera was the family with the highest number of genera (18. Perissophlebiodes Savage, 1983, and Americabaetis Kluge, 1992, were the most common genera. Anacroneuria Klapálek, 1909, was the most abundant Pleocoptera, and Smicridea McLachlan, 1871, was the dominant Trichoptera genus. In the CCA, pH, electrical conductivity and stream velocity were positively correlated with axis 1, whereas dissolved oxygen was negatively correlated with axis 1; CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the distribution of EPT in urban streams is affected by changes in water physicochemical characteristics. However, these changes are not sufficiently severe to cause the elimination of EPT.OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da urbanização sobre a ocorrência e distribuição de insetos aquáticos das ordens Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera e Trichoptera (EPT em seis riachos subtropicais; MÉTODOS: Os organismos foram coletados com um amostrador Surber, durante os anos 2005 e 2006, abrangendo dois ciclos hidrológicos. Foram analisados os valores de abundância, riqueza taxonômica, diversidade Shannon-Wiener e equitabilidade de Pielou. Uma Análise de Componentes

  18. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cofrancesco, Alfred

    1998-01-01

    .... This search for natural plant enemies (insects and fungal pathogens) has led researchers to the native ranges of noxious aquatic plants, located throughout the continents of Africa, Asia, Europe, and Australia...

  19. Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dibenzothiophenes in wetland sediments and aquatic insects in the oil sands area of northeastern Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, Mark; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Crosley, Robert; Brownlee, Brian G

    2008-01-01

    An immense volume of tailings and tailings water is accumulating in tailings ponds located on mine leases in the oil sands area of Alberta, Canada. Oil sands mining companies have proposed to use tailings- and tailings water-amended lakes and wetlands as part of their mine remediation plans. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are substances of concern in oil sands tailings and tailings water. In this study, we determined concentrations of PAHs in sediments, insect larvae and adult insects collected in or adjacent to three groups of wetlands: experimental wetlands to which tailings or tailings water had been purposely added, oil sands wetlands that were located on the mine leases but which had not been experimentally manipulated and reference wetlands located near the mine leases. Alkylated PAHs dominated the PAH profile in all types of samples in the three categories of wetlands. Median and maximum PAH concentrations, especially alkylated PAH concentrations, tended to be higher in sediments and insect larvae in experimental wetlands than in the other types of wetlands. Such was not the case for adult insects, which contained higher than expected levels of PAHs in the three types of ponds. Overlap in PAH concentrations in larvae among pond types suggests that any increase in PAH levels resulting from the addition of tailings and tailings water to wetlands would be modest. Biota-sediment accumulation factors were higher for alkylated PAHs than for their parent counterparts and were lower in experimental wetlands than in oil sands and reference wetlands. Research is needed to examine factors that affect the bioavailability of PAHs in oil sands tailings- or tailings water-amended wetlands.

  20. Pond and Stream Safari: A Guide to the Ecology of Aquatic Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Karen

    This packet includes a leader's guide, a quick reference guide to aquatic invertebrates, a checklist of common aquatic invertebrates, and activity sheets. The leader's guide includes four sections on background information and seven activities. Background sections include: Understanding Aquatic Insects; Growing Up: Aquatic Insect Forms; Adapting…

  1. Insects in IBL-4 pine weevil traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Skrzecz

    2003-01-01

    Pipe traps (IBL-4) are used in Polish coniferous plantations to monitor and control the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). This study was conducted in a one-year old pine plantation established on a reforested clear-cut area in order to evaluate the impact of these traps on non-target insects. Evaluation of the catches indicated that species of

  2. Warmer winters modulate life history and energy storage but do not affect sensitivity to a widespread pesticide in an aquatic insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambourou, Hélène; Stoks, Robby

    2015-10-01

    Despite the increased attention for the effects of pesticides under global warming no studies tested how winter warming affects subsequent sensitivity to pesticides. Winter warming is expected to cause delayed negative effects when it increases metabolic rates and thereby depletes energy reserves. Using a common-garden experiment, we investigated the combined effect of a 4 °C increase in winter temperature and subsequent exposure to chlorpyrifos in the aquatic larvae of replicated low- and high-latitude European populations of the damselfly Ischnura elegans. The warmer winter (8 °C) resulted in a higher winter survival and higher growth rates compared to the cold winter (4 °C) commonly experienced by European high-latitude populations. Low-latitude populations were better at coping with the warmer winter, indicating thermal adaptation to the local winter temperatures. Subsequent chlorpyrifos exposure at 20 °C induced strong negative effects on survival, growth rate, lipid content and acetylcholinesterase activity while phenoloxidase activity increased. These pesticide effects were not affected by winter warming. Our results suggest that for species where winter warming has positive effects on life history, no delayed effects on the sensitivity to subsequent pesticide exposure should be expected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Exposure degree of important non-target arthropods to Cry2Aa in Bt rice fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Ling; Li, Yun-He; Hua, Hong-Xia; Yang, Chang-Ju; Wu, Hong-Jin; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2013-06-01

    Based on the principle of "risk = hazard x exposure", the selected representative nontarget organisms in the assessment of the potential effects of insect-resistant genetically modified (GM) crops on non-target arthropods in laboratory are generally the arthropod species highly exposed to the insecticidal proteins expressed by the GM crops in farmland ecosystem. In order to understand the exposure degree of the important arthropod species to Cry proteins in Bt rice fields, and to select the appropriate non-target arthropods in the risk assessment of insect-resistant GM crops, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted to measure the Cry2Aa protein concentration in the arthropods collected from the cry2Aa rice fields at different rice growth stages. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the Cry2Aa content protein concentration in different arthropod species. Some species did not contain Cry2Aa protein, while some species contained larger amounts of Cry2Aa protein. Relative to the arthropods colleted after rice anthesis, the arthropods colleted in rice anthesis contained relative higher concentrations of Cry2Aa protein, especially for the predacious arthropods. No Cry proteins were detected in parasitic arthropods. This study provided references for the laboratory assessment of the effects of GM rice on nontarget arthropods.

  4. The use of statistical tools in field testing of putative effects of genetically modified plants on non-target organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, Alexander V.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Glandorf, Debora C. M.; Schilthuizen, Menno; de Boer, Willem F.

    To fulfill existing guidelines, applicants that aim to place their genetically modified (GM) insect-resistant crop plants on the market are required to provide data from field experiments that address the potential impacts of the GM plants on nontarget organisms (NTO's). Such data may be based on

  5. The use of statistical tools in field testing of putative effects of genetically modified plants on nontarget organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, A.V.; Elsas, van J.D.; Glandorf, D.C.M.; Schilthuizen, M.; Boer, de W.F.

    2013-01-01

    To fulfill existing guidelines, applicants that aim to place their genetically modified (GM) insect-resistant crop plants on the market are required to provide data from field experiments that address the potential impacts of the GM plants on nontarget organisms (NTO's). Such data may be based on

  6. Saponins in the aquatic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xiaogang

    -like structure, saponins have a lot of applications, e.g. as foaming agents in consumer products, as adjuvants in the vaccine, as biosurfactants in soil washing and as biopesticides in crop protection. Hence, they may leach into the aquatic environment due to their low octanol/water partition coefficient......This PhD thesis consists of three parts to illustrate the goal of getting a better understanding of the fate and toxicity of saponins in the aquatic environment. It includes an introduction to the general aspects of saponins, their chemistry and the ecotoxicology concepts, and a second part...... and poor binding to organic matter. They may therefore also pose a risk to the aquatic organisms. Since saponins are efficient against pests, they are most likely also toxic to the non-target organisms. However, their fate and toxicity in the environment are not fully understood. There are two main...

  7. Fauna de coleópteros aquáticos (insect: coleoptera na Amazônia central, Brasil Aquatic Beetlefauna (insecta: coleoptera in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar João Benetti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletados 888 exemplares de Coleoptera aquáticos nos municípios de Manaus, Manacapuru e Presidente Figueiredo (AM, de fevereiro de 2000 a agosto de 2002, distribuídos em 12 famílias, 50 gêneros e 88 espécies ou morfoespécies. Novas ocorrências para o Brasil, incluem as seguintes espécies de Dytiscidae: Hydrodessus robinae, H. surinamensis, Hypodessus frustrator, Neobidessus confusus, N. spangleri e N. woodruffi. Os gêneros Agaporomorphus (Dytiscidae e Pronoterus (Noteridae são registrados pela primeira vez para o estado do Amazonas, assim como as espécies: P. punctipennis e Suphisellus nigrinus (Noteridae; Agaporomorphus grandisinuatus, Bidessonotus tibialis, Derovatellus lentus,Desmopachria nitida, Hydaticus xanthomelas, Laccophilus tarsalis, Liodessus affinis e Megadytes laevigatus (Dytiscidae. A família Dytiscidae foi a que apresentou maior riqueza, com 34 espécies, seguida de Hydrophilidae, com 20 e Noteridae, com 12 espécies. Os gêneros com maior número de espécies foram Gyretes (Gyrinidae e Suphisellus (Noteridae com 6 espécies, Copelatus (Dytiscidae e Tropisternus (Hydrophilidae, com 5 espécies.In this work, 888 specimens of aquatic Coleoptera were collected in Manaus, Manacapuru and Presidente Figueiredo counties (AM, distributed in 12 families, 50 genera and 88 species or morphospecies. New occurrences in Brasil include the following species of Dytiscidae: Hydrodessus robinae, H. surinamensis, Hypodessus frustrator, Neobidessus confusus, N. spangleri and N. woodruffi. The genera Agaporomorphus (Dytiscidae and Pronoterus (Noteridae were reported for the first time in the State of Amazonas, as well as the species P. punctipennis and Suphisellus nigrinus (Noteridae; Agaporomorphus grandisinuatus, Bidessonotus tibialis, Derovatellus lentus,Desmopachria nitida, Hydaticus xanthomelas, Laccophilus tarsalis, Liodessus affinis and Megadytes laevigatus (Dytiscidae. The family Dytiscidae presented the highest richness

  8. Comparative ecotoxicity of chlorantraniliprole to non-target soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavtižar, Vesna; Berggren, Kristina; Trebše, Polonca; Kraak, Michiel H S; Verweij, Rudo A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-09-01

    The insecticide chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is gaining importance in agricultural practice, but data on its possible negative effects on non-target organisms is severely deficient. This study therefore determined CAP toxicity to non-target soil invertebrates playing a crucial role in ecosystem functioning, including springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus) and oribatid mites (Oppia nitens). In sublethal toxicity tests in Lufa 2.2 soil, chronic exposure to CAP concentrations up to 1000 mg/kgdw did not affect the survival and reproduction of E. crypticus and O. nitens nor the survival, body weight and consumption of P. scaber. In contrast, the survival and reproduction of F. candida was severely affected, with an EC50 for effects on reproduction of 0.14 mg CAP/kgdw. The toxicity of CAP to the reproduction of F. candida was tested in four different soils following OECD guideline 232, and additionally in an avoidance test according to ISO guideline 17512-2. A significantly lower toxicity in soils rich in organic matter was observed, compared to low organic soils. Observations in the avoidance test with F. candida suggest that CAP acted in a prompt way, by affecting collembolan locomotor abilities thus preventing them from escaping contaminated soil. This study shows that CAP may especially pose a risk to non-target soil arthropods closely related to insects, while other soil invertebrates seem rather insensitive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Marine insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Lanna

    1976-01-01

    .... Not only are true insects, such as the Collembola and insect parasites of marine birds and mammals, considered, but also other kinds of intertidal air-breathing arthropods, notably spiders, scorpions...

  10. Comunidades de insectos acuáticos de charcos temporarios y lagunas en la ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina Aquatic insect communities of temporary pools and permanent ponds in Buenos Aires City (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Fontanarrosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la comunidad de insectos acuáticos presente en charcos temporarios de parques y plazas de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, y en lagunas permanentes de la Reserva Ecológica Costanera Sur, situada en la ribera del Río de la Plata. Se revisaron 3436 charcos y se visitaron, en 149 oportunidades, seis lagunas de la reserva. Para el conjunto de ambientes, se registraron 85 taxones pertenecientes a cinco órdenes de insectos. Los coleópteros fueron los más diversos (36 taxones, seguidos por los dípteros (27, heterópteros (17, odonatos (4 y efemerópteros (1. Se observaron altos valores de riqueza en los charcos temporarios (58 taxones y las lagunas sin vegetación flotante (64 taxones. La diversidad estimada de los charcos temporarios fue significativamente (pWe studied the community of aquatic insects inhabiting both temporary pools and permanent ponds occuring in Buenos Aires City. A total of 3436 rain pools were examined, and six permanent ponds at the "Reserva Ecológica Costanera Sur" in the Río de la Plata riverside were visited 149 times. A total of 85 taxa were recorded from both habitats, included in five orders of Insecta. The order Coleoptera showed the highest diversity values (36 taxa, followed by Diptera (27, Heteroptera (17, Odonata (4, and Ephemeroptera (1. High values of richness were observed in temporary pools (58 taxa and permanent ponds without floating vegetation (64 taxa. The diversity index for temporary ponds was significantly (p<0,05 lower than in permanent habitats.

  11. Edible Insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.; Dunkel, F.V.

    2016-01-01

    The interest in insects as human food in the Western world is increasingly considered as a viable alternative to other protein sources. In tropical countries it is common practice and about 2000 insect species are eaten. Insects emit low levels of greenhouse gases, need little water, and require

  12. Consuming insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, N.; Huis, van A.

    2017-01-01

    How healthy are insects? This is a highly relevant question in view of the global interest in the potential of insects as a sustainable food source in food systems and diets. Edible insects, like other foods, can provide nutrients and dietary energy to meet the requirements of the human body as a

  13. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, O.V.

    2008-01-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects and genomic instability. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm would cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (orig.)

  14. Mortality of nontarget arthropods from an aerial application of pyrethrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Jonathan A; Novak, Mark G; Hyles, Timothy S; Niemela, Michael K

    2009-06-01

    Mortality of nontarget organisms from an ultra-low volume (ULV) aerial application of pyrethrins (Evergreen EC 60-6) was monitored by collecting arthropods from ground tarps placed at the interface of open and canopy areas. A larger number and greater diversity of arthropods were recovered from tarps in the ULV spray area. The observed mortality was approximately 10-fold greater than in the control area. Kruskal-Wallis tests revealed a significant difference in the abundance and diversity of arthropods collected at treatment and control sites at 1 and 12 h postspray. Arthropods, primarily insects, from the treatment area included representatives from 12 orders and > or = 34 families, as compared to 7 orders and 12 families in the control area. Chironomidae (midges) and Formicidae (ants) were the most commonly represented families, accounting for 61% of the arthropods collected from the treatment area; no large-bodied insects (>8 mm) were recovered. Mortality of sentinel mosquitoes in the treatment and control areas averaged 96% and arthropods.

  15. The dark side of suibsidies: quantifying contaminant exposure to riparian predators via stream insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic insects provide a critical nutrient subsidy to riparian food webs, yet their role as vectors of contaminants to terrestrial ecosystems is poorly understood. We investigated relationships between aquatic (resource utilization) and contaminant exposure for a riparian invert...

  16. Faunistic Study of the Aquatic Arthropods in a Tourism Area in Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeghi, Mansoureh; Dehghan, Hossein; Pakdad, Kamran; Nikpour, Fatemeh; Absavaran, Azad; Sofizadeh, Aioub; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Vatandoost, Hassan; Aghai-Afshar, Abbass

    2017-06-01

    Aquatic insects are very abundant and divers groups of insects that are associated with an aquatic or semiaquatic environment in one or more of their life stages. These insects have been, in some cases, well studied because they are vectors of several diseases. This is the first comprehensive faunistic study of aquatic insects from Babol County. The results may provide basic data for further taxonomic and ecological studies of aquatic insects as biological control agent or classification of water quality for the country. The specimens were collected using different methods including: D-frame net collector, standard mosquito dipper (350ml), Sweep-Netting and plastic pipette. Sampling carried out in different part of breading places in several times. During this study a total of 196 aquatic specimens were collected from different habitats and were morphologically identified including 18 families classified in 6 orders: Diptera, Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Hemiptera and Odonata. Babol and Amol district in Mazandaran Province are located in humid climate regions with suitable ecological factors of humidity, moderate temperature and the variety of plant species. There are different species of aquatic insects in different habitats. The results will provide information for biodeveristy, species richness, their role for biological control as well as calcification of rivers based on abundance of aquatic insects. Therefore the understanding of ecological specifications of aquatic insects could provide a clue for further Arthropod-borne disease control. Additionally aquatic insect could be used for classification of water bodies.

  17. Aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to riparian spiders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu, E-mail: f-akamt55@pwri.go.jp [Department of Environmental Sciences, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Toda, Hideshige [Department of Environmental Sciences, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Stable nitrogen isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 15}N) of aquatic biota increases with anthropogenic N inputs such as sewage and livestock waste downstream. Increase in {delta}{sup 15}N of riparian spiders downstream may reflect the anthropogenic pollution exposure through predation on aquatic insects. A two-source mixing model based on stable carbon isotopic composition showed the greatest dependence on aquatic insects (84%) by horizontal web-building spiders, followed by intermediate (48%) and low (31%) dependence by cursorial and vertical web-building spiders, respectively. The spider body size was negatively correlated with the dietary proportion of aquatic insects and spider {delta}{sup 15}N. The aquatic subsidies transported anthropogenic N to smaller riparian spiders downstream. This transport of anthropogenic N was regulated by spider's guild designation and body size. - Highlights: > {delta}{sup 15}N of aquatic insects increases downstream with anthropogenic nitrogen inputs. > {delta}{sup 15}N of riparian spiders increases with a high dietary proportion of aquatic insects and smaller spider body size. > The aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to smaller riparian spiders downstream. - Smaller spiders assimilate anthropogenic nitrogen through the predation on aquatic subsides.

  18. Aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to riparian spiders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Toda, Hideshige

    2011-01-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopic composition (δ 15 N) of aquatic biota increases with anthropogenic N inputs such as sewage and livestock waste downstream. Increase in δ 15 N of riparian spiders downstream may reflect the anthropogenic pollution exposure through predation on aquatic insects. A two-source mixing model based on stable carbon isotopic composition showed the greatest dependence on aquatic insects (84%) by horizontal web-building spiders, followed by intermediate (48%) and low (31%) dependence by cursorial and vertical web-building spiders, respectively. The spider body size was negatively correlated with the dietary proportion of aquatic insects and spider δ 15 N. The aquatic subsidies transported anthropogenic N to smaller riparian spiders downstream. This transport of anthropogenic N was regulated by spider's guild designation and body size. - Highlights: → δ 15 N of aquatic insects increases downstream with anthropogenic nitrogen inputs. → δ 15 N of riparian spiders increases with a high dietary proportion of aquatic insects and smaller spider body size. → The aquatic subsidies transport anthropogenic nitrogen to smaller riparian spiders downstream. - Smaller spiders assimilate anthropogenic nitrogen through the predation on aquatic subsides.

  19. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between terre...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water.......Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...

  20. Insect Detectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2002-08-01

    Aug 1, 2002 ... all life stages of insects from and around the corpse. The collected specimens are subjected to further analysis either in the field itself or in the laboratory. A forensic entomologist has three main objectives in his mind while analyzing the insect data: determination of place, time and mode of death, each of.

  1. Insect Keepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Virginia J.; Chessin, Debby A.; Theobald, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Insects are fascinating creatures--especially when you and your students get up close and personal with them! To that end, the authors facilitated an inquiry-based investigation with an emphasis on identification of the different types of insects found in the school yard, their characteristics, their habitat, and what they eat, while engaging the…

  2. Edible insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.

    2017-01-01

    Is it an impossible task to convince consumers to eat insects? This does not only apply to western consumers who are less familiar with this food habit than consumers in tropical countries. In the tropics too, many people do not consume insects, even though they are easier to collect as food than

  3. Eating insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Hui Shan Grace

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, edible insects have gained global attention due to their nutritional and environmental advantages over conventional meat. While numerous species of edible insects are enjoyed in various cultures around the world, most Western consumers react with disgust and aversion towards

  4. Marketing insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiemer, Carolin; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Jespersen, Kristjan

    2018-01-01

    In entering Western markets, edible insects are typically framed as the ‘solution’ to a number of challenges caused by unsustainable global food systems, such as climate change and global health issues. In addition, some media outlets also frame insects as the next ‘superfood’. Superfood is a mar......In entering Western markets, edible insects are typically framed as the ‘solution’ to a number of challenges caused by unsustainable global food systems, such as climate change and global health issues. In addition, some media outlets also frame insects as the next ‘superfood’. Superfood...... is a marketing term for nutrient-packed foods, which are successfully promoted to Western consumers with the promises of health, well-being and beauty. However, the increase in the demand in the West is argued to cause negative social, environmental, economic and cultural consequences – externalities – felt...

  5. Insect Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature and environment derived from beetle and other insect fossils. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set. Additional...

  6. Insect Detectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2002-08-01

    Aug 1, 2002 ... He writes popular science articles in ... science, English poetry is his area of ... A fascinating branch of insect science (ento- ... Methods in Forensic Entomology .... bullet wound to the right temple, and a substantial pooling of.

  7. Eating insects

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Hui Shan Grace

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, edible insects have gained global attention due to their nutritional and environmental advantages over conventional meat. While numerous species of edible insects are enjoyed in various cultures around the world, most Western consumers react with disgust and aversion towards eating creatures that are not regarded as food. The low consumer acceptance of this culturally inappropriate food is currently considered to be one of the key barriers to attaining the benefits of this po...

  8. Consuming insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna; van Huis, A.

    2017-01-01

    as a part of a varied diet. They also have the potential to provide bioactive compounds that have health benefits beyond simple nutritional values, as is the case for other food groups such as fruits and vegetables. Various recent studies have indicated such bioactivity in different insect species....... The enormous number of edible insect species may be a source of novel bioactive compounds with health benefits addressing global health challenges. However, any identified health benefits need to be confirmed in human studies or in standardised assays accepted in health research prior to making health claims....

  9. Insect Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pilsch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this note, Pilsch address William Gibson’s use of insect imagery in to trouble the common understanding of the novel Neuromancer, its commentary on corporate culture, and its relationship to a then-emergent posthumanism. Further, he concludes by suggesting that, for Gibson, the insect hive as an image for the corporate body shows that corporate culture is, in contrast to the banal image the term brings to mind, a set of nefarious cultural techniques derived for interfacing human bodies with the corporation’s native environment in the postmodern era: the abstractions of data.

  10. Aquatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses...

  11. Stinging Insect Matching Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Kids ▸ Stinging Insect Matching Game Share | Stinging Insect Matching Game Stinging insects can ruin summer fun for those who are ... the difference between the different kinds of stinging insects in order to keep your summer safe and ...

  12. Attractive Toxic Sugar Bait (ATSB) For Control of Mosquitoes and Its Impact on Non-Target Organisms: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenzano, Jodi M; Koehler, Philip G; Xue, Rui-De

    2017-04-10

    Mosquito abatement programs contend with mosquito-borne diseases, insecticidal resistance, and environmental impacts to non-target organisms. However, chemical resources are limited to a few chemical classes with similar modes of action, which has led to insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. To develop a new tool for mosquito abatement programs that control mosquitoes while combating the issues of insecticidal resistance, and has low impacts of non-target organisms, novel methods of mosquito control, such as attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSBs), are being developed. Whereas insect baiting to dissuade a behavior, or induce mortality, is not a novel concept, as it was first introduced in writings from 77 AD, mosquito baiting through toxic sugar baits (TSBs) had been quickly developing over the last 60 years. This review addresses the current body of research of ATSB by providing an overview of active ingredients (toxins) include in TSBs, attractants combined in ATSB, lethal effects on mosquito adults and larvae, impact on non-target insects, and prospects for the use of ATSB.

  13. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  14. A field guide to valuable underwater aquatic plants of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Donald W.

    1986-01-01

    Underwater plants are a valuable part of the Great Lakes ecosystem, providing food and shelter for aquatic animals. Aquatic plants also help stabilize sediments, thereby reducing shoreline erosion. Annual fall die-offs of underwater plants provide food and shelter for overwintering small aquatic animals such as insects, snails, and freshwater shrimp.

  15. Aquatic Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Yeun; Kim, Oh Sik; Kim, Chang Guk; Park, Cheong Gil; Lee, Gwi Hyeon; Lee, Cheol Hui

    1987-07-01

    This book deals aquatic chemistry, which treats water and environment, chemical kinetics, chemical balance like dynamical characteristic, and thermodynamics, acid-base chemistry such as summary, definition, kinetics, and PH design for mixture of acid-base chemistry, complex chemistry with definition, and kinetics, precipitation and dissolution on summary, kinetics of precipitation and dissolution, and balance design oxidation and resolution with summary, balance of oxidation and resolution.

  16. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Large-Scale Operations Management Test (LSOMT) of Insects and Pathogens for Control of Waterhyacinth in Louisiana. Volume 1. Results for 1979-1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    and cucumber produced no evidence of disease symptoms. Cercospora rodmanii produced disease symptoms on only two varieties of lettuce in field tests...1978). He concluded that waterhyacinth is successful in eliminating water- lettuce because the larger leaves of waterhyacinth give it a competitive...adapted for 40 entomophily, pollination by insects has rarely been observed and self- pollination is the general rule (Penfound and Earle 1948). 32

  17. Neonicotinoids in the Canadian aquatic environment: a literature review on current use products with a focus on fate, exposure, and biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J C; Dubetz, C; Palace, V P

    2015-02-01

    Developed to replace organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, neonicotinoids are structurally similar to nicotine. The three main neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam, are being re-evaluated by Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA). An important aspect of the re-evaluation is the potential for effects in non-target organisms, including aquatic organisms. Leaching into surface waters is one of the major concerns surrounding extensive use of neonicotinoids, especially in close proximity to water bodies. The PMRA has classified IMI as 'persistent' with a 'high' leaching potential. Globally, neonicotinoids have been detected in a variety of water bodies, typically at concentrations in the low μg/L range. While IMI has been included in some monitoring exercises, there are currently very few published data for the presence of CLO and THM in Canadian water bodies. The majority of neonicotinoid toxicity studies have been conducted with IMI due to its longer presence on the market and high prevalence of use. Aquatic insects are particularly vulnerable to neonicotinoids and chronic toxicity has been observed at concentrations of IMI below 1 μg/L. Acute toxicity has been reported at concentrations below 20 μg/L for the most sensitive species, including Hyalella azteca, ostracods, and Chironomus riparius. Fish, algae, amphibians, and molluscs are relatively insensitive to IMI. However, the biological effects of THM and CLO have not been as well explored. The Canadian interim water quality guideline for IMI is 0.23 μg/L, but there is currently insufficient use, fate, and toxicological information available to establish guidelines for CLO and THM. Based on concentrations of neonicotinoids reported in surface waters in Canada and globally, there is potential for aquatic invertebrates to be negatively impacted by neonicotinoids. Therefore, it is necessary to address knowledge gaps to inform decisions around guidelines

  18. Predation efficiency of Anopheles gambiae larvae by aquatic predators in western Kenya highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyindo Mramba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current status of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes and the effects of insecticides on non-target insect species have raised the need for alternative control methods for malaria vectors. Predation has been suggested as one of the important regulation mechanisms for malaria vectors in long-lasting aquatic habitats, but the predation efficiency of the potential predators is largely unknown in the highlands of western Kenya. In the current study, we examined the predation efficiency of five predators on Anopheles gambiae s.s larvae in 24 hour and semi- field evaluations. Methods Predators were collected from natural habitats and starved for 12 hours prior to starting experiments. Preliminary experiments were conducted to ascertain the larval stage most predated by each predator species. When each larval instar was subjected to predation, third instar larvae were predated at the highest rate. Third instar larvae of An. gambiae were introduced into artificial habitats with and without refugia at various larval densities. The numbers of surviving larvae were counted after 24 hours in 24. In semi-field experiments, the larvae were counted daily until they were all either consumed or had developed to the pupal stage. Polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the presence of An. gambiae DNA in predator guts. Results Experiments found that habitat type (P P P P An. gambiae DNA was found in at least three out of ten midguts for all predator species. Gambusia affins was the most efficient, being three times more efficient than tadpoles. Conclusion These experiments provide insight into the efficiency of specific natural predators against mosquito larvae. These naturally occurring predators may be useful in biocontrol strategies for aquatic stage An. gambiae mosquitoes. Further investigations should be done in complex natural habitats for these predators.

  19. A Synthesis of the Effects of Pesticides on Microbial Persistence in Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R.; Harwood, Valerie J.; Rohr, Jason R.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are a pervasive presence in aquatic ecosystems throughout the world. While pesticides are intended to control fungi, insects, and other pests, their mechanisms of action are often not specific enough to prevent unintended effects, such as on non-target microbial populations. Microorganisms, including algae and cyanobacteria, protozoa, aquatic fungi, and bacteria, form the basis of many food webs and are responsible for crucial aspects of biogeochemical cycling; therefore, the potential for pesticides to alter microbial community structures must be understood to preserve ecosystem services. This review examines studies that focused on direct population-level effects and indirect community-level effects of pesticides on microorganisms. Generally, insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides were found to have adverse direct effects on algal and fungal species. Insecticides and fungicides also had deleterious direct effects in the majority of studies examining protozoa species, although herbicides were found to have inconsistent direct effects on protozoans. Our synthesis revealed mixed or no direct effects on bacterial species among all pesticide categories, with results highly dependent on the target species, chemical, and concentration used in the study. Examination of community-level, indirect effects revealed that all pesticide categories had a tendency to reduce higher trophic levels, thereby diminishing top-down pressures and favoring lower trophic levels. Often, indirect effects exerted greater influence than direct effects. However, few studies have been conducted to specifically address community-level effects of pesticides on microorganisms and further research is necessary to better understand and predict the net effects of pesticides on ecosystem health. PMID:26565685

  20. Neonicotinoid insecticides can serve as inadvertent insect contraceptives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamar-Bouza, Laura; Bruckner, Selina; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Gauthier, Laurent; Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong; Retschnig, Gina; Troxler, Aline; Vidondo, Beatriz; Neumann, Peter; Williams, Geoffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    There is clear evidence for sublethal effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on non-target ecosystem service-providing insects. However, their possible impact on male insect reproduction is currently unknown, despite the key role of sex. Here, we show that two neonicotinoids (4.5 ppb thiamethoxam and 1.5 ppb clothianidin) significantly reduce the reproductive capacity of male honeybees (drones), Apis mellifera. Drones were obtained from colonies exposed to the neonicotinoid insecticides or controls, and subsequently maintained in laboratory cages until they reached sexual maturity. While no significant effects were observed for male teneral (newly emerged adult) body mass and sperm quantity, the data clearly showed reduced drone lifespan, as well as reduced sperm viability (percentage living versus dead) and living sperm quantity by 39%. Our results demonstrate for the first time that neonicotinoid insecticides can negatively affect male insect reproductive capacity, and provide a possible mechanistic explanation for managed honeybee queen failure and wild insect pollinator decline. The widespread prophylactic use of neonicotinoids may have previously overlooked inadvertent contraceptive effects on non-target insects, thereby limiting conservation efforts. PMID:27466446

  1. Assessing effects of the fungicide tebuconazole to heterotrophic microbes in aquatic microcosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrov, M.R.; Kosol, Sujitra; Smidt, H.; Brink, van den P.J.; Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Brock, T.C.M.; Maltby, L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic ecological risk assessment of fungicides in Europe under Regulation 1107/2009/EC does not currently assess risk to non-target bacteria and fungi. Rather, regulatory acceptable concentrations based on ecotoxicological data obtained from studies with fish, invertebrates and primary producers

  2. Fluvial geomorphology and aquatic-to-terrestrial Hg export are weakly coupled in small urban streams of Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S. Mažeika P.; Boaz, Lindsey E.; Hossler, Katie

    2016-04-01

    Although mercury (Hg) contamination is common in stream ecosystems, mechanisms governing bioavailability and bioaccumulation in fluvial systems remain poorly resolved as compared to lentic systems. In particular, streams in urbanized catchments are subject to fluvial geomorphic alterations that may contribute to Hg distribution, bioaccumulation, and export across the aquatic-to-terrestrial boundary. In 12 streams of urban Columbus, Ohio, we investigated the influence of fluvial geomorphic characteristics related to channel geometry, streamflow, and sediment size and distribution on (1) Hg concentrations in sediment and body burdens in benthic larval and adult emergent aquatic insects and (2) aquatic-to-terrestrial contaminant transfer to common riparian spiders of the families Pisauridae and Tetragnathidae via changes in aquatic insect Hg body burdens as well as in aquatic insect density and community composition. Hydrogeomorphic characteristics were weakly related to Hg body burdens in emergent insects (channel geometry) and tetragnathid spiders (streamflow), but not to Hg concentrations in sediment or benthic insects. Streamflow characteristics were also related to emergent insect density, while wider channels were associated with benthic insect community shifts toward smaller-bodied and more tolerant taxa (e.g., Chironomidae). Thus, our results provide initial evidence that fluvial geomorphology may influence aquatic-to-terrestrial contaminant Hg transfer through the collective effects on emergent insect body burdens as well as on aquatic insect community composition and abundance.

  3. Insect Cell Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Lynn, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are widely used in studies on insect cell physiology, developmental biology and microbial pathology. In particular, insect cell culture is an indispensable tool for the study of insect viruses. The first continuously growing insect cell cultures were established from

  4. The sterile-insect technique for the control of fruit flies: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E.J.

    1975-01-01

    Some advantages of the sterile-insect technique (SIT) are its minimum contribution to environmental pollution and its minimum adverse effect on non-target organisms. A review is made of the melon fly and sterile Mediterranean fruit fly release programmes, the accomplishments, and the implications. Recommendations are made for research leading to development of methods for practical use of the SIT. (author)

  5. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  6. Indirect effects of bioinsecticides on the nontarget fauna: The Camargue experiment calls for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Brigitte

    2012-10-01

    Following its high selectivity and low toxicity to nontarget organisms, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) has become the most commonly used microbial agent to control mosquitoes worldwide. Considered non-toxic to mammals, birds, fish, plants and most aquatic organisms, Bti direct effects on the nontarget fauna are largely limited to non-biting midges (Chironomidae). Studies addressing the indirect effects of Bti through food web perturbations are scanty and showed no significant results. Mosquito-control in southern France was implemented in 1965 using various insecticides over 400 km of coast. In spite of a high mosquito nuisance, the Camargue wetlands were excluded from this control programme to preserve biodiversity. The expanding use of Bti has prompted the implementation of an experimental mosquito control in 2006 involving 2500 of the 25,000 ha of larval biotopes of the Camargue, accompanied by impact studies on the nontarget fauna. Using birds from natural and human-inhabited areas as model species, we assessed trophic perturbations caused by three years of Bti applications. The preliminary results of this 5-yr programme revealed significant effects of Bti spraying on abundance of reed-dwelling invertebrates serving as food to passerines, as well as on the diet and breeding success of house martins nesting in rural estates and small towns. Very few studies (if any) have provided such compelling evidence of an insecticide affecting vertebrate populations, putting into question the environmental-friendly character of Bti, at least in some areas. The significance of these results are discussed within a wider context and completed with an analysis of the current Bti bibliography to highlight and orient priorities for future research on this topic.

  7. Similarity and diversity between aquatic insect populations in streams of first and second order, south of Brazil Diversidade e similaridade entre populações de insetos aquáticos em riachos de primeira e segunda ordem, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Bender Raio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic communities of macroinvertebrates are influencied by rapid velocity, habitat heterogeneity and other characteristics. This study examined a relationship between aquatic insects diversity with hydrologic order of two streams. We tested following hypothesis: diversity of insects associated with the same substrate in equal parts of streams, classified in different orders, are similar. Samples of litter were collected in middle stretches of stream Cascatinha (first order and stream João Pinheiro (second order, Tibagi river basin, Telêmaco Borba, Paraná, Brazil. Diversity of each stream was obtained by Shannon index. Diversity values were low for both streams (0.8 for the first order stream and 0.89 for the second order stream with no statistical difference (t = -1.12; p = 0. 27. Similarity between the streams was 0.51. These results allowed us to verify that, to studied streams, hydrological order has no effect on aquatic insects diversity (F= 0.14, p= 0.71, so the hypothesis was accepted. The most abundant taxon in both streams was Chironomidae (Diptera, representing 82.7% of total collected. However when Chironomidae was removed from analysis, the hypotesis was refused. An high abundance of Chironomidae individuals had influenced values of local diversity. A estrutura das comunidades de macroinvertebrados aquáticos é influenciada pela velocidade da correnteza do curso d’água e da heterogeneidade de habitats entre outras características. Este trabalho verificou a relação da diversidade de insetos aquáticos com a ordem hidrológica de dois riachos. Para isso, foi testada a seguinte hipótese: a diversidade de insetos associados ao mesmo substrato em trechos equivalentes de riachos classificados em diferentes ordens é semelhante. Amostras de folhiço foram coletas nos trechos médios do riacho Cascatinha (primeira ordem e do riacho João Pinheiro (segunda ordem, pertencentes à bacia do rio Tibagi, Telêmaco Borba, Paran

  8. Insects and Scorpions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insects or scorpions can be hazardous to outdoor workers. Stinging or biting insects include bees, wasps, hornets, and fire ants. The health effects of stinging or biting insects or scorpions range ...

  9. Assessing the potential effects of fungicides on nontarget gut fungi (trichomycetes) and their associated larval black fly hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emma R.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Gray, Elmer; Bond, Laura; Steele, Lance; Kandel, Prasanna; Chamberlin, Alison; Gause, Justin; Reynolds, Nicole; Robertson, Ian; Novak, Stephen; Feris, Kevin; White, Merlin M.

    2014-01-01

    Fungicides are moderately hydrophobic and have been detected in water and sediment, particularly in agricultural watersheds, but typically are not included in routine water quality monitoring efforts. This is despite their widespread use and frequent application to combat fungal pathogens. Although the efficacy of these compounds on fungal pathogens is well documented, little is known about their effects on nontarget fungi. This pilot study, a field survey in southwestern Idaho from April to December 2010 on four streams with varying pesticide inputs (two agricultural and two reference sites), was conducted to assess nontarget impact of fungicides on gut fungi, or trichomycetes. Tissues of larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), hosts of gut fungi, were analyzed for pesticide accumulation. Fungicides were detected in hosts from streams within agricultural watersheds but were not detected in hosts from reference streams. Gut fungi from agricultural sites exhibited decreased percent infestation, density and sporulation within the gut, and black fly tissues had elevated pesticide concentrations. Differences observed between the sites demonstrate a potential effect on this symbiotic system. Future research is needed to parse out the details of the complex biotic and abiotic relationships; however, these preliminary results indicate that impacts to nontarget organisms could have far-reaching consequences within aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Aquatic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal stress to microorganisms was measured by the production of dissolved organic matter by algal communities and the mineralization of glucose by heterotrophic populations. Mutagenic activity as measured by the Ames/Salmonella/microsome assay indicate that such activity does not occur in Par Pond, although limited mutagenic activity does occur in a nearby canal system due to chlorination of cooling water. Sodium hypochlorite, used as an algicide in the reactor fuel storage basins, caused increased pitting corrosion to reactor fuel targets. Five other compounds selected for testing proved to be superior to sodium hypochlorite. Legionella pneumophila, the pathogen which causes Legionnaire's disease, was found to be a natural part of aquatic ecosystems. It occurs over a wide range of environments and is able to utilize nutrients provided by primary producers. Phytoplankton size classes of less than 3 μm (less than 5% of the total phytoplankton biomass) accounted for 15 to 40% of the total primary productivity in Par Pond, Pond C, and Clark Hill Reservoir. Three major biological data sets were compiled and are available in the SRL computer system for analysis: the SRP deer herd data; 20 years of Par Pond data; and 25 years of biological data on the Savannah River. Results of marine studies indicated that nearly all plutonium in the Savannah River and its estuary resulted from nuclear weapons fallout. The plutonium concentration in the Savannah River is about one fourth the concentration in the Newport River which has no nuclear operations associated with it

  11. INTER-SPECIES MODELS FOR ACUTE AQUATIC TOXICITY BASED ON MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will provide interspecies QSARs for acute toxicity to 17 aquatic species, such as fish, snail, tadpole, hydrozoan, crustacean, insect larvae, and bacteria developed using 5,000 toxic effect results for approximately 2400 chemicals.

  12. The distance that contaminated aquatic subsidies extend into lake riparian zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of emergent aquatic insects by terrestrial invertebrates is a poorly resolved, but potentially important, mechanism of contaminant flux across ecosystem borders leading to contaminant exposure in terrestrial invertevores. We characterized the spatial extent and magnit...

  13. Linkages between benthic microbial and feshwater insect communities in degraded peatland ditches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whatley, M.H.; van Loon, E.E.; Cerli, C.; Vonk, J.A.; van der Geest, H.G.; Admiraal, W.

    2014-01-01

    Many wetlands are heavily modified and identifying the environmental drivers of indicator groups like aquatic insects is complicated by multiple stressors and co-varying environmental factors. Yet, incorporating data from other biological groups, such as microbial communities, potentially reveals

  14. RNAi Technology for Insect Management and Protection of Beneficial Insects from Diseases: Lessons, Challenges and Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, M J; Smagghe, G

    2015-06-01

    The time has passed for us to wonder whether RNA interference (RNAi) effectively controls pest insects or protects beneficial insects from diseases. The RNAi era in insect science began with studies of gene function and genetics that paved the way for the development of novel and highly specific approaches for the management of pest insects and, more recently, for the treatment and prevention of diseases in beneficial insects. The slight differences in components of RNAi pathways are sufficient to provide a high degree of variation in responsiveness among insects. The current framework to assess the negative effects of genetically modified (GM) plants on human health is adequate for RNAi-based GM plants. Because of the mode of action of RNAi and the lack of genomic data for most exposed non-target organisms, it becomes difficult to determine the environmental risks posed by RNAi-based technologies and the benefits provided for the protection of crops. A better understanding of the mechanisms that determine the variability in the sensitivity of insects would accelerate the worldwide release of commercial RNAi-based approaches.

  15. Insects, isotopes and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes the increased use of nuclear techniques in controlling harmful insects. The sterile insect technique (SIT), which uses radiation to sexually sterilize insects and prevent reproduction, is particularly effective in eradication programmes. At the present time, there are approximately 10 species of insect pests being attacked by the SIT. Research and development is being conducted on other insect species and it is anticipated that the technology will be more widely used in the future

  16. Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Van Itterbeeck, Joost; van Huis, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and archaeological literature we show and hypothesize about the existence of such environmental manipulations related to the procurement of edible insects. As examples we use eggs of aquatic Hemiptera in...

  17. Edible aquatic Coleoptera of the world with an emphasis on Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, José Manuel Pino; Camacho, Victor Hugo Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Anthropoentomophagy is an ancient culinary practice wherein terrestrial and aquatic insects are eaten by humans. Of these species of insects, terrestrial insects are far more commonly used in anthropoentomophagy than aquatic insects. In this study we found that there are 22 genera and 78 species of edible aquatic beetles in the world. The family Dytiscidae hosts nine genera, Gyrinidae one, Elmidae two, Histeridae one, Hydrophilidae six, Haliplidae two and Noteridae one. Of the recorded species, 45 correspond to the family Dytiscidae, 19 to Hydrophilidae, three to Gyrinidae, four to Elmidae, two to Histeridae, four to Haliplidae and one to Noteridae. These beetles are the most prized organisms of lentic watersThe family that has the highest number of edible food insect genera and species is Dytiscidae. Here, the global geographic distribution of species in these organisms is shown, and a discussion is presented of its importance as a renewable natural resource widely used for food in various countries. PMID:19379486

  18. Edible aquatic Coleoptera of the world with an emphasis on Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno José

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anthropoentomophagy is an ancient culinary practice wherein terrestrial and aquatic insects are eaten by humans. Of these species of insects, terrestrial insects are far more commonly used in anthropoentomophagy than aquatic insects. In this study we found that there are 22 genera and 78 species of edible aquatic beetles in the world. The family Dytiscidae hosts nine genera, Gyrinidae one, Elmidae two, Histeridae one, Hydrophilidae six, Haliplidae two and Noteridae one. Of the recorded species, 45 correspond to the family Dytiscidae, 19 to Hydrophilidae, three to Gyrinidae, four to Elmidae, two to Histeridae, four to Haliplidae and one to Noteridae. These beetles are the most prized organisms of lentic watersThe family that has the highest number of edible food insect genera and species is Dytiscidae. Here, the global geographic distribution of species in these organisms is shown, and a discussion is presented of its importance as a renewable natural resource widely used for food in various countries.

  19. 40 CFR 158.630 - Terrestrial and aquatic nontarget organisms data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Ecological Effects § 158... partition coefficients of the pesticide and its major degradates are 0.1 of the acute LC50/EC50 values and...

  20. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements C Appendix C to Part 273 Navigation and... Environmental Impact Statements 1. Description of the problem. a. Pests. Identify the pest to be controlled by.... Relationship to environmental situation. Non-target organisms and integrated pest management programs. 2...

  1. Studies of Non-Targeted Effects of Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleg V Belyakov; Heli Mononen; Marjo Peraelae

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of ionising radiation induced non-targeted effects is important for understanding the dose-response mechanisms relevant to low dose irradiation in vivo. One important question is whether the non-targeted effects relates to a protective mechanism or whether, conversely, it amplifies the number of cells damaged by the isolated radiation tracks of low dose exposures leading to an increased risk of carcinogenesis. One theory supported by the experimental data obtained during this project is that the main functions of the non-targeted effects are to decrease the risk of transformation in a multicellular organism exposed to radiation. Differences in the gene expression profiles, temporal and spatial patterns of key proteins expressed in directly irradiated and bystander cells may determine how the cells ultimately respond to low doses of radiation. Such a mechanism of co-operative response would make the tissue system much more robust. (N.C.)

  2. Studies of Non-Targeted Effects of Ionising Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleg V Belyakov; Heli Mononen; Marjo Peraelae [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The discovery of ionising radiation induced non-targeted effects is important for understanding the dose-response mechanisms relevant to low dose irradiation in vivo. One important question is whether the non-targeted effects relates to a protective mechanism or whether, conversely, it amplifies the number of cells damaged by the isolated radiation tracks of low dose exposures leading to an increased risk of carcinogenesis. One theory supported by the experimental data obtained during this project is that the main functions of the non-targeted effects are to decrease the risk of transformation in a multicellular organism exposed to radiation. Differences in the gene expression profiles, temporal and spatial patterns of key proteins expressed in directly irradiated and bystander cells may determine how the cells ultimately respond to low doses of radiation. Such a mechanism of co-operative response would make the tissue system much more robust. (N.C.)

  3. A nuclear insect appears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Gi Hwal

    1989-06-01

    This book is dairy of a nuclear insect in A. F. era. It consists of 6 parts, which have fun pictures and titles. The contents are the letter that is sent the Homo sapiens by insect, exodus of nuclear insect F 100 years latter. The time that a nuclear insect is attacked in F 101, the time that a nuclear dinosaur is beat in AF 102, the time that a nuclear insect struggles in AF 104 and the time that a nuclear insect drifts in AF 104.

  4. Bt rice in China - focusing the nontarget risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunhe; Zhang, Qingling; Liu, Qingsong; Meissle, Michael; Yang, Yan; Wang, Yanan; Hua, Hongxia; Chen, Xiuping; Peng, Yufa; Romeis, Jörg

    2017-10-01

    Bt rice can control yield losses caused by lepidopteran pests but may also harm nontarget species and reduce important ecosystem services. A comprehensive data set on herbivores, natural enemies, and their interactions in Chinese rice fields was compiled. This together with an analysis of the Cry protein content in arthropods collected from Bt rice in China indicated which nontarget species are most exposed to the insecticidal protein and should be the focus of regulatory risk assessment. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Journal of Aquatic Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Aquatic Sciences publishes articles on problems and issues in Aquatic Sciences from all ... The journal accepts for publication manuscripts of very high international standard containing reports of original scientific research.

  6. Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

  7. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  8. Insects of the riparian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrence J. Rogers

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes life histories, defoliation problems and other activities of insects associated with forest tree species growing along high elevation streams and river banks. In addition, examples of insects and diseases associated with lower elevation riparian areas are given.

  9. Radioactive labelling of insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thygesen, Th.

    Experiments are described with the internal contamination of insects with phosphorus 32 introduced previously in plants of the brassica type using three different techniques. The intake of radioactivity from the plants to the insects is shown. (L.O.)

  10. Non-target trials with Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A, a lethal control agent of dreissenid mussels (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2013-01-01

    these invertebrate and vertebrate non-target trials areencouraging, but it would be unrealistic to think that dreissenids are the only aquatic organisms sensitive to Pf-CL145A’s dreissenid-killingnatural product. Additional testing is needed to better define Pf-CL145A’s margin of safety by identifying the sensitivity of other susceptibleorganisms. The results of these non-target safety trials – in combination with equally promising mussel control efficacy data – have now ledto Pf-CL145A’s commercialization under the product name Zequanox®, with dead cells as the product’s active ingredient. The commercialavailability of only dead-cell Zequanox formulations will eliminate the risk of any possible non-target infection by Pf-CL145A, furtherreducing environmental concerns. During the non-target project reported herein, the limited quantities of Pf-CL145A cells that we were ableto culture severely restricted the number and size of our trials. In contrast, the availability of Zequanox will now greatly expand theopportunities for non-target testing. The trials reported herein – exposing non-target organisms under aerated conditions to unformulated,laboratory-cultured cells – clearly point to Pf-CL145A’s potential for high host specificity, but non-target trials with Zequanox – using Pf-CL145A cells cultured, killed, and formulated using industrial-scale protocols – will be even more important as they will define the nontargetsafety limits of the actual commercial products under a wide range of environmental conditions.

  11. [Double-ambient CO2 concentration affects the growth, development and sucking behavior of non-target brown plant hopper Nilaparvata lugens fed on transgenic Bt rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong Qing; Dai, Yang; Yu, Xiu Ying; Yu, Fu-Lan; Jiang, Shou Lin; Zhou, Zong Yuan; Chen, Fa Jun

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, the two issues of climate change including elevated CO 2 etc., and resistance of transgenic Bt crops against non-target insect pests have received widespread attention. Elevated CO 2 can affect the herbivorous insects. To date, there is no consensus about the effect of elevated CO 2 on the suck-feeding insect pests (non-target insect pests of transgenic Bt crops). Its effects on the suck-feeding behavior have rarely been reported. In this study, CO 2 levels were set up in artificial climate chamber to examined the effects of ambient (400 μL·L -1 ) and double-ambient (800 μL·L -1 ) CO 2 levels on the suck-feeding behavior, growth, development, and reproduction of the non-target insect pest of transgenic Bt rice, brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. The results showed that CO 2 level significantly affected the egg and nymph duration, longevity and body mass of adults, and feeding behavior of the 4th and 5th instar nymphs, while had no effect on the fecundity of N. lugens. The duration of eggs and nymphs, and the longevity of female adults were significantly shortened by 4.0%, 4.2% and 6.6% respectively, the proportion of the macropterous adults was significantly increased by 11.6%, and the body mass of newly hatched female adults was significantly decreased by 2.2% by elevated CO 2 . In addition, elevated CO 2 significantly enhanced the stylet puncturing efficiency of the 4th and 5th instar nymphs of N. lugens. The duration ofphloem ingestion of the N4b waveform was significantly prolonged by 60.0% and 50.1%, and the frequency significantly was increased by 230.0% and 155.9% for the 4th and 5th instar nymphs of N. lugens by elevated CO 2 , respectively. It was concluded that double-ambient CO 2 could promote the growth and development of N. lugens through enhancing its suck-feeding, shorten the generation life-span and increase the macropertous adults' proportion of N. lugens. Thus, it could result in the occurrence of non-target rice

  12. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  13. Insects and human nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    Despite high diversity in species as well as metamorphological life-­stages, edible insects are essentially an animal-source food contributing high quality protein and fat when viewed in the context of human nutrition. The nutritional contribution of insects to diets in populations where insects ...

  14. Effects of seed mixture sowing with resistant and susceptible rice on population dynamics of target planthoppers and non-target stemborers and leaffolders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuo; Wan, Guijun; Wang, Long; Parajulee, Megha N; Zhao, Zihua; Chen, Fajun

    2018-07-01

    The widespread planting of insect-resistant crops has caused a dramatic shift in agricultural landscapes, thus raising concerns about the potential impact on both target and non-target pests worldwide. In this study, we examined the potential effects of six seed mixture ratios of insect-resistance dominance [100% (R100), 95% (S05R95), 90% (S10R90), 80% (S20R80), 60% (S40R60), and 0% (S100)] on target and non-target pests in a 2-year field trial in southern China. The occurrence of the target pests Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera decreased with an increase in the ratio of resistant rice, and mixture ratios with ≥90% resistant rice significantly increased the pest suppression efficiency, with the lowest occurrences of the non-target pests Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis for S100 and S10R90 seed mixture ratios. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the 1000-grain dry weight and grain yield between R100 and other treatments with ≥80% resistant seeds in the mixture (S20R80, S10R90 and S05R95). S10R90 produced a good yield and provided the most effective control of both target and non-target pests, with the potential to significantly reduce the application of chemical pesticides for integrated pest management in paddy fields. It is further presumed that the strategy of seed mixture with resistant and susceptible rice would be advantageous for rice yield stability. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Insect barcode information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheepa, Maria; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Arokiaraj, Robinson Silvester; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Nagesh, Mandadi; Panda, Madhusmita; Pattar, Sharath

    2014-01-01

    Insect Barcode Information System called as Insect Barcode Informática (IBIn) is an online database resource developed by the National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects, Bangalore. This database provides acquisition, storage, analysis and publication of DNA barcode records of agriculturally important insects, for researchers specifically in India and other countries. It bridges a gap in bioinformatics by integrating molecular, morphological and distribution details of agriculturally important insects. IBIn was developed using PHP/My SQL by using relational database management concept. This database is based on the client- server architecture, where many clients can access data simultaneously. IBIn is freely available on-line and is user-friendly. IBIn allows the registered users to input new information, search and view information related to DNA barcode of agriculturally important insects.This paper provides a current status of insect barcode in India and brief introduction about the database IBIn. http://www.nabg-nbaii.res.in/barcode.

  16. Effects of clothianidin on aquatic communities: Evaluating the impacts of lethal and sublethal exposure to neonicotinoids

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, Jesse C.; Hua, Jessica; Sepulveda, Maria S.; Krupke, Christian H.; Hoverman, Jason T.

    2017-01-01

    The widespread usage of neonicotinoid insecticides has sparked concern over their effects on non-target organisms. While research has largely focused on terrestrial systems, the low soil binding and high water solubility of neonicotinoids, paired with their extensive use on the landscape, puts aquatic environments at high risk for contamination via runoff events. We assessed the potential threat of these compounds to wetland communities using a combination of field surveys and experimental ex...

  17. Prioritizing veterinary pharmaceuticals for aquatic environment in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghee; Jung, Jinyong; Kim, Myunghyun; Park, Jeongim; Boxall, Alistair B A; Choi, Kyungho

    2008-09-01

    Pharmaceutical residues may have serious impacts on nontarget biological organisms in aquatic ecosystems, and have therefore precipitated numerous investigations worldwide. Many pharmaceutical compounds available on the market need to be prioritized based on their potential ecological and human health risks in order to develop sound management decisions. We prioritized veterinary pharmaceuticals in Korea by their usage, potential to enter the environment, and toxicological hazard. Twenty compounds were identified in the top priority class, most of which were antibiotics. Among these compounds, 8 were identified as deserving more immediate attention: amoxicillin, enramycin, fenbendazole, florfenicol, ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tylosin, and virginiamycin. A limitation of this study is that we initially screened veterinary pharmaceuticals by sales tonnage for veterinary use only. However, this is the first attempt to prioritize veterinary pharmaceuticals in Korea, and it provides important concepts for developing environmental risk management plans for such contaminants in aquatic systems. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Seasonal bat activity related to insect emergence at three temperate lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarina, Ioanna; Gravier, Dorian; Rothhaupt, Karl-Otto

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge of aquatic food resources entering terrestrial systems is important for food web studies and conservation planning. Bats, among other terrestrial consumers, often profit from aquatic insect emergence and their activity might be closely related to such events. However, there is a lack of studies which monitor bat activity simultaneously with aquatic insect emergence, especially from lakes. Thus, our aim was to understand the relationship between insect emergence and bat activity, and investigate whether there is a general spatial or seasonal pattern at lakeshores. We assessed whole-night bat activity using acoustic monitoring and caught emerging and aerial flying insects at three different lakes through three seasons. We predicted that insect availability and seasonality explain the variation in bat activity, independent of the lake size and characteristics. Spatial (between lakes) differences of bat activity were stronger than temporal (seasonal) differences. Bat activity did not always correlate to insect emergence, probably because other factors, such as habitat characteristics, or bats' energy requirements, play an important role as well. Aerial flying insects explained bat activity better than the emerged aquatic insects in the lake with lowest insect emergence. Bats were active throughout the night with some activity peaks, and the pattern of their activity also differed among lakes and seasons. Lakes are important habitats for bats, as they support diverse bat communities and activity throughout the night and the year when bats are active. Our study highlights that there are spatial and temporal differences in bat activity and its hourly nocturnal pattern, that should be considered when investigating aquatic-terrestrial interactions or designing conservation and monitoring plans.

  19. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  20. Nitrous Oxide Emission by Aquatic Macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    -term metabolic induction of gut denitrification is the preferential production of nitrous oxide rather than dinitrogen. These observations were made in detailed studies on the larvae of the freshwater insects Chironomus plumosus and Ephemera danica which both can be very abundant in lake and stream sediments......, respectively. Aside from these case studies, we screened more than 20 macrofauna species in various aquatic habitats for nitrous oxide production. Filter- and deposit-feeders that ingest large quantities of microorganisms were the most important emitters of nitrous oxide. In contrast, predatory species that do...... not ingest large quantities of microorganisms produced insignificant amounts of nitrous oxide. With increasing eutrophication, filter- and deposit-feeders often become the dominant feeding guilds of benthic communities. Thus, with increasing nitrate pollution, aquatic macrofauna has the potential to further...

  1. Endocrinology of insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downer, Roger G. H; Laufer, Hans

    1983-01-01

    Contents: Organization of the neuroendocrine system - Chemistry of insect hormones and neurohormones - Regulation of metamorphosis - Regulation of reproduction - Regulation of growth and development...

  2. Effects of radiation on aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Harbhajan; Lata, Poonam; Sharma, Ankush

    2012-01-01

    With the onset of nuclear age, nuclear fuel cycle products, nuclear medicine techniques, disposal of radio active wastes on land or in water, fall out of testing nuclear weapons has contributed large amount of radio nuclides to the water bodies. Radio nuclides can imbalance aquatic ecosystem resulting in danger to natural life. The biological effects of radiation on aquatic life are mortality, pathophysiological, reproductive, developmental and genetic changes. A broad review of the results obtained about the aquatic organisms related to different phyla indicates that the lower or less developed or more primitive organisms are more resistant than the higher or more advanced, developed and complex organisms to ionizing radiation. The algae, protozoa are more resistant than the insects, crustaceans, molluscs and fishes. The changes in sensitivity between different stages of development have also been noted. A review of the results of exposing salmonoid gametes, eggs, fingerlings and adults to X-rays supports the concepts that radio sensitivity decreases with age. This paper presents a selective review on effects of radiation and radio nuclides on the aquatic life. It include uses and sources of radiation, effective quantity of radiation, lethal and sub lethal effect, effects on survival, growth, reproduction, behaviour, metabolism, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. (author)

  3. Fungicides transport in runoff from vineyard plot and catchment: contribution of non-target areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrancq, Marie; Payraudeau, Sylvain; García Verdú, Antonio Joaquín; Maillard, Elodie; Millet, Maurice; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-04-01

    Surface runoff and erosion during the course of rainfall events are major processes of pesticides transport from agricultural land to aquatic ecosystem. These processes are generally evaluated either at the plot or the catchment scale. Here, we compared at both scales the transport and partitioning in runoff water of two widely used fungicides, i.e., kresoxim-methyl (KM) and cyazofamid (CY). The objective was to evaluate the relationship between fungicides runoff from the plot and from the vineyard catchment. The results show that seasonal exports for KM and CY at the catchment were larger than those obtained at the plot. This underlines that non-target areas within the catchment largely contribute to the overall load of runoff-associated fungicides. Estimations show that 85 and 62 % of the loads observed for KM and CY at the catchment outlet cannot be explained by the vineyard plots. However, the partitioning of KM and CY between three fractions, i.e., the suspended solids (>0.7 μm) and two dissolved fractions (i.e., between 0.22 and 0.7 µm and plot scales enable to evaluate the sources areas of pesticide off-site transport.

  4. Infection of Drosophila suzukii with the obligate insect-pathogenic fungus Entomophthora muscae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Paul G.; Jensen, Rasmus E.; Natsopoulou, Myrsini E.

    2018-01-01

    Physiological constraints restrict specialist pathogens from infecting new hosts. From an applied perspective, a narrow host range makes specialist pathogens interesting for targeting specific pest insects since they have minimal direct effects on non-target species. Entomopathogenic fungi of the...

  5. Insect flight on fluid interfaces: a chaotic interfacial oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundarajan, Haripriya; Prakash, Manu

    2013-11-01

    Flight is critical to the dominance of insect species on our planet, with about 98 percent of insect species having wings. How complex flight control systems developed in insects is unknown, and arboreal or aquatic origins have been hypothesized. We examine the biomechanics of aquatic origins of flight. We recently reported discovery of a novel mode of ``2D flight'' in Galerucella beetles, which skim along an air-water interface using flapping wing flight. This unique flight mode is characterized by a balance between capillary forces from the interface and biomechanical forces exerted by the flapping wings. Complex interactions on the fluid interface form capillary wave trains behind the insect, and produce vertical oscillations at the surface due to non-linear forces arising from deformation of the fluid meniscus. We present both experimental observations of 2D flight kinematics and a dynamic model explaining the observed phenomena. Careful examination of this interaction predicts the chaotic nature of interfacial flight and takeoff from the interface into airborne flight. The role of wingbeat frequency, stroke plane angle and body angle in determining transition between interfacial and fully airborne flight is highlighted, shedding light on the aquatic theory of flight evolution.

  6. Aquatic biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Aquatic biology studies focused on studying the hydrothermal effects of Par Pond reservoir on periphyton, plankton, zooplankton, macrophytes, human pathogens, and microbial activity; the variability between the artificial streams of the Flowing Streams Laboratory and Upper Three Runs Creek; and the bacterial production of methane in Savannah River Plant aquatic systems

  7. Aquatic species and habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danny C. Lee; James R. Sedell; Bruce E. Rieman; Russell F. Thurow; Jack E. Williams

    1998-01-01

    Continuing human activities threaten the highly prized aquatic resources of the interior Columbia basin. Precipitous declines in native species, particularly Pacific salmon, and a large influx of introduced species have radically altered the composition and distribution of native fishes. Fortunately, areas of relatively high aquatic integrity remain, much of it on...

  8. Insects and diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Couston

    2009-01-01

    Insects and diseases are a natural part of forested ecosystems. Their activity is partially regulated by biotic factors, e.g., host abundance, host quality; physical factors, e.g., soil, climate; and disturbances (Berryman 1986). Insects and diseases can influence both forest patterns and forest processes by causing, for example, defoliation and mortality. These...

  9. Insects: Bugged Out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehl, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

  10. Insects and Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Karen

    2009-01-01

    They have been around for centuries. They sting, they bite. They cause intense itching or painful sores. They even cause allergic reactions and sometimes death. There are two types of insects that are pests to humans--those that sting and those that bite. The insects that bite do so with their mouths and include mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks.…

  11. Reducing the maladaptive attractiveness of solar panels to polarotactic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Gábor; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Adám; Kriska, György; Seres, István; Robertson, Bruce

    2010-12-01

    Human-made objects (e.g., buildings with glass surfaces) can reflect horizontally polarized light so strongly that they appear to aquatic insects to be bodies of water. Insects that lay eggs in water are especially attracted to such structures because these insects use horizontal polarization of light off bodies of water to find egg-laying sites. Thus, these sources of polarized light can become ecological traps associated with reproductive failure and mortality in organisms that are attracted to them and by extension with rapid population declines or collapse. Solar panels are a new source of polarized light pollution. Using imaging polarimetry, we measured the reflection-polarization characteristics of different solar panels and in multiple-choice experiments in the field we tested their attractiveness to mayflies, caddis flies, dolichopodids, and tabanids. At the Brewster angle, solar panels polarized reflected light almost completely (degree of polarization d ≈ 100%) and substantially exceeded typical polarization values for water (d ≈ 30-70%). Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Trichoptera), dolichopodid dipterans, and tabanid flies (Tabanidae) were the most attracted to solar panels and exhibited oviposition behavior above solar panels more often than above surfaces with lower degrees of polarization (including water), but in general they avoided solar cells with nonpolarizing white borders and white grates. The highly and horizontally polarizing surfaces that had nonpolarizing, white cell borders were 10- to 26-fold less attractive to insects than the same panels without white partitions. Although solar panels can act as ecological traps, fragmenting their solar-active area does lessen their attractiveness to polarotactic insects. The design of solar panels and collectors and their placement relative to aquatic habitats will likely affect populations of aquatic insects that use polarized light as a behavioral cue. © 2010 Society for Conservation

  12. Effects of seed mixture sowing with transgenic Bt rice and its parental line on the population dynamics of target stemborers and leafrollers, and non-target planthoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuo; Li, Li-Kun; Liu, Bin; Wang, Long; Parajulee, Megha N; Chen, Fa-Jun

    2018-01-24

    The widespread planting of insect-resistant crops has caused a dramatic shift in agricultural landscapes, thus raising concerns about the potential impacts on both target and non-target pests. In this study, we examined the potential effects of intra-specific seed mixture sowing with transgenic Bt rice (Bt) and its parental non-transgenic line (Nt) (100% Bt rice [Bt 100 ], 5% Nt+95% Bt [Nt 05 Bt 95 ], 10% Nt+90% Bt [Nt 10 Bt 90 ], 20% Nt+80% Bt [Nt 20 Bt 80 ], 40% Nt+60% Bt [Nt 40 Bt 60 ] and 100% Nt rice [Nt 100 ]) on target and non-target pests in a 2-year field trial in southern China. The occurrence of target pests, Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, decreased with the increased ratio of Bt rice, and the mixture ratios with more than 90% Bt rice (Bt 100 and Nt 05 Bt 95 ) significantly increased the pest suppression efficiency, with the lowest occurrences of non-target planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera in Nt 100 and Nt 05 Bt 95 . Furthermore, there were no significant differences in 1000-grain dry weight and grain dry weight per 100 plants between Bt 100 and Nt 05 Bt 95 . Seed mixture sowing of Bt rice with ≤10% (especially 5%) of its parent line was sufficient to overcome potential compliance issues that exist with the use of block or structured refuge to provide most effective control of both target and non-target pests without compromising the grain yield. It is also expected that the strategy of seed mixture sowing with transgenic Bt rice and the non-transgenic parental line would provide rice yield stability while decreasing the insecticide use frequency in rice production. © 2018 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Field response of aboveground non-target arthropod community to transgenic Bt-Cry1Ab rice plant residues in postharvest seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yao-Yu; Yan, Rui-Hong; Ye, Gong-Yin; Huang, Fangneng; Wangila, David S; Wang, Jin-Jun; Cheng, Jia-An

    2012-10-01

    Risk assessments of ecological effects of transgenic rice expressing lepidoptera-Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) on non-target arthropods have primarily focused on rice plants during cropping season, whereas few studies have investigated the effects in postharvest periods. Harvested rice fallow fields provide a critical over-wintering habitat for arthropods in the Chinese rice ecosystems, particularly in the southern region of the country. During 2006-08, two independent field trials were conducted in Chongqing, China to investigate the effects of transgenic Cry1Ab rice residues on non-target arthropod communities. In each trial, pitfall traps were used to sample arthropods in field plots planted with one non-Bt variety and two Bt rice lines expressing the Cry1Ab protein. Aboveground arthropods in the trial plots during the postharvest season were abundant, while community densities varied significantly between the two trials. A total of 52,386 individual insects and spiders, representing 93 families, was captured in the two trials. Predominant arthropods sampled were detritivores, which accounted for 91.9% of the total captures. Other arthropods sampled included predators (4.2%), herbivores (3.2%), and parasitoids (0.7%). In general, there were no significant differences among non-Bt and Bt rice plots in all arthropod community-specific parameters for both trials, suggesting no adverse impact of the Bt rice plant residues on the aboveground non-target arthropod communities during the postharvest season. The results of this study provide additional evidence that Bt rice is safe to non-target arthropod communities in the Chinese rice ecosystems.

  14. Beneficial Insects and Insect Pollinators on Milkweed in South Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pollinators are essential for the reproduction of more than two-thirds of the world’s crops, and beneficial insects play an important role in managing pest insects in agricultural farmscapes. These insects depend on nectar for their survival in these farmscapes. The flowers of tropical milkwe...

  15. The beta-receptor blocker metoprolol alters detoxification processes in the non-target organism Dreissena polymorpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska, E-mail: contardo@igb-berlin.d [Dpt. Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Pflugmacher, Stephan, E-mail: pflugmacher@igb-berlin.d [Dpt. Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Nuetzmann, Gunnar, E-mail: nuetzmann@igb-berlin.d [Dpt. Ecohydrology, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Kloas, Werner, E-mail: werner.kloas@igb-berlin.d [Dpt. Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Wiegand, Claudia, E-mail: wiegand@biology.sdu.d [University of Southern Denmark Institute of Biology, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2010-06-15

    Due to increasing amounts of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the aquatic environment, their largely unknown effects to non-target organisms need to be assessed. This study examined physiological changes in the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha exposed to increasing concentrations (0.534, 5.34, 53.4 and 534 mug L{sup -1}) of the beta-blocker metoprolol in a flow-through system for seven days. The two lower concentrations represent the environmentally relevant range. Surprisingly, metallothionein mRNA was immediately up-regulated in all treatments. For the two higher concentrations mRNA up-regulation in gills was found for P-glycoprotein after one day, and after four days for pi class glutathione S-transferase, demonstrating elimination and biotransformation processes, respectively. Additionally, catalase and superoxide dismutase were up-regulated in the digestive gland indicating oxidative stress. In all treated mussels a significant up-regulation of heat shock protein mRNA was observed in gills after four days, which suggests protein damage and the requirement for repair processes. Metoprolol was 20-fold bioaccumulated for environmentally relevant concentrations. - Evidence for significant physiological changes in an aquatic mollusc due to exposure to a pharmaceutically active compound detected by real-time PCR.

  16. Acute toxicity of chlorantraniliprole to non-target crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) associated with rice-crayfish cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Gary C; McClain, W Ray; Lanka, Srinivas K; Stout, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Chlorantraniliprole, a novel anthranilic diamide insecticide, was recently introduced into the United States where rice-crayfish crop rotations are practiced to control rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel) infestations. Chlorantraniliprole has high margins of mammalian safety and excellent insecticidal efficacy, but its toxicity to non-target crayfish is uncertain. In this study, the acute toxicity of chlorantraniliprole to the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii Girard was determined using aquatic and feeding assays. The aquatic 96 h median lethal toxicity (LC(50)) data indicate that technical-grade chlorantraniliprole is highly toxic (US EPA category) to crayfish with an LC(50) of 951 microg L(-1) (95% CL = 741-1118 microg L(-1)). A no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of 480 microg L(-1) was recorded. Neither the 36 day chronic feeding study, where crayfish fed on chlorantraniliprole-treated rice seed in aquaria, nor the 144 h acute feeding test, where crayfish fed on rice seeds treated with chlorantraniliprole, produced mortality or abnormal behavior. Chlorantraniliprole is three orders of magnitude less acutely toxic to P. clarkii than lambda-cyhalothrin and etofenprox, two pyrethroid insecticides also used in rice, and is less likely to cause acute crayfish toxicity in rice pond ecosystems. Based on acute toxicity data, the use of chlorantraniliprole should be more compatible with rice-crayfish crop rotations than pyrethroids. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Aquatic Life Criterion - Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to the 2016 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Selenium (Freshwater). These documents include what the safe levels of Selenium are in water for the majority of species.

  18. Aquatic Life Criteria - Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents related to EPA's final 2013 Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia (Freshwater). These documents pertain to the safe levels of Ammonia in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  19. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  20. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  1. Aquatic Life Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in the...

  2. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  3. Feeding the insect industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reports the use of insect colloidal artificial diets suitable for the rearing of economically important arthropods, such as Lygus lineolaris, Lygus hesperus, Coleomegilla maculata, and Phytoseiulus persimilis The different diets contain key nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, vit...

  4. Genetic Engineering of Insects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wild-type DNA resulted in the production of adults with wing ... using conventional method of breeding and selection. .... insects, birds, and other animals .... used to derive the expression of the antibiotic, tetracycline repressible transactivator.

  5. Allergies to Insect Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insects (as might be the case when a nest is disturbed, or when Africanized honeybees are involved); ... test with the five commercially available venoms; honey bee, paper wasp, yellow jacket, yellow hornet and white- ...

  6. Evolution of the Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S.

    2005-05-01

    This book chronicles the complete evolutionary history of insects--their living diversity and relationships as well as 400 million years of fossils. Introductory sections cover the living species diversity of insects, methods of reconstructing evolutionary relationships, basic insect structure, and the diverse modes of insect fossilization and major fossil deposits. Major sections then explore the relationships and evolution of each order of hexapods. The volume also chronicles major episodes in the evolutionary history of insects from their modest beginnings in the Devonian and the origin of wings hundreds of millions of years before pterosaurs and birds to the impact of mass extinctions and the explosive radiation of angiosperms on insects, and how they evolved into the most complex societies in nature. Whereas other volumes focus on either living species or fossils, this is the first comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of insect evolution. Illustrated with 955 photo- and electron- micrographs, drawings, diagrams, and field photos, many in full color and virtually all of them original, this reference will appeal to anyone engaged with insect diversity--professional entomologists and students, insect and fossil collectors, and naturalists. David Grimaldi and Michael S. Engel have collectively published over 200 scientific articles and monographs on the relationships and fossil record of insects, including 10 articles in the journals Science, Nature, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. David Grimaldi is curator in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History and adjunct professor at Cornell University, Columbia University, and the City University of New York. David Grimaldi has traveled in 40 countries on 6 continents, collecting and studying recent species of insects and conducting fossil excavations. He is the author of Amber: Window to the Past (Abrams, 2003). Michael S. Engel is an assistant professor in the

  7. Survival strategies of freshwater insects in cold environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria LENCIONI

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available At high latitudes and altitudes, ice formation is a major variable affecting survival of freshwater fauna and hence the abundance and composition of invertebrate communities. Freezing, but also desiccation and anoxia, are lethal threats to all life stages of aquatic insects, from the eggs to the adults. During cold periods, the aquatic stages commonly remain in or move to a portion of the water body that will not freeze or dry (e.g., deep waters of lakes, springs and hyporheic zone where they can remain active. Less frequently they migrate to habitats that will freeze at the onset of winter. Insects have developed a complex of strategies to survive at their physiological temperature minimum, comprising (a morphological (melanism, reduction in size, hairiness/pubescence, brachyptery and aptery, (b behavioural (basking in the sun, changes in feeding and mating habit, parthenogenesis, polyploidy, ovoviviparity, habitat selection and cocoon building, (c ecological (extension of development to several years by quiescence or diapause and reduction of the number of generations per year, (d physiological and biochemical (freezing tolerance and freezing avoidance adaptations. Most species develop a combination of these survival strategies that can be different in the aquatic and terrestrial phase. Freezing avoidance and freezing tolerance may be accompanied by diapause. Both cold hardiness and diapause manifest during the unfavourable season and: (i involve storage of food resources (commonly glycogen and lipids; (ii are under hormonal control (ecdysone and juvenile hormone; (iii involve a depression or suppression of the oxidative metabolism with mitochondrial degradation. However, where the growing season is reduced to a few weeks, insects may develop cold hardiness without entering diapause, maintaining in the haemolymph a high concentration of Thermal Hysteris Proteins (THPs for the entire year and a slow but continuous growth. A synthesis of

  8. Insects and other invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle; Diane M. Bowers

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen throughout its range appears to be host to several insect and other invertebrate pests (fig. 1). It is a short-lived species that is palatable to a large variety of animals. Furniss and Carolin (1977) listed 33 insect species that use aspen as a food source. Some are quite damaging and may kill otherwise healthy stands of aspen; others feed on weakened or...

  9. Insect immunology and hematopoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyer, Julián F.

    2015-01-01

    Insects combat infection by mounting powerful immune responses that are mediated by hemocytes, the fat body, the midgut, the salivary glands and other tissues. Foreign organisms that have entered the body of an insect are recognized by the immune system when pathogen-associated molecular patterns bind host-derived pattern recognition receptors. This, in turn, activates immune signaling pathways that amplify the immune response, induce the production of factors with antimicrobial activity, and...

  10. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  11. Insect immunology and hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Julián F

    2016-05-01

    Insects combat infection by mounting powerful immune responses that are mediated by hemocytes, the fat body, the midgut, the salivary glands and other tissues. Foreign organisms that have entered the body of an insect are recognized by the immune system when pathogen-associated molecular patterns bind host-derived pattern recognition receptors. This, in turn, activates immune signaling pathways that amplify the immune response, induce the production of factors with antimicrobial activity, and activate effector pathways. Among the immune signaling pathways are the Toll, Imd, Jak/Stat, JNK, and insulin pathways. Activation of these and other pathways leads to pathogen killing via phagocytosis, melanization, cellular encapsulation, nodulation, lysis, RNAi-mediated virus destruction, autophagy and apoptosis. This review details these and other aspects of immunity in insects, and discusses how the immune and circulatory systems have co-adapted to combat infection, how hemocyte replication and differentiation takes place (hematopoiesis), how an infection prepares an insect for a subsequent infection (immune priming), how environmental factors such as temperature and the age of the insect impact the immune response, and how social immunity protects entire groups. Finally, this review highlights some underexplored areas in the field of insect immunobiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and composition in streams along an altitudinal gradient in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques-Oliveira, Ana Lucia; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and composition in streams along an altitudinal gradient in Southeastern Brazil. A study concerning taxonomic richness and composition of the aquatic insect fauna in streams within the same catchment basin along an altitudinal gradient in Southeast Brazil, was conducted to test the hypothesis that there is a faunal discontinuity in the biocenotic composition, related to differences in altitude and latitude. In Southeastern Brazil, around latitude 22°, this ...

  13. Insect bite reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some

  14. 40 CFR 158.2150 - Microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides nontarget... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2150 Microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

  15. ATR-dependent bystander effects in non-targeted cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdak-Rothkamm, S.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Radiation induced non-targeted bystander effects have been reported for a range of endpoints including the induction of γH2AX foci which serve as a marker for DNA double strand breaks. We have recently reported the induction of γH2AX foci in non-targeted bystander cells up to 48 hours after irradiation and the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TGF-beta 1 in the induction of γH2AX foci (Oncogene (2007) 26:993-1002). Here, we wanted to determine the role of the PI3-like kinases ATM, ATR and DNA-PK in DNA damage signalling in bystander cells. Conditioned medium from T98G cells irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays was transferred onto non-irradiated cells that were subsequently analysed for the induction of γH2AX, ATR and 53BP1 foci as well as clonogenic survival. Irradiated T98G glioma cells generated signals that induced γH2AX and 53BP1 foci in cells treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated cells. These foci co-localised with ATR foci. Inhibition of ATM and DNA-PK could not suppress the induction of bystander γH2AX foci whereas the mutation of ATR in Seckel cells abrogated bystander foci induction. A restriction of bystander foci to the S-phase of the cell cycle both in T98G cells and in ATR- proficient fibroblasts was observed. These results identify ATR as a central player within the bystander signalling cascade leading to γH2AX and 53BP1 foci formation, and suggest a mechanism of DNA damage induction in non-targeted cells. Further investigations have shown decreased clonogenic cell survival in bystander T98G and ATR wild-type fibroblasts. ATR mutated Seckel cells and also ATM-/- fibroblasts were resistant to this effect suggesting a role for both ATR and ATM in the bystander signalling cascade with regard to cell survival. Taken together, these observations support a hypothesis of DNA damage-induced accumulation of stalled replication forks in bystander cells which are subsequently processed by

  16. Non-targeted bystander effects induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, William F.; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects refer to those responses occurring in cells that were not subject to energy deposition events following ionizing radiation. These bystander cells may have been neighbors of irradiated cells, or physically separated but subject to soluble secreted signals from irradiated cells. Bystander effects have been observed in vitro and in vivo and for various radiation qualities. In tribute to an old friend and colleague, Anthony V. Carrano, who would have said 'well what are the critical questions that should be addressed, and so what?', we review the evidence for non-targeted radiation-induced bystander effects with emphasis on prevailing questions in this rapidly developing research field, and the potential significance of bystander effects in evaluating the detrimental health effects of radiation exposure

  17. Some important questions connected with non-targeted effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, Keith; Belyakov, Oleg V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the highlights of experimental evidence that led to the adoption of the term 'non-targeted' to describe new effects induced by ionising radiation that did not fit the classical radiobiological paradigm, principally genomic instability and bystander effect, identifying the reports that were most influential on the subsequent course of radiobiological research. The issue of appropriate terminology for the new effects is discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the inheritance of genomic instability, where there are issues concerning which effects should be considered as transgenerational. Finally, in respect of the question as to whether these new effects are likely to have an impact on human health is addressed. It is concluded that there is a need for a clearer terminology to facilitate research progress, that real health effects cannot be ruled out and that therefore there is a need for new paradigms not only for radiobiology but also for risk assessment and radiological protection.

  18. The Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiragu, J.

    2006-01-01

    Insect pests have caused an increasing problem in agriculture and human health through crop losses and disease transmission to man and livestock. Intervention to ensure food security and human health has relied on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies to keep the pests population below economic injury levels. IPM integrate a variety of methods, but there has been over-reliance on chemical control following the discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT. It is now realized that, maintaining pest populations at controlled levels is unsustainable and eradication options is now being considered. Although the Sterile Insect Technique(SIT) could be used for insect suppression, it is gaining favour in the elimination (eradication) of the target pest population through Areawide-based IPM (Author)

  19. Procedure to select test organisms for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops in aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbeck, Angelika; Bundschuh, Rebecca; Bundschuh, Mirco; Hofmann, Frieder; Oehen, Bernadette; Otto, Mathias; Schulz, Ralf; Trtikova, Miluse

    2017-11-01

    For a long time, the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops focused mainly on terrestrial ecosystems. This changed when it was scientifically established that aquatic ecosystems are exposed to GM crop residues that may negatively affect aquatic species. To assist the risk assessment process, we present a tool to identify ecologically relevant species usable in tiered testing prior to authorization or for biological monitoring in the field. The tool is derived from a selection procedure for terrestrial ecosystems with substantial but necessary changes to adequately consider the differences in the type of ecosystems. By using available information from the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), the procedure can draw upon existing biological data on aquatic systems. The proposed procedure for aquatic ecosystems was tested for the first time during an expert workshop in 2013, using the cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as the GM crop and 1 stream type as the receiving environment in the model system. During this workshop, species executing important ecological functions in aquatic environments were identified in a stepwise procedure according to predefined ecological criteria. By doing so, we demonstrated that the procedure is practicable with regard to its goal: From the initial long list of 141 potentially exposed aquatic species, 7 species and 1 genus were identified as the most suitable candidates for nontarget testing programs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:974-979. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  20. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Mosquitoes, biting ... sunscreen needs to be reapplied often. Reactions to Insect Repellents If you suspect that your child is ...

  1. Metal concentrations in Japanese medaka, mosquitofish and insect larvae living in uncontaminated rivers in Kumamoto, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.; Toyoshima, T.; Matsushita, R.; Fukuda, A.; Hibino, K.

    2007-01-01

    Elemental concentrations in Japanese medaka and mosquitofish collected from uncontaminated rivers in Kumamoto, Japan were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis with k 0 standardization method to know the background levels. A statistical analysis indicated the difference in metal concentrations among rivers and species. Background levels of elemental concentrations in some aquatic insect larvae were analyzed and metal concentrations were different among species, though they were collected at the same point. Enrichment factors of heavy metals in insect larvae were in the order of 10 3 -10 4 suggesting effectiveness of insect larvae as bioindicator. (author)

  2. Use of sterile male technique for insects to eradicate red palm weevil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Turaihi, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    The date palm plantations in the Middle East countries are infested by a devastating insect which is called red palm weevil originally from India and spread firstly into the Arab Gulf countries through imported palm trees. Red palm weevil is mainly controlled by using synthetic chemical pesticides and aggregative pheromone traps. Use of chemical pesticides has dramatically increased during recent years and posed many poisoning cases, pollution of environment, killed beneficial and non-target insects. The aim of this study is to highlight the application of Sterile Insect Technique to suppress or eradicate red palm weevil. The results revealed that the application of Sterile Insect Technique to control cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in USA could be considered as an ideal example to apply the Sterile Insect Technique against red palm weevil because both species have similarities such as : both are exotic pests; have protected larval and pupal stages; have limited hosts; have economic importance; have an aggregative pheromone that attracts males and females; that can be used for detection and survey; and finally both insects are Coleopterans belonging to the same family.

  3. Sterile insect technique and radiation in insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Out of 39 papers and 6 summaries of the poster presentations published in this proceeding series, 23 respectively fall within the INIS subject scope. Four main topics were covered: a review of the sterile insect technique against various insect pests; its application to tsetse flies in eradication programmes; quality control of mass-reared insects for release; and the development of genetic approaches to insect mass rearing and control. Other topics emphasized integrated pest management, computer models and radioisotope labelling

  4. Influence of salinity and prey presence on the survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Ryong; King, Sammy L.

    2012-01-01

    Salinization of coastal freshwater environments is a global issue. Increased salinity from sea level rise, storm surges, or other mechanisms is common in coastal freshwater marshes of Louisiana, USA. The effects of salinity increases on aquatic macroinvertebrates in these systems have received little attention, despite the importance of aquatic macroinvertebrates for nutrient cycling, biodiversity, and as a food source for vertebrate species. We used microcosm experiments to evaluate the effects of salinity, duration of exposure, and prey availability on the relative survival of dominant aquatic macroinvertebrates (i.e., Procambarus clarkii Girard, Cambarellus puer Hobbs, Libellulidae, Dytiscidae cybister) in a freshwater marsh of southwestern Louisiana. We hypothesized that increased salinity, absence of prey, and increased duration of exposure would decrease survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates and that crustaceans would have higher survival than aquatic insect taxon. Our first hypothesis was only partially supported as only salinity increases combined with prolonged exposure duration affected aquatic macroinvertebrate survival. Furthermore, crustaceans had higher survival than aquatic insects. Salinity stress may cause mortality when acting together with other stressful conditions.

  5. African Journal of Aquatic Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... The African Journal of Aquatic Science is an international journal devoted to the ... papers and short articles in all the aquatic science fields including limnology, ...

  6. Linking Insects with Crustacea: Physiology of the Pancrustacea: An Introduction to the Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamone, Sherry L; Harrison, Jon F

    2015-11-01

    Insects and crustaceans represent critical, dominant animal groups (by biomass and species number) in terrestrial and aquatic systems, respectively. Insects (hexapods) and crustaceans are historically grouped under separate taxonomic classes within the Phylum Arthropoda, and the research communities studying hexapods and crustaceans are quite distinct. More recently, the hexapods have been shown to be evolutionarily derived from basal crustaceans, and the clade Pancrustacea recognizes this relationship. This recent evolutionary perspective, and the fact that the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology has strong communities in both invertebrate biology and insect physiology, provides the motivation for this symposium. Speakers in this symposium were selected because of their expertise in a particular field of insect or crustacean physiology, and paired in such a way as to provide a comparative view of the state of the current research in their respective fields. Presenters discussed what aspects of the physiological system are clearly conserved across insects and crustaceans and how cross-talk between researchers utilizing insects and crustaceans can fertilize understanding of such conserved systems. Speakers were also asked to identify strategies that would enable improved understanding of the evolution of physiological systems of the terrestrial insects from the aquatic crustaceans. The following collection of articles describes multiple recent advances in our understanding of Pancrustacean physiology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  8. Antimony in aquatic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Filella, Montserrat; Belzile, Nelson; Chen, Yuwei; Elleouet, C.; May, P. M.; Mavrocordatos, D.; Nirel, P.; Porquet, A.; Quentel, F.; Silver, S.

    2003-01-01

    Antimony is ubiquitous in the environment. In spite of its proven toxicity, it has received scant attention so far. This communication presents an overview of current knowledge as well as the early results of a concerted, multidisciplinary effort to unveil antimony behaviour and fate in natural aquatic systems.

  9. Energy from aquatic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aresta, M.; Dibenedetto, A.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic biomass is considered as a second (or third) generation option for the production of bio fuels. The best utilization for energy purposes is not its direct combustion. Several technologies are available for the extraction of compounds that may find application for the production of gaseous fuels (biogas, dihydrogen) or liquid fuels (ethanol, bio oil, biodiesel). [it

  10. ZOONOSIS OF AQUATICAL ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar Kurtović

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic organisms play a very important role in human nutrition. They also pose a real threat for human health by causing various diseases. Parasites, bacteria and viruses may either directly or indirectly be carried from aquatic organisms to humans. Disease outbreaks are influenced by many factors among which decreased immune response and feeding habits and higyene are most important. More frequent occuence of foodborne diseases has a number of reasons, including international travel and trade, microbial adaptation and changes in the food production system. Parasitic diseases occur most frequently as a result of human role in parasites life cycles. The prevalence is further increased by consuming raw fish and shellfish. The main feature of bacterial infections is facultative pathogenicity of most ethiological agents. In most cases disease occures as a result of decreased immunoreactivity. Several bacteria are, however, hightly pathogenic and capable of causing high morbidity and mortality in human. To date it has not been reported the case of human infection with viruses specific for aquatic organisms. Human infections are caused with human viruses and aquatic organisms play role only as vechicles. The greatest risk in that respect present shellfish. Fish and particularly shellfish are likely to cause food poisoning in humans. In most cases the cause are toxins of phithoplancton origins accumulating in shellfish and fish.

  11. Aquatic Environment 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, L. M.; Bijl, L. van der; Boutrup, S.

    The report summarizes the results of the Danish Aquatic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 1998-2003. Danish Environmental Protection Agency 2000: NOVA-2003. Programbeskrivelse for det nationale program for overvågning af vandmiljøet 1998-2003. 397 pp. - Redegørelse fra Miljøstyrelsen nr. 1 (in...

  12. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...

  13. Insects and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Most organisms reproduce sexually, but the evolution of sexual reproduction is not yet well understood. Sexual reproduction leads to new variation and adaptations to the environment, but sex is also costly. Some insects reproduce without sex through parthenogenesis or paedogenesis. Almost all sexual

  14. Dispersal of forest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  15. Investigation--Insects!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Janice

    2000-01-01

    Presents activities on insects for second grade students. In the first activity, students build a butterfly garden. In the second activity, students observe stimuli reactions with mealworms in the larval stage. Describes the assessment process and discusses the effects of pollution on living things. (YDS)

  16. Insect flight muscle metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.; Marrewijk, W.J.A. van

    1984-01-01

    The flight of an insect is of a very complicated and extremely energy-demanding nature. Wingbeat frequency may differ between various species but values up to 1000 Hz have been measured. Consequently metabolic activity may be very high during flight and the transition from rest to flight is

  17. Insects, isotopes and radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingkvist, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The IAEA activity on coordinating the IAEA member-state efforts in the field of pest control is considered. A complex program of agricultural pest control (IPM), applied in many parts of the world is developed. The program provides for the use of natural means of control and cases of critical pest numbers-the use of insecticides. When controlling certain types of insects it is advisable to apply the 'large area control' methods which provide for the insect destruction in places of their concentration prior to migration. Methods of pest control over large areas also include radiation sexual sterilization method (SSM), application of insect phoromons (sexual attractants) to prevent mating, other types of chemical attractants, traps, mass cultivation and reproduction of parasite plants and animals, destroying insects, as well as improvement of host-plant resistance. A great attention is paid to isotope and radiation application in pest control (labelling, sexual sterilization using ionising radiation, radiation application in genetic engineering, mutant plant cultivation)

  18. Anaphylaxis and insect allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, Jeffrey G; Minaei, Ashley A; Tracy, James M

    2010-08-01

    Anaphylaxis is an acute-onset and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that can be caused by numerous allergic triggers including stinging insects. This review focuses on recent advances, natural history, risk factors and therapeutic considerations. Recent work suggests that concerns over insect allergy diagnosis continue to exist. This is especially true with individuals who have a convincing history of a serious life-threatening anaphylactic event, but lack the necessary diagnostic criteria of venom-specific IgE by skin test or in-vitro diagnostic methods to confirm the diagnosis. The role of occult mastocytosis or increased basophile reactivity may play a role in this subset population. Additionally, epinephrine continues to be underutilized as the primary acute intervention for an anaphylactic reaction in the emergent setting. The incidence of anaphylaxis continues to rise across all demographic groups, especially those less than 20 years of age. Fortunately, the fatalities related to anaphylaxis appear to have decreased over the past decades. Our understanding of various triggers, associated risk factors, as well as an improved understanding and utilization of biological markers such as serum tryptase have improved. Our ability to treat insect anaphylaxis by venom immunotherapy is highly effective. Unfortunately, anaphylaxis continues to be underappreciated and undertreated especially in regard to insect sting anaphylaxis. This includes the appropriate use of injectable epinephrine as the primary acute management tool. These findings suggest that continued education of the general population, primary care healthcare providers and emergency departments is required.

  19. Broadening insect gastronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Münke, Christopher; Vantomme, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a trend among chefs to diversify their ingredients and techniques, drawing inspiration from other cultures and creating new foods by blending this knowledge with the flavours of their local region. Edible insects, with their plethora of taste, aromatic, textural and...

  20. Culture of insect tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cestari, A.N.; Simoes, L.C.G.

    1978-01-01

    Several aspects are discussed related to the behavior of politenic chromosomes from Rhyncosciara salivary glands kept in culture during different periods of time, without interference of insect hormones. Nucleic acid-and protein synthesis in isolated nuclei and chromosomes are also investigated. Autoradiographic techniques and radioactive precursors for nucleic acids and proteins are used in the research. (M.A.) [pt

  1. Insect (food) allergy and allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Steffie; Verhoeckx, Kitty

    2018-05-03

    Insects represent an alternative for meat and fish in satisfying the increasing demand for sustainable sources of nutrition. Approximately two billion people globally consume insects. They are particularly popular in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Most research on insect allergy has focussed on occupational or inhalation allergy. Research on insect food safety, including allergenicity, is therefore of great importance. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of cases reporting allergy following insect ingestion, studies on food allergy to insects, proteins involved in insect allergy including cross-reactive proteins, and the possibility to alter the allergenic potential of insects by food processing and digestion. Food allergy to insects has been described for silkworm, mealworm, caterpillars, Bruchus lentis, sago worm, locust, grasshopper, cicada, bee, Clanis bilineata, and the food additive carmine, which is derived from female Dactylopius coccus insects. For cockroaches, which are also edible insects, only studies on inhalation allergy have been described. Various insect allergens have been identified including tropomyosin and arginine kinase, which are both pan-allergens known for their cross-reactivity with homologous proteins in crustaceans and house dust mite. Cross-reactivity and/or co-sensitization of insect tropomyosin and arginine kinase has been demonstrated in house dust mite and seafood (e.g. prawn, shrimp) allergic patients. In addition, many other (allergenic) species (various non-edible insects, arachnids, mites, seafoods, mammals, nematoda, trematoda, plants, and fungi) have been identified with sequence alignment analysis to show potential cross-reactivity with allergens of edible insects. It was also shown that thermal processing and digestion did not eliminate insect protein allergenicity. Although purified natural allergens are scarce and yields are low, recombinant allergens from cockroach, silkworm, and Indian mealmoth are

  2. Edible insects of Northern Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenschläger,Thea; Neinhuis,Christoph; Monizi,Mawunu; Mandombe,José Lau; Förster,Anke; Henle,Thomas; Nuss,Matthias

    2017-01-01

    From 2013–2017, we accompanied and interviewed local people harvesting edible insects in the Northern Angolan province of Uíge. Insect and host plant samples were collected for species identification and nutritive analyses. Additionally, live caterpillars were taken to feed and keep until pupation and eclosion of the imago, necessary for morphological species identification. Altogether, 18 insect species eaten by humans were recorded. Twenty four edible insect species were formerly known from...

  3. Pathogen avoidance by insect predators

    OpenAIRE

    Meyling, Nicolai V.; Ormond, Emma; Roy, Helen E.; Pell, Judith K.

    2008-01-01

    Insects can detect cues related to the risk of attack by their natural enemies. Pathogens are among the natural enemies of insects and entomopathogenic fungi attack a wide array of host species. Evidence documents that social insects in particular have adapted behavioural mechanisms to avoid infection by fungal pathogens. These mechanisms are referred to as 'behavioural resistance'. However, there is little evidence for similar adaptations in non-social insects. We have conducted experime...

  4. Pulses, linkages, and boundaries of coupled aquatic-terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tockner, K.

    2009-04-01

    Riverine floodplains are linked ecosystems where terrestrial and aquatic habitats overlap, creating a zone where they interact, the aquatic-terrestrial interface. The interface or boundary between aquatic and terrestrial habitats is an area of transition, contact or separation; and connectivity between these habitats may be defined as the ease with which organisms, matter or energy traverse these boundaries. Coupling of aquatic and terrestrial systems generates intertwining food webs, and we may predict that coupled systems are more productive than separated ones. For example, riparian consumers (aquatic and terrestrial) have alternative prey items external to their respective habitats. Such subsidized assemblages occupy a significant higher trophic position than assemblages in unsubsidized areas. Further, cross-habitat linkages are often pulsed; and even small pulses of a driver (e.g. short-term increases in flow) can cause major resource pulses (i.e. emerging aquatic insects) that control the recipient community. For example, short-term additions of resources, simulating pulsed inputs of aquatic food to terrestrial systems, suggest that due to resource partitioning and temporal separation among riparian arthropod taxa the resource flux from the river to the riparian zone increases with increasing riparian consumer diversity. I will discuss the multiple transfer and transformation processes of matter and organisms across aquatic-terrestrial habitats. Key landscape elements along river corridors are vegetated islands that function as instream riparian areas. Results from Central European rivers demonstrate that islands are in general more natural than fringing riparian areas, contribute substantially to total ecotone length, and create diverse habitats in the aquatic and terrestrial realm. In braided rivers, vegetated islands are highly productive landscape elements compared to the adjacent aquatic area. However, aquatic habitats exhibit a much higher decomposition

  5. Protecting Yourself from Stinging Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from St ing in g In sect s Flying Insects Outdoor workers are at risk of being stung by flying insects (bees, wasps, and hornets) and fire ants. While ... If a worker is stung by a stinging insect: ■■ Have someone stay with the worker to be ...

  6. The promise of insect genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Insects are the largest animal group in the world and are ecologically and economically extremely important. This importance of insects is reflected by the existence of currently 24 insect genome projects. Our perspective discusses the state-of-the-art of these genome projects and the impacts...

  7. Heavy metals and metallothionein in vespertilionid bats foraging over aquatic habitats in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pikula, J.; Zukal, Jan; Adam, V.; Banďouchová, H.; Beklová, M.; Hájková, P.; Horáková, J.; Kizek, R.; Valentíková, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2010), s. 501-506 ISSN 0730-7268. [International Workshop on Aquatic Toxicology and Biomonitoring /1./. Vodňany, 27.08.2008-29.08.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Microchiroptera * insect foraging * metallic elements * bioaccumulation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.026, year: 2010

  8. The implementation of flipped classroom model in CIE in the environment of non-target language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Renfei; Mustofa, Ali; Zhang, Fang; Su, Xiaoxue

    2018-01-01

    This paper sets a theoretical framework that it’s both feasible and indispensable of flipping classroom in Chinese International Education (CIE) in the non-target language environments. There are mainly three sections included: 1) what is flipped classroom and why it becomes inevitable existence; 2) why should we flip the classroom in CIE environments, especially in non-target language environments; 3) take Pusat Bahasa Mandarin Universitas Negeri Surabaya as an instance to discuss the application of flipped classroom in non-target language environments.

  9. Insect biodiversity of the Algodones Dunes of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Kimsey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Over a nine year period beginning in 2007 we surveyed the insects of the Algodones Dunes, Imperial Count, California, as part of a study undertaken for the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. In a series of 22 collecting trips ranging in duration from 2 to 8 days we thus far have accumulated records of 1,840 species, 21 orders and 244 families from the dunes. Hymenoptera constituted the most diverse order, comprising about 45% of all the species recovered. Insect diversity and abundance peaked during the hottest part of the year between the months of May and September. Life history traits of the insects sampled included herbivores (29.6%, parasitoids (28.7%, predators (18.1%, pollen/nectar feeders (10.9%, detritivores (6.2% and scavengers (2.4%. Seventy-nine or 4% of the insect species collected in the dunes have been solely recorded from there, and 3% of the species almost certainly derive from adjacent aquatic habitats or agricultural ecosystems, as their life histories could not be completed in Algodones Dunes habitat. The insect fauna of the Algodones Dunes is unexpectedly rich and diverse.

  10. Nontarget analysis of polar contaminants in freshwater sediments influenced by pharmaceutical industry using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzic, Senka; Ahel, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical procedure for a reliable identification of nontarget polar contaminants in aquatic sediments was developed, based on the application of ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS). The procedure was applied for the analysis of freshwater sediment that was highly impacted by wastewater discharges from the pharmaceutical industry. A number of different contaminants were successfully identified owing to the high mass accuracy of the QTOFMS system, used in combination with high chromatographic resolution of UHPLC. The major compounds, identified in investigated sediment, included a series of polypropylene glycols (n = 3-16), alkylbenzene sulfonate and benzalkonium surfactants as well as a number of various pharmaceuticals (chlorthalidone, warfarin, terbinafine, torsemide, zolpidem and macrolide antibiotics). The particular advantage of the applied technique is its capability to detect less known pharmaceutical intermediates and/or transformation products, which have not been previously reported in freshwater sediments. - Research highlights: → UHPLC-QTOFMS coupling was applied for nontarget analysis of polar contaminants. → Wide spectrum of polar contaminants was identified in polluted sediments. → Pharmaceuticals and their intermediates were present in high concentrations. - Comprehensive analysis of freshwater sediments by UPLC/QTOF indicated importance of pharmaceutically-derived polar contaminants.

  11. Nontarget analysis of polar contaminants in freshwater sediments influenced by pharmaceutical industry using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terzic, Senka, E-mail: terzic@irb.h [Division of Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Ahel, Marijan [Division of Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-02-15

    A comprehensive analytical procedure for a reliable identification of nontarget polar contaminants in aquatic sediments was developed, based on the application of ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS). The procedure was applied for the analysis of freshwater sediment that was highly impacted by wastewater discharges from the pharmaceutical industry. A number of different contaminants were successfully identified owing to the high mass accuracy of the QTOFMS system, used in combination with high chromatographic resolution of UHPLC. The major compounds, identified in investigated sediment, included a series of polypropylene glycols (n = 3-16), alkylbenzene sulfonate and benzalkonium surfactants as well as a number of various pharmaceuticals (chlorthalidone, warfarin, terbinafine, torsemide, zolpidem and macrolide antibiotics). The particular advantage of the applied technique is its capability to detect less known pharmaceutical intermediates and/or transformation products, which have not been previously reported in freshwater sediments. - Research highlights: UHPLC-QTOFMS coupling was applied for nontarget analysis of polar contaminants. Wide spectrum of polar contaminants was identified in polluted sediments. Pharmaceuticals and their intermediates were present in high concentrations. - Comprehensive analysis of freshwater sediments by UPLC/QTOF indicated importance of pharmaceutically-derived polar contaminants.

  12. Effects of biotechnology on biodiversity: herbicide-tolerant and insect-resistant GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Klaus

    2005-08-01

    Biodiversity is threatened by agriculture as a whole, and particularly also by traditional methods of agriculture. Knowledge-based agriculture, including GM crops, can reduce this threat in the future. The introduction of no-tillage practices, which are beneficial for soil fertility, has been encouraged by the rapid spread of herbicide-tolerant soybeans in the USA. The replacement of pesticides through Bt crops is advantageous for the non-target insect fauna in test-fields. The results of the British Farm Scale experiment are discussed. Biodiversity differences can mainly be referred to as differences in herbicide application management.

  13. Aquatic Ecology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocksen, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Population studies were concerned with predicting long-term consequences of mortality imposed on animal populations by man's activities. These studies consisted of development of a generalized life cycle model and an empirical impingement model for use in impact analysis. Chemical effects studies were conducted on chlorine minimization; fouling by the Asiatic clam; identification of halogenated organics in cooling water; and effects of halogenated organics in cooling systems on aquatic organisms. Ecological transport studies were conducted on availability of sediment-bound 137 Cs and 60 Co to fish; 137 Cs and 60 Co in White Oak Lake fish; and chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers. Progress is also reported on the following: effects of irradiation on thermal tolerance of mosquito fish; toxicity of nickel to the developing eggs and larvae of carp; accumulation of selected heavy metals associated with fly ash; and environmental monitoring of aquatic ecosystems

  14. Aquatic Nuisance Species Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel

  15. Aquatic pathway 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This third part of the investigation discusses the preliminary results of sub-investigations concerning problems of the release of radioactive substances into the environment via the water pathway. On the basis of papers on the emission into the draining ditch and the exchange processes there, investigations of a possible incorporation via different exposure pathways are reported. Special regard is paid to drinking water supply aquatic foodstuffs, the river sediment, the utilisation of the agricultural surfaces and the draining ditch including its pre-pollution. The dynamics of contamination processes is reported on with regard to the problem of accidents. The colloquium will give an outline of the progress made so far and admit participants' suggestions for further work on the sub-investigations. The following colloquia will report further findings, in particular effects on aquatic ecosystems. (orig.) [de

  16. Ecotoxicological impact of Zequanox®, a novel biocide, on selected non-target Irish aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Sara; Shannon, Adam; Gruber, Bridget; Rackl, Sarahann M; Lucy, Frances E

    2014-09-01

    Effective, species-specific zebra mussel control is needed urgently for Ireland׳s freshwater bodies, which became infested with non-native zebra mussels in the 1990s. Zequanox®, a newly commercialized product for zebra and quagga mussel control, is composed of dead Pseudomonas fluorescens CL 145A cells. This paper describes ecotoxicology tests on three representative native Irish freshwater species: Anodonta (duck mussel), Chironomus plumosus (non-biting midge), and Austropotamobius pallipes (white-clawed crayfish). The species were exposed to Zequanox in a 72-h static renewal toxicity test at concentrations of 100-750mg active ingredient per liter (mga.i./L). Water quality parameters were measured every 12-24h before and after water and product renewal. After 72h, endpoints were reported as LC10, LC50, and LC100. The LC50 values derived were (1) Anodonta: ≥500mga.i./L (2) C. plumosus: 1075mga.i./L, and (3) A. pallipes: ≥750mga.i./L. These results demonstrate that Zequanox does not negatively affect these organisms at the concentration required for >80percent zebra mussel mortality (150mg a.i/L) and the maximum allowable treatment concentration in the United Sates (200mga.i./L). They also show the overall species-specificity of Zequanox, and support its use in commercial facilities and open waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The future impacts of non-targeted effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Scott; Kadhim, Munira

    2018-04-11

    Ionizing radiation was traditionally thought to exert its detrimental effects through interaction with sensitive cellular targets, nuclear DNA being of most importance. This theory has since merged with a more recently described radiation response called non-targeted effects (NTE). This review will briefly look at the various types of NTE and the potential implications they may have for radiobiology research and its applications. The most well-known NTE are genomic instability (GI) and bystander effects (BE). Other NTE include abscopal effects, which are similar to bystander effects but are generally based in a clinical environment with immune involvement as the defining feature. Currently, our understanding of NTE is limited to certain signaling pathways/molecules, and as yet there is no theory that describes or can accurately predict the occurrence or outcome of these NTE. There are numerous groups investigating these processes in vitro and in vivo, and thus steady progress is being made. Developing a deeper understanding of NTE has potential impacts for therapy and diagnosis, safer occupational exposures, space flight and our general understanding of radiation biology.

  18. Impact of Cry1Ab toxin expression on the non-target insects dwelling on maize plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Habuštová, Oxana; Doležal, Petr; Spitzer, Lukáš; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Hussein, Hany; Sehnal, František

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 3 (2014), s. 164-172 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH91093; GA MZe QI91A229 Grant - others:MOBITAG project(CZ) 7FP-REGPOT-2008-1, GA 229518 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : aphids * environmental risk assessment * European corn borer Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 1.650, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jen.12004/pdf

  19. Cleptobiosis in Social Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Breed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review of cleptobiosis, we not only focus on social insects, but also consider broader issues and concepts relating to the theft of food among animals. Cleptobiosis occurs when members of a species steal food, or sometimes nesting materials or other items of value, either from members of the same or a different species. This simple definition is not universally used, and there is some terminological confusion among cleptobiosis, cleptoparasitism, brood parasitism, and inquilinism. We first discuss the definitions of these terms and the confusion that arises from varying usage of the words. We consider that cleptobiosis usually is derived evolutionarily from established foraging behaviors. Cleptobionts can succeed by deception or by force, and we review the literature on cleptobiosis by deception or force in social insects. We focus on the best known examples of cleptobiosis, the ectatommine ant Ectatomma ruidum, the harvester ant Messor capitatus, and the stingless bee Lestrimellita limão. Cleptobiosis is facilitated either by deception or physical force, and we discuss both mechanisms. Part of this discussion is an analysis of the ecological implications (competition by interference and the evolutionary effects of cleptobiosis. We conclude with a comment on how cleptobiosis can increase the risk of disease or parasite spread among colonies of social insects.

  20. Presence, fate and effects of the intense sweetener sucralose in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollefsen, Knut Erik, E-mail: ket@niva.no [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalleen 21, N-0349 Oslo (Norway); Nizzetto, Luca [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalleen 21, N-0349 Oslo (Norway); Huggett, Duane B. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 310559, Denton, TX 76203 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Sucralose (1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-b-D-fructo-furanosyl 4-chloro-4-deoxy-a-D-galactopyranoside), sold under the trade name Splenda Registered-Sign , has been detected in municipal effluents and surface waters in the United States and Europe. The environmental presence of sucralose has led to interest in the possibility of toxic effects in non-target species. This review presents an environmental risk assessment of sucralose based on available data concerning its presence, fate and effects in the environment. Sucralose, which is made by selective chlorination of sucrose, is a highly stable compound, which undergoes negligible metabolism in mammals, including humans, and displays a low biodegradation potential in the environment. This intense sweetener is highly soluble in water, displays a low bioaccumulation potential and a low sorption potential to soil and organic matter, and thus is predominantly present in the water column. The predicted environmental concentration (PEC) for sucralose, based on measured data in surface waters, was determined to be 10 {mu}g/L. Aquatic toxicity studies using standardized, validated protocols used in regulatory decision making indicate that sucralose does not alter survival, growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms (such as plants, algae, crustaceans and fish) at concentrations > 9000 times higher than those detected in the environment. Some studies, using non-standardized protocols, have reported behavioral and other non-traditional responses in aquatic organisms, but the relevance of these findings for assessing adverse effects on individuals and populations will require further investigation. In terms of traditional risk assessment, the proposed predicted no effect concentration for aquatic organisms (PNEC) was determined to be 0.93 mg/L, based on the lowest no effect concentration (NOEC) from a validated chronic study with mysid shrimp and an application factor of 100. The resultant PEC/PNEC quotient was determined to be

  1. Presence, fate and effects of the intense sweetener sucralose in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Nizzetto, Luca; Huggett, Duane B.

    2012-01-01

    Sucralose (1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-b-D-fructo-furanosyl 4-chloro-4-deoxy-a-D-galactopyranoside), sold under the trade name Splenda®, has been detected in municipal effluents and surface waters in the United States and Europe. The environmental presence of sucralose has led to interest in the possibility of toxic effects in non-target species. This review presents an environmental risk assessment of sucralose based on available data concerning its presence, fate and effects in the environment. Sucralose, which is made by selective chlorination of sucrose, is a highly stable compound, which undergoes negligible metabolism in mammals, including humans, and displays a low biodegradation potential in the environment. This intense sweetener is highly soluble in water, displays a low bioaccumulation potential and a low sorption potential to soil and organic matter, and thus is predominantly present in the water column. The predicted environmental concentration (PEC) for sucralose, based on measured data in surface waters, was determined to be 10 μg/L. Aquatic toxicity studies using standardized, validated protocols used in regulatory decision making indicate that sucralose does not alter survival, growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms (such as plants, algae, crustaceans and fish) at concentrations > 9000 times higher than those detected in the environment. Some studies, using non-standardized protocols, have reported behavioral and other non-traditional responses in aquatic organisms, but the relevance of these findings for assessing adverse effects on individuals and populations will require further investigation. In terms of traditional risk assessment, the proposed predicted no effect concentration for aquatic organisms (PNEC) was determined to be 0.93 mg/L, based on the lowest no effect concentration (NOEC) from a validated chronic study with mysid shrimp and an application factor of 100. The resultant PEC/PNEC quotient was determined to be well below 1 (PEC

  2. Taphonomy of the fossil insects of the middle Eocene Kishenehn Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale E. Greenwalt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The lacustrine oil shales of the Coal Creek Member of the Kishenehn Formation in northwestern Montana comprise a relatively unstudied middle Eocene fossil insect locality. Herein, we detail the stratigraphic position of the fossiliferous unit, describe the insect fauna of the Coal Creek locality and document its bias towards very small but remarkably pre-served insects. In addition, the depositional environment is examined and the mineral constituents of the laminations that comprise the varves of the Kishenehn oil shale are defined. Fifteen orders of insects have been recorded with the majority of all insects identified as aquatic with the families Chironomidae (Diptera and Corixidae (Hemiptera dominant. The presence of small aquatic insects, many of which are immature, the intact nature of >90% of the fossil insects and the presence of Daphnia ephippia, all indicate that the depositional environment was the shallow margin of a large freshwater lake. The fossil insects occur within fossilized microbial mat layers that comprise the bedding planes of the oil shale. Unlike the fossiliferous shales of the Florissant and Okanagan Highlands, the mats are not a product of diatomaceous algae nor are diatom frustules a component of the sediments or the varve structure. Instead, the varves are composed of very fine eolian siliciclastic silt grains overlaid with non-diatomaceous, possibly cyanobacteria-derived microbial mats which contain distinct traces of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. A distinct third layer composed of essentially pure calcite is present in the shale of some exposures and is presumably derived from the seasonal warming-induced precipitation of carbonate from the lake’s waters. The Coal Creek locality presents a unique opportunity to study both very small middle Eocene insects not often preserved as compression fossils in most Konservat-Lagerstätte and the processes that led to their preservation.

  3. Edible insects are the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

  4. ORAL INSECT REPELLENTS - INSECT TASTE RECEPTORS AND THEIR ACTION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    CULICIDAE, * CHEMORECEPTORS ), INSECT REPELLENTS, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), ELECTROLYTES(PHYSIOLOGY), BLOOD, INGESTION(PHYSIOLOGY), REPRODUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY), NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, AEDES, MOUTH

  5. Non-cancer diseases and non-targeted effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Guido, E-mail: guido.hildebrandt@med.uni-rostock.de [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University of Leipzig, Stephanstrasse 9a, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy, University of Rostock, Suedring 75, 18059 Rostock (Germany)

    2010-05-01

    It is well established that moderate to high doses of radiation can increase the occurrence also of a variety of non-cancer effects in exposed individuals, but for radiation protection purposes it has generally been assumed that there is a threshold of dose below which no significant non-cancer effects (apart from hereditary disease) arise. In recent years, there is growing epidemiological evidence of excess risk of late occurring cardiovascular disease at much lower radiation doses and occurring over much longer intervals after radiation exposure without a clear cut threshold. However, the epidemiological evidence available so far for non-cancer health effects after exposure to moderate or low radiation doses is suggestive rather than persuasive. The mechanisms of radiation-induced vascular disease induction are far away from being understood. However, it seems to be very likely that inflammatory responses are involved. Recent experimental studies by Stewart et al. could demonstrate that high dose exposure to the cardiovascular system is associated with an earlier onset and accelerated development of macrophage-rich, inflammatory atherosclerotic lesions prone to intra-plaque hemorrhage and may also cause a decrease in myocardial perfusion. Both, macro-vascular and micro-vascular radiation effects involve the endothelium and pro-inflammatory signalling cascades. If modulation of inflammatory response is arguably also the most likely cause of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease after low dose exposure, this also implies a role for non-targeted radiation effects. In the absence of a convincing mechanistic explanation of the currently available epidemiological evidence for radiation-induced cardiovascular risk at low radiation doses, caution is required in the interpretation of the statistical associations. On the other hand, the possibility of such a causal explanation cannot be reliably excluded. Further epidemiological and biological evidence from currently

  6. Aquatic sports and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Миколайович Зюзь

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic sports or boating, has become a mass sport and recreation. It is as delightful a holiday as one might wish for, gaining strength around the world and especially in Ukraine. More and more people are eager to see the beauty of the underwater world, enjoy exciting sailing races, long journeys along beautiful rivers and unexplored areas, as well as smooth sailing at the height of the season. The article analyzes the modern aquatic (water tourism hazards that can lie in wait for a person in the water during camping trips and various boating competitions. This kind of sports is dangerous in principle, as aqueous medium is always perilous whether water is rough or calm. Accidents are always possible and tourists may find themselves in water, hypothermia, impossibility to breathe, impactions against different objects in the water resulting. Ships, food and equipment may also be damaged or lost, that is the consequences may be extremely negative. This article includes description of boating types, extreme forms of boating, the design features of the swimming facilities used in boating, practical skills and the ability to apply the facilities; characteristics of waves and currents; types of rivers; forms and methods of transportation and rescue of the drowning people; rendering assistance and first aid to the victims; promotion of safety rules on the water during the boating. The main goals and objectives in preparing aquatic tourism professionals whose main duty is safety, training topics, theoretical and practical materials for training the basics of safety that makes it possible to get acquainted with all the requirements have been discussed. The first attempt to develop general educational standards in training professionals in water sports and safety basing on the new priorities and the principles of modern vocational education has been made in the articles

  7. Radioecology of the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard-Triquet, C.; Amiard, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    This book is divided into nine parts as follows: origin of radionuclides in the aquatic environment; assessment of radioactive contamination of the aquatic environment; evolution of radionuclides in waters; behaviour of radionuclides in sediments; quantitative data on accumulation, distribution and biological release of radioactive pollutants; mechanisms of the biological accumulation; influence of ecological factors on radioactive contamination of ecosystems; effects of irradiation on aquatic organisms. The last part is devoted to general conclusions on sanitary and ecological consequences of radioactive pollution of the aquatic environment [fr

  8. Insects vis a vis radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Meera

    2014-01-01

    Insects have turned out to be much more radiation resistant. For most insects a dose of about 500-700 Gy is required to kill them within a few weeks of exposure; although cockroaches require 900-1000 Gy. Killing insects in less than a few days requires much higher doses. These doses are for mature insects, the immature stages of some insects can be killed by doses as low as 40 Gy. Some insects can be sterilized at even lower doses, and this has application in insect control. Screw-worms, for example, can be sterilized with doses of 25-50 Gy. By contrast, doses as low as 3 Gy caused death of humans in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and doses of about 6 Gy caused death of fire fighters in the Chernobyl accident. It is not exactly certain what the basis is for the resistance of insects to ionizing radiation. It is not animal size by itself, nor lack of penetration. It is also not because of few dividing cells as these are more radiosensitive than non-dividing ones. The speculation that insects might have lower oxygen tensions, and the lack of oxygen is known to protect cells from radiation also does not work. Insect cells might have an enhanced capacity to repair radiation damage also could not be proven. The number of chromosomes influenced radio-sensitivity, and that insects had fewer chromosomes could be true. The radiation resistance is inherent to the cells, since cells derived from insects are also radiation resistant when grown in cell culture. For example, a dose of 60 Gy is required to produce a 80% kill of insect cells, while doses of 1-2 Gy are sufficient to generate this level of killing in mammalian cells. But, nevertheless, according to recent researches, radiation from Japan's leaking Fukushima nuclear plant has caused mutations in some butterflies. It is therefore clear that insects are resistant to ionizing radiation and that this resistance is an inherent property of their cells. But it is not clear exactly what the basis of this cellular resistance is

  9. Sterilizing insects with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, A.; Mehta, K.; Lance, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is currently the method of choice for rendering insects reproductively sterile for area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Gamma radiation from isotopic sources (cobalt-60 or caesium-137) is most often used, but high-energy electrons and X-rays are other practical options. Insect irradiation is safe and reliable when established safety and quality-assurance guidelines are followed. The key processing parameter is absorbed dose, which must be tightly controlled to ensure that treated insects are sufficiently sterile in their reproductive cells and yet able to compete for mates with wild insects. To that end, accurate dosimetry (measurement of absorbed dose) is critical. Irradiation data generated since the 1950s, covering over 300 arthropod species, indicate that the dose needed for sterilization of arthropods varies from less than 5 Gy for blaberid cockroaches to 300 Gy or more for some arctiid and pyralid moths. Factors such as oxygen level, and insect age and stage during irradiation, and many others, influence both the absorbed dose required for sterilization and the viability of irradiated insects. Consideration of these factors in the design of irradiation protocols can help to find a balance between the sterility and competitiveness of insects produced for programmes that release sterile insects. Many programmes apply 'precautionary' radiation doses to increase the security margin of sterilization, but this overdosing often lowers competitiveness to the point where the overall induced sterility in the wild population is reduced significantly. (author)

  10. [WMN: a negative ERPs component related to working memory during non-target visual stimuli processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lun; Wei, Jin-he

    2003-10-01

    To study non-target stimuli processing in the brain. Features of the event-related potentials (ERPs) from non-target stimuli during selective response task (SR) was compared with that during visual selective discrimination (DR) task in 26 normal subjects. The stimuli consisted of two color LED flashes (red and green) appeared randomly in left (LVF) or right (RVF) visual field with same probability. ERPs were derived at 9 electrode sites on the scalp under 2 task conditions: a) SR, making switch response to the target (NT) stimuli from LVF or RVF in one direction and making no response to the non-target (NT) ones; b) DR, making switching response to T stimuli differentially, i.e., to the left for T from LVF and to the right for T from RVF. 1) the non-target stimuli in DR conditions, compared with that in SR condition, elicited smaller P2 and P3 components and larger N2 component at the frontal brain areas; 2) a significant negative component, named as WMN (working memory negativity), appeared in the non-target ERPs during DR in the period of 100 to 700 ms post stimulation which was predominant at the frontal brain areas. According to the major difference between brain activities for non-target stimuli during SR and DR, the predominant appearance of WMN at the frontal brain areas demonstrated that the non-target stimulus processing was an active process and was related to working memory, i.e., the temporary elimination and the retrieval of the response mode which was stored in working memory.

  11. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation. Proceedings of the RISC-RAD specialised training course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, O.V.

    2008-12-01

    The training course 'Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation' took place at the STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki, Finland 14-16 February 2005. Proceeding of this course is collected in this volume. The idea of the course was to convene a number of scientists leading in the area of non-targeted effects of ionising radiation with the aim to outline their visions for the role of these effects and outline the future directions of radiation research on the basis of their expertise. The course was supported by the RISC-RAD IP FI6R-CT-2003-508842, Euratom specific programme for research and training on nuclear energy, 6th FP of the EC. The main objectives of the training course were: (1) to clarify the mechanisms of non-targeted effects, in particular, bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response; (2) to look if and how non-targeted effects modulate the cancer risk in the low dose region, and whether they relate to protective or harmful functions; (3) to clarify if ionising radiation can cause non-cancer diseases or beneficial effects at low and intermediate doses; (4) address the issue of individual susceptibility and other factors modifying non-targeted responses; (5) attempt to assess the relevance of non-targeted effects for radiation protection and to set the scientific basis for a modern, more realistic, radiation safety system; (6) and finally to contribute to the conceptualisation of a new paradigm in radiation biology that would cover both the classical direct (DNA-targeted) and non-targeted (indirect) effects

  12. Laboratory evaluation of methanolic extract of Atlantia monophylla (Family: Rutaceae against immature stages of mosquitoes and non-target organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sivagnaname

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extracts of the leaves of Atlantia monophylla (Rutaceae were evaluated for mosquitocidal activity against immature stages of three mosquito species, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti in the laboratory.Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and pupae of An. stephensi were found more susceptible, with LC50 values of 0.14 mg/l and 0.05 mg/l, respectively. Insect growth regulating activity of this extract was more pronounced against Ae. aegypti, with EI50 value 0.002 mg/l. The extract was found safe to aquatic mosquito predators Gambusia affinis, Poecilia reticulata, and Diplonychus indicus, with the respective LC50 values of 23.4, 21.3, and 5.7 mg/l. The results indicate that the mosquitocidal effects of the extract of this plant were comparable to neem extract and certain synthetic chemical larvicides like fenthion, methoprene, etc.

  13. Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.

  14. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation (note). A new European integrated project, 2006-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, S.; Wright, E.G.; Hildebrandt, G.; Kadhim, M.; Little, M.P.; Prise, K.M.; Belyakov, O.V.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The general objectives of the NOTE project are: (1) to investigate the mechanisms of nontargeted effects, in particular, bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response; (2) to investigate if and how non-targeted effects modulate the cancer risk in the low dose region, and whether they relate to protective or harmful functions; (3) to investigate if ionising radiation can cause non-cancer diseases or beneficial effects at low and intermediate doses; (4) to investigate individual susceptibility and other factors modifying non-targeted responses; (5) to assess the relevance of non-targeted effects for radiation protection and to set the scientific basis for a modern, more realistic, radiation safety system; (6) to contribute to the conceptualisation of a new paradigm in radiation biology that would cover both the classical direct (DNA-targeted) and non-targeted (indirect) effects. The NOTE brings together 19 major European and Canadian groups involved in the discovery, characterisation and mechanistic investigation of non-targeted effects of ionising radiation in cellular, tissue and animal models. The NOTE research activities are organised in six work packages. Four work packages (WPs 2-5) are problem-oriented, focussing on major questions relevant for the scientific basis of the system of radiation protection: WP2 Mechanisms of non-targeted effects, WP3 Non-cancer diseases, WP4 Factors modifying non-targeted responses, WP5 Modelling of non-targeted effects. The integration activities provided by WP6 strengthen the collaboration by supporting the access to infrastructures, mobility and training. WP7 provides dissemination and exploitation activities in the form of workshops and a public website. Managerial activities (WP1) ensure the organisation and structures for decision making, monitoring of progress, knowledge management and efficient flow of information and financing. Coordinator of the NOTE project is Prof

  15. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation - Implications for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisko Salomaa

    2006-01-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (author)

  16. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation - Implications for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisko Salomaa [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (author)

  17. Can Oxygen Set Thermal Limits in an Insect and Drive Gigantism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberk, Wilco C. E. P.; Bilton, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Thermal limits may arise through a mismatch between oxygen supply and demand in a range of animal taxa. Whilst this oxygen limitation hypothesis is supported by data from a range of marine fish and invertebrates, its generality remains contentious. In particular, it is unclear whether oxygen limitation determines thermal extremes in tracheated arthropods, where oxygen limitation may be unlikely due to the efficiency and plasticity of tracheal systems in supplying oxygen directly to metabolically active tissues. Although terrestrial taxa with open tracheal systems may not be prone to oxygen limitation, species may be affected during other life-history stages, particularly if these rely on diffusion into closed tracheal systems. Furthermore, a central role for oxygen limitation in insects is envisaged within a parallel line of research focussing on insect gigantism in the late Palaeozoic. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we examine thermal maxima in the aquatic life stages of an insect at normoxia, hypoxia (14 kPa) and hyperoxia (36 kPa). We demonstrate that upper thermal limits do indeed respond to external oxygen supply in the aquatic life stages of the stonefly Dinocras cephalotes, suggesting that the critical thermal limits of such aquatic larvae are set by oxygen limitation. This could result from impeded oxygen delivery, or limited oxygen regulatory capacity, both of which have implications for our understanding of the limits to insect body size and how these are influenced by atmospheric oxygen levels. Conclusions/Significance These findings extend the generality of the hypothesis of oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance, suggest that oxygen constraints on body size may be stronger in aquatic environments, and that oxygen toxicity may have actively selected for gigantism in the aquatic stages of Carboniferous arthropods. PMID:21818347

  18. Can oxygen set thermal limits in an insect and drive gigantism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilco C E P Verberk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thermal limits may arise through a mismatch between oxygen supply and demand in a range of animal taxa. Whilst this oxygen limitation hypothesis is supported by data from a range of marine fish and invertebrates, its generality remains contentious. In particular, it is unclear whether oxygen limitation determines thermal extremes in tracheated arthropods, where oxygen limitation may be unlikely due to the efficiency and plasticity of tracheal systems in supplying oxygen directly to metabolically active tissues. Although terrestrial taxa with open tracheal systems may not be prone to oxygen limitation, species may be affected during other life-history stages, particularly if these rely on diffusion into closed tracheal systems. Furthermore, a central role for oxygen limitation in insects is envisaged within a parallel line of research focussing on insect gigantism in the late Palaeozoic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examine thermal maxima in the aquatic life stages of an insect at normoxia, hypoxia (14 kPa and hyperoxia (36 kPa. We demonstrate that upper thermal limits do indeed respond to external oxygen supply in the aquatic life stages of the stonefly Dinocras cephalotes, suggesting that the critical thermal limits of such aquatic larvae are set by oxygen limitation. This could result from impeded oxygen delivery, or limited oxygen regulatory capacity, both of which have implications for our understanding of the limits to insect body size and how these are influenced by atmospheric oxygen levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings extend the generality of the hypothesis of oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance, suggest that oxygen constraints on body size may be stronger in aquatic environments, and that oxygen toxicity may have actively selected for gigantism in the aquatic stages of Carboniferous arthropods.

  19. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad® were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida "fly free zone" protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production.

  20. Love Games that Insects Play

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Love Games that Insects Play - The Evolution of Sexual Behaviours in Insects ... Author Affiliations. K N Ganeshaiah1. Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Bangalore 560 065, India ...

  1. The invasive white ginger lily ( Hedichium coronarium simplifies the trait composition of an insect assemblage in the littoral zone of a Savanna reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Henrique Lanzi Saulino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The invasive white ginger lily (Hedichium coronarium - J. Köenig, 1783 simplifies the trait composition of an insect assemblage in the littoral zone of a Savanna reservoir. Invasive plants are believed to shift the trait composition of aquatic insects dwelling in banks of lentic ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the presence of the invasive white ginger lily (H. coronarium and the functional trait indices of the aquatic insect assemblage in the littoral zone of a tropical reservoir. We sampled aquatic insects on the invaded and non-invaded banks of the reservoir and then analyzed the insect trait indices by estimating the Functional Dispersion (FDis, Functional Evenness (FEve and the Functional Divergence (FDiv, as well as the Community level Weight-Mean traits (CWM. Finally, we compared these indices between invaded and non-invaded banks as well as their relationship with the abiotic variables, such as dissolved oxygen, pH, depth and water temperature. The result confirmed that the invaded banks had lower values of functional indices as well as dissolved oxygen. However, this abiotic variable was found to have no effect on the functional indices. In addition, the white ginger lily bank presented higher contribution of collector-gathering to predator-piercer groups. We suggest that the invasion of white ginger lily promotes low heterogeneity habitat resulting in simplification on functional traits of aquatic insect assemblage.

  2. The invasive white ginger lily (Hedichium coronarium simplifies the trait composition of an insect assemblage in the littoral zone of a Savanna reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Henrique Lanzi Saulino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The invasive white ginger lily (Hedichium coronarium – J. Köenig, 1783 simplifies the trait composition of an insect assemblage in the littoral zone of a Savanna reservoir. Invasive plants are believed to shift the trait composition of aquatic insects dwelling in banks of lentic ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the presence of the invasive white ginger lily (H. coronarium and the functional trait indices of the aquatic insect assemblage in the littoral zone of a tropical reservoir. We sampled aquatic insects on the invaded and non-invaded banks of the reservoir and then analyzed the insect trait indices by estimating the Functional Dispersion (FDis, Functional Evenness (FEve and the Functional Divergence (FDiv, as well as the Community level Weight-Mean traits (CWM. Finally, we compared these indices between invaded and non-invaded banks as well as their relationship with the abiotic variables, such as dissolved oxygen, pH, depth and water temperature. The result confirmed that the invaded banks had lower values of functional indices as well as dissolved oxygen. However, this abiotic variable was found to have no effect on the functional indices. In addition, the white ginger lily bank presented higher contribution of collector-gathering to predator-piercer groups. We suggest that the invasion of white ginger lily promotes low heterogeneity habitat resulting in simplification on functional traits of aquatic insect assemblage. Keywords: Biodiversity, Biological invasions, Functional diversity, Lentic system

  3. Advances on polyphenism in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xian-Ci; Yu, Li

    2017-09-20

    Polyphenism denotes that one genome produces two or more distinct phenotypes due to environmental inductions. Many cases have been reported in insects, for example, metamorphosis, seasonal polyphenism, the caste of eusocial insects and so on. Polyphenism is one of the most important reasons for insects to survive and thrive, because insects can adapt and use the environmental cues around them in order to avoid predators and reproduce by changing their phenotypes. Polyphenism has received growing attentions, ranging from the earlier description of this phenomenon to the exploration of possible inducing factors. With the recent advent of the genomic era, more and more studies based on next generation sequencing, gene knockout and RNA interference have been reported to reveal the molecular mechanism of polyphenism. In this review, we summarize the progresses of the polyphenism in insects and envision prospects of future researches.

  4. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    , defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar...... defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects...

  5. Exposures from aquatic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovski, V.; Voitsekhovitch, O.; Nasvit, O.; Zhelezniak, M.; Sansone, U.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for estimation aquatic pathways contribution to the total population exposure are discussed. Aquatic pathways are the major factor for radionuclides spreading from the Chernobyl Exclusion zone. An annual outflow of 90 Sr and 137 Cs comprised 10-20 TBq and 2-4 TBq respectively and the population exposed by this effluence constitutes almost 30 million people. The dynamic of doses from 90 Sr and ' C s, which Dnieper water have to delivered, is calculated. The special software has been developed to simulate the process of dose formation in the of diverse Dnieper regions. Regional peculiarities of municipal tap, fishing and irrigation are considered. Seventy-year prediction of dose structure and function of dose forming is performed. The exposure is estimated for 12 regions of the Dnieper basin and the Crimea. The maximal individual annual committed effective doses due to the use of water by ordinary members of the population in Kiev region from 90 Sr and 137 Cs in 1986 are 1.7*10 -5 Sv and 2.7*10 -5 Sv respectively. A commercial fisherman on Kiev reservoir in 1986 received 4.7*10 -4 Sv and 5*10 -3 Sv from 90 Sr and 137 Cs, respectively. The contributions to the collective cumulative (over 70 years) committed effective dose (CCCED 70 ) of irrigation, municipal tap water and fish consumption for members of the population respectively are 18%, 43%, 39% in Kiev region, 8%, 25%, 67% in Poltava region, and 50%, 50%, 0% (consumption of Dnieper fish is absent) in the Crimea. The predicted contribution of the Strontium-90 to CCCED 70 resulting from the use of water is 80%. The CCCED 70 to the population of the Dnieper regions (32.5 million people) is 3000 person-Sv due to the use the Dnieper water

  6. INSAR OF AQUATIC BODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tarikhi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Radar remote sensing is a new earth observation technology with promising results and future. InSAR is a sophisticated radar remote sensing technique for combining synthetic aperture radar (SAR single look complex images to form interferogram and utilizing its phase contribution to land topography, surface movement and target velocity. In recent years considerable applications of Interferometric SAR technique have been developed. It is an established technique for precise assessment of land surface movements, and generating high quality digital elevation models (DEM from space-borne and airborne data. InSAR is able to produce DEMs with the precision of a couple of ten meters whereas its movement map results have sub-centimeter precision. The technique has many applications in the context of earth sciences such as topographic mapping, environmental modelling, rainfall-runoff studies, landslide hazard zonation, and seismic source modelling. Nevertheless new developments are taking place in the application of InSAR for aquatic bodies. We have observed that using SAR Interferometry technique for aquatic bodies with the maximum temporal baseline of 16 seconds for image pairs shows considerable results enabling us to determine the direction of sea surface motion in a large area, estimate the sea surface fluctuations in the direction of sensor line-of-the-sight, detect wave pattern and the sea surface disturbance and whether the water motion is bulk and smooth or otherwise. This paper presents our experience and achievements on this new topic through discussing the facts and conditions for the use of InSAR technique. The method has been examined for Haiti, Dominican Republic, Western Chile and Western Turkey coast areas and inland lakes however ground truth data is needed for final verification. This technique scheduled to be applied in some other sites for which the proper data is available.

  7. Insect anaphylaxis: addressing clinical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, James M; Lewis, Elena J; Demain, Jeffrey G

    2011-08-01

    Few allergic reactions are as potentially life-threatening, or frightening to the patient, as anaphylaxis. Food, medications, and insect stings are the three most common triggers of anaphylaxis, but insect allergy provides the best opportunity to understand the biology of anaphylaxis. If the physician can establish a diagnosis of insect allergy, treatment with nearly 98% effectiveness can be initiated. However, sometimes patients have a compelling history of insect sting anaphylaxis, but negative skin and blood tests. This situation presents us with a fascinating opportunity to understand the biology of insect anaphylaxis. Recent and ongoing work shows that occult mast cell disease may be critical in insect anaphylaxis. Mastocytosis, serum tryptase and basophil biology are key elements; genetic markers may potentially help us diagnose at-risk individuals and determine proper treatment. Understanding basophil activation may play an additional role both in diagnosis and knowing when therapy might be terminated. Mast cell disease, serum tryptase and basophil biology are providing an opportunity to better understand and manage insect allergy. This evolving understanding should improve long-term management of insect anaphylaxis and help us to better understand the clinical dilemma of appropriate management of the history-positive patient in which testing is unable to detect venom-specific IgE. Furthermore, omalizumab's immunomodulatory effects may play a role in difficult-to-treat insect allergy and mastocytosis. Finally, unrelated to these, but still important as an ongoing risk factor, is the continued underutilization of epinephrine for both acute and long-term management of insect anaphylaxis.

  8. Mercury bioaccumulation in bats reflects dietary connectivity to aquatic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel J; Chumchal, Matthew M; Broders, Hugh G; Korstian, Jennifer M; Clare, Elizabeth L; Rainwater, Thomas R; Platt, Steven G; Simmons, Nancy B; Fenton, M Brock

    2018-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a persistent and widespread heavy metal with neurotoxic effects in wildlife. While bioaccumulation of Hg has historically been studied in aquatic food webs, terrestrial consumers can become contaminated with Hg when they feed on aquatic organisms (e.g., emergent aquatic insects, fish, and amphibians). However, the extent to which dietary connectivity to aquatic ecosystems can explain patterns of Hg bioaccumulation in terrestrial consumers has not been well studied. Bats (Order: Chiroptera) can serve as a model system for illuminating the trophic transfer of Hg given their high dietary diversity and foraging links to both aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Here we quantitatively characterize the dietary correlates of long-term exposure to Hg across a diverse local assemblage of bats in Belize and more globally across bat species from around the world with a comparative analysis of hair samples. Our data demonstrate considerable interspecific variation in hair total Hg concentrations in bats that span three orders of magnitude across species, ranging from 0.04 mg/kg in frugivorous bats (Artibeus spp.) to 145.27 mg/kg in the piscivorous Noctilio leporinus. Hg concentrations showed strong phylogenetic signal and were best explained by dietary connectivity of bat species to aquatic food webs. Our results highlight that phylogeny can be predictive of Hg concentrations through similarity in diet and how interspecific variation in feeding strategies influences chronic exposure to Hg and enables movement of contaminants from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contamination of the Aquatic Environment with Neonicotinoids and its Implication for Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sánchez-Bayo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of systemic neonicotinoid insecticides in agriculture results first in contamination of the soil of the treated crops, and secondly in the transfer of residues to the aquatic environment. The high toxicity of these insecticides to aquatic insects and other arthropods has been recognized, but there is little awareness of the impacts these chemicals have on aquatic environments and the ecosystem at large. Recent monitoring studies in several countries, however, have revealed a world-wide contamination of creeks, rivers and lakes with these insecticides, with residue levels in the low μg/L (ppb range. The current extent of aquatic contamination by neonicotinoids is reviewed first, and the findings contrasted with the known acute and chronic toxicity of neonicotinoids to various aquatic organisms. Impacts on populations and aquatic communities, mostly using mesocosms, are reviewed next to identify the communities most at risk from those that undergo little or no impact. Finally, the ecological links between aquatic and terrestrial organisms are considered. The consequences for terrestrial vertebrate species that depend mainly on this food source are discussed together with impacts on ecosystem function. Gaps in knowledge stem from difficulties in obtaining long-term experimental data that relates the effects on individual organisms to impacts on populations and ecosystems. The paper concludes with a summary of findings and the implications they have for the larger ecosystem.

  10. Hypoxia and hypercarbia in endophagous insects: Larval position in the plant gas exchange network is key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincebourde, Sylvain; Casas, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Gas composition is an important component of any micro-environment. Insects, as the vast majority of living organisms, depend on O2 and CO2 concentrations in the air they breathe. Low O2 (hypoxia), and high CO2 (hypercarbia) levels can have a dramatic effect. For phytophagous insects that live within plant tissues (endophagous lifestyle), gas is exchanged between ambient air and the atmosphere within the insect habitat. The insect larva contributes to the modification of this environment by expiring CO2. Yet, knowledge on the gas exchange network in endophagous insects remains sparse. Our study identified mechanisms that modulate gas composition in the habitat of endophagous insects. Our aim was to show that the mere position of the insect larva within plant tissues could be used as a proxy for estimating risk of occurrence of hypoxia and hypercarbia, despite the widely diverse life history traits of these organisms. We developed a conceptual framework for a gas diffusion network determining gas composition in endophagous insect habitats. We applied this framework to mines, galls and insect tunnels (borers) by integrating the numerous obstacles along O2 and CO2 pathways. The nature and the direction of gas transfers depended on the physical structure of the insect habitat, the photosynthesis activity as well as stomatal behavior in plant tissues. We identified the insect larva position within the gas diffusion network as a predictor of risk exposure to hypoxia and hypercarbia. We ranked endophagous insect habitats in terms of risk of exposure to hypoxia and/or hypercarbia, from the more to the less risky as cambium mines>borer tunnels≫galls>bark mines>mines in aquatic plants>upper and lower surface mines. Furthermore, we showed that the photosynthetically active tissues likely assimilate larval CO2 produced. In addition, temperature of the microhabitat and atmospheric CO2 alter gas composition in the insect habitat. We predict that (i) hypoxia indirectly favors

  11. Contaminants as habitat disturbers: PAH-driven drift by Andean paramo stream insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Sousa, José P; Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Encalada, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Rui

    2014-10-01

    Contaminants can behave as toxicants, when toxic effects are observed in organisms, as well as habitat disturbers and fragmentors, by triggering avoidance responses and generating less- or uninhabited zones. Drift by stream insects has long been considered a mechanism to avoid contamination by moving to most favorable habitats. Given that exploration and transportation of crude oil represent a threat for surrounding ecosystems, the key goal of the present study was to assess the ability of autochthonous groups of aquatic insects from the Ecuadorian paramo streams to avoid by drift different concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contained in the soluble fraction of locally transported crude oil. In the laboratory, different groups of insects were exposed to PAH for 12h. Three different assays, which varied in taxa and origin of the organisms, concentrations of PAH (0.6-38.8µgL(-1)), and environment settings (different levels of refuge and flow) were performed. For Anomalocosmoecus palugillensis (Limnephilidae), drift was a major cause of population decline in low concentration treatments but at higher concentrations mortality dominated. PAH was highly lethal, even at lower concentrations, for Chironomidae, Grypopterygidae (Claudioperla sp.) and Hydrobiosidae (Atopsyche sp.), and, therefore, no conclusion about drift can be drawn for these insects. Contamination by PAH showed to be a threat for benthic aquatic insects from Ecuadorian paramo streams as it can cause a population decline due to avoidance by drift and mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Biological Control of Pistia stratiotes L. (Waterlettuce) Using Neohydronomus affinis Hustache (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    plant must also be examined for herbivores attacking the weed. This ensures that time and money are not wasted by importing insects already present in...Agricultural Research Service Aquatic Weed Research Laboratory in Fort Lauder - dale, FL, from quarantine tacilities in Gainesville, FL, on 11 February

  13. 40 CFR 158.660 - Nontarget plant protection data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vigor R R R TEP 1, 2, 3, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic plant growth (algal and aquatic vascular plant... CR CR TEP 1, 4, 5, 7 850.4150 Vegetative vigor CR CR CR TEP 1, 3, 4, 5, 7 850.4400850.5400 Aquatic... methods used to generate data must include the results of a successful confirmatory method trial by an...

  14. Community composition of target vs. non-target fungi in fungicide treated wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer

    2012-01-01

    disease in wheat and within the last decade, new aggressive strains of yellow rust has caused severe epidemics that lead to substantial yield losses. This study explored the community composition of target versus non-target fungi in yellow rust infected wheat as affected by treatment timing and dose......Fungicide treatments are common control strategies used to manage fungal pathogens in agricultural fields, however, effects of treatments on the composition of total fungal communities, including non-target fungi, in the phyllosphere is not well known. Yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis) is a common...

  15. Non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Yahui; Tong Jian

    2007-01-01

    Non-targeted and delayed effects are relative phenomena in cellular responses to ionizing radiation. These effects (bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses) have been studied most extensively for radiation exposures. It is clear that adaptive responses, bystander effects and genomic instability will play an important role in the low dose-response to radiation. This review will provide a synthesis of the known, and proposed interrelationships amongst low-dose cellular responses to radiation, It also will examine the potential biological significance of non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. (authors)

  16. Study on the non-target effect of ionizing radiation using single cell gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Li Deguan; Liu Jianfeng; Chu Liping; Liu Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the non-target effect of ionizing radiation by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Methods: Cross incubated the irradiated( 137 Cs; 2Gy) or non-irradiated lymphocytes of human peripheral blood in the irradiated or non-irradiated plasma respectively, then, assess the DNA damage of lymphocytes using SCGE analysis. Results: The lymphocytes incubated in the irradiated plasma presented more obvious DNA damage than the incubated in the non-irradiated plasma dose (P<0.05). Conclusion: The non-target effect of ionizing radiation can be assessed by SCGE, and the results confirm that cytokines may play a great role in it. (authors)

  17. Screening of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in various aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Sanjuan, Maria; Meyer, Johan; Damasio, Joana; Faria, Melissa; Barata, Carlos; Lacorte, Silvia [IDAEA-CSIC, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of five perfluorinated chemicals (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorobutane sulfonic acid) in aquatic organisms dwelling in either freshwater or marine ecosystems. Organisms selected were insect larvae, oysters, zebra mussels, sardines, and crabs, which are widespread in the environment and may represent potential bioindicators of exposure to PFCs. The study comprises the optimization of a solid-liquid extraction method and determination by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Using spiked zebra mussels at 10 and 100 ng/g level, the method developed provided recoveries of 96% and 122%, and 82% to 116%, respectively, and a limit of detection between 0.07 and 0.22 ng/g ww. The method was highly sensitivity and robust to determine PFC compounds in a wide array of biological matrices, and no matrix interferents nor blank contamination was observed. Among organisms studied, none of the bivalves accumulated PFCs, and contrarily, insect larvae, followed by fish and crabs contained levels ranging from 0.23 to 144 ng/g ww of PFOS, from 0.14 to 4.3 ng/g ww of PFOA, and traces of PFNA and PFHxS. Assessment of the potential use of aquatic organisms for biomonitoring studies is further discussed. (orig.)

  18. Environmental enrichment for aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Aquatic animals are the most popular pets in the United States based on the number of owned pets. They are popular display animals and are increasingly used in research settings. Enrichment of captive animals is an important element of zoo and laboratory medicine. The importance of enrichment for aquatic animals has been slower in implementation. For a long time, there was debate over whether or not fish were able to experience pain or form long-term memories. As that debate has reduced and the consciousness of more aquatic animals is accepted, the need to discuss enrichment for these animals has increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ASSESSING POSSIBLE ECOLOGICAL RISKS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: GENE EXPRESSION ASSAYS AND GENETIC MONITORING OF NON-TARGET ORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread planting of genetically modified crops with the Bt transgene pesticide has led to concern over non-target effects of Bt compounds in agroecosystems. While some research suggests that non-target organisms exposed to Bt toxin exhibit reduced fecundity and increased morta...

  20. Bt rice expressing Cry2Aa does not harm Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, a main predator of the nontarget herbivore Nilapavarta lugens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han

    Full Text Available T2A-1 is a newly developed transgenic rice that expresses a synthesized cry2Aa gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. T2A-1 exhibits high resistance against lepidopteran pests of rice. The brown planthopper, Nilapavarta lugens (Stål, is a main nontarget sap-sucking insect pest of rice, and Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Reuter is the major predator of the eggs and young nymphs of planthoppers. As C. lividipennis may expose to the Cry2Aa protein via N. lugens, it is therefore essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry2Aa rice on this predator. In the present study, three experiments were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of transgenic cry2Aa rice to C. lividipennis: (1 a direct feeding experiment in which C. lividipennis was fed an artificial diet containing Cry2Aa at the dose of 10-time higher than that it may encounter in the realistic field condition; (2 a tritrophic experiment in which the Cry2Aa protein was delivered to C. lividipennis indirectly through prey eggs or nymphs; (3 a realistic field experiment in which the population dynamics of C. lividipennis were investigated using vacuum-suction. Both direct exposure to elevated doses of the Cry2Aa protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein did not result in significant detrimental effects on the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of C. lividipennis. No significant differences in population density and population dynamics were observed between C. lividipennis in transgenic cry2Aa and nontransgenic rice fields. It may be concluded that transgenic cry2Aa rice had no detrimental effects on C. lividipennis. This study represents the first report of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry2Aa rice on C. lividipennis.

  1. The use of statistical tools in field testing of putative effects of genetically modified plants on nontarget organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Alexander V; Elsas, Jan Dirk; Glandorf, Debora C M; Schilthuizen, Menno; Boer, Willem F

    2013-08-01

    To fulfill existing guidelines, applicants that aim to place their genetically modified (GM) insect-resistant crop plants on the market are required to provide data from field experiments that address the potential impacts of the GM plants on nontarget organisms (NTO's). Such data may be based on varied experimental designs. The recent EFSA guidance document for environmental risk assessment (2010) does not provide clear and structured suggestions that address the statistics of field trials on effects on NTO's. This review examines existing practices in GM plant field testing such as the way of randomization, replication, and pseudoreplication. Emphasis is placed on the importance of design features used for the field trials in which effects on NTO's are assessed. The importance of statistical power and the positive and negative aspects of various statistical models are discussed. Equivalence and difference testing are compared, and the importance of checking the distribution of experimental data is stressed to decide on the selection of the proper statistical model. While for continuous data (e.g., pH and temperature) classical statistical approaches - for example, analysis of variance (ANOVA) - are appropriate, for discontinuous data (counts) only generalized linear models (GLM) are shown to be efficient. There is no golden rule as to which statistical test is the most appropriate for any experimental situation. In particular, in experiments in which block designs are used and covariates play a role GLMs should be used. Generic advice is offered that will help in both the setting up of field testing and the interpretation and data analysis of the data obtained in this testing. The combination of decision trees and a checklist for field trials, which are provided, will help in the interpretation of the statistical analyses of field trials and to assess whether such analyses were correctly applied. We offer generic advice to risk assessors and applicants that will

  2. The aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-10-15

    The rapid increase in technological development and the broad societal benefit it has brought has been accompanied by a corresponding increase in environmental and societal problems. This has established a need to asses the impacts of new technologies, including nuclear industries. We are now entering an age which will see a rapid proliferation of nuclear power plants all over the world. As long as man continues to utilize nuclear energy, some releases of radioactive materials to the environment seem to be inescapable consequences. The problem therefore is to limit and control such releases, so that adverse effects on man and his environment can be reduced to acceptable levels. We can now draw on three decades of experience of the environmental impact of radioactive materials. To review this experience and to survey recent results of studies related to the safety of releases of nuclear facilities into fresh water, estuaries and sea water, the International Symposium on 'Radiological Impacts of Releases from Nuclear Facilities into Aquatic Environments' was held at Otaniemi, near Helsinki, Finland. (author)

  3. African Journals Online: Aquatic Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 10 of 10 ... The African Journal of Aquatic Science is an international journal devoted to the ... relevant social science and governance, or new techniques, are all ... ideas and findings on techniques, methodology and research findings ...

  4. Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science (TLAS), located in Cortland, New York, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). TLAS was established...

  5. Aquatic Life Criteria - Tributyltin (TBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to 2004 Final Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Tributyltin (TBT) for freshwater and saltwater. These documents include the safe levels of TBT that should protect the majority of species.

  6. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cofrancesco, Alfred

    1998-01-01

    ... (Mydophyllum spice turn) and hydrilla (Hyddlla verticfflata). These species, which account for more that two thirds of all noxious aquatic weed acreage in the United States, have similar characteristics...

  7. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    -dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we......Many terrestrial plant canopies regulate spatial patterns in leaf density and leaf inclination to distribute light evenly between the photosynthetic tissue and to optimize light utilization efficiency. Sessile aquatic macrophytes, however, cannot maintain the same well-defined three...... was markedly enhanced by a vertical orientation of thalli when absorptance and community density were both high. This result implies that aquatic macrophytes of high thallus absorptance and community density exposed to high light are limited in attaining high gross production rates because of their inability...

  8. Aquatic Remediation of Communication Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Virginia M.

    1985-01-01

    A 10-day aquatics program for learning disabled children with hand-eye coordination problems and low self-esteem is described. Activities for each session (including relaxation exercises) are listed. (CL)

  9. National Aquatic Resource Survey data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Surface water monitoring data from national aquatic surveys (lakes, streams, rivers). This dataset is associated with the following publication: Stoddard , J., J....

  10. Inherited sterility in insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.E.; Marec, F.; Bloem, S.

    2005-01-01

    The unique genetic phenomena responsible for inherited sterility (IS) in Lepidoptera and some other arthropods, as compared with full sterility, provide advantages for pest control. Lepidopteran females are usually more sensitive to radiation than males of the same species. This allows the radiation dose to be adjusted to suit programme requirements. When partially sterile males mate with wild females, the radiation-induced deleterious effects are inherited by the F 1 generation. As a result, egg hatch is reduced and the resulting offspring are both highly sterile and predominately male. Compared with the high radiation required to achieve full sterility in Lepidoptera, the lower dose of radiation used to induce F 1 sterility increases the quality and competitiveness of the released insects as measured by improved dispersal after release, increased mating ability, and superior sperm competition. F 1 sterile progeny produced in the field enhance the efficacy of released partially sterile males, and improve compatibility with other pest control strategies. In addition, F 1 sterile progeny can be used to increase the production of natural enemies, and to study the potential host and geographical ranges of exotic lepidopteran pests. (author)

  11. Insect neuropeptides regulating substrate mobilisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-09-25

    Sep 25, 1997 ... Insect flight muscles perform their work completely aerobically, and working flight musdes are ... locusts where they are involved in the control of carbohydrate ... the vertebrate hypothalamo/hypophyseal system, and it can.

  12. Environmental RNAi in herbivorous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashuta, Sergey; Zhang, Yuanji; Wiggins, B Elizabeth; Ramaseshadri, Partha; Segers, Gerrit C; Johnson, Steven; Meyer, Steve E; Kerstetter, Randy A; McNulty, Brian C; Bolognesi, Renata; Heck, Gregory R

    2015-05-01

    Environmental RNAi (eRNAi) is a sequence-specific regulation of endogenous gene expression in a receptive organism by exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Although demonstrated under artificial dietary conditions and via transgenic plant presentations in several herbivorous insects, the magnitude and consequence of exogenous dsRNA uptake and the role of eRNAi remains unknown under natural insect living conditions. Our analysis of coleopteran insects sensitive to eRNAi fed on wild-type plants revealed uptake of plant endogenous long dsRNAs, but not small RNAs. Subsequently, the dsRNAs were processed into 21 nt siRNAs by insects and accumulated in high quantities in insect cells. No accumulation of host plant-derived siRNAs was observed in lepidopteran larvae that are recalcitrant to eRNAi. Stability of ingested dsRNA in coleopteran larval gut followed by uptake and transport from the gut to distal tissues appeared to be enabling factors for eRNAi. Although a relatively large number of distinct coleopteran insect-processed plant-derived siRNAs had sequence complementarity to insect transcripts, the vast majority of the siRNAs were present in relatively low abundance, and RNA-seq analysis did not detect a significant effect of plant-derived siRNAs on insect transcriptome. In summary, we observed a broad genome-wide uptake of plant endogenous dsRNA and subsequent processing of ingested dsRNA into 21 nt siRNAs in eRNAi-sensitive insects under natural feeding conditions. In addition to dsRNA stability in gut lumen and uptake, dosage of siRNAs targeting a given insect transcript is likely an important factor in order to achieve measurable eRNAi-based regulation in eRNAi-competent insects that lack an apparent silencing amplification mechanism. © 2015 Ivashuta et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  13. Non-targeted plasma metabolome of early and late lactation gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female pigs nursing their first litter (first-parity gilts) have increased energy requirements not only to support their piglets, but they themselves are still maturing. Non-targeted plasma metabolomics were used to investigate the differences between (1) post-farrowing and weaning (early or late l...

  14. Effects of suction-dredging for cockles on non-target fauna in the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddink, JG

    2003-01-01

    Suction dredging for cockles removes large cockles from tidal flats and may also cause mortality of non-target fauna and make the habitat less suitable for some species. This study examines whether suction dredging for cockles on tidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea had affected densities of

  15. Non-targeted mutagenesis of unirradiated lambda phage in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.D.; Hutchinson, F.

    1984-01-01

    Non-targeted mutagenesis of lambda phage by ultraviolet light is the increase over background mutagenesis when non-irradiated phage are grown in irradiated Escherichia coli host cells. Such mutagenesis is caused by different processes from targeted mutagenesis, in which mutations in irradiated phage are correlated with photoproducts in the phage DNA. Non-irradiated phage grown in heavily irradiated uvr + host cells showed non-targeted mutations, which were 3/4 frameshifts, whereas targeted mutations were 2/3 transitions. For non-targeted mutagenesis in heavily irradiated host cells, there were one or two mutant phage per mutant burst. From the results of a series of experiments with various mutant host cells, a major pathway of non-targeted mutagenesis by ultraviolet light was proposed which acts in addition to ''SOS induction''. This pathway involves binding of the enzyme DNA polymerase I to damaged genomic DNA, and low polymerase activity leads to frameshift mutations during semiconservative DNA replication. The data suggest that this process will play a much smaller role in ultraviolet mutagenesis of the bacterial genome than it does in the mutagenesis of lambda phage. (author)

  16. Nontarget effects of orchard pesticides on natural enemies: lessons from the field and laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nontarget effects of insecticide programs used to control codling moth, Cydia pomonella were studied in large-plot field trials in apples, pears, and walnuts in the western United States. We sampled the abundance of natural enemies and outbreaks of secondary pests. The insecticides used in the f...

  17. Non-targeted mutagenesis of unirradiated lambda phage in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, R.D.; Hutchinson, F. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA). Dept. of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry)

    1984-03-05

    Non-targeted mutagenesis of lambda phage by ultraviolet light is the increase over background mutagenesis when non-irradiated phage are grown in irradiated Escherichia coli host cells. Such mutagenesis is caused by different processes from targeted mutagenesis, in which mutations in irradiated phage are correlated with photoproducts in the phage DNA. Non-irradiated phage grown in heavily irradiated uvr/sup +/ host cells showed non-targeted mutations, which were 3/4 frameshifts, whereas targeted mutations were 2/3 transitions. For non-targeted mutagenesis in heavily irradiated host cells, there were one or two mutant phage per mutant burst. From the results of a series of experiments with various mutant host cells, a major pathway of non-targeted mutagenesis by ultraviolet light was proposed which acts in addition to ''SOS induction''. This pathway involves binding of the enzyme DNA polymerase I to damaged genomic DNA, and low polymerase activity leads to frameshift mutations during semiconservative DNA replication. The data suggest that this process will play a much smaller role in ultraviolet mutagenesis of the bacterial genome than it does in the mutagenesis of lambda phage.

  18. Manifestations and mechanisms of non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Eric G.

    2010-01-01

    A well-established radiobiological paradigm is that the biological effects of ionizing radiation occur in irradiated cells as a consequence of the DNA damage they incur. However, many observations of, so-called, non-targeted effects indicate that genetic alterations are not restricted to directly irradiated cells. Non-targeted effects are responses exhibited by non-irradiated cells that are the descendants of irradiated cells (radiation-induced genomic instability) or by cells that have communicated with irradiated cells (radiation-induced bystander effects). Radiation-induced genomic instability is characterized by chromosomal abnormalities, gene mutations and cell death. Similar effects, as well as responses that may be regarded as protective, have been attributed to bystander mechanisms. The majority of studies to date have used in vitro systems but some non-targeted effects have been demonstrated in vivo and there is also evidence for radiation-induced instability in the mammalian germ line. However, there may be situations where radiation-induced genomic instability in vivo may not necessarily identify genomically unstable somatic cells but the manifestation of responses to ongoing production of damaging signals generated by genotype-dependent mechanisms having properties in common with inflammatory processes. Non-targeted mechanisms have significant implications for understanding mechanisms of radiation action but the current state of knowledge does not permit definitive statements about whether these phenomena have implications for assessing radiation risk.

  19. Indirect Effects of Functional Communication Training on Non-Targeted Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M.; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K.; Lee, John F.; Padilla Dalmau, Yaniz C.; Mews, Jayme; Ibrahimovic, Muska

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of functional communication training (FCT) on the occurrence of non-targeted disruptive behavior. The 10 participants were preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities who engaged in both destructive (property destruction, aggression, self-injury) and disruptive (hand flapping,…

  20. Two Self-Control Procedures in the Reduction of Targeted and Nontargeted Anxieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Compared effects of relaxation as self-control and a self-control variant of systematic desensitization in reducing targeted (test anxiety) and nontargeted anxieties with those of wait-list and no-treatment expectancy controls. Groups given relaxation as self-control and modified desensitization reported less debilitating test anxiety than…

  1. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates : Environmental Science and Pollution Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisa, L.W.; Amaral-Rogers, V.; Belzunces, L.P.; Bonmatin, J.M.; Downs, C.A.; Goulson, D.; Kreutzweiser, D.P.; Krupke, C.; Liess, M.; McField, M.; Morrissey, C.A.; Noome, D.A.; Settele, J.; Simon-Delso, N.; Stark, J.D.; Van der Sluijs, J.P.; Van Dyck, H.; Wiemers, M.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the state of knowledge regarding the effects of large-scale pollution with neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on non-target invertebrate species of terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. A large section of the assessment is dedicated to the state of knowledge on sublethal

  2. Social insects inspire human design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, C. Tate; Clark, Rebecca M.; Moore, Dani; Overson, Rick P.; Penick, Clint A.; Smith, Adrian A.

    2010-01-01

    The international conference ‘Social Biomimicry: Insect Societies and Human Design’, hosted by Arizona State University, USA, 18–20 February 2010, explored how the collective behaviour and nest architecture of social insects can inspire innovative and effective solutions to human design challenges. It brought together biologists, designers, engineers, computer scientists, architects and businesspeople, with the dual aims of enriching biology and advancing biomimetic design. PMID:20392721

  3. Atomic war on insects intensified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-06-15

    Intensive research work in many countries using nuclear methods aimed at reducing the immense food losses caused by insects have led to a number of important trial operations this year. Some are now in progress in Capri, the famous Italian tourist island, and in Central America. Both are directed against the Mediterranean fruit fly, which attacks most fruit in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Similar methods are also developing to combat other insect pests

  4. Edible insects are the future?

    OpenAIRE

    Huis, van, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect speci...

  5. Stream Insect Production as a Function of Alkalinity and Detritus Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, Thomas G.

    1981-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine if aquatic insect production was significantly different between high and low alkalinity mountain streams and if any differences were associated with food availability factors. The major objectives included determining: (1) if annual production differences occur between high and low alkalinity streams; (2) if processing rates of terrestrial detritus differs between high and low alkalinity streams; (3) if detrital processing rates are related to stream inse...

  6. Status of Biological Control of Waterlettuce in Louisiana and Texas Using Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    reduce recreational uses. Waterleett’je can block water intake valves where industrial and local municipalities receive water supplies. Water losses...to impact aquatic or semiaquatic agri- culture, includi g rice (Bua-ngam and Mercado 1975). Distinct changes in water quality have been documented in...1981. "An Introduction to the Study of Insects," Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, PA. Bua-ngam, T., and Mercado , B. L. 1975. "The Life Cycle

  7. An Integrated Molecular Database on Indian Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheepa, Maria; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Gracy, Gandhi; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Rangheswaran, Rajagopal; Antony, Jomin Cruz; Rai, Anil

    2018-01-01

    MOlecular Database on Indian Insects (MODII) is an online database linking several databases like Insect Pest Info, Insect Barcode Information System (IBIn), Insect Whole Genome sequence, Other Genomic Resources of National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources (NBAIR), Whole Genome sequencing of Honey bee viruses, Insecticide resistance gene database and Genomic tools. This database was developed with a holistic approach for collecting information about phenomic and genomic information of agriculturally important insects. This insect resource database is available online for free at http://cib.res.in. http://cib.res.in/.

  8. Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and archaeological literature we show and hypothesize about the existence of such environmental manipulations related to the procurement of edible insects. As examples we use eggs of aquatic Hemiptera in Mexico which are semi-cultivated by water management and by providing egg laying sites; palm weevil larvae in the Amazon Basin, tropical Africa, and New Guinea of which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance and which are semi-cultivated by deliberately cutting palm trees at a chosen time at a chosen location; and arboreal, foliage consuming caterpillars in sub-Saharan Africa for which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance, shifting cultivation, fire regimes, host tree preservation, and manually introducing caterpillars to a designated area. These manipulations improve insect exploitation by increasing their predictability and availability, and most likely have an ancient origin. PMID:22264307

  9. The extraembryonic serosa protects the insect egg against desiccation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Chris G. C.; Rezende, Gustavo L.; Lamers, Gerda E. M.; van der Zee, Maurijn

    2013-01-01

    Insects have been extraordinarily successful in occupying terrestrial habitats, in contrast to their mostly aquatic sister group, the crustaceans. This success is typically attributed to adult traits such as flight, whereas little attention has been paid to adaptation of the egg. An evolutionary novelty of insect eggs is the serosa, an extraembryonic membrane that enfolds the embryo and secretes a cuticle. To experimentally test the protective function of the serosa, we exploit an exceptional possibility to eliminate this membrane by zerknüllt1 RNAi in the beetle Tribolium castaneum. We analyse hatching rates of eggs under a range of humidities and find dramatically decreasing hatching rates with decreasing humidities for serosa-less eggs, but not for control eggs. Furthermore, we show serosal expression of Tc-chitin-synthase1 and demonstrate that its knock-down leads to absence of the serosal cuticle and a reduction in hatching rates at low humidities. These developmental genetic techniques in combination with ecological testing provide experimental evidence for a crucial role of the serosa in desiccation resistance. We propose that the origin of this extraembryonic membrane facilitated the spectacular radiation of insects on land, as did the origin of the amniote egg in the terrestrial invasion of vertebrates. PMID:23782888

  10. Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Itterbeeck, Joost; van Huis, Arnold

    2012-01-21

    Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and archaeological literature we show and hypothesize about the existence of such environmental manipulations related to the procurement of edible insects. As examples we use eggs of aquatic Hemiptera in Mexico which are semi-cultivated by water management and by providing egg laying sites; palm weevil larvae in the Amazon Basin, tropical Africa, and New Guinea of which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance and which are semi-cultivated by deliberately cutting palm trees at a chosen time at a chosen location; and arboreal, foliage consuming caterpillars in sub-Saharan Africa for which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance, shifting cultivation, fire regimes, host tree preservation, and manually introducing caterpillars to a designated area. These manipulations improve insect exploitation by increasing their predictability and availability, and most likely have an ancient origin.

  11. Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Itterbeeck Joost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and archaeological literature we show and hypothesize about the existence of such environmental manipulations related to the procurement of edible insects. As examples we use eggs of aquatic Hemiptera in Mexico which are semi-cultivated by water management and by providing egg laying sites; palm weevil larvae in the Amazon Basin, tropical Africa, and New Guinea of which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance and which are semi-cultivated by deliberately cutting palm trees at a chosen time at a chosen location; and arboreal, foliage consuming caterpillars in sub-Saharan Africa for which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance, shifting cultivation, fire regimes, host tree preservation, and manually introducing caterpillars to a designated area. These manipulations improve insect exploitation by increasing their predictability and availability, and most likely have an ancient origin.

  12. Identification of novel micropollutants in wastewater by a combination of suspect and nontarget screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, Christine; Ulrich, Nadin; Schulze, Tobias; Brack, Werner; Krauss, Martin

    2014-01-01

    To detect site-specific, suspected and formerly unknown contaminants in a wastewater treatment plant effluent, we established a screening procedure based on liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS) with stepwise identification schemes. Based on automated substructure searches a list of 2160 suspected site-specific and documented water contaminants was reduced to those amenable to LC–HRMS. After searching chromatograms for exact masses of suspects, presumably false positive detections were stepwise excluded by retention time prediction, the evaluation of isotope patterns, ionization behavior, and HRMS/MS spectra. In nontarget analysis, peaks for identification were selected based on distinctive isotope patterns and intensity. The stepwise identification of nontarget compounds was automated by a plausibility check of molecular formulas using the Seven Golden Rules, an exclusion of compounds with presumably low commercial importance and an automated HRMS/MS evaluation. Six suspected and five nontarget chemicals were identified, of which two have not been previously reported as environmental pollutants. -- Highlights: • A LC–HRMS-based suspect and nontarget screening was applied to wastewater. • Manual data processing to identify candidate structures was accelerated by automated software-based procedure. • Identification was supported by sophisticated analytical methods such as deuterium exchange. • Eleven site-specific and formerly unknown compounds were identified. • We provide a framework to extend analytical procedures from target to suspect and nontarget compounds. -- A screening procedure based on liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS) with a systematic data evaluation was established, which allowed detecting suspected and formerly unknown contaminants in wastewater

  13. Rates and patterns of molecular evolution in freshwater versus terrestrial insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterboeck, T Fatima; Fu, Jinzhong; Adamowicz, Sarah J

    2016-11-01

    Insect lineages have crossed between terrestrial and aquatic habitats many times, for both immature and adult life stages. We explore patterns in molecular evolutionary rates between 42 sister pairs of related terrestrial and freshwater insect clades using publicly available protein-coding DNA sequence data from the orders Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Mecoptera, Trichoptera, and Neuroptera. We furthermore test for habitat-associated convergent molecular evolution in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in general and at a particular amino acid site previously reported to exhibit habitat-linked convergence within an aquatic beetle group. While ratios of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions across available loci were higher in terrestrial than freshwater-associated taxa in 26 of 42 lineage pairs, a stronger trend was observed (20 of 31, p binomial = 0.15, p Wilcoxon = 0.017) when examining only terrestrial-aquatic pairs including fully aquatic taxa. We did not observe any widespread changes at particular amino acid sites in COI associated with habitat shifts, although there may be general differences in selection regime linked to habitat.

  14. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products

  15. Aquatic exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Schachter, Candice L; Danyliw, Adrienne; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Rader, Tamara

    2014-10-28

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review examined the effects of supervised group aquatic training programs (led by an instructor). We defined aquatic training as exercising in a pool while standing at waist, chest, or shoulder depth. This review is part of the update of the 'Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome' review first published in 2002, and previously updated in 2007. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the benefits and harms of aquatic exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2 (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Health Technology Assessment Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, WHO international Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and AMED, as well as other sources (i.e., reference lists from key journals, identified articles, meta-analyses, and reviews of all types of treatment for fibromyalgia) from inception to October 2013. Using Cochrane methods, we screened citations, abstracts, and full-text articles. Subsequently, we identified aquatic exercise training studies. Selection criteria were: a) full-text publication of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in adults diagnosed with fibromyalgia based on published criteria, and b) between-group data for an aquatic intervention and a control or other intervention. We excluded studies if exercise in water was less than 50% of the full intervention. We independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data (24 outcomes), of which we designated seven as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, stiffness, muscle strength, submaximal cardiorespiratory function, withdrawal rates and adverse effects. We resolved discordance through discussion. We evaluated interventions using mean differences

  16. The energetic contributions of aquatic primary producers to terrestrial food webs in a mid-size river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautza, Adam; Mazeika, S; Sullivan, P

    2016-03-01

    Rivers are increasingly recognized as providing nutritional subsidies (i.e., energy and nutrients) to adjacent terrestrial food webs via depredation of aquatic organisms (e.g., emergent aquatic insects, crayfish, fish) by terrestrial consumers. However, because these prey organisms assimilate energy from both aquatic (e.g., benthic algae, phytoplankton, aquatic macrophytes) and terrestrial (e.g., riparian leaf detritus) primary producers, river subsidies to terrestrial consumers represent a combination of aquatically and terrestrially derived energy. To date, the explicit contribution of energy derived from aquatic primary producers to terrestrial consumers has not been fully explored yet might be expected to be quantitatively important to terrestrial food webs. At 12 reaches along a 185-km segment of the sixth-order Scioto River system (Ohio, USA), we quantified the relative contribution of energy derived from aquatic primary producers to a suite of terrestrial riparian consumers that integrate the adjacent landscape across multiple spatial scales through their foraging activities (tetragnathid spiders, rove beetles, adult coenagrionid damselflies, riparian swallows, and raccoons). We used naturally abundant stable isotopes (13C and 15N) of periphyton, phytoplankton, macrophytes, and terrestrial vegetation to evaluate the energetic contribution of aquatic primary producers to terrestrial food webs. Shoreline tetragnathid spiders were most reliant on aquatic primary producers (50%), followed by wider-ranging raccoons (48%), damselflies (44%), and riparian swallows (41%). Of the primary producers, phytoplankton (19%) provisioned the greatest nutritional contribution to terrestrial consumers (considered collectively), followed by periphyton (14%) and macrophytes (11%). Our findings provide empirical evidence that aquatic primary producers of large streams and rivers can be a critical nutritional resource for terrestrial food webs. We also show that aquatically

  17. All insects are equal, but some insects are more equal than others

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Arnout R.H.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Lack of acceptance of insects as food is considered a barrier against societal adoption of the potentially valuable contribution of insects to human foods. An underlying barrier may be that insects are lumped together as one group, while consumers typically try specific insects. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in which Dutch consumers, with and without insect tasting experience, are more or less willing to eat different insects. Design/methodology/approach: In a ...

  18. The effect of lindane on non-target fauna in a maize agro-ecosystem in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deedat, Y.D.; Chanda, S.; Chivundu, A.M.; Kalembe, G.; Mecha, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of lindane on non-target fauna in a maize agro-ecosystem was studied in Zambia in 1992 and 1993. While lindane was effective against the stalk borers, a target pest, it also affected other non-target fauna. Ants, spiders and springtails were significantly reduced. However the effect was only transient and lasted for approximately two months. Lindane appeared to have no real effect on aerial non-target fauna or on soil inhabiting microorganisms. (author). 8 refs, 6 tabs

  19. Sterile insect supply, emergence, and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, R.V.; Worley, J.; Gomes, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Insect mass-rearing for a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme is designed to move beyond the large-scale rearing of insects in a laboratory to the industrial production of consistently high-quality insects for sterilization and release. Each facility reflects the unique biology of the insect reared within it, but there are some generalities for all rearing facilities. Rearing insects in self-contained modules offers flexibility, and increased safety from catastrophic occurrences, compared with using a single building which houses all facets of the rearing process. Although mechanizing certain aspects of the rearing steps helps provide a consistently high-quality insect, successful mass-rearing and delivery depends largely upon the human component. Besides production in centralized facilities, insects can be produced from purchased eggs, or nowadays, adult insects are often obtained from specialized satellite emergence/collection facilities. Interest in commercializing insect production and release is increasing. Shipping sterile insects, sometimes over long distances, is now common practice. Procedures for handling and chilling adult insects, and providing food and water prior to release, are continually being improved. Sterile insects are released via static-release receptacles, ground-release systems, or most commonly from the air. The aerial release of chilled sterile insects is the most efficient method of release, especially when aircraft flight paths are guided by a Global Positioning System (GPS) linked to a computer-controlled release mechanism. (author)

  20. Insect-resistant biotech crops and their impacts on beneficial arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatehouse, A. M. R.; Ferry, N.; Edwards, M. G.; Bell, H. A.

    2011-01-01

    With a projected population of 10 billion by 2050, an immediate priority for agriculture is to achieve increased crop yields in a sustainable and cost-effective way. The concept of using a transgenic approach was realized in the mid-1990s with the commercial introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. By 2010, the global value of the seed alone was US $11.2 billion, with commercial biotech maize, soya bean grain and cotton valued at approximately US $150 billion. In recent years, it has become evident that insect-resistant crops expressing δ-endotoxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis have made a significant beneficial impact on global agriculture, not least in terms of pest reduction and improved quality. However, because of the potential for pest populations to evolve resistance, and owing to lack of effective control of homopteran pests, alternative strategies are being developed. Some of these are based on Bacillus spp. or other insect pathogens, while others are based on the use of plant- and animal-derived genes. However, if such approaches are to play a useful role in crop protection, it is desirable that they do not have a negative impact on beneficial organisms at higher trophic levels thus affecting the functioning of the agro-ecosystem. This widely held concern over the ecological impacts of GM crops has led to the extensive examination of the potential effects of a range of transgene proteins on non-target and beneficial insects. The findings to date with respect to both commercial and experimental GM crops expressing anti-insect genes are discussed here, with particular emphasis on insect predators and parasitoids. PMID:21444317

  1. Insect-resistant biotech crops and their impacts on beneficial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatehouse, A M R; Ferry, N; Edwards, M G; Bell, H A

    2011-05-12

    With a projected population of 10 billion by 2050, an immediate priority for agriculture is to achieve increased crop yields in a sustainable and cost-effective way. The concept of using a transgenic approach was realized in the mid-1990s with the commercial introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. By 2010, the global value of the seed alone was US $11.2 billion, with commercial biotech maize, soya bean grain and cotton valued at approximately US $150 billion. In recent years, it has become evident that insect-resistant crops expressing δ-endotoxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis have made a significant beneficial impact on global agriculture, not least in terms of pest reduction and improved quality. However, because of the potential for pest populations to evolve resistance, and owing to lack of effective control of homopteran pests, alternative strategies are being developed. Some of these are based on Bacillus spp. or other insect pathogens, while others are based on the use of plant- and animal-derived genes. However, if such approaches are to play a useful role in crop protection, it is desirable that they do not have a negative impact on beneficial organisms at higher trophic levels thus affecting the functioning of the agro-ecosystem. This widely held concern over the ecological impacts of GM crops has led to the extensive examination of the potential effects of a range of transgene proteins on non-target and beneficial insects. The findings to date with respect to both commercial and experimental GM crops expressing anti-insect genes are discussed here, with particular emphasis on insect predators and parasitoids.

  2. Reviewing the serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) footprint in the aquatic biota: Uptake, bioaccumulation and ecotoxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    a Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" data-affiliation=" (REQUIMTE, Group of Bromatology, Pharmacognosy and Analytical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Sta Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" >Silva, Liliana J.G.; a Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" data-affiliation=" (REQUIMTE, Group of Bromatology, Pharmacognosy and Analytical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Sta Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" >Pereira, André a Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" data-affiliation=" (REQUIMTE, Group of Bromatology, Pharmacognosy and Analytical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Sta Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" >M.P.T.; Meisel, Leonor M.; a Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" data-affiliation=" (REQUIMTE, Group of Bromatology, Pharmacognosy and Analytical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Sta Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" >Lino, Celeste M.; a Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" data-affiliation=" (REQUIMTE, Group of Bromatology, Pharmacognosy and Analytical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Sta Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal))" >Pena, Angelina

    2015-01-01

    Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) antidepressants are amongst the most prescribed pharmaceutical active substances throughout the world. Their presence, already described in different environmental compartments such as wastewaters, surface, ground and drinking waters, and sediments, and their remarkable effects on non-target organisms justify the growing concern about these emerging environmental pollutants. A comprehensive review of the literature data with focus on their footprint in the aquatic biota, namely their uptake, bioaccumulation and both acute and chronic ecotoxicology is presented. Long-term multigenerational exposure studies, at environmental relevant concentrations and in mixtures of related compounds, such as oestrogenic endocrine disruptors, continue to be sparse and are imperative to better know their environmental impact. - Highlights: • Current knowledge of uptake and bioaccumulation of SSRIs. • Ecotoxicology and effects of SSRIs in the aquatic biota. • Identification of existing knowledge gaps. - A comprehensive review focussing SSRIs antidepressants footprint in the aquatic biota, namely their uptake, bioaccumulation, and both acute and chronic ecotoxicology is presented

  3. Radiations: tool for insect pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami, Kailash Kumar; Kiradoo, M.M.; Srivastava, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The discovery that X-rays or gamma radiation could cause sufficient genetic damage to insect reproductive systems to induce sterility resulted from work conducted by H.J. Muller starting in the 1920s. The sterilizing effect of radiation was noted by scientists of the US Department of Agriculture who had been seeking a method to sterilize insects for many years. These scientists had theorized that if large numbers of the target insect species were reared, sterilized, and released into the field, the sterile insects would mate with the wild insects. These mating would result in no offspring and thus a decline in the population would be obtained. They calculated that if sufficient numbers of sterile insects were released, reproductive rate for the wild population would rapidly decline and reach zero. In simple language, birth control of insects. Radiation sterilization was the answer. In a SIT operation, radiation is used to sexually sterilize insects. Since the SIT is species specific, the selection the insect pest or group of pests on which to work is of primary importance. The Joint Division of the IAEA Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has been involved in the use of isotopes and radiation in insect control since 1964. Isotopes are used as tags or markers, for instance, of chemical molecules, insects, or plants. For example, with these tags one can follow the fate of insecticides within insects and the environment; the incorporation of nutrients into the insect; and the movements of insects under field conditions. They also can plants on which insects feed so that the quantity of consumed food can be measured and directly correlated with plant resistance. They can be used as well to follow parasites and predators of insects - for example, their movements, numbers, and ability to help control insect pests. Radiations therefore have come as a novel tool to combat insect pest problem and in future could be very helpful in various other ways, of be it be cost

  4. Insects in fluctuating thermal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Hervé; Sinclair, Brent J; Vernon, Philippe; Renault, David

    2015-01-07

    All climate change scenarios predict an increase in both global temperature means and the magnitude of seasonal and diel temperature variation. The nonlinear relationship between temperature and biological processes means that fluctuating temperatures lead to physiological, life history, and ecological consequences for ectothermic insects that diverge from those predicted from constant temperatures. Fluctuating temperatures that remain within permissive temperature ranges generally improve performance. By contrast, those which extend to stressful temperatures may have either positive impacts, allowing repair of damage accrued during exposure to thermal extremes, or negative impacts from cumulative damage during successive exposures. We discuss the mechanisms underlying these differing effects. Fluctuating temperatures could be used to enhance or weaken insects in applied rearing programs, and any prediction of insect performance in the field-including models of climate change or population performance-must account for the effect of fluctuating temperatures.

  5. Biogenic Amines in Insect Antennae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna I. Zhukovskaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antenna is a multisensory organ, each modality of which can be modulated by biogenic amines. Octopamine (OA and its metabolic precursor tyramine (TA affect activity of antennal olfactory receptor neurons. There is some evidence that dopamine (DA modulates gustatory neurons. Serotonin can serve as a neurotransmitter in some afferent mechanosensory neurons and both as a neurotransmitter and neurohormone in efferent fibers targeted at the antennal vessel and mechanosensory organs. As a neurohormone, serotonin affects the generation of the transepithelial potential by sensillar accessory cells. Other possible targets of biogenic amines in insect antennae are hygro- and thermosensory neurons and epithelial cells. We suggest that the insect antenna is partially autonomous in the sense that biologically active substances entering its hemolymph may exert their effects and be cleared from this compartment without affecting other body parts.

  6. Marine and Other Aquatic Dermatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Surg Capt Jandhyala; Deo, Surg Cdr Rajeev

    2017-01-01

    Occupational and recreational aquatic activity predisposes our population to a wide variety of dermatoses. Sunburn, urticaria, jellyfish stings, and contact dermatitis to rubber equipment are common allergies that are encountered in the aquatic environment. Among the infections, tinea versicolor, intertrigo, and verruca vulgaris are widespread. Swimmer's itch may occur due to skin penetration by schistosome cercariae, while free-floating nematocysts of marine coelenterates may precipitate seabather's eruption. "Suit squeeze" due to cutaneous barotrauma and lymphoedematous peau d'orange due to decompression are rare, described entities. This review serves as a ready reckoner for Indian dermatologists and medical practitioners to identify and manage these conditions.

  7. Marine and other aquatic dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandhyala Sridhar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational and recreational aquatic activity predisposes our population to a wide variety of dermatoses. Sunburn, urticaria, jellyfish stings, and contact dermatitis to rubber equipment are common allergies that are encountered in the aquatic environment. Among the infections, tinea versicolor, intertrigo, and verruca vulgaris are widespread. Swimmer's itch may occur due to skin penetration by schistosome cercariae, while free-floating nematocysts of marine coelenterates may precipitate seabather's eruption. “Suit squeeze” due to cutaneous barotrauma and lymphoedematous peau d'orange due to decompression are rare, described entities. This review serves as a ready reckoner for Indian dermatologists and medical practitioners to identify and manage these conditions.

  8. Ionizing radiation perception by insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanhola, C.

    1980-04-01

    The proof of the existence of a perception for ionizing radiation by insects was aimed at, as well as the determination of its processing mechanism. It was tried also to check if such perception induces the insects to keep away from the radiation source, proving therefore a protection against the harms caused by ionizing radiation, or else the stimulus for such behaviour is similar to that caused by light radiations. 60 Co and 241 Am were used as gamma radiation sources, the 60 Co source of 0.435mCi and the 241 Am of 99.68mCi activity. Adult insects were used with the following treatments : exposure to 60 Co and 241 Am radiation and non-exposure (control). A total of approximately 50 insects per replication was released in the central region of an opaque white wooden barrier divided into 3 sections with the same area - 60.0 cm diameter and 7.5 cm height - covered with a nylon screen. 5 replications per treatment were made and the distribution of the insects was evaluated by photographs taken at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after release. Sitophilus oryzae (l., 1763) and Ephestia cautella (Walker, 1864) showed some response to 241 Am gamma radiation, i.e. negative tactism. It was concluded that ionizing radiations can be detected by insects through direct visual stimulus or by visual stimulus reslting from interaction of radiation-Cerenkov radiation - with some other occular component with a refraction index greater than water. Also, the activity of the radioactive source with regard to perception for ionizing radiation, is of relevance in comparison with the energy of the radiation emitted by same, or in other words, what really matters is the radiation dose absorbed. (Author) [pt

  9. Respiratory symptoms in insect breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Roberts, J; Fishwick, D; Tate, P; Rawbone, R; Stagg, S; Barber, C M; Adisesh, A

    2011-08-01

    A number of specialist food suppliers in the UK breed and distribute insects and insect larvae as food for exotic pets, such as reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. To investigate the extent of work-related (WR) symptoms and workplace-specific serum IgE in workers potentially exposed to a variety of biological contaminants, including insect and insect larvae allergens, endotoxin and cereal allergens at a UK specialist insect breeding facility. We undertook a study of respiratory symptoms and exposures at the facility, with subsequent detailed clinical assessment of one worker. All 32 workers were assessed clinically using a respiratory questionnaire and lung function. Eighteen workers consented to provide serum for determination of specific IgE to workplace allergens. Thirty-four per cent (11/32) of insect workers reported WR respiratory symptoms. Sensitization, as judged by specific IgE, was found in 29% (4/14) of currently exposed workers. Total inhalable dust levels ranged from 1.2 to 17.9 mg/m(3) [mean 4.3 mg/m(3) (SD 4.4 mg/m(3)), median 2.0 mg/m(3)] and endotoxin levels of up to 29435 EU/m(3) were recorded. Exposure to organic dusts below the levels for which there are UK workplace exposure limits can result in respiratory symptoms and sensitization. The results should alert those responsible for the health of similarly exposed workers to the potential for respiratory ill-health and the need to provide a suitable health surveillance programme.

  10. NIR detects, destroys insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    What’s good for Georgia peanuts may also be good for Kansas wheat. An electric eye that scans all food-grade peanuts for visual defects could one day do the same for wheat kernels. For peanuts, it’s a proven method for monitoring quality. In wheat, scanning with near-infrared (NIR) energy can reveal hidden insect infestations that lower wheat quality. ARS entomologists James E. Throne and James E. Baker and ARS agricultural engineer Floyd E. Dowell are the first to combine NIR with an automated grain-handling system to rapidly detect insects hidden in single wheat kernels

  11. ESR signals of irradiated insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Mitsuko; Kameya, Hiromi; Imamura, Taro; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Todoriki, Setsuko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of irradiated insects using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was reported. The insects were maize weevil, red flour beetle, Indian meal moth and cigarette beetle that are hazardous to crops. The ESR spectra were consisted of a singlet at g=2 and a sextet centered at the similar g-value. The singlet signal is due to an organic free radical. The sextet signal is attributable to the hyperfine interactions from Mn 2+ ions. Upon irradiation, new signals were not detected. The relaxation times, T 1 and T 2 , showed no variations before and after irradiation. (author)

  12. Factors influencing aquatic-to-terrestrial contaminant transport to terrestrial arthropod consumers in a multiuse river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Jeremy M; Sullivan, S Mažeika P

    2016-06-01

    Emerging aquatic insects are important vectors of contaminant transfer from aquatic to terrestrial food webs. However, the environmental factors that regulate contaminant body burdens in nearshore terrestrial consumers remain largely unexplored. We investigated the relative influences of riparian landscape composition (i.e., land use and nearshore vegetation structure) and contaminant flux via the emergent aquatic insect subsidy on selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) body burdens of riparian ants (Formica subsericea) and spiders of the family Tetragnathidae along 11 river reaches spanning an urban-rural land-use gradient in Ohio, USA. Model-selection results indicated that fine-scale land cover (e.g., riparian zone width, shrub cover) in the riparian zone was positively associated with reach-wide body burdens of Se and Hg in both riparian F. subsericea and tetragnathid spiders (i.e., total magnitude of Hg and Se concentrations in ant and spider populations, respectively, for each reach). River distance downstream of Columbus, Ohio - where study reaches were impounded and flow through a large urban center - was also implicated as an important factor. Although stable-isotope analysis suggested that emergent aquatic insects were likely vectors of Se and Hg to tetragnathid spiders (but not to F. subsericea), emergent insect contaminant flux did not emerge as a significant predictor for either reach-wide body burdens of spider Hg or Se. Improved understanding of the pathways and influences that control aquatic-to-terrestrial contaminant transport will be critical for effective risk management and remediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation—Implications for low dose risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadhim, Munira; Salomaa, Sisko; Wright, Eric

    2013-01-01

    and adaptive responses are powered by fundamental, but not clearly understood systems that maintain tissue homeostasis. Despite excellent research in this field by various groups, there are still gaps in our understanding of the likely mechanisms associated with non-DNA targeted effects, particularly......Non-DNA targeted effects of ionising radiation, which include genomic instability, and a variety of bystander effects including abscopal effects and bystander mediated adaptive response, have raised concerns about the magnitude of low-dose radiation risk. Genomic instability, bystander effects....... Furthermore, it is still not known what the initial target and early interactions in cells are that give rise to non-targeted responses in neighbouring or descendant cells. This paper provides a commentary on the current state of the field as a result of the non-targeted effects of ionising radiation (NOTE...

  14. In Silico Nanodosimetry: New Insights into Nontargeted Biological Responses to Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Kuncic

    2012-01-01

    nontargeted responses cannot be understood in the framework of DNA-centric radiobiological models; what is needed are new physically motivated models that address the damage-sensing signalling pathways triggered by the production of reactive free radicals. To this end, we have conducted a series of in silico experiments aimed at elucidating the underlying physical processes responsible for nontargeted biological responses to radiation. Our simulation studies implement new results on very low-energy electromagnetic interactions in liquid water (applicable down to nanoscales and we also consider a realistic simulation of extranuclear microbeam irradiation of a cell. Our results support the idea that organelles with important functional roles, such as mitochondria and lysosomes, as well as membranes, are viable targets for ionizations and excitations, and their chemical composition and density are critical to determining the free radical yield and ensuing biological responses.

  15. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Bidochka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates.

  16. Edible insects in China: Utilization and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Min; He, Zhao; Sun, Long; Wang, Cheng-Ye; Ding, Wei-Feng

    2018-04-01

    The use of edible insects has a long history in China, where they have been consumed for more than 2000 years. In general, the level of acceptance is high for the consumption of insects in China. Many studies on edible insects have been conducted in the last 20 years, and the scope of the research includes the culture of entomophagy and the identification, nutritional value, farming and breeding of edible insects, in addition to food production and safety. Currently, 324 species of insects from 11 orders are documented that are either edible or associated with entomophagy in China, which include the common edible species, some less commonly consumed species and some medicinal insects. However, only approximately 10 to 20 types of insects are regularly consumed. The nutritional values for 174 species are available in China, including edible, feed and medicinal species. Although the nutritional values vary among species, all the insects examined contain protein, fat, vitamins and minerals at levels that meet human nutritional requirements. Edible insects were, and continue to be, consumed by different ethnic groups in many parts of China. People directly consume insects or food products made from insects. The processing of products from insect protein powder, oil and chitin, and the development of healthcare foods has been studied in China. People also consume insects indirectly by eating livestock that were fed insects, which may be a more acceptable pathway to use insects in human diets. Although limited, the data on the food safety of insects indicate that insects are safe for food or feed. Incidences of allergic reactions after consuming silkworm pupae, cicadas and crickets have been reported in China. Insect farming is a unique breeding industry in rural China and is a source of income for local people. Insects are reared and bred for human food, medicine and animal feed using two approaches in China: the insects are either fully domesticated and reared

  17. Impact of genetically modified maize expressing Cry 3Bb1 on some non-target arthropods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hussein, Hany; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Habuštová, Oxana; Půža, Vladimír; Sehnal, František

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2012), s. 5124-5131 ISSN 1819-544X R&D Projects: GA MZe QH91093 Grant - others:projekt MOBITAG(CZ) REGPOT-2008-1, GA 229518 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : MON 88017 * Cry3Bb1 * non-target organisms Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection http://www.aensiweb.com/jasr/jasr/2012/5124-5131.pdf

  18. Assessing Potential Impact of Bt Eggplants on Non-Target Arthropods in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navasero, Mario V.; Candano, Randolph N.; Hautea, Desiree M.; Hautea, Randy A.; Shotkoski, Frank A.; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on potential adverse effects of genetically engineered crops are part of an environmental risk assessment that is required prior to the commercial release of these crops. Of particular concern are non-target organisms (NTOs) that provide important ecosystem services. Here, we report on studies conducted in the Philippines over three cropping seasons with Bt eggplants expressing Cry1Ac for control of the eggplant fruit and shoot borer (EFSB), Leucinodes orbonalis, to examine potential effects on field abundance, community composition, structure and biodiversity of NTO’s, particularly non-target arthropod (NTA) communities. We document that many arthropod taxa are associated with Bt eggplants and their non-Bt comparators and that the number of taxa and their densities varied within season and across trials. However, we found few significant differences in seasonal mean densities of arthropod taxa between Bt and non-Bt eggplants. As expected, a lower abundance of lepidopteran pests was detected in Bt eggplants. Higher abundance of a few non-target herbivores was detected in non-Bt eggplants as were a few non-target beneficials that might control them. Principal Response Curve (PRC) analyses showed no statistically significant impact of Bt eggplants on overall arthropod communities through time in any season. Furthermore, we found no significant adverse impacts of Bt eggplants on species abundance, diversity and community dynamics, particularly for beneficial NTAs. These results support our previous studies documenting that Bt eggplants can effectively and selectively control the main pest of eggplant in Asia, the EFSB. The present study adds that it can do so without adverse effects on NTAs. Thus, Bt eggplants can be a foundational component for controlling EFSB in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program and dramatically reduce dependence on conventional insecticides. PMID:27798662

  19. Structure identification by Mass Spectrometry Non-Targeted Analysis using the US EPA’s CompTox Chemistry Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of unknowns in mass spectrometry based non-targeted analyses (NTA) requires the integration of complementary pieces of data to arrive at a confident, consensus structure. Researchers use chemical reference databases, spectral matching, fragment prediction tools, r...

  20. Does Bt rice pose risks to non-target arthropods? Results of a meta-analysis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic Bt rice expressing the protoxin proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) have been developed since 1989. Their ecological risks toward non-target organisms have been investigated. However, these studies were conducted individually, yielding inconsistent conclusions and u...

  1. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. Volume 36

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE) Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP) is the Nation's only federally authorized research program directed to develop technology for the management of non-indigenous aquatic plant species...

  2. Identifying bioaccumulative halogenated organic compounds using a nontargeted analytical approach: seabirds as sentinels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Millow

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs are typically monitored via targeted mass spectrometry, which potentially identifies only a fraction of the contaminants actually present in environmental samples. With new anthropogenic compounds continuously introduced to the environment, novel and proactive approaches that provide a comprehensive alternative to targeted methods are needed in order to more completely characterize the diversity of known and unknown compounds likely to cause adverse effects. Nontargeted mass spectrometry attempts to extensively screen for compounds, providing a feasible approach for identifying contaminants that warrant future monitoring. We employed a nontargeted analytical method using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOF-MS to characterize halogenated organic compounds (HOCs in California Black skimmer (Rynchops niger eggs. Our study identified 111 HOCs; 84 of these compounds were regularly detected via targeted approaches, while 27 were classified as typically unmonitored or unknown. Typically unmonitored compounds of note in bird eggs included tris(4-chlorophenylmethane (TCPM, tris(4-chlorophenylmethanol (TCPMOH, triclosan, permethrin, heptachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (MBP, as well as four halogenated unknown compounds that could not be identified through database searching or the literature. The presence of these compounds in Black skimmer eggs suggests they are persistent, bioaccumulative, potentially biomagnifying, and maternally transferring. Our results highlight the utility and importance of employing nontargeted analytical tools to assess true contaminant burdens in organisms, as well as to demonstrate the value in using environmental sentinels to proactively identify novel contaminants.

  3. Study of target and non-target interplay in spatial attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeti; Joshi, Deepak; Panigrahi, B K; Anand, Sneh; Santhosh, Jayasree

    2018-02-01

    Selective visual attention is the ability to selectively pay attention to the targets while inhibiting the distractors. This paper aims to study the targets and non-targets interplay in spatial attention task while subject attends to the target object present in one visual hemifield and ignores the distractor present in another visual hemifield. This paper performs the averaged evoked response potential (ERP) analysis and time-frequency analysis. ERP analysis agrees to the left hemisphere superiority over late potentials for the targets present in right visual hemifield. Time-frequency analysis performed suggests two parameters i.e. event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) and inter-trial coherence (ITC). These parameters show the same properties for the target present in either of the visual hemifields but show the difference while comparing the activity corresponding to the targets and non-targets. In this way, this study helps to visualise the difference between targets present in the left and right visual hemifields and, also the targets and non-targets present in the left and right visual hemifields. These results could be utilised to monitor subjects' performance in brain-computer interface (BCI) and neurorehabilitation.

  4. Non-target adjacent stimuli classification improves performance of classical ERP-based brain computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, G. A.; Hernández, L. F.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The classical ERP-based speller, or P300 Speller, is one of the most commonly used paradigms in the field of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI). Several alterations to the visual stimuli presentation system have been developed to avoid unfavorable effects elicited by adjacent stimuli. However, there has been little, if any, regard to useful information contained in responses to adjacent stimuli about spatial location of target symbols. This paper aims to demonstrate that combining the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli with standard classification (target versus non-target) significantly improves classical ERP-based speller efficiency. Approach. Four SWLDA classifiers were trained and combined with the standard classifier: the lower row, upper row, right column and left column classifiers. This new feature extraction procedure and the classification method were carried out on three open databases: the UAM P300 database (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico), BCI competition II (dataset IIb) and BCI competition III (dataset II). Main results. The inclusion of the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli improves target classification in the classical row/column paradigm. A gain in mean single trial classification of 9.6% and an overall improvement of 25% in simulated spelling speed was achieved. Significance. We have provided further evidence that the ERPs produced by adjacent stimuli present discriminable features, which could provide additional information about the spatial location of intended symbols. This work promotes the searching of information on the peripheral stimulation responses to improve the performance of emerging visual ERP-based spellers.

  5. Vulnerability of Rehabilitated Agricultural Production Systems to Invasion by Nontarget Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Sara G.; Engle, David M.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; Langeland, Kenneth A.; Maxwell, Bruce D.; Menalled, Fabian D.; Symstad, Amy J.

    2009-02-01

    Vast areas of arable land have been retired from crop production and “rehabilitated” to improved system states through landowner incentive programs in the United States (e.g., Conservation and Wetland Reserve Programs), as well as Europe (i.e., Agri-Environment Schemes). Our review of studies conducted on invasion of rehabilitated agricultural production systems by nontarget species elucidates several factors that may increase the vulnerability of these systems to invasion. These systems often exist in highly fragmented and agriculturally dominated landscapes, where propagule sources of target species for colonization may be limited, and are established under conditions where legacies of past disturbance persist and prevent target species from persisting. Furthermore, rehabilitation approaches often do not include or successfully attain all target species or historical ecological processes (e.g., hydrology, grazing, and/or fire cycles) key to resisting invasion. Uncertainty surrounds ways in which nontarget species may compromise long term goals of improving biodiversity and ecosystem services through rehabilitation efforts on former agricultural production lands. This review demonstrates that more studies are needed on the extent and ecological impacts of nontarget species as related to the goals of rehabilitation efforts to secure current and future environmental benefits arising from this widespread conservation practice.

  6. Morphological Effect of Non-targeted Biomolecule-Modified MNPs on Reticuloendothelial System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Hu, Yan; Xiao, Jie; Cheng, Dengfeng; Xiu, Yan; Shi, Hongcheng

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with special morphology were commonly used as biomaterials, while morphological effects of non-targeted biomolecule-modified MNPs on biological behaviors were still unclear. In this research, spherical and rod-like Fe3O4 in a comparable size were synthesized and then surface-modified by bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model of non-targeted biomolecule-modified MNPs. Morphological effects were featured by TEM and quantification of in vitro phagocytic uptake, as well as the in vivo quantification of particles in reticuloendothelial system (RES)-related organs of normal Kunming mice. For these non-targeted BSA-modified MNPs, intracellular distributions were the same, but the rod-like MNPs were more likely to be uptake by macrophages; furthermore, the BSA-modified MNPs gathered in RES-related organs soon after intravenous injection, but the rod-like ones were expelled from the lung more quickly and expelled from the spleen more slowly. These preliminary results may be referable if MNPs or other similar biomolecule-modified nanoparticles were used.

  7. Communicating the non-targeted effects of radiation from irradiated to non-irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laiakis, E.C.; Morgan, W.F.

    2005-01-01

    For many years, the central dogma in radiobiology has been that energy deposited in the cell nucleus is responsible for the biological effects associated with radiation exposure. However, non-targeted and delayed effects of radiation have shifted this belief. The studies of radiation-induced genomic instability, the bystander and abscopal effects, clastogenic factors, and the Death Inducing Effect have dominated the interest of the radiobiology field of late. The passing of signals from irradiated to non-irradiated cells can be accomplished through cell-to-cell gap junction communication or secretion of molecules, which in turn can elicit a response through activation of signal transduction pathways. Proposed mediators of this phenotype include proteins involved with inflammation. Given their size and connection with oxidative stress, cytokines are an attractive candidate as mediators of the induction of the non-targeted effects of radiation. Here we review the evidence for a possible connection between these delayed non-targeted effects of radiation and the cytokine cascades associated with inflammation. (author)

  8. Macrophytes: Ecology of aquatic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornette, G.; Puijalon, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic plants contribute to maintaining key functions and related biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems, and to provide the needs of human societies. The way the ecological niches of macrophytes are determined by abiotic filters and biotic ones is considered. A simple, broadly applicable model of

  9. Checklist of the Aquatic Macrophytes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Professor, Department of Plant Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State. 3. Professor, Department of Botany, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State. (Received: October, 2010; Accepted: May, 2011). The occurrence and diversity of aquatic macrophytes on Jebba Lake were documented during the ...

  10. Biomimetic aquatic hair sensors design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadi, N.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2008-01-01

    “Touch in distance��? is a term that has been used to describe function of lateral line of the fish as well as other aquatic animals that use mechanoreceptor hairs to discern spatial information about their immediate environment. In this work we address the requirements for fabrication technology of

  11. Expanding Aquatic Observations through Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. W. Brewin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate observations of the Earth system are required to understand how our planet is changing and to help manage its resources. The aquatic environment—including lakes, rivers, wetlands, estuaries, coastal and open oceans—is a fundamental component of the Earth system controlling key physical, biological, and chemical processes that allow life to flourish. Yet, this environment is critically undersampled in both time and space. New and cost-effective sampling solutions are urgently needed. Here, we highlight the potential to improve aquatic sampling by tapping into recreation. We draw attention to the vast number of participants that engage in aquatic recreational activities and argue, based on current technological developments and recent research, that the time is right to employ recreational citizens to improve large-scale aquatic sampling efforts. We discuss the challenges that need to be addressed for this strategy to be successful (e.g., sensor integration, data quality, and citizen motivation, the steps needed to realize its potential, and additional societal benefits that arise when engaging citizens in scientific sampling.

  12. Chemical composition, toxicity and non-target effects of Pinus kesiya essential oil: An eco-friendly and novel larvicide against malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important parasites and pathogens causing death, poverty and social disability worldwide, with special reference to tropical and subtropical countries. The overuse of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors lead to resistance, adverse environmental effects and high operational costs. Therefore, the development of eco-friendly control tools is an important public health challenge. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Pinus kesiya leaf essential oil (EO) was evaluated against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the P. kesiya EO contained 18 compounds. Major constituents were α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene and germacrene D. In acute toxicity assays, the EO showed significant toxicity against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with LC50 values of 52, 57, and 62µg/ml, respectively. Notably, the EO was safer towards several aquatic non-target organisms Anisops bouvieri, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 values ranging from 4135 to 8390µg/ml. Overall, this research adds basic knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides from Pinaceae plants against malaria, dengue and filariasis mosquito vectors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of target and non-target similarity on neural classification performance: A boost from confidence

    OpenAIRE

    Amar R Marathe; Anthony J Ries; Vernon J Lawhern; Vernon J Lawhern; Brent J Lance; Jonathan eTouryan; Kaleb eMcDowell; Hubert eCecotti

    2015-01-01

    Brain computer interaction (BCI) technologies have proven effective in utilizing single-trial classification algorithms to detect target images in rapid serial visualization presentation tasks. While many factors contribute to the accuracy of these algorithms, a critical aspect that is often overlooked concerns the feature similarity between target and non-target images. In most real-world environments there are likely to be many shared features between targets and non-targets resulting in si...

  14. The effect of target and non-target similarity on neural classification performance: a boost from confidence

    OpenAIRE

    Marathe, Amar R.; Ries, Anthony J.; Lawhern, Vernon J.; Lance, Brent J.; Touryan, Jonathan; McDowell, Kaleb; Cecotti, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Brain computer interaction (BCI) technologies have proven effective in utilizing single-trial classification algorithms to detect target images in rapid serial visualization presentation tasks. While many factors contribute to the accuracy of these algorithms, a critical aspect that is often overlooked concerns the feature similarity between target and non-target images. In most real-world environments there are likely to be many shared features between targets and non-targets resulting in si...

  15. Comparative acute toxicity of neonicotinoid and pyrethroid insecticides to non-target crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) associated with rice-crayfish crop rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Gary C; Stout, Michael J

    2009-11-01

    Most insecticides used to control rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuscel) infestations are pyrethroids. However, pyrethroids are highly toxic to non-target crayfish associated with rice-crayfish crop rotations. One solution to the near-exclusive reliance on pyrethroids in a rice-crayfish pest management program is to incorporate neonicotinoid insecticides, which are insect specific and effective against weevils but not extremely toxic to crayfish. This study aimed to take the first step to assess neonicotinoids as alternatives to pyrethroids in rice-crayfish crop rotations by measuring the acute toxicities of three candidate neonicotinoid insecticides, clothianidin, dinotefuran and thiamethoxam, to juvenile Procambarus clarkii (Girard) crayfish and comparing them with the acute toxicities of two currently used pyrethroid insecticides, lambda-cyhalothrin and etofenprox. Neonicotinoid insecticides are at least 2-3 orders of magnitude less acutely toxic (96 h LC(50)) than pyrethroids to juvenile Procambarid crayfish: lambda-cyhalothrin (0.16 microg AI L(-1)) = etofenprox (0.29 microg AI L(-1)) > clothianidin (59 microg AI L(-1)) > thiamethoxam (967 microg AI L(-1)) > dinotefuran (2032 microg AI L(-1)). Neonicotinoid insecticides appear to be much less hazardous alternatives to pyrethroids in rice-crayfish crop rotations. Further field-level neonicotinoid acute and chronic toxicity testing with crayfish is needed. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Toxicological evaluation of genetically modified cotton (Bollgard) and Dipel WP on the non-target soil mite Scheloribates praeincisus (Acari: Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anibal R; Castro, Thiago R; Capalbo, Deise M F; Delalibera, Italo

    2007-01-01

    Insecticides derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and plants genetically modified (GM) to express B. thuringiensis toxins are important alternatives for insect pest control worldwide. Risk assessment of B. thuringiensis toxins to non-target organisms has been extensively studied but few toxicological tests have considered soil invertebrates. Oribatid mites are one of the most diverse and abundant arthropod groups in the upper layers of soil and litter in natural and agricultural systems. These mites are exposed to the toxic compounds of GM crops or pesticides mainly when they feed on vegetal products incorporated in the soil. Although some effects of B. thuringiensis products on Acari have been reported, effects on oribatid mites are still unknown. This study investigated the effects of the ingestion of Bt cotton Bollgard and of the B. thuringiensis commercial product Dipel WP on the pantropical species Scheloribates praeincisus (Scheloribatidae). Ingestion of Bollgard and Dipel did not affect adult and immature survivorship and food consumption (estimated by number of fecal pellets produced daily) or developmental time of immature stages of S. praeincisus. These results indicate the safety of Bollgard and Dipel to S. praeincisus under field conditions where exposition is lower and other food sources besides leaves of Bt plants are available. The method for toxicological tests described here can be adapted to other species of Oribatida, consisting on a new option to risk assessment studies.

  17. A four-country ring test of nontarget effects of ivermectin residues on the function of coprophilous communities of arthropods in breaking down livestock dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixier, Thomas; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Lahr, Joost; Floate, Kevin; Scheffczyk, Adam; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    By degrading the dung of livestock that graze on pastures, coprophilous arthropods accelerate the cycling of nutrients to maintain pasture quality. Many veterinary medicinal products, such as ivermectin, are excreted unchanged in the dung of treated livestock. These residues can be insecticidal and may reduce the function (i.e., dung-degradation) of the coprophilous community. In the present study, we used a standard method to monitor the degradation of dung from cattle treated with ivermectin. The present study was performed during a 1-yr period on pastures in Canada, France, The Netherlands, and Switzerland. Large effects of residue were detected on the coprophilous community, but degradation of dung was not significantly hampered. The results emphasize that failure to detect an effect of veterinary medicinal product residues on dung-degradation does not mean that the residues do not affect the coprophilous community. Rather, insect activity is only one of many factors that affect degradation, and these other factors may mask the nontarget effect of residues. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1953-1958. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Establishing a system with Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to assess the non-target effects of gut-active insecticidal compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Simone; Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Jörg

    2016-12-01

    Potentially adverse effects on ecosystem functioning by the planting of insect-resistant, genetically engineered plants or by the direct application of insecticidal compounds are carefully evaluated in pre-market risk assessments. To date, few studies have assessed the potential risks of genetically engineered crops or insecticidal compounds on the survival and fitness of dipteran species, despite their important contribution to ecosystem services such as decomposition in agricultural systems. Therefore, we propose that Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Drosophilidae) be used as a surrogate species for the order Diptera and for the functional guild of soil arthropod decomposers in pre-market risk assessments. We developed two assays to assess the toxicity of gut-active insecticidal compounds to D. melanogaster. One assay uses groups of fly larvae, and the other uses individuals. Cryolite, a mineral pesticide, proved to be an adequate positive control. The effects of cryolite on D. melanogaster larvae were comparable between the two assays. Statistical power analyses were used to define the number of replications required to identify different effect sizes between control and treatment groups. Finally, avidin, E-64, GNA, and SBTI were used as test compounds to validate the individual-based assay; only avidin adversely affected D. melanogaster. These results indicate that both D. melanogaster assays will be useful for early tier risk assessment concerning the effects of orally active compounds on non-target dipterans.

  19. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett A. Klein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  20. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett A.

    2011-01-01

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives. PMID:26467945

  1. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett A

    2011-12-21

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans' dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream's significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  2. Trapping of insects in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, S.C.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Some insects caught on RV Gaveshani, while on a cruise in the Arabian Sea in May-June 1986 is reported Of the 23 insects caught, 16 were lepidopterans An interesting flight behaviour of Psychota sp is described...

  3. Development of aquatic life criteria for triclosan and comparison of the sensitivity between native and non-native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Liu, Zheng-Tao; Yan, Zhen-Guang; Zhang, Cong; Wang, Wei-Li; Zhou, Jun-Li; Pei, Shu-Wei

    2013-09-15

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent which is used as a broad-spectrum bacteriostatic and found in personal care products, and due to this it is widely spread in the aquatic environment. However, there is no paper dealing with the aquatic life criteria of TCS, mainly result from the shortage of toxicity data of different taxonomic levels. In the present study, toxicity data were obtained from 9 acute toxicity tests and 3 chronic toxicity tests using 9 Chinese native aquatic species from different taxonomic levels, and the aquatic life criteria was derived using 3 methods. Furthermore, differences of species sensitivity distributions (SSD) between native and non-native species were compared. Among the tested species, demersal fish Misgurnus anguillicaudatus was the most sensitive species, and the fishes were more sensitive than the aquatic invertebrates of Annelid and insect, and the insect was the least sensitive species. The comparison showed that there was no significant difference between SSDs constructed from native and non-native taxa. Finally, a criterion maximum concentration of 0.009 mg/L and a criterion continuous concentration of 0.002 mg/L were developed based on different taxa, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Social insects and selfish genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, A F

    2001-10-01

    Sometimes science advances because of a new idea. Sometimes, it's because of a new technique. When both occur together, exciting times result. In the study of social insects, DNA-based methods for measuring relatedness now allow increasingly detailed tests of Hamilton's theory of kin selection.

  5. Developmental constraint of insect audition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strauß Johannes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propose that constraints arising during development are also important for the design of insect ears and might influence cell numbers of the adults. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that the functional requirements of the subadult stages determine the adult complement of sensory units in the auditory system of cicadas. The hypothetical larval sensory organ should function as a vibration receiver, representing a functional caenogenesis. Testing the hypothesis Experiments at different levels have to be designed to test the hypothesis. Firstly, the neuroanatomy of the larval sense organ should be analyzed to detail. Secondly, the function should be unraveled neurophysiologically and behaviorally. Thirdly, the persistence of the sensory cells and the rebuilding of the sensory organ to the adult should be investigated. Implications of the hypothesis Usually, the evolution of insect ears is viewed with respect to physiological and neuronal mechanisms of sound perception. This view should be extended to the development of sense organs. Functional requirements during postembryonic development may act as constraints for the evolution of adult organs, as exemplified with the auditory system of cicadas.

  6. Edible insects are the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of

  7. Diversity of insect intestinal microflora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Jakub; Štrosová, Lenka; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Kott, T.; Kopečný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2008), s. 229-233 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/0974 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : insect intestinal microflora Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  8. The effect of target and non-target similarity on neural classification performance: A boost from confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar R Marathe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain computer interaction (BCI technologies have proven effective in utilizing single-trial classification algorithms to detect target images in rapid serial visualization presentation tasks. While many factors contribute to the accuracy of these algorithms, a critical aspect that is often overlooked concerns the feature similarity between target and non-target images. In most real-world environments there are likely to be many shared features between targets and non-targets resulting in similar neural activity between the two classes. It is unknown how current neural-based target classification algorithms perform when qualitatively similar target and non-target images are presented. This study address this question by comparing behavioral and neural classification performance across two conditions: first, when targets were the only infrequent stimulus presented amongst frequent background distracters; and second when targets were presented together with infrequent non-targets containing similar visual features to the targets. The resulting findings show that behavior is slower and less accurate when targets are presented together with similar non-targets; moreover, single-trial classification yielded high levels of misclassification when infrequent non-targets are included. Furthermore, we present an approach to mitigate the image misclassification. We use confidence measures to assess the quality of single-trial classification, and demonstrate that a system in which low confidence trials are reclassified through a secondary process can result in improved performance.

  9. Insect pests of stored grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of insects in stored products is a worldwide recognized problem. In this report chemical and physical methods to control insect infestations in stored products are discussed. Special attention is given to the use of ionizing radiation to control insect pests in stored grains. The radiosensitivity of the most common insect pests at their different developmental stages is presented and discussed. The conclusions of this review are compiled in an executive summary. 62 refs

  10. All insects are equal, but some insects are more equal than others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Arnout R.H.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Lack of acceptance of insects as food is considered a barrier against societal adoption of the potentially valuable contribution of insects to human foods. An underlying barrier may be that insects are lumped together as one group, while consumers typically try specific insects. The purpose

  11. How Insects Survive Winter in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how insects cope with cold temperatures can not only help entomologists more accurately forecast when and where insects are active, but it may also help us understand how climate change will influence insect pests. This newsletter article provides a comprehensive overview of how Midwes...

  12. Plant responses to insect egg deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect

  13. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem Ahmad, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  14. 21 CFR 1250.95 - Insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect control. 1250.95 Section 1250.95 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.95 Insect control. Vessels shall be... generally accepted methods of insect control. ...

  15. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Allelopathic Aquatic Plants for Aquatic Plant Management: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    1978. " Ecotoxicology of aquatic plant communi- ties," Principles of Ecotoxicology , SCOPE Report 12, Chapter 11, pp 239-255. [Heavy metals, Pollutants...Phragmites communis and Equisetum limosum were cultivated . They found plant-plant influences depend on soil type. Typha latifolia, S. A2 lacustris, and

  16. Secondary production of benthic insects in three cold-desert streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, W.L.

    1987-07-01

    Aquatic insect production was studied in three cold-desert streams in eastern Washington (Douglas Creek, Snively Springs, and Rattlesnake Springs). The size-frequency method was applied to individual taxa to estimate total insect production. production was also assessed for functional groups and trophic levels in each stream. Optioservus sp. (riffle beetles) and Baetis sp. (mayflies) accounted for 72% of the total insect numbers and 50% of the total biomass in Douglas Creek. Baetis sp. accounted for 42% of the total insect numbers and 25% of the total biomass in Snively Springs. Simulium sp. (blackflies) and Baetis sp. comprised 74% of the total insect numbers and 55% of the total biomass in Rattlesnake Springs. Grazer-scrapers (49%) and collectors (48%) were the most abundant functional groups in Douglas Creek. Collectors were the most abundant functional group in Snively Springs and Rattlesnake Springs. Herbivores and detritivores were the most abundant trophic level in Snively Springs and Rattlesnake Springs. Dipterans (midges and blackflies) were the most productive taxa within the study streams, accounting for 40% to 70% of the total community production. Production by collectors and detritivores was the highest of all functional groups and trophic levels in all study streams.

  17. Insect biofuel cells using trehalose included in insect hemolymph leading to an insect-mountable biofuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kan; Akiyama, Yoshitake; Suzuki, Masato; Hoshino, Takayuki; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Morishima, Keisuke

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, an insect biofuel cell (BFC) using trehalose included in insect hemolymph was developed. The insect BFC is based on trehalase and glucose oxidase (GOD) reaction systems which oxidize β-glucose obtained by hydrolyzing trehalose. First, we confirmed by LC-MS that a sufficient amount of trehalose was present in the cockroach hemolymph (CHL). The maximum power density obtained using the insect BFC was 6.07 μW/cm(2). The power output was kept more than 10 % for 2.5 h by protecting the electrodes with a dialysis membrane. Furthermore, the maximum power density was increased to 10.5 μW/cm(2) by using an air diffusion cathode. Finally, we succeeded in driving a melody integrated circuit (IC) and a piezo speaker by connecting five insect BFCs in series. The results indicate that the insect BFC is a promising insect-mountable battery to power environmental monitoring micro-tools.

  18. Toxicity of Engineered Nanoparticles to Aquatic Invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupi, Denisa; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Skjolding, Lars Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a targeted description of some of the most important processes that influence toxicity and uptake of nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates. It discusses silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), on how aspects of dissolution and chemical species obtained from this process can influence...... ecotoxicity of aquatic invertebrates. The chapter focuses on how fullerenes affect the toxicity of other pollutants, but also reflect on the fate and behavior of C60 in the aquatic environment, as well as ecotoxicity to aquatic invertebrates. It presents the case of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs...... on bioaccumulation focusing on the effect of nanoparticle coating, uptake, and depuration in aquatic invertebrates....

  19. From a microcosm to the catchment scale: studying the fate of organic runoff pollutants in aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, T.; Schroll, R.

    2009-04-01

    Spray-drift, drainage, erosion and runoff events are the major causes responsible for deportation of agrochemicals as micropollutants to aquatic non-target sites. These processes can lead to the contamination of nearby freshwater ecosystems with considerably high concentrations of xenobiotics. Thus, it is important to unravel the fate of these pollutants and to evaluate their ecological effects. A novel approach to address this goal was established by the development of a microcosm with multiple sampling abilities enabling quantitative assessment of organic volatilisation, mineralization, metabolization and distribution within the aquatic ecosystem. This microcosm system was designed to support modelling approaches of the catchment scale and gain insights into the fate of pesticides simulating a large scale water body. The potential of this microcosm was exemplified for Isoproturon (IPU), a phenylurea derived systemic herbicide, which is frequently found as contaminant in water samples and with the free-floating macrophyte Lemna minor as non-target species, that is common to occur in rural water bodies. During 21 days exposure time, only a small amount of 14C labeled IPU was removed from the aquatic medium. The major portion (about 5%) was accumulated by Lemna minor resulting in a BCF of 15.8. IPU-volatilisation was very low with 0.13% of the initially applied herbicide. Only a minor amount of IPU was completely metabolized, presumably by rhizosphere microorganisms and released as 14CO2. The novel experimental system allowed to quantitatively investigate the fate of IPU and showed a high reproducibility with a mean average 14C-recovery rate of 97.1

  20. Processing insect abundance: trading and fishing of zazamushi in Central Japan (Nagano Prefecture, Honshū Island).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Césard, Nicolas; Komatsu, Seiji; Iwata, Akihisa

    2015-11-11

    This article presents the links between technique, commerce and consumption in fishing for zazamushi, a mixture of aquatic insect larvae sold as food souvenirs in Japan. Since zazamushi are mainly collected for economic reasons, we suggest that demand for them has incited technical development among collectors in order to fish more insects. Several fishermen and traders were interviewed in semi-directed interviews about their practices and knowledge. To understand the passage from a faunal composition to a commercial composition, our research follows a fishing session closely, as well as the selection of insects that follows it. The insects collected were separated from inanimate matter, then identified, counted and weighed at each stage of the process. Our results suggest that the current technique corresponds to an evolution in subsistence and recreational collecting towards a more systematic fishing of the insects, the aim of which is commercial. In their response to trade issues, the collectors have moved away from the banks to fish the insects in the river current, thus increasing the amount of one species captured compared to another. Although the technique is efficient (and similar to other harvesting techniques), it requires the thorough sorting of organic debris and insects (in our example, the catch contains approximately 78 % of inanimate matter and 22 % of insects, of which 3.29 % are retained for consumption, i.e., less than 2 out of 100 insects). The selection of insects to be consumed takes place mainly during cleaning. This stage depends on traders and reflects the different compositions sold as souvenirs. Our research shows that the consumption of insects is not explained just by ecological factors that are favourable or unfavourable, but also by technological and economic factors related to their commerce. It suggests that the traders have gradually established the insects that are currently sold as zazamushi and that this commercial development

  1. Insect emergence in relation to floods in wet meadows and swamps in the River Dalälven floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnersten, T Z Persson; Östman, Ö; Schäfer, M L; Lundström, J O

    2014-08-01

    Annual variation in flood frequency and hydroperiod during the vegetation season has ecological impacts on the floodplain biota. Although many insect groups may have a lower emergence during a flood event, it is poorly known how annual emergence of insects in temporary wetlands is related to the variation in hydrology. Between May and September, we studied the weekly emergence of 18 insect taxa over six consecutive years, 2002-2007, in six temporary flooded wetlands (four wet meadows and two forest swamps) in the River Dalälven floodplains, Central Sweden. We used emergence traps to collect emerging insects from terrestrial and aquatic parts of wet meadows and swamp forests. In all wetlands, the insect fauna was numerically dominated by the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera and Homoptera. On a weekly basis, 9 out of the 18 insect taxa had lower emergence in weeks with flood than in weeks with no flood, whereas no taxon had a higher emergence in weeks with flood. Over the seasons, we related insect emergence to seasonal flood frequency and length of hydroperiod. The emergence of most studied taxa decreased with increasing hydroperiod, which suggests that emergence after floods do not compensate for the reduced emergence during floods. Only Culicidae and the aquatic Chironomidae sub-families Tanypodinae and Chironominae showed an increase in emergence with increasing hydroperiod, whereas Staphylinidae peaked at intermediate hydroperiod. We conclude that a hydroperiod covering up to 40% of the vegetation season has a significant negative effect on the emergence of most taxa and that only a few taxa occurring in the temporary wetlands are actually favoured by a flood regime with recurrent and unpredictable floods.

  2. Phase Coexistence in Insect Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhuber, Michael; Ouellette, Nicholas T.

    2017-10-01

    Animal aggregations are visually striking, and as such are popular examples of collective behavior in the natural world. Quantitatively demonstrating the collective nature of such groups, however, remains surprisingly difficult. Inspired by thermodynamics, we applied topological data analysis to laboratory insect swarms and found evidence for emergent, material-like states. We show that the swarms consist of a core "condensed" phase surrounded by a dilute "vapor" phase. These two phases coexist in equilibrium, and maintain their distinct macroscopic properties even though individual insects pass freely between them. We further define a pressure and chemical potential to describe these phases, extending theories of active matter to aggregations of macroscopic animals and laying the groundwork for a thermodynamic description of collective animal groups.

  3. Nuclear energy against insect pests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-07-15

    The paper presents the main topics discussed at the scientific symposium on the Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animal Insect Pests, held in Athens last April, jointly organized by IAEA and FAO with the co-operation of the Greek Government. The sterile male technique is discussed in details and some results from the applications are given

  4. Successes against insects and parasites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-10-15

    With more and more answers being found to intricate problems which have entailed years of research in many parts of the world, some successes can now be claimed in the fight to control insect threats to crops, animals and human beings. Nuclear techniques are playing an important part in world efforts, and recent reports show that they have been effective in pioneer work against crop pests as well as in finding an answer to some diseases caused by parasites

  5. Circadian organization in hemimetabolous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kenji; Abdelsalam, Salaheldin

    2004-12-01

    The circadian system of hemimetabolous insects is reviewed in respect to the locus of the circadian clock and multioscillatory organization. Because of relatively easy access to the nervous system, the neuronal organization of the clock system in hemimetabolous insects has been studied, yielding identification of the compound eye as the major photoreceptor for entrainment and the optic lobe for the circadian clock locus. The clock site within the optic lobe is inconsistent among reported species; in cockroaches the lobula was previously thought to be a most likely clock locus but accessory medulla is recently stressed to be a clock center, while more distal part of the optic lobe including the lamina and the outer medulla area for the cricket. Identification of the clock cells needs further critical studies. Although each optic lobe clock seems functionally identical, in respect to photic entrainment and generation of the rhythm, the bilaterally paired clocks form a functional unit. They interact to produce a stable time structure within individual insects by exchanging photic and temporal information through neural pathways, in which serotonin and pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) are involved as chemical messengers. The mutual interaction also plays an important role in seasonal adaptation of the rhythm.

  6. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R; Mittal, R

    2011-01-01

    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 μN mm -1 h -1 . For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm -1 . (communication)

  7. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The George Washington University, 738 Phillips Hall, 801 22nd St NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Mittal, R, E-mail: vallance@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 126 Latrobe Hall, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 {mu}N mm{sup -1} h{sup -1}. For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm{sup -1}. (communication)

  8. Gut immunity in Lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Yang, Bing; Huang, Wuren; Dobens, Leonard; Song, Hongsheng; Ling, Erjun

    2016-11-01

    Lepidopteran insects constitute one of the largest fractions of animals on earth, but are considered pests in their relationship with man. Key to the success of this order of insects is its ability to digest food and absorb nutrition, which takes place in the midgut. Because environmental microorganisms can easily enter Lepidopteran guts during feeding, the innate immune response guards against pathogenic bacteria, virus and microsporidia that can be devoured with food. Gut immune responses are complicated by both resident gut microbiota and the surrounding peritrophic membrane and are distinct from immune responses in the body cavity, which depend on the function of the fat body and hemocytes. Due to their relevance to agricultural production, studies of Lepidopteran insect midgut and immunity are receiving more attention, and here we summarize gut structures and functions, and discuss how these confer immunity against different microorganisms. It is expected that increased knowledge of Lepidopteran gut immunity may be utilized for pest biological control in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. A Survey of the Continental United States for Pathogens of Eurasian Watermilfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Gleocladiwn sp . 440 Peniciltium sp . 464 Nonsporulating isolate 508 Penicilliwn sp . 520 Penicillium sp . 535 Curvularia lunata 559 Nonsporulating isolate 561... Penicillium sp . * Nonsporulating isolates could not be reliably identified. Fungal isolates 0 56. Mean damage index (MDI) values of the fungal isolates...1983) investigated the use of aquatic larvae of the European moth, Parapoynx sp ., as a biological agent for Eurasian watermilfoil and found the insect

  10. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Buckmaster

    Full Text Available Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus. These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  11. Non-targeted analysis of unexpected food contaminants using LC-HRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzelmann, Marco; Winter, Martin; Åberg, Magnus; Hellenäs, Karl-Erik; Rosén, Johan

    2018-03-29

    A non-target analysis method for unexpected contaminants in food is described. Many current methods referred to as "non-target" are capable of detecting hundreds or even thousands of contaminants. However, they will typically still miss all other possible contaminants. Instead, a metabolomics approach might be used to obtain "true non-target" analysis. In the present work, such a method was optimized for improved detection capability at low concentrations. The method was evaluated using 19 chemically diverse model compounds spiked into milk samples to mimic unknown contamination. Other milk samples were used as reference samples. All samples were analyzed with UHPLC-TOF-MS (ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry), using reversed-phase chromatography and electrospray ionization in positive mode. Data evaluation was performed by the software TracMass 2. No target lists of specific compounds were used to search for the contaminants. Instead, the software was used to sort out all features only occurring in the spiked sample data, i.e., the workflow resembled a metabolomics approach. Procedures for chemical identification of peaks were outside the scope of the study. Method, study design, and settings in the software were optimized to minimize manual evaluation and faulty or irrelevant hits and to maximize hit rate of the spiked compounds. A practical detection limit was established at 25 μg/kg. At this concentration, most compounds (17 out of 19) were detected as intact precursor ions, as fragments or as adducts. Only 2 irrelevant hits, probably natural compounds, were obtained. Limitations and possible practical use of the approach are discussed.

  12. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Tony; Dickman, Christopher R; Johnston, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV) that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  13. Riparian swallows as integrators of landscape change in a multiuse river system: implications for aquatic-to-terrestrial transfers of contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Jeremy M; Sullivan, S Mažeika P; Kautza, A

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has highlighted the transfer of contaminants from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems via predation of aquatic emergent insects by riparian consumers. The influence of adjacent land use and land cover (LULC) on aquatic-to-terrestrial contaminant transfer, however, has received limited attention. From 2010 to 2012, at 11 river reaches in the Scioto River basin (OH, USA), we investigated the relationships between LULC and selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in four species of riparian swallows. Hg concentrations in swallows were significantly higher at rural reaches than at urban reaches (t=-3.58, Pemergent insects. For example, tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) at urban reaches exhibited a higher proportion of aquatic prey in their diet, fed at a higher trophic level, and exhibited elevated Se levels. We also found that both Se and Hg concentrations in adult swallows were significantly higher than those observed in nestlings at both urban and rural reaches (Se: t=-2.83, P=0.033, df=3; Hg: t=-3.22, P=0.024, df=3). Collectively, our results indicate that riparian swallows integrate contaminant exposure in linked aquatic-terrestrial systems and that LULC may strongly regulate aquatic contaminant flux to terrestrial consumers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prioritizing plant defence over growth through WRKY regulation facilitates infestation by non-target herbivores

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ran; Zhang, Jin; Li, Jiancai; Zhou, Guoxin; Wang, Qi; Bian, Wenbo; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen

    2015-01-01

    eLife digest Many different animals feed on plants, including almost half of all known insect species. Some herbivores?like caterpillars for example?feed by chewing. Others, such as aphids and planthoppers, use syringe-like mouthparts to pierce plants and then feed on the fluids within. To minimize the damage caused by these herbivores, plants activate specific defenses upon attack, including proteins that can inhibit the insect's digestive enzymes. The inhibitors are effective against chewin...

  15. Evaluation of a non-targeted "Omic"' approach in the safety assessment of genetically modified plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Kok, E. J.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2006-01-01

    -time PCR, and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Analysis by cDNA microarray was used as a non-targeted approach for the identification of potential unintended effects caused by the transformation. The results revealed that, although the transgenic lines possessed different types of integration events...... has the potential to become a useful tool for screening of unintended effects, but state that it is crucial to have substantial information on the natural variation in traditional crops in order to be able to interpret "ornics" data correctly within the framework of food safety assessment strategies...

  16. Nontarget approach for environmental monitoring by GC × GC-HRTOFMS in the Tokyo Bay basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Shunji; Tanabe, Kiyoshi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we developed an approach for sequential nontarget and target screening for the rapid and efficient analysis of multiple samples as an environmental monitoring using a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatograph coupled to a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC × GC-HRTOFMS). A key feature of the approach was the construction of an accurate mass spectral database learned from the sample via nontarget screening. To enhance the detection power in the nontarget screening, a global spectral deconvolution procedure based on non-negative matrix factorization was applied. The approach was applied to the monitoring of rivers in the Tokyo Bay basin. The majority of the compounds detected by the nontarget screening were alkyl chain-based compounds (55%). In the quantitative target screening based on the output from the nontarget screening, particularly high levels of organophosphorus flame retardants (median concentrations of 31, 116 and 141 ng l(-1) for TDCPP, TCIPP and TBEP, respectively) were observed among the target compounds. Flame retardants used for household furniture and building materials were detected in river basins where buildings and arterial traffic were dominated. The developed GC × GC-HRTOFMS approach was efficient and effective for environmental monitoring and provided valuable new information on various aspects of monitoring in the context of environmental management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Plenary panel 1: The scientific bases of radiation protection. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation - Implications for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, S.

    2006-01-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (L.N.T.) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (authors)

  18. Plenary panel 1: The scientific bases of radiation protection. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation - Implications for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomaa, S. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (L.N.T.) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (authors)

  19. Relating zoobenthic and emergent terrestrial insect production to tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestling diet in oil sands wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoms, J.L.; Martin, J.P.; Ciborowski, J.J. [Windsor Univ., Windsor, ON (Canada); Harms, N.J.; Smits, J.E. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the influence of oil sands process materials (OSPM) on wetland macroinvertebrate community composition and production. Tree swallows are known to inhabit constructed nest boxes and forage near their nest on flying insects of terrestrial and aquatic origin. Therefore, this study evaluated the structure of wetland food webs and how it relates to the transfer of production from aquatic sediments to nestling tree swallows. The study involved 2 reference and 2 oil sands affected wetlands. Exuviae of emerging aquatic and flying insects from floating and sticky traps were collected every 3 days during the tree swallow nestling period in order to estimate benthic invertebrate composition and production. The tree swallow nest boxes, placed around the perimeter of the wetlands in spring were monitored during egg laying and incubation. Diets of the 10-14 day-old nestlings were determined by placing a ligature around the neck of each nestling, preventing the passage of food into the esophagus for 45 min. Food boluses were collected from nestlings fed by the parents during that time. The study showed that although oil sands-affected wetlands had lower aerial insect abundance, they represented over half of the total boluses collected. It was concluded that this study will help determine the ecological viability of oil sands-affected wetlands and their capability of supporting terrestrial predators that rely on zoobenthos.

  20. Sub-lethal effects of the neurotoxic pyrethroid insecticide Fastac 50EC on the general motor and locomotor activities of the non-targeted beneficial carabid beetle Platynus assimilis (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooming, Ene; Merivee, Enno; Must, Anne; Sibul, Ivar; Williams, Ingrid

    2014-06-01

    Sub-lethal effects of pesticides on behavioural endpoints are poorly studied in carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae) though changes in behaviour caused by chemical stress may affect populations of these non-targeted beneficial insects. General motor activity and locomotion are inherent in many behavioural patterns, and changes in these activities that result from xenobiotic influence mirror an integrated response of the insect to pesticides. Influence of pyrethroid insecticides over a wide range of sub-lethal doses on the motor activities of carabids still remains unclear. Video tracking of Platynus assimilis showed that brief exposure to alpha-cypermethrin at sub-lethal concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 100 mg L(-1) caused initial short-term (24 h) locomotor hypo-activity. In addition, significant short- and long-term concentration and time-dependent changes occurred in general motor activity patterns and rates. Conspicuous changes in motor activity of Platynus assimilis beetles treated at alpha-cypermethrin concentrations up to 75,000-fold lower than maximum field recommended concentration (MFRC) suggest that many, basic fitness-related behaviours might be severely injured as well. These changes may negatively affect carabid populations in agro-ecosystems. Long-term hypo-activity could directly contribute to decreased trap captures of carabids frequently observed after insecticide application in the field. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.