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Sample records for nonspecific bronchial responsiveness

  1. A rapid challenge protocol for determination of non-specific bronchial responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, F; Nielsen, N H; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1986-01-01

    A rapid method for determination of non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity was developed. Resistance to breathing was determined by a modified expiratory airway interrupter technique and combined with a dosimeter-controlled nebulizer which made continuous determination of response possible during...... hyperreactivity since individual dose titration is easily performed, and the method could be valuable in epidemiological and occupational surveys as well.......A rapid method for determination of non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity was developed. Resistance to breathing was determined by a modified expiratory airway interrupter technique and combined with a dosimeter-controlled nebulizer which made continuous determination of response possible during...... challenge. The patients inhaled histamine chloride 8 mg/ml at every eighth breath until resistance to breathing (Rt) was increased by 60%. The number of inhalations (NI) or the provocative concentration (PC60-Rt) of histamine increasing Rt by 60% were determined in 68 patients. The new method correlated...

  2. Genetic variations in non-specific immune response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-specific immune response in three strains of Heterobranchus bidorsalis challenged with the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophilia was evaluated. The study was undertaken in three strains of H. bidorsalis from different ecological zones in Nigeria and the percentage cumulative mortality was lowest and significantly ...

  3. An increase in bronchial responsiveness is associated with continuing or restarting smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Luczynska, CM; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Heinrich, J; Janson, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, N; Neukirch, FO; Schouten, JP; Sunyer, J; Svanes, C; Wjst, M; Burney, PG

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Bronchial responsiveness (BHR) has been found to be associated with smoking, atopy, and lower lung function in cross-sectional studies, but there is little information on determinants of change in adults. Objectives: To analyze change in bronchial responsiveness in an international

  4. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness after Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Birgitte Kjær; Jensen, Jørgen S; Nielsen, Kim G

    2008-01-01

    by whole-body plethysmography and bronchial hyperresponsiveness was assessed by cold, dry air hyperventilation. Neither baseline lung function nor bronchial response to cold dry air hyperventilation differed between M. pneumoniae-positive and -negative children: mean baseline lung function were 1.17 versus...

  5. Use of tracheal auscultation for the assessment of bronchial responsiveness in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprikkelman, A. B.; Grol, M. H.; Lourens, M. S.; Gerritsen, J.; Heymans, H. S.; van Aalderen, W. M.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It can be difficult to assess bronchial responsiveness in children because of their inability to perform spirometric tests reliably. In bronchial challenges lung sounds could be used to detect the required 20% fall in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). A study was

  6. Use of tracheal auscultation for the assessment of bronchial responsiveness in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprikkelman, AB; Grol, MH; Lourens, MS; Gerritsen, J; Heymans, HSA; vanAalderen, WMC

    Background - It can be difficult to assess bronchial responsiveness in children because of their inability to perform spirometric tests reliably. In bronchial challenges lung sounds could be used to detect the required 20% fall in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)). A study was

  7. Distribution of radioactive aerosol in the airways of children and adolescents with bronchial hyper-responsiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backer, V.; Mortensen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the pulmonary distribution of inhaled radioaerosol, bronchial responsiveness, and lung function in children and adolescents. The participating subjects were divided into three groups: (1) 14 asthmatics with bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR), (2) five non-asthmatic subjects with BHR, and (3) 20 controls without BHR. Pulmonary distribution of [ 99 Tc m ] albumin radioaerosol, maximal expiratory flow when 25% of forced vital capacity remain to be exhaled (MEF 25 ), and bronchial responsiveness to inhaled histamine were measured. Twenty subjects (52%) has irregular central distribution and 19 subjects (48%) had regular distribution of radioaerosol in their lungs. No difference in distribution of radioaerosol was found between the three groups of children. The median MEF 25 among non-asthmatic subjects (80% predicted) was lower than that found in controls (92% predicted) but higher than that found in asthmatic subjects (55% predicted). A relationship was found between reduced flow at the peripheral airways, as indicated by MEF 25 and the degree of central distribution of radioaerosol. Furthermore, subjects with irregular central distribution of radioaerosol had an increase degree of bronchial responsiveness. In conclusion, children and adolescents who have flow rates in the peripheral airways or increased degree of bronchial responsiveness tend to have abnormal distribution of radioaerosols. (author)

  8. Features of the bronchial bacterial microbiome associated with atopy, asthma, and responsiveness to inhaled corticosteroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durack, Juliana; Lynch, Susan V; Nariya, Snehal; Bhakta, Nirav R; Beigelman, Avraham; Castro, Mario; Dyer, Anne-Marie; Israel, Elliot; Kraft, Monica; Martin, Richard J; Mauger, David T; Rosenberg, Sharon R; Sharp-King, Tonya; White, Steven R; Woodruff, Prescott G; Avila, Pedro C; Denlinger, Loren C; Holguin, Fernando; Lazarus, Stephen C; Lugogo, Njira; Moore, Wendy C; Peters, Stephen P; Que, Loretta; Smith, Lewis J; Sorkness, Christine A; Wechsler, Michael E; Wenzel, Sally E; Boushey, Homer A; Huang, Yvonne J

    2017-07-01

    Compositional differences in the bronchial bacterial microbiota have been associated with asthma, but it remains unclear whether the findings are attributable to asthma, to aeroallergen sensitization, or to inhaled corticosteroid treatment. We sought to compare the bronchial bacterial microbiota in adults with steroid-naive atopic asthma, subjects with atopy but no asthma, and nonatopic healthy control subjects and to determine relationships of the bronchial microbiota to phenotypic features of asthma. Bacterial communities in protected bronchial brushings from 42 atopic asthmatic subjects, 21 subjects with atopy but no asthma, and 21 healthy control subjects were profiled by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacterial composition and community-level functions inferred from sequence profiles were analyzed for between-group differences. Associations with clinical and inflammatory variables were examined, including markers of type 2-related inflammation and change in airway hyperresponsiveness after 6 weeks of fluticasone treatment. The bronchial microbiome differed significantly among the 3 groups. Asthmatic subjects were uniquely enriched in members of the Haemophilus, Neisseria, Fusobacterium, and Porphyromonas species and the Sphingomonodaceae family and depleted in members of the Mogibacteriaceae family and Lactobacillales order. Asthma-associated differences in predicted bacterial functions included involvement of amino acid and short-chain fatty acid metabolism pathways. Subjects with type 2-high asthma harbored significantly lower bronchial bacterial burden. Distinct changes in specific microbiota members were seen after fluticasone treatment. Steroid responsiveness was linked to differences in baseline compositional and functional features of the bacterial microbiome. Even in subjects with mild steroid-naive asthma, differences in the bronchial microbiome are associated with immunologic and clinical features of the disease. The specific differences identified

  9. Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Response to Heavy Particle Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Peyton, Michael; Larsen, Jill

    2012-07-01

    A battery of non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) are being used to examine the molecular changes that lead to lung carcinogenesis after exposure to heavy particles found in the free space environment. The goal is to ultimately identify biomarkers of radioresponse that can be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk for fatal lung cancer. Our initial studies have focused on the cell line HBEC3 KT and the isogenic variant HBEC3 KTR53, which overexpresses the RASv12 mutant and where p53 has been knocked down by shRNA, and is considered to be a more oncogenically progressed variant. We have previously described the response of HBEC3 KT at the cellular and molecular level, however, the focus here is on the rate of cellular transformation after HZE radiation exposure and the molecular changes in transformed cells. When comparing the two cell lines we find that there is a maximum rate of cellular transformation at 0.25 Gy when cells are exposed to 1 GeV Fe particles, and, for the HBEC3 KTR53 there are multiple pathways upregulated that promote anchorage independent growth including the mTOR pathway, the TGF-1 pathway, RhoA signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway as early as 2 weeks after radiation. This does not occur in the HBEC3 KT cell line. Transformed HBEC3 KT cells do not show any morphologic or phenotypic changes when grown as cell cultures. HBEC3 KTR53 cells on the other hand show substantial changes in morphology from a cobblestone epithelial appearance to a mesenchymal appearance with a lack of contact inhibition. This epithelial to mesenchymal change in morphology is accompanied by the expression of vimentin and a reduction in the expression of E-cadherin, which are hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, for HBEC3 KT transformed cells there are no mutations in the p53 gene, 2 of 15 clones were found to be heterozygous for the RASV12 mutation, and 3 of 15 clones expressed high levels of BigH3, a TGFB-responsive

  10. Transcriptional response of bronchial epithelial cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa: identification of early mediators of host defense.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.B.; Sterkenburg, M.A. van; Rabe, K.F.; Schalkwijk, J.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Datson, N.A.

    2005-01-01

    The airway epithelium responds to microbial exposure by altering expression of a variety of genes to increase innate host defense. We aimed to delineate the early transcriptional response in human primary bronchial epithelial cells exposed for 6 h to a mixture of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha or

  11. Features of Immune Response to Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Children with Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Kalichevska

    2016-04-01

    significantly higher in children of I group versus patients of group II (8.74 ± 0.22 pg/ml and 7.21 ± 0.35 pg/ml, respectively, p < 0.05. Serum concentrations of IL‑4 and IL‑5 were increased in all studied groups compared to the control group and had no correlation with the presence of H.pylori infection. After the treatment of gastrointestinal patho­logy, there was an improvement in parameters of asthma control, which was associated with a significant reduction of IFN-γ and IL‑13 concentrations in group I, and IFN-γ, IL‑5 and -13 — in group II. Conclusion. The presence of H.pylori infection in children with gastroduodenal pathology occurring against the background of bronchial asthma is accompanied by an imbalance of the immune response, which manifested as reduced production of IFN-γ, IL‑4, and IL‑13 increase compared to H.pylori-negative children. Treatment of GI diseases is associated with a decrease in IFN-γ and cytokines mentioned above that clinically promotes the improvement of bronchial asthma control.

  12. Products of neutrophils and eosinophils increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, A R; Armour, C L; Black, J L

    1990-05-01

    This study examines the possibility that products of neutrophils and eosinophils could increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue. Neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The cells were incubated with 1 microM calcium ionophore A23187 for 10-15 min then centrifuged, the supernatant collected and stored at -70 degrees C. Human bronchial rings (2-3 mm diameter, 3-4 mm long) were prepared from specimens resected at thoracotomy. The tissues were suspended in organ baths under a 1 g load and changes in tension measured isometrically. Stable contractions to bolus doses of histamine (0.1-10 microM) or to electrical field stimulation (40-100 V, 4-16 Hz, 1 ms for 20 s) were established. Supernatant from 106 neutrophils or 105 eosinophils was then added and tissue responsiveness reassessed. Neutrophil supernatant increased tissue responsiveness to histamine and electrical field stimulation by 54 +/- 17% (n = 5, p less than 0.05) and 18 +/- 7% (n = 6, p less than 0.05), respectively. Eosinophil supernatant increased the histamine response by 60 +/- 23% (n = 8, p less than 0.05) while tissue responsiveness to electrical field stimulation was unchanged (n = 3). Thus, as neutrophils and eosinophils can change the responsiveness of human bronchus in vitro it is possible that they do this in vivo and may not simply be temporally related to the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

  13. Respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness in competitive swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Katrin; Stensrud, Trine; Carlsen, Kai-Haakon

    2011-03-01

    A high prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and respiratory symptoms has been reported among competitive swimmers. From the 2002 Winter Olympics, BHR measurements or bronchodilator reversibility have been required for approved use of β2-agonists in sports. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship among respiratory symptoms in young elite swimmers, eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea (EVH), and the inhaled dose of methacholine, causing a 20% decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1; PD(20 methacholine)). The second aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the EVH test. For this study, 15 male and 9 female adolescent elite swimmers, aged 15 to 25 yr, performed one PD(20 methacholine) test and two EVH tests in a randomized order. Dry air containing 5% CO2 was inhaled for 6 min with a target ventilation of ≥85% of maximum voluntary ventilation (minimum = 65%). PD(20 methacholine) ≤2 μmol and EVH with FEV1 reduction ≥10% were considered positive. Respiratory symptoms and medication were reported in the modified AQUA2008 questionnaire. Twenty swimmers (83%) reported respiratory symptoms, 13 (65%) of them had a positive provocation test. Fourteen (58%) had at least one positive test to either EVH or PD(20 methacholine); three had only one positive EVH test. One athlete had BHR without symptoms. The sensitivity of PD(20 methacholine) ≤2 μmol for respiratory symptoms was 50% versus 60% and 47.37% for the two EVH tests, respectively, and 75% for PD(20 methacholine) ≤4 μmol. The Bland-Altman plot of the two EVH tests showed a consistent distribution, with only one subject outside the limits of agreement. BHR was frequently found among adolescent competitive swimmers. PD(20 methacholine) ≤2 μmol and EVH ≥ 10% compared well, but PD(20 methacholine) ≤4 μmol had the highest sensitivity for respiratory symptoms. The EVH test has high repeatability but is very expensive and uncomfortable to perform.

  14. Females have stronger neurogenic response than males after non-specific nasal challenge in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomljenovic, Dejan; Baudoin, Tomislav; Megla, Zeljka Bukovec; Geber, Goran; Scadding, Glenis; Kalogjera, Livije

    2018-07-01

    Epidemiological studies show female predominance in the prevalence of non- allergic rhinitis (NAR) and local allergic rhinitis (LAR). Experimental studies show female patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) demonstrate higher levels of sensitivity to irritants and airway hyperresponsiveness than males. Bronchial asthma shows female predominance in post-puberty patients, and gender interaction with severe asthma endotypes. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, migraine and chronic cough, syndromes, which are commonly related to neurokinin substance P (SP) in the literature, also show strong female predominance. Studies have demonstrated that sex hormones, primarily oestrogens, affect mast cell activation. Mast cell proteases can amplify neurogenic inflammatory responses including the release of SP. Based on human epidemiological data and animal experimental data we hypothesized that female patients have different interaction between mast cell activation and neurogenic inflammation, i.e. substance P release, resulting in a different nasal symptom profile. To test the hypothesis we performed allergen and non-specific nasal challenges in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) out of season and looked for gender differences in subjective and objective responses. The interaction between subjective and objective reactivity was evaluated through the comparison of subjective symptom scores, concentrations of neurokinin substance P (SP) and cellular markers in nasal lavages after low doses of nasal allergen challenges. Female allergic subjects tended to have higher substance P (SP) concentrations both before and after non-specific challenges. The difference between post-allergen and post - hypertonic saline (HTS) challenge was highly significant in female patients (p = 0.001), while insignificant in male subjects (p = 0.14). Female patients had significantly stronger burning sensation after HTS challenge than male. These data indicate difference in the

  15. Critical role of constitutive type I interferon response in bronchial epithelial cell to influenza infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C-Y Hsu

    Full Text Available Innate antiviral responses in bronchial epithelial cells (BECs provide the first line of defense against respiratory viral infection and the effectiveness of this response is critically dependent on the type I interferons (IFNs. However the importance of the antiviral responses in BECs during influenza infection is not well understood. We profiled the innate immune response to infection with H3N2 and H5N1 virus using Calu-3 cells and primary BECs to model proximal airway cells. The susceptibility of BECs to influenza infection was not solely dependent on the sialic acid-bearing glycoprotein, and antiviral responses that occurred after viral endocytosis was more important in limiting viral replication. The early antiviral response and apoptosis correlated with the ability to limit viral replication. Both viruses reduced RIG-I associated antiviral responses and subsequent induction of IFN-β. However it was found that there was constitutive release of IFN-β by BECs and this was critical in inducing late antiviral signaling via type I IFN receptors, and was crucial in limiting viral infection. This study characterizes anti-influenza virus responses in airway epithelial cells and shows that constitutive IFN-β release plays a more important role in initiating protective late IFN-stimulated responses during human influenza infection in bronchial epithelial cells.

  16. The innate immune response of equine bronchial epithelial cells is altered by training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frellstedt, Linda; Gosset, Philippe; Kervoaze, Gwenola; Hans, Aymeric; Desmet, Christophe; Pirottin, Dimitri; Bureau, Fabrice; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2015-01-17

    Respiratory diseases, including inflammatory airway disease (IAD), viral and bacterial infections, are common problems in exercising horses. The airway epithelium constitutes a major physical barrier against airborne infections and plays an essential role in the lung innate immune response mainly through toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. The aim of this study was to develop a model for the culture of equine bronchial epithelial cells (EBEC) in vitro and to explore EBEC innate immune responses in trained horses. Bronchial epithelial biopsies were taken from 6 adult horses during lower airway endoscopy. EBEC were grown in vitro by an explant method. The innate immune response of EBEC was evaluated in vitro by treatment with TLR ligands. TLR3 is the most strongly expressed TLR at the mRNA level in EBEC and stimulation of EBEC with Poly(I:C), an analog of viral dsRNA, triggers a strong secretion of IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-6 and CXCL8. We further evaluated the EBEC innate immune response in horses that underwent a 4-month-training program. While training had no effect on TLR mRNA expression in EBEC as well as in bronchial biopsies, it increased the production of IFN-β after stimulation with a TLR3 ligand and decreased the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 after stimulation with a TLR2 and TLR3 ligand. These findings may be implicated in the increased risk for viral and bacterial infections observed in sport horses. Altogether, we report a successful model for the culture of EBEC that can be applied to the investigation of pathophysiologic conditions in longitudinal studies.

  17. Intestinal helminth infestation is associated with increased bronchial responsiveness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Emerson R; Sly, Peter D; de Pereira, Marilyn U; Pinto, Leonardo A; Jones, Marcus H; Pitrez, Paulo M; Stein, Renato T

    2008-07-01

    Non-atopic asthma is the predominant phenotype in non-affluent parts of Latin America. We recently reported that infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides increased the risk of non-atopic asthma in less affluent areas of Brazil but the mechanism is unclear. The present study was conducted to determine whether helminth infestation is associated with heightened bronchial responsiveness (BHR), a common finding in asthma. A random sample of 50 asthmatic and 50 non-asthmatic controls (mean age 10.1 years) were selected from a larger cohort (n = 1,011) without knowledge of their helminth infestation status. Three stool samples were collected from each child on different days and each sample was analyzed by the Kato-Katz method for quantitative determination of helminth eggs. Bronchial provocation tests were performed with inhaled 4.5% hypertonic saline using the ISAAC Phase II standardized protocol. There was no difference between the prevalence of positive BHR in the asthmatics (20.4%) compared with the controls (14.6%) (P = 1.0). Helminth infestation was detected in 24.0% of children, with A. lumbricoides being the most common. Children with high load infestation (>or=100 eggs/g) were five times more likely to have BHR than children with low load or no infestation. Despite the small sample size the results of the present study suggest that the link between high load helminth infestation and non-atopic asthma may be mediated via heightened bronchial responsiveness, possibly due to an inflammatory response to the pulmonary phase of the helminth life cycle.

  18. Use of tracheal auscultation for the assessment of bronchial responsiveness in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprikkelman, A. B.; Grol, M. H.; Lourens, M. S.; Gerritsen, J.; Heymans, H. S.; van Aalderen, W. M.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It can be difficult to assess bronchial responsiveness in children because of their inability to perform spirometric tests reliably. In bronchial challenges lung sounds could be used to detect the required 20% fall in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). A study was undertaken to determine whether a change in lung sounds corresponded with a 20% fall in FEV1 after methacholine challenge, and whether the occurrence of wheeze was the most important change. METHODS: Fifteen children with asthma (eight boys) of mean age 10.8 years (range 8-15) were studied. All had normal chest auscultation before the methacholine challenge test. Lung sounds were recorded over the trachea for one minute and stored on tape. They were analysed directly and also scored blindly from the tape recording by a second investigator. Wheeze, cough, increase in respiratory rate, and prolonged expiration were assessed. RESULTS: The total cumulative methacholine dose causing a fall in FEV1 of 20% or more (PD20) was detected in 12 children by a change in lung sounds - in four by wheeze and in eight by cough, increased respiratory rate, and/or prolonged expiration. In two subjects altered lung sounds were detectable one dose step before PD20 was reached. In three cases in whom no fall in FEV1 occurred, no change in lung sounds could be detected at the highest methacholine dose. CONCLUSION: Changes in lung sounds correspond well with a 20% fall in FEV1 after methacholine challenge. Wheeze is an insensitive indicator for assessing bronchial responsiveness. Cough, increase in respiratory rate, and prolonged expiration occurs more frequently. PMID:8779140

  19. Nasal nitric oxide is associated with exhaled NO, bronchial responsiveness and poor asthma control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, C; Janson, C; Borres, M P; Nordvall, L; Alving, K; Malinovschi, A

    2014-06-01

    The fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is an established marker of airway inflammation in asthma. Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) has initially been regarded as a promising marker of inflammation of nasal mucosa. However, due to its dual origins, paranasal sinuses and nasal mucosa, the clinical use of nNO is controversial. There is an inflammatory link between inflammation in the upper and lower airways within the united airways' paradigm, but the study of the clinical value of nNO in asthma has been limited. The objective of this study is to analyse nNO in asthmatics and its relationship to FeNO, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, allergic sensitization and asthma control. A total of 371 children and young adults from an asthma cohort were included in this study, which performed measurements of nNO (through aspiration at 5 mL s(-1)), FeNO, bronchial responsiveness to methacholine, blood eosinophil count (B-Eos) and IgE sensitization. The asthma control test (ACT) and a questionnaire regarding medical treatment, symptoms of asthma, rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis were completed by all subjects. An association was found between higher nNO levels and increased bronchial responsiveness (p < 0.001), FeNO (p < 0.001) and B-Eos (p = 0.002). Sensitization to furry animals related to higher levels of nNO (p < 0.001). Subjects with poorly controlled asthma (ACT < 15) had lower levels of nNO than subjects with a higher ACT score (619 ± 278 ppb, versus 807 ± 274 ppb, p = 0.002). Loss of smell showed the strongest association with lower nNO levels among the upper airway symptoms recorded. In patients with asthma, nNO was positively correlated with exhaled NO, bronchial responsiveness and asthma control. This study suggests clinical utility of nNO in subjects with asthma, but in order to get better understanding of the nNO determinants, simultaneous mapping of upper airway comorbidities by clinical examination is appropriate.

  20. Interaction between gas cooking and GSTM1 null genotype in bronchial responsiveness: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, André F S; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Minelli, Cosetta; Accordini, Simone; Sørheim, Inga-Cecilie; Pin, Isabelle; Kogevinas, Manolis; Jõgi, Rain; Balding, David J; Norbäck, Dan; Verlato, Giuseppe; Olivieri, Mario; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Janson, Christer; Zock, Jan-Paul; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvis, Deborah L

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased bronchial responsiveness is characteristic of asthma. Gas cooking, which is a major indoor source of the highly oxidant nitrogen dioxide, has been associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function. However, little is known about the effect of gas cooking on bronchial responsiveness and on how this relationship may be modified by variants in the genes GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1, which influence antioxidant defences. Methods The study was performed in subjects with forced expiratory volume in one second at least 70% of predicted who took part in the multicentre European Community Respiratory Health Survey, had bronchial responsiveness assessed by methacholine challenge and had been genotyped for GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1-rs1695. Information on the use of gas for cooking was obtained from interviewer-led questionnaires. Effect modification by genotype on the association between the use of gas for cooking and bronchial responsiveness was assessed within each participating country, and estimates combined using meta-analysis. Results Overall, gas cooking, as compared with cooking with electricity, was not associated with bronchial responsiveness (β=−0.08, 95% CI −0.40 to 0.25, p=0.648). However, GSTM1 significantly modified this effect (β for interaction=−0.75, 95% CI −1.16 to −0.33, p=4×10−4), with GSTM1 null subjects showing more responsiveness if they cooked with gas. No effect modification by GSTT1 or GSTP1-rs1695 genotypes was observed. Conclusions Increased bronchial responsiveness was associated with gas cooking among subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype. This may reflect the oxidant effects on the bronchi of exposure to nitrogen dioxide. PMID:24613990

  1. Interaction between gas cooking and GSTM1 null genotype in bronchial responsiveness: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, A.F.S.; Ramasamy, A.; Castro-Giner, F.; Minelli, C.; Accordini, S.; Sorheim, I.C.; Pin, I.; Kogevinas, M.; Jögi, R.; Balding, D.J.; Norbäck, D.; Verlato, G.; Olivieri, M.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Janson, C.; Zock, J.P.; Heinrich, J.; Jarvis, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increased bronchial responsiveness is characteristic of asthma. Gas cooking, which is a major indoor source of the highly oxidant nitrogen dioxide, has been associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function. However, little is known about the effect of gas cooking on

  2. Respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness are related to dietary salt intake and urinary potassium excretion in male children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistelli, R; Forastiere, F; Corbo, G M; Dell'Orco, V; Brancato, G; Agabiti, N; Pizzabiocca, A; Perucci, C A

    1993-04-01

    To investigate whether dietary salt intake and urinary sodium and potassium levels are related to respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness, a cross-sectional study among 2593 subjects aged 9 to 16 was conducted in four communities of the Latium region (Italy). Questionnaires were administered to the parents, urine samples were collected, lung function, methacholine challenge tests and prick tests were performed. Information about familial and personal dietary salt use and respiratory health was collected from the parents of 2439 (94%) subjects. A total of 2020 methacholine challenge tests and 916 urinary sodium and potassium levels were available for analysis. Personal table salt use was strongly related to cough and phlegm apart from colds (adjusted odds ratios, OR, 1.87, 95% confidence intervals, CI, 1.20-2.90), wheezing apart from colds (OR, 2.19, 95% CI, 1.27-3.77), wheezing with dyspnoea (OR, 1.45, 95% CI, 0.98-2.12) and wheezing after exercise (OR, 2.16, 95% CI, 1.35-3.44). These associations were mainly found in boys. Use of familial table salt and canned food showed no relation to respiratory symptoms. Increased bronchial responsiveness was associated with a higher urinary potassium excretion in boys, but not with urinary sodium. In conclusion, personal table salt use is related to an increased prevalence of bronchial symptoms; an increase in bronchial responsiveness among those with higher potassium excretion also seems to be implied. Although it is difficult to interpret the results of this study in causal terms, the findings might be relevant to the distribution of bronchial symptoms and diseases in the population.

  3. Bronchial responsiveness to adenosine-5 '-monophosphate and methacholine as predictors for nasal symptoms due to newly introduced allergens. A follow-up study among laboratory animal workers and bakery apprentices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meer, G; Postma, DS; Heederik, D

    Background In asthma patients, bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) to adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP) reflects bronchial inflammation more closely than BHR to methacholine. In this follow-up study we studied bronchial responsiveness to both stimuli as predictors of new-onset airway symptoms.

  4. Proteomic analysis of secreted proteins by human bronchial epithelial cells in response to cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De-Ju; Xu, Yan-Ming; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Dong-Yang; Wong, Wing-Yan; Tai, William Chi-Shing; Cho, Yong-Yeon; Lau, Andy T Y

    2015-09-01

    For years, many studies have been conducted to investigate the intracellular response of cells challenged with toxic metal(s), yet, the corresponding secretome responses, especially in human lung cells, are largely unexplored. Here, we provide a secretome analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ), with the aim of identifying secreted proteins in response to Cd toxicity. Proteins from control and spent media were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and visualized by silver staining. Differentially-secreted proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis and database searching. We characterized, for the first time, the extracellular proteome changes of BEAS-2B dosed with Cd. Our results unveiled that Cd treatment led to the marked upregulation of molecular chaperones, antioxidant enzymes, enzymes associated with glutathione metabolic process, proteins involved in cellular energy metabolism, as well as tumor-suppressors. Pretreatment of cells with the thiol antioxidant glutathione before Cd treatment effectively abrogated the secretion of these proteins and prevented cell death. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Cd causes oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity; and the differentially-secreted protein signatures could be considered as targets for potential use as extracellular biomarkers upon Cd exposure. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. PKC activation induces inflammatory response and cell death in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunhee Kim

    Full Text Available A variety of airborne pathogens can induce inflammatory responses in airway epithelial cells, which is a crucial component of host defence. However, excessive inflammatory responses and chronic inflammation also contribute to different diseases of the respiratory system. We hypothesized that the activation of protein kinase C (PKC is one of the essential mechanisms of inflammatory response in airway epithelial cells. In the present study, we stimulated human bronchial lung epithelial (BEAS-2B cells with the phorbol ester Phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu, and examined gene expression profile using microarrays. Microarray analysis suggests that PKC activation induced dramatic changes in gene expression related to multiple cellular functions. The top two interaction networks generated from these changes were centered on NFκB and TNF-α, which are two commonly known pathways for cell death and inflammation. Subsequent tests confirmed the decrease in cell viability and an increase in the production of various cytokines. Interestingly, each of the increased cytokines was differentially regulated at mRNA and/or protein levels by different sub-classes of PKC isozymes. We conclude that pathological cell death and cytokine production in airway epithelial cells in various situations may be mediated through PKC related signaling pathways. These findings suggest that PKCs can be new targets for treatment of lung diseases.

  6. Nasal mucosa secretion exudation response to cold air in bronchial asthma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard V. Nekrasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Combined airway hyper responsiveness to cold and hypoosmotic stimuli in asthma patients results in impairment of lung respiration function and poor disease control compared to patients with isolated airway hyper responsiveness to only one of the stimuli or without such responsiveness that can be connected with edema or mucus hypersecretion.Aim. The purpose of the study is the estimation of the processes of mucin secretion, plasma exudation and oxidative stress in response to cold air in asthma patients with combined airway responsiveness to cold and hypoosmotic stimuli using nasal mucosa as a model.Materials and methods. 23 patients with asthma participated in the study. For the nasal lavage procedure, a nasal cavity was pre-washed at least three times in 5-min intervals with 5 ml saline solution (~36 °C. A control nasal lavage was done 5 min after the last washing with a dwelling time of 1 min in the nasal cavity. Directly after the control lavage, a cold air nasal challenge was done: a participant was asked to breathe deeply at the pace of a metronome to ensure hyperventilation inhaling cold air (–20 °C through the nose and exhaling through the mouth for 5 min. Nasal lavages were taken at 1 min, 15, and 30 min after the challenge. Mucin secretion was estimated on the basis of total protein (TP content, total carbohydrates (TC, and water-soluble forms of mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B in the lavage fluids. For the estimation of plasma exudation, the concentration of α2-macroglobulin (α2-MG was measured. Oxidative stress was estimated by the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS in lavage fluid. Lung function and airway responsiveness were studied by the forced expiration spirometry method and the bronchial challenge tests with isocapnic cold air hyperventilation (CAHV and distilled water inhalation (DWI.Results. According to the bronchial challenge tests, the patients were divided into groups: 1 without airway

  7. Peak expiratory flow variability, bronchial responsiveness, and susceptibility to ambient air pollution in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezen, M; Schouten, Jan; Rijcken, B; Vonk, J; Gerritsen, J; Hoek, G; Brunekreef, B; Postma, D

    1998-01-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability are associated expressions of airway lability, yet probably reflect different underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. We investigated whether both measures can be used interchangeably to identify subjects who are

  8. Effect of inhaled furosemide and torasemide on bronchial response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresi, A; Pelucchi, A; Mastropasqua, B; Cavigioli, G; Carlesi, R M; Marazzini, L

    1992-08-01

    Inhaled furosemide has been shown to reduce the bronchoconstriction induced by several indirect stimuli, including ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (UNDW). Because the protective effect could be due to the inhibition of the Na(+)-2Cl(-)-K+ cotransport system of bronchial epithelium, we have compared the protective effect of inhaled furosemide with that of inhaled torasemide, a new and more potent loop diuretic, on UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction in a group of 12 asthmatic subjects. UNDW challenge was performed by constructing a stimulus-response curve with five increasing volume outputs of distilled water (from 0.5 to 5.2 ml/min) and the bronchial response expressed as the provocative output causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PO20UNDW). On different days, each subject inhaled an equal dose (28 mg) of furosemide and torasemide in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study 5 min prior to an UNDW challenge. Furosemide and torasemide had no significant effect on resting lung function. The geometric mean value of PO20UNDW measured after placebo was 1.73 ml/min. This was significantly lower than that recorded after furosemide (4.25 ml/min; p < 0.025), but not after torasemide (3.05 ml/min; p = 0.07). Inhaled furosemide totally blocked bronchial response to UNDW in five subjects. In two of five subjects the response was also blocked by inhaled torasemide. A remarkable increase in diuresis was noted only after torasemide in most subjects. We conclude that inhaled furosemide has a better protective effect than does inhaled torasemide against UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction. However, the protective effect of furosemide is variable, with some asthmatic patients showing no change in bronchial response to UNDW.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Effect of guava leaves on growth and the non-specific immune response of Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-Li; Li, Zhuo-Jia; Yang, Keng; Lin, Hei-Zhao; Guo, Zhi-Xun

    2014-09-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf extracts have antiviral and antibacterial activity against shrimp pathogens such as yellow-head virus (YHV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), and Vibrio harveyi, which make it a potential water disinfectant for use in shrimp culture. In this study, the safety of guava leaf supplementation in shrimp was evaluated by studying its influence on growth and the non-specific immune response of Penaeus monodon. Six diets containing different levels of guava leaves (0% [basal diet], 0.025% [G1], 0.05% [G2], 0.1% [G3], 0.2% [G4], and 0.4% [G5]) were fed to groups of shrimp (1.576 ± 0.011 g body weight) in triplicate for 56 days. Growth performance (final body weight, WG, PWG, SGR) of shrimp fed guava leaf diets was significantly higher (P 0.05) were found. Dietary supplementation with guava leaf improved the activities of prophenoloxidase (PO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in serum, and of superoxide dismutase (SOD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and lysozyme (LSZ) both in serum and hepatopancreas of shrimp. In the experimental groups, the activities of these enzymes followed a similar pattern of change; they increased initially at low levels of dietary supplementation and then decreased with increasing concentrations of dietary guava leaf. Serum PO and SOD activities in shrimp fed the G1 diet reached 7.50 U ml(-1) and 178.33 U ml(-1), respectively, with PO activity being significantly higher than in controls. In shrimp fed the G1 diet, SOD, ACP, and AKP activities in hepatopancreas were significantly higher than in the controls, reaching 57.32 U g(-1), 23.28 U g(-1), and 19.35 U g(-1) protein, respectively. The highest activities of serum ACP, AKP, LSZ, and of hepatopancreas LSZ, were observed in the G3 diet group. Total nitric oxide synthase (TNOS) activity was highest (64.80 U ml(-1)) in the G4 diet group, which was significantly higher than that observed in the control group. These results suggest that dietary

  10. The effect of electronic cigarette and tobacco smoke exposure on COPD bronchial epithelial cell inflammatory responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higham A

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Higham,1,2 Declan Bostock,1 George Booth,2 Josiah V Dungwa,2 Dave Singh1,2 1Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester and University Hospital of South Manchester, NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; 2Medicines Evaluation Unit, University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester, UK Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs are used to help smoking cessation. However, these devices contain harmful chemicals, and there are safety concerns. We have investigated the effects of e-cigs on the inflammatory response and viability of COPD bronchial epithelial cells (BECs.Methods: BECs from COPD patients and controls were exposed to e-cig vapor extract (ECVE and the levels of interleukin (IL-6, C-X-C motif ligand 8 (CXCL8, and lactate dehydrogenase release were measured. We also examined the effect of ECVE pretreatment on polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C-stimulated cytokine release from BECs. Parallel experiments using Calu-3 cells were performed. Comparisons were made with cigarette smoke extract (CSE.Results: ECVE and CSE caused an increase in the release of IL-6 and CXCL8 from Calu-3 cells. ECVE only caused toxicity in BECs and Calu-3 cells. Furthermore, ECVE and CSE dampened poly I:C-stimulated C-X-C motif ligand 10 release from both cell culture models, reaching statistical significance for CSE at an optical density of 0.3.Conclusion: ECVE caused toxicity and reduced the antiviral response to poly I:C. This raises concerns over the safety of e-cig use. Keywords: e-cigs, epithelial cells, COPD, air–liquid interface, cigarette smoke

  11. Mechanism of cigarette smoke condensate-induced acute inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells

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    Mohapatra Shyam S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To demonstrate the involvement of tobacco smoking in the pathophysiology of lung disease, the responses of pulmonary epithelial cells to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC — the particulate fraction of tobacco smoke — were examined. Methods The human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEs were exposed to 0.4 μg/ml CSC, a concentration that resulted in >90% cell survival and Results NHBEs exposed to CSC showed increased expression of the inflammatory mediators sICAM-1, IL-1β, IL-8 and GM-CSF, as determined by RT-PCR. CSC-induced IL-1β expression was reduced by PD98059, a blocker of mitogen-actived protein kinase (MAPK kinase (MEK, and by PDTC, a NFκB inhibitor. Analysis of intracellular signaling pathways, using antibodies specific for phosphorylated MAPKs (extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]-1/2, demonstrated an increased level of phosphorylated ERK1/2 with increasing CSC concentration. Nuclear localization of phosphorylated ERK1/2 was seen within 30 min of CSC exposure and was inhibited by PD98059. Increased phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IκB was also seen after CSC exposure. A549 cells transfected with a luciferase reporter plasmid containing a NFκB-inducible promoter sequence and exposed to CSC (0.4 μg/ml or TNF-α (50 ng/ml had an increased reporter activity of approximately 2-fold for CSC and 3.5-fold for TNF-α relative to untreated controls. Conclusion The acute phase response of NHBEs to cigarette smoke involves activation of both MAPK and NFκB.

  12. Xianyu decoction attenuates the inflammatory response of human lung bronchial epithelial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenyi; Xiang, Qiangwei; Zhang, Hailin

    2018-06-01

    Xianyu decoction (XD), a Chinese experience recipe, shows inhibitory effects on lung cancer. However, the potential functions of XD on pneumonia were unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of XD on inflammatory response of childhood pneumonia. Human lung bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was cultured in different doses of LPS with or without XD treatment. The expression of miR-15a and IKBKB were altered by transfection assay. RT-PCR and western blot were used to evaluate the effects of XD and miR-15a mimic/inhibitor on the expression levels of miR-15a, IKBKB, p65 and IκBα. ELISA was used to determine the levels of CRP, IL-6 and IL-8. High expression of miR-15a was observed in serum and cell model of pneumonia. miR-15a promoted the expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, CRP and IKBKB in vitro. XD treatment downregulated the level of miR-15a in pneumonia children. In addition, XD reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines and the phosphorylation levels of p65 and IκBα by inhibition of miR-15a and IKBKB expression in LPS-stimulated BEAS-2B cells. XD downregulated the level of miR-15a in serum of pneumonia children. Additionally, XD inhibited inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated BEAS-2B cells possibly by blocking IKBKB/NF-κB signal pathway which was regulated by miR-15a. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. IHH Gene Mutations Causing Short Stature With Nonspecific Skeletal Abnormalities and Response to Growth Hormone Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasques, Gabriela A; Funari, Mariana F A; Ferreira, Frederico M; Aza-Carmona, Miriam; Sentchordi-Montané, Lucia; Barraza-García, Jimena; Lerario, Antonio M; Yamamoto, Guilherme L; Naslavsky, Michel S; Duarte, Yeda A O; Bertola, Debora R; Heath, Karen E; Jorge, Alexander A L

    2018-02-01

    Genetic evaluation has been recognized as an important tool to elucidate the causes of growth disorders. To investigate the cause of short stature and to determine the phenotype of patients with IHH mutations, including the response to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy. We studied 17 families with autosomal-dominant short stature by using whole exome sequencing and screened IHH defects in 290 patients with growth disorders. Molecular analyses were performed to evaluate the potential impact of N-terminal IHH variants. We identified 10 pathogenic or possibly pathogenic variants in IHH, an important regulator of endochondral ossification. Molecular analyses revealed a smaller potential energy of mutated IHH molecules. The allele frequency of rare, predicted to be deleterious IHH variants found in short-stature samples (1.6%) was higher than that observed in two control cohorts (0.017% and 0.08%; P IHH variants segregate with short stature in a dominant inheritance pattern. Affected individuals typically manifest mild disproportional short stature with a frequent finding of shortening of the middle phalanx of the fifth finger. None of them have classic features of brachydactyly type A1, which was previously associated with IHH mutations. Five patients heterozygous for IHH variants had a good response to rhGH therapy. The mean change in height standard deviation score in 1 year was 0.6. Our study demonstrated the association of pathogenic variants in IHH with short stature with nonspecific skeletal abnormalities and established a frequent cause of growth disorder, with a preliminary good response to rhGH. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  14. [Features of Autonomic Response in Children with Bronchial Asthma in the Period of Exacerbation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedenko, A A; Semernik, O E

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the urgent problems of modern pediatrics, but neuroregulation mechanisms underlying this disease have not been fully disclosed so far. The autonomic interaction assessment in patients with bronchial asthma is important to understand the pathogenesis and prognosis of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate features of autonomic response in children with asthma in the period of exacerbation. The autonomic nervous system ANS) of 82 children aged 6 to 18 years old with asthma in the period of exacerbation were investigated. The spectral analysis of the heart rate variability and the correlation rhythmography method (skaterography) were used to assess the ANS state. Investigations were carried out at rest and after clinoorthostatic test. Non-respiratory (slow) waves reflecting (be degree of activity of humoral and neural canals of heart rate central regulation were dominated at the spectrogram of 72 (87.80%) children experiencing asthma attack; more than half of patients (58.53%) had predominantly very low-frequency component (VLF%) in the range of fluctuation rate that indicated (the influence of neurohumoral regulation. A significant increase in vagosympathetic balance coefficient (LE/HF) was recorded after clinoorthostatic test indicating the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. According to the correlation rhytlimnography data, a considerable scattering of scattergraphy points was detected in patients in (the baseline state that indicated the predominant influence of parasympathetic nervous system. After the clinoorthostatic test, on the contrary, we observed the of the scattergraphy cloud that could indicate sympathicotonia. The imbalance of the autonomic nervous system in the form of activation of the sympathetic amid neurohumoral regulation department was found in children with asthma.

  15. Effect of thoracoscopic esophagus cancer surgery on postoperative incision pain as well as non-specific and specific immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Long Wu1

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of thoracoscopic esophagus cancer surgery on postoperative incision pain as well as non-specific and specific immune response. Methods: 56 patients with esophageal cancer who accepted surgical treatment in our hospital between March 2011 and February 2016 were collected, the operation methods and related laboratory tests were reviewed, and then they were divided into the thoracoscope group (n=27 who accepted thoracoscopic surgery and the open surgery group (n=29 who accepted traditional thoracotomy. Before operation and 1 d after operation, immune scatter turbidimetry was used to detect serum levels of pain mediators, and flow cytometer was used to detect the levels of nonspecific immune indexes and specific immune indexes. Results: Before operation, the differences in serum pain mediators as well as nonspecific immune response and specific immune response indexes were not statistically significant between two groups of patients (P>0.05. 1 d after operation, serum pain mediators 5-HT, K+ and NE levels of thoracoscope group were lower than those of open surgery group (P<0.05; nonspecific immune response indexes NK cell as well as C3 and C4 levels in peripheral blood of thoracoscope group were significantly higher than those of open surgery group (P<0.05; specific immune response indexes CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, IgA and IgG levels in peripheral blood of thoracoscope group were significantly higher than those of open surgery group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Thoracoscopic esophagus cancer surgery causes less damage, has lighter inhibition on the immune response system, and is an ideal operation method for patients with early middle esophagus cancer.

  16. Bronchial and nasal responsiveness in atopic asthma and allergic rhinitis patients: Relationship of local responsiveness to cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Maeda

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between local responsiveness and allergic symptoms, bronchial and nasal responsiveness were measured in the following four groups of subjects: (i bronchial asthma patients with serum house dust mite (HDM-specific IgE antibody; (ii allergic rhinitis patients with serum HDM-specific IgE antibody; (iii normal control subjects with HDM-specific IgE antibody; and (iv normal control subjects without IgE antibody specific for 10 common aero-allergens. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was detected in all subjects with asthma (group 1 and in some subjects from groups 2 and 3, but not in subjects from group 4. Nasal hyperresponsiveness was found in all subjects with allergic rhinitis (group 2 and in some subjects from groups 1 and 3, but not in subjects from group 4. These findings indicate that local hyperresponsiveness of the non-diseased organ is influenced by an individual's atopic status. Interleukin (IL-4 and IL-5 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was measured after stimulation with HDM in groups 1, 2 and 3 and was found to be similar in all three groups. A correlation between bronchial hyperresponsiveness and in vitro cytokine production was noted in asthma patients. These results suggest that the capacity of IL-4 or IL-5 production by PBMC may reflect local hyperresponsiveness in case of asthma.

  17. Non-specific phospholipase C4 mediates response to aluminum toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Přemysl ePejchar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum ions (Al have been recognized as a major toxic factor for crop production in acidic soils. The first indication of the Al toxicity in plants is the cessation of root growth, but the mechanism of root growth inhibition is largely unknown. Here we examined the impact of Al on the expression, activity and function of the non-specific phospholipase C4 (NPC4, a plasma membrane-bound isoform of NPC, a member of the plant phospholipase family, in Arabidopsis thaliana.We observed a lower expression of NPC4 using GUS assay and a decreased formation of labeled diacylglycerol, product of NPC activity, using fluorescently labeled phosphatidylcholine as a phospholipase substrate in Arabidopsis WT seedlings treated with AlCl3 for 2 h. The effect on in situ NPC activity persisted for longer Al treatment periods (8, 14 h. Interestingly, in seedlings overexpressing NPC4, the Al-mediated NPC-inhibiting effect was alleviated at 14 h. However, in vitro activity and localization of NPC4 were not affected by Al, thus excluding direct inhibition by Al ions or possible translocation of NPC4 as the mechanisms involved in NPC-inhibiting effect. Furthermore, the growth of tobacco pollen tubes rapidly arrested by Al was partially rescued by the overexpression of AtNPC4 while Arabidopsis npc4 knockout lines were found to be more sensitive to Al stress during long-term exposure of Al at low phosphate conditions.Our observations suggest that NPC4 plays a role in both early and long-term responses to Al stress.

  18. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide as a predictor of response to inhaled corticosteroids in patients with non-specific respiratory symptoms and insignificant bronchodilator reversibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, David B; Buhl, Roland; Chan, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic non-specific respiratory symptoms are difficult to manage. This trial aimed to evaluate the association between baseline fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and the response to inhaled corticosteroids in patients with non-specific respiratory symptoms. METHODS: In this doub...

  19. The Role of Eosinophilic Cationic Proteins, Total IgE and Eosinophilia in Children with Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungureanu Adina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial hyperreactivity (HRB, is defined as an excessive bronchial constriction that acts as an exaggerated bronchoconstrictor of the airways. This occurs as a secondary action of a nonspecific stimuli.

  20. FeNO and Bronchial Responsiveness are Associated and Continuous traits in Young Children Independent of Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    adjustment for gender, allergic rhinitis, current asthma, inhaled corticosteroid treatment and upper respiratory tract infections prior to testing. Stratified analyses showed similar associations in children with and without asthma. CONCLUSION FeNO and bronchial responsiveness are associated traits...... and continuous traits in young children regardless of asthma symptoms. This suggests a continuous spectrum from sub-clinical to clinical of a process underlying asthma and cautions against the use of these surrogate markers for a dichotomized approach to asthma diagnosis.Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma...

  1. Dynamic innate immune responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Yoshikawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human lung epithelial cells are likely among the first targets to encounter invading severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV. Not only can these cells support the growth of SARS-CoV infection, but they are also capable of secreting inflammatory cytokines to initiate and, eventually, aggravate host innate inflammatory responses, causing detrimental immune-mediated pathology within the lungs. Thus, a comprehensive evaluation of the complex epithelial signaling to SARS-CoV is crucial for paving the way to better understand SARS pathogenesis. Based on microarray-based functional genomics, we report here the global gene response of 2B4 cells, a cloned bronchial epithelial cell line derived from Calu-3 cells. Specifically, we found a temporal and spatial activation of nuclear factor (NFkappaB, activator protein (AP-1, and interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3/7 in infected 2B4 cells at 12-, 24-, and 48-hrs post infection (p.i., resulting in the activation of many antiviral genes, including interferon (IFN-beta, -lambdas, inflammatory mediators, and many IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs. We also showed, for the first time, that IFN-beta and IFN-lambdas were capable of exerting previously unrecognized, non-redundant, and complementary abilities to limit SARS-CoV replication, even though their expression could not be detected in infected 2B4 bronchial epithelial cells until 48 hrs p.i. Collectively, our results highlight the mechanics of the sequential events of antiviral signaling pathway/s triggered by SARS-CoV in bronchial epithelial cells and identify novel cellular targets for future studies, aiming at advancing strategies against SARS.

  2. Identification of Secreted Proteins Involved in Nonspecific dsRNA-Mediated Lutzomyia longipalpis LL5 Cell Antiviral Response

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    Andrea Martins-da-Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematophagous insects transmit infectious diseases. Sand flies are vectors of leishmaniasis, but can also transmit viruses. We have been studying immune responses of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. We identified a non-specific antiviral response in L. longipalpis LL5 embryonic cells when treated with non-specific double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs. This response is reminiscent of interferon response in mammals. We are investigating putative effectors for this antiviral response. Secreted molecules have been implicated in immune responses, including interferon-related responses. We conducted a mass spectrometry analysis of conditioned medium from LL5 cells 24 and 48 h after dsRNA or mock treatment. We identified 304 proteins. At 24 h, 19 proteins had an abundance equal or greater than 2-fold change, while the levels of 17 proteins were reduced when compared to control cells. At the 48 h time point, these numbers were 33 and 71, respectively. The two most abundant secreted peptides at 24 h in the dsRNA-transfected group were phospholipid scramblase, an interferon-inducible protein that mediates antiviral activity, and forskolin-binding protein (FKBP, a member of the immunophilin family, which mediates the effect of immunosuppressive drugs. The transcription profile of most candidates did not follow the pattern of secreted protein abundance.

  3. Monomethylarsonous Acid (MMAIII Has an Adverse Effect on the Innate Immune Response of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G Notch

    Full Text Available Arsenic is the number one contaminant of concern with regard to human health according to the World Health Organization. Epidemiological studies on Asian and South American populations have linked arsenic exposure with an increased incidence of lung disease, including pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, both of which are associated with bacterial infection. However, little is known about the effects of low dose arsenic exposure, or the contributions of organic arsenic to the innate immune response to bacterial infection. This study examined the effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa induced cytokine secretion by human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC by inorganic sodium arsenite (iAsIII and two major metabolites, monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII and dimethylarsenic acid (DMAV, at concentrations relevant to the U.S.Neither iAsIII nor DMAV altered P. aeruginosa induced cytokine secretion. By contrast, MMAIII increased P. aeruginosa induced secretion of IL-8, IL-6 and CXCL2. A combination of iAsIII, MMAIII and DMAV (10 pbb total reduced IL-8 and CXCL1 secretion. These data demonstrate for the first time that exposure to MMAIII alone, and a combination of iAsIII, MMAIII and DMAV at levels relevant to the U.S. may have negative effects on the innate immune response of human bronchial epithelial cells to P. aeruginosa.

  4. Quality of Life and Bronchial Hyper-Responsiveness in Subjects With Bronchiectasis: Validation of the Seattle Obstructive Lung Disease Questionnaire in Bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulcun, Emel; Arslan, Mesut; Ekici, Aydanur; Ekici, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    Bronchiectasis can adversely affect quality of life. However, the tests examining quality of life in bronchiectasis are not sufficient. We examined the validity of a measure designed for COPD, the Seattle Obstructive Lung Disease Questionnaire (SOLQ), in bronchiectasis. In addition, we aimed to compare the quality of life of subjects with bronchiectasis and bronchial hyper-responsiveness with that of those without to identify the effective factors. We studied 78 subjects with clinically stable bronchiectasis and 41 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Subjects were assessed by the SOLQ. A detailed history, physical examination, the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and spirometric measurements were obtained. Cronbach α coefficients, which reflected internal consistency, were >0.70 for all SOLQ components except for treatment satisfaction. SOLQ component scores correlated with all of the component scores of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, confirming their concurrent validity. All SOLQ scores correlated positively with percent-of-predicted FEV1, whereas the physical function, treatment satisfaction, and emotional function correlated negatively with the exacerbation frequency in Pearson analysis. Emotional and physical functions were positively associated with percent-of-predicted FEV1 in linear regression analysis. Compared with subjects without bronchial hyper-responsiveness, those with bronchial hyper-responsiveness had lower FEV1/FVC and more exacerbations/y. Compared with bronchiectasis subjects without bronchial hyper-responsiveness, those with bronchial hyper-responsiveness had significantly lower SOLQ, physical function, and coping skills scores but not emotional function and treatment satisfaction. The SOLQ is a valid instrument for determining quality of life in subjects with bronchiectasis. Subjects with

  5. Results of investigations of non-specific humoral-type response in workers exposed to beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cianciara, M.; Loch, T.

    1989-12-01

    In the group of 30 workers exposed to beryllium a statistically significant increase in the level of immunoglobulins of class A was found in comparison with the control group (p<0.01). This may be an early indicator of a process taking place in the respiratory system. Results of measurement of immunoglobulins, as non-specific indicators, are of limited value in the evaluation of the influence of the occupational factor; at the same time they point to the usefulness of testing for the specific indicators of humoral reactivity in persons whose work involves contact with beryllium or its compounds. (author)

  6. Enhancements of non-specific immune response in Mugil cephlus by seaweed extract against Vibrio alginolyticus (BRTR07)

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu; Priyadharshini Pandiyan; Deivasigamani Balaraman; Ilamathi Jayaraman; Kumaran Subaramaniyan; Edward Gnana Jothi George

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To focus on the growth rate and feed utilization of fish by using trash fish feeds supplement with marine seaweeds. Methods: Selected seaweed was extracted using hot-water and its extract was mixed with trash fish feed at different concentrations (0.5%, 1% and 2% for 1-30 days) and the nonspecific immune response in fish was studied and challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 1 × 106 CFU/fish. The hot-water extract of seaweeds was analysed by gas chromatography-mass ...

  7. Clinical Profile and Response to Chemotherapeutic Agents in Non-specific Urethritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Pandhi

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiological and clinical profile of 159 patients having non-specific iiretbritis is repoed. The majority (67.39o of patients were unm and most (70.4% of the we m re in the age group of 21-30 years. The incubation period in the majority (69.2% of patients was 1-4 weeks. Almost all the (98.1% patients complained of dysuria but urethral discharge was seen only in 48.4% of patients. Out of tetracycline′s doxycline, erythromycin and cotrimoxazole tried in this study, tetracycline′s in the dosage of 2 gm/day for 3 weeks was found to give the best (90.5%′cure rate.

  8. Propolis and Herba Epimedii extracts enhance the non-specific immune response and disease resistance of Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guobin; Gong, Shiyuan; Yu, Denghang; Yuan, Hanwen

    2009-03-01

    The effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulated from propolis and Herba Epimedii extracts at the ratio of 3:1 (w/w) on non-specific immune response of Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus) was investigated. Fish were fed diets containing 0 (control), 0.1%, 0.5% or 1.0% TCM extracts for five weeks. The respiratory burst and phagocytic activities of blood leukocytes, lysozyme and natural haemolytic complement activities in plasma were measured weekly. After five weeks of feeding, fish were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded. Results of this study showed that feeding Chinese sucker with different dosage of TCM extracts stimulated respiratory burst activity, phagocytosis of phagocytic cells in blood and lysozyme activity in plasma. They had no effect on plasma natural haemolytic complement activity. All dosage of treated groups showed reduced mortality following A. hydrophila infection. Feed containing 0.5% TCM extracts was the most effective with the mortality of the fish significantly reduced by 35% compared to the control. The results indicate that propolis and Herba Epimedii extracts in combination enhances the non-specific immune response and disease resistance of Chinese sucker against A. hydrophila.

  9. A ROS-dependent and Caspase-3-mediated apoptosis in sheep bronchial epithelial cells in response to Mycoplasma Ovipneumoniae infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Di; Li, Yanan; Jiang, Zhongjia; Deng, Guangcun; Li, Min; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

    2017-05-01

    Mycoplasma Ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae) is a primary etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia in sheep and goats. It can enter and colonize ovine respiratory epithelial cells to establish an infection, which leads a serious cell death of epithelial cells. However, the nature of the interaction between pathogen of M. ovipneumoniae and host cells in the cell injury is currently not well understood. In this study, we investigated the epithelial cell apoptosis caused by an infection of M. ovipneumoniae in sheep primary air-liquid interface (ALI) epithelial cultures. The results showed that M. ovipneumoniae could specifically bind to ciliated cells at early stage of infection. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that an infection of M. ovipneumoniae induced a time-dependent cell apoptotic cell death, accompanied with an increased production of extracellular nitric oxide (NO), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activation of caspase-3 signaling in sheep bronchial epithelial cells. The induced cell apoptosis was further confirmed by a transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Interestingly, the M. ovipneumoniae-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3 were correlated with the production of ROS but not NO. Mechanistically, M. ovipneumoniae-induced cell apoptosis was mediated by a mechanism by increasing the expression of phosphorylation of p38 and pro-apoptotic proteins, and activating caspase-3, caspase-8 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These results suggest a ROS-dependent and caspase-3-mediated cell apoptosis in sheep bronchial epithelial cells in response to M. ovipneumoniae infections. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Specific versus non-specific immune responses in an invertebrate species evidenced by a comparative de novo sequencing study.

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    Emeline Deleury

    Full Text Available Our present understanding of the functioning and evolutionary history of invertebrate innate immunity derives mostly from studies on a few model species belonging to ecdysozoa. In particular, the characterization of signaling pathways dedicated to specific responses towards fungi and Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila melanogaster challenged our original view of a non-specific immunity in invertebrates. However, much remains to be elucidated from lophotrochozoan species. To investigate the global specificity of the immune response in the fresh-water snail Biomphalaria glabrata, we used massive Illumina sequencing of 5'-end cDNAs to compare expression profiles after challenge by Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria or after a yeast challenge. 5'-end cDNA sequencing of the libraries yielded over 12 millions high quality reads. To link these short reads to expressed genes, we prepared a reference transcriptomic database through automatic assembly and annotation of the 758,510 redundant sequences (ESTs, mRNAs of B. glabrata available in public databases. Computational analysis of Illumina reads followed by multivariate analyses allowed identification of 1685 candidate transcripts differentially expressed after an immune challenge, with a two fold ratio between transcripts showing a challenge-specific expression versus a lower or non-specific differential expression. Differential expression has been validated using quantitative PCR for a subset of randomly selected candidates. Predicted functions of annotated candidates (approx. 700 unisequences belonged to a large extend to similar functional categories or protein types. This work significantly expands upon previous gene discovery and expression studies on B. glabrata and suggests that responses to various pathogens may involve similar immune processes or signaling pathways but different genes belonging to multigenic families. These results raise the question of the importance

  11. Primary Paediatric Bronchial Airway Epithelial Cell in Vitro Responses to Environmental Exposures

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    Neil McInnes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The bronchial airway epithelial cell (BAEC is the site for initial encounters between inhaled environmental factors and the lower respiratory system. Our hypothesis was that release of pro inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 and IL-8 from primary BAEC cultured from children will be increased after in vitro exposure to common environmental factors. Primary BAEC were obtained from children undergoing clinically indicated routine general anaesthetic procedures. Cells were exposed to three different concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS or house dust mite allergen (HDM or particulates extracted from side stream cigarette smoke (SSCS. BAEC were obtained from 24 children (mean age 7.0 years and exposed to stimuli. Compared with the negative control, there was an increase in IL-6 and IL-8 release after exposure to HDM (p ≤ 0.001 for both comparisons. There was reduced IL-6 after higher compared to lower SSCS exposure (p = 0.023. There was no change in BAEC release of IL-6 or IL-8 after LPS exposure. BAEC from children are able to recognise and respond in vitro with enhanced pro inflammatory mediator secretion to some inhaled exposures.

  12. Enhancements of non-specific immune response in Mugil cephlus by seaweed extract against Vibrio alginolyticus (BRTR07

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    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To focus on the growth rate and feed utilization of fish by using trash fish feeds supplement with marine seaweeds. Methods: Selected seaweed was extracted using hot-water and its extract was mixed with trash fish feed at different concentrations (0.5%, 1% and 2% for 1-30 days and the nonspecific immune response in fish was studied and challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 1 × 106 CFU/fish. The hot-water extract of seaweeds was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: The average body weight (5.320 ± 0.018, percent weight gain (227.66 ± 0.28, specific growth rate (2.080 ± 0.015, hepatosomatic index (1.197 ± 0.00 and viscerosomatic index (4.421 ± 0.150 were significantly increased in the fish feed with seaweed containing 5% of Sargassum wightii (S. wightii when compared with other seaweeds and control diet. Hotwater extract of S. wightii (1% was significantly enhanced the immune response in fish when compared with other diets (0.5% and 2%. S. wightii showed good immunostimulation properties. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry result showed that the hot-water extract of S. wightii seaweed contained fatty acids. Conclusions: Trash fish feed will reduce the production cost and also provide evidence that aqueous leaf extract of S. wightii (1% was added to a formulated fish diet which could activate the non-specific immune response and disease resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in Mugil cephalus.

  13. Kinetics of antigen specific and non-specific polyclonal B-cell responses during lethal Plasmodium yoelii malaria

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    Laurence Rolland

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the kinetics and composition of the polyclonal B-cell activation associated to malaria infection, antigen-specific and non-specific B-cell responses were evaluated in the spleens of mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii 17 XL or injected with lysed erythrocytes or plasma from P. yoelii infected mice or with P. falciparum culture supernatants. Spleen/body weigth ratio, numbers of nucleated spleen cells and Immunoglobulin-containing and Immunoglobulin-secreting cells increased progressively during the course of infection,in parallel to the parasitemia. A different pattern of kinetics was observed when anti-sheep red blood cell and anti-trinitrophenylated-sheep red blood cell plaque forming cells response were studied: maximum values were observed at early stages of infection, whereas the number of total Immunoglobulin-containing and Immunoglobulin-secreting cells were not yet altered. Conversely, at the end of infection, when these latter values reached their maximum, the anti-sheep red blood cell and anti-trinitrophenylated-sheep red blood cell specific responses were normal or even infranormal. In mice injected with Plasmodium-derived material, a higher increase in antigen-specific PFC was observed, as compared to the increase of Immunoglobulin-containing and Immunoglobulin-secreting cell numbers. This suggested a "preferential" (antigen-plus mitogen-induced stimulation of antigen-specific cells rather than a generalized non-specific (mitogen-induced triggering of B-lymphocytes. On the basis of these and previous results, it is suggested that polyclonal B-cell activation that takes place during the course of infection appears as a result of successive waves of antigen-specific B-cell activation.

  14. Beta 1,3/1,6-glucan and vitamin C immunostimulate the non-specific immune response of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Liau, Shu-Yu; Huang, Cheng-Ting; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-10-01

    This study mainly evaluated the effects of orally administered beta 1,3/1,6-glucan and vitamin C on the nonspecific immune responses of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). In this study, we found that the white shrimp oral administration with 1 g/kg of beta 1,3/1,6-glucan effectively enhanced O2(-) production and phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activity. Shrimp were oral administration with 0.2 g/kg of vitamin C presented beneficial nonspecific immune responses and enzyme activity and also observed in the beta 1,3/1,6-glucan treatment groups. Consequently, we compared the alterations in the immune activity between the beta 1,3/1,6-glucan and vitamin C groups and the evidence illustrated that combination of beta 1,3/1,6-glucan and vitamin C presented an additive effect on inducing the nonspecific immune responses of white shrimp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Cytomorphological analysis of remodeling of the bronchial wall in different types of bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gereng, E A; Sukhodolo, I V; Pleshko, R I; Ogorodova, L M; Selivanova, P A; Dziuman, A N

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to search for the tissue and cellular markers of remodeling of bronchial mucosa in the patients with different clinical forms of bronchial asthma (BA). The use of up-to-date morphometric techniques has demonstrated that mild and moderately severe forms of bronchial asthma are accompanied by the development of Th2-immune response associated with increased production of interleukin-4 and marked degranulation of eosinophilic granulocytes resulting in desquamation of epithelium and goblet cell hyperplasia. The severe BA phenotype of "chronic asthma with fixed obstruction" is associated with the development of non-atopic inflammation in the bronchial mucous membrane that manifests itself as the increased concentration of interleukin-8 in bronchial mucosa and its neutrophilic infiltration leading to the development of pronounced subepithelial fibrosis, thickening of the basal membrane, and atrophy of epithelium. Specific structural changes in bronchial mucosa of the patients presenting with BA underlie functional disturbances that cause severe bronchial obstructive syndrome.

  16. REGULATION OF IMMUNE RESPONSE OF PATIENTS WITH PARTIALLY CONTROLLED vs CONTROLLED BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Barabash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A control group included seventeen conditionally healthy people (Group 1. Eighty-eight patients with proven bronchial asthma (BA at the age of 22 to 48 were enrolled into the study. I.e., Group 2 included nine patients with well-controlled BA. Group 3 included persons with partially controlled BA (n=79. There were 8 people with easily treated BA in group 2, and 57 such cases in Group 3. The levels of interleukins (IL-4, IL-10, IL-17A, interferon-γ (IFNγ, and tumor-α necrosis factor (TNFα were monitored by means of flow cytometry technique. The parameters of cellular immunity were registered by flow cytofluorimetry assays. Phagocytosis indicators were studied by means of D. Mayansky method, metabolic activity of neutrophils, by the B.Park method, as modified by E.Shmelev. Evaluation of cellular immunity did not reveal statistically significant differences for distinct CD subpopulations between healthy controls and BA patients. The patients with controlled and partially controlled BA exhibited some changes in cytokine concentrations, i.e., increased IL-4, IL-17А, IL-10 and TNFα levels; changes in phagocytosis and oxygen dependent bactericidal activities of neutrophils. We have revealed higher concentrations of IL-4, IL-17А in the less controlled BA (group 3 , as compared with group 2. TNFα induction remained at significantly higher level in both groups of BA patients, exceeding mean control values by 2.3 times. The degree of IL-10 production in group 2 with controlled BA was significantly higher than in group with partial disease control (group 3, p < 0.001, thus suggesting application of IL-10 levels as an index of active inflammation control. Patients with BA (groups 2, 3 exhibited a decrease of basal IFNγ, as compared to healthy people (p < 0.001. In group 3 (partial control, this parameter was 3-fold lower than in healthy persons. Evaluation of monocyte/phagocyte functions showed statistically significant differences between BA

  17. MicroRNA-146a modulates human bronchial epithelial cell survival in response to the cytokine-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiangde; Nelson, Amy; Wang Xingqi; Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Kim, Miok; Sato, Tadashi; Nakanishi, Masanori; Li Yingji; Sun Jianhong; Michalski, Joel; Patil, Amol; Basma, Hesham; Rennard, Stephen I.

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNA plays an important role in cell differentiation, proliferation and cell death. The current study found that miRNA-146a was up-regulated in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in response to stimulation by TGF-ss1 plus cytomix (a mixture of IL-1ss, IFN-γ and TNF-α). TGF-ss1 plus cytomix (TCM) induced apoptosis in HBECs (3.4 ± 0.6% of control vs 83.1 ± 4.0% of TCM treated cells, p < 0.01), and this was significantly blocked by the miRNA-146a mimic (8.8 ± 1.5%, p < 0.01). In contrast, a miRNA-146a inhibitor had only a modest effect on cell survival but appeared to augment the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to the cytokines. The MicroRNA-146a mimic appears to modulate HBEC survival through a mechanism of up-regulating Bcl-XL and STAT3 phosphorylation, and by this mechanism it could contribute to tissue repair and remodeling.

  18. Benazepril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor: drug interaction with salbutamol and bronchial response to histamine in normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K. G.; Brunel, P.; Nell, G.; Quinn, G.; Kaik, G. A.

    1997-01-01

    Aims To investigate the effect of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, benazepril, on pulmonary function. Methods We investigated the influence of benazepril, on lung function and the interaction with inhaled salbutamol (0.1 to 6.6 mg) and histamine (0.03 to 30.69 g l−1 ) in normal subjects. Benazepril 20 mg, salbutamol 8 mg, propranolol 160 mg, and placebo were given orally once daily over 10 days. Results On day 8, there was no difference in the area under the salbutamol dose-response curves between benazepril, placebo and oral salbutamol (P >0.05), propranolol shifted the curves to the right (Pbenazepril 1.04 (0.99–1.08), salbutamol 1.19 (1.13–1.25), propranolol 0.57 (0.50–0.65). Conclusions Benazepril had no influence on baseline lung function, caused no interaction with inhaled salbutamol and the bronchial response to histamine was similar to placebo. However, our findings in normal subjects cannot be extrapolated automatically to asthmatics. PMID:9431834

  19. Non-specific vaginitis: diagnostic features and response to imidazole therapy (metronidazole, ornidazole).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meech, R J; Loutit, J

    1985-05-22

    Detailed quantitative aerobic, anaerobic, fungal and mycoplasma flora was obtained for 43 women presenting with complaints of vaginal discharge and malodour. Clinical response was associated with eradication of the abnormal anaerobic flora, despite persistence of G vaginalis in nine (26%). Topical imidazole therapy appeared to have some advantage over oral therapy. Gram stains of vaginal swabs were found to be the most useful laboratory investigation.

  20. NONSPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE AND RESISTANCE OF Litopenaeus vannamei FED WITH NUCLEOTIDE, β-GLUCAN, AND PROTAGEN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henky Manoppo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the nonspecific immune response and resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei fed with nucleotide, β–glucan, and protagen diets. Shrimp juveniles with an average weight of 5.39±0.56 g were reared in glass aquaria at a density of 15 shrimps/aquarium. Shrimps were fed three times a day for four weeks at a feeding rate of 3%/bw/day. Treatment diets consisted of A: basal diet (without immunostimulant, B: β–glucan, C: protagen, and D: nucleotide, each with three replicates. At the end of feeding period, the shrimps were intramuscularly injected with Vibrio harveyi 0.1 x 106 cfu.shrimp-1. Total haemocyte count (THC of shrimp fed with nucleotide-diet was significantly different compared to that of control shrimp (p=0.01, but not different compared to shrimp fed with protagen-diet. PO activity also increased significantly in shrimp fed with nucleotide-diet (p=0.02. β–glucan diet could also increase THC and PO activity, but compared to the control, the increase was not significantly different. Overall, PO activity of shrimp fed with nucleotide, β–glucan, and protagen diets was high (>0.35. Oral administration of nucleotide, β–glucan, and protagen for four consecutive weeks significantly increased resistance of shrimp to disease (<0.01 where the highest resistance rate was observed on shrimp fed with nucleotide-diet. Growth of shrimp fed with nucleotide-diet was significantly different compared to that of control shrimp (p<0.01, as well as to β–glucan, and protagen-treated shrimp. As a conclusion, supplementation of nucleotide into shrimp pellet enhanced nonspecific immune response and growth performance better than β-glucan, and protagen.

  1. Non-Specific dsRNA-Mediated Antiviral Response in the Honey Bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flenniken, Michelle L.; Andino, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Honey bees are essential pollinators of numerous agricultural crops. Since 2006, honey bee populations have suffered considerable annual losses that are partially attributed to Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). CCD is an unexplained phenomenon that correlates with elevated incidence of pathogens, including RNA viruses. Honey bees are eusocial insects that live in colonies of genetically related individuals that work in concert to gather and store nutrients. Their social organization provides numerous benefits, but also facilitates pathogen transmission between individuals. To investigate honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms, we developed an RNA virus infection model and discovered that administration of dsRNA, regardless of sequence, reduced virus infection. Our results suggest that dsRNA, a viral pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP), triggers an antiviral response that controls virus infection in honey bees. PMID:24130869

  2. Effects of dietary nucleotides on growth, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zehong; Yi, Lina; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-11-01

    A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary nucleotides (NT) on growth, immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas (initial weight: 5.87 ± 0.03 g). Four graded levels of dietary NT were designed as 0, 150, 375 and 700 mg/kg, respectively. After the feeding trial, sea cucumbers were challenged with Vibrio splendidus for the determination of disease resistance. The results showed that the specific growth rates were significantly higher in sea cucumber fed the diet with 375 mg/kg NT than those fed the basal diet without NT supplementation (P sea cucumber fed diets with nucleotides (≥ 375 mg/kg) had significantly higher phagocytic activities in coelomic fluid (P 0.05). After being challenged with V. splendidus, the cumulative mortalities of sea cucumber fed diets with 150 and 375 mg/kg NT were significantly lower than that in the treatment without dietary nucleotide supplementation (P sea cucumber in vivo. In conclusion, it was showed that dietary NT does increase the growth performance, non-specific immunity and disease resistance of sea cucumber. The optimum dietary NT supplementation level for sea cucumber was found to be 375 mg/kg. The application of dietary NT may present a novel strategy for health management in sea cucumber's aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vaccination with lipid core peptides fails to induce epitope-specific T cell responses but confers non-specific protective immunity in a malaria model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon H Apte

    Full Text Available Vaccines against many pathogens for which conventional approaches have failed remain an unmet public health priority. Synthetic peptide-based vaccines offer an attractive alternative to whole protein and whole organism vaccines, particularly for complex pathogens that cause chronic infection. Previously, we have reported a promising lipid core peptide (LCP vaccine delivery system that incorporates the antigen, carrier, and adjuvant in a single molecular entity. LCP vaccines have been used to deliver several peptide subunit-based vaccine candidates and induced high titre functional antibodies and protected against Group A streptococcus in mice. Herein, we have evaluated whether LCP constructs incorporating defined CD4(+ and/or CD8(+ T cell epitopes could induce epitope-specific T cell responses and protect against pathogen challenge in a rodent malaria model. We show that LCP vaccines failed to induce an expansion of antigen-specific CD8(+ T cells following primary immunization or by boosting. We further demonstrated that the LCP vaccines induced a non-specific type 2 polarized cytokine response, rather than an epitope-specific canonical CD8(+ T cell type 1 response. Cytotoxic responses of unknown specificity were also induced. These non-specific responses were able to protect against parasite challenge. These data demonstrate that vaccination with lipid core peptides fails to induce canonical epitope-specific T cell responses, at least in our rodent model, but can nonetheless confer non-specific protective immunity against Plasmodium parasite challenge.

  4. Influenza H5N1 and H1N1 virus replication and innate immune responses in bronchial epithelial cells are influenced by the state of differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee W Y Chan

    Full Text Available Influenza H5N1 virus continues to be enzootic in poultry and transmits zoonotically to humans. Although a swine-origin H1N1 virus has emerged to become pandemic, its virulence for humans remains modest in comparison to that seen in zoonotic H5N1 disease. As human respiratory epithelium is the primary target cells for influenza viruses, elucidating the viral tropism and host innate immune responses of influenza H5N1 virus in human bronchial epithelium may help to understand the pathogenesis. Here we established primary culture of undifferentiated and well differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE cells and infected with highly pathogenic influenza H5N1 virus (A/Vietnam/3046/2004 and a seasonal influenza H1N1 virus (A/Hong Kong/54/1998, the viral replication kinetics and cytokine and chemokine responses were compared by qPCR and ELISA. We found that the in vitro culture of the well differentiated NHBE cells acquired the physiological properties of normal human bronchi tissue which express high level of alpha2-6-linked sialic acid receptors and human airway trypsin-like (HAT protease, in contrast to the low expression in the non-differentiated NHBE cells. When compared to H1N1 virus, the H5N1 virus replicated more efficiently and induced a stronger type I interferon response in the undifferentiated NHBE cells. In contrast, in well differentiated cultures, H5N1 virus replication was less efficient and elicited a lower interferon-beta response in comparison with H1N1 virus. Our data suggest that the differentiation of bronchial epithelial cells has a major influence in cells' permissiveness to human H1N1 and avian H5N1 viruses and the host innate immune responses. The reduced virus replication efficiency partially accounts for the lower interferon-beta responses in influenza H5N1 virus infected well differentiated NHBE cells. Since influenza infection in the bronchial epithelium will lead to tissue damage and associate with the

  5. Oral administration of Eclipta alba leaf aqueous extract enhances the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christybapita, D; Divyagnaneswari, M; Michael, R Dinakaran

    2007-10-01

    Immunostimulatory effects of the oral administration of the medicinal plant, Eclipta alba leaf extracts was studied in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. For this purpose, fish were fed for 1, 2 or 3 weeks with diets containing E. alba leaf aqueous extract at 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1% levels. After each week, non-specific humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease and complement) and cellular (myeloperoxidase content, production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species) responses and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila were determined. The results indicated that E. alba aqueous extract administered as feed supplement significantly enhanced most of the non-specific immune parameters tested. Among the humoral responses, lysozyme activity significantly increased after feeding with aqueous extract for 1, 2 or 3 weeks. No significant modulation was noticed in all the cellular responses tested after 3 weeks of feeding, while reactive oxygen species production and myeloperoxidase content showed significant enhancement after 1 week of feeding with aqueous extract. When challenged with A. hydrophila after 1, 2 or 3 weeks of feeding, the percentage mortality was significantly reduced in the treated fish. The highest dose of 1% gave better protection than the other doses with the relative percentage survival (RPS) values of 64, 75 and 32 after feeding for 1, 2 and 3 weeks respectively. The results indicate that dietary intake of E. alba aqueous leaf extract enhances the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of O. mossambicus against A. hydrophila.

  6. Effects of medicinal herbs "Plantago asiatica", "Houttuynia cordata" and "Mentha haplocalyx" on non-specific immune responses of cobia (Rachycentron canadum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Yin-Yu; Ueng, Pien-Sheng; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of orally administered Plantago asiatica, Houttuynia cordata, and Mentha haplocalyx on the growth and nonspecific immune responses of cobia (Rachycentron canadum). The nonspecific immune parameters assessed were weight gain, feed conversion ratio, superoxide anion (O 2 - ) production, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic rate, phagocytic index, lysozyme activity, serum albumin and globulin, and albumin:globulin (A/G) ratio. The growth experiment indicated that 6-week dietary treatments did not significantly affect on the growth of cobia. Nonspecific immune responses showed that O 2 - production, SOD and lysozyme activity, and phagocytosis were significantly increased after the oral administration of P. asiatica and H. cordata, and the serum albumin:globulin ratio (A/G) gradually decreased. In this study, treatment of the Mentha haplocalyx on the cobia didn't present with the inducing of the phagocytosis ability compared with the treatment of P. asiatica and H. cordata. We suggest that oral administration of the 10 g/kg or 20 g/kg of the P. asiatica and H. cordata is exactly inducing the phagocytosis, ROS production, lysozyme activity and SOD production in the cobia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Arabidopsis thaliana non-specific phospholipase C2 is involved in the response to Pseudomonas syringae attack

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krčková, Zuzana; Kocourková, Daniela; Daněk, Michal; Brouzdová, Jitka; Pejchar, Přemysl; Janda, Martin; Pokotylo, I.; Ott, P.G.; Valentová, O.; Martinec, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 2 (2018), s. 297-310 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/1942 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * effector-triggered immunity * flagellin * MAMP-triggered immunity * non-specific phospholipase C * phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C * Pseudomonas syringae * reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2016

  8. Imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamo, Leonor; Meuli, Reto [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Vial, Yvan [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Gengler, Carole [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Pathology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    Congenital lung malformations are increasingly detected before birth. However, bronchial atresia is rarely identified in utero and not always recognized in neonates. There are two types of atresia: (1) proximal, located at the level of the mainstem or the proximal lobar bronchi, which is extremely rare and usually lethal during pregnancy, causing a tremendous volume increase of the distal involved lung with secondary hypoplasia of the normal lung, and (2) peripheral, located at the segmental/subsegmental bronchial level, which may present as an isolated lesion or as part of a complex congenital malformation. Prenatal findings are mostly nonspecific. Postnatal exams show overinflated lung areas and focal bronchial dilations. The typical fluid-filled bronchoceles are not always observed in neonates but develop progressively in the first months of life. This pictorial essay describes the spectrum of imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants. (orig.)

  9. Local and distant recurrences in rectal cancer patients are predicted by the nonspecific immune response; specific immune response has only a systemic effect - a histopathological and immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagtegaal, Iris D; Marijnen, Corrie AM; Kranenbarg, Elma Klein; Mulder-Stapel, Adri; Hermans, Jo; Velde, Cornelis JH van de; Krieken, J Han JM van

    2001-01-01

    Invasion and metastasis is a complex process governed by the interaction of genetically altered tumor cells and the immunological and inflammatory host reponse. Specific T-cells directed against tumor cells and the nonspecific inflammatory reaction due to tissue damage, cooperate against invasive tumor cells in order to prevent recurrences. Data concerning involvement of individual cell types are readily available but little is known about the coordinate interactions between both forms of immune response. The presence of inflammatory infiltrate and eosinophils was determined in 1530 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma from a multicenter trial. We selected 160 patients to analyze this inflammatory infiltrate in more detail using immunohistochemistry. The association with the development of local and distant relapses was determined using univariate and multivariate log rank testing. Patients with an extensive inflammatory infiltrate around the tumor had lower recurrence rates (3.4% versus 6.9%, p = 0.03), showing the importance of host response against tumor cells. In particular, peritumoral mast cells prevent local and distant recurrence (44% versus 15%, p = 0.007 and 86% versus 21%, p < 0.0001, respectively), with improved survival as a consequence. The presence of intratumoral T-cells had independent prognostic value for the occurrence of distant metastases (32% versus 76%, p < 0.0001). We showed that next to properties of tumor cells, the amount and type of inflammation is also relevant in the control of rectal cancer. Knowledge of the factors involved may lead to new approaches in the management of rectal cancer

  10. Recent developments regarding periostin in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Izuhara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is currently recognized that bronchial asthma is not a single disease but a syndrome, we have not yet made use of our new understanding of this heterogeneity as we treat asthma patients. To increase the efficacy of anti-asthma drugs and to decrease costs, it is important to stratify asthma patients into subgroups and to develop therapeutic strategies for each subgroup. Periostin has recently emerged as a biomarker for bronchial asthma, unique in that it is useful not in diagnosis but in categorizing asthma patients. We first found that periostin is a novel component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma downstream of IL-13 signals. Thereafter, it was shown that periostin can be a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses, the basis of the notion that a detection system of serum periostin is potentially a companion diagnostic for type 2 antagonists. Furthermore, we have recently shown that serum periostin can predict resistance or hyporesponsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids, based on its contribution to tissue remodeling or fibrosis in bronchial asthma. Thus, serum periostin has two characteristics as a biomarker for bronchial asthma: it is both a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses and a biomarker reflecting tissue remodeling or fibrosis. We can take advantage of these characteristics to develop stratified medicine in bronchial asthma.

  11. Enhancement of non-specific immune response, resistance and growth of (Litopenaeus vannamei by oral administration of nucleotide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henky Manoppo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the nonspecific immune responsse, resistance, and growth of Litopenaeus vannamei fed nucleotide diet. Shrimp juveniles (mean weight 5.39±0.56 g were reared in two groups of glass aquaria, each with three replications. Shrimps in group one and group two were fed nucleotide diet and basal diet each for four weeks. Total haemocyte count (THC and PO activity were evaluated at the end of feeding while growth was measured at two weeks interval. At the end of feeding trial, the shrimps were intramuscularly injected with Vibrio harveyi 0.1x106 cfu.shrimp-1. THC of shrimp fed nucleotide diet significantly increased (P-1 diet showed positive effect on the enhancement of nonspecific immune responsse, resistance, and growth of L. vannamei.  Key words: Litopenaeus vannamei, nucleotide, THC, PO activity, resistance   ABSTRAK Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi respons imun non-spesifik dan resistensi udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei yang diberi pakan nukleotida.  Juvenil (5,39±0,56 g dipelihara dalam dua kelompok akuarium kaca masing-masing dengan 3 ulangan.  Udang dalam dalam kelompok pertama diberi pakan nukleotida sedangkan udang dalam kelompok kedua diberi pakan standar selama 4 minggu. Total haemocyte count (THC dan aktivitas phenoloxidase (PO diukur pada akhir pemberian pakan sedangkan pertumbuhan udang diukur setiap dua minggu. Pada akhir periode pemberian pakan perlakuan, udang diuji tantang secara injeksi intramuskular dengan bakteri Vibrio harveyi 0,1x106 cfu.udang-1. THC udang yang diberi pakan nukleotida meningkat secara signifikan (P-1 pakan selama 4 minggu memberi pengaruh positif terhadap peningkatan respons imun non-spesifik, resistensi dan pertumbuhan udang vaname. Kata kunci: Litopenaeus vannamei, nukleotida, THC, aktivitas PO, resistensi

  12. [Anesthesia in bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremerich, D H

    2000-09-01

    Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory airway disease in response to a wide variety of provoking stimuli. Characteristic clinical symptoms of asthma are bronchial hyperreactivity, reversible airway obstruction, wheezing and dyspnea. Asthma presents a major public health problem with increasing prevalence rates and severity worldwide. Despite major advances in our understanding of the clinical management of asthmatic patients, it remains a challenging population for anesthesiologists in clinical practice. The anesthesiologist's responsibility starts with the preoperative assessment and evaluation of the pulmonary function. For patients with asthma who currently have no symptoms, the risk of perioperative respiratory complications is extremely low. Therefore, pulmonary function should be optimized preoperatively and airway obstruction should be controlled by using steroids and bronchodilators. Preoperative spirometry is a simple means of assessing presence and severity of airway obstruction as well as the degree of reversibility in response to bronchodilator therapy. An increase of 15% in FEV1 is considered clinically significant. Most asymptomatic persons with asthma can safely undergo general anesthesia with and without endotracheal intubation. Volatile anesthetics are still recommended for general anesthetic techniques. As compared to barbiturates and even ketamine, propofol is considered to be the agent of choice for induction of anesthesia in asthmatics. The use of regional anesthesia does not reduce perioperative respiratory complications in asymptomatic asthmatics, whereas it is advantageous in symptomatic patients. Pregnant asthmatic and parturients undergoing anesthesia are at increased risk, especially if regional anesthetic techniques are not suitable and prostaglandin and its derivates are administered for abortion or operative delivery. Bronchial hyperreactivity associated with asthma is an important risk factor of perioperative bronchospasm. The

  13. The therapeutic evaluation and mechanism on treating bronchial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the level of bronchial responsiveness, which proved a better curative effect of Chinese medicine. The mechanism is probably due to relieving the airway inflammation by keeping the balance between Th1 and Th2 cells. Keywords: Ziyinqingre prescription; cough; bronchial hyper-responsiveness; therapeutic mechanism ...

  14. Effect of dietary carbohydrate on non-specific immune response, hepatic antioxidative abilities and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanpeng; Ge, Xianping; Lin, Heizhao; Niu, Jin

    2014-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) levels on non-specific immune responses, hepatic antioxidative status and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano. Fish were fed six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing various CHO levels for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Vibrio harveyi and survival rate was recorded for the next 12 days. Plasma total protein and albumin content, respiratory burst activity, alkaline phosphatase, slightly increased with dietary starch level from 0% to 16.8%, but significantly decreased at dietary starch levels of 16.8%-28%. Plasma lysozyme, complement 3 and complement 4 levels increased with increasing dietary carbohydrate up to 11.2% and then declined (P 0.05) with those of the other treatments. After challenge, fish fed 11.2% and 16.8% dietary CHO showed higher survival rate than that of fish in 0% CHO group (P 0.05). The results of this study suggest that ingestion of 11.2-16.8% dietary CHO can enhance the non-specific immune responses, increase the hepatic antioxidant abilities, and improve resistance to V. harveyi infection of juvenile golden pompano. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Down-regulation of FcεRI-mediated CD63 basophil response during short-term VIT determined venom-nonspecific desensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Čelesnik Smodiš

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We recently showed a desensitization of FcεRI-mediated basophil response after short-term VIT. Our aim was to evaluate the allergen specificity of this desensitization. METHODS: In 11 Hymenoptera-venom double positive subjects, basophil threshold sensitivity (CD-sens to anti-FcεRI, honeybee, and Vespula venom was assessed at the beginning and just before the first maintenance dose (MD of single ultra-rush VIT. In some patients we also monitored CD-sens to rApi m 1 and/or rVes v 5 or other co-sensitizations (i.e., grass pollen. In additional 7 patients, basophils were stripped and sensitized with house dust mite (HDM IgEs at the same time points. RESULTS: We demonstrated a marked reduction of CD-sens to anti-FcεRI and VIT-specific venom before the first MD in all 18 subjects included. Furthermore, in 10 out of 11 double positive subjects, a significant and comparable decrease before the first MD was also evident for non-VIT venom; this nonspecific decrease was further supported by the opposite recombinant species-specific major allergen. In one subject with additional grass pollen allergy, a decrease of CD-sens to grass allergen was also demonstrated. Similarly, in 7 cases of patients with passively HDM-sensitized basophils, a significant reduction of CD-sens was also evident to de novo sensitized HDM allergen. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term VIT induced basophil desensitization to VIT-specific as well as to VIT-nonspecific venom. As opposed to long-term VIT, which induces venom-specific changes, the effect of short-term VIT seems to be venom-nonspecific.

  16. Clinical, radiographic, and bronchial cytologic features of cats with bronchial disease: 65 cases (1980-1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moise, N.S.; Wiedenkeller, D.; Yeager, A.E.; Blue, J.T.; Scarlett, J.

    1989-01-01

    Medical records, radiographs, and bronchial cytologic abnormalities of 65 cats with bronchial disease were reviewed. Bronchial disease was defined as abnormality of the lower airways to the exclusion of disease originating or mainly involving the alveoli, interstitium, vasculature, or pleura. Cats with bronchial disease were more likely to be female and older. Siamese cats were over represented and had more chronic disease. In order of frequency, the following clinical signs were reported: coughing, dyspnea, occasional sneezing, wheezing, and vomiting. Radiography revealed prominent bronchial markings, with some cats having collapse of the middle lobe of the right lung (n = 7), overinflation of the lungs (n = 9), or aerophagia (n = 13). Of 65 bronchial washes, 58 were considered exudative, with the predominant cell type being eosinophil in 24%, neutrophil in 33%, macrophage in 22%, and mixed population of cells in 21%. Cultures for bacteria were considered positive in 24% of the cats. Circulating eosinophilia was not helpful in predicting the predominant cell type in bronchial cytologic exudates. Hyperproteinemia without dehydration was present in a third of the cats, indicating an immunologic response. Half the cats had resolution of clinical signs, whereas half the cats required continuing medication with bronchodilators, antimicrobial agents, or corticosteroids

  17. Effect of Excoecaria agallocha on non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of Oreochromis niloticus against Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laith, A A; Mazlan, A G; Effendy, A W; Ambak, M A; Nurhafizah, W W I; Alia, A S; Jabar, A; Najiah, M

    2017-06-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of Excoecaria agallocha leaf extracts on immune mechanisms and resistance of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, after challenge with Streptococcus agalactiae. Fish were divided into 6 groups; groups 1-5 fed with E. agallocha leaf extracts at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50mgkg -1 level, respectively. Group 6 were fed without extract addition and acted as control. E. agallocha extracts were administered as feed supplement in fish diet for 28days and the hematological, immunological, and growth performance studies were conducted. Fish were infected with S. agalactiae at a dose of 15×105CFUmL -1 and the total white blood cell (WBC), phagocytosis and respiratory burst activities of leukocytes, serum bactericidal activity, lysozyme, total protein, albumin, and globulin levels were monitored and mortalities recorded for 15days post infection. Results revealed that feeding O. niloticus with 50mgkg -1 of E. agallocha enhanced WBC, phagocytic, respiratory burst, serum bactericidal and lysozyme activities on day 28 pre-challenge and on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th and 15th day post-challenge as compared to control. Total protein and albumin were not enhanced by E. agallocha diet. E. agallocha increased the survival of fish after challenge with S. agalactiae. The highest mortality rate (97%) was observed in control fish and the lowest mortality (27%) was observed with group fed with 50mgkg -1 extract. The results indicate that dietary intake of E. agallocha methanolic leaf extract in O. niloticus enhances the non-specific immunity and disease resistance against S. agalactiae pathogen. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Cyclic mechanical stretch down-regulates cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide expression and activates a pro-inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpa Karadottir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation (MV of patients can cause damage to bronchoalveolar epithelium, leading to a sterile inflammatory response, infection and in severe cases sepsis. Limited knowledge is available on the effects of MV on the innate immune defense system in the human lung. In this study, we demonstrate that cyclic stretch of the human bronchial epithelial cell lines VA10 and BCi NS 1.1 leads to down-regulation of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP gene expression. We show that treatment of VA10 cells with vitamin D3 and/or 4-phenyl butyric acid counteracted cyclic stretch mediated down-regulation of CAMP mRNA and protein expression (LL-37. Further, we observed an increase in pro-inflammatory responses in the VA10 cell line subjected to cyclic stretch. The mRNA expression of the genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1β was increased after cyclic stretching, where as a decrease in gene expression of chemokines IP-10 and RANTES was observed. Cyclic stretch enhanced oxidative stress in the VA10 cells. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor (TLR 3, TLR5 and TLR8 was reduced, while the gene expression of TLR2 was increased in VA10 cells after cyclic stretch. In conclusion, our in vitro results indicate that cyclic stretch may differentially modulate innate immunity by down-regulation of antimicrobial peptide expression and increase in pro-inflammatory responses.

  19. Effect of diesel exhaust generated by a city bus engine on stress responses and innate immunity in primary bronchial epithelial cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, M C; Duistermaat, E; Alblas, M J; van Schadewijk, A; Ninaber, D K; Clarijs, V; Moerman, M M; Vaessen, D; Hiemstra, P S; Kooter, I M

    2018-04-01

    Harmful effects of diesel emissions can be investigated via exposures of human epithelial cells, but most of previous studies have largely focused on the use of diesel particles or emission sources that are poorly representative of engines used in current traffic. We studied the cellular response of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) at the air-liquid interface (ALI) to the exposure to whole diesel exhaust (DE) generated by a Euro V bus engine, followed by treatment with UV-inactivated non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) bacteria to mimic microbial exposure. The effect of prolonged exposures was investigated, as well as the difference in the responses of cells from COPD and control donors and the effect of emissions generated during a cold start. HMOX1 and NQO1 expression was transiently induced after DE exposure. DE inhibited the NTHi-induced expression of human beta-defensin-2 (DEFB4A) and of the chaperone HSPA5/BiP. In contrast, expression of the stress-induced PPP1R15A/GADD34 and the chemokine CXCL8 was increased in cells exposed to DE and NTHi. HMOX1 induction was significant in both COPD and controls, while inhibition of DEFB4A expression by DE was significant only in COPD cells. No significant differences were observed when comparing cellular responses to cold engine start and prewarmed engine emissions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. DNA damage and DNA damage response in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells following exposure to 2-nitrobenzanthrone and 3-nitrobenzanthrone: role in apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Elisabeth; Ovrevik, Johan; Arlt, Volker M; Nagy, Eszter; Phillips, David H; Holme, Jørn A

    2011-11-01

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are mutagenic and carcinogenic environmental pollutants found in diesel exhaust and on urban air pollution particles. In the present study, human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA). DNA damage responses were compared to those observed after exposure to 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Examination by microscopy revealed that 3-NBA was the most potent toxic compound while weaker responses were observed with 1-NP and B[a]P. Most interestingly, 2-NBA did not induce cell death or any other stress-related responses. 3-NBA induced a typical apoptotic cell death judged by nuclear condensation and little plasma membrane damage as well as cleavage of caspase 3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Exposure to 3-NBA resulted in an accumulation of cells in S-phase, and further analysis by Western blotting, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry revealed that 3-NBA induced a DNA damage response characterized by phosphorylation of ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated), checkpoint kinase (Chk) 2/Chk1, H2AX and p53. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α inhibited 3-NBA-induced apoptosis while small effects were seen using pifithrin-μ, suggesting that 3-NBA-induced cell death is a result of transcriptional activation of p53. In conclusion, 3-NBA is a potent inducer of apoptosis, which seemed to be triggered by the DNA damage response. Furthermore, a change of the nitro-group to the second position (i.e. 2-NBA) dramatically changed the cellular reactivity of the compound.

  1. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Cyphostemma glaucophilla Leaves on Some Specific and Non-specific Immune Responses in Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ojogbane Eleojo; Omale James; Nwodo Okwesili Fred Chiletugo

    2013-01-01

    Cyphostemma glaucophilla is used in the management of kwashiorkor, because impaired immune responses is associated with malnourishment the modulatory activity of aqueous leaves extract of Cyphostemma glaucophilla on primary and secondary humuoral responses, in vivo leucocyte mobilization, Delayed Type Hypersensitive Reaction (DTHR), haemoglobin, packed cell volume and white blood cell count were evaluated. The extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg stimulated significant (p&ang 0.05) dose dependent inc...

  2. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness and anti-asthmatic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, Jan

    1990-01-01

    Many asthmatic patients experience shortness of breath or wheezing, when exposed to cold air, or irritants like baking fumes, exhaust gases or cigarette smoke. This clinical phenomenon has been called bronchial hypemsponsiveness (BHR), which is defined as an exaggerated broncho-obstructive response

  3. BRONCHIAL ASTHMA SUPERVISION AMONG TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Nenasheva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the results of the act test based bronchial asthma supervision evaluation among teenagers and defines the interrelation of the objective and subjective asthma supervision parameters. The researchers examined 214 male teenagers aged from 16 to 18, suffering from the bronchial asthma, who were sent to the allergy department to verify the diagnosis. Bronchial asthma supervision evaluation was assisted by the act test. The research has showed that over a half (56% of teenagers, suffering from mild bronchial asthma, mention its un control course, do not receive any adequate pharmacotherapy and are consequently a risk group in terms of the bronchial asthma exacerbation. Act test results correlate with the functional indices (fev1, as well as with the degree of the bronchial hyperresponsiveness, which is one of the markers of an allergic inflammation in the lower respiratory passages.Key words: bronchial asthma supervision, act test, teenagers.

  4. Effects of l-tryptophan on the growth, intestinal enzyme activities and non-specific immune response of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) exposed to crowding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Endong; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng

    2018-04-01

    In order to reveal the effects of l-tryptophan (Trp) on the physiology and immune response of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) exposed to crowding stress, four density groups of sea cucumbers (i.e. 4, 8, 16 and 32 individuals per 40 L water, represented as L, ML, MH and H) were fed with diets containing 0, 1, 3 and 5% l-tryptophan respectively for 75 days. The results showed that the specific growth rates (SGR) of the sea cucumber fed with diet with 3% Trp (L, 2.1; ML, 1.76; MH, 1.2; H, 0.7) were significantly higher than those fed with basal diet without Trp supplementation (P sea cucumber fed diets with Trp (3%) had significantly higher phagocytic activities (0.28 OD540/10 6  cells, H) in coelomic fluid and respiratory burst activities (0.105 OD630/10 6  cells, MH) (P < .05). The results suggested that Trp cannot improve superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity at L, ML and MH densities. The alkaline phosphatase activity (AKP) significantly decreased at H stress density. Under the experimental conditions, the present results confirmed that a diet supplemented with 3% Trp was able to enhance intestinal enzyme activities, non-specific immune response and higher growth performance of A. japonicus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation of growth, intestinal microbiota, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) in biofloc systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinghua; Ren, Yichao; Li, Yuquan; Xia, Bin

    2018-06-01

    Bioflocs are not only a source of supplemental nutrition but also provide substantial probiotic bacteria and bioactive compounds, which play an important role in improving physiological health of aquatic organisms. A 60-day experiment was conducted to investigate the growth, intestinal microbiota, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber in biofloc systems with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose and starch). Control (no biofloc) and three biofloc systems were set up, and each group has three replicates. The results showed that biofloc volume (BFV) and total suspended solids (TSS) increased in the sequences of glucose > sucrose > starch and green sea cucumber > white sea cucumber during the experiment. The highest specific growth rates (SGRs) were observed in biofloc system with glucose as carbon source, which also had relatively lower glucose, lactate and cortisol levels in coelomic fluid and higher glycogen content in muscle compared to other groups. There were significant increased Bacillus and Lactobacillus counts of sea cucumber intestine in biofloc systems, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) also showed obvious ascending trends. Significant increases in total coelomocytes counts (TCC), phagocytosis, respiratory burst, complement C3 content and lysozyme (LSZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities of sea cucumber were all found in biofloc system (glucose). The expression patterns of most immune-related genes (i.e. Hsp90, Hsp70, c-type lectin (CL), toll-like receptor (TLR)) were up-regulated, suggesting the promotion of pathogen recognition ability and immune signaling pathways activation by biofloc. Furthermore, green and white sea cucumber had significantly higher survival rates in biofloc systems during the 14-day challenge test. In conclusion, biofloc technology could improve growth and physiological health of A. japonicus, by optimizing intestinal

  6. Feeding rates affect stress and non-specific immune responses of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala subjected to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Fei; Xu, Chao; Tian, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding rates on stress response, innate immunity and hypoxia resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish were randomly assigned to one of six feeding rates (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7% of body weight/day) for 60 days. Then, fish were subjected to hypoxic conditions and haemato-immunological parameters were analyzed pre- and post-challenge. Low feed ration resulted in decreased liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduced glutathione contents. Inadequate feeding also adversely affected the immune functions of fish, as was characterized by the relatively low haemato-immunological parameters (including alternative complement (ACH50), myeloperoxidase (MPO), plasma protein profiles and transferring) and high hypoxia-induced mortality. High feed ration did not lead to the improvement in antioxidant capability, immune responses and survival. In addition, plasma cortisol, glucose and transferrin levels as well as lysozyme activities all increased significantly after hypoxia challenge, whereas the opposite was true for plasma ACH50 and MPO activities as well as protein profiles in terms of hypoxia challenge. An interaction between feeding rate and hypoxia was also observed in plasma cortisol, glucose and protein profiles. In conclusion, a feeding rate of 4-5% of body weight/day is optimal to boost the innate immunity of juvenile blunt snout bream. Low ration resulted in decreased antioxidant capability, compromised immune functions and reduced hypoxia resistance, while over feeding did not benefit the health status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DNA repair in human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Lechner, J.F.; Grafstrom, R.C.; Harris, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the response of human cell types (bronchial epithelial cells and fibroblasts and skin fibroblasts) to various DNA damaging agents. Repair of DNA single strand breaks (SSB) induced by 5 krads of X-ray was similar for all cell types; approximately 90% of the DNA SSB were rejoined within one hour. During excision repair of DNA damage from u.v.-radiation, the frequencies of DNA SSB as estimated by the alkaline elution technique, were similar in all cell types. Repair replication as measured by BND cellulose chromatography was also similar in epithelial and fibroblastic cells after u.v.-irradiation. Similar levels of SSB were also observed in epithelial and fibroblastic cells after exposure to chemical carcinogens: 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene; benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE); or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Significant repair replication of BPDE-induced DNA damage was detected in both bronchial epithelial and fibroblastic cells, although the level in fibroblasts was approximately 40% of that in epithelial cells. The pulmonary carcinogen asbestos did not damage DNA. DNA-protein crosslinks induced by formaldehyde were rapidly removed in bronchial cells. Further, epithelial and fibroblastic cells, which were incubated with formaldehyde and the polymerase inhibitor combination of cytosine arabinoside and hydroxyurea, accumulated DNA SSB at approximately equal frequencies. These results should provide a useful background for further investigations of the response of human bronchial cells to various DNA damaging agents

  8. Diesel exhaust alters the response of cultured primary bronchial epithelial cells from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, Maria C; van Schadewijk, Annemarie; Duistermaat, Evert; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Kooter, Ingeborg M

    2017-01-28

    Exacerbations constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Both bacterial infections, such as those with non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and exposures to diesel engine emissions are known to contribute to exacerbations in COPD patients. However, the effect of diesel exhaust (DE) exposure on the epithelial response to microbial stimulation is incompletely understood, and possible differences in the response to DE of epithelial cells from COPD patients and controls have not been studied. Primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) were obtained from age-matched COPD patients (n = 7) and controls (n = 5). PBEC were cultured at the air-liquid interface (ALI) to achieve mucociliary differentiation. ALI-PBECs were apically exposed for 1 h to a stream of freshly generated whole DE or air. Exposure was followed by 3 h incubation in presence or absence of UV-inactivated NTHi before analysis of epithelial gene expression. DE alone induced an increase in markers of oxidative stress (HMOX1, 50-100-fold) and of the integrated stress response (CHOP, 1.5-2-fold and GADD34, 1.5-fold) in cells from both COPD patients and controls. Exposure of COPD cultures to DE followed by NTHi caused an additive increase in GADD34 expression (up to 3-fold). Importantly, DE caused an inhibition of the NTHi-induced expression of the antimicrobial peptide S100A7, and of the chaperone protein HSP5A/BiP. Our findings show that DE exposure of differentiated primary airway epithelial cells causes activation of the gene expression of HMOX1 and markers of integrated stress response to a similar extent in cells from COPD donors and controls. Furthermore, DE further increased the NTHi-induced expression of GADD34, indicating a possible enhancement of the integrated stress response. DE reduced the NTHi-induced expression of S100A7. These data suggest that DE exposure may cause adverse health effects in part by

  9. Zymosan-induced immune challenge modifies the stress response of hypoxic air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus Bloch): Evidence for reversed patterns of cortisol and thyroid hormone interaction, differential ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simi, S; Peter, Valsa S; Peter, M C Subhash

    2017-09-15

    Fishes have evolved physiological mechanisms to exhibit stress response, where hormonal signals interact with an array of ion transporters and regulate homeostasis. As major ion transport regulators in fish, cortisol and thyroid hormones have been shown to interact and fine-tune the stress response. Likewise, in fishes many interactions have been identified between stress and immune components, but the physiological basis of such interaction has not yet delineated particularly in air-breathing fish. We, therefore, investigated the responses of thyroid hormones and cortisol, ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response of an obligate air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch to zymosan treatment or hypoxia stress or both, to understand how immune challenge modifies the pattern of stress response in this fish. Induction of experimental peritonitis in these fish by zymosan treatment (200ngg -1 ) for 24h produced rise in respiratory burst and lysozomal activities in head kidney phagocytes. In contrast, hypoxia stress for 30min in immune-challenged fish reversed these non-specific responses of head kidney phagocytes. The decline in plasma cortisol in zymosan-treated fish and its further suppression by hypoxia stress indicate that immune challenge suppresses the cortisol-driven stress response of this fish. Likewise, the decline in plasma T 3 and T 4 after zymosan-treatment and the rise in plasma T 4 after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish indicate a critical role for thyroid hormone in immune-stress response due to its differential sensitivity to both immune and stress challenges. Further, analysis of the activity pattern of ion-dependent ATPases viz. Na + /K + -ATPase, H + /K + -ATPase and Na + /NH 4 + -ATPase indicates a functional interaction of ion transport system with the immune response as evident in its differential and spatial modifications after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish. The immune-challenge that produced differential

  10. Bronchial Thermoplasty in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Mitzner

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we discuss the potential of a new procedure, termed Bronchial Thermoplasty to prevent serious consequences resulting from excessive airway narrowing. The most important factor in minimizing an asthmatic attack is limiting the degree of smooth muscle shortening. The premise that airway smooth muscle can be either inactivated or obliterated without any long-term alteration of other lung tissues, and that airway function will remain normal, albeit with reduced bronchoconstriction, has now been demonstrated in dogs, a subset of normal subjects, and mild asthmatics. Bronchial Thermoplasty may thus develop into a useful clinical procedure to effectively impair the ability for airway smooth muscle to reach the levels of pathologic narrowing that characterizes an asthma attack. It may also enable more successful treatment of asthma patients who are unresponsive to more conventional therapies. Whether this will remain stable for the lifetime of the patient still remains to be determined, but at the present time, there are no indications that the smooth muscle contractility will return. This successful preliminary experience showing that Bronchial Thermoplasty could be safely performed in patients with asthma has led to an ongoing clinical trial at a number of sites in Europe and North America designed to examine the effectiveness of this procedure in subjects with moderately severe asthma.

  11. Updating radon daughter bronchial dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Cohen, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    It is of value to update radon daughter bronchial dosimetry as new information becomes available. Measurements have now been performed using hollow casts of the human bronchial tree with a larynx to determine convective or turbulent deposition in the upper airways. These measurements allow a more realistic calculation of bronchial deposition by diffusion. Particle diameters of 0.15 and 0.2 μm were used which correspond to the activity median diameters for radon daughters in both environmental and mining atmospheres. The total model incorporates Yeh/Schum bronchial morphometry, deposition of unattached and attached radon daughters, build up and decay of the daughters and mucociliary clearance. The alpha dose to target cells in the bronchial epithelium is calculated for the updated model and compared with previous calculations of bronchial dose

  12. A single low dose of Fe ions can cause long-term biological responses in NL20 human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qianlin; Wang, Jingdong; Cao, Jianping; Yang, Hongying [Medical College of Soochow University/Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Wei [Soochow University, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China)

    2018-03-15

    Space radiation cancer risk may be a potential obstacle for long-duration spaceflight. Among all types of cancer space radiation may induce, lung cancer has been estimated to be the largest potential risk. Although previous animal study has shown that Fe ions, the most important contributor to the total dose equivalent of space radiation, induced a higher incidence of lung tumorigenesis per dose than X-rays, the underlying mechanisms at cellular level remained unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated long-term biological changes in NL20 human bronchial epithelial cells after exposure to Fe ion or X-ray irradiation. We found that compared with sham control, the progeny of NL20 cells irradiated with 0.1 Gy of Fe ions showed slightly increased micronucleus formation, significantly decreased cell proliferation, disturbed cell cycle distribution, and obviously elevated intracellular ROS levels accompanied by reduced SOD1 and SOD2 expression, but the progeny of NL20 cells irradiated with 0.9 Gy of X-rays did not show any significant changes. More importantly, Fe ion exposure caused much greater soft-agar colony formation than X-rays did in the progeny of irradiated NL20 cells, clearly suggesting higher cell transformation potential of Fe ions compared with X-rays. These data may shed the light on the potential lung tumorigenesis risk from Fe ion exposure. In addition, ATM inhibition by Ku55933 reversed some of the changes in the progeny of Fe ion-irradiated cells but not others such as soft-agar colony formation, suggesting complex processes from DNA damage to carcinogenesis. These data indicate that even a single low dose of Fe ions can induce long-term biological responses such as cell transformation, etc., suggesting unignorable health risk from space radiation to astronauts. (orig.)

  13. Identification of PM{sub 10} characteristics involved in cellular responses in human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas-2B)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Den Heuvel, Rosette, E-mail: rosette.vandenheuvel@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Den Hond, Elly, E-mail: elly.denhond@wiv-isp.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Govarts, Eva, E-mail: eva.govarts@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Colles, Ann, E-mail: ann.colles@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Koppen, Gudrun, E-mail: gudrun.koppen@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Staelens, Jeroen, E-mail: j.staelens@vmm.be [Flanders Environment Agency (VMM), Unit Air, Kronenburgstraat 45, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Mampaey, Maja, E-mail: maja.mampaey@lne.vlaanderen.be [LNE (Environment, Nature and Energy Department), Flemish Government, Koning Albert II-laan 20, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Janssen, Nicole, E-mail: nicole.janssen@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box, 2720 BA, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Schoeters, Greet, E-mail: greet.schoeters@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Department of Biomedical Sciences, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2016-08-15

    single and multiple regression analyses. The reduction in cell viability was significantly correlated with BC, Cd and Pb. The induction of IL-8 in Beas-2B cells was significantly associated with Cu, Ni and Zn and endotoxin. Endotoxin levels explained 33% of the variance in IL-8 induction. A significant interaction between ambient temperature and endotoxin on the pro-inflammatory activity was seen. No association was found between OP and the cellular responses. This study supports the hypothesis that, on an equal mass basis, PM{sub 10} induced biological effects differ due to differences in PM{sub 10} characteristics. Metals (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn), BC, and endotoxin were among the main determinants for the observed biological responses. - Highlights: • On an equal mass basis, PM{sub 10} sampled at an urban, rural and industrial site induced different cellular effects in Beas-2B. • Endotoxin levels and oxidative potential (OP) were analysed in the PM{sub 10} samples. • Black carbon, cadmium and lead were correlated with decreased cell viability. • Endotoxin levels explained the majority of the variance in il-8 induction. • Oxidatively damaged DNA was observed in all the samples.

  14. Superselective bronchial artery chemoembolization in the treatment of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Jianping; He Xu; Chen Liang; Su Haobo; Lou Wensheng; Fan Chunying

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the safety and the effect of superselective bronchial artery chemoembolization in the treatment of lung cancer. Methods: Three hundred and twenty-nine cases of lung cancer diagnosed by pathology and treated with simply bronchial artery infusion or superselective bronchial artery chemoembolization were investigated. (1) Simply bronchial artery infusion (n=221): 40-60 mg Cisplatin or 200-300 mg Carboplatin combined with 10-20 mg Mitomycin-C or 100-200 mg Etoposide were infused through the catheter which was placed in the bronchial artery trunk or intercostal-bronchial artery trunk after angiography, re-infusion was performed at 2-4 weeks intervals, 549 times of infusion were performed in 221 cases. (2) Superselective bronchial artery chemoembolization (n=108): microcatheter was superselectively inserted into the distal of feeding artery guided with road-map after selective angiography, then anticarcinogen (same as simply bronchial artery infusion) and embolic material were infused through microcatheter. 30-50 Gelfoam particles and/or 3-8 ml Lipiodol was used as embolic material. Chemoembolization was reperformed at 6-9 weeks intervals, 266 times of chemoembolization were done in 108 cases. Results: No severe complications such as spinal injury were found. 28 cases in 221 cases performed with simply bronchial infusion got complete response (CR), meanwhile, partial response (PR) in 79 cases, stable(S) in 88 cases, and processes (P) in 26 cases. The effective rate (CR + PR) was 48.4%, survival rate of 1 year and 2 years were 53.8% and 44.8%, respectively. In the 108 cases performed with superselective bronchial artery chemoembolization, there were 16 cases of CR, 53 cases of PR, 32 cases of S, and 7 cases of P. The effective rate (CR + PR) was 63.9%, survival rate of 1 year and 2 years were 77.8% and 65.7%, respectively. There were significant statistic differences in the effective rate and survival rate of 1 year and 2 years between the two

  15. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  16. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  17. Nonspecific effects of neonatal and infant vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Kollmann, Tobias R; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines can have nonspecific effects through their modulation of responses to infections not specifically targeted by the vaccine. However, lack of knowledge about the underlying immunological mechanisms and molecular cause-and-effect relationships prevent use of this potentially powerful early-...

  18. Reflexology and bronchial asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, T; Heinig, J H; Collins, P

    2001-01-01

    Many asthma patients seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology, whereby finger pressure is applied to certain parts of the body. The aim of the study was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. Ten weeks of active...... or simulated (placebo) reflexology given by an experienced reflexologist, were compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 20+20 outpatients with asthma. Objective lung function tests (peak flow morning and evening, and weekly spirometry at the clinic) did not change. Subjective scores (describing...... diaries was carried out. It was accompanied by a significant pattern compatible with subconscious unblinding, in that patients tended to guess which treatment they had been receiving. No evidence was found that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond placebo influence....

  19. Non-specific immunization against babesiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, F.E.G.

    1980-01-01

    The rodent babesias, Babesia rodhaini and the less virulent B. microti, are useful models with which to study immunity to and immunization against babesiosis. In contrast with the difficulty in inducing specific immunity to these parasites it is comparatively easy to induce non-specific immunity by prior exposure to related and unrelated intra-erythrocytic protozoa, micro-organisms such as Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) and Corynebacterium parvum, microbial extracts and muramyl dipeptide. This non-specific immunity is long lasting and extremely effective. It is characterized by the facts that (a) it occurs early in the infection at the height of the first peak of parasitaemia, and (b) it involves the intra-erythrocytic death of the parasites. After the primary parasitaemia has resolved, some parasites continue to persist at a low level and when introduced into clean mice produce only low-level 'attenuated' infections in these. Non-specific immunity is not equally effective in all strains of mice. It is suggested that immunity to babesiosis, and infections caused by other intra-erythrocytic protozoa, involves two mechanisms, the first non-specific and the second specific. The actual balance between these two mechanisms varies from parasite to parasite and from host to host. An effective vaccine would have to be based on an understanding of the roles of non-specific immunity in the actual disease under consideration, and would ideally combine an adjuvant that would also stimulate non-specific immunity and an attenuated strain of parasite that would induce a specific response. (author)

  20. Bronchial arterial infusion versus bronchial combined pulmonary arterial infusion for pulmonary metastatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Sheng; Dong Weihua; Jia Ningyang; Zhang Dianbo; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pulmonary metastatic tumor response to different ways of transcatheter arterial infusion. Methods: Thirty-five patients with pulmonary metastatic tumors were randomized divided into two groups: 15 patients with 49 lesions treated with bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) and 20 patients with 65 lesions treated with bronchial arterial infusion (BM)combined with pulmonary arterial infusion (PAI). The therapeutic response was assessed by the WHO evaluation criteria. Results: The total effective rate(CR + PR) of BAI was 65.3% (32/49), PAI + BAI was 61.5%(40/65) showing no statistical difference. The median survival time of BAI was 9 mo, BAI + PAI was 11.5 mo, demonstrating no statistical significance. Conclusions: BAI should be the primary treatment for pulmonary metastatic tumor. (authors)

  1. Bronchial dosimeter for radon progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, T.K.; Yu, K.N.; Nikezic, D.; Haque, A.K.M.M. [City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Vucic, D. [Faculty of Technology, University of Nis, Lescovac (Yugoslavia)

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally, assessments of the bronchial dose from radon progeny were carried out by measuring the unattached fraction (f{sub p}) of potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), the total PAEC, activity median diameters (AMDs) and equilibrium factor, and then using dosimetric lung models. A breakthrough was proposed by Hopke et al. (1990) to use multiple metal wire screens to mimic the deposition properties of radon progeny in the nasal (N) and tracheobronchial (T-B) regions directly. In particular, they were successful in using four layers of 400-mesh wire screens with a face velocity of 12 cm s{sup -1} for the simulation of radon progeny deposition in the T-B region. Oberstedt and Vanmarcke (1995) carried out precise calibrations for the system, and named the system as the 'bronchial dosimeter'. Based on these, Yu and Guan (1998) proposed a portable bronchial dosimeter similar to a normal measurement system for radon progeny or PAEC and consisted of only a single sampler and employed only one 400-mesh wire screen and one filter. However, all these 'bronchial dosimeters' in fact only determined the fraction of potential alpha energy from radon progeny deposited in the T-B region, which required certain assumptions and calculations to further give the final bronchial dose. In the present work, a true 'bronchial dosimeter' was designed, which consisted of three 400-mesh wire screens and a filter. With a face velocity of 11 cm s{sup -1}, the deposition pattern on the wire screens was found to satisfactorily match the variation of the dose conversion factor (in the unit of mSv/WLM) with the size of radon progeny from 1 to 1000 nm. In this way, this bronchial dosimeter directly gave the bronchial dose from the alpha counts recorded on the wire-screens and the filter paper. With the development of this bronchial dosimeter, the present practice of 'dose estimation' from large-scale radon surveys can be replaced by large

  2. Cadmium, cobalt and lead cause stress response, cell cycle deregulation and increased steroid as well as xenobiotic metabolism in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells which is coordinated by at least nine transcription factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glahn, Felix; Wiese, Jan; Foth, Heidi [Martin-Luther-University, Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Halle/Saale (Germany); Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Guthke, Reinhard [Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans Knoell Institute, Jena (Germany); Zellmer, Sebastian; Gebhardt, Rolf [University of Leipzig, Institute of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, Leipzig (Germany); Golka, Klaus; Degen, Gisela H.; Hermes, Matthias; Schormann, Wiebke; Brulport, Marc; Bauer, Alexander; Bedawy, Essam [IfADo, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund (Germany); Hergenroeder, Roland [ISAS, Institute for Analytical Sciences, Dortmund (Germany); Lehmann, Thomas [Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Hengstler, Jan G. [IfADo, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    Workers occupationally exposed to cadmium, cobalt and lead have been reported to have increased levels of DNA damage. To analyze whether in vivo relevant concentrations of heavy metals cause systematic alterations in RNA expression patterns, we performed a gene array study using primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Cells were incubated with 15{mu}g/l Cd(II), 25{mu}g/l Co(II) and 550{mu}g/l Pb(II) either with individual substances or in combination. Differentially expressed genes were filtered out and used to identify enriched GO categories as well as KEGG pathways and to identify transcription factors whose binding sites are enriched in a given set of promoters. Interestingly, combined exposure to Cd(II), Co(II) and Pb(II) caused a coordinated response of at least seven stress response-related transcription factors, namely Oct-1, HIC1, TGIF, CREB, ATF4, SRF and YY1. A stress response was further corroborated by up regulation of genes involved in glutathione metabolism. A second major response to heavy metal exposure was deregulation of the cell cycle as evidenced by down regulation of the transcription factors ELK-1 and the Ets transcription factor GABP, as well as deregulation of genes involved in purine and pyrimidine metabolism. A third and surprising response was up regulation of genes involved in steroid metabolism, whereby promoter analysis identified up regulation of SRY that is known to play a role in sex determination. A forth response was up regulation of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes, particularly of dihydrodiol dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (AKR1C1, AKR1C2). Incubations with individual heavy metals showed that the response of AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 was predominantly caused by lead. In conclusion, we have shown that in vivo relevant concentrations of Cd(II), Co(II) and Pb(II) cause a complex and coordinated response in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. This study gives an overview of the most responsive genes. (orig.)

  3. Beta-1,3-1,6-glucan modulate the non-specific immune response to enhance the survival in the Vibrio alginolyticus infection of Taiwan abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Tseng, Tzu-Yu; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-07-01

    This research aims to investigate the non-specific immune response of Taiwan abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) which was treated with the beta-1,3-1,6-glucan to be observed in the survival impact after the Vibrio alginolyticus infection. The non-specific immune and physiological response of superoxide anion radical (O2(-)), phenoloxidase (PO), phagocytic index (PI), phagocytic rate (PR) and lucigenin-chemiluminescence for reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) were enhanced via in-vitro experiment. In the in-vivo experiment, the observed data presented that the haemolymph lysate supernatant (HLS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were not significant enhanced, but the total haemocyte count (THC), O2(-), PO, phagocytic index (PI), phagocytic ratio (PR) and other parameters of immune were significantly promoted after treated with beta-1,3-1,6-glucan. In the challenge experiment, the survival rates of abalone in the 40 and 80 μl/ml groups of beta-1,3-1,6-glucan were observed from 6.67% up to 33.33% and 36.67% after injection with Vibrio alginolyticus, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Physiotherapy and bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, CP; Postma, DS; Koeter, GH; Rubin, BK

    Cough and expectoration of mucus are the best-known symptoms in patients with pulmonary disease, The most applied intervention for these symptoms is the use of chest physiotherapy to increase bronchial mucus transport and reduce retention of mucus in the airways, Chest physiotherapy interventions

  5. Enhancement of Nonspecific Immune Response and Growth Performance of Litopenaeus vannamei by Oral Administration of Nucleotides (PENINGKATAN RESPONS IMUN NONSPESIFIK DAN PERFORMA PERTUMBUHAN LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI MELALUI PEMBERIAN NUKLEOTIDA SECARA ORAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henky Manoppo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the nonspecific immune responseand growth of Litopenaeus vannamei fednucleotide diet.  In Laboratory, juveniles were reared in two groups of glass aquaria, each with threereplications.  Shrimps in group one were fed nucleotide diet and in group two were fedpellet four consecutiveweeks. Total Haemocyte Count and Phenoleoxydase activity were evaluated at the end of feeding whilegrowth was measured at two weeks interval. At the end of feeding, shrimps were intramuscularlyinjectedwith Vibrio harveyi  0.1x106 cfu.shrimp-1.  In tambak, juveniles were raised in two groups of net cages(hapa, each with three replications. One group was fed nucleotide diet while the other wasfed pellet forfour weeks. Total Haemocyte Count of shrimp fed nucleotide diet significantly increased up to 87% higherthan shrimps fed pellet.  Phenoleoxydase activity of shrimp fed nucleotides diet also increased isignificantlyas compared to shrimp fed pellet (p=0.02. Higher resistance and growth were observed in shrimp fednucleotide diet. In tambak, weight gain of shrimp fed nucleotide was 35.75% greater than shrimp fedpellet. Survival rate (83.24% was higher than shrimp fed pellet (81.71%.  As conclusion, oral administrationof nucleotide at 400 mg.kg-1 diet could enhancethe nonspecific immune response, resistance, and growth ofL. vannamei.

  6. Biomechanical aspects of nonspecific back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Harrianto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain (LBP is a common problem in adult life, since despite its benign nature it is commonly associated with incapacity, productivity loss due to sick leave, and correspondingly high costs to the individual worker. Psychosocial and lifestyle factors and work-place exposures have been implicated in the onset of symptoms. Heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting and postural movements, repetitive work, and whole body vibrations are occupational factors associated with LBP. The usual classification of LBP is related to the duration of the complaints (acute, subacute, and chronic. However, these terms fail to take into account several clinically important aspects of the course of LBP, which is frequently recurrent and thus neither acute nor chronic. More realistically, LBP should be classified as specific and nonspecific. Approximately 90% of LBP cases have no identifiable cause and is designated nonspecific LBP. However, despite its high prevalence, the etiology and nature of nonspecific LBP are not yet well understood. Its pathophysiology remains complex and multifaceted. Multiple anatomic structures and elements of the lumbar spine (e.g. bones, ligaments, tendons, discs, and muscles are all suspected of playing a role. Many of these components of the lumbar spine have sensory innervations that can generate nociceptive signals in response to tissue-damaging stimuli. Other causes could be neuropathic (e.g. sciatica. Some cases of LBP most likely involve mixed nociceptive and neuropathic etiologies.

  7. Bronchial arteries: anatomy, function, hypertrophy, and anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher M; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L; Martínez-Jiménez, Santiago; Kunin, Jeffrey R; Wible, Brandt C

    2015-01-01

    The two main sources of blood supply to the lungs and their supporting structures are the pulmonary and bronchial arteries. The bronchial arteries account for 1% of the cardiac output but can be recruited to provide additional systemic circulation to the lungs in various acquired and congenital thoracic disorders. An understanding of bronchial artery anatomy and function is important in the identification of bronchial artery dilatation and anomalies and the formulation of an appropriate differential diagnosis. Visualization of dilated bronchial arteries at imaging should alert the radiologist to obstructive disorders that affect the pulmonary circulation and prompt the exclusion of diseases that produce or are associated with pulmonary artery obstruction, including chronic infectious and/or inflammatory processes, chronic thromboembolic disease, and congenital anomalies of the thorax (eg, proximal interruption of the pulmonary artery). Conotruncal abnormalities, such as pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, are associated with systemic pulmonary supply provided by aortic branches known as major aortopulmonary collaterals, which originate in the region of the bronchial arteries. Bronchial artery malformation is a rare left-to-right or left-to-left shunt characterized by an anomalous connection between a bronchial artery and a pulmonary artery or a pulmonary vein, respectively. Bronchial artery interventions can be used successfully in the treatment of hemoptysis, with a low risk of adverse events. Multidetector computed tomography helps provide a vascular road map for the interventional radiologist before bronchial artery embolization. RSNA, 2015

  8. The effect of gas cooking on bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the role of immunoglobulin E

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M; de Monchy, JGR; Rijken, B; Schouten, JP

    1999-01-01

    Some studies have shown an association between gas cooking and respiratory symptoms. This study investigated whether gas cooking affects bronchial responsiveness and whether particular subjects are more sensitive to this effect. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the

  9. Effects of replacing soybean meal with rubber seed meal on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Junming; Mai, Kangsen; Chen, Liqiao; Mi, Haifeng; Zhang, Lu

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with rubber seed meal (RSM) on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus). Five experimental diets were formulated with 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, and 40% RSM replacing graded levels of SBM, respectively. Fish were fed one of the five experimental diets for eight weeks, and then challenged by A. hydrophila via intraperitoneal injection and kept for seven days. Dietary RSM inclusion level up to 30% did not affect the weight gain and daily growth coefficient, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. Fish fed diet with 40% RSM showed the lowest serum total antioxidant capacity, lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, respiratory burst and phagocytic activities. Dietary RSM inclusion gradually depressed the post-challenge survival rate, and that was significantly lower in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. Conversely, the inclusion of RSM generally increased the serum total cholesterol level, the plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and these were significantly higher in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. The results indicated that RSM can be included at level up to 30% in diet for tilapia without obvious adverse effects on the growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to A. hydrophila infection, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rare anomalies of the architecture of the bronchial tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheel, W.; Eger, H.

    1986-12-01

    Six cases of rare bronchial anomalies are presented (3 complete rightsided hyparterial bronchial distributions, 1 partial rightsided hyparterial bronchial supply of the upper lobe, 2 cases of atresia of the left apico-posterior bronchus). Emphasis is placed on the bronchographic elucidation of the changed bronchial segmental topic if additive or subtractive bronchial anomalies are found endoscopically especially with regard to preoperative aspects.

  11. Bronchial arterial RI-angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazono, Nobuaki; Inoue, Hiroki; Kanetsuki, Ichiro; Takeshita, Tuyoshi; Mukai, Hiroyuki; Moriyama, Takaaki; Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Nakajo, Masayuki

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen bronchial arterial perfusion studies were performed in a total of 13 patients with lung tumors (11 cases of lung cancer, one metastatic tumor and one abscess), utilizing 99m TcO 4 - or 99m Tc-labeled macroaggregated albumin ( 99m Tc-MAA). Regions of interest (ROI) of the same size were set over areas of tumor, the mediastinum and healthy lung areas, and each ROI count was calculated by a nuclear medicine computer during an acquisition time period of 20 min with each tracer for 7 min to evaluate tumor part perfusion. The count ratios of tumor to healthy parts ranged from 1.7 to 6.5 (mean±s.d.; 3.8±1.9) in the 99m TcO 4 - group (10 patients) and from 130 to 230 (mean±s.d.; 163±30) in the 99m Tc-MAA group (3 patients), respectively. Tumor reduction rates 2 weeks after CDDP bronchial artery infusion therapy correlated positively to the count ratio in the 99m TcO 4 - lung cancer group, although significant correlation was not obtained. This study suggests that bronchial arterial infusion of anticancer agents may result in higher concentrations of anticancer agents in the tumors than with systemic chemotherapy and chemoembolic materials may exert more potent anticancer effects on tumors than nonparticulated anticancer agents. (author)

  12. Social networks and bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Liccardi, Gennaro; D'Amato, Maria; Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    To focus on both positive and negative aspects of the interaction between asthmatic patients and the social networks, and to highlight the need of a psychological approach in some individuals to integrate pharmacological treatment is the purpose of review. There is evidence that in some asthmatic patients, the excessive use of social networks can induce depression and stress triggering bronchial obstruction, whereas in others their rational use can induce beneficial effects in terms of asthma management. The increasing asthma prevalence in developed countries seen at the end of last century has raised concern for the considerable burden of this disease on society as well as individuals. Bronchial asthma is a disease in which psychological implications play a role in increasing or in reducing the severity of bronchial obstruction. Internet and, in particular, social media are increasingly a part of daily life of both young and adult people, thus allowing virtual relationships with peers sharing similar interests and goals. Although social network users often disclose more about themselves online than they do in person, there might be a risk for adolescents and for sensitive individuals, who can be negatively influenced by an incorrect use. However, although some studies show an increased risk of depression, other observations suggest beneficial effects of social networks by enhancing communication, social connection and self-esteem.

  13. Imaging diagnosis of bronchial asthma and related diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Fumikazu; Fujimura, Mikihiko; Kimura, Fumiko; Fujimura, Kaori; Hayano, Toshio; Nishii, Noriko; Machida, Haruhiko; Toda, Jo; Saito, Naoko

    2002-01-01

    We describe imaging features of bronchial asthma and related diseases. The practical roles of imaging diagnosis are the evaluation of severity and complications of bronchial asthma and differential diagnosis of diseases showing asthmatic symptoms other than bronchial asthma. (author)

  14. Effect of ipratropium bromide in bronchial asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taskar V

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inhalation of ipratropium bromide was evaluated in 20 patients with bronchial asthma. It was observed that there was no significant improvement in the forced vital capacity and the forced expired volume in one second, while there was significant improvement in the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR measured at 9 pm, after inhalation of 2 puffs of ipratropium bromide aerosol (0.02mg/puff three to four times a day for 2 weeks. Since PEFR is a measure of large airway function and cholinergic mechanisms are primarily involved for airflow obstruction at large airways, improvement in PEFR by ipratropium bromide highlights its role as a useful bronchodilator in patients in whom vagal reflexes are responsible for the provocation of bronchoconstriction.

  15. Increased wheeze but not bronchial hyperreactivity near power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, J A; Henry, R L; Hankin, R G; Hensley, M J

    1993-08-01

    In a previous study a higher than expected prevalence of asthma was found in Lake Munmorah, a coastal town near two power stations, compared with another coastal control town. This study aimed to compare atopy, bronchial hyperreactivity, and reported symptoms of asthma in the power station town and a second control area with greater socioeconomic similarity. A cross sectional survey was undertaken. Lake Munmorah, a coastal town near two power stations, and Dungog, a country town in the Hunter Valley, NSW, Australia. All children attending kindergarten to year 6 at all schools in the two towns were invited to participate in 1990. The response rates for the questionnaire for reported symptoms and associated demographic data were 92% in Lake Munmorah and 93% in Dungog, with 84% and 90% of children respectively being measured for lung function, atopy, and bronchial reactivity. There were 419 boys and 432 girls aged 5 to 12 years. Main outcome measures were current wheeze and bronchial hyper-reactivity, defined as a fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) or peak expiratory flow (PEF) of 20% or more. Current wheeze was reported in 24.8% of the Lake Munmorah children compared with 14.6% of the Dungog children. Bronchial hyper-reactivity was similar for both groups--25.2% in Lake Munmorah and 22.3% in Dungog. The mean baseline FEV1 was lower in Lake Munmorah than in Dungog (p power station town, but bronchial hyper-reactivity and skin test defined atopy were similar in the two communities. These results are consistent with the previous study and confirm the increased presence of reported symptomatic illness in the town near power stations.

  16. BRONCHIAL FRACTURE FOLLOWING BLUNT CHEST TRAUMA*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-01-02

    Jan 2, 1971 ... reversal of bronchiectasis after re-anastomosing the two bronchial ends, it is felt that this is the exception rather than the rule. Coxatto and Lanari," in their study of the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis, feel that where there is complete obstruction to the distal bronchus, bronchial secretion will cease before ...

  17. Clinical applications of virtual navigation bronchial intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Naohiro; Maehara, Sachio; Maeda, Junichi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Okano, Tetsuya; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2018-01-01

    In patients with bronchial tumors, we frequently consider endoscopic treatment as the first treatment of choice. All computed tomography (CT) must satisfy several conditions necessary to analyze images by Synapse Vincent. To select safer and more precise approaches for patients with bronchial tumors, we determined the indications and efficacy of virtual navigation intervention for the treatment of bronchial tumors. We examined the efficacy of virtual navigation bronchial intervention for the treatment of bronchial tumors located at a variety of sites in the tracheobronchial tree using a high-speed 3-dimensional (3D) image analysis system, Synapse Vincent. Constructed images can be utilized to decide on the simulation and interventional strategy as well as for navigation during interventional manipulation in two cases. Synapse Vincent was used to determine the optimal planning of virtual navigation bronchial intervention. Moreover, this system can detect tumor location and alsodepict surrounding tissues, quickly, accurately, and safely. The feasibility and safety of Synapse Vincent in performing useful preoperative simulation and navigation of surgical procedures can lead to safer, more precise, and less invasion for the patient, and makes it easy to construct an image, depending on the purpose, in 5-10 minutes using Synapse Vincent. Moreover, if the lesion is in the parenchyma or sub-bronchial lumen, it helps to perform simulation with virtual skeletal subtraction to estimate potential lesion movement. By using virtual navigation system for simulation, bronchial intervention was performed with no complications safely and precisely. Preoperative simulation using virtual navigation bronchial intervention reduces the surgeon's stress levels, particularly when highly skilled techniques are needed to operate on lesions. This task, including both preoperative simulation and intraoperative navigation, leads to greater safety and precision. These technological instruments

  18. Structural and Catalytic Properties of S1 Nuclease from Aspergillus oryzae Responsible for Substrate Recognition, Cleavage, Non-Specificity, and Inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kovaľ

    Full Text Available The single-strand-specific S1 nuclease from Aspergillus oryzae is an archetypal enzyme of the S1-P1 family of nucleases with a widespread use for biochemical analyses of nucleic acids. We present the first X-ray structure of this nuclease along with a thorough analysis of the reaction and inhibition mechanisms and of its properties responsible for identification and binding of ligands. Seven structures of S1 nuclease, six of which are complexes with products and inhibitors, and characterization of catalytic properties of a wild type and mutants reveal unknown attributes of the S1-P1 family. The active site can bind phosphate, nucleosides, and nucleotides in several distinguished ways. The nucleoside binding site accepts bases in two binding modes-shallow and deep. It can also undergo remodeling and so adapt to different ligands. The amino acid residue Asp65 is critical for activity while Asn154 secures interaction with the sugar moiety, and Lys68 is involved in interactions with the phosphate and sugar moieties of ligands. An additional nucleobase binding site was identified on the surface, which explains the absence of the Tyr site known from P1 nuclease. For the first time ternary complexes with ligands enable modeling of ssDNA binding in the active site cleft. Interpretation of the results in the context of the whole S1-P1 nuclease family significantly broadens our knowledge regarding ligand interaction modes and the strategies of adjustment of the enzyme surface and binding sites to achieve particular specificity.

  19. [Thoracic surgery for patients with bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyoda, A; Satoh, Y

    2012-07-01

    Thoracic surgery poses a risk for complications in the respiratory system. In particular, for patients with bronchial asthma, we need to care for perioperative complications because it is well known that these patients frequently have respiratory complications after surgery, and they may have bronchial spasms during surgery. If we can get good control of their bronchial asthma, we can usually perform surgery for these patients without limitations. For safe postoperative care, it is desirable that these patients have stable asthma conditions that are well-controlled before surgery, as thoracic surgery requires intrabronchial intubation for anesthesia and sometimes bronchial resection. These stimulations to the bronchus do not provide for good conditions because of the risk of bronchial spasm. Therefore, we should use the same agents that are used to control bronchial asthma if it is already well controlled. If it is not, we have to administer a β₂ stimulator, aminophylline, or steroidal agents for good control. Isoflurane or sevoflurane are effective for the safe control of anesthesia during surgery, and we should use a β₂ stimulator, with or without inhalation, or steroidal agents after surgery. It is important to understand that we can perform thoracic surgery for asthma patients if we can provide perioperative control of bronchial asthma, although these patients still have severe risks.

  20. Non-Specific Reactions during Immunomagnetic Separation of Listeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Zachová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems occurring during the immunomagnetic separation (IMS of Listeria using immunomagnetic particles Dynabeads® anti-Listeria (Dynal Biotech, Norway were specified. Characteristics of these particles were compared with anti-Listeria spp. magnetite particles (Quantum Magnetics, USA. Pure cultures of Listeria innocua, Arthrobacter spp., Bacillus subtilis, Citrobacter braakii, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Staphylococcus aureus were used to evaluate non-specific reactions during IMS. Gram-positive microorganisms, especially Staphylococcus aureus and Arthrobacter spp., were found to be responsible for non-specific reactions in most cases. The capacity of Dynabeads® anti-Listeria particles was determined to be about 10 % of the initial pure cultures of Listeria spp., after 10 min of incubation. Non-specific reactions during IMS of Listeria were examined on the artificially inoculated food samples in which Gram-positive bacteria showed the highest percentage of capture. Influence of washing in two buffers was also studied.

  1. Oral tartrazine challenge in childhood asthma: effect on bronchial reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariparsad, D; Wilson, N; Dixon, C; Silverman, M

    1984-01-01

    Ten asthmatic children who gave a history of cough or wheeze after orange drinks, were tested for tartrazine sensitivity. On separate days, either oral tartrazine (1 mg) or a placebo capsule were administered double blind. Bronchial reactivity was measured before, 30 and 60 min after ingestion by means of a histamine-inhalation challenge test. There was no change in baseline lung function after tartrazine, but histamine sensitivity (PC20) increased significantly in four of the children. No response was obtained to a larger dose of tartrazine (10 mg) in four of the non-responders. Alteration in the bronchial reactivity after an oral challenge, appears to be a sensitive means of detecting tartrazine sensitivity.

  2. Asthma control during the year after bronchial thermoplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Gerard; Thomson, Neil C.; Rubin, Adalberto S.

    2007-01-01

    scheduled 2-week periods of abstinence from LABA at 3, 6, and 12 months. Airflow, airway responsiveness, asthma symptoms, the number of symptom-free days, use of rescue medication, and scores on the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) and the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) were also assessed....... RESULTS: The mean rate of mild exacerbations, as compared with baseline, was reduced in the bronchial-thermoplasty group but was unchanged in the control group (change in frequency per subject per week, -0.16+/-0.37 vs. 0.04+/-0.29; P=0.005). At 12 months, there were significantly greater improvements......-thermoplasty group than in the control group but were similar during the period from 6 weeks to 12 months after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchial thermoplasty in subjects with moderate or severe asthma results in an improvement in asthma control. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00214526 [ClinicalTrials.gov].)....

  3. Classification, staging and radiotherapy of bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordijk, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis reports a study performed to evaluate the stage classification of bronchial carcinoma published by Thomas in 1963. The study was done in the radiotherapy department of a teaching hospital, and had three parts: a comparative analysis of the classifications and stage divisions described in the literature on bronchial carcinoma; an evaluation of the theoretical basis of the classification system introduced by Thomas as well as of the practical applicability of the division into stages, with respect to the assessment of the prognosis and the choice of therapy; and an analysis of various aspects of irradiation as well as of a number of prognostic factors in bronchial carcinoma. (Auth.)

  4. Direct contact between dendritic cells and bronchial epithelial cells inhibits T cell recall responses towards mite and pollen allergen extracts in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazian, Dick; Wagtmann, Valery R; Hansen, Soren

    2015-01-01

    (DCs), we have investigated recall T cell responses in allergic patients sensitized to house dust mite, grass, and birch pollen. Conclusions: Using allergen extract-loaded DCs to stimulate autologous allergen-specific T cell lines, we show that AEC-imprinted DCs inhibit T cell proliferation...... production of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines upon re-challenge. The inhibitory effects of AECs' contact with DCs were absent when allergen extract-loaded DCs had only been exposed to AECs supernatants, but present after direct contact with AECs. We conclude that direct contact between DCs and AECs inhibits T...

  5. Rare anomalies of the architecture of the bronchial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheel, W.; Eger, H.

    1986-01-01

    Six cases of rare bronchial anomalies are presented (3 complete rightsided hyparterial bronchial distributions, 1 partial rightsided hyparterial bronchial supply of the upper lobe, 2 cases of atresia of the left apico-posterior bronchus). Emphasis is placed on the bronchographic elucidation of the changed bronchial segmental topic if additive or subtractive bronchial anomalies are found endoscopically especially with regard to preoperative aspects. (orig.) [de

  6. Pengimbuhan Ragi Roti dalam Pakan Meningkatkan Respons Imun Nonspesifik dan Pertumbuhan Ikan Nila (SUPPLEMENTATION OF BAKER’S YEAST IN FEED ENHANCE NONSPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE AND GROWTH OF NILE TILAPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henky Manoppo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cereviciae to enhancenonspecific immune response and growth of Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus. The fish were obtainedfrom Freshwater Hatchery Tateli (BP3I, Marine and Fisheries Office, North Sulawesi. After acclimatizationfor two weeks in 1000 L fiberglass tank, fish with an average weight of 9 g were put in five 45 L-aquaria ata density of 15 fish/aquarium. During the experiment, fish were fed with feed pellet supplemented withfive different doses of baker’s yeast (10, 20, 30, 40 g yeast/kg pellet for four consecutive weeks at 5% bw/day, twice a day. Fish in different aquarium received different dose of baker’s yeast. Immune parametersincluding total leucocyte count and phagocytosis activity and growth of fish were measured at two weeksinterval. After four weeks of feeding, total leucocyte count and phagocytosis activity of phagocyte cells offish fed pellet supplemented with 10 g yeast/kg pellet increased significantly as compared to that ofcontrol fish (p<0.01. Growth of fish fed pellet supplemented with 10 g yeast/kg pellet also increasesignificantly as compared to control group (p=0.01. Average weight gain of fish fed pellet supplementedwith 10 g yeast/kg pellet was 15.00±1.00 g while control fish was 8.33 g. As conclusion, supplementationof baker’s yeast in feed could enhance nonspecific immune response and growth of Nile tilapia fish.

  7. ON THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SPECIFIC AND NONSPECIFIC APPROACHES TO ORAL MICROBIAL ADHESION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUSSCHER, HJ; COWAN, MM; VANDERMEI, HC

    In this paper, it is suggested that specificity and non-specificity in (oral) microbial adhesion are different expressions for the same phenomena. It is argued that the same basic, physicochemical forces are responsible for so-called 'non-specific' and 'specific' binding and that from a

  8. Effects of the Airway Obstruction on the Skin Microcirculation in Patients with Bronchial Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonova, I V; Kosyakova, N I; Tankanag, A V; Chemeris, N K

    Pulmonary hemodynamic disorders depend on the inflammatory phases and severity of the obstructive syndrome. However, the effect of asthma bronchial obstruction on the state of peripheral hemodynamics remains insufficiently known. To study the effects of airway obstruction on skin blood flow parameters and its regulatory systems in patients with persistent atopic bronchial asthma in the remission state. A comparative study of the skin peripheral blood flow in patients with bronchial asthma with severe airway obstruction (1st group) and without obstruction (2nd group) was conducted. 20 patients with confirmed diagnosis of atopic asthma of 50–74 years old participated in the study. All patients received basic therapy in a constant dosing of high doses of inhaled glucocorticosteroids/long-acting beta-2-agonists. The control group included 20 healthy volunteers without evidence of bronchial obstruction. The study lasted for 3 months. The forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was used to evaluate the bronchial obstruction by spirometry technique. Skin blood perfusion changes were recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry at rest and in response to short-term local ischemia. Registered peripheral blood flow signals were examined using the amplitude temporal filtering in five frequency intervals to identify the functional features of the peripheral blood flow regulation systems. Consistent two-fold decrease of the oscillation amplitudes was found in the neurogenic interval at rest (p=0.031), as well as in the myogenic (p=0.043; p=0.031) and endothelial intervals (p=0.037; p≤0.001) both at rest and during the postocclusive reactive hyperemia respectively in the 1st group of patients with bronchial obstruction (FEV1 obstruction, FEV1 >80%) in comparison to control subjects. The presence of bronchial obstruction has a significant impact on the changes of the amplitudes of skin blood flow oscillations in patients with bronchial asthma in the myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial

  9. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail: cvandoorn@gmail.com; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: d.w.deboo@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: e.j.m.weersink@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  10. Bronchial arteries: an arteriosclerosis-resistant circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoulas, Christophoros; Melachrinou, Maria; Konstantinou, George N; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    Until now, it is unknown whether and to what extent arteriosclerotic disease affects the bronchial arteries. We conducted this pilot study to estimate the prevalence of arteriosclerosis of the bronchial arteries, to correlate it with certain clinicolaboratory arteriosclerotic parameters or any coexistent coronary artery disease (CAD) and to validate the clinical significance. Bronchial arteries 10-15 mm long were obtained from 40 patients with a mean age of 62.3 years who underwent major thoracic procedures. Their medical history and detailed clinical and laboratory arteriosclerotic risk factors were documented. The mean diameter of bronchial artery specimens was 0.97 mm. Histology revealed medial calcific sclerosis only in 1 patient (2.5%) without simultaneous, established atherosclerotic lesions or narrowing of the lumen. Furthermore, the vessel diameter was significantly correlated not only with the advanced stage of the disease (p = 0.031), but also with the proximal occlusion of the bronchial tree (p = 0.042). We noted a marginally not significant correlation between arteriosclerosis and metabolic syndrome (p = 0.075), independent from a history of CAD (p = 0.84). Bronchial arteries exhibit only medial calcific sclerosis. CAD and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease do not seem to affect them in terms of atherosclerotic alteration findings or vessel diameter changes. The bronchial resistance to arteriosclerosis might support the mediastinal status quo through their anastomoses, contributing to all its structures, and might be indirect evidence of a different physiological function of the bronchial endothelium, which needs to be further investigated. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Nonspecific inflammation in the face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Young Min; Park, Rae Chung; Jung, Hwan Sug; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; You, Dong Soo

    1997-01-01

    Patient with complaints of swelling, pain in the maxillary region and discomfort visited Seoul National University Dental Hospital in August last year. Clinical examination and diagnostic imagings implied he was suffered from fungal hyphal infection but no causative fungus was found by the histopathologic and microbiologic investigation. Therefore he was diagnosed with nonspecific inflammation. But as yet, we do think this case is very similar to some kinds of mucomycosis. So we presented this case for more thorough discussion. Following are founded in the examination. 1. Patient had suffered from Diabetes mellitus and complained of stuffiness, headache, swelling in buccal cheeks and paraesthesia. And we found more maxillary bony destruction and ulcer with elevated margin in the palate by clinical examination. 2. In the first visit, Plain films revealed general bony destruction of the maxilla, radiopaqueness in the sinonasal cavities. CT and MRI showed soft tissue mass filled in the paranasal sinus except frontal sinus and bony destruction in in valved bones. 3. No causative bacteria and fungus was found in the biopsy and microbiologic cultures. 4. Caldwell-Luc operation and curettage were carried and antibiotics were taken for 4 months. But now he was worse than in the past. 5. In the second visit, involvement of orbit, parapharyngeal sinus, clivus, cavernous sinus and middle cranial fossa we re seen clearly in the CT and MRI.

  12. Nonspecific aerobic vaginitis and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzik, D; Drazancić, A; Hrgović, Z

    2001-01-01

    During the period 1996-1998, cervical swabs of 50 pregnant women with subacute amniotic infection syndrome (AIS) and the semen of their consorts were bacteriologically analyzed. In the control group were 50 healthy pregnant women and their consorts too. Pathogenic bacteria (the most common were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum) were isolated from the cervical swab of 50 pregnant patients with AIS in 86.0% of them, while in the control group of healthy pregnant women in 28.0%. Pathogenic bacteria were present in 70.0% of semen of consorts pregnant women with AIS and only in 30.0% of semen of the control group. The congruity of pathogenic bacteria in the cervical swab and semen in the investigated group was 69.2%, while only 35.7% in the control group. Following erythromycin, cefuroxime and local tetracyclin treatment, the negativization of the cervical swab resulted in 30 pregnant patients with AIS, while the colonization persisted in 20 of them. The outcome of pregnancy was significantly better in cases with negativization of the cervical swab: perinatal loss was 6.7%, while in cases with persistent infection it was 55.0%. The authors presume the amniotic infection syndrome should be ascending manifestation of nonspecific vaginitis, which is maintained by the consort's urogenital infection. AIS should be classified as a 'sexually-transmitted disease'. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Radiological study of bronchial mucoid impaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaoyi; Yan Hongzhen; Wang Tongde; Gan Chunlan; Liu Wei; Wang Linhui

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the radiological findings of bronchial mucoid impaction in 28 patients in order to improve diagnostic efficacy. Methods: Standard posteroanterior high voltage radiographs were performed in all 28 cases. Among them CT scans were taken in 14 cases, while 3 patients underwent HRCT examination at the same time. Twenty-two patients had a history of expectoration of mucous plugs; in one case with pulmonary atelectasis, a mucous plug was picked out through bronchoscopy. The other 5 cases experienced a lung operation, and a tumor and bronchial mucoid impaction were discovered. Results: Radiographs showed most mucoid impaction as thick, branching structures resembling branches of tree; others were in the shapes of spherical, small clubs, and cuttle fish. In one patient, pulmonary atelectasis was the only radiographic finding. Similarly on CT, most bronchial mucoid impaction were likened to tree branches; the rest presented as small clubs and bunches of grape. A prominent feature of bronchial mucoid impaction, either on plain radiograph or on CT, was that its axis pointed to the hilum, completely consistent with the branching and distribution of the bronchi, and accompanied by bronchiectasis. Conclusions: It is an optimal approach to exploit plain radiograph combined with CT to find out bronchial mucoid impaction. An awareness of its clinical and radiological features may improve better understanding and recognition of the disease

  14. Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis Complicating Bronchial Atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen O. Al-Qadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial atresia is a rare pulmonary developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of a focal obliteration of a segmental or lobar bronchial lumen. The lung distal to the atretic bronchus is typically emphysematous along with the presence of mucus filled ectatic bronchi (mucoceles. BA is usually asymptomatic but pulmonary infections can rarely develop in the emphysematous lung distal to the atretic bronchus. We present a unique case of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA in a patient with BA with no evidence of immune dysfunction. The patient was treated initially with voriconazole and subsequently underwent surgical excision of the involved area. On follow-up, she has done extremely well with no evidence for recurrence. In summary, we describe the first case of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient with bronchial atresia.

  15. Radiodiagnosis of filled retention bronchial cysts and lung tuberculomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudz', A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Radiological semiotics of filled retention bronchial cysts in 23 patients and of lung tuberculomes in 52 is studied on the basis of the data on roentgenography, tomography and bronchography. Characteristic radiological signs of retention bronchial cysts and tuberculomes are determined. Significance of each radiological sign for differential diagnosis of filled retention bronchial cysts and lung tuberculomes is estimated

  16. Bronchial carcinoid tumors: A rare malignant tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-03

    Feb 3, 2015 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Sep-Oct 2015 • Vol 18 • Issue 5. Abstract. Bronchial carcinoid tumors (BCTs) are an uncommon group of lung tumors. They commonly affect the young adults and the middle aged, the same age group affected by other more common chronic lung conditions such as ...

  17. Associations between asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To determine asthma and allergy phenotypes in unselected urban black teenagers and to associate bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) with asthma, other atopic diseases and allergen sensitisation. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of 211 urban highschool black children of Xhosa ethnicity. Modified ...

  18. Proinflammatory effects of cookstove emissions on human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, B; Volckens, J

    2013-02-01

    Approximately half of the world's population uses biomass fuel for indoor cooking and heating. This form of combustion typically occurs in open fires or primitive stoves. Human exposure to emissions from indoor biomass combustion is a global health concern, causing an estimated 1.5 million premature deaths each year. Many 'improved' stoves have been developed to address this concern; however, studies that examine exposure-response with cleaner-burning, more efficient stoves are few. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of traditional and cleaner-burning stove emissions on an established model of the bronchial epithelium. We exposed well-differentiated, normal human bronchial epithelial cells to emissions from a single biomass combustion event using either a traditional three-stone fire or one of two energy-efficient stoves. Air-liquid interface cultures were exposed using a novel, aerosol-to-cell deposition system. Cellular expression of a panel of three pro-inflammatory markers was evaluated at 1 and 24 h following exposure. Cells exposed to emissions from the cleaner-burning stoves generated significantly fewer amounts of pro-inflammatory markers than cells exposed to emissions from a traditional three-stone fire. Particulate matter emissions from each cookstove were substantially different, with the three-stone fire producing the largest concentrations of particles (by both number and mass). This study supports emerging evidence that more efficient cookstoves have the potential to reduce respiratory inflammation in settings where solid fuel combustion is used to meet basic domestic needs. Emissions from more efficient, cleaner-burning cookstoves produced less inflammation in well-differentiated bronchial lung cells. The results support evidence that more efficient cookstoves can reduce the health burden associated with exposure to indoor pollution from the combustion of biomass. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. [Low power laser biostimulation in the treatment of bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojević, Momir; Kuruc, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    Modern concept of acupuncture is based on the fact there are designated locations on the surface of human body, which are related to integrative systems of an organism by means of sensory nerves, correlating and synchronizing organ functioning, depending on external and internal conditions, by means of nervous and neurohumoral regulation of metabolic and regenerative processes, including also mobilisation of immunological, protective and antistress reactions. Apart from standard needle acupuncture, other methods of stimulating acupuncture points are also applied. Due to invention of low power lasers, irradiation laser acupuncture has been introduced into routine medical practice, characterised by painless and aseptic technique and outstanding clinical results. The investigation was aimed at defining therapeutic effects of low power laser irradiation by stimulating acupuncture points or local treatment of asthma. A prospective analysis included 50 patients treated at the Institute of Pulmonary Diseases in Sremska Kamenica during 2000, 2001 and 2002. Together with conservative treatment of present disease, these patients were treated with laser stimulation of acupuncture points in duration of ten days. During treatment changes of functional respiratory parameters were recorded. Results were compared with those in the control group. The control group consisted of the same number of patients and differed from the examination group only by not using laser stimulation. Patients with bronchial asthma presented with significant improvement (p lower frequency and intensity of attacks. The mechanism of laser stimulation activity in treatment of bronchial asthma is explained in detail, correlating our results to those obtained by other authors. A ten-day course of low-power laser stimulation of acupuncture points in patients with bronchial asthma improves both the lung function and gas exchange parameters. Positive effects of laser treatment in patients with bronchial asthma

  20. Non-specific immunization against parasites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, F.E.G.

    1981-01-01

    Non-specific resistance to tumours can be induced by pretreating animals with micro-organisms, microbial extracts or various synthetic substances. Mycobacterium bovis, Corynebacterium parvum and a number of other micro-organisms also protect mice against rodent piroplasms and there is evidence that they are also protective against other parasites including Schistosoma mansoni. The actual mechanisms of non-specific immunity are still unclear but it is influenced by both the genetic make-up of the host and the nature of the parasite. Non-specific immunization may be a possible alternative to specific immunization and may avoid many of the potential immunopathological changes induced during parasite infections. Irradiated vaccines (Dictyocaulus viviparus, schistomiasis) are mentioned marginally only

  1. Correlation between Bronchovascular and Cardiovascular Disorders in Children with Bronchial Asthma: Multifacetedness and Inexhaustibility of Problem Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Ye. Shumna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to tight functional interrelation between respiratory apparatus and blood circulation, exacerbation of bronchial asthma in children is associated with changes of cardiovascular system. Multifacetedness of this problem determines comprehensive approach to examination of children with bronchial asthma, involving most available methods of heart function evaluation: echocardiographic heart study with Doppler sonography and electrocardiography. Of great importance is investigation of systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics and microcirculation in bronchial asthma depending on its clinical course. It was found that children with exacerbation of bronchial asthma were detected with pulmonary hypertension, which had gradual regression after attack alleviation. During the remission stage, hemodynamics disturbances in lesser circulation were present in long-lasting and severe course of disease. However, the increase in the pulmonary blood flow parameters in patients only in the early period after attack can be regarded as a compensatory response from the lesser circulation to the decline in respiratory function indices. Therefore, despite the great achievements of science in the study of pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical features of bronchial asthma at different ages, it is necessary to continue further study of all aspects of bronchial asthma in children, because it is not as well studied as asthma in adults.

  2. EXPRESSION OF SOCS3 AND SOCS5 MRNAS IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEARS FROM THE PATIENTS WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We observed sixty patients with allergic bronchial asthma (ABA and 54 with non-allergic bronchial asthma (NABA. Quantitative SOCS3 and SOCS5 mRNA expression was evaluated by means of real-time PCR. Eighteen healthy persons served as a control group. In patients with bronchial asthma (irrespectively of pathogenetic form, a significant increase of SOCS3 transcription factor expression was detected in peripheral blood mononuclears, as compared with control group. This increase was more pronounced in NABA group. The mRNA SOCS5 level was significantly decreased in bronchial asthma patients, as compared to control group, especially, in ABA subgroup rather than in NABA patients. Thus, an increased expression of SOCS3 mRNA in BA patients could be regarded as a protective antiinflammatory response Decrease of SOCS5 mRNA expression in patients with bronchial asthma (being more pronounced in ABA, may be indicative for a deficiency in negative feedback regulation of gene transcription in allergic bronchial asthma.

  3. Relative effects of bronchial drainage and exercise for in-hospital care of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, F J

    1989-08-01

    Bronchial hygiene therapy is a standard part of the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Coughing alone promotes sputum expectoration and is probably the primary effective component of standard bronchial hygiene therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether substituting regular exercise, which also promotes coughing, for two of three daily bronchial hygiene treatments would affect the expected improvements in pulmonary function and exercise response in hospitalized patients with CF. Seventeen patients with CF hospitalized (means length of stay = 13.0 +/- 2.6 days) for an acute exacerbation of their pulmonary disease participated in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to either a group that participated in two cycle ergometer exercise sessions and one bronchial hygiene treatment session per day (EX Group [n = 9]) or a group that participated in three bronchial hygiene treatment sessions per day (PD Group [n = 8]). Pulmonary functions and responses to a progressive, incremental cycle ergometer exercise test were measured on admission and before discharge. Bronchial hygiene therapy consisted of postural drainage, in six positions, with chest percussion and vibration. Therapeutic exercise was of moderate intensity and was individually adjusted based on the patient's heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation response to the admission exercise test. Coughing was encouraged during and after all treatments. Pulmonary function and exercise response were significantly improved over the period of hospitalization in both groups; the improvements were the same in the two groups. These results indicate that, in some hospitalized patients with CF, exercise therapy may be substituted for at least part of the standard protocol of bronchial hygiene therapy.

  4. The research of Proactive Coping Behavior of Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija A. Yaroslavskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to study the patterns of using proactive coping and adherences to it's different types in patients with chronic non-specifi c lung diseases. Participants of the study (N=180 were 30 to 60 years old. The Proactive Coping Inventory was used to assess the patients' psychological status. According to the results of the study patients with chronic non-specifi c lung diseases use dif-ferent types of proactive coping behavior while solving problematic and stressful situations. The research revealed that patients with bronchial asthma don't have the skills of independent decision making, definition of objectives, considering of options in solving conflicts or other inconvenient situations sufficiently developed. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are less satisfied with the emotional support that they receive from their relatives and closest people, it's harder for them to reveal their feelings and emotions than for those who suffer from bronchial asthma and healthy ones. The results of the study may be useful in developing educational systems of proactive coping behavior skills for patients with chronic non-specific lung diseases for their health and well-being support.

  5. Evaluation of impulse oscillometry during bronchial challenge testing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Carole; Crenesse, Dominique; Albertini, Marc

    2011-12-01

    The impulse oscillation system (IOS) allows easy measurement of respiratory system impedance (Zrs). The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of IOS parameters obtained during methacholine challenge by comparison with "the gold standard" forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1). Measurements of FEV1 and resistances at 5 and 20 Hz, reactance at 5 Hz, impedance at 5 Hz and resonant frequency were performed in 227 children with suspected asthma, before and during methacholine challenge. Data were analyzed in the overall population and in three subgroups according to the final diagnosis: asthma (n = 72), chronic cough and nonspecific respiratory symptoms (n = 122), allergic rhinitis (n = 33). All IOS parameters changed significantly during the tests but only changes in X5 were significantly different between responders and nonresponders. Moreover, changes in IOS parameters were not correlated with changes in FEV1 apart from a weak correlation for X5. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for changes in X5 (to predict a 20% decrease in FEV1 showed a best decision level for a 50% decrease in X5 with a sensitivity of 36% and a specificity of 85%. Results were not different in the asthma group. The accuracy of measurements by IOS during methacholine bronchial challenge in children was not suitable when compared with FEV1 . It could be assumed that spirometry and IOS, while both providing indirect indices of airway patency, are exploring different mechanisms, each with its own methodological potentials and limitations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. New method in radiotherapy of bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macha, H.N.; Mai, J.; Stadler, M.; Koch, K.; Loddenkemper, R.; Krumhaar, D.; Schumacher, W.; Lungenklinik Heckeshorn, Berlin; Staedtisches Rudolf-Virchow-Krankenhaus, Berlin

    1986-01-01

    106 patients with inoperable malignant tumours constricting the central bronchial tree underwent endobronchial small-field radiotherapy with iridium-192 at high dose between June 1983 and September 1985. Treatment was performed using the computer-guided after-loading technique and a flexible bronchoscope under local anaesthesia. In complete occlusion of a bronchus by the tumour, a neodymium YAG-laser was applied (57 patients) to allow insertion of the afterloading probe. Endoscopy showed tumour regression in 75% of the patients, accompanied by clinical improvement. Pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gas analyses and pulmonary perfusion scans yielded a highly significant improvement of data after treatment. The procedure also proved effective upon exhaustion of external radiation. Apart from its positive palliation, endobronchial small-field radiotherapy using high doses of iridium-192 also has a curative effect, thus opening up a new approach to the therapy of advanced bronchial carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  7. [Poor tolerance of exertion during sports and bronchial hyperreactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potiron-Josse, M; Boutet, S; Ginet, J

    1992-11-01

    135 sportsmen and women, 55 girls, 80 boys, aged from 7 to 30 years, from various sports, who complained of bad tolerance of exertion were examined with an exercise test and isocapnic spontaneous hyperventilation. 61, about 45%, during a hyperventilation test had a fall of V.E.M.S. greater than or equal to 20%, showing bronchial hyperreactivity. After three tests, this fall index was greater than or equal to 50%. 68% of the positive responses were seen in boys and 2/3 of the subjects with a positive response were atopics. No other argument could be maintained from the questioning or clinical history to predict the positive or negative character of the hyperventilation (age, sporting level, symptoms, previous asthma or asthmatic, allergy). H.S.V.I. of the chests of a sporting population that complains of exertion intolerance, therefore allows verification of an H.R.B. assessment of its severity and to follow evolution after treatment.

  8. Impulse oscillometry in evaluation bronchial hyperresponsivness in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koruga Dragan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Impulse oscillometry (IOS is a method for estimating lung function which is used for early detection of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR and asthma. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of BHR, the correlation between spirometry and IOS and sensitivity and specificity of IOS in proving BHR in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis. Methods. The study included 81 patients with allergic rhinitis. From all of them, medical history was taken, allergy testing was done, as well as measurements of parameters of lung function by the IOS and spirometry before and after nonspecific bronchial provocation test with histamin via Aerosol provocative system. Changes of the IOS parameters to fall in FEV1 of 20% were measured and compared with changes in the spirometry parameters. After bronchial challenge test subjects were divided into two groups: the group with BHR (group 1 and that without BHR (group 2. Results. The mean age of participants was 25.7 ± 5.7 years, and 50.5% were men. Out of the total number of subjects with allergy rhinitis, 56 (58.9% had a positive BPT. After bronchoprovocation an average increase in the group 1 was 88.15% for Rrs5, 111.98% for Fres, and for AX 819.69%. The high degree of correlation between the IOS and spirometry was proven in the group 2, while the whole group 1 had a weak correlation between parameters of these two methods. High sensitivity and low specificity for Rrs5 and Fres compared to FEV1 in diagnosing BHR was proven. Conclusion. The study demonstrated a high prevalence of BHR in the study group of patients with persistent allergic rhinitis, poor correlation in relation to the spirometric measurements in the group with BHR and a high sensitivity and low specificity of IOS for the detection of early changes in the airways.

  9. Nonspecific eating disorders - a subjective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Aneta; Szejko, Natalia; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wojnar, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to characterise nonspecific eating disorders (other than anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa). The Medline database was searched for articles on nonspecific eating disorders. The following disorders were described: binge eating disorder (BED), pica, rumination disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, night eating syndrome (NES), sleep-related eating disorder (SRED), bigorexia, orthorexia, focusing on diagnosis, symptoms, assessment, comorbidities, clinical implications and treatment. All of the included disorders may have dangerous consequences, both somatic and psychological. They are often comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Approximately a few percent of general population can be diagnosed with each disorder, from 0.5-4.7% (SRED) to about 7% (orthorexia). With the growing literature on the subject and changes in DSM-5, clinicians recognise and treat those disorders more often. More studies have to be conducted in order to differentiate disorders and treat or prevent them appropriately.

  10. Local C-Reactive Protein Expression in Obliterative Lesions and the Bronchial Wall in Posttransplant Obliterative Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi E. Päiväniemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The local immunoreactivity of C-reactive protein (CRP was studied in a heterotopic porcine model of posttranplant obliterative bronchiolitis (OB. Bronchial allografts and control autografts were examined serially 2–28 days after subcutaneous transplantation. The autografts stayed patent. In the allografts, proliferation of inflammatory cells (P<.0001 and fibroblasts (P=.02 resulted in occlusion of the bronchial lumens (P<.01. Influx of CD4+ (P<.001 and CD8+ (P<.0001 cells demonstrated allograft immune response. CRP positivity simultaneously increased in the bronchial walls (P<.01, in macrophages, myofibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Local CRP was predictive of features characteristic of OB (R=0.456–0.879, P< .05−P<.0001. Early obliterative lesions also showed CRP positivity, but not mature, collagen-rich obliterative plugs (P<.05. During OB development, CRP is localized in inflammatory cells, myofibroblasts and endothelial cells probably as a part of the local inflammatory response.

  11. Retrospective Cohort Study of Bronchial Doses and Radiation-Induced Atelectasis After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors Located Close to the Bronchial Tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Kristin; Nyman, Jan; Baumann, Pia; Wersäll, Peter; Drugge, Ninni; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Persson, Jan-Olov; Rutkowska, Eva; Tullgren, Owe; Lax, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dose–response relationship between radiation-induced atelectasis after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and bronchial dose. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients treated with SBRT for tumors close to main, lobar, or segmental bronchi were selected. The association between incidence of atelectasis and bronchial dose parameters (maximum point-dose and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volume [ranging from 0.1 cm 3 up to 2.0 cm 3 ]) was statistically evaluated with survival analysis models. Results: Prescribed doses varied between 4 and 20 Gy per fraction in 2-5 fractions. Eighteen patients (24.3%) developed atelectasis considered to be radiation-induced. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the incidence of radiation-induced atelectasis and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volumes, of which 0.1 cm 3 (D 0.1cm3 ) was used for further analysis. The median value of D 0.1cm3 (α/β = 3 Gy) was EQD 2,LQ = 147 Gy 3 (range, 20-293 Gy 3 ). For patients who developed atelectasis the median value was EQD 2,LQ = 210 Gy 3 , and for patients who did not develop atelectasis, EQD 2,LQ = 105 Gy 3 . Median time from treatment to development of atelectasis was 8.0 months (range, 1.1-30.1 months). Conclusion: In this retrospective study a significant dose–response relationship between the incidence of atelectasis and the dose to the high-dose volume of the bronchi is shown

  12. Radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy in bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Takashi

    1993-01-01

    A study on obstructive changes in airways and mucociliary clearance in children and youth with bronchial asthma was performed. Radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphies using 99T c-human serum albumin (HSA) were applied to 50 children and youth with bronchial asthma. The deposition patterns of the radioaerosol and aerosol clearance curves were evaluated. Abnormal deposition patterns, which consisted of non-homogeneous distribution and/or hot spot formation, were likely to be seen in patients with asthmatic attacks at the time of measurements. However, a few asymptomatic patients also revealed abnormal deposition patterns. The deposition patterns were related to FEV 1.0 %, MMF, V 50 and V 25 , but especially to FEV 1.0 %. As an index of mucociliary clearance, β, the rate constant of the 99m Tc-HSA aerosol clearance curve, was introduced. β was significantly lower in patients with abnormal aerosol deposition patterns than in normal persons. β was also significantly lower in patients undergoing asthmatic attack at the time of the measurements than in asymptomatic patients. β correlated negatively with FEV 1.0 %, MMF, V 50 and V 25 , but especially with FEV 1.0 %. Although patients with long term affection or moderate-to-severe asthma tended to reveal abnormal deposition patterns and had low β values, these differences were not statistically significant. Radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy with 99m Tc-HSA is useful for evaluating not only obstructive changes in the airways but also for evaluating mucociliary clearance in children with bronchial asthma. (author)

  13. Association of Gene Polymorphisms in Interleukin 6 in Infantile Bronchial Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babusikova, Eva; Jurecekova, Jana; Jesenak, Milos; Evinova, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    The genetic background of bronchial asthma is complex, and it is likely that multiple genes contribute to its development both directly and through gene-gene interactions. Cytokines contribute to different aspects of asthma, as they determine the type, severity and outcomes of asthma pathogenesis. Allergic asthmatics undergoing an asthmatic attack exhibit significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukins and chemokines. In recent years, cytokines and their receptors have been shown to be highly polymorphic, and this prompted us to investigate interleukin 6 promoter polymorphisms at position -174G/C (rs1800795) and at -572G/C (rs1800796) in relation to asthma in children. Interleukin 6 promoter polymorphisms were analyzed in bronchial asthma patients and healthy children using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. We observed a significant association between polymorphism at -174G/C and bronchial asthma (OR=3.4, 95% CI: 2.045-5.638, P<.001). Higher associations between polymorphism at IL-6 -174G/C and bronchial asthma were observed in atopic patients (OR=4.1, 95% CI: 2.308-7.280, P<8.10 -7 ). Interleukin 6 polymorphism is associated with bronchial asthma, particularly its atopic phenotype. Expression and secretion of interleukins in asthmatic patients may be affected by genetic polymorphisms, and could have a disease-modifying effect in the asthmatic airway and modify the therapeutic response. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. CPAP increases bronchial reactivity in OSAS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Korczyski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP is a well known and safe method of treatment patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS. The effects of CPAP administration on the upper respiratory tract are known. However its effects on the lower respiratory tract still needs to be determined. Studies on bronchial hyperreactivity in patients treated by CPAP are contradictory. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of a 3-week CPAP treatment in patients with OSAS and to evaluate associations between changes in bronchial reactivity and clinical features of OSAS and lung function tests (LFT. Patients with newly diagnosed OSAS and lack of infection or chronic illness of the respiratory tract or other conditions which could influence bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR were included. Investigations were performed in 101 patients. There were 88 males and 13 females, mean age 51.5±11.2 years and BMI 32.6±5.4 kg·m–2. Qualified patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: 76 patients to CPAP treatment group, 25 control group. Both groups did not differ in anthropometrics features, severity of OSAS and LFT. Metacholine challenge test (MchCT was performed at baseline and repeated after 3 weeks. Analysis of the individual results showed that in 11 patients the MchCT was positive (6 in the CPAP and 5 in the control groups. After 3 weeks in the group of CPAP treated patients an increase of BHR was noted. Log PC20M decreased from 1.38±0.3 to 1.26±0.5 (p<0.05. The number of patients with a positive result in the MchCT increased from 6 to 16 patients. There was no significant change in BHR in the control group. It was found that CPAP treated patients with BHR were older, had less severe OSAS and lower FEV1 (p<0.05. In none of the patients positive result of BHR did no affect compliance to CPAP treatment. Conclusions: CPAP therapy increases bronchial reactivity, but does not affect compliance to treatment.

  15. Radioaerosol Inhalation Imaging in Bronchial Asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bum Soo; Park, Young Ha; Park, Jeong Mi; Chung, Myung Hee; Chung, Soo Kyo; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1991-01-01

    Radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) has been used in radionuclide pulmonary studies for the past 20 years. The method is well accepted for assessing regional ventilation because of its usefulness, easy fabrication and simple application system. To evaluate its clinical utility in the study of impaired regional ventilation in bronchial asthma, we obtained and analysed RIIs in 31 patients (16 women and 15 men; age ranging 21-76 years) with typical bronchial asthma at the Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical college, from January, 1988 to August, 1989. Scintiscans were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a HARC(Bhabha Atomic Research Center, India) nebulizer with 15 mCi of 99m Tc-phytate. The scanning was performed in anterior, posterior and lateral projections following 5-minute inhalation of radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analysed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function study and the findings of chest radiography. Fifteen patients had concomitant lung perfusion image with 99m Tc-MAA. Follow-up scans were obtained in 5 patients after bronchodilator therapy. 1 he patients were divided into (1) attack type (4 patients), (2) resistant type (5 patients), (3) remittent type (10 patients) and (4) bronchitic type (12 patients). Chest radiography showed hyperinflation, altered pulmonary vascularity, thickening of the bronchial wall and accentuation of hasal interstitial markings in 26 of the 31 patients. Chest radiographs were normal in the remaining 5 patients. Regardless of type, the findings of RII were basically the same, and characterized by the deposition of radioaerosol in the central parts or in the main respiratory air ways along with mottled nonsegmental ventilation defects in the periphery. Peripheral parenchymal defects were more extensive than that of expected findings from clinical symptoms, pulmonary function test and chest radiograph. Broomstick sign was present in 1.7 patients

  16. Evaluation of Drug Utilization Pattern for Patients of Bronchial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Drug Utilization Pattern for Patients of Bronchial Asthma in a Government Hospital of Saudi Arabia. ... Background: Bronchial asthma is a social and economic healthcare burden. Drug utilization studies are ... Salbutamol and budesonide were the most common from each group, respectively. 89.5% of the ...

  17. [Safe local anesthesia in patients with bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, E N; Gromovik, M V

    The paper presents the analysis of studies of local anesthesia in patients with bronchial asthma. It was found that the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to sodium metabisulfite in patients with bronchial asthma must be optimized for development of local anesthesia selection algorithm in outpatient dentistry.

  18. Assessment of quality of life among children with bronchial asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The global disease burden associated with bronchial asthma has continued to increase particularly among children. Asthma-related quality of life is a health related assessment of disease impact on patient and care givers. Aim: To determine the perceived quality of life (QOL) among children with bronchial ...

  19. Bronchial asthma among workers in Alexandria and its association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Many workers in Alexandria are exposed to a variety of occupational and environmental allergens and/or irritants that predispose them to the development of bronchial asthma. The present study was conducted to determine the role of occupational exposure as a determinant of occurrence of bronchial asthma ...

  20. December 2004 45 Bronchial Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis and chole

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... Background: Gallbladder has not been associated with any allergic condition what so ever. However, certain patients with bronchial asthma and cholelithiasis have reported to the author improvement in their asthmatic attack after cholecystectomy. Methods: This was an observational study on 22 bronchial ...

  1. X-ray diagnosis of bronchial obstruction in chronic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamilyaev, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Combined radiobronchological examination of patients with chronic pneumonia in the phase of reverse development of the disease has been performed. Severity, localization and extent of bronchial obstruction have been studied, depending on the phase of chronic pneumonia and aspects of lung tissue alterations. Bronchial lesions characteristic of chronic pneumonia were defined, as well as importance of x-ray examination methods for bronchial obstruction diagnosis. Three types of bronchial obstruction were distinguished: bronchoconstriction, bronchodilatation and their combination. With regard to the character and severity of bronchial and pulmonary tissue lesions 3 variants of chronic pneumonia are offered to be differentiated: bronchitic, bronchoectatic, and abscess-forming. The main significance in diagnosis of chronic pneumonia is attributed to combined x-ray examination, which also includes radiobronchological investigation in the first two variants of the disease [ru

  2. Bronchial and pulmonary scintigraphy with radioactively marked aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerstle, T.

    1982-01-01

    In 97 patients with bronchitis, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, pneumoconiosis, or tumors the mucociliary clearance and/or deposit pattern after inhalation of radioactively marked aerosols (1 mCi 99m Tc sulfur colloid) was studied. Normal values of the mucociliary 30 min. clearance for the central bronchial/lung periphery are 21%/15%. There was a decreased clearance with bronchitis (11/8%), bronchial asthma, emphysema, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, trachiobronchial amyloidosis, pleural scarring or interstitial pneumona. Increased clearance (29/19%) was shown with pneumoconiosis. The correlation of deposit pattern and disease, for example, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, bullous emphysema, pleural scarring, partial lung resection, bronchopneumonia, or bronchial restriction, is described. In comparison of aerosol scintigraphy to perfusion scintigraphy and ventilation with gaseous xenon, the aerosol scintigraphy is superior to xenon for certain indications. The aerosol particles, which are larger in comparison to xenon, settle easier by obstructions or flow variations and thereby give better clinical indications of regional differences. (orig.) [de

  3. Detection of bronchial breathing caused by pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, V; Fachinger, P; Penzel, Th; Koehler, U; von Wichert, P; Vogelmeier, C

    2002-06-01

    The classic auscultation with stethoscope is the established clinical method for the detection of lung diseases. The interpretation of the sounds depends on the experience of the investigating physician. Therefore, a new computer-based method has been developed to classify breath sounds from digital lung sound recordings. Lung sounds of 11 patients with one-sided pneumonia and bronchial breathing were recorded on both the pneumonia side and on contralateral healthy side simultaneously using two microphones. The spectral power for the 300-600 Hz frequency band was computed for four respiratory cycles and normalized. For each breath, the ratio R between the time-segments (duration = 0.1 s) with the highest inspiratory and highest expiratory flow was calculated and averaged. We found significant differences in R between the pneumonia side (R = 1.4 +/- 1.3) and the healthy side (R = 0.5 +/- 0.5; p = 0.003 Wilcoxon-test) of lung. In 218 healthy volunteers we found R = 0.3 +/- 0.2 as a reference-value. The differences of ratio R (delta R) between the pneumonia side and the healthy side (delta R = 1.0 +/- 0.9) were significantly higher compared to follow-up studies after recovery (delta R = 0.0 +/- 0.1, p = 0.005 Wilcoxon-test). The computer based detection of bronchial breathing can be considered useful as part of a quantitative monitoring of patients at risk to develop pneumonia.

  4. Usefulness of antioxidant drugs in bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawad, F.H.; Atabee, H.G.A.; Sahib, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a clinical syndrome with possible correlation to oxidative stress, therefore the effectiveness of some antioxidant drugs has been studied in management of chronic bronchial asthma. Methods: This study was carried out in the Al- Kadhimia Teaching Hospital between December 2008 to May 2009 on 56 patients of both sexes who were randomly allocated to 7 groups, plus 10 healthy volunteers as control group. Each group was given one of the following drugs: vitamin E, vitamin C, combination of vitamin E and C, selenium, zinc, allopurinol and garlic oil, in addition to their classical treatment of asthma and their pulmonary function tests were conducted as well as measuring the levels of serum zinc, calcium, and malondialdehyde (MDA) before and after treatment. Results: All asthmatic patients were suffering from oxidative stress and this was detected by measuring the level of serum MDA which was 2-3 folds more than the control group, and all antioxidants except allopurinol showed a beneficial effect of different degrees in the pulmonary function tests accompanied with clinical improvement of patients' condition and marked decrease in the number of daily attacks. Antioxidants can compensate the oxidative stress that correlates with asthma, can reduce the symptoms of asthma, and improve pulmonary functions. (author)

  5. Metastatic urachal carcinoma in bronchial brush cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Zahra Aly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urachal carcinoma is rare comprising less than 1% of all bladder carcinomas. Metastases of urachal carcinoma have been reported to meninges, brain, ovary, lung, and maxilla. Cytologic features of metastatic urachal carcinoma have not been previously reported. We present a case of metastatic urachal adenocarcinoma in bronchial brushings and review the use of immunohistochemistry in its diagnosis. A 47-year-old female was seen initially in 2007 with adenocarcinoma of the bladder dome for which she underwent partial cystectomy. She presented in 2011 with a left lung mass and mediastinal adenopathy. Bronchoscopy showed an endobronchial lesion from which brushings were obtained. These showed numerous groups of columnar cells with medium sized nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. The cells were positive for CK20 and CDX2 and negative for CK7. The cytomorphological findings were similar to those in the previous resection specimen and concurrent biopsy. This is the first case report of bronchial brushings containing metastatic urachal carcinoma. No specific immunohistochemical profile is available for its diagnosis. The consideration of a second primary was a distinct possibility in this case due to the lapse of time from primary resection, absence of local disease, and lack of regional metastases.

  6. Simple radio-isotopic method for the detection of bronchial inhalation during intensive care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venot, J.; Veyriras, E.; Vandroux, J.C.; Bournaud, E.; Gastinne, H.; Beck, C.

    1984-08-01

    The high incidence of pneumopathy in intensive care units might be due to the pulmonary aspiration of gastric juice following gastro-oesophageal reflux. The paper describes a radio-isotopic method using material easy to install at the patient's bedside. This technique demonstrated aspiration of gastric juice in the lungs of 8 of 25 intensive care patients investigated. Such a method might be useful later to demonstrate that silent bronchial aspirations of gastric juice are responsible for pulmonary complications.

  7. The influence of propofol, remifentanil and lidocaine on the tone of human bronchial smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogliani, Paola; Calzetta, Luigino; Rendina, Erino A; Massullo, Domenico; Dauri, Mario; Rinaldi, Barbara; Capuano, Annalisa; Matera, Maria Gabriella

    2013-06-01

    Bronchoscopy is generally a safe procedure, but the induction of anaesthesia can induce bronchospasm. Consequently we investigated the influence of propofol, remifentanil and lidocaine on the tone of the human bronchial smooth muscle. The influence of propofol, remifentanil and lidocaine on the contractile response of human bronchial smooth muscle to electrical field stimulation (EFS) has been evaluated. The role of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves and of inducible nitric oxide synthase has also been assessed. Furthermore, the interaction between these three dugs has been measured by Bliss Independence (BI) theory. Statistical significance (P < 0.05) was assessed by Student's t test or ANOVA. Propofol (1.3 μg ml(-1)) and lidocaine (1 mg ml(-1)) reduced the baseline tone of bronchial rings (-14.45 ± 4.53% and -33.40 ± 1.07%, respectively, P < 0.05), whereas remifentanil had not such effect. Aminoguanidine prevented the relaxant effect of propofol. Propofol did not alter the bronchial contractile response to EFS following 30 min of treatment, whereas remifentanil enhanced the bronchial tension (133.83 ± 9.38%, control 101.93 ± 6.82%, P < 0.05 P < 0.05) and lidocaine completely abolished the contractility at 1 mg ml(-1) (P < 0.05). The desensitization of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves normalized the hyperresponsiveness induced by remifentanil (-26.77 ± 1.68%, P < 0.05). Significant BI antagonism (P < 0.001) was detected for propofol and lidocaine on the bronchial hyperresponsiveness induced by remifentanil. Propofol and remifentanil may be used safely for bronchoscopy, although remifentanil should be associated with propofol or lidocaine to prevent the potential opioid-mediated bronchospasm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis in non-specific urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terho, P

    1978-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 58.5% of 159 patients with non-specific urethritis (NSU) using irradiated McCoy cell cultures. Patients with persistent Chlamydia-positive NSU remained Chlamydia-positive each time they were examined before treatment and patients with Chlamydia-negative NSU remained Chlamydia-negative during the course of the illness. Neither the duration of symptoms of urethritis nor a history of previous urethritis affected the chlamydial isolation rate significantly. Of 40 patients with severe discharge 30 (75%) harboured C. trachomatis. One-third of the Chlamydia-positive patients had a severe urethral discharge, while this was present in only 15% of Chlamydia-negative patients. Complications--such as conjunctivitis, arthritis, and epididymitis--were more severe in men with Chlamdia-positive NSU than in those with Chlamydia-negative NSU. Of 64 men matched for sexual promiscuity but without urethritis, none harboured C. trachomatis in his urethra. This differs significantly (P less than 0.001) when compared with patients with NSU. C. trachomatis was isolated from the urogenital tract in 24 (42%) out of 57 female sexual contacts of patients with NSU. The presence of C. trachomatis in the women correlated significantly (P less than 0.001) with the isolation of the agent from their male contacts. These findings give further evidence for the aetiological role of C. trachomatis in non-specific urethritis and its sexual transmission. PMID:678958

  9. Nonspecific abdominal pain is a safe diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennel, David John Laurie; Goergen, Nina; Driver, Chris P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess if a clinical diagnosis of nonspecific abdominal pain (NSAP) is safe and if patients with this initial diagnosis are likely to require further investigation or surgical intervention. 3323 patients admitted with NSAP from July 1990 to September 2012 utilizing a prospective database of all surgical admissions were included. Readmission over the period of the study and specifically within 30 days of their initial presentation was identified together with any invasive investigation or surgical intervention. 319 children (9.6%) were subsequently readmitted with abdominal pain at some point during the study period. Of these, 78 (2.3%) were readmitted within 30 days. 118 (3.5%) children subsequently had an operation or invasive investigation some point following their initial admission. Of these 33 (0.6%) had the procedure within 3 months of the initial admission. 13 patients had an appendicectomy within 3 months of the initial presentation. Of these histology confirmed appendicitis in 8 patients. This gives an overall incidence of "missed" appendicitis of 0.2 % (8/3323). This study confirms that a clinical diagnosis of nonspecific abdominal pain (NSAP) is safe in a pediatric population and the risk of "missing" appendicitis is only 0.2%. Patients and/or parents can be confidently reassured that the risk of missing organic pathology is very low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. CONTRIBUTION OF A CHOLINERGIC REFLEX MECHANISM TO ALLERGEN-INDUCED BRONCHIAL HYPERREACTIVITY IN PERMANENTLY INSTRUMENTED, UNRESTRAINED GUINEA-PIGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SANTING, RE; PASMAN, Y; OLYMULDER, CG; ROFFEL, AF; MEURS, H; ZAAGSMA, J

    1 In conscious, permanently instrumented, unrestrained, ovalbumin-sensitized guinea-pigs the development of allergen-induced bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine- and methacholine-inhalation was investigated after the early as well as after the late asthmatic response. 2 The allergen-induced

  11. Nonspecific suppressor elements in murine allogeneic radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urso, P.; Gengozian, N.

    1979-01-01

    Spleen cells from long-term mouse allogeneic radiation chimeras were tested for their ability to modulate the graft-versus-host (GVH) or plaque-forming cell (PFC) response of normal lymphocytes transplanted in lethally x-irradiated recipients. In vivo GVH proliferation of normal lymphocytes (syngeneic to donor cells of the chimera) against antigens of host-type in which the chimeric state had been established was reduced by chimera cells. Inhibition varied, some chimeras suppressing GVH more than others and a few not suppressing at all. The suppressive effect was abrogated if the chimera cells were treated with anti-THETA; treatment with anti-IgM did not eliminate this activity. When mixtures of normal donor lymphocytes and chimera cells were given to irradiated recipients genetically different from host or donor, reduction of donor cell GVH also occurred. Further, chimera cells reduced the GVH activity of normal host cells in irradiated recipients differing from the host at one H-2 locus and from the donor at minor histocompatibility loci. The modulating effect of spleen cells from chimeras on the PFC response by normal lymphocytes also varied. Six chimeras induced a 25 to 90% suppression, two enhanced the response, and one showed no effect. Where suppression occurred, treatment of chimera cells with anti-THETA most often, but not always, restored PFC production. Our results show that the suppressive action of splenic lymphoid cells by chimeras is highly nonspecific and variable in expression. We suggest that tolerance in chimeras may be mediated by nonspecific suppressor elements leading to unresponsiveness to a variety of antigens including SRBC

  12. Serum levels of total IgE and soluble CD23 in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Lorenzo

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare, during the pollen season, serum levels of total IgE and soluble CD23 (sCD23 from patients with allergic bronchial asthma, with those from healthy subjects. Significantly higher levels of total IgE and sCD23 were found in patients with asthma compared to the control group. Both in normal controls and in asthmatic patients, a significant correlation was shown between the levels of these two molecules. In asthmatic patients, significant correlations were found for both total IgE and sCD23, with lung function measured as bronchial responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. These results suggest that in asthmatic patients, in addition to the study of total serum IgE levels, the assessment of sCD23 serum levels may be helpful in the evaluation of disease activity.

  13. Recurrent activity in higher order, modality non-specific brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Joensson, Morten; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that the workings of the brain are mainly intrinsically generated recurrent neuronal activity, with sensory inputs as modifiers of such activity in both sensory and higher order modality non-specific regions. This is supported by the demonstration of recurrent neuronal activity...... in the visual system as a response to visual stimulation. In contrast recurrent activity has never been demonstrated before in higher order modality non-specific regions. Using magneto-encephalography and Granger causality analysis, we tested in a paralimbic network the hypothesis that stimulation may enhance...... causal recurrent interaction between higher-order, modality non-specific regions. The network includes anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate/medial parietal cortices together with pulvinar thalami, a network known to be effective in autobiographic memory retrieval and self...

  14. [Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillissen, A; Bauer, T; Richter, F; Leonhardt, P

    2001-11-01

    Asthma and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are the most important obstructive pulmonary diseases. Patient's history and physical evaluation give major hints of the underlying disease. Further diagnostic measures comprise lung function analysis including spirometry, plethysmography and--in severe cases--blood gas analysis. Bronchial hyperreactivity may be quantified with an unspecific inhalative provocation test. In many cases allergic diseases are accompanied by asthma. Thus, allergy tests--particularly skin prick tests--have to be carried out. To further define an underlying allergy, in some cases even specific inhalative provocation tests have to be performed. X-ray of the thorax and other imaging techniques, detailed blood analysis, further diagnosis of the upper respiratory tract and the cardiac system may have to be carried out a) to quantify the effects of a severe form of asthma or COPD on other organs, and b) for differential diagnostic examinations.

  15. CT diagnosis of traumatic bronchial rupture in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epelman, Monica; Ofer, Amos; Guralnik, Ludmila; Klein, Yoram; Best, Leal H.; Bentur, Lea; Traubici, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Bronchial rupture is a rare and serious complication of blunt chest trauma in children. The diagnosis of this injury is challenging and requires a high degree of clinical suspicion. It is frequently associated with other severe injuries that may draw the focus of attention away from this potentially catastrophic but treatable injury. The radiographic findings of bronchial rupture have been reported in very few series. We report the findings in two children with bronchial rupture diagnosed by CT, in whom CT resulted in a significant change in patient management. (orig.)

  16. Intentional and unintentional contributions to nonspecific information during reaction time foreperiods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, S.A.; Knol, D.L.; Boers, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    The foreperiod (FP) is the interval between a warning stimulus and the imperative stimulus. It is a classical finding that both the duration and the intertrial variability of FP considerably affects response time. These effects are invariably attributed to the participant's state of nonspecific

  17. Enhanced neutrophil chemotactic activity after bronchial challenge in subjects with grain dust-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H S; Jung, K S

    1998-03-01

    There have been few reports suggesting involvement of neutrophils in induction of bronchoconstriction after inhalation of grain dust. To understand the role of neutrophils in pathogenesis of grain dust-induced asthma. We observed serum neutrophil chemotactic activity during grain dust-bronchoprovocation tests in six asthmatic subjects with positive bronchial challenges (group I). They were compared with those of six symptomatic subjects from the same workplace with negative bronchial challenges (group II). After grain dust inhalation, serum neutrophil chemotactic activity significantly increased at 30 minutes (P = .028), and then decreased to baseline level at 240 minutes (P = .028) in five subjects of group I having isolated early asthmatic responses. Enhanced neutrophil chemotactic activity was persistent for up to 240 minutes in one asthmatic subject having both early and late asthmatic responses. There was, however, no significant change in serum neutrophil chemotactic activity during bronchial challenges in subjects of group II. Pre-incubation of sera with anti-interleukin-8 (IL-8) antibody did not affect the neutrophil chemotactic activity results of group I subjects. These results suggest that enhanced neutrophil chemotactic activity distinct from IL-8 may contribute to significant bronchoconstriction induced by grain dust.

  18. Grain dust induces IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells: the effect of dexamethasone on IL-8 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H S; Suh, J H; Kim, H Y; Kwon, O J; Choi, D C

    1999-04-01

    Recent publications have suggested an active participation of neutrophils to induce bronchoconstriction after inhalation of grain dust (GD). To further understand the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of GD-induced asthma, this investigation was designed to determine whether human bronchial epithelial cells could produce IL-8 production and to observe the effect of dexamethasone on IL-8 production. We cultured Beas-2B, a bronchial epithelial cell line. To observe GD-induced responses, four concentrations (1 to 200 microg/mL) of GD were incubated for 24 hours and compared with those without incubation of GD. To evaluate the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on IL-8 production, epithelial cells were incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture supernatant, which was derived from the culture of PBMC from a GD-induced asthmatic subject under the exposure to 10 microg/mL of GD, and compared with those cultured without addition of PBMC supernatant. The level of released IL-8 in the supernatant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To evaluate the effect of dexamethasone on IL-8 production, four concentrations (5 to 5000 ng/mL) of dexamethasone were pre-incubated for 24 hours and the same experiments were repeated. There was significant production of IL-8 from bronchial epithelial cells with additions of GD in a dose-dependent manner (P < .05), which was significantly augmented with additions of PBMC supernatant (P < .05) at each concentration. Compared with the untreated sample, pretreatment of dexamethasone could induced a remarkable inhibitions (15% to 55%) of IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells may contribute to neutrophil recruitment occurring in GD-induced airway inflammation. The downregulation of IL-8 production by dexamethasone from bronchial epithelial cells may contribute to the efficacy of this compound in

  19. Challenges in the Management of Bronchial Asthma Among Adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges in the Management of Bronchial Asthma Among Adults in Nigeria: A Systematic ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... Nigerian Thoracic Society, pharmaceutical industries, and the health‑care workers in general.

  20. Myocardial Infarction as a Complication of Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbé, Hugo, E-mail: hugo.labbe.1@ulaval.ca [Université Laval, Department of Medicine (Canada); Bordeleau, Simon [Université Laval, Department of Emergency Medicine (Canada); Drouin, Christine [Université Laval, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine (Canada); Archambault, Patrick [Université Laval, Department of Emergency Medicine (Canada)

    2017-03-15

    Bronchial artery embolization is now a common treatment for massive pulmonary hemoptysis if flexible bronchoscopy at the bedside failed to control the bleeding. Complications of this technique range from benign chest pain to devastating neurological impairments. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who developed an ST elevation myocardial infarction during bronchial artery embolization, presumably because of coronary embolism by injected particles. In this patient who had no previously known coronary artery disease, we retrospectively found a communication between the left bronchial artery and the circumflex coronary artery. This fistula was not visible on the initial angiographic view and likely opened because of the hemodynamic changes resulting from the embolization. This case advocates for careful search for bronchial-to-coronary arterial fistulas and the need for repeated angiographic views during embolization procedures.

  1. Thoracic lymphangiectasis presenting with chyloptysis and bronchial cast expectoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orliaguet, O.; Beauclair, P.; Gavazzi, G.; Winckel, P.; Laporte, F.; Coulomb, M.; Ferretti, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    A 70-year-old man with recurrent undiagnosed episodes of bronchial cast expectoration and pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiography for 15 years is described. The diagnosis of chyloptysis was established by chemical analysis of the bronchial aspiration. We emphasize the radiological findings of this rare observation. The CT-associated lymphangiography showed mediastinal lymphangiectasis with retrograde opacification of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes as well as submucosal lymphatic vessels protruding into the lumen of the tracheo-bronchial tree without evidence of thoracic duct obstruction as well as a ''crazy-paving appearance.'' Congenital incompetence of the valves of the lymphatic vessels originating from the thoracic duct is held to be the cause. Chyloptysis and pulmonary lymphatic disorder should be sought in cases of bronchial cast expectoration. (orig.)

  2. Bronchial artery embolization in the treatment of massive hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Zubairi, M.A.; Irfan, M.; Tanveer-ul-Haq; Fatima, K.; Azeemuddin, M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the efficacy of bronchial arteriography and bronchial artery embolization (BAE) in the management of massive hemoptysis in a developing Asian country. A retrospective review was carried out from March 2000 to March 2005 to evaluate the demographics, clinical presentation, radiographic studies, bronchoscopy results, and complications of bronchial arteriography and BAE at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Fourteen patients (9males, 5 females) with a mean age of 49 years underwent bronchial arteriography and BAE for massive hemoptysis. Hemoptysis was caused by bronchiectasis (10 patients), active pulmonary tuberculosis (3 patients), and lung malignancy (one patient). A CT scan of the chest was carried out in 11 patients, which revealed bronchiectasis (8 patients), cavity with infiltrates (3 patients), and mass lesion (one patient). Bronchoscopy was performed in all patients. Bleeding lobe or segment was identified in 12 patients. Bronchial arteriography revealed hypervascularity (13 patients), bronchial artery hypertrophy (5 patients), hypervascularity with shunting (one patient), dense soft tissue staining (7 patients), extravasation of contrast (one patient) pseudoaneurysm (one patient). Bronchial artery embolization was carried out in all patients. Rebleeding occurred within 24 hours in 2 patients who underwent surgery and within one week another 2 patients who were managed with repeat BAE. The complication of embolization occurred in one patient (transverse myelitis). Thirteen patients improved and were discharged home. One patient with terminal lung carcinoma died due to cardiogenic shock secondary to acute myocardial infarction. Bronchial artery embolization is an effective method for management of massive hemoptysis in developing countries and has a low complication rate. (author)

  3. [State of higher nervous activity in women with bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, T M

    2001-01-01

    A total of 103 women were examined with bronchial asthma, who demonstrated disturbances in the intrapsychic adaptation presenting as hystero-hypochondriacal and anxious alterations in the personality pattern with formation of a certain modus of thinking and behavior. Differences have been ascertained in the personality profile of patients with varying clinicopathogenetic forms of bronchial astma in those groups of patients differing in age, degree of severity of the condition duration of the analysis.

  4. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells disrupt bronchial epithelial barrier integrity by targeting tight junctions through IL-13 in asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Kazunari; Steer, Catherine A; Martinez-Gonzalez, Itziar; Altunbulakli, Can; Morita, Hideaki; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Kubo, Terufumi; Wawrzyniak, Paulina; Rückert, Beate; Sudo, Katsuko; Nakae, Susumu; Matsumoto, Kenji; O'Mahony, Liam; Akdis, Mübeccel; Takei, Fumio; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2018-01-01

    Bronchial epithelial barrier leakiness and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have been separately linked to asthma pathogenesis; however, the influence of ILC2s on the bronchial epithelial barrier has not been investigated previously. We investigated the role of ILC2s in the regulation of bronchial epithelial tight junctions (TJs) and barrier function both in bronchial epithelial cells of asthmatic patients and healthy subjects and general innate lymphoid cell- and ILC2-deficient mice. Cocultures of human ILC2s and bronchial epithelial cells were used to determine transepithelial electrical resistance, paracellular flux, and TJ mRNA and protein expressions. The effect of ILC2s on TJs was examined by using a murine model of IL-33-induced airway inflammation in wild-type, recombination-activating gene 2 (Rag2) -/- , Rag2 -/- Il2rg -/- , and Rora sg/sg mice undergoing bone marrow transplantation to analyze the in vivo relevance of barrier disruption by ILC2s. ILC2s significantly impaired the epithelial barrier, as demonstrated by reduced transepithelial electrical resistance and increased fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran permeability in air-liquid interface cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. This was in parallel to decreased mRNAs and disrupted protein expression of TJ proteins and was restored by neutralization of IL-13. Intranasal administration of recombinant IL-33 to wild-type and Rag2 -/- mice lacking T and B cells triggered TJ disruption, whereas Rag2 -/- Il2rg -/- and Rora sg/sg mice undergoing bone marrow transplantation that lack ILC2s did not show any barrier leakiness. Direct nasal administration of IL-13 was sufficient to induce deficiency in the TJ barrier in the bronchial epithelium of mice in vivo. These data highlight an essential mechanism in asthma pathogenesis by demonstrating that ILC2s are responsible for bronchial epithelial TJ barrier leakiness through IL-13. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  5. Increased polysomy of chromosome 7 in bronchial epithelium from patients at high risk for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinsky, S.A.; Neft, R.E.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Current models of carcinogenesis suggest that tissues progress through multiple genetic and epigenetic changes which ultimately lead to development of invasive cancer. Epidemiologic studies of Peto, R.R. and J.A. Doll indicate that the accumulation of these genetic changes over time, rather than any single unique genetic change, is probably responsible for development of the malignant phenotype. The bronchial epithelium of cigarette smokers is diffusely exposed to a broad spectrum of carcinogens, toxicants, and tumor promoters contained in tobacco smoke. This exposure increases the risk of developing multiple, independent premalignant foci throughout the lower respiratory tract that may contain independent gene aberrations. This open-quotes field cancerizationclose quotes theory is supported by studies that have demonstrated progressive histologic changes distributed throughout the lower respiratory tract of smokers. A series of autopsy studies demonstrated that cigarette smokers exhibit premalignant histologic changes ranging from hyperplasia and metaplasia to severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ diffusely throughout the bronchial mucosa. The proximal bronchi appear to exhibit the greatest number of changes, particularly at bifurcations. The results described are the first to quantitate the frequency for a chromosome aberration in open-quotes normalclose quotes bronchial epithelial cells

  6. Alterations in Bronchial Airway miRNA Expression for Lung Cancer Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Ana B; Campbell, Joshua D; Liu, Gang; Elashoff, David; Dubinett, Steven; Smith, Kate; Whitney, Duncan; Lenburg, Marc E; Spira, Avrum

    2017-11-01

    We have previously shown that gene expression alterations in normal-appearing bronchial epithelial cells can serve as a lung cancer detection biomarker in smokers. Given that miRNAs regulate airway gene expression responses to smoking, we evaluated whether miRNA expression is also altered in the bronchial epithelium of smokers with lung cancer. Using epithelial brushings from the mainstem bronchus of patients undergoing bronchoscopy for suspected lung cancer (as part of the AEGIS-1/2 clinical trials), we profiled miRNA expression via small-RNA sequencing from 347 current and former smokers for which gene expression data were also available. Patients were followed for one year postbronchoscopy until a final diagnosis of lung cancer ( n = 194) or benign disease ( n = 153) was made. Following removal of 6 low-quality samples, we used 138 patients (AEGIS-1) as a discovery set to identify four miRNAs (miR-146a-5p, miR-324-5p, miR-223-3p, and miR-223-5p) that were downregulated in the bronchial airway of lung cancer patients (ANOVA P cancer patients (GSEA FDR lung cancer significantly improves its performance (AUC) in the 203 samples (AEGIS-1/2) serving an independent test set (DeLong P lung cancer, and that they may regulate cancer-associated gene expression differences. Cancer Prev Res; 10(11); 651-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Increased polysomy of chromosome 7 in bronchial epithelium from patients at high risk for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinsky, S.A.; Neft, R.E.; Lechner, J.F. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Current models of carcinogenesis suggest that tissues progress through multiple genetic and epigenetic changes which ultimately lead to development of invasive cancer. Epidemiologic studies of Peto, R.R. and J.A. Doll indicate that the accumulation of these genetic changes over time, rather than any single unique genetic change, is probably responsible for development of the malignant phenotype. The bronchial epithelium of cigarette smokers is diffusely exposed to a broad spectrum of carcinogens, toxicants, and tumor promoters contained in tobacco smoke. This exposure increases the risk of developing multiple, independent premalignant foci throughout the lower respiratory tract that may contain independent gene aberrations. This {open_quotes}field cancerization{close_quotes} theory is supported by studies that have demonstrated progressive histologic changes distributed throughout the lower respiratory tract of smokers. A series of autopsy studies demonstrated that cigarette smokers exhibit premalignant histologic changes ranging from hyperplasia and metaplasia to severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ diffusely throughout the bronchial mucosa. The proximal bronchi appear to exhibit the greatest number of changes, particularly at bifurcations. The results described are the first to quantitate the frequency for a chromosome aberration in {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} bronchial epithelial cells.

  8. Effects of fenspiride on human bronchial cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoenzymes: functional and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo, J; Naline, E; Ortiz, J L; Berto, L; Girard, V; Malbezin, M; Advenier, C; Morcillo, E J

    1998-01-02

    We have investigated the role of human bronchial cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases in the effects of fenspiride, a drug endowed with bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory properties. Functional studies on human isolated bronchi showed that fenspiride (10(-6)-3 x 10(-3) M, 30 min) induced a shift to the left of the concentration-response curves for isoprenaline and sodium nitroprusside with -logEC50 values of 4.1+/-0.1 (n = 7) and 3.5+/-0.2 (n = 8), respectively. Biochemical studies were carried out on three human bronchi in which separation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoenzymes was performed by ion exchange chromatography followed by determination of phosphodiesterase activity with a radioisotopic method. Phosphodiesterase 4 (cyclic AMP-specific) and phosphodiesterase 5 (cyclic GMP-specific) were the major phosphodiesterase isoforms present in the human bronchial tissue. The presence of phosphodiesterase 1 (Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated), phosphodiesterase 2 (cyclic GMP-stimulated) and, in two cases, phosphodiesterase 3 (cyclic GMP-inhibited) was also identified. Fenspiride inhibited phosphodiesterase 4 and phosphodiesterase 3 activities with -logIC50 values of 4.16+/-0.09 and 3.44+/-0.12, respectively. Phosphodiesterase 5 activity was also inhibited with a -logIC50 value of approximately 3.8. Fenspiride (fenspiride is an effective inhibitor of both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP hydrolytic activity in human bronchial tissues and this action may contribute to its airway effects.

  9. Referred pain to the ipsilateral forehead and orbit: An unusual phenomenon during bronchial artery embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakantan, Ravi; Ketkar, Manoj; Maddali, Krishna; Deshmukh, Hemant

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: We report an unusual pattern of referred pain to the ipsilateral forehead and orbit observed during bronchial artery embolization (BAE) for massive hemoptysis due to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and postulate possible neural mechanisms for its occurrence.Methods: Seven men, from a series of 194 patients (171 men, 23 women) undergoing BAE (right bronchial artery 4, left 3) with gelatin sponge for control of massive hemoptysis due to pulmonary TB form the subject of this report.Results: Embolization was successful in achieving control of hemoptysis in these patients and there were no complications following the embolization. Transient, moderately severe, ipsilateral supraorbital and/or retroorbital pain occurred only during the injection of the gelatin sponge contrast mixture into the bronchial artery. The pain did not occur during the injection of heparinized saline or ionic contrast medium.Conclusions: Referred pain during BAE is an unusual phenomenon. Acute vessel distension triggering visceral sensations is probably the causative mechanism. Sympathetic afferents from the bronchi coursing through the posterior pulmonary plexus eventually pass to the trigeminal ganglion via the carotid sympathetic chain. The ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve then mediate pain sensation to the ipsilateral forehead and orbit. Similarly, parasympathetic afferents from the pulmonary plexus crossing the nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve may be responsible for interexchange of impulses to the neurons in this nucleus. Sensory fibers of the ophthalmic and maxillary nerves relaying in this nucleus are then involved in this pain being referred to the forehead and orbit.

  10. Effect of aerosolized acetylcholine on bronchial blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charan, N B; Carvalho, P; Johnson, S R; Thompson, W H; Lakshminarayan, S

    1998-08-01

    We studied the effects of aerosolized as well as intravenous infusion of acetylcholine on bronchial blood flow in six anesthetized sheep. Intravenous infusion of acetylcholine, at a dose of 2 microg/kg, increased bronchial blood flow from 45 +/- 15 (SE) to 74 +/- 30 ml/min, and vascular conductance increased by 76 +/- 22%. In contrast, aerosolized acetylcholine at doses of 2 and 20 microg/kg decreased bronchial vascular conductance by approximately 10%. At an aerosolized dose of 200 microg/kg, the bronchial vascular conductance increased by approximately 15%, and there was no further increase in conductance when the aerosolized dose was increased to 2,000 microg/kg. Pretreatment of animals with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, partially blocked the vasodilatory effects of intravenous acetylcholine and completely blocked the vasodilatory effects of high-dose aerosolized acetylcholine. These data suggest that aerosolized acetylcholine does not readily penetrate the vascular wall of bronchial circulatory system and, therefore, has minimal vasodilatory effects on the bronchial vasculature.

  11. Bronchial Artery Embolization for Massive Hemoptysis: a Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: To assess the efficacy and safety of bronchial artery embolization in the treatment of massive hemoptysis.   Materials and Methods: A retrospective study on 46 patients (26 males and 20 females who were referred to the Razavi Hospital from April 2009 to May 2012 with massive hemoptysis and had bronchial artery embolization procedures. General characteristics of the patients including age, gender, etiology, and thorax computed tomograms, findings of bronchial angiographic, results of the embolization, complications related to bronchial artery embolization and clinical outcome during follow-up were reviewed. Results: The etiology included previous pulmonary tuberculosis in 20 cases, previous tuberculosis with bronchiectasis in 16 cases, bronchiectasis in 6 cases, and active pulmonary tuberculosis in one case. No identifiable causes could be detected in three patients. Moreover, massive hemoptysis was successfully and immediately controlled following the embolization procedure in all patients. One patient developed recurrent hemoptysis during one month following the procedure and was treated by re-embolization. No major procedure–related complication such as bronchial infarction was identified However none of the patientsexperienced neurological complications. Conclusion: Bronchial artery embolization is a safe and effective means of controlling massive hemoptysis and should be regarded as the first-line treatment for this condition.

  12. Grain dust induces IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells: effect on neutrophil recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H S; Suh, J H; Kim, S S; Kwon, O J

    2000-06-01

    There have been several investigations suggesting an involvement of activated neutrophils in the development of grain dust (GD)-induced occupational asthma. Interleukin-8 in the sputa from GD-induced asthmatic patients increased significantly after the exposure to GD. To confirm IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells when exposed to GD, and to evaluate the role of IL-8 on neutrophil recruitment. We cultured Beas-2B, a bronchial epithelial cell line. To observe GD-induced responses, four different concentrations ranging from 1 to 200 microg/mL of GD were incubated for 24 hours and compared with those without incubation of GD. To evaluate the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on IL-8 production and neutrophil chemotaxis, epithelial cells were incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture supernatant derived from subjects with GD-induced asthma exposed to 10 microg/mL of GD, and then compared with those without addition of PBMC supernatant. The level of released IL-8 in the supernatant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neutrophil chemotactic activity of the culture supernatant was determined by modified Boyden chamber method. Interleukin-8 production and neutrophil chemotactic activity from bronchial epithelial cells significantly increased with additions of GD in a dose-dependent manner (P < .05, respectively), and were significantly augmented with additions of PBMC supernatant (P < .05, respectively) at each concentration. Close correlation was noted between neutrophil chemotactic activity and IL-8 level (r = 0.87, P < .05). Compared with the untreated sample, pre-treatment of anti-IL-8 antibody induced a significant suppression (up to 67.2%) of neutrophil chemotactic activity in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that IL-8 produced from bronchial epithelial cells may be a major cytokine, which induces neutrophil migration into the airways when exposed to GD.

  13. Distinct patterns of inflammation in the airway lumen and bronchial mucosa of children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regamey, Nicolas; Tsartsali, Lemonia; Hilliard, Tom N; Fuchs, Oliver; Tan, Hui-Leng; Zhu, Jie; Qiu, Yu-Sheng; Alton, Eric W F W; Jeffery, Peter K; Bush, Andrew; Davies, Jane C

    2012-02-01

    Studies in cystic fibrosis (CF) generally focus on inflammation present in the airway lumen. Little is known about inflammation occurring in the airway wall, the site ultimately destroyed in end-stage disease. To test the hypothesis that inflammatory patterns in the lumen do not reflect those in the airway wall of children with CF. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and endobronchial biopsies were obtained from 46 children with CF and 16 disease-free controls. BAL cell differential was assessed using May-Gruenwald-stained cytospins. Area profile counts of bronchial tissue immunopositive inflammatory cells were determined. BAL fluid from children with CF had a predominance of neutrophils compared with controls (median 810×10(3)/ml vs 1×10(3)/ml, p<0.0001). In contrast, subepithelial bronchial tissue from children with CF was characterised by a predominance of lymphocytes (median 961 vs 717 cells/mm(2), p=0.014), of which 82% were (CD3) T lymphocytes. In chest exacerbations, BAL fluid from children with CF had more inflammatory cells of all types compared with those with stable disease whereas, in biopsies, only the numbers of lymphocytes and macrophages, but not of neutrophils, were higher. A positive culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was associated with higher numbers of T lymphocytes in subepithelial bronchial tissue (median 1174 vs 714 cells/mm(2), p=0.029), but no changes were seen in BAL fluid. Cell counts in BAL fluid and biopsies were positively correlated with age but were unrelated to each other. The inflammatory response in the CF airway is compartmentalised. In contrast to the neutrophil-dominated inflammation present in the airway lumen, the bronchial mucosa is characterised by the recruitment and accumulation of lymphocytes.

  14. Effect of inhaled corticosteroids on bronchial asthma in Japanese athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Yoshifumi; Koya, Toshiyuki; Kagamu, Hiroshi; Tsukioka, Keisuke; Toyama, Mio; Sakagami, Takuro; Hasegawa, Takashi; Narita, Ichiei; Arakawa, Masaaki; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2015-04-01

    Asthma has a higher prevalence in athlete populations such as Olympic athletes than in the general population. Correct diagnosis and management of asthma in athletes is important for symptom control and avoidance of doping accusations. However, few reports are available on asthma treatment in the athlete population in clinical practice. In this study, we focused on the clinical efficacy of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) for asthma in a Japanese athlete population. The study subjects included athletes who visited the Niigata Institute for Health and Sports Medicine, Niigata, Japan for athletic tests and who were diagnosed with asthma on the basis of respiratory symptoms and positive results in a bronchodilator or bronchial provocation test such as exercise, hypertonic saline, or methacholine provocation. The athletes received ICS alone for at least 3 months, and the clinical background, sports type, and treatment efficacy were analyzed. The study population comprised 80 athletes (59 men and 21 women) with a median age of 16.0 years. Regarding sports type, 28 athletes engaged in winter sports (35%), 22 in endurance sports (27.5%), and 25 in indoor sports (31.3%). Although ICS is the primary treatment in athlete asthma, 16.3% of the athletes showed an unsatisfactory response to treatment according to the Global Evaluation of Treatment Effectiveness (GETE). These subjects were characterized by a decreased response to methacholine and lower values for FEV1/FVC and type 2 helper T cell (Th2)-associated biomarkers relative to responsive athletes. In multivariate analysis, FEV1/FVC and the logarithm to the base 10 of the IgE level were independently associated with the ICS response. These data suggest that ICS is effective for asthma in most athletes. However, certain asthmatic athletes are less responsive to ICS than expected. The pathogenesis in these subjects may differ from that of conventional asthma characterized by chronic allergic airway inflammation. Copyright

  15. Effectiveness of thin-slice axial images of multidetector row CT for visualization of bronchial artery before bronchial arterial embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shida, Yoshitaka; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Aibe, Hitoshi; Kubo, Yuko; Terashima, Kotaro; Kinjo, Maya; Kamano, H.; Yoshida, Atsuko

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the ability of visualization of bronchial artery (BA) by using thin-slice axial images of 4-detector multidetector row CT in 65 patients with hemoptysis. In all patients, the origins of BA were well identified with observation of consecutive axial images with 1 mm thickness by paging method and bronchial arterial embolization (BAE) was performed successfully. Thin-slice axial images were considered to be useful to recognize BA and to perform BAE in patients with hemoptysis. (author)

  16. Methods of reducing non-specific adsorption in microfluidic biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seokheun; Chae, Junseok

    2010-01-01

    Non-specific adsorption (NSA) of biomolecules is a persistent challenge in microfluidic biosensors. Microfluidic biosensors often have immobilized bioreceptors such as antibodies, enzymes, DNAs, etc, via linker molecules such as SAMs (self-assembled monolayers) to enhance immobilization. However, the linker molecules are very susceptible to NSA, causing false responses and decreasing sensitivity. In this paper, we present design methods to reduce the NSA of alkanethiol SAMs, which are popular linker molecules on microfluidic biosensors. Three design parameters were studied for two different chain-length SAMs (n = 2 and 10): (i) SAM incubation time, (ii) surface roughness [0.8 nm and 4.4 nm RMS (root mean square)] and (iii) gold crystal re-growth along (1 1 1) the target orientation. NSA was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The results suggest that increased SAM incubation time reduces NSA, and that short-chain SAMs respond more favorably than the long-chain SAMs. Both SAMs were shown to be sensitive to surface roughness, and long-chain SAMs reduced NSA by 75%. Gold crystal re-growth along (1 1 1) the target orientation profoundly reduced NSA on the short-chain SAM. On a gold surface where surface roughness was 0.8 nm and there was strong directional alignment along the (1 1 1) gold crystal, final concentrations of nonspecifically bound proteins were 0.05 ng mm −2 (fibrinogen) and 0.075 ng mm −2 (lysozyme)—significantly lower than other known methods. The results show that optimizing three parameters (SAM incubation time, gold surface roughness and gold crystal orientation) improved SAM sensitivity for fibrinogen–anti-fibrinogen conjugates by a factor of 5 in 2.94 pM, suggesting that the methods are effective for reducing NSA in microfluidic biosensors.

  17. Theeffectivenessofginger compress on non-specific low back pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theeffectivenessofginger compress on non-specific low back pain. ... for a total of ten sessions and control group (n=7) did not received any treatment. ... in pain relief and reduces functional disability in patients with non-specific low back pain.

  18. Interventional therapy of refractory hemoptysis complicated with bronchial artery to pulmonary circulation shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Qing; Yang Dakuan; Wang Jiaping; Guo Li; Yang Feifei; Tong Yuyun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The presence of bronchial artery to pulmonary circulation shunt (BPS) is the pathologic reason for refractory hemoptysis. Those who have accepted traditional bronchial arterial embolization (BAE) treatment usually carry high risks of recurrence of hemoptysis. At the same time,because of the limits of BAE treatment, safety can not be ignored when we pay full attention to its therapeutic effect. This research aims to find out an effective method to treat the refractory hemoptysis with BPS. Methods: During the period from Sep. 1996 to Feb. 2010, two hundred and twelve patients of hemoptysis were treated with BAE. Of the total 212 patients, BPS was confirmed by DSA angiography in 99, including 72 males and 27 females with a mean age of 47.6 years. The primary diseases included bronchiectasis (n = 25), tuberculosis (n = 64) and inflammatory disorders(n = 10). All patients were treated with BAE. According to the embolization agent used in the treatment the patients were divided into pure Gelfoam group (n = 52) and permanent embolization group (n = 47, using PVA particles, coils, etc.). All patients were followed up regularly at one day, two weeks, four weeks, six months, one year, two years after the treatment. The data were analyzed by using chi square test and rank sum test. Results: Of 52 cases in permanent embolization group, complete cure was achieved in 49, excellent results in 2 and effective response in one. For patients in pure Gelfoam group, complete cure was obtained in 37, excellent results in 16, effective response in 2 and ineffectiveness in 2. Statistic analysis showed that a significant difference in therapeutic effectiveness existed between two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study clearly indicates that selective bronchial arterial permanent dual embolization is an effective technique for the treatment of refractory hemoptysis, which is definitely superior to the pure Gelfoam emboliztion in obtaining excellent therapeutic results. Besides

  19. Magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) in bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, R.; Bittner, R.; Schoerner, W.; Weiss, T.

    1988-01-01

    Comparative studies were made of 47 patients suffering from histologically and cytologically confirmed bronchial carcinoma, using CT and MRT respectively. CT examinations were performed before and after intravenous administration of contrast medium, whereas the MR examinations were conducted via EEG-triggered T 1 and T 2 marked SE sequences in the axial and coronary planes. Both methods were assessed in respect of tumour visualisation and documentation of tumour spread. Staging of tumour and lymph nodes yielded largely concurring results for CT and MRT. Exceptions were seen in 7 of 10 patients with malignant involvement of the pericardium and in 3 of 27 patients with lymph node metastases located mediastinally and subcarinally where only MRT showed a positive involvement of the pericardium or lymph nodes (with possible consequences for the staging of the tumour or lymph nodes). Decisive advantages of MRT compared with CT were seen in the identification of infiltration of the aortic-wall, in the differentiation of the poststenotic syndrome, in the visualisation of the thoracic wall infiltration and functional information on blood flow rate in upper venolus obstruction caused by a carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  20. Lung function decline in bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibella, Fabio; Cuttitta, Giuseppina; Bellia, Vincenzo; Bucchieri, Salvatore; D'Anna, Silvestre; Guerrera, Daniela; Bonsignore, Giovanni

    2002-12-01

    We evaluated the longitudinal changes in lung function and the factors associated with FEV(1) changes over time in a sample of asthmatic subjects. FEV(1) measures were recorded every 3 months over a 5-year follow-up period. To compare all subjects independently of body size, FEV(1) values were normalized for the subject's height at the third power. We evaluated the possible effect of age, baseline FEV(1), disease duration, and FEV(1) variability on the rate of change of FEV(1). We studied 142 subjects with asthma diagnosed on the basis of validated clinical and functional criteria. FEV(1) showed a linear decay with aging in each subject. For a subject 1.65 m in height, the median overall FEV(1) decay was 40.9 mL/yr. FEV(1) decay slopes were significantly influenced by age and sex, being steeper in younger male subjects. A significant interaction was found between age and baseline FEV(1): the FEV(1) decay was significantly higher among younger asthmatics with a poorer baseline functional condition. A longer disease duration was associated with a lower FEV(1) slope. FEV(1) variability was strongly associated with an increased rate of FEV(1) decline. FEV(1) decline in patients with bronchial asthma is significantly influenced by baseline FEV(1), disease duration, and FEV(1) variability. Moreover, the rate of FEV(1) decline seems to increase in younger subjects only when the baseline function is poorer.

  1. Influence of age on bronchial mucociliary transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchelle, E.; Zahm, J.-M.; Bertrand, A.

    1979-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance was measured in 19 healthy non-smoking male subjects, aged between 21 and 69, by analysing the decrease in bronchial radioactivity of an aerosol of resin particles (mean diameter 7.4 +- 1.5 μm) labelled with sup(99m)Tc. The mucociliary clearance was expressed as the percentage of radioactivity eliminated after 1 h. The measurements were made on two occasions with an average time lapse of 5 weeks. The intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variation were 15.6% and 41.5% respectively. The mucociliary clearance was significantly lower (P 54 years) than that observed (mean 34.1 +- s.d. 14.1%) in the younger subjects (21 to 37 years). A significant negative correlation (r=-0.472, P<0.05) was obtained between the ages of the healthy subjects and their mucociliary clearance. However, the fact that the results varied considerably within each age group suggests that factors other than age may have an effect on the mucociliary clearance. (author)

  2. Frequency of polymorphism -262 c/t in catalase gene and oxidative damage in Slovak children with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babusikova, Eva; Jesenak, Milos; Evinova, Andrea; Banovcin, Peter; Dobrota, Dusan

    2013-12-01

    Bronchial asthma is a complex disease in which genetic factors, environmental factors and oxidative damage are responsible for the initiation and modulation of disease progression. If antioxidant mechanisms fail, reactive oxygen species damage the biomolecules followed by progression of the disease. Catalase is one of the most important endogenous enzymatic antioxidants. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that increased oxidative damage and polymorphism in the CAT gene (-262 promoter region, C/T) are associated with childhood bronchial asthma. Genotyping of the polymorphisms in the CAT gene in healthy (249) and asthmatic children (248) was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Markers of oxidative damage: content of sulfhydryl groups and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were determined by spectrophotometry in children. The TT genotype of catalase was more frequent among the asthmatic patients (22.6%) than in healthy children (4.8%) (odds ratio=5.63; 95% confidence interval=2.93-10.81, P<.001). The amount of sulfhydryl groups decreased significantly and conversely, the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances increased significantly in bronchial asthma and in catalase TT genotype compared to other catalase genotypes of this gene. These results suggest that catalase polymorphism might participate in development of bronchial asthma and in enhanced oxidative damage in asthmatic children. Genetic variation of enzymatic antioxidants may modulate disease risk. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Bronchial lesions of mouse model of asthma are preceded by immune complex vasculitis and induced bronchial associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Ian C; Sell, Stewart

    2015-08-01

    We systematically examined by immune histology the lungs of some widely used mouse models of asthma. These models include sensitization by multiple intraperitoneal injections of soluble ovalbumin (OVA) or of OVA with alum, followed by three intranasal or aerosol challenges 3 days apart. Within 24 h after a single challenge there is fibrinoid necrosis of arterial walls with deposition of immunoglobulin (Ig) and OVA and infiltration of eosinophilic polymorphonuclear cells that lasts for about 3 days followed by peribronchial B-cell infiltration and slight reversible goblet cell hypertrophy (GCHT). After two challenges, severe eosinophilic vasculitis is present at 6 h, increases by 72 h, and then declines; B-cell proliferation and significant GCHT and hyperplasia (GCHTH) and bronchial smooth muscle hypertrophy recur more prominently. After three challenges, there is significantly increased induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) formation, GCHTH, and smooth muscle hypertrophy. Elevated levels of Th2 cytokines, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, are present in bronchial lavage fluids. Sensitized mice have precipitating antibody and positive Arthus skin reactions but also develop significant levels of IgE antibody to OVA but only 1 week after challenge. We conclude that the asthma like lung lesions induced in these models is preceded by immune complex-mediated eosinophilic vasculitis and iBALT formation. There are elevations of Th2 cytokines that most likely produce bronchial lesions that resemble human asthma. However, it is unlikely that mast cell-activated atopic mechanisms are responsible as we found only a few presumed mast cells by toluidine blue and metachromatic staining limited to the most proximal part of the main stem bronchus, and none in the remaining main stem bronchus or in the lung periphery.

  4. Diagnosis of respiratory epithelial clearance abnormality in patients suffering from chemo-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis with comorbidity of bronchial mucosa O. M. Raznatovska, V. M. Khlystun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Raznatovska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory epithelial clearance timely and early disorder diagnosis in patients suffering from chemo-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (CRPTB concomitant pathology of the bronchial mucosa is an actual problem of modern phthisiology, the solution of which will allow the timely application of rational correction, which will increase the effectiveness of this category treatment among patients. Objective is to investigate the nature and features of respiratory epithelial clearance disorders among patients suffering from CRPTB with comorbidity of the bronchi mucous membrane by using the developed method of these disorders diagnosis. Materials and methods. The respiratory epithelial clearance state diagnosis was carried out among 133 patients with CRPTB at the beginning of the intensive phase of antimycobacterial therapy during fibrobronchoscopy, provided there is a concomitant specific pathology of the mucous membrane (including its combination with non-specific endobronchitis. Average age of patients was 36.5 ± 1.1 years old. There were 89 (66.9 % men and 44 (33.1 % women. The tracheobronchial tree diagnostic fibrobronchoscopy with further study of the respiratory epithelial clearance condition among patients suffering from CRPTB was carried out by V. M. Khlystun at Phthisiology and Pulmonology Department of Zaporizhzhia State Medical University in CI “Zaporizhzhia Regional Antituberculous Clinical Dispensary”. Criteria of patients including into the research: existence of resistance of tuberculosis mycobacteria to anti-mycobacterial drugs in patients with new and repeated cases of tuberculosis, existence of pathology of the mucosa of bronchi confirmed during fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Serious associated diseases (HIV infection/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, etc. were criteria of exception. The condition of bronchial mucosa was studied under narcotic anaesthesia by fiberoptic bronchoscopes of Olympus (Japan. Pathology of a bronchial tree was described

  5. Genetic markers, which define the occurrence and course of bronchial asthma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banadyha N.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the frequency of polymorphic loci associations rs 1042713 (Arg16Gly of ADRβ2 gene in children with bronchial asthma. Patients and methods: in-depth clinical examination using the special methods of investigation, conducted to 62 children suffering from bronchial asthma. The results of investigation. As a result of depth collection of anamnesis, it was revealed that in 73.68% of patients the anamnesis was unburdened. Among the examined patients, bronchial asthma manifested at the early age in 18 children (33.96% in preschool age in 17 children (32.08%, and in a primary school in 18 children (33.96%. The early debut of disease associated with genotype Arg16Gly, while late manifestation observed in children with genotype Gly16Gly. Mostly the family inheritance depends on mother health, regardless of the severity of bronchial asthma. Іt was found that in both types of inheritance (paternal and maternal dominated genotype Arg16Gly. Found that girls often associated with asthma genotype Gly16Gly (56.52% and Arg16Gly (39.13% while the boys with genotype Arg16Gly (53.84%, less with Gly16Gly (38.89%. However, genotype Arg16Arg was observed in individual patients and in the case of intermittent disease. In case of allergen-induced and virus-induced phenotypes the genotype Arg16Gly was more often diagnosed. It was clarified that intermittent flow associated with two genotypes: Arg16Gly (47.37% and Gly16Gly (42.11%. The persistent mild course of bronchial asthma replied to genotype Gly16Gly (64.71%, but with moderate persistent — to Arg16Gly (57.69%. A good bronchodilator response was observed in patients with genotype diagnosed Arg16Gly and Gly16Gly. At the same time, patients with genotype Arg16Arg ADRβ2 needed the use of combined drugs to overcome the attack. Conclusions: Allelic polymorphism differences of ADRβ2 gene in children with asthma were diagnosed and it indicates that dependence of debut was genetically based as well

  6. Features of Atopic Reactivity in Schoolchildren with Severe Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.I. Marusyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study involved 30 students with severe bronchial asthma and 30 children with moderate to severe course. Patients with severe bronchial asthma revealed a clear tendency to increase the relative content of interleukin 4 in peripheral blood, which indirectly indicates the severity of inflammation in the bronchi. Almost every second child suffering from severe bronchial asthma reported an increase in the concentration of immunoglobulin E (more than 545.3 IU/ml, and the odds ratio was 1.9 (95% CI 1.1–3.4. In the group of patients with severe bronchial asthma, cases of increased skin sensitivity to household allergens were significantly more frequent compared to the second group. Thus, the size of hyperemia over 15.0 mm was recorded in 81.5 % of children of the first group and only in 51.9 % of persons (Pϕ < 0.05 in the second one. Clinical and epidemiological risk and diagnostic value of individual indicators of atopic reactivity were determined to verify the phenotype of severe bronchial asthma.

  7. Psychological dysfunctions in women with bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia G. Astafieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The importance of psychosocial factors in the management of bronchial asthma (BA is discussed in clinical guidelines, including in international and national clinical guidelines. However, a specific evaluation of their role as a cause of poor asthma control in susceptible patients is required. Aim. Assessment of psychological health of women with different levels of asthma control.Materials and methods. The study included 108 women with asthma observed in Saratov center for Allergology who were stratified into 3 groups according to the control level (good, partial, uncontrolled, according to GINA. In establishing a diagnosis of asthma, standard methods were used (medical history, symptoms, spirography. To assess the level of control, ACQ-5 (Asthma Control Questionnaire 5 items-self-administered was used, to assess the quality of life, questionnaires AQLQ-S (Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire S; SF-36 (36-ltem MOS Short-Form Health Survey, a standardized and validated Russian version of the women’s health questionnaire WHQ (Women’s Health Questionnaire were used; for psychological diagnosis and evaluation of social and personal competencies that contribute to the preservation and improvement of human health (the intellectual, personal, emotional, physical, social, creative, spiritual aspects, integrated multimodal questionnaire was used. The comparison was conducted with a control group of men with bronchial asthma, comparable in age and level of control.Results. Women with poorly controlled asthma had worse performance of AQLQ-S (combined median score of 3,43 instead of 5,13 in the group of good control; p < 0,05; all scales of the SF-36, including the general condition (43,48 against 55,07, role of physical (25,93 against 57,76 and emotional problems (43,83 against 64,37; at p < 0.05. According to the WHQ questionnaire (the inverse relationship: the higher the score, the lower the quality of life in the group with poor control

  8. Delphi project in bronchial asthma. Two stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Benítez, M; Ibero Iborra, M; Sanz Ortega, J; Garde Garde, J

    2010-01-01

    From the paediatric point of view, we have undertaken two Delphi studies into bronchial asthma. The first is related to the consensus known as the consensus document of the five associations. The second is more recent and has been undertaken with GEMA (the Spanish Guidelines on the Management of Asthma). The aim of this paper is to carry out a descriptive study comparing the 2 Delphi processes and to objectively assess if in some way behaviour over the past two years has changed as far as expert opinion is concerned. In the consensus document those points giving rise to most controversy were the treatment of children under three years of age and treatment with immunotherapy in allergic asthma. It is also necessary to highlight how important it was at that particular point in time to define the phenotypes of wheezing and the predictive index of asthma in children of less than 3 years of age. Of the 52 questions in the questionnaire, in 13.6% the panel of experts reached no consensus in their positions. Following GEMA the Delphi methodology, 56 questions were asked in the first round of the questionnaire, and consensus was reached in 87.5%. As regards the paediatric part relating to diagnosis and treatment in children, agreement was reached on all the questions in the first round. Agreement was reached in 8.92% questions in the second round. Clinical guidelines and consensus documents can modify behaviour towards an illness, both in the diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2010 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Problematic diagnosis of bronchial foreign bodies in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllylae, V.; Paeivaensalo, M.; Seppaenen, U.; Hyrynkangas, K.; Linna, O.; Kortelainen, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Bronchial foreign bodies by children are dangerous and require immediate therapeutic measures. Findings and significance of chest film in the diagnosis of bronchial foreign bodies in 24 children were analysed. All patients were symptomatic. 18 patients had an abnormal and 6 normal auscultation finding. In three cases the physician did not suspect aspiration, and the diagnosis was delayed, which caused the death of one child. Roentgenpositive foreign bodies were found in 8 and -negative in 16 cases. Secondary changes (obstructive emphysema, atelectasis, pneumonia) were seen in 16 cases. In emergency cases the chest films were analysed by physician and later by a radiologist, who found 88% of them to be abnormal. Fluoroscopy of expiratory chest film helps to detect the unilateral emphysema more distinctly. The diagnosis must always be confirmed with bronchoscopy and extraction thereby is the adequate treatment of bronchial bodies. (orig.) [de

  10. OMALIZUMAB FOR CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA: INDICATIONS TO APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Kulichenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies to IgE are a totally new class of medications currently used to enhance the supervision over severe persistent atopic bronchial asthma. Omalizumab is the most well studied, first and only medication of this group, which is recommended for the application and is allowed for treatment of uncontrolled bronchial asthma among adults and children aged 12 and over in different countries of the world, including Russia. High omalizumab assisted treatment costs, as well as the need in the monthly visits to the doctor for the omalizumab injections are justified for the patients, requiring repeat hospitalizations, emergency medical aid, using high doses of the inhalation and/or systemic glucocorticosteroids. The article reviews the criteria for the selection of patients fit for omalizumab assisted treatment.Key words: omalizumab, anti-ige-antibodies, bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, treatment, children.

  11. Treatment of distal bronchial stenosis after bilateral lung transplantation

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    S. V. Golovinskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effi ciency of lung transplantation is considerably limited by the complications associated with the bronchial pathologies. Despite the progress of the treatment methods, bronchial complications are still remaining as an actual problem in the postoperative period with frequency of occurrence from 7 to 29%. However, the bronchial stenosis are the most common bronchial complications after lung transplantation with mortality from 2 to 4%.Aim. To study an experience of our center of bronchial stenosis treatment in lung recipients. Materials and methods. 34 patients underwent lung transplantation from September 2014 to January 2017. 6 (16% of them had a stenosis of lobar or segmental bronchi from 84 to 494 postoperative day. 5 (83% of them have demonstrated multifocal lesions. In all of the cases there was performed an endoscopic bougienage, which involved a balloon dilatation and electrocoagulated incision of granular tissue under X-ray control. After that the patients were administrated by everolimus.Results. Restenosis was formed in 132,0 ± 94,2 postoperative day after primary treatment in all patients. In four cases (67% we used nitinol stent placement under X-ray control. There were no complications. In 3 cases stents were dislocated distally, so we needed to use repeated endoscopic bougienage to replace the stent. Using of everolimus has allowed to decrease the rate of restenosis, but it need future research.Conclusion. Distal bronchial stenosis after lung transplantation can be managed with endoscopic bougienage and stent placement. Adding everolimus has not signifi cantly affected the risk of frequency of restenosis.

  12. Empirical description of bronchial and nonbronchial arteries with MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hong, E-mail: yuhong.2002@hotmail.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Liu Shiyuan, E-mail: cjr.liushiyuan@vip.163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Li Huimin, E-mail: yuhongphd@163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Xiao Xiangsheng, E-mail: cjr.xxsh@vip.163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Dong Weihua, E-mail: dongweihua2000@163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: We aimed to retrospectively evaluate bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries using multi-detector row helical computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography in patients with pulmonary disorders. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine patients (24 men, 15 women; mean age, 63.4 years; range, 20-82 years) with congenital and acquired pulmonary disorders of the bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries underwent multi-detector row helical computed tomographic angiography of the thorax using a 16-detector row scanner. Each of these patients had experienced an episode of hemoptysis. Computed tomographic angiogram data, which included maximum intensity projections, multiplanar reconstruction, and three-dimensional volume-rendered images, were used to retrospectively analyse the characteristics of the bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries. Results: We identified a total of 128 bronchial arteries (76 on the right side and 52 on the left) in 39 patients. We detected 42 nonbronchial systemic artery branches, including 19 internal mammary artery branches, 8 subclavian artery branches, 8 inferior phrenic artery branches, 5 intercostal artery branches, 1 thyrocervical trunk branch, and 1 celiac trunk branch. Thirty-five dilated and tortuous nonbronchial systemic arteries entered into the lung parenchyma and extended down to the lesions. Every case, except the one case of sequestration, was associated with pleural thickening where the vascular structures passed through the extrapleural fat. Conclusions: The variations in both the bronchial artery anatomy and the location and type of the nonbronchial arteries were great. Nonbronchial arteries may be a significant source of hemoptysis. MDCT angiography can be used to detect detailed anatomical information about the origins and courses of bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries and their pathophysiologic features.

  13. [Iatrogenic bronchial obstruction: study of 4 atopic children with bronchial obstruction induced by acetyl salicylic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, L; Vuillemier, P L; Principe, A M; Petrillo, T

    1986-01-01

    The authors have studied the modification of the spirometric parameters in four atopic children, during nonallergic diet, after administration of ASA (400 mg). The examination of the respiratory functionality has showed a fall of parameters starting four hours after the challenge and with an increase of respiratory resistance. This bronchospastic reaction persisted for about eighteen hours to diminish 24 h. after administration of 400 mg of ASA. The study of spirometric values has showed a remarkable fall of MMEF, sign of small airways obstruction, but also of FEV1-CV for the involvement of the higher airways. The authors attribute the reaction to the metabolites of arachidonic acid (Leukotrienes) and to their different receptor site on the bronchial mucous membrane target cells. The authors conclude showing the gravity of injury that will induce imprudent administration of ASA in hypersensitive subject.

  14. A case of endobronchial lipoma mimicking bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevket Ozkaya

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sevket Ozkaya1, Hasan Demir1, Serhat Findik21Samsun Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Hospital, Samsun, Turkey; 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, Samsun, TurkeyAbstract: Endobronchial lipoma is a rare neoplasm of the tracheobronchial tree and it may cause irreversible pulmonary damage due to recurrent pneumonia. Rarely, it may mimic bronchial asthma. We present a 53-year-old woman with an endobronchial lipoma, which had been treated as a bronchial asthma for four years. She also had developed recurrent pneumonia three times.Keywords: endobronchial lipoma, asthma, radiology, bronchoscopy

  15. Cushing's syndrome associated with a bronchial adenoma. Possible periodic hormonogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, M S; Gutman, A; Bruderman, I; Myers, B; Griffel, W B

    1975-09-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic problems in a patient with ectopic ACTH syndrome caused by a malignant bronchial adenoma are discussed. Persistent Cushing's syndrome was present following apparent total adrenalectomy, but radioactive scanning with 131I-19-iodocholesterol showed the presence of residual adrenal tissue in the right suprarenal bed. Amelioration of the hypercortisolism occurred after removal of the bronchial adenoma. A paradoxical elevation of adrenocortical activity followed administration of dexamethasone and data are presented which suggest that periodic secretion of ACTH accounted for this phenomenon.

  16. Bronchial abnormalities found in a consecutive series of 40 brachycephalic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzi, Davide; Bertoncello, Diana; Drigo, Michele

    2009-10-01

    To detect abnormalities of the lower respiratory tract (trachea, principal bronchi, and lobar bronchi) in brachycephalic dogs by use of endoscopy, evaluate the correlation between laryngeal collapse and bronchial abnormalities, and determine whether dogs with bronchial abnormalities have a less favorable postsurgical long-term outcome following correction of brachycephalic syndrome. Prospective case series study. 40 client-owned brachycephalic dogs with stertorous breathing and clinical signs of respiratory distress. Brachycephalic dogs anesthetized for pharyngoscopy and laryngoscopy between January 2007 and June 2008 underwent flexible bronchoscopy for systematic evaluation of the principal and lobar bronchi. For dogs that underwent surgical correction of any component of brachycephalic syndrome, owners rated surgical outcome during a follow-up telephone survey. Correlation between laryngeal collapse and bronchial abnormalities and association between bronchial abnormalities and long-term outcome were assessed. Pugs (n = 20), English Bulldogs (13), and French Bulldogs (7) were affected. A fixed bronchial collapse was recognized in 35 of 40 dogs with a total of 94 bronchial stenoses. Abnormalities were irregularly distributed between hemithoraces; 15 of 94 bronchial abnormalities were detected in the right bronchial system, and 79 of 94 were detected in the left. The left cranial bronchus was the most commonly affected structure, and Pugs were the most severely affected breed. Laryngeal collapse was significantly correlated with severe bronchial collapse; no significant correlation was found between severity of bronchial abnormalities and postsurgical outcome. Bronchial collapse was a common finding in brachycephalic dogs, and long-term postsurgical outcome was not affected by bronchial stenosis.

  17. Treatment of Recurrent Bronchial Carcinoma: The Role of High-Dose-Rate Endoluminal Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauswald, Henrik; Stoiber, Eva; Rochet, Nathalie; Lindel, Katja; Grehn, Christian; Becker, Heinrich D.; Debus, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study's aim was to assess outcome and toxicity of high-dose-rate endoluminal brachytherapy (HDREB) for recurrent bronchial carcinoma. Methods and Materials: From 1987 to 2005, 41 patients were treated with HDREB for symptomatic recurrent bronchial carcinoma. All patients had previously undergone external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with a median dose of 56 Gy (range, 30-70 Gy). The median HDREB dose applied was 15 Gy (range, 5-29 Gy). The median time interval between primary EBRT and reirradiation was 9 months (range, 2-54 months). Results: After a median follow-up of 6.7 months, the 6-, 12-, and 24-month overall survival rates were 58%, 18%, and 7%, respectively. The median overall survival time was 6.7 months. Local remission was achieved in 73% of patients (n = 30). A total of 24% of patients (n = 10) showed no response or progressive disease within 8 weeks after treatment. In 1 patient, treatment response was not documented. The 6-, 12-, and 24-month local control rates were 38%, 17%, and 3%, respectively. The median local progression-free survival time was 4 months (range, 1-23 months). Prognostic factors were a total dose of ≥15 Gy of HDREB (p = 0.029) and a Karnofsky performance score of ≥80% (p = 0.0012). The cause of death was locoregional progression in 27% of patients (n = 11), distant metastases in 24% of patients (n = 10), fatal hemorrhage in 15% of patients (n = 6), and other causes in 29% of patients (n = 12). None of the patients with locally controlled disease showed grade 3 or 4 late effects. Conclusions: Palliative treatment of symptomatic, locally recurrent bronchial carcinoma with HDREB can effectively relieve symptoms in the majority of patients while causing only few complications. Still, time to progression is short.

  18. Nonspecific airway reactivity in a mouse model of asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collie, D.D.; Wilder, J.A.; Bice, D.E.

    1995-12-01

    Animal models are indispensable for studies requiring an intact immune system, especially for studying the pathogenic mechanisms in atopic diseases, regulation of IgE production, and related biologic effects. Mice are particularly suitable and have been used extensively for such studies because their immune system is well characterized. Further, large numbers of mutants or inbred strains of mice are available that express deficiencies of individual immunologic processes, inflammatory cells, or mediator systems. By comparing reactions in such mice with appropriate control animals, the unique roles of individual cells or mediators may be characterized more precisely in the pathogenesis of atopic respiratory diseases including asthma. However, given that asthma in humans is characterized by the presence of airway hyperresponsiveness to specific and nonspecific stimuli, it is important that animal models of this disease exhibit similar physiologic abnormalities. In the past, the size of the mouse has limited its versatility in this regard. However, recent studies indicate the feasibility of measuring pulmonary responses in living mice, thus facilitating the physiologic evaluation of putative mouse models of human asthma that have been well charcterized at the immunologic and patholigic level. Future work will provide details of the morphometry of the methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction and will further seek to determine the relationship between cigarette smoke exposure and the development of NS-AHR in the transgenic mouse model.

  19. Specific and non-specific match effects in negative priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labossière, Danielle I; Leboe-McGowan, Jason P

    2018-01-01

    The negative priming effect occurs when withholding a response to a stimulus impairs generation of subsequent responding to a same or a related stimulus. Our goal was to use the negative priming procedure to obtain insights about the memory representations generated by ignoring vs. attending/responding to a prime stimulus. Across three experiments we observed that ignoring a prime stimulus tends to generate higher identity-independent, non-specific repetition effects, owing to an overlap in the coarse perceptual form of a prime distractor and a probe target. By contrast, attended repetition effects generate predominantly identity-specific sources of facilitation. We use these findings to advocate for using laboratory phenomena to illustrate general principles that can be of practical use to non-specialists. In the case of the negative priming procedure, we propose that the procedure provides a useful means for investigating attention/memory interactions, even if the specific cause (or causes) of negative priming effects remain unresolved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface charges promote nonspecific nanoparticle adhesion to stiffer membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Jing, Haoyuan; Sachar, Harnoor Singh; Das, Siddhartha

    2018-04-01

    This letter establishes the manner in which the electric double layer induced by the surface charges of the plasma membrane (PM) enhances the nonspecific adhesion (NSA) of a metal nanoparticle (NP) to stiffer PMs (i.e., PMs with larger bending moduli). The NSA is characterized by the physical attachment of the NP to the membrane and occurs when the decrease in the surface energy (or any other mechanism) associated with the attachment process provides the energy for bending the membrane. Such an attachment does not involve receptor-ligand interactions that characterize the specific membrane-NP adhesion. Here, we demonstrate that a significant decrease in the electrostatic energy caused by the NP-attachment-induced destruction of the charged-membrane-electrolyte interface is responsible for providing the additional energy needed for bending the membrane during the NP adhesion to stiffer membranes. A smaller salt concentration and a larger membrane charge density augment this effect, which can help to design drug delivery to cells with stiffer membranes due to pathological conditions, fabricate NPs with biomimetic cholesterol-rich lipid bilayer encapsulation, etc.

  1. IMMUNOLOGICAL MARKERS OF UNCONTROLLED ATOPIC BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Smolnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is a prevalent chronic allergic disease of lungs at early ages. A priority  task in allergology  is to search  biological  markers  related  to uncontrolled atopic  bronchial asthma. Cytokines fulfill their distinct function in pathogenesis of atopic  bronchial asthma, participating at the initiation, development and persistence of allergic inflammation in airways, causing different  variations of clinical course of the disease (with  respect  to its acuteness, severity, frequency of exacerbations. The  present  work has studied  indices  of cellular  and  humoral links of immunity, as well as levels of some  pro and  anti-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood serum (IL-4, IL-10, IL-2 and TNFα, aiming to determine potential markers of uncontrolled atopic bronchial asthma in children. A group of Caucasian (European children was involved into the research: Cohort 1, moderate atopic  bronchial asthma with controlled course during the last 3 months (n = 59; Cohort 2, severe/moderate-severe atopic bronchial asthma with uncontrolled course of the disease within last 3 months (n = 51,  Cohort 3 – control, practically healthy  children without signs of atopy  (n = 33. All the  children included in the group with atopic  bronchial asthma underwent regular mono/combined basic therapy  at high/ intermediate therapeutic doses.  We performed a comparative analysis  of cell  population indices  reflecting certain cellular  immunity links,  and  determined significantly  lower  levels of CD3+   lymphocytes, as well as decrease in relative  and  absolute  contents of CD4+  and  CD8+  cells in the  cohort with  uncontrolled course of atopic  bronchial asthma, as compared with controlled-course cohort. When  evaluating concentrations  of cytokines in peripheral blood serum of the patients with controlled and uncontrolled atopic  bronchial asthma, we revealed  significantly  higher

  2. [Clinical characteristics and condition of the bronchial tree in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in combination with hyperoxaluria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoseev, G B; Petrova, M A; Shaĭlieva, L O; Kakliugin, A P; Zorina, M L; Sakharov, A N; Pavliukova, N O

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate peculiarities of a clinical course and changes in bronchial mucosa in bronchial asthma (BA) patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in combination with hyperoxaluria (HOU); informative value of some laboratory and device findings including oxalates assay in bronchial lavage fluid for specification of the diagnosis, role of oxalates in development of obstructive syndrome and choice of optimal therapy. Oxalates were examined in daily urine, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and exhaled air condensate of 104 patients with BA and COPD, 77 of which had HOU and an atypical course of bronchial obstruction syndrome. Conception of airways inflammation in patients with oxalate metabolism disturbances is proposed. It is shown that insoluble oxalates participate in pathogenesis of bronchial obstruction. Oxalate metabolism disturbances are an important factor in pathogenesis of airways inflammation and development of bronchial obstruction in predisposed patients. Therefore, administration of insoluble oxalates lowering therapy may effectively prevent formation and progression of obstructive pulmonary diseases in this group of patients.

  3. Non-bronchial collateral supply from the left gastric artery in massive haemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellars, N.; Belli, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Two patients presented with recurrent, massive haemoptysis. Arteriography, including thoracoabdominal aortograms, revealed in both cases large non-bronchial collaterals arising from the left gastric artery. In the first case the non-bronchial collateral supplied the upper left lobe and in the second case it supplied the middle right lobe. Percutaneous embolisation of bronchial and non-bronchial collateral branches has become an accepted procedure in controlling massive or recurrent haemoptysis. Accurate identification of the non-bronchial collateral arterial feeders is essential for successful embolotherapy. (orig.)

  4. Helical CT in evaluation of the bronchial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perhomaa, M.; Laehde, S.; Rossi, O.; Suramo, I.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To establish a protocol for and to assess the value of helical CT in the imaging of the bronchial tree. Material and Methods: Noncontrast helical CT was performed in 30 patients undergoing fiberoptic bronchoscopy for different reasons. Different protocols were compared; they included overlapping 10 mm, 5 mm, or 3 mm slices and non-tilted, cephalad or caudal tilted images. Ordinary cross-sectional and multiplanar 2D reformats were applied for visualization of the bronchial branches. The effect of increasing the helical pitch was tested in one patient. Results: A total of 92.1-100% of the segmental bronchi present in the helical acquisitions were identified by the different protocols. The collimation had no significant impact on the identification of the bronchial branches, but utilization of 3-mm overlapping slices made it easier to distinguish the nearby branches and provided better longitudinal visualization of the bronchi in 2D reformats. The tilted scans illustrated the disadvantage of not covering all segmental bronchi in one breath-hold. An increase of the pitch from 1 to 1.5 did not cause noticeable blurring of the images. CT and bronchoscopic findings correlated well in the area accessible to bronchoscopy, but CT detected 5 additional pathological lesions (including 2 cancers) in the peripheral lung. Conclusion: Helical CT supplemented with bronchography-like 2D reformats provides an effective method complementary to bronchoscopy in the examination of the bronchial tree. (orig.)

  5. Regional lung function (133Xe-radiospirometry) in bronchial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arborelius, M.; Kristersson, S.; Lindell, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    In a prospective study of all patients with bronchial cancer in the city of Malmoe, all patients considered for surgery were examined with regard to overall function (conventional spirometry) and regional lung function (133-Xe-radiospirometry). Out of 116 consecutive cases examined with 133-Xe-radiospirometry before surgery,

  6. Challenges in the Management of Bronchial Asthma Among Adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World‑wide, it is estimated that 300 million people are affected with bronchial asthma. .... years of study, design, the focus of the challenge (diagnosis, treatment .... nebulizer for delivering large bronchodilator doses in patients with severe acute ..... Limitations UK Findings, poster presented at the British. Thoracic Society.

  7. Assessment of Serum Vitamin D in Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham E. Abd El Aaty

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent in asthmatic patients, there was a strong correlation between asthma severity and 25(OH vitamin D concentrations and there was a direct and a positive significant correlation between vitamin D levels and pulmonary function tests in asthmatic patients, so the measurement of serum vitamin D levels in patients with bronchial asthma is very useful.

  8. Bronchial asthma among workers in Alexandria and its association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noha S. Elshaer

    2011-06-23

    Jun 23, 2011 ... chest tightness and coughing particularly at night or in the early morning; (e) ... workers with bronchial asthma, bronchodilator treatment was withdrawn prior to ...... pared to subjects who had both active genes62; this finding ..... S-transferase genotypes GSTM1 and GSTT1 in cancer suscepti- bility. Cancer ...

  9. Features of Acute Treatment of Bronchial Obstruction Syndrome in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.N. Okhotnikova

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a problem of bronchial obstruction in infants. There have been considered the pathogenesis of this pathology, its clinical manifestation and complications, features of treatment focusing on combined therapy use (medication Berodual containing β2-agonist of fenoterol hydrobromide and anticholinergic drug ipratropium bromide.

  10. Processing bronchial sonograms to detect respiratory cycle fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureev, A Sh; Zhdanov, D S; Zemlyakov, I Yu; Svetlik, M V

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the authors' results of work on the development of a method for the automated assessment of the state of the human bronchopulmonary system based on acoustic data. In particular, the article covers the method of detecting breath sounds on bronchial sonograms obtained during the auscultation process

  11. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis as a cause of bronchial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) occurs in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. When aspergillus fumigatus spores are inhaled they grow in bronchial mucous as hyphae. It occurs in non immunocompromised patients and belongs to the hypersensitivity disorders induced by Aspergillus.

  12. Advice concerning the early diagnosis of bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Bronchial carcinoma is in the Netherlands for men the most frequent type of cancer; the incidence in women is rising. In the Netherlands nowadays, per year about 7100 persons die of this disease which therefore constitutes an important public health problem. The request of advice asks - among other things - whether in the future the periodical X-ray examination of the thorax for the detection of tuberculosis of persons over 40 years can be continued for presymptomatic cases of bronchial carcinoma. The available relevant literature does not yet give indications that periodical mass radiography has any influence on the morbidity and mortality of the disease. On the other hand, literature describing clinical experience shows that the prognosis of patients with bronchial carcinoma, detected in an early presymptomatic stage, is essentially better than in the case of patients with symptomatic disease. A critical analysis of the literature does not furnish epidemiological arguments to recommend periodical mass radiography for bronchial carcinoma. However, because lungcancer forms an extremely important public health problem and because the scarcity of randomized; controlled studies in this field, the committee advises - from a scientific point of view - to perform such a study in one or preferably two regions in the Netherlands. A number of conditions are mentioned which such a study at least should meet. (Auth.)

  13. Mechanical compression attenuates normal human bronchial epithelial wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malavia Nikita

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway narrowing associated with chronic asthma results in the transmission of injurious compressive forces to the bronchial epithelium and promotes the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and the denudation of the bronchial epithelium. While the individual effects of compression or denudation are well characterized, there is no data to elucidate how these cells respond to the application of mechanical compression in the presence of a compromised epithelial layer. Methods Accordingly, differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to one of four conditions: 1 unperturbed control cells, 2 single scrape wound only, 3 static compression (6 hours of 30 cmH2O, and 4 6 hours of static compression after a scrape wound. Following treatment, wound closure rate was recorded, media was assayed for mediator content and the cytoskeletal network was fluorescently labeled. Results We found that mechanical compression and scrape injury increase TGF-β2 and endothelin-1 secretion, while EGF content in the media is attenuated with both injury modes. The application of compression after a pre-existing scrape wound augmented these observations, and also decreased PGE2 media content. Compression stimulated depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton and significantly attenuated wound healing. Closure rate was partially restored with the addition of exogenous PGE2, but not EGF. Conclusion Our results suggest that mechanical compression reduces the capacity of the bronchial epithelium to close wounds, and is, in part, mediated by PGE2 and a compromised cytoskeleton.

  14. Club cells surviving influenza A virus infection induce temporary nonspecific antiviral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jennifer R; Sachs, David; Lim, Jean K; Langlois, Ryan A; Palese, Peter; Heaton, Nicholas S

    2016-04-05

    A brief window of antigen-nonspecific protection has been observed after influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Although this temporary immunity has been assumed to be the result of residual nonspecific inflammation, this period of induced immunity has not been fully studied. Because IAV has long been characterized as a cytopathic virus (based on its ability to rapidly lyse most cell types in culture), it has been a forgone conclusion that directly infected cells could not be contributing to this effect. Using a Cre recombinase-expressing IAV, we have previously shown that club cells can survive direct viral infection. We show here not only that these cells can eliminate all traces of the virus and survive but also that they acquire a heightened antiviral response phenotype after surviving. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate temporary nonspecific viral immunity after IAV infection and show that surviving cells are required for this phenotype. This work characterizes a virally induced modulation of the innate immune response that may represent a new mechanism to prevent viral diseases.

  15. Deposition of inhaled radionuclides in bronchial airways: Implications for extrapolation modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashazy, I.; Hofmann, W.; Heistracher, T.

    1996-01-01

    The laboratory rat has frequently been used as a human surrogate to estimate potential health effects following the inhalation of radioactive aerosol particles. Interspecies differences in biological response are commonly related to interspecies differences in particle deposition efficiencies. In addition, the documented site selectivity of bronchial carcinomas suggests that localized particle deposition patterns within bronchial airway bifurcations may have important implications for inhalation risk assessments. Interspecies differences in particle deposition patterns may be related primarily to differences in airway morphometries. Thus the validity of extrapolating rat deposition data to human inhalation conditions depends on their morphometric similarities and differences. It is well known that there are significant structural differences between the human - rather symmetric - and the rat - monopodial - airway systems. In the present approach, we focus on localized deposition patterns and deposition efficiencies in selected asymmetric bronchial airway bifurcations, whose diameters, lengths and branching angles were derived from the stochastic airway models of human and rat lungs (Koblinger and Hofmann, 1985;1988), which are based on the morphometric data of Raabe et al. (1976). The effects of interspecies differences in particle deposition patterns are explored in this study for two asymmetric bifurcation geometries in segmental bronchi and terminal bronchioles of both the human and rat lungs at different particle sizes. In order to examine the effect of flow rate on particle deposition in the human lung, we selected two different minute volumes, i.e., 10 and 60 1 min -1 , which are representative of low and heavy physical activity breathing conditions. In the case of the rat we used a minute volume of 0.234 1 min -1 (Hofmann et al., 1993)

  16. Cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells are lipointoxicated by membrane palmitate accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie-Anne Payet

    Full Text Available The F508del-CFTR mutation, responsible for Cystic Fibrosis (CF, leads to the retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. The mistrafficking of this mutant form can be corrected by pharmacological chaperones, but these molecules showed limitations in clinical trials. We therefore hypothesized that important factors in CF patients may have not been considered in the in vitro assays. CF has also been associated with an altered lipid homeostasis, i. e. a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in plasma and tissues. However, the precise fatty acyl content of membrane phospholipids from human CF bronchial epithelial cells had not been studied to date. Since the saturation level of phospholipids can modulate crucial membrane properties, with potential impacts on membrane protein folding/trafficking, we analyzed this parameter for freshly isolated bronchial epithelial cells from CF patients. Interestingly, we could show that Palmitate, a saturated fatty acid, accumulates within Phosphatidylcholine (PC in CF freshly isolated cells, in a process that could result from hypoxia. The observed PC pattern can be recapitulated in the CFBE41o(- cell line by incubation with 100 µM Palmitate. At this concentration, Palmitate induces an ER stress, impacts calcium homeostasis and leads to a decrease in the activity of the corrected F508del-CFTR. Overall, these data suggest that bronchial epithelial cells are lipointoxicated by hypoxia-related Palmitate accumulation in CF patients. We propose that this phenomenon could be an important bottleneck for F508del-CFTR trafficking correction by pharmacological agents in clinical trials.

  17. Internal microdosimetry of inhaled radon progeny in bronchial airways: advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Werner; Fakir, Hatim; Pihet, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify advantages and limitations of the application of microdosimetric concepts for inhaled radon progeny activities in the lungs. The methods employed for this analysis were a recently developed Monte- Carlo microdosimetry code for the calculation of energy deposition in bronchial target cells and the Probability Per Unit Track Length (PPUTL) model, which relates these microdosimetric parameters to cellular radiation effects. The major advantages of internal microdosimetry of radon progeny in bronchial airways are: (i) quantitative characterisation of non-uniform dose distributions and identification of target sites with enhanced carcinogenic potential, (ii) quantification of low doses of alpha particles by the number of cells hit and the dose received by those cells, (iii) illustration of the random variations of cellular doses by specific energy distributions and (iv) establishment of a direct link to cellular radiobiological effects. At present, a major limitation of microdosimetry is the extrapolation of the response of individual cells to the resulting tissue response, which is still not fully explored. (authors)

  18. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness in preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Duiverman (Eric)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractIt is hypothesized that childhood asthma, especially when not well controlled, may constitute a risk factor for the development of COLD in adulthood (Cropp, 1985), It is unknown whether lung injury during early life is a risk factor for the development of COLD in adulthood, Asthma often

  19. Sensitivity of bronchial responsiveness measurements in young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loland, Lotte; Buchvald, Frederik F; Halkjaer, Liselotte Brydensholt

    2006-01-01

    of 402 infants (median age, 6 weeks). Forced flow-volume measurements were obtained by the raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique and were compared with indexes of tidal breathing, measurements of transcutaneous oxygen (Ptco(2)), and auscultation during methacholine challenge testing....... RESULTS: Ptco(2) was the most sensitive parameter to detect increasing airway obstruction during methacholine challenge, followed by forced expiratory volume at 0.5 s (FEV(0.5)). Both were superior to other indexes of forced spirometry as well as tidal breathing indexes and auscultation. Coefficients...

  20. Nonspecific microvascular vasodilation during iontophoresis is attenuated by application of hyperosmolar saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, A; Holm, T; Vassbotn, T; Andreassen, A K; Hartmann, A

    1999-07-01

    Iontophoretic administration of acetylcholine chloride (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) combined with laser Doppler skin blood perfusion measurements are used for determination of endothelial-dependent and -independent vasodilation. However, the method is biased by nonspecific vasodilation. The primary aim of this study was to investigate if iontophoresis-induced nonspecific vasodilation may be attenuated by addition of high molar concentrations of NaCl to the iontophoresis solutions. Secondary we investigated the applicability of 5 mol/liter NaCl solution as vehicle for ACh and SNP in this method. Skin perfusion changes were determined for iontophoresis of pure vehicles, deionized water and 5 mol/liter NaCl solution, in 12 healthy volunteers. Responses in skin perfusion to iontophoresis of ACh and SNP dissolved in both vehicles were also investigated. Addition of 5 mol/liter NaCl to deionized water significantly attenuated the nonspecific vasodilation and lowered the potential applied over the skin. The inter- and intraindividual coefficients of variation to ACh and SNP responses became, however, higher using hyperosmolar vehicle. During iontophoresis of SNP (in deionized water) we were unable to distinguish between SNP and vehicle effects. This study shows that the nonspecific vasodilation induced by iontophoresis can be attenuated by addition of 5 mol/liter NaCl, possibly due to lower electrical potential over the skin. However, the variability of the method was not improved. When deionized water was used as vehicle the effect of SNP could not be differentiated from that of the vehicle. This was not the case for ACh. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. The effect of antipsychotic drugs on nonspecific inflammation markers in the first episode of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Immune system disorder, including inflammation, takes a significant place when considering still unclear etiology of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to determine the blood levels of nonspecific inflammation markers in the first episode of schizophrenia and their relation to the therapy response. Methods. In this study we determined the blood levels of nonspecific inflammation markers: white blood cells count (WBC, C-reactive protein (CRP, erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR and the elements of differential white blood cell counts (or the leukocyte formula: granulocytes (Gra, lymphocytes (Lym and monocytes (Mon, in the first episode of schizofrenia, in 78 patients hospitalized at the Clinic for Psychiatric Disorders “Dr Laza Lazarević” in Belgrade. The levels were measured at admission to the clinic, as well as after 4 weeks of antipsychotic treatment. The Positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia (PANSS was applied to measure the severity of psychopathology and response to the treatment. Results. During the first episode of schizophrenia, before initiation of antipsychotic treatment, the frequency of abnormal values was high (≥ 25% of the patients for the following non-specific inflammation markers: WBC, CRP, ESR and Gra, in the leukocyte formula, but dropped after 4 weeks of antipsychotic treatment at the level of high statistical significance for WBC and Gra (p < 0.001. The ESR remained unchanged in as many as 50% of the patients even after 4-week antipsychotic treatment, at the level of statistical significance in the non-responders compared to the responders (p = 0.045. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that in the first episode of schizophrenia the blood levels of non-specific inflammation markers (WBS, CRP, ESR and Gra from the leukocyte formula were high in the subpopulation of patients with the tendency towards normalization of inflammation parameters after a 4-week antipsychotic

  2. Mechanisms of tolerance in murine radiation bone marrow chimeras. II. Absence of nonspecific suppression in mature chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auchincloss, H. Jr.; Sachs, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    Spleen cells from a series of allogeneic bone marrow chimeras were sensitized in vitro with stimulator cells from major histocompatibility complex recombinant strains of mice. The combinations were chosen such that both tolerated (host or donor) and nontolerated (third-party) antigens were present on the same stimulator cells in order to determine whether the tolerated host antigens might elicit nonspecific suppressor mechanisms affecting the cell-mediated lympholysis (CML) response to the nontolerated antigens. No evidence for such nonspecific suppression was obtained in several types of assays. Therefore, if suppressor mechanisms exist that mediate such tolerance in mature allogeneic chimeras then these mechanisms must be highly antigen-specific

  3. Systemic sclerosis with normal or nonspecific nailfold capillaroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichel, Fanny; Baudot, Nathalie; Gaitz, Jean-Pierre; Trad, Salim; Barbe, Coralie; Francès, Camille; Senet, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In systemic sclerosis (SSc), a specific nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) pattern is observed in 90% of cases and seems to be associated with severity and progression of the disease. To describe the characteristics of SSc patients with normal or nonspecific (normal/nonspecific) NVC. In a retrospective cohort study, clinical features and visceral involvements of 25 SSc cases with normal/nonspecific NVC were compared to 63 SSc controls with the SSc-specific NVC pattern. Normal/nonspecific NVC versus SSc-specific NVC pattern was significantly associated with absence of skin sclerosis (32 vs. 6.3%, p = 0.004), absence of telangiectasia (47.8 vs. 17.3%, p = 0.006) and absence of sclerodactyly (60 vs. 25.4%, p = 0.002), and less frequent severe pulmonary involvement (26.3 vs. 58.2%, p = 0.017). Normal/nonspecific NVC in SSc patients appears to be associated with less severe skin involvement and less frequent severe pulmonary involvement. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Discrete Pathophysiology is Uncommon in Patients with Nonspecific Arm Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortlever, Joost T P; Janssen, Stein J; Molleman, Jeroen; Hageman, Michiel G J S; Ring, David

    2016-06-01

    Nonspecific symptoms are common in all areas of medicine. Patients and caregivers can be frustrated when an illness cannot be reduced to a discrete pathophysiological process that corresponds with the symptoms. We therefore asked the following questions: 1) Which demographic factors and psychological comorbidities are associated with change from an initial diagnosis of nonspecific arm pain to eventual identification of discrete pathophysiology that corresponds with symptoms? 2) What is the percentage of patients eventually diagnosed with discrete pathophysiology, what are those pathologies, and do they account for the symptoms? We evaluated 634 patients with an isolated diagnosis of nonspecific upper extremity pain to see if discrete pathophysiology was diagnosed on subsequent visits to the same hand surgeon, a different hand surgeon, or any physician within our health system for the same pain. There were too few patients with discrete pathophysiology at follow-up to address the primary study question. Definite discrete pathophysiology that corresponded with the symptoms was identified in subsequent evaluations by the index surgeon in one patient (0.16% of all patients) and cured with surgery (nodular fasciitis). Subsequent doctors identified possible discrete pathophysiology in one patient and speculative pathophysiology in four patients and the index surgeon identified possible discrete pathophysiology in four patients, but the five discrete diagnoses accounted for only a fraction of the symptoms. Nonspecific diagnoses are not harmful. Prospective randomized research is merited to determine if nonspecific, descriptive diagnoses are better for patients than specific diagnoses that imply pathophysiology in the absence of discrete verifiable pathophysiology.

  5. Smoking-induced gene expression changes in the bronchial airway are reflected in nasal and buccal epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohui

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and a significant cause of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Prior studies have demonstrated that smoking creates a field of molecular injury throughout the airway epithelium exposed to cigarette smoke. We have previously characterized gene expression in the bronchial epithelium of never smokers and identified the gene expression changes that occur in the mainstem bronchus in response to smoking. In this study, we explored relationships in whole-genome gene expression between extrathorcic (buccal and nasal and intrathoracic (bronchial epithelium in healthy current and never smokers. Results Using genes that have been previously defined as being expressed in the bronchial airway of never smokers (the "normal airway transcriptome", we found that bronchial and nasal epithelium from non-smokers were most similar in gene expression when compared to other epithelial and nonepithelial tissues, with several antioxidant, detoxification, and structural genes being highly expressed in both the bronchus and nose. Principle component analysis of previously defined smoking-induced genes from the bronchus suggested that smoking had a similar effect on gene expression in nasal epithelium. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that this set of genes was also highly enriched among the genes most altered by smoking in both nasal and buccal epithelial samples. The expression of several detoxification genes was commonly altered by smoking in all three respiratory epithelial tissues, suggesting a common airway-wide response to tobacco exposure. Conclusion Our findings support a relationship between gene expression in extra- and intrathoracic airway epithelial cells and extend the concept of a smoking-induced field of injury to epithelial cells that line the mouth and nose. This relationship could potentially be utilized to develop a non-invasive biomarker for

  6. Cervico-ocular Reflex Is Increased in People With Nonspecific Neck Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jurryt; Ischebeck, Britta K; Voogt, Lennard P; Janssen, Malou; Frens, Maarten A; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; van der Geest, Jos N

    2016-08-01

    Neck pain is a widespread complaint. People experiencing neck pain often present an altered timing in contraction of cervical muscles. This altered afferent information elicits the cervico-ocular reflex (COR), which stabilizes the eye in response to trunk-to-head movements. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) elicited by the vestibulum is thought to be unaffected by afferent information from the cervical spine. The aim of the study was to measure the COR and VOR in people with nonspecific neck pain. This study utilized a cross-sectional design in accordance with the STROBE statement. An infrared eye-tracking device was used to record the COR and the VOR while the participant was sitting on a rotating chair in darkness. Eye velocity was calculated by taking the derivative of the horizontal eye position. Parametric statistics were performed. The mean COR gain in the control group (n=30) was 0.26 (SD=0.15) compared with 0.38 (SD=0.16) in the nonspecific neck pain group (n=37). Analyses of covariance were performed to analyze differences in COR and VOR gains, with age and sex as covariates. Analyses of covariance showed a significantly increased COR in participants with neck pain. The VOR between the control group, with a mean VOR of 0.67 (SD=0.17), and the nonspecific neck pain group, with a mean VOR of 0.66 (SD=0.22), was not significantly different. Measuring eye movements while the participant is sitting on a rotating chair in complete darkness is technically complicated. This study suggests that people with nonspecific neck pain have an increased COR. The COR is an objective, nonvoluntary eye reflex and an unaltered VOR. This study shows that an increased COR is not restricted to patients with traumatic neck pain. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  7. Leukocyte peroxidase and leptin: an associated link of glycemic tolerance and bronchial asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parco S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sergio ParcoImmunopathology Unit, Laboratory of the Department of Medicine, Children’s Hospital, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, ItalyAbstract: Recent observations suggest the presence of an interaction between leptin and the inflammatory system during bronchial asthma. Although there is evidence of a positive association between asthma and obesity in adults and children, little is yet known about the role of serum leptin, as a potential mediator for bronchial epithelial homeostasis, and intraleukocyte myeloperoxidase (MPO, a hemoprotein with a molecular weight of 140 kDa, expression of the inflammatory system, in asthmatic children. Glycemic tolerance is an important pathogenetic element in developing type 2 mellitus diabetes and a confirmed predictor of incident asthma-like symptoms in adults. This work is aimed at assessing a possible correlation between basal leukocyte myeloperoxidase levels, basal leptin and insulin-glycemic tolerance in obese children. Thirty obese children aged between 7 and 15 years were examined. The analyzed data showed a normal response to the insulinemic stimulus in children of both sexes whose basal leptin and MPO values, expressed as MPO intracellular index, werewithin the normal range.Keywords: leptin, myeloperoxidase, glycemic tolerance, asthma

  8. Intercostal muscle flap to protect the bronchial stump in pediatric lobectomy for lung abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi, Gabriele; Lauriti, Giuseppe; Cascini, Valentina; Lococo, Achille; Chiesa, Pierluigi Lelli

    2013-01-01

    Lung suppurative diseases in children are usually responsive to medical treatment or percutaneous drainage. Rarely, pulmonary resection is required for lung abscess in childhood, particularly in presence of co-morbidities. In these cases, a lobectomy is usually performed through an open thoracotomy, with a reported incidence of bronco-pleural fistula up to 9.1% of pediatric series. This consequence is mainly due to the inflammatory condition; however the lack of knowledge of pediatric and thoracic surgeons with this rare condition in childhood can also play a role. In adults with lung cancer, the buttressing of bronchial stump with the additional support of an intercostal muscle (ICM) flap has proved to prevent this complication, as well as to reduce post-operative pain. We report the first pediatric experience of ICM flap used in 2 immunocompetent children requiring lobectomy for suppurative lung conditions. Our preliminary experience confirms the feasibility of protecting the bronchial stump after lobectomy in children, especially in conditions at risk for bronco-pleural fistula development.

  9. The design of trachea-main bronchial covered embranchment stent and the primary clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xinwei; Wu Gang; Gao Xuemei; Li Yongdong; Wang Yanli; Ma Nan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To design the trachea-main bronchus covered embranchment stent and study the primary treatment for thoracostomach main bronchial fistula and main bronchial stenosis. Methods: The stent was designed on the bases of the peculiar anatomic structure and the pathological changes of thoracostomach-main bronchial fistula and main bronchial stenosis. Under the fluoroscopic guidance, implantations were carried out in thoracostomach-carina fistula 1 case thoracostomach-left main bronchial fistula 1, thoracostomach-right main bronchial fistula and left main bronchial stenosis 1 case, altogether with 5 stents. Results: Stents were placed successfully, not only improving the breathing and living quality but also completing the closure of the ora of the thoracostomach-airway fistula with further vanishing of the choke after drinking and eating together with the inhalation pneumonia. The bronchus became normal in a main bronchial stenosis after the stent was taken out. Conclusions: Trachea-main bronchial covered embranchment stent could be used to close thoracostomach-airway fistula and to treat main bronchial benign/malignant stenosis. The procedure is simple and safe. (authors)

  10. Tc-99m technegas scintigraphy to evaluate the lung ventilation in patients with oral corticosteroid-dependent bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Jiro; Okada, Hiroki; Momoi, Atsuko; Yamadori, Ichiro; Takahara, Jiro; Tanabe, Masatada; Takahashi, Kazue; Satoh, Katashi; Ohkawa, Motoomi

    1999-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a clinical syndrome characterized by the reversibility of airway obstruction. Recently it has been suggested that remodeling of the airway causes irreversible airway obstruction which may be responsible for the patient's symptoms. With this background, the purpose of the present study was to assess patients with corticosteroid-dependent asthma by Tc-99m Technegas scintigraphy (Technegas) in both planar and SPECT images. Twelve patients (7 females and 5 males aged 36-72 years with a median age of 60 years: 4 smokers and 8 non-smokers) with oral corticosteroid-dependent asthma were enrolled in this study. Lung ventilation scanning with Technegas in both planar and SPECT images, high-resolution computed tomography, and pulmonary function tests were performed in all patients. The results of Technegas scanning were graded and correlations with other clinical parameters were evaluated. Significant abnormalities were detected by ventilation scintigraphy with Technegas in patients with corticosteroid-dependent bronchial asthma even during remission. Our data demonstrate that airflow obstruction took place in patients with corticosteroid-dependent asthma even during remission. Technegas scanning appears to be a useful radiopharmaceutical for demonstrating airflow obstruction in patients with bronchial asthma. (author)

  11. Tc-99m technegas scintigraphy to evaluate the lung ventilation in patients with oral corticosteroid-dependent bronchial asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Jiro; Okada, Hiroki; Momoi, Atsuko; Yamadori, Ichiro; Takahara, Jiro; Tanabe, Masatada [Kagawa Medical Univ., Miki (Japan); Takahashi, Kazue; Satoh, Katashi; Ohkawa, Motoomi

    1999-08-01

    Bronchial asthma is a clinical syndrome characterized by the reversibility of airway obstruction. Recently it has been suggested that remodeling of the airway causes irreversible airway obstruction which may be responsible for the patient's symptoms. With this background, the purpose of the present study was to assess patients with corticosteroid-dependent asthma by Tc-99m Technegas scintigraphy (Technegas) in both planar and SPECT images. Twelve patients (7 females and 5 males aged 36-72 years with a median age of 60 years: 4 smokers and 8 non-smokers) with oral corticosteroid-dependent asthma were enrolled in this study. Lung ventilation scanning with Technegas in both planar and SPECT images, high-resolution computed tomography, and pulmonary function tests were performed in all patients. The results of Technegas scanning were graded and correlations with other clinical parameters were evaluated. Significant abnormalities were detected by ventilation scintigraphy with Technegas in patients with corticosteroid-dependent bronchial asthma even during remission. Our data demonstrate that airflow obstruction took place in patients with corticosteroid-dependent asthma even during remission. Technegas scanning appears to be a useful radiopharmaceutical for demonstrating airflow obstruction in patients with bronchial asthma. (author)

  12. Combination of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide, and sulforaphane, reduces the viability and growth of bronchial carcinoid cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, Reza Bayat; Kumar, Sushil; Islam, Syed S; Yazdanpanah, Mehrdad; Adeli, Khosrow; Cutz, Ernest; Yeger, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Bronchial carcinoids are pulmonary neuroendocrine cell-derived tumors comprising typical (TC) and atypical (AC) malignant phenotypes. The 5-year survival rate in metastatic carcinoid, despite multiple current therapies, is 14-25%. Hence, we are testing novel therapies that can affect the proliferation and survival of bronchial carcinoids. In vitro studies were used for the dose–response (AlamarBlue) effects of acetazolamide (AZ) and sulforaphane (SFN) on clonogenicity, serotonin-induced growth effect and serotonin content (LC-MS) on H-727 (TC) and H-720 (AC) bronchial carcinoid cell lines and their derived NOD/SCID mice subcutaneous xenografts. Tumor ultra structure was studied by electron microscopy. Invasive fraction of the tumors was determined by matrigel invasion assay. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to study the effect of treatment(s) on proliferation (Ki67, phospho histone-H3) and neuroendocrine phenotype (chromogranin-A, tryptophan hydroxylase). Both compounds significantly reduced cell viability and colony formation in a dose-dependent manner (0–80 μM, 48 hours and 7 days) in H-727 and H-720 cell lines. Treatment of H-727 and H-720 subcutaneous xenografts in NOD/SCID mice with the combination of AZ + SFN for two weeks demonstrated highly significant growth inhibition and reduction of 5-HT content and reduced the invasive capacity of H-727 tumor cells. In terms of the tumor ultra structure, a marked reduction in secretory vesicles correlated with the decrease in 5-HT content. The combination of AZ and SFN was more effective than either single agent. Since the effective doses are well within clinical range and bioavailability, our results suggest a potential new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of bronchial carcinoids

  13. Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy in patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Seiji; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Katsushi.

    1988-01-01

    Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion scan using Xe-133 gas and Tc-99m MAA were performed in 18 patients with bronchial asthma to evaluate the regional pulmonary function. The scintigraphic findings were compared with the results of the auscultation and the conventional pulmonary functioning examination (%FVC, %FEV 1.0 ). Ventilation image showed abnormality in 12 (70.6%) out of the asymptomatic 17 patients and perfusion image showed abnormality in 7 (41.2%) out of 17 patients. These 7 patients with abnormality on perfusion image all showed abnormality on ventilation image. The grade of abnormality in scintigraphic findings was compatible with the values of %FVC and %FEV 1.0 . In conclusion Xe-133 ventilation and Tc-99m MAA perfusion scan were useful procedures to estimate the pulmonary function of patients with bronchial asthma. (author)

  14. Bilateral renal dysplasia, nephroblastomatosis, and bronchial stenosis. A new syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria Matilde; Correa-Medina, Mayrin; Whittington, Elizabeth E

    2015-06-01

    Bilateral nephroblastomatosis (NB) is an uncommon renal anomaly characterized by multiple confluent nephrogenic rests scattered through both kidneys, with only a limited number of cases reported in the medical literature. Some of these children may have associated either Perlman or Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and others do not demonstrate syndromic features. We report a full-term boy with anteverted nose, bilateral bronchial stenosis due to lack of cartilage, bilateral obstructive renal dysplasia and NB with glomeruloid features. The infant had visceromegaly, but neither gigantism nor hemihypertrophy. Immunohistochemistry for PAX2 (Paired box gene-2) and WT-1 (Wilms Tumor 1) were strongly positive in the areas of NB. GLEPP-1 (Glomerular Epithelial Protein) did not stain the areas of NB with a glomeruloid appearance, but was positive in the renal glomeruli as expected. We found neither associated bronchial stenosis nor the histology of NB resembling giant glomeruli in any of the reported cases of NB.

  15. Obscure pulmonary masses: bronchial impaction revealed by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugatch, R.D.; Gale, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Dilated bronchi impacted with mucus or tumor are recognized on standard chest radiographs because they are surrounded by aerated pulmonary parenchyma. When imaged in different projections, these lesions produce a variety of appearances that are generally familiar. This report characterizes less familiar computed tomographic (CT) findings in eight patients with pathologic bronchial distension of congenital, neoplastic, or infectious etiologies and correlates them with chest films. In seven patients, CT readily revealed dilated bronchi and/or regional lung hypodensity. In four of these cases, CT led to the initial suspicion of dilated bronchi. CT should be used early in the evaluation of atypical pulmonary mass lesions or to confirm suspected bronchial impaction because of the high probability it will reveal diagnostic features

  16. CT findings of the patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Shiro; Ohshima, Kazuki; Ohsawa, Takehiko.

    1996-01-01

    CT scans were obtained in 45 patients with bronchial asthma including 23 patients during asthmatic attack. CT findings were as follows. 1) In all cases, thickening of bronchial wall throughout from central to peripheral bronchi and without tapering and/or slight swelling of bronchovascular bundles were observed. 2) Characteristics findings in 23 patients with asthmatic attack, lobular and multilobular high attenuation area were observed in 17 patients (74%) and nonhomogeneous attenuation in lung fields were noticed in 13 patients (57%). 3) Multiple centrilobular sized high attenuation area were observed in 23 patients, but it was difficult to differenciation whether these findings were due to tiny nodules or to small vessels. In conclusion, further studies are needed to know which pathomorphological and/or pathophysiological conditions are underlying these CT findings. (author)

  17. HDR intralumenal brachytherapy in bronchial cancer: review of our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, P.; Ravo, V.; Muschera, R.

    1996-01-01

    The main indications for brachytherapy in the treatment of endobronchial cancer are dyspnea. postobstructive pneumonia and atelectasis, cough and hemoptysis resulting from broncus obstruction by exophytic intralumenal tumor growth. High Dose Rate intralumenal brachytherapy (HDRBT) may be combined with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), in particular as almost all tumors are too large for HDRBT alone. From January 1992 to September 1995 we treated 268 patients affected by bronchial cancer, with EBRT combined with HDRBT. All patients were staged as IIIa-IIIb-IV but KPS was >60 and expectancy of life > than 3 months. After bronchoscopy and Tc simulation we found that almost 10% of patients were downstaged. Treatment was always realized delivering 60 Gy to the tumour volume and 50 Gy to the mediastinal structures with EBRT. Brachytherapy was performed during the radiotherapy course. In 38 patients HDRBT was realized just one time, at the beginning of EBRT, with a dose of 10 Gy calculated at 1cm from the central axis of the catheter. In 47 HDRBT was performed twice (at the beginning and at the end of EBRT) with a dose of 7 Gy calculated at 1 cm from the central axis. From 1994 we started a 3 fractions protocol (Timing: days 1.15.30) with a dose of 5 Gy calculated at 0.5 cm from the axis. Of the 183 patients introduced in the protocol 170 received the three fractions of HDRBT and 13 were excluded from the study for personal or clinical reasons. In 97% of cases the application did not need general anesthesia; local anesthesia has been sufficient supplemented by some drug for sedation and coughing. Anyway both bronchoscopy and HDRBT (with anterior-posterior and lateral chest X-ray) are performed in the same shielded room without the necessity of displacing the patient. In almost 60% of treatments we used just one endobronchial applicator. In case of tumor involvement of the carina, two applicators were introduced. By this a larger tumor volume can be treated with adequate

  18. Sleeve resection for delayed presentation of traumatic bronchial transection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohamed, H Y

    2010-02-01

    Tracheobronchial disruption is uncommon in blunt chest trauma. Many of these patients die before reaching the hospital. In the majority of survivors diagnosis is occasionally delayed resulting in complications like airway stenosis and lung collapse. Thus it is important to have radiological follow up after severe thoracic trauma. Sleeve resection can be an excellent option to conserve lung tissue in delayed presentation of bronchial transection.

  19. Measurement of the thickness of the bronchial epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, D.H.; Baldwin, F.

    1989-02-01

    Cancer of the lung in uranium miners is thought to be related to the inhalation of gaseous radon daughters which become attached to molecules of water vapour or to dust particles. Since, the depth of tissue penetration by alpha particles is short, the thickness of the epithelium that lines the bronchial tree may be a critical factor in the development of cancers at specific sites in the lung. The objectives of the present study were: 1) to measure the thickness of human bronchial epithelium; 2) to determine the distribution and depth of the nuclei of basal cells in the bronchial epithelium; and 3) to compare these parameters in groups of smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-nine surgically removed specimens of the lung were examined (26 smokers, 3 non-smokers). The specimens were fixed and prepared for examination by light and electron microscopy. Blocks of tissue were oriented so that the maximum number of bronchi were cut in cross-section; measurements included bronchi of all sizes from bronchial generations (1≥ 9.01 mm) diameter to the smallest bronchioles, generations 7 - 16 (0.26 - 2.0 mm). Comparison of measurements in smokers and non-smokers show no significant differences, so that the 29 cases are considered to represent a homogeneous group. With progressive divisions of the bronchi, the epithelium decreases in thickness. Of more importance are the figures relating to the distance from the cell surface to the underlying nucleus. Here too, with the exception of goblet cells, the measurements are significantly smaller in generations 7 - 16 than in generation 1

  20. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulcun, Emel; Ekici, Mehmet; Ekici, Aydanur; Tireli, Gökhan; Karakoç, Tülay; Şentürk, Erol; Altınkaya, Volkan

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is not well known. In this study, we investigated the association between BHR and disease severity in patients with OSAS. Fourty seven (37 male/10 female) OSAS patients admitted with polysomnography enrolled to the study. Histamine bronchial challenge test was performed and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was calculated. Presence of BHR was diagnosed as positivity of bronchial provocative test (BPT) (PD values ≤ 16 mg/mL). Patients were questioned with Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). Histamine bronchial challenge test was positive in 21 of 47 patients. There were significant negative correlations between PD 20 value and AHI (r= -0.47, p= 0.03), BMI (r= -0.45, p= 0.03), and ESS score (r= -0.45, p= 0.03) in the patients with BHR. In addition, AHI (p= 0.03), BMI (p= 0.02), ESS scores (p= 0.03) were higher in patients with BHR (21 patients) than in patients not having BHR (26 patients). Significant negative relation was found between PD 20 value and AHI (b=-0.45, p= 0.03) and significant positive relation was found between presence of BHR and AHI (p= 0.04), BMI (p= 0.03) independently of age and sex in multiple regression analysis. BHR is common in patients with OSAS. As severity of OSAS increased, severity of BHR increased. In addition, obesity may trigger presence of BHR in patients with OSAS.

  1. Cellular dosimetry for radon progeny alpha particles in bronchial tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.; Hofmann, W.; Balashazy, I.

    1996-01-01

    Inhaled radon progeny are deposited in different regions of the human bronchial tree as functions of particle size and flow rate. Following deposition and mucociliary clearance, the sensitive bronchial basal and secretory cells are irradiated by two different alpha particle sources: (i) radon progeny in the sol and/or gel phase of the mucous layer, and (ii) radon progeny within the bronchial epithelium. In the case of internally deposited radionuclides, direct measurement of the energy absorbed from the ionizing radiation emitted by the decaying radionuclides is rarely, if ever, possible. Therefore, one must rely on dosimetric models to obtain estimates of the spatial and temporal patterns of energy deposition in tissues and organs of the body. When the radionuclide is uniformly distributed throughout the volume of a tissue of homogeneous composition and when the size of the tissue is large compared to the range of the particulate emissions of the radionuclide, then the dose rate within the tissue is also uniform and the calculation of absorbed dose can proceed without complication. However, if non-uniformities in the spatial and temporal distributions of the radionuclide are coupled with heterogeneous tissue composition, then the calculation of absorbed dose becomes complex and uncertain. Such is the case with the dosimetry of inhaled radon and radon progeny in the respiratory tract. There are increasing demands to obtain a definitive explanation of the role of alpha particles emitted from radon daughters in the induction of lung cancer. Various authors have attempted to evaluate the dose to the bronchial region of the respiratory tract due to the inhalation of radon daughters

  2. Analysis of the patterns of bronchial obstruction at bronchography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Suk; Kim, Yong Chul; Han, Sang Don; Lee, Yong Chul

    1981-01-01

    Of the bronchographic findings of 408 patients, performed in our hospital for recent 5 years, 108 cases showed definite bronchial obstruction, and 61 cases of those were selected and obstructive findings were evaluated. All that not confirmed were abandoned. For evaluation of the reliability of 9 braonchographic obstruction signs on applying to diagnose malignant or benign pulmonary diseases, each sign was identified and applied to each of the 61 confirmed cases. In addition, obstructed bronchi, distance of obstruction from the bifurcation site, and the direction of meniscus, if present, were evaluated. The results were follows: 1. The most frequent cause of bronchial obstruction was lung cancer (59.0%), and that of the benign obstruction was pulmonary tuberculosis (13.1%). 2. Amputation, asymmetric narrowing, thumbprint indentation, rat-tail narrowing and encasement signs were the most accurate signs of malignancy and were practically diagnostic ones. 3. The most frequent sign in lung cancer was sharp cutoff one, but it could be seen in lung abscess and in unresolved pneumonia, too. 4. Circumferential symmetric narrowing and regular concavity with a small central projection signs were specific ones to benignancy. 5. The most frequent obstruction sign in benign lung disease was gradual tapering sign, but it also could be seen in bronchogenic epidermoid and alveolar cell carcinoma. 6. Of all bronchial obstructions, 55.4% occurred at lobar bronchus and 77.4% of those were caused by lung cancer. 7. 77.2% of those obstruction which located within 3 times distance of the bronchial diameter at the nearest proximal bifurcation site, were lung cancer, but 75.0% of those located at over 3 times distance were benign pulmonary diseases. 8. There were no correlation of the direction of the meniscus at the obstructing end in differential diagnosis between benign and malignant pulmonary diseases

  3. Analysis of the patterns of bronchial obstruction at bronchography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Suk; Kim, Yong Chul; Han, Sang Don; Lee, Yong Chul [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-12-15

    Of the bronchographic findings of 408 patients, performed in our hospital for recent 5 years, 108 cases showed definite bronchial obstruction, and 61 cases of those were selected and obstructive findings were evaluated. All that not confirmed were abandoned. For evaluation of the reliability of 9 braonchographic obstruction signs on applying to diagnose malignant or benign pulmonary diseases, each sign was identified and applied to each of the 61 confirmed cases. In addition, obstructed bronchi, distance of obstruction from the bifurcation site, and the direction of meniscus, if present, were evaluated. The results were follows: 1. The most frequent cause of bronchial obstruction was lung cancer (59.0%), and that of the benign obstruction was pulmonary tuberculosis (13.1%). 2. Amputation, asymmetric narrowing, thumbprint indentation, rat-tail narrowing and encasement signs were the most accurate signs of malignancy and were practically diagnostic ones. 3. The most frequent sign in lung cancer was sharp cutoff one, but it could be seen in lung abscess and in unresolved pneumonia, too. 4. Circumferential symmetric narrowing and regular concavity with a small central projection signs were specific ones to benignancy. 5. The most frequent obstruction sign in benign lung disease was gradual tapering sign, but it also could be seen in bronchogenic epidermoid and alveolar cell carcinoma. 6. Of all bronchial obstructions, 55.4% occurred at lobar bronchus and 77.4% of those were caused by lung cancer. 7. 77.2% of those obstruction which located within 3 times distance of the bronchial diameter at the nearest proximal bifurcation site, were lung cancer, but 75.0% of those located at over 3 times distance were benign pulmonary diseases. 8. There were no correlation of the direction of the meniscus at the obstructing end in differential diagnosis between benign and malignant pulmonary diseases.

  4. Use motion games in exercise with children with bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Polkovnyk-Markova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the possibility of using moving games in the rehabilitation of children with bronchial asthma. Material & Methods: the modern scientific literature on integrated prevention and treatment of children with asthma. Results: A high frequency of morphological and functional deviations at children with asthma. Classification and examples of mobile games, which can be used for this group of children. Conclusions: the results of modern research that show the effectiveness the use of physical rehabilitation, including moving games.

  5. Results of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in microcellular bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topuz, E.; Aldemir, O.; Toere, G.; Bilge, N.; Kural, N.

    1986-01-01

    At the Radiotherapeutic Department of the Faculty of Medicine in Istanbul, 35 masculine patients with microcellular bronchial carcinoma, limited disease, were treated for two years, i.e. between 1980 and 1981, with a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Nine out of these patients are tumor-free after at least 46 months, i.e. about four years. This corresponds to a tumor-free survival rate of 25.7%. (orig.) [de

  6. Returnable packaging for non-specific building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gassel, van F.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    A certain amount of construction waste comes from disposable packaging and this waste is ecologically damaging, one solution would be to reduce the disposable by using returnable packaging for non-specific construction products. To find out if this solution is feasible a study has been carried out

  7. Acute non-specific low back pain in primary care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of non-specific low back pain typically results in a significant improvement ... and the potential benefits and risks associated with drug treatment, have been ... South African Family Practice 2014; 56(6):10-14. Open Access article ...

  8. Meta-analysis: exercise therapy for nonspecific low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayden, J.A.; van Tulder, M.; Malmivaara, A.V.; Koes, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise therapy is widely used as an intervention in low back pain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise therapy in adult nonspecific acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain versus no treatment and other conservative treatments. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE,

  9. Association of hypovitaminosis Dwith persistent non-specific musculoskeletal pains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, H.M.A.; Kamran, M.; Rehman, S.U.; Khan, D.A.; Hussain, K.

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted in Pakistani population to find association of vitamin D deficiency with persistent non-specific musculoskeletal pains by comparing with pain free controls. Study Design: Case control study. Material and Methods: Patients aged 12 years or more presenting to Medical OPD with persistent nonspecific musculoskeletal pains for more than 3 months were selected as cases, while healthy individuals served as controls Results: A total of 60 cases (patients with persistent non-specific pains) presenting to medical outpatients department at Military Hospital Rawalpindi and 60 controls were studied. Mean age of cases was 43.9 +- 14.0 years and amongst controls were 33.2 +- 17.8 years. Mean serum vitamin D level of 32.8 nmol/L was reported in cases whereas mean serum vitamin D level amongst controls was 26.7 +- 17.8 nmol/L. Hypovitaminosis D amongst cases and controls was 86.6% and 95% respectively. The proportion of vitamin D deficiency did not differ significantly as compared to controls. There was non-significant difference in proportion of deficiency amongst cases and controls. Conclusion: Overall there was no association between persistent non-specific musculoskeletal pains and vitamin D deficiency. (author)

  10. 21 CFR 20.50 - Nonspecific and overly burdensome requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... policy reasons justifying the requests. A decision on the processing of such a request for information... PUBLIC INFORMATION Procedures and Fees § 20.50 Nonspecific and overly burdensome requests. The Food and... operations of the Food and Drug Administration, the person making the request will be asked to be more...

  11. Nonspecific Verbal Cues Alleviate Forgetting by Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kirstie; Hayne, Harlene

    2007-01-01

    Verbal reminders play a pervasive role in memory retrieval by human adults. In fact, relatively nonspecific verbal information (e.g. "Remember the last time we ate at that restaurant?") will often cue vivid recollections of a past event even when presented outside the original encoding context. Although research has shown that memory retrieval by…

  12. Antidepressants for non-specific low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urquhart, D. M.; Hoving, J. L.; Assendelft, W. W. J. J.; Roland, M.; van Tulder, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antidepressants are commonly used in the management of low-back pain. However, their use is controversial. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to determine whether antidepressants are more effective than placebo for the treatment of non-specific low-back pain. SEARCH STRATEGY:

  13. Aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphy in children with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Yoshikuni; Nakayama, Chikashi; Nakata, Hajime; Takahashi, Satomi; Tanaka, Masaaki; Koori, Tateo

    1988-01-01

    Aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphies performed on 37 children with bronchial asthma during asymptomatic periods were evaluated. The findings of their aerosol lung inhalation scintigrams were classified into 4 patterns, as type I: homogeneous distribution without hot spot formation, type II: peripheral homogeneity with central hot spot formation, type IIID (-): inhomogeneous distribution with hot spot formation, but without defect, and type IIID (+): with defect. These aerosol patterns were compared with those of previously reported adult cases and with the severity of bronchial asthma. Normal pattern of type I was found in 5 cases (12%) of our infantile asthmatics in contrast to previously reported adult cases, in which none of normal pattern was found. There were differences between type II and type III in both distribution and disappearance time of hot spot, which indicated that the two types differed from each other in radioaerosol deposition mechanism. There was no significant correlation between type I and type II in the severity of asthma and the frequency of asthmatic attack. Type II may be clinically considered to be the same type as type I. There is the statistically significant difference between type I, II and type III in the frequency of asthmatic attack, but not in the severity of asthma, although most of serious cases showed type III. Aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphy is a useful examination for children with bronchial asthma in which lung function tests may be difficult to perform. (author)

  14. [Identification and characterization of proteins from human bronchial secretion (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, A; Hayem, A

    1976-03-01

    An analysis of bronchial mucus proteins was carried out by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Before electrophoretic migration, sputum was treated with Ecteola-cellulose, which retains acid mucins. The proteins were then extracted by a phosphate/saline buffer pH 7.5. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis of the "bronchial extracts" was carried out with an anti-human serum: fifteen proteins were detected. Among them, IgA and protease inhibitiors play an important role in bronchial pathology. Bronchial extracts were also studied with immune serums against milk proteins, whole saliva and proteins of bronchial mucus. Bronchotransferrin, amylase and two esterases were characterized. Four other proteins were also detected with immune serums against bronchial mucus-proteins: their biological role is still unknown.

  15. Risk factors of non-specific spinal pain in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szita, Julia; Boja, Sara; Szilagyi, Agnes; Somhegyi, Annamaria; Varga, Peter Pal; Lazary, Aron

    2018-05-01

    Non-specific spinal pain can occur at all ages and current evidence suggests that pediatric non-specific spinal pain is predictive for adult spinal conditions. A 5-year long, prospective cohort study was conducted to identify the lifestyle and environmental factors leading to non-specific spinal pain in childhood. Data were collected from school children aged 7-16 years, who were randomly selected from three different geographic regions in Hungary. The risk factors were measured with a newly developed patient-reported questionnaire (PRQ). The quality of the instrument was assessed by the reliability with the test-retest method. Test (N = 952) and validity (N = 897) datasets were randomly formed. Risk factors were identified with uni- and multivariate logistic regression models and the predictive performance of the final model was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method. The final model was built up by seven risk factors for spinal pain for days; age > 12 years, learning or watching TV for more than 2 h/day, uncomfortable school-desk, sleeping problems, general discomfort and positive familiar medical history (χ 2  = 101.07; df = 8; p < 0.001). The probabilistic performance was confirmed with ROC analysis on the test and validation cohorts (AUC = 0.76; 0.71). A simplified risk scoring system showed increasing possibility for non-specific spinal pain depending on the number of the identified risk factors (χ 2  = 65.0; df = 4; p < 0.001). Seven significant risk factors of non-specific spinal pain in childhood were identified using the new, easy to use and reliable PRQ which makes it possible to stratify the children according to their individual risk. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

  16. The diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral CT virtual bronchoscopy in tracheal and bronchial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Ying; Ma Daqing

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral CT virtual bronchoscopy (CTVB) in tracheal and bronchial disease. Methods: Forty-two patients including central lung cancer (n=35), endobronchial tuberculosis (n=3), intrabronchial benign tumor (n=3), and intrabronchial foreign body (n=1) were examined by using multi-slice spiral CT examinations. All the final diagnosis were proved by pathology except 1 patient with endoluminal foreign body was proved by clinic. All patients were scanned on GE Lightspeed 99 scanner, using 10 mm collimation, pitch of 1.35, and reconstructed at 1 mm intervals and 1.25 mm thickness. The chest images of transverse CT and virtual bronchoscopy were viewed by two separate radiologists who were familiar with the tracheal and bronchial anatomy. Results: Among the 42 patients, the tumor of trachea and bronchial lumen appeared as masses in 22 of 35 patients with central lung cancer and bronchial stenosis was found in 13 of 35 patients with central lung cancer, and bronchial wall thickening was revealed on transverse CT in all 35 cases. 3 patients of endobronchial tuberculosis showed bronchial lumen narrowing on CTVB, the bronchial wall thickening was revealed on transverse CT, and the length of the wall thickening was long. 3 patients with intrabronchial benign tumor showed nodules in trachea and bronchial lumen on CTVB, and without wall thickening on transverse CT. CTVB could detect the occlusion of bronchial lumen in 1 patient with intrabronchial foreign body and CTVB was able to visualize the areas beyond stenosis, and the bronchial wall was without thickening on transverse CT. Conclusion: Multi- slice spiral CTVB could reflect the morphology of tracheal and bronchial disease. Combined with transverse CT, it could provide diagnostic reference value for bronchial disease. (authors)

  17. Diagnosis of bronchial artery aneurysm by computed tomography: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyeon Bak, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial artery aneurysm is a rare vascular abnormality, with an incidence of <1% based on diagnosis by selective bronchial angiography. It is manifested in various forms, ranging from an incidental finding on radiologic examination to life-threatening hemorrhage resulting from aneurysm rupture. We report a case of a 60-year-old man with a mediastinal bronchial artery aneurysm which was incidentally detected on chest computed tomography.

  18. PHARMACOECONOMIC ASPECT OF OMALIZUMAB APPLICATION AMONG THE PATIENTS, SUFFERING FROM THE BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Kolbin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the given article, the authors discuss the most difficult issue of the pediatrics, which is the treatment of the severe bronchial asthma. Our columnist is professor A.S. Kolbin introduces omalizumab, a new medication from the monoclonal antibodies group, to our readers. It allows practitioners to control the severe persistent bronchial asthma. The article accentuates the clinical effectiveness and pharmacoeconomic aspects of the medication application.Key words: bronchial asthma, severe run, treatment, monoclonal antibodies, children.

  19. The clinical significance of the substance P in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Bangping; Jiang Changbin

    2003-01-01

    Using radioimmunoassay to measure the substance P (SP) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in thirty patients with bronchial asthma and thirty healthy persons. Compered with healthy group (33.4±24.5 pmol/L), the SP in bronchial asthma group (240.2±18.7 pmol/L) increased significantly (p < 0.01). SP may play a role in the development of bronchial asthma

  20. Three-dimensional anatomical evaluation of bronchial artery with CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hong; Li Huimin; Xiao Xiangsheng; Liu Shiyuan; Li Chengzhou; Tao Xiaofeng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of CT angiography in identifying and demonstrating the origins and courses of bronchial arteries by using the three-dimensional reformation technique. Methods Four hundred and forty-three eases were examined with thin-section enhanced MSCT. Three-dimensional images of bronchial arteries were processed at the workstation. Spatial anatomical characters of the bronchial arteries using volume rendering(VR), muhiplanar reconstruction (MPR), and maxium intensity projection (MIP) were observed. Results: At least one bronchial artery was clearly displayed in VR in 359 eases. The right bronchial arteries mainly appeared to originate from the right intercostal artery (213/436, 48.85% ) and descending aorta (207/436, 47.48%), while the left bronchial arteries mainly from the descending aorta (363/371, 97.84%). The right bronchial arteries of the descending aorta were mainly arised from fight wall (95/207, 45.89%), and then the anterior wall (88/207, 42.51%), while the left bronchial arteries of the descending aorta mainly arised from anterior wall of the aorta (272/363, 74.93%). The common trunk originated from the descending aorta mainly positioned in the anterior wall (57/77, 74.03%). 49.31% (215/436) of the fight bronchial arteries were coursing across the posterior edge of the right main bronchi, 35.55% (155/436) coursing the inferior edge, while 60.11% (223/371) of left bronchial arteries coursing forward across the superior edger of the left main bronchi, the others coursing the inferior or the posterior edge. There were eleven bronchial artery distribution patterns, with the right and left ones predominating (192/359, 53.48%), and then two right and one left (63/359, 17.55%). Conclusion: The bronchial artery anatomy was complicated, and CT angiography could clearly visualize the features. (authors)

  1. The normal anatomy and variations of the bronchial arteries: evaluation with multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yener, Özlem; Türkvatan, Aysel; Yüce, Gökhan; Yener, Ali Ümit

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to reveal the normal anatomy and variations of the bronchial arterial system and to determine the sex distribution of these variations by retrospectively reviewing the images of patients who underwent thoracal multidetector computed tomographic angiography for various reasons. Multidetector computed tomographic images of a total of 208 patients (151 men; mean age, 59 years) were retrospectively reviewed to assess the normal anatomy and variations of the bronchial arterial system. A total of 531 bronchial arteries (median, 3; minimum, 1; maximum, 5; mean, 2.5) were detected. The number (mean diameter) of the right bronchial arteries were higher than the left bronchial arteries (290 [1.43 mm] and 241 [1.26 mm], respectively; P arteries were higher with men than with women (2.58 [1.45 mm] and 2.47 [1.32 mm], respectively; P artery, and, secondarily (13.46%), the combination of 2 right (1 intercostal-bronchial trunk and 1 bronchial artery) and 1 left bronchial arteries. Seventy-eight ectopic bronchial arteries were detected in 59 cases (28.3%). They most commonly originated from the aortic arch (37.2%), the descending aorta below the level of T6 (35.9%), or the aortic branches (16.7%). The number of right ectopic bronchial arteries was significantly higher than the left ectopic bronchial arteries (50 [64%] vs 28 [36%]; P arteries was statistically higher with men versus women (45 [29.8%] vs 14 [24.6%]; P arteries can vary substantially among individuals. Multidetector computed tomographic angiography enables a detailed road map of the bronchial arterial system to interventional radiologists and thoracic surgeons. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Immediate and long-term outcomes of bronchial and non-bronchial systemic artery embolisation for the management of haemoptysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Joo-Young; Belli, Anna-Maria [St. George' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    To evaluate the immediate and long-term results of arterial embolisation in the management of haemoptysis and to identify factors influencing outcome. A retrospective analysis was carried out of the medical records and angiograms of 50 patients who underwent transarterial embolisation for haemoptysis. The most frequent causes of haemoptysis included bronchiectasis (16%), active tuberculosis (12%) and aspergilloma (12%). A total of 126 bronchial and non-bronchial systemic arteries were embolised in 62 procedures. Immediate cessation of haemoptysis was achieved in 43 patients (86%). Haemoptysis was controlled in 36 patients (72%), recurred in 14 (28%) and 11 (22%) required repeat embolisation. The worst outcomes were observed in patients with aspergilloma: all six suffered recurrent bleeding and three (50%) died from massive haemoptysis. Aspergilloma was also associated with an increased risk of haemoptysis recurrence (p<0.05). A good clinical outcome was achieved in those with active tuberculosis and malignancy. Complication rates were low and included transient chest pain, false aneurysm and one case of lower limb weakness. Bronchial artery embolisation (BAE) is an effective and safe procedure for haemoptysis control in most cases. However, high recurrence and mortality rates are associated with aspergilloma. Early intervention with repeat embolisation is recommended in these patients and elective surgery should be considered. (orig.)

  3. High probability of comorbidities in bronchial asthma in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, S; Al-Shobash, S; Rapp, D; Le, D D; Omlor, A; Bekhit, A; Flaig, M; Al-Kadah, B; Herian, W; Bals, R; Wagenpfeil, S; Dinh, Q T

    2017-04-21

    Clinical experience has shown that allergic and non-allergic respiratory, metabolic, mental, and cardiovascular disorders sometimes coexist with bronchial asthma. However, no study has been carried out that calculates the chance of manifestation of these disorders with bronchial asthma in Saarland and Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Using ICD10 diagnoses from health care institutions, the present study systematically analyzed the co-prevalence and odds ratios of comorbidities in the asthma population in Germany. The odds ratios were adjusted for age and sex for all comorbidities for patients with asthma vs. without asthma. Bronchial asthma was strongly associated with allergic and with a lesser extent to non-allergic comorbidities: OR 7.02 (95%CI:6.83-7.22) for allergic rhinitis; OR 4.98 (95%CI:4.67-5.32) allergic conjunctivitis; OR 2.41 (95%CI:2.33-2.52) atopic dermatitis; OR 2.47 (95%CI:2.16-2.82) food allergy, and OR 1.69 (95%CI:1.61-1.78) drug allergy. Interestingly, increased ORs were found for respiratory diseases: 2.06 (95%CI:1.64-2.58) vocal dysfunction; 1.83 (95%CI:1.74-1.92) pneumonia; 1.78 (95%CI:1.73-1.84) sinusitis; 1.71 (95%CI:1.65-1.78) rhinopharyngitis; 2.55 (95%CI:2.03-3.19) obstructive sleep apnea; 1.42 (95%CI:1.25-1.61) pulmonary embolism, and 3.75 (95%CI:1.64-8.53) bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Asthmatics also suffer from psychiatric, metabolic, cardiac or other comorbidities. Myocardial infarction (OR 0.86, 95%CI:0.79-0.94) did not coexist with asthma. Based on the calculated chances of manifestation for these comorbidities, especially allergic and respiratory, to a lesser extent also metabolic, cardiovascular, and mental disorders should be taken into consideration in the diagnostic and treatment strategy of bronchial asthma. PREVALENCE OF CO-EXISTING DISEASES IN GERMANY: Patients in Germany with bronchial asthma are highly likely to suffer from co-existing diseases and their treatments should reflect this. Quoc Thai Dinh at Saarland

  4. Experimental studies in the bronchial circulation. Which is the ideal animal model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotou, Ioannis; Tsipas, Panteleimon; Melachrinou, Maria; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of the role of bronchial arteries is notable in modern days thoracic surgery. The significance of their anastomoses with adjusted structures has not yet been sufficiently rated, especially in cases of haemoptysis, heart-lung transplantations and treatment of aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. The need of a thorough study is more relevant than ever and appropriate laboratory animals are required. Methods We review the literature in order to highlight the ideal experimental animal for the implementation of pilot programs relative to the bronchial circulation. A comparative analysis of the anatomy of the bronchial arterial system in humans along with these of pigs, dogs, rats, and birds, as being the most commonly used laboratory animals, is presented in details. Results The pig has the advantage that the broncho-oesophageal artery usually originates from the aorta as a single vessel, which makes the recognition and dissection of the artery easy to perform. In dogs, there is significant anatomical variation of the origin of the bronchial arteries. In rats, bronchial artery coming from the aorta is a rare event while in birds the pattern of the bronchial artery tree is clearly different from the human analog. Conclusions The pig is anatomically and physiologically suited for experimental studies on the bronchial circulation. The suitable bronchial anatomy and physiology along with the undeniable usefulness of the pig in experimental research and the low maintenance cost make the pig the ideal model for experiments in bronchial circulation. PMID:25364530

  5. Svær asthma bronchiale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Anna; Backer, Vibeke; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Severe asthma is defined by persistent symptoms and frequent exacerbations despite intensive asthma therapy. The prevalence is estimated to be 5-10% of all asthmatics. Severe asthma is responsible for a major burden of illness including low quality of life and a disproportionate use of health......-care resources. The clinical assessment of severe asthma must include verification of the correct diagnosis, adherence to medication, excluding differential diagnosis and identification and treatment of aggravating co-morbidities and trigger factors....

  6. [Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis: a clinicopathologic entity, histologic pattern or unclassified group of heterogeneous interstitial pneumonitis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, António; Moura, M Conceição Souto; Cruz, M Rosa; Gomes, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (NSIP) initially described by Katzenstein and Fiorelli in 1994, seems to be a distinct clinicopathologic entity among idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis (IIP). Besides different histologic features from other IIP, NSIP is characterized by a better long-term outcome, associated with a better steroids responsiveness than idiopathic pulmonar fibrosis (IPF), where usually were included. Thus, differentiating NSIP from other IIP, namely IPF is very significant, since it has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. NSIP encloses different pathologies, namely those with inflammatory predominance (cellular subtype) or fibrous predominance (fibrosing subtype). NSIP is reviewed and discussed by the authors, after two clinical cases description.

  7. A small jab - a big effect: nonspecific immunomodulation by vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Christine S; Netea, Mihai G; Selin, Liisa K; Aaby, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have shown that, in addition to disease-specific effects, vaccines against infectious diseases have nonspecific effects on the ability of the immune system to handle other pathogens. For instance, in randomized trials tuberculosis and measles vaccines are associated with a substantial reduction in overall child mortality, which cannot be explained by prevention of the target disease. New research suggests that the nonspecific effects of vaccines are related to cross-reactivity of the adaptive immune system with unrelated pathogens, and to training of the innate immune system through epigenetic reprogramming. Hence, epidemiological findings are backed by immunological data. This generates a new understanding of the immune system and about how it can be modulated by vaccines to impact the general resistance to disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ectopic origin of bronchial arteries: assessment with multidetector helical CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Ieneke J.C.; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Menchini, Laura; Teisseire, Antoine; Khalil, Chadi; Remy, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine non-invasively the frequency of ectopic bronchial arteries (BA) (i.e., bronchial arteries originating at a level of the descending aorta other than T5-T6 or from any aortic collateral vessel) on multidetector-row CT angiograms (CTA) obtained in patients with hemoptysis. Over a 5-year period (2000-2005), 251 consecutive patients with hemoptysis underwent multidetector-row CT angiography of the thorax. From this population, 37 patients were excluded because of a suboptimal CTA examination (n = 19), the presence of extensive mediastinal disease (n = 15) or severe chest deformation (n = 3) precluding any precise analysis of the bronchial arteries at CTA. Our final study group included 214 patients who underwent a thin-collimated CT angiogram (contrast agent: 300 to 350 mg/ml) on a 4- (n = 56), 16- (n = 119) and 64- (n = 39) detector-row scanner. The site of origin and distribution of bronchial arteries were analyzed on transverse CT scans, maximum intensity projections and volume-rendered images. The site of the ostium of a bronchial artery was coded as orthotopic when the artery originated from the descending aorta between the levels of the fifth and sixth thoracic vertebrae; all other bronchial arteries were considered ectopic. From the studied population, 137 (64%) patients had only orthotopic bronchial arteries, whereas 77 patients (36%) had at least one bronchial artery of ectopic origin. A total of 147 ectopic arteries were depicted, originating as common bronchial trunks (n = 23; 19%) or isolated right or left bronchial arteries (n = 101; 81%). The most frequent sites of origin of the 124 ostiums were the concavity of the aortic arch (92/124; 74%), the subclavian artery (13/124; 10.5%) and the descending aorta (10/124; 8.5%). The isolated ectopic bronchial arteries supplied the ipsilateral lung in all but three cases. Bronchial artery embolization was indicated in 26 patients. On the basis of CTA information, (1

  9. Computed Tomographic Window Setting for Bronchial Measurement to Guide Double-Lumen Tube Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Hwa; Bae, Jinyoung; Paik, Hyesun; Koo, Chang-Hoon; Bahk, Jae-Hyon

    2018-04-01

    The bronchial diameter measured on computed tomography (CT) can be used to guide double-lumen tube (DLT) sizes objectively. The bronchus is known to be measured most accurately in the so-called bronchial CT window. The authors investigated whether using the bronchial window results in the selection of more appropriately sized DLTs than using the other windows. CT image analysis and prospective randomized study. Tertiary hospital. Adults receiving left-sided DLTs. The authors simulated selection of DLT sizes based on the left bronchial diameters measured in the lung (width 1,500 Hounsfield unit [HU] and level -700 HU), bronchial (1,000 HU and -450 HU), and mediastinal (400 HU and 25 HU) CT windows. Furthermore, patients were randomly assigned to undergo imaging with either the bronchial or mediastinal window to guide DLT sizes. Using the underwater seal technique, the authors assessed whether the DLT was appropriately sized, undersized, or oversized for the patient. On 130 CT images, the bronchial diameter (9.9 ± 1.2 mm v 10.5 ± 1.3 mm v 11.7 ± 1.3 mm) and the selected DLT size were different in the lung, bronchial, and mediastinal windows, respectively (p study, oversized tubes were chosen less frequently in the bronchial window than in the mediastinal window (6/110 v 23/111; risk ratio 0.38; 95% CI 0.19-0.79; p = 0.003). No tubes were undersized after measurements in these two windows. The bronchial measurement in the bronchial window guided more appropriately sized DLTs compared with the lung or mediastinal windows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevention of bronchial hyperreactivity in a rat model of precapillary pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beghetti Maurice

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR subsequent to precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PHT was prevented by acting on the major signalling pathways (endothelin, nitric oxide, vasoactive intestine peptide (VIP and prostacyclin involved in the control of the pulmonary vascular and bronchial tones. Methods Five groups of rats underwent surgery to prepare an aorta-caval shunt (ACS to induce sustained precapillary PHT for 4 weeks. During this period, no treatment was applied in one group (ACS controls, while the other groups were pretreated with VIP, iloprost, tezosentan via an intraperitoneally implemented osmotic pump, or by orally administered sildenafil. An additional group underwent sham surgery. Four weeks later, the lung responsiveness to increasing doses of an intravenous infusion of methacholine (2, 4, 8 12 and 24 μg/kg/min was determined by using the forced oscillation technique to assess the airway resistance (Raw. Results BHR developed in the untreated rats, as reflected by a significant decrease in ED50, the equivalent dose of methacholine required to cause a 50% increase in Raw. All drugs tested prevented the development of BHR, iloprost being the most effective in reducing both the systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa; 28%, p = 0.035 and BHR (ED50 = 9.9 ± 1.7 vs. 43 ± 11 μg/kg in ACS control and iloprost-treated rats, respectively, p = 0.008. Significant correlations were found between the levels of Ppa and ED50 (R = -0.59, p = 0.016, indicating that mechanical interdependence is primarily responsible for the development of BHR. Conclusions The efficiency of such treatment demonstrates that re-establishment of the balance of constrictor/dilator mediators via various signalling pathways involved in PHT is of potential benefit for the avoidance of the development of BHR.

  11. Uptake and cytotoxic effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Seishiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Furuyama, Akiko; Kanno, Sanae

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are cytotoxic to several cell types. However, the mechanism of CNT toxicity has not been fully studied, and dosimetric analyses of CNT in the cell culture system are lacking. Here, we describe a novel, high throughput method to measure cellular uptake of CNT using turbimetry. BEAS-2B, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, was used to investigate cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory effects of multi-walled CNT (MWCNT). The cytotoxicity of MWCNT was higher than that of crocidolite asbestos in BEAS-2B cells. The IC 50 of MWCNT was 12 μg/ml, whereas that of asbestos (crocidolite) was 678 μg/ml. Over the course of 5 to 8 h, BEAS-2B cells took up 17-18% of the MWCNT when they were added to the culture medium at a concentration of 10 μg/ml. BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 2, 5, or 10 μg/ml of MWCNT, and total RNA was extracted for cytokine cDNA primer array assays. The culture supernatant was collected for cytokine antibody array assays. Cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 increased in a dose dependent manner at both the mRNA and protein levels. Migration inhibitory factor (MIF) also increased in the culture supernatant in response to MWCNT. A phosphokinase array study using lysates from BEAS-2B cells exposed to MWCNT indicated that phosphorylation of p38, ERK1, and HSP27 increased significantly in response to MWCNT. Results from a reporter gene assays using the NF-κB or AP-1 promoter linked to the luciferase gene in transiently transfected CHO-KI cells revealed that NF-κB was activated following MWCNT exposure, while AP-1 was not changed. Collectively, MWCNT activated NF-κB, enhanced phosphorylation of MAP kinase pathway components, and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines in human bronchial epithelial cells.

  12. Specifying the non-specific components of acupuncture analgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vase, Lene; Baram, Sara; Takakura, Nobuari; Yajima, Hiroyoshi; Takayama, Miho; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Schou, Søren; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that acupuncture has pain-relieving effects, but the contribution of specific and especially non-specific factors to acupuncture analgesia is less clear. One hundred and one patients who developed pain ≥ 3 on a visual analog scale (VAS, 0-10) following third molar surgery were randomized to receive active acupuncture, placebo acupuncture, or no treatment for 30 min with acupuncture needles with potential for double-blinding. Patients’ perception of the treatment (active or placebo), and expected pain levels (VAS) were assessed prior to and halfway through the treatment. Looking at actual treatment allocation, there was no specific effect of active acupuncture (P = 0.240), but a large and significant non-specific effect of placebo acupuncture (P acupuncture (P acupuncture had significantly lower pain levels than those who believed they received placebo acupuncture. Expected pain levels accounted for significant and progressively larger amounts of the variance in pain ratings following both active and placebo acupuncture (up to 69.8%), This is the first study to show that under optimized blinding conditions non-specific factors such as patients’ perception of and expectations toward treatment are central to the efficacy of acupuncture analgesia and that these factors may contribute to self-reinforcing effects in acupuncture treatment To obtain an effect of acupuncture in clinical practice it may, therefore, be important to incorporate and optimize these factors. PMID:23707680

  13. [Treatment of bronchial obstruction in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmelev, E I; Kuklina, G M; Kalinina, E E

    2004-01-01

    Whether the main points of treatment for bronchial obstructive syndrome (BOS) in chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) can be adapted for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PT) was studied. For this purpose, 435 patients with PT with signs of BOS (forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1) 70% of the normal values; 2) 229 patients with FEV1 69-50%; 3) 102 patients with FEV1 bronchial obstructive syndrome in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was highly effective, promotes the amelioration of the degree of respiratory symptoms in patients with IPT by 2 to 8 times, in those with FCPT by more than 2-3 times, and in those with PS by 1.45-10 times. The differences in the efficiency of bronchodilator therapy depend on the baseline level of bronchial obstruction. In patients with pulmonary tuberculosis concurrent with BO, the use of current inhalation bronchodilator therapy results in a substantial increase in FEV1, which differentiates BOS in PT from COLD. The use of the proposed therapy in the multimodality treatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis showed no statistically significant differences in the changes in the degree of X-ray symptoms while this therapy permits acceleration of abacillation in patients with IPT by 16.8% and in those with FCPT by 14.8%. Effective bronchodilator therapy considerably enhances life quality in patients. Thus, early systematic and long-term performance of the bronchodilator therapy, based on the principles of bronchodilator therapy for COLD, in patients with PT concurrent with BOS may substantially enhance the efficiency of treatment in this category of patients.

  14. [Activity and safety of fenspiride in bronchial hyperexudation (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Labarthe, B; Gosset, X; Dourmap, C; Delaval, P; Le Rest, R

    This clinical trial of fenspiride (injectable and sustained-release 80 mg tablet) was carried out on patients selected because their bronchopathy was of a hypersecretory type. Interesting results were observed in 20 out of 37 cases, but they were often delayed. This group of patients included a high proportion of patients with major hypersecretion; the efficacy of fenspiride is often evident, (in 8 out of 11 cases) but it is unpredictable individually. It can be concluded from this trial that a long term treatment with fenspiride, well tolerated, can usefully be tried in patients with predominant signs of bronchial hyperexudation.

  15. Central bronchial carcinoid: Management of a case and anesthetic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Goswami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructing lesions of the central airways present with a variety of symptoms and are often associated with pneumonia or asthma-like states. Anesthesia to these patients often presents challenges right from the preoperative stabilization of underlying lung condition, mask ventilation in the supine position to maintaining oxygenation and ventilation in the intraoperative and postoperative period. We present here a case of a young woman with a central bronchial tumor with significant airway obstruction with potential for major bleeding and subsequent anesthetic management without lung sacrificing measures and cardiopulmonary bypass assistance.

  16. Right main bronchial fracture resolution by digital thoracic drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Julián, Gildardo; Mier, José M; Iñiguez, Marco A; Guzmán de Alba, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    Tracheobronchial stenosis is common in the thoracic surgery service, and iatrogenic injury of the airway after manipulation is not infrequent. When a digital thoracic drainage system came onto the market, many advantages were evident. A 24-year-old woman with critical right main bronchial stenosis underwent airway dilation that was complicated by a tear with a massive air leak, resulting in a total right pneumothorax. We employed a pleural drain connected to a digital thoracic drainage system. The drain was removed 2 days after successful resolution of the air leak. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Bronchial carcinoid tumor: helical CT and virtual bronchoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, Eduardo; Carrascosa, Patricia; Capunay, Carlos; Spinozzi, German; Abramson, Horacio; Berna, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    The authors reported a case of a 61 years old man with recurrent neumonia of the inferior right lobe diagnosed by a chest radiography. A complementary helical CT showed an endobronquial mass on the right intermediate bronchus. Virtual bronchoscopy contributed to a better definition of this lesion, confirmed by a real bronchoscopy. The lesion was diagnosed as a carcinoid tumor by a bronchial biopsy. After surgery (sleeve resection of the tumor) the patient did not show any recurrence of his broncho-neumonic clinical features. (author)

  18. Multifactorial dyspahgia complicated by esophago-bronchial fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Julie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysphagia in an elderly patient necessitates urgent clinical evaluation to exclude the possibility of an underlying esophageal malignancy. Atherosclerotic aortic aneurysms are common in old age, but dysphagia aortica resulting from compression of the esophagus by an aortic aneurysm is a rare cause for dysphagia. Development of a malignant esophago-airway fistula can occur from a variety of tumors, the most common of which is esophageal cancer. A case of longstanding dysphagia resulting from dysphagia aortica later developing an esophageal malignancy complicated by esophago-bronchial fistula is outlined in this unique case report.

  19. Alveolar epithelial permeability in bronchial asthma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Takuji

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate alveolar epithelial permeability (k ep ) in children with bronchial asthma, 99m Tc-DTPA (diethylene triamine penta acetate) aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphies were performed. There was no correlation between the k ep value and the severity of asthma. On the other hand, out of 10 cases which had no aerosol deposition defect in the lung field, 4 showed high k ep values on the whole lung field and 7 had high k ep value areas, particularly apparent in the upper lung field. These results suggest that even when the central airway lesions are mild, severe damage exists in the alveolar region of the peripheral airway. (author)

  20. The relationship between bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and airway smooth muscle structure and reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, C L; Black, J L; Berend, N; Woolcock, A J

    1984-11-01

    The airway responsiveness of a group of 25 patients scheduled for lung resection was studied. 10 of 25 patients had a greater than or equal to 20% fall in FEV1 in response to inhaled methacholine (responders), with PD20 FEV1 values ranging from 0.6 to 7.3 mumol. Methacholine did not induce a 20% fall in FEV1 in 15 patients (non-responders). The sensitivity to carbachol and histamine of the bronchial smooth muscle resected from these patients was similar in tissue from responders and non-responders. There was no correlation between in vivo responsiveness to methacholine and in vitro sensitivity to carbachol or histamine. The volume of smooth muscle in some of these airway preparations was quantitated. There was a significant correlation between the maximum tension change in response to histamine and the volume of smooth muscle in each airway. There was no similar correlation for carbachol. The in vivo responsiveness to methacholine and in vitro sensitivity to histamine or carbachol was not related to the degree of inflammation in the airways studied. It is concluded that in vivo responsiveness cannot be explained in terms of smooth muscle sensitivity and that there may be differences between histamine and carbachol in the mechanism of contraction of airway smooth muscle.

  1. Typhoid fever as a triggering factor in acute and intractable bronchial asthma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhana; Surachmanto, Eko E; Datau, E A

    2013-10-01

    Typhoid fever is an enteric infection caused by Salmonella typhi. In Indonesia, typhoid fever is endemic with high incidence of the disease. In daily practice we frequently have patients with bronchial asthma, and it is becoming worse when these patients get typhoid fever. After oral ingestion, Salmonella typhi invades the the intestine mucosa after conducted by microbial binding to epithelial cells, destroying the microfold cells (M cell) then passed through the lamina propria and detected by dendritic cells (DC) which express a variety of pathogen recognition receptors on the surfaces, including Toll-Like Receptor (TLR). expressed on macrophages and on intestinal epithelial cells inducing degradation of IB, and translocation of NF-B (Nuclear Factor-Kappa Beta). This process initiates the induction of pro-inflammatory gene expression profile adhesion molecules, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and other proteins that induce and perpetuate the inflammation in host cells then will induce acute ant intractable attack of bronchial asthma. The role of typhoid fever in bronchial asthma, especially in persons with acute attack of bronchial asthma, is not well understood. In this article, we will discuss the role of typhoid fever in the bronchial asthma patients which may cause bronchial asthma significantly become more severe even triggering the acute and intractable attack of bronchial asthma. This fact makes an important point, to treat completely the typhoid fever in patients with bronchial asthma.

  2. Clinical and Diagnostic Features of Bronchial Asthma in Children on the Background of Latent Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Levytskyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on clinical and paraclinical examination of 112 children with bronchial asthma, there were studied the features of its course against the background of food allergy. It was found that only a set of clinical and paraclinical signs is the most important for the diagnosis of bronchial asthma in children on the background of latent food allergy.

  3. Mediastinoscopic Bilateral Bronchial Release for Long Segmental Resection and Anastomosis of the Trachea

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jeong-Han; Park, In Kyu; Bae, Mi-Kyung; Hwang, Yoohwa

    2011-01-01

    The extent of resection and release of the trachea is important for successful anastomosis. Bilateral bronchial dissection is one of the release techniques for resection of the lower trachea. We present the experience of cervical video-assisted mediastinoscopic bilateral bronchial release for long segmental resection and anastomosis of the lower trachea.

  4. Left Circumflex Coronary Artery Fistula Connected to the Right Bronchial Artery Associated with Bronchiectasis: Multidetector CT and Coronary Angiography Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Kyung Jin; Choo, Ki Seok [Dept. of Radiology, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Coronary to bronchial artery fistula is a rare vascular anomaly secondary to enlargement of pre-existing vascular anastomosis between the coronary and bronchial arteries. This occurs when there is a constant disturbance of the pressure equilibrium involving either coronary or broncho-pulmonary disorder. Localized bronchiectasis is the most common related condition in patients with a coronary to bronchial artery fistula. Herein, we report on a case of a large left circumflex coronary artery to right bronchial artery fistula associated with bronchiectasis.

  5. Item-nonspecific proactive interference in monkeys' auditory short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies using the delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) paradigm indicate that monkeys' auditory short-term memory (STM) is susceptible to proactive interference (PI). During the task, subjects must indicate whether sample and test sounds separated by a retention interval are identical (match) or not (nonmatch). If a nonmatching test stimulus also occurred on a previous trial, monkeys are more likely to incorrectly make a "match" response (item-specific PI). However, it is not known whether PI may be caused by sounds presented on prior trials that are similar, but nonidentical to the current test stimulus (item-nonspecific PI). This possibility was investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, memoranda for each trial comprised tones with a wide range of frequencies, thus minimizing item-specific PI and producing a range of frequency differences among nonidentical tones. In Experiment 2, memoranda were drawn from a set of eight artificial sounds that differed from each other by one, two, or three acoustic dimensions (frequency, spectral bandwidth, and temporal dynamics). Results from both experiments indicate that subjects committed more errors when previously-presented sounds were acoustically similar (though not identical) to the test stimulus of the current trial. Significant effects were produced only by stimuli from the immediately previous trial, suggesting that item-nonspecific PI is less perseverant than item-specific PI, which can extend across noncontiguous trials. Our results contribute to existing human and animal STM literature reporting item-nonspecific PI caused by perceptual similarity among memoranda. Together, these observations underscore the significance of both temporal and discriminability factors in monkeys' STM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Digital video subtraction fluorography (DVSF) in the diagnosis of bronchial abnormality associated with congenital heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Tetsuya; Arisawa, Jun; Nakajima, Toru

    1990-01-01

    To assess bronchial morphology and abnormality, 14 children with congenital heart diseases including 2 postoperative patients (age, 2 m.-4 yr) were studied by digital video subtraction fluorography (DVSF) using digital subtraction and image processing system (Philips, DVI-2). This newly developed technique clearly defined bronchial anatomy in all 14 patients. Bronchial situs could be determined in all 8 patients with complex heart anomalies. Out of 8 patients with respiratory distress in this study, obvious bronchial stenosis or obstruction was found by DVSF in 5 patients. Thus, DVSF image defined anatomies of main and lobar bronchi more clearly than previous noninvasive methods. Moreover, DVSF is noninvasive and easily performed even for small infants and critically ill patients. In conclusion, DVSF may be a useful technique to assess bronchial morphology and abnormality in patients with congenital heart diseases. (author)

  7. Expression of CD152 and CD137 on T regulatory cells in rhinitis and bronchial asthma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rojas-Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Subjects with bronchial asthma and bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis disorders have a deficiency of CD4+, CD25hight and FoxP3+ Treg in peripheral blood; however, subjects with bronchial asthma had a higher frequency of CD152+ and CD137+ Treg cells.

  8. Cigarette smoke causes caspase-independent apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bucchieri

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated important links between air pollution and asthma. Amongst these pollutants, environmental cigarette smoke is a risk factor both for asthma pathogenesis and exacerbation. As the barrier to the inhaled environment, the bronchial epithelium is a key structure that is exposed to cigarette smoke.Since primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs from asthmatic donors are more susceptible to oxidant-induced apoptosis, we hypothesized that they would be susceptible to cigarette smoke-induced cell death.PBECs from normal and asthmatic donors were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE; cell survival and apoptosis were assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and protective effects of antioxidants evaluated. The mechanism of cell death was evaluated using caspase inhibitors and immunofluorescent staining for apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF.Exposure of PBEC cultures to CSE resulted in a dose-dependent increase in cell death. At 20% CSE, PBECs from asthmatic donors exhibited significantly more apoptosis than cells from non-asthmatic controls. Reduced glutathione (GSH, but not ascorbic acid (AA, protected against CSE-induced apoptosis. To investigate mechanisms of CSE-induced apoptosis, caspase-3 or -9 inhibitors were tested, but these failed to prevent apoptosis; in contrast, CSE promoted nuclear translocation of AIF from the mitochondria. GSH reduced the number of nuclear-AIF positive cells whereas AA was ineffective.Our results show that PBECs from asthmatic donors are more susceptible to CSE-induced apoptosis. This response involves AIF, which has been implicated in DNA damage and ROS-mediated cell-death. Epithelial susceptibility to CSE may contribute to the impact of environmental tobacco smoke in asthma.

  9. Radiologic management of haemoptysis. Diagnostic and interventional bronchial arterial embolisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ittrich, H.; Adam, G. [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Dept. and Clinic; Klose, H. [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany). Section Pneumology

    2015-04-15

    Hemoptysis can be a life-threatening pulmonary emergency with high mortality, is symptomatic of an underlying severe pulmonary disease and requires immediate diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostically, bronchoscopy, conventional chest x-ray and contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (MSCT) with CT angiography (CTA) provide information regarding the underlying pulmonary disease, bleeding site, the vascular anatomy of the bronchial arteries (BA) and extrabronchial branches, as well a basis for planning of endovascular intervention. Therapeutically, bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is a safe and effective technique in the hands of an experienced interventionist with profound knowledge of the BA anatomy and possible pitfalls as well as experience with first-line therapy of recurrent and massive hemoptysis or as an intervention prior to elective surgery. Recurrent episodes of hemoptysis are not uncommon and require a prompt repeat BAE after exclusion of extrabronchial systemic and pulmonary artery bleeding sources. This review article should give an overview of the history, anatomical and pathophysiological basics and the clinical context of hemoptysis and diagnosis, as well as a survey of management, treatment and results of BAE.

  10. Interactive navigation and bronchial tube tracking in virtual bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, P A; Fung, P F; Wong, T T; Siu, Y H; Sun, H

    1999-01-01

    An interactive virtual environment for simulation of bronchoscopy is developed. Medical doctor can safely plan their surgical bronchoscopy using the virtual environment without any invasive diagnosis which may risk the patient's health. The 3D pen input device of the system allows the doctor to navigate and visualize the bronchial tree of the patient naturally and interactively. To navigate the patient's bronchial tree, a vessel tracking process is required. While manual tracking is tedious and labor-intensive, fully automatic tracking may not be reliable. We propose a semi-automatic tracking technique called Intelligent Path Tracker which provides automation and enough user control during the vessel tracking. To support an interactive frame rate, we also introduce a new volume rendering acceleration technique, named as IsoRegion Leaping. The volume rendering is further accelerated by distributed rendering on a TCP/IP-based network of low-cost PCs. With these approaches, a 256 x 256 x 256 volume data of human lung, can be navigated and visualized at a frame rate of over 10 Hz in our virtual bronchoscopy system.

  11. Effect of lidocaine 2% on bacterial culture of bronchial fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, M.; Meybodi, F.A.A.; Mokarianpour, T.; Fallah, T.; Mongabadi, F.D.; Ayatollahi, J.; Shahcherghi, S.H.; Yazdi, M.H.A

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the action of 2% lidocaine on the culture results of bronchial fluid in patients suspected of having lower respiratory tract infections. Study Design:Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study:Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran, from November 2014 to November 2015. Methodology:Patients suspected of lower respiratory tract infections referred to bronchoscopy unit of the Hospital were included. Those with incomplete questionnaire and bronchoscopy contraindication were excluded. Bronchial fluid was aspirated before and after local application of 2% lidocaine and cultured, according to the suspected clinical diagnosis. Finally, statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, version 17.0. For statistical comparisons, McNemar's test was used. Level of significance was kept at p <0.05. Results:The mean age of the study population was 51.83 +-15.93 with a range of 25 - 80 years. Out of 130 patients, 60 patients had positive culture results. Nineteen (31.7%) cases had positive culture for tuberculosis and 41 (63.3%) cases had positive results for other bacteria before intervention that did not change after using 2% lidocaine (p=1). In 70 (53.84%) cases, results were negative before and after use of 2% lidocaine. Conclusion:No significant difference was found between culture results before and after the use of lidocaine. Therefore, lidocaine can be used during bronchoscopy to increase patient tolerance. (author)

  12. Lung abscess as a complication of bronchial thermoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Anandh; Ryan, Dorothy; Niven, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is an emerging treatment modality for patients with difficult to treat asthma. It has been shown to be beneficial for symptom control and improves quality of life and reduces frequency of hospitalization. Safety data from the two major trials of BT indicate that patients who undergo these procedures are most likely to experience adverse respiratory events in the first six weeks post treatment. Lung abscess has never been reported as a direct complication of BT. In this case; we report a lung abscess as an immediate complication of BT, which we believe may be the first case. We describe a forty three year old Caucasian female presented three days post-bronchial thermoplasty with left sided chest pain radiating to the back associated with shortness of breath, wheeze and dry cough. She had also started to feel hot and cold and generally unwell. It remains unclear why this patient developed a lung abscess so acutely post BT treatment. It is important that safety data continues to be collated and published as the procedure becomes more widely available with further long term follow-up in particular.

  13. Imaging of the bronchial blood flow using RI-angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Hirayama, Jiro; Kanai, Hisakata; Kobayashi, Toshio; Handa, Kenjiro

    1979-01-01

    RI-angiography with sup(99m)TcO 4 - was carried out using a scintillation camera with a digital minicomputer for the purpose of imaging of bronchial blood flow in various lung diseases, and as application of dual radioisotope techniques, other imagings such as tumor imaging with 197 HgCl 2 or 67 Ga-citrate and/or perfusion imaging with sup(99m)Tc-MAA, were performed simultaneously in patients remaining the same position, too. The image as a iso-count map extracted out of the image of 197 HgCl 2 , 67 Ga-citrate or sup(99m)Tc-MAA, was superimposed to the brightness image of RI-angiogram (aortic phase). By these procedures, the image of bronchial blood flow were obtained in some patients with lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, lung abscess, and chronic bronchitis. The dual radioisotope techniques using RI-angiography and the other imaging were useful to make isotope diagnosis of lung diseases more reliable, and the image superimposition methods using RI-angiogram and the image of tumor of perfusion, were useful to improve anatomic orientation of the former. (author)

  14. [Preoperative Management of Patients with Bronchial Asthma or Chronic Bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihira, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    Bronchial asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation. The primary goal of treatment of asthma is to maintain the state of control. According to the Japanese guidelines (JGL2012), long-term management consists of 4 therapeutic steps, and use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is recommended at all 4 steps. Besides ICS, inhalation of long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) is also effective. Recently, omalizumab (a humanized antihuman IgE antibody) can be available for patients with severe allergic asthma. Although there is no specific strategy for preoperative treatment of patients with asthma, preoperative systemic steroid administration seemed to be effective to prevent asthma attack during anesthesia. The most common cause of chronic bronchitis is smoking. Even the respiratory function is within normal limits, perioperative management of patients with chronic bronchitis is often troublesome. The most common problem is their sputum. To minimize perioperative pulmonary complication in these patients, smoking cessation and pulmonary rehabilitation are essential. It is known that more than 1 month of smoking cessation is required to reduce perioperative respiratory complication. However, even one or two weeks of smoking cessation can decrease sputum secretion. In summary, preoperative optimization is most important to prevent respiratory complication in patients with bronchial asthma or chronic bronchitis.

  15. Successful Treatment of Bronchoesophageal Fistula With Esophageal and Bronchial Stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bronchoesophageal fistula is reported in 5-10% of patients with esophageal cancer. In most of these cases, the insertion of a single stent, either a tracheobronchial or an esophageal stent, is sufficient to seal off the fistula. In this case we describe a 67-year-old man with esophageal cancer and complications of bronchoesophageal fistula, which resulted in repeated pneumonia and acute respiratory failure. Initially, two expandable metallic membranous esophageal stents were placed to cover the fistula. However, the esophageal stent failed to stop the air leak and dislodged into the stomach. Thereafter, a bronchial stent was placed at the right intermediate bronchus and successfully stopped the air leak. The patient was then weaned from the ventilator 1 week after the insertion of a bronchial stent. In conclusion, stenting in both the esophagus and airways should be considered when both are severely invaded by malignancy, when the airway is compressed, or when the fistula is insufficiently sealed by an esophageal stent.

  16. Sputum as a source of adipokines in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Mineev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-four patients with allergic (ABA and non-allergic (NABA variants of bronchial asthma (BA were examined to evaluate levels of key adipokines (leptin, resistin, adiponectin in sputum in different variants of BA. Adipokines in sputum and blood plasma were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The indices that reflect the percentage of adipokines in sputum regarding adipokines in plasma of the same patients were worked out to evaluate the ratio of levels of corresponding adipokines in plasma and sputum in patients with BA. Two regularities are clearly seen in the study: the first - levels of proinflammatory adipokines (leptin, resistin in sputum in ABA correlate directly with indicators of respiratory function but levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines (adiponectin in sputum correlate inversely with indicators of respiratory function; the second -correlation of levels of the studied adipokines with indicators of respiratory function are almost not revealed in NABA. The first regularity reflects the important fact that the content of adipokines in bronchial secretion is to a certain extent one of regulating local mechanisms in target organ controlled system levels of corresponding adipokines in exacerbation of BA.

  17. Dyskeratosis Congenita Associated Non-Specific Interstitial Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnati D. Desai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC is a rare inherited disorder of ectodermal dysplasia. It consists of a classical mucocutaneous triad of abnormal skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and leukoplakia. Pulmonary disease is seen in 10-15%. It is characterized by Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF, or Idiopathic Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis (IFPF. Non-specific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP has been reported rarely in children with DC and in an isolated adult patient. Our patient had classical clinical presentation of DC with pancytopenia and portal hypertension and clinic-radiological features of NSIP which is a rare association.

  18. Non-specific esterases in partly mineralized bovine enamel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, D; Kirkeby, S

    1990-01-01

    Activity for non-specific esterase was demonstrated in the matrix of developing bovine enamel with alpha-naphthyl acetate and 5-bromoindoxyl acetate as the esterase substrates. By use of high-performance liquid chromatography gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and electrophoresis three...... esterases were shown to be present in the enamel matrix. The enzymes showed highest activity at pH 6.5-7.5. In sections a strong reaction was observed in the secretory ameloblasts. The esterases may be proteolytic enzymes that participate in the degradation of the matrix proteins....

  19. Trained innate immunity as underlying mechanism for the long-term, nonspecific effects of vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Bastiaan A; Arts, Rob J W; van Crevel, Reinout

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence shows that the innate immune system has adaptive characteristics that involve a heterologous memory of past insults. Both experimental models and proof-of-principle clinical trials show that innate immune cells, such as monocytes, macrophages, and NK cells, can...... provide protection against certain infections in vaccination models independently of lymphocytes. This process is regulated through epigenetic reprogramming of innate immune cells and has been termed "trained immunity." It has been hypothesized that induction of trained immunity is responsible...... for the protective, nonspecific effects induced by vaccines, such as BCG, measles vaccination, and other whole-microorganism vaccines. In this review, we will present the mechanisms of trained immunity responsible for the long-lasting effects of vaccines on the innate immune system....

  20. Inactivation of p27kip1 Promoted Nonspecific Inflammation by Enhancing Macrophage Proliferation in Islet Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Ding, Xiaoming; Fan, Ping; Guo, Jian; Tian, Xiaohui; Feng, Xinshun; Zheng, Jin; Tian, Puxun; Ding, Chenguang; Xue, Wujun

    2016-11-01

    Islet transplantation suffers from low efficiency caused by nonspecific inflammation-induced graft loss after transplantation. This study reports increased islet loss and enhanced inflammatory response in p27-deficient mice (p27-/-) and proposes a possible mechanism. Compared with wild type, p27-/- mice showed more severe functional injury of islet, with increased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF-α, inducing macrophage proliferation. Furthermore, the increased number, proapoptotic proteins, and nuclear factor-kappa b (NF-κB) phosphorylation status of the infiltrating macrophages were accompanied by increased TNF-α mRNA level of islet graft site in p27-/- mice. Moreover, in vitro, we found that macrophages were still activated and cocultured with islet and promoted islet loss even blocking the direct effect of TNF-α on islets. Malondialdehyde (MDA, an end product of lipid peroxidation) in islet and media were increased after cocultured with macrophages. p27 deficiency also increased macrophage proliferation and islet injury. Therefore, p27 inactivation promotes injury islet graft loss via the elevation of proliferation and inflammatory cytokines secretion in infiltrating macrophages which induced nonspecific inflammation independent of TNF-α/nuclear factor-kappa b pathway. This potentially represents a promising therapeutic target in improving islet graft survival.

  1. Detection of Pathogen Exposure in African Buffalo Using Non-Specific Markers of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline K. Glidden

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting exposure to new or emerging pathogens is a critical challenge to protecting human, domestic animal, and wildlife health. Yet, current techniques to detect infections typically target known pathogens of humans or economically important animals. In the face of the current surge in infectious disease emergence, non-specific disease surveillance tools are urgently needed. Tracking common host immune responses indicative of recent infection may have potential as a non-specific diagnostic approach for disease surveillance. The challenge to immunologists is to identify the most promising markers, which ideally should be highly conserved across pathogens and host species, become upregulated rapidly and consistently in response to pathogen invasion, and remain elevated beyond clearance of infection. This study combined an infection experiment and a longitudinal observational study to evaluate the utility of non-specific markers of inflammation [NSMI; two acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, two pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNγ and TNF-α] as indicators of pathogen exposure in a wild mammalian species, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer. Specifically, in the experimental study, we asked (1 How quickly do buffalo mount NSMI responses upon challenge with an endemic pathogen, foot-and-mouth disease virus; (2 for how long do NSMI remain elevated after viral clearance and; (3 how pronounced is the difference between peak NSMI concentration and baseline NSMI concentration? In the longitudinal study, we asked (4 Are elevated NSMI associated with recent exposure to a suite of bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens in a wild population? Among the four NSMI that we tested, haptoglobin showed the strongest potential as a surveillance marker in African buffalo: concentrations quickly and consistently reached high levels in response to experimental infection, remaining elevated for almost a month. Moreover, elevated haptoglobin was

  2. Analysis of Proteolytic and Fibrinolytic Activity of the Blood Plasma in Patients with Bronchial Asthma Combined with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fediv A.I. Fediv A.I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study — to conduct the analysis of the performance of proteolytic and fibrinolytic activity of the blood plasma in patients with bronchial asthma (BA combined with obesity. Materials and methods. The study included 40 patients divided into groups. The basic group consisted of 20 patients with BA associated with obesity (ІI group, two comparison groups — of 10 patients with BA and normal body weight (I group and 10 patients with obesity and without pathology of the bronchopulmonary system (ІІІ group. Control group included 10 apparently healthy persons. In patients with BA, there were investigated the indexes of proteolytic and fibrinolytic activity of the blood plasma. Results. Analysis of the obtained data in patients with BA showed an increase of activity of plasma coagulation factors: total fibrinolytic activity increased in comparison to the control group, and in patients with BA it was 1.46 ± 0.13 Е440/ml/h, while in apparently healthy persons — 1.23 ± 0.16 Е440/ml/h (р < 0.05. In addition, an increase was marked and in the group of patients with the isolated obesity (by 38.5 % as compared to the group of apparently healthy persons, that can be explained by the growth of activity of inflammatory process due to the immune changes related to biological activity of fatty tissue as an additional source of proinflammatory cytokines. Conclusions. In combination of bronchial asthma and obesity, there is an activation of fibrinolytic and proteolytic systems of the blood that leads to microcirculatory and hemostatic disorders, enhancement of inflammatory process. In obesity as the state of systemic inflammatory response, the activation of fibrinolytic and proteolytic blood systems is more significant, than in bronchial asthma.

  3. Bronchial morphometry in smokers: comparison with healthy subjects by using 3D CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montaudon, Michel; Berger, Patrick; Marthan, Roger; Lederlin, Mathieu; Tunon-de-Lara, Jose Manuel; Laurent, Francois

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of airway dimensions in patients with airway disease by using computed tomography (CT) has been limited by the obliquity of bronchi, the ability to identify the bronchial generation, and the limited number of bronchial measurements. The aims of the present study were (i) to analyze cross-sectional bronchial dimensions after automatic orthogonal reconstruction of all visible bronchi on CT images, and (ii) to compare bronchial morphometry between smokers and nonsmokers. CT and pulmonary function tests were performed in 18 males separated into two groups: 9 nonsmokers and 9 smokers. Bronchial wall area (WA) and lumen area (LA) were assessed using dedicated 3D software able to provide accurate cross-sectional measurements of all visible bronchi on CT. WA/LA and WA/(WA+LA) ratios were computed and all parameters were compared between both groups. Smokers demonstrated greater WA, smaller LA, and consequently greater LA/WA and LA/(WA+LA) ratios than nonsmokers. These differences occurred downward starting at the fourth bronchial generation. 3D quantitative CT method is able to demonstrate significant changes in bronchial morphometry related to tobacco consumption. (orig.)

  4. [Bronchial reactivity and mucosal bioamines as criteria for acute bronchitis becoming chronic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artem'eva, E G; Latfullin, I A

    2002-01-01

    To study bronchial reactivity and sensitivity with consideration of histamine, serotonin and catecholamines concentration in bronchial mucosa in patients with acute bronchitis (AB) as possible criteria of its becoming chronic. Before the treatment 116 patients with verified AB were examined using inhalation provocative tests (IPT) with histamine, serotonin and obsidian in increasing doses. Also, external respiration function was studied. IPT were repeated after the course of treatment. 87 of 116 AB patients exhibited high bronchial sensitivity and reactivity to inhalations of histamine, serotonin, obsidian. In parallel, there was a rise in the levels of histamine and serotonin and a fall in the level of catecholamines in bronchial mucosa (alveolar macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, mast and APUD-cells). Changes in monoamines concentration in bronchial mucosa were relevant to activity of bronchial inflammation and the presence of obstructive syndrome. Persistent bronchial hyperreactivity to inhalations of histamine and obsidian along with high histamine levels and low level of catecholamines in alveolar macrophages, lymphocytes and mucus is a criterion of bronchitis transformation to chronic one.

  5. Hypothalamic digoxin and hemispheric chemical dominance in relation to the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-08-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--digoxin (membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor and regulator of neurotransmitter transport), dolichol (regulator of N-glycosylation of proteins), and ubiquinone (free radical scavenger). The isoprenoid pathway was assessed in patients with bronchial asthma. The pathway was also assessed in patients with right hemispheric, left hemispheric, and bihemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. The pathway was upregulated with increase in digoxin synthesis in bronchial asthma. There was an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites in patients with bronchial asthma. The ubiquinone levels were low and lipid peroxidation increased in these patients. There was increase in dolichol and glycoconjugate levels and reduction in lysosomal stability in these patients. The cholesterol:phospholipid ratio was increased and glycoconjugate levels were reduced in the membranes of these patients. The patterns noticed in bronchial asthma were similar to those in patients with right hemispheric chemical dominance. Bronchial asthma occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals. Ninety percent of the patients with bronchial asthma were right-handed and left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. But their biochemical patterns were similar to those obtained in right hemispheric chemical dominance. Hemispheric chemical dominance is a different entity and has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test.

  6. The findings of bronchial artery change in lung cancer with 16-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qingsi; Wu Xiaomei; Cen Renli; Zhang Chaoliang; Chen Yongfu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the difference of internal diameter of bronchial artery in big lung cancer, small lung cancer, and normal lung with multiple slice CT. Methods: MSCT angiographies of 44 patients with lung cancer confirmed by pathology were retrospectively analyzed, and 29 patients were with big lung cancer (≥3 cm) and 15 patients with small lung cancer (<3 cm). Contrast enhanced helical thin slice CT scan was performed in all patients. Three dimensional images of bronchial artery were processed on workstation. The internal diameter of bronchial artery was measured. Results: The diameter of bronchial artery was (1.9±0.4) mm in 15 small lung cancer and (2.5±0.5) mm in 29 big lung cancer, respectively. There was a significant difference in internal diameter of bronchial artery between big and small lung cancer (P<0.05). Conclusion: Bronchial artery in lung cancer is dilated, and the dilation of bronchial artery in big lung cancer is more prominent than in small lung cancer. (authors)

  7. Non-specific Effect of Vaccines: Immediate Protection against Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection by a Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine

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    Young J. Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-specific effects (NSEs of vaccines have been discussed for their potential long-term beneficial effects beyond direct protection against a specific pathogen. Cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccine (CAIV induces local innate immune responses that provide a broad range of antiviral immunity. Herein, we examined whether X-31ca, a donor virus for CAIVs, provides non-specific cross-protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. The degree of RSV replication was significantly reduced when X-31ca was administered before RSV infection without any RSV-specific antibody responses. The vaccination induced an immediate release of cytokines and infiltration of leukocytes into the respiratory tract, moderating the immune perturbation caused by RSV infection. The potency of protection against RSV challenge was significantly reduced in TLR3-/- TLR7-/- mice, confirming that the TLR3/7 signaling pathways are necessary for the observed immediate and short-term protection. The results suggest that CAIVs provide short-term, non-specific protection against genetically unrelated respiratory pathogens. The additional benefits of CAIVs in mitigating acute respiratory infections for which vaccines are not yet available need to be assessed in future studies.

  8. Delayed Diagnoses: Nonspecific Findings and Diagnostic Challenges in Eating Disorders

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    Dan Schwarz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Eating disorders commonly present with nonspecific findings, masquerading as other, more common etiologies of malnutrition and wasting. In low-prevalence populations, these ambiguities can complicate clinicians’ diagnostic reasoning, resulting in delayed or missed diagnoses. Method. We report the atypical case of a 51-year-old male with a five-year history of unexplained weight loss despite extensive past medical evaluation. Previous documentation of profound lymphopenia and bone marrow atrophy had not been linked to a known association with eating disorders. Results. Evaluation for medical etiologies of wasting was negative. Following psychiatric evaluation, the patient was diagnosed with an eating disorder, not otherwise specified, and admitted to a specialized nutritional rehabilitation program. Conclusion. The nonspecific clinical history, physical exam, and laboratory abnormalities of eating disorders can make these diagnoses challenging and delay appropriate treatment. Clinicians should consider eating disorders in patients with malnutrition, severe lymphopenias, and gelatinous marrow transformation early in their workup, so as to avoid potentially negative outcomes.

  9. Murine Typhus: An Important Consideration for the Nonspecific Febrile Illness

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    Gurjot Basra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Murine typhus is a widely distributed flea-borne infection caused by Rickettsia typhi. Symptoms of murine typhus are nonspecific and mimic a variety of other infectious diseases. We herein report a case of murine typhus in an area where the broad use of DDT in the mid-20th century has now made it a rare disease. The patient described presented with headache, fever, and a faint macular rash. Initial laboratory studies revealed a slight transaminase elevation. Further questioning revealed exposure to opossums, prompting the consideration of murine typhus as a diagnosis. Although typhus group antibodies were not present during the patient’s acute illness, empiric therapy with doxycycline was initiated, and the patient defervesced. One month after convalescence, the patient returned to clinic with serum that contained typhus group antibodies with an IgG titer of 1 : 1024. Murine typhus is an important consideration during the workup of a patient with a nonspecific febrile illness. Exposure to reservoir hosts and the flea vector place humans at risk for this disease. Clinician recognition of this entity is required for diagnosis and effective therapy.

  10. Continuous positive airway pressure treatment increases bronchial reactivity in obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczynski, Piotr; Gorska, Katarzyna; Przybylowski, Tadeusz; Bielicki, Piotr; Zielinski, Jan; Chazan, Ryszarda

    2009-01-01

    The effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on the function of the lower airways are poorly understood. One of the methods used to determine the influence of positive pressure breathing on lower airways is the bronchial hyperreactivity test. Some authors report that CPAP increases bronchial hyperreactivity, while others report decreases. To assess the influence of CPAP treatment on bronchial reactivity and the effects of bronchial hyperreactivity on compliance to CPAP treatment. The study group consisted of 101 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients (88 men and 13 women) with a mean age of 51 ± 11 years, mean apnea-hypopnea index of 53 ± 20 and mean body mass index of 32.6 ± 5.4. Patients were randomly assigned to a treatment group that received 3 weeks of CPAP therapy (group 1) or to a nontreatment control group (group 2). Pulmonary function tests and the methacholine bronchial provocation test were performed at baseline and 3 weeks later. There were no statistically significant differences between treated and control groups in anthropometry and polysomnography variables. At baseline, bronchial hyperreactivity was found in 6 patients from group 1 and 5 patients from group 2. A significant increase in bronchial reactivity was observed after CPAP treatment. Log PC20M decreased from 1.38 ± 0.30 at baseline to 1.26 ± 0.50 (p bronchial hyperreactivity during CPAP treatment were characterized by significantly lower FEV1, FVC and MEF50 values. CPAP produces statistically significant bronchial hyperreactivity. However, there were no clinical symptoms and it is not necessary to withdraw previous therapies. Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Analysis of genomic instability in bronchial cells from uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neft, R.E.; Belinsky, S.A.; Gilliland, F.D.; Lechner, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that underground uranium miners have a radon progeny exposure-dependent increased risk for developing lung cancer. The odds ratio for lung cancer in uranium miners increase for all cumulative exposures above 99 Working Level Months. In addition, there is a strong multiplicative effect of cigarette smoking on the development of lung cancer in uranium miners. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether or not early genetic changes, as indicated by genomic instability, can be detected in bronchial cells from uranium miners. Investigations of this nature may serve as a means of discovering sub-clinical disease and could lead to earlier detection of lung cancer and a better prognosis for the patient

  12. Randomized controlled study of CBT in bronchial asthma

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    Grover Naveen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to find out efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy, as an adjunct to standard pharmacotherapy, in bronchial asthma. In a random-ized two-group design with pre-and post assessments, forty asthma patients were randomly allotted to two groups: self management group and cognitive behavior therapy group. Both groups were exposed to 6-8 weeks of intervention, asthma self management program and cognitive behavior therapy. Assessment measures used were-Semi structured interview schedule, Asthma Symptom Checklist, Asthma di-ary, Asthma Bother Profile, Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, AQLQ and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate. Within group comparison showed significant improvement in both groups at the post assessment. Between group comparisons showed that CBT group reported significantly greater change than that of SM group. Cognitive behavior therapy helps in improving the managment of asthma.

  13. APPLICATION OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NONMEDICAMENTOUS PREVENTION AND TREATMENT METHODS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN

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    D.A. Bezrukova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors justify the necessity to apply non medicamentous treatment methods to the children with bronchial asthma. The scientists familiarize us with a new me dication, whose effect is based on the noninvasive impact of the electromagnetic radiation of the knowingly non thermal intensity. It is for normalization of the disturbed function of the respiratory system. The researchers showed the efficiency of the above said innovative medication, while treating bronchial asthma among children with no side effects whatsoever.Key words: bronchial asthma, nonmedicamentous treatment methods, children.

  14. TRACHEAL AND BRONCHIAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH SIGNIFICANT OBSTRUCTIVE SYNDROME: ACCORDING TO BRONCHOSCOPIC

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    M. L. Shteiner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The endobronchial pattern of significant bronchial obstructive syndrome of various etiologies was analyzed in 4,000 patients with this condition. At the same time, bronchial malformations were encountered as supplementary bronchi of the left and right basal pyramids, axillary left bronchi, supplementary and displaced tracheal bronchi, and a single case of distal transposition of the right proximal bronchus in 1.58% of cases. According to the bronchoscopic findings, supplementary bronchi and transpositions of the left bronchi are the most common anatomic bronchial abnormalities (1.08%.

  15. Risk assessment of bronchial asthma development in children with atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vуsotska, Olena V.; Klymenko, Viktoriia A.; Trubitcin, Alexei A.; Pecherska, Anna I.; Savchuk, Tamara O.; Kolimoldayev, Maksat; Wójcik, Waldemar; Szatkowska, Małgorzata; Burlibay, Aron

    2017-08-01

    This article offers a risk assessment of bronchial asthma development in children with atopic dermatitis by applying fuzzy-set theory to accumulated statistical data. It is shown that with a view to executing the said task one should exercise a complex approach involving factors such as "IgE level", "existence of obstructions" and "burdened bronchial asthma heredity of immediate relatives". The obtained results will assist in making adequate and well-informed medical decisions as well as facilitate the decrease of the risk of developing bronchial asthma in children with atopic dermatitis.

  16. Respiratory muscle strength in children with mild bronchial asthma disease

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    Kateřina Neumannová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory muscle strength can be decreased in patients with asthma; however, it is not well-documented whether a mild bronchial asthma disease can affect respiratory muscle strength in children and can be associated with higher presence of breathing difficulties. Objective: The main aim of the present study was to compare respiratory muscle strength between children with asthma and age-matched healthy children. The next aim of this study was to assess the incidence of decreased respiratory muscle strength in children with asthma and healthy children and assess the effect of decreased respiratory muscle strength on the incidence of breathing difficulties. Methods: Children with mild bronchial asthma (n = 167 and age-matched, healthy children (n = 100 were recruited into this study. Pulmonary function tests, maximal inspiratory (PImax and expiratory (PEmax mouth pressures and the incidence of breathing difficulty were evaluated in children with asthma and healthy controls. Results: The inspiratory muscle strength was similar between children with asthma and healthy children. Conversely, the expiratory muscle strength was lower in asthmatic children. There was a statistically significant difference between girls with asthma and healthy girls (PEmax = 81.7 ± 29.8% vs. 100.1 ± 23.7% of predicted, p < .001. PEmax was significantly higher in boys with asthma than in girls with asthma (PEmax = 92.9 ± 26.4 % vs. 81.7 ± 29.8% of predicted, p = .03. A higher incidence of breathing difficulties during physical activity (uphill walking, running, swimming was confirmed in children with asthma with lower respiratory muscle strength. Conclusions: There was a higher prevalence of decreased expiratory muscle strength in children with asthma; therefore, respiratory muscle strength should be tested in these children, especially in those who are symptomatic.

  17. Bronchial stump closure with amniotic membrane in animal model

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    Gholamreza Mohajeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coverage of the bronchial stumps (BSs with adjacent tissues can improve healing and reduce bronchial complications in complex thoracic surgery. There is no evidence for the application of human amnion allograft for prevention of air leak from the BS. The comparison of the amniotic membrane (AM and pleural patch for BS healing after lobectomy in dogs was our aim in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of eight males and females 12-24-month-old dogs between 17 and 22 kg body-weight were used in this study in 2010, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Animals were separated into two groups: group A (n = 4; amniotic membrane and group P (n = 4; pleural patch according to the BS closure technique performed. After lobectomy of the right middle lobe, the BS was closed, while a small bronchopleural fistula (BPF was created by inserting a catheter via edges of closed stump. Then, it was covered with a piece of AM3 × 3 cm in group A and with a pedicle graft of pleura in group P. Rethoracotomy was performed after 15 days of observation, and the BS was removed for histological examination. Histological healing was classified as complete or incomplete healing. Neoangiogenesis was measured by Von Willebrand expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15 using Fisher′s exact test, Mann-Whitney test, and T tests. Results: BPF complications were not seen during observation period. There was no significant difference in histological healing between two groups. Similarly, no significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of neoangiogenesis based on IHC examination (P value = 0.69. Conclusion: Human amnion allograft could be as effective as pleural patch for BS wrapping following pulmonary resections.

  18. Benefit of brain prophylactic irradiation in patients suffering from a small-cell bronchial cancer: retrospective study on 289 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assouline, A.; Tai, P.; Jancewicz, M.; Joseph, K.; Krzisch, C.; Yu, E.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a study which aimed at determining the benefit of a brain prophylactic irradiation for patients suffering from a localized small-cell bronchial cancer and in partial response to the local-regional treatment of their disease. A retrospective analysis has been performed on a set of 289 patients who had been treated by chemo-radiotherapy with or without brain prophylactic irradiation between 1981 and 2007. Data are discussed in terms of remission level, survival with respect to the level of response to the local-regional treatment. Depending on this response level the irradiation increases or not the probability of global survival, or the probability of specific survival. Short communication

  19. Depth profile analysis of non-specific fluorescence and color of tooth tissues after peroxide bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukowska, Malgorzata; Götz, Hermann; White, Donald J; Zoladz, James; Schwarz, Björn-Olaf; Duschner, Heinz

    2013-02-01

    To examine laboratory changes of endogenous non-specific fluorescence and color throughout subsurface of tooth structures prior to and following peroxide bleaching. Extracted human teeth were cross sectioned and mounted on glass slides. Cross sections were examined for internal color (digital camera) and nonspecific fluorescence (microRaman spectroscopy) throughout the tooth structure at specified locations. Surfaces of sections were then saturation bleached for 70 hours with a gel containing 6% hydrogen peroxide. Cross sections were reexamined for color and non-specific fluorescence changes. Unbleached enamel, dentin-enamel junction and dentin exhibit different CIELab color and non-specific fluorescence properties. Bleaching of teeth produced significant changes in color of internal cross sections and substantial reductions of non-specific fluorescence levels within enamel dentin and DEJ. Enamel and dentin non-specific fluorescence were reduced to common values with bleaching with enamel and the DEJ showing larger reductions than dentin.

  20. VALVE BRONCHIAL BLOCK IN THE INTEGRATED TREATMENT OF BRONCHIAL PLEURAL FISTULAS AFTER SURGICAL REDUCTION OF PULMONARY VOLUME

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    E. A. Tseymakh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of bronchopleural fistulas after surgical reduction of pulmonary volume is one of the most frequent complications of surgical treatment of pulmonary emphysema. In order to control bronchopleural fistulas in the patients after surgical reduction of pulmonary volume the technique of valve bronchial block has been o}ered. This technique has been applied in 7 patients, and the favorable outcomes have been achieved in 6 (85.7% patients. The use of endobronchial valve for occlusion of fistulous bronchi allowed stopping air leaking through drainages, reducing time for pleural cavity drain and decreasing duration of patients' hospital stay.

  1. Bronchial and non-bronchial systemic arteries: value of multidetector CT angiography in diagnosis and angiographic embolisation feasibility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yuning; Chen, Ziqian; Yang, Xizhang; Zhong, Qun; Zhang, Hongwen; Yang, Li; Xu, Shangwen; Li, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of multidetector CT angiography (CTA) in depicting bronchial and non-bronchial systemic arteries in patients with haemoptysis and to assess whether this modality helps determine the feasibility of angiographic embolisation. Fifty-two patients with haemoptysis between January 2010 and July 2011 underwent both preoperative multidetector CTA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) imaging. Diagnostic performance of CTA in depicting arteries causing haemoptysis was assessed on a per-patient and a per-artery basis. The feasibility of the endovascular treatment evaluated by CTA was analysed. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for those analyses were determined. Fifty patients were included in the artery-presence-number analysis. In the per-patient analysis, neither CTA (P=0.25) nor DSA (P=1.00) showed statistical difference in the detection of arteries causing haemoptysis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 94%, 100%, 100%, and 40%, respectively, for the presence of pathologic arteries evaluated by CTA, and 98%, 100%, 100%, and 67%, respectively, for DSA. On the per-artery basis, CTA correctly identified 97% (107/110). Fifty-two patients were included in the feasibility analysis. The performance of CTA in predicting the feasibility of angiographic embolisation was not statistically different from the treatment performed (P=1.00). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 96%, 80%, 98% and 67%, respectively, for CTA. Multidetector CTA is an accurate imaging method in depicting the presence and number of arteries causing haemoptysis. This modality is also useful for determining the feasibility of angiographic embolisation for haemoptysis.

  2. Bronchial and non-bronchial systemic arteries: value of multidetector CT angiography in diagnosis and angiographic embolisation feasibility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuning; Chen, Ziqian; Yang, Xizhang; Zhong, Qun; Zhang, Hongwen; Yang, Li; Xu, Shangwen; Li, Hui

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of multidetector CT angiography (CTA) in depicting bronchial and non-bronchial systemic arteries in patients with haemoptysis and to assess whether this modality helps determine the feasibility of angiographic embolisation. Fifty-two patients with haemoptysis between January 2010 and July 2011 underwent both preoperative multidetector CTA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) imaging. Diagnostic performance of CTA in depicting arteries causing haemoptysis was assessed on a per-patient and a per-artery basis. The feasibility of the endovascular treatment evaluated by CTA was analysed. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for those analyses were determined. Fifty patients were included in the artery-presence-number analysis. In the per-patient analysis, neither CTA (P = 0.25) nor DSA (P = 1.00) showed statistical difference in the detection of arteries causing haemoptysis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 94%, 100%, 100%, and 40%, respectively, for the presence of pathologic arteries evaluated by CTA, and 98%, 100%, 100%, and 67%, respectively, for DSA. On the per-artery basis, CTA correctly identified 97% (107/110). Fifty-two patients were included in the feasibility analysis. The performance of CTA in predicting the feasibility of angiographic embolisation was not statistically different from the treatment performed (P = 1.00). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 96%, 80%, 98% and 67%, respectively, for CTA. Multidetector CTA is an accurate imaging method in depicting the presence and number of arteries causing haemoptysis. This modality is also useful for determining the feasibility of angiographic embolisation for haemoptysis. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  3. [Nonspecific lymphadenitis and adenophlegmon of the maxillofacial area and neck in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmudov, B R

    1996-01-01

    The study into the causes underlying nonspecific lymphadenitis (NSL) and adenophlegmons of the maxillofacial region and the neck (AF) revealed a great variety of etiological factors and primary infectious foci in these diseases. Of 204 children admitted to hospital of the city of Derbent, odontogenic genesis of the disease was determined in 27.45% of cases; dermatogenic, stomatogenic in 23.04 and 12.74% of cases, respectively. ENT and systemic diseases were responsible for NSL and AF in 13.23 and 3.43% of cases. The cause remained unclear in 20.09% of patients. NSL and AF occurred most frequently in the coldest (January, February) and the hottest (July, August) months of the year.

  4. Bisulfite compounds as metabolic inhibitors: nonspecific effects on membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luettge, U; Osmond, C B; Ball, E; Brinckmann, E; Kinze, G

    1972-01-01

    Bisulfite compounds are shown to be nonspecific inhibitors of photosynthetic processes and of ion transport in green tissues. CO/sub 2/ fixation and light-dependent transient changes in external pH are inhibited about 50% by 5 x 10/sup -4/M glyoxal-Na-bisulfite. Chloride uptake in the light and in the dark is inhibited to the same extent at this concentration. At 5 x 10/sup -3/M the inhibitor reduces ATP levels in the light and in the dark, and the effects on glycolate oxidase and PEP carboxylase are observed. The extent of inhibition is dependent on time of treatment with glyoxal-Na-bisulfite and freshly prepared NaHSO/sub 3/ is equally as effective as the addition compound. Possible explanations of the bisulfite effects and the relationships to SO/sub 2/ effects on photosynthesis are discussed.

  5. Elevated Plasma Level of Leukotrienes in Bronchial Asthma Patients: A Possible Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansour

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma from bronchial asthma patients and healthy controls was investigated for the content of lipoxygenase products. After lipid extraction using SEP-PAK C18 Cartridges, the lipoxygenase products were measured by Enzyme-Immunoassay. Elevated chemotactic B4 was found in plasma from asthmatic patients with mean value (483±75 pmoUL, while the mean value in normal healthy donors was (140± 12.1 pmol/L (M±SE. The levels of spasmogenic cysteinyl containing leukotrienes were also very high in the bronchial asthma patients. Elevations of leukotriene B4 and cysteinyl containing leukotrienes were detected during attacks of bronchial asthma. These results suggest that leukotriene B4 may be important in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma and confirmed that peptidoleukotrienes playa role as chemical mediators during the asthmatic attack.

  6. Lung sound analysis can be an index of the control of bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terufumi Shimoda

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The E/I LF measurement obtained by LSA is useful as an indicator of changes in airway obstruction and inflammation and can be used for monitoring the therapeutic course of bronchial asthma patients.

  7. [Surgical Treatment of Bronchial Stricture due to Endobronchial Tuberculosis: 
Results in 36 Consecutive Cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Junzhong; Zhang, Tianhui; Li, Fugen; Duan, Yong; Han, Ming; Wang, Zitong

    2018-04-20

    Bronchial tuberculosis is a common complication of pulmonary tuberculosis. The present report is to investigate and analyze the indication and efficacy of surgical treatment of bronchial stricture due to severe endobronchial tuberculosis, when the drug and endoscopic treatment were no effect. Reviewed the clinical-pathological records documenting the surgical outcomes in 36 bronchial stricture due to severe endobronchial tuberculosis who underwent lobectomy or pneumonectomy enrolled in our hospital between January 2000 and February 2016. Pneumonectomy in 8 cases, lobectomy in 23 cases, sleeve resection in 5 cases. No intraoperative or early postoperative death occurred. Six patients developed complications. All 6 cases recovered well after treatment. Surgical treatment is still the recommended treatment modatity for bronchial stricture caused by endobronchial tuberculosis due to its good results. It should be performed in time when the drug and intraluninal treatment were no effect for avoiding of being progeressed.

  8. The Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in the Surgical Repair of Bronchial Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hee Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO has been used successfully in critically ill patients with traumatic lung injury and offers an additional treatment modality. ECMO is mainly used as a bridge treatment to delayed surgical management; however, only a few case reports have presented the successful application of ECMO as intraoperative support during the surgical repair of traumatic bronchial injury. A 38-year-old man visited our hospital after a blunt chest trauma. His chest imaging showed hemopneumothorax in the left hemithorax and a finding suspicious for left main bronchus rupture. Bronchoscopy was performed and confirmed a tear in the left main bronchus and a congenital tracheal bronchus. We decided to provide venovenous ECMO support during surgery for bronchial repair. We successfully performed main bronchial repair in this traumatic patient with a congenital tracheal bronchus. We suggest that venovenous ECMO offers a good option for the treatment of bronchial rupture when adequate ventilation is not possible.

  9. Neutrophil-induced human bronchial hyperresponsiveness in vitro--pharmacological modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J M; McKay, K O; Johnson, P R; Tragoulias, S; Black, J L; Armour, C L

    1993-04-01

    Although it has been postulated that inflammatory cells cause the bronchial hyperresponsiveness which is diagnostic of asthma, until recently there has been little direct evidence of such a link. We have recently shown that calcium ionophore-activated human neutrophils and eosinophils can induce a state of human airway hyperresponsiveness in vitro. In this study we have shown that the anti-inflammatory agent nedocromil sodium, 10(-7) M, inhibited the hyperresponsiveness induced by products released from ionophore activated neutrophils but did not inhibit the release of leukotriene B4 from the same cells. Neutrophil-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness was also inhibited by pre-treatment of the bronchial tissues with a thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin receptor antagonist, GR32191, 10(-7) M. These findings indicate that cyclooxygenase products are involved in bronchial hyperresponsiveness induced by inflammatory cell products in vitro and that their release can be inhibited by nedocromil sodium.

  10. RATIONALE FOR A SPECIFIC THERAPY OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION IN CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Suprun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We propose a protocol of treatment in cases of bronchial asthma with cytomegalovirus (CMV persistence. This basic therapy is administered depending on the disease severity, according to the National Programme 2009. The treatment includes administration of human immunoglobulin, with dosage according on CMV antibodies titers. The study has revealed that such regimen of antibody administration based on the content of anti-CMV antibodies in bronchial asthma treatment stops active CMV replication in bronchial mucous membrane, alleviates clinical course of the disease, diminishes changes of immune system typical to children suffering from bronchial asthma and CMV reactivation, thus allowing to reduce the volume of basic therapy, along with maintaining control of asthma control.

  11. [Survey of studies on time factor in acupoint sticking therapy for the bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-e; Guo, Jian-hong; Lin, Ying

    2010-02-01

    Based on the retrieval of literatures in recent fifteen years, the time factors in the acupoint sticking therapy for the bronchial asthma are analyzed and compared in terms of the stage classification of patients, timing selection of acupoint sticking therapy and medication application, and times of application. The acupoint sticking therapy is mostly practiced during remittent stage of bronchial asthma; the timing selection is mostly during the hottest period of summer, the timing selection in certain cases is the coldest period of winter or any day; the duration of medication application is not consistent; therefore, the effectiveness of these cases is different. It may be that the ef fectiveness is proportional to the times and courses of acupoint sticking therapy for the bronchial asthma. In the future, the scientific designs which involve time factor are needed to elucidate the importance of time factor in acupoint sticking therapy for the bronchial asthma.

  12. Successful application of technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy in the detection of ectopic adrenocorticotropin-producing bronchial carcinoid lung tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahi Babak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The diagnostic efficacy of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy labeling with 111 indium in the localization of tumors has been assessed in a limited number of patients with contradictory outcomes. Here, we describe the case of a patient with an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing bronchial carcinoid tumor diagnosed preoperatively using technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy. Case presentation A 29-year-old Asian man presented to our hospital with the typical clinical features of Cushing's syndrome, which he had had for a duration of 18 months. The results of a biochemical evaluation revealed he had adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome. The results of a spiral abdominal computed tomography scan showed he had bilateral adrenal hypertrophy. A magnetic resonance image of the patient's brain showed he had a normal hypophysis. Whole body technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy was performed to check for the presence of an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing tumor. The scan results showed a small focal increase in uptake in the lower lobe of our patient's right lung, just above his diaphragm. A spiral chest computed tomography scan also revealed a small non-specific lesion in the same region. A transthoracic biopsy was then performed. Pathological evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor, of the adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing type. After surgical removal, the patient's symptoms resolved and significant clinical improvement was achieved. Conclusions This case report shows that technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy can effectively detect an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing bronchial carcinoid.

  13. Combination of bronchial artery infusion chemotherapy and radiation therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuping; Cai Yuecheng; Wang Xiangming; Luo Jianyun; Lian Yingni; Ouyang Mingxin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy between bronchial artery infusion (BAI) chemotherapy plus radiation therapy and systemic chemotherapy plus radiation for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: One hundred and twenty-one patients with stage III NSCLC were randomized into treatment group (58 cases) and control group (63 cases). In the treatment group, all patients were administered with BAI for 2-3 sessions, followed by irradiation 4-7 days after BAI. In the control group, altogether 4-6 cycles of standard systemic chemotherapy were given. Radiation was delivered alternately between the cycles of chemotherapy. Results: The short-term, long-term survival, median response duration and median survival time were similar between the two groups, except patients with stage IIIb who had a higher distant metastasis rate in the treatment group. The major side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy were hematological, gastrointestinal toxicities, pneumonitis, mediastinitis, and esophagitis, respectively. The side effects were milder, better tolerated and did not influence the regimen schedule in the treatment group, as compared with the control group. Seven patients withdrew from the control group, and in 28 patients, the scheduled chemotherapy and radiation was delayed or canceled. Conclusions: Bronchial artery infusion plus radiation is more advantageous over systemic chemotherapy plus radiation in less toxicities, better compliance, shorter treatment courses and more cost-effectiveness

  14. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy by bronchial arterial infusion in patients with unresectable stage III squamous cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Hai-Ping; Jiang, Sen; Ni, Jian

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy administered via bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) on unresectable stage III lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This was a single-arm retrospective study of chemotherapy with gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GP) administered via BAI to patients with unresectable lung SCC. Data regarding the post-treatment response rate, downstage rate, and surgery rate, as well as progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), quality of life, and post-BAI side effects were collected. A total of 36 patients were enrolled in this study between August 2010 and May 2014. The response rate was 72.2%, and the downstage rate was 22.2%. Among the patients who were downstaged, 16 (44.4%) patients were because of their T stage, and 5 (13.9%) patients were downstaged due to to their N stage. The surgery rate was 52.8%, the 1-year survival rate was 75.4%, and the 2-year survival rate was 52.1%. The median PFS was 14.0 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 8.6-19.4], and the median OS was 25.0 months (95% CI: 19.1-30.9). The quality of life was significantly improved, and the chemotherapy was well tolerated. Compared with intravenous neoadjuvant chemotherapy, BAI chemotherapy significantly improved the surgery rate, prolonged PFS and OS, and improved the quality of life in patients with unresectable stage III lung SCC.

  15. Impact of Persistent Intracellular Infections on the Processes of Airway Remodeling in Children with Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Ye. Chernyshova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents information about the impact of persistent intracellular infections on the processes of airway remodeling in bronchial asthma in children. The influence of matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase, transforming growth factor, antibodies to type III collagen, endothelin-1 on the processes of morphological reconstruction of the airway by way of smooth muscle hypertrophy, enhanced neovascularization, epithelial cell hyperplasia, collagen deposition, thickening of the basal membrane, observed in bronchial asthma in children, were described.

  16. TRACHEAL AND BRONCHIAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH SIGNIFICANT OBSTRUCTIVE SYNDROME: ACCORDING TO BRONCHOSCOPIC

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Shteiner

    2014-01-01

    The endobronchial pattern of significant bronchial obstructive syndrome of various etiologies was analyzed in 4,000 patients with this condition. At the same time, bronchial malformations were encountered as supplementary bronchi of the left and right basal pyramids, axillary left bronchi, supplementary and displaced tracheal bronchi, and a single case of distal transposition of the right proximal bronchus in 1.58% of cases. According to the bronchoscopic findings, supplementary bronchi and t...

  17. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Gudbjörnsson, B; Hedenström, H; Stålenheim, G; Hällgren, R

    1991-01-01

    The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to methacholine inhalation in a consecutive series of 21 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome was studied prospectively. Slight to severe BHR was seen in 12/20 (60%) of the patients. Ten of 12 patients with BHR (83%) had a non-productive cough, wheezing, or intermittent breathlessness. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was more common in patients with extraglandular symptoms (10/14, 71%) than in those with only glandular symptoms (29%). Sp...

  18. Bronchoscopic management of benign bronchial stenosis by electrocautery and balloon dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M; Gogia, Pratibha; Manoria, P; Goyal, R

    2012-01-01

    Benign bronchial stenosis is managed by surgical or bronchoscopic methods. Although surgical approach is definitive, it is technically demanding and is costlier than bronchoscopic treatment. Here, we report the case of a 27-year-old female patient with symptomatic benign bronchial stenosis of the left main bronchus. The stenosis was dilated successfully through a fibreoptic bronchoscope by electrocautery followed by balloon bronchoplasty and application of mitomycin-C. On follow up, there was no evidence of re-stenosis.

  19. Comparative efficacy of inhaled ciclesonide, budesonide, and fluticasone in mild to moderately persistent bronchial asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Tamoghna Maiti; Syed Mohammed Naser; Amrita Panda; Sekhar Mandal; Sonai Mandal; Tanmoy Gangopadhyay; Parvin Banu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bronchodilators and glucocorticoids have been proven to be very effective and safe in asthma treatment, which recommend the use of steroids and beta2-agonist (long or short acting) as the first line of treatment in of asthma. This study was aimed to compare the efficacy of three different inhaled corticosteroids ciclesonide, budesonide, and fluticasone in bronchial asthma. Methods: A total of 30 patients with mild to moderately persistent bronchial asthma was selected as per th...

  20. “Peripheral Neuropathy Crippling Bronchial Asthma”: Two Rare Case Reports of Churg-Strauss Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kishore Pandita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS is a rare cause of vasculitic neuropathy. Although rare and potentially fatal, Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS is easily diagnosable and treatable. The presence of bronchial asthma with peripheral neuropathy in a patient alerts a physician to this diagnosis. This is vividly illustrated by the presented two cases who had neuropathy associated with bronchial asthma, eosinophilia, sinusitis, and positive perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA test, which improved with administration of steroids.

  1. Evaluation of serum l-carnitine level in children with acute bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ramadan

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: According to our study, it could be concluded that l-carnitine decrease is linked to the occurrence of attack of bronchial asthma. Accordingly, it is recommended to make further studies to find out if there is a beneficial role of carnitine intake in the prophylaxis & treatment of attacks of bronchial asthma. The recommended studies should search for the most suitable dose & side effects of carnitine as a potential pharmaceutical agent.

  2. Main bronchial diverticula in the subcarinal region: Their relation to airflow limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Naoya; Shiotani, Motoi; Sato, Suguru; Ohta, Atsushi; Maeda, Haruo; Nakajima, Haruhiko; Itoh, Kazuhiko; Tsukada, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Background. To date, bronchial diverticula have generally been treated as a pathological condition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although only a limited amount of published information is available on the relationship between bronchial diverticula as depicted by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and airflow limitations. Purpose. To evaluate the relationship between airflow limitations and main bronchial diverticula in the subcarinal region using spirometry and thin-section MDCT. Material and Methods. A total of 189 consecutive adult patients were retrospectively evaluated based on spirometry and thin-section MDCT of the chest. All examinations were performed at our institution between June and October 2008. The study group included 70 women and 119 men with a mean age of 65 years (range 19-86 years). The relationship between the FEV1% and bronchial diverticula in the subcarinal region was analyzed (Student's t-test). Results. The indications for conducting the examinations were pulmonary diseases (82 patients), cardiovascular diseases (22), extrapulmonary malignancies (74), and other conditions (11). A total of 84/189 (44.4%) patients showed bronchial diverticula, and the FEV 1 % of 70/84 (83.3%) patients was above 70. The FEV 1 % of patients with lesions ranged from 26.0 to 97.8 (mean 76.8), whereas the range was 28.1-94.4 (mean 73.7) in those without lesions. There was no significant association between the FEV 1 % and the presence of subcarinal bronchial diverticula (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Our data demonstrate that thin-section chest CT commonly demonstrates main bronchial diverticula in the subcarinal region in patients without airflow limitations. We propose that the presence of a small number of tiny bronchial diverticula under the carina may not be a criterion for the diagnosis of COPD

  3. Long-term (5 year) safety of bronchial thermoplasty: Asthma Intervention Research (AIR) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomson, Neil C; Rubin, Adalberto S; Niven, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a bronchoscopic procedure that improves asthma control by reducing excess airway smooth muscle. Treated patients have been followed out to 5 years to evaluate long-term safety of this procedure.......Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a bronchoscopic procedure that improves asthma control by reducing excess airway smooth muscle. Treated patients have been followed out to 5 years to evaluate long-term safety of this procedure....

  4. Main bronchial diverticula in the subcarinal region: Their relation to airflow limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Naoya; Shiotani, Motoi; Sato, Suguru; Ohta, Atsushi; Maeda, Haruo; Nakajima, Haruhiko; Itoh, Kazuhiko; Tsukada, Hiroki (Department of Radiology, Respiratory Medicine, Niigata City General Hospital, Niigata-city, Niigata-ken (Japan)), Email: higuchi@hosp.niigata.niigata.jp

    2012-02-15

    Background. To date, bronchial diverticula have generally been treated as a pathological condition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although only a limited amount of published information is available on the relationship between bronchial diverticula as depicted by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and airflow limitations. Purpose. To evaluate the relationship between airflow limitations and main bronchial diverticula in the subcarinal region using spirometry and thin-section MDCT. Material and Methods. A total of 189 consecutive adult patients were retrospectively evaluated based on spirometry and thin-section MDCT of the chest. All examinations were performed at our institution between June and October 2008. The study group included 70 women and 119 men with a mean age of 65 years (range 19-86 years). The relationship between the FEV1% and bronchial diverticula in the subcarinal region was analyzed (Student's t-test). Results. The indications for conducting the examinations were pulmonary diseases (82 patients), cardiovascular diseases (22), extrapulmonary malignancies (74), and other conditions (11). A total of 84/189 (44.4%) patients showed bronchial diverticula, and the FEV{sub 1}% of 70/84 (83.3%) patients was above 70. The FEV{sub 1}% of patients with lesions ranged from 26.0 to 97.8 (mean 76.8), whereas the range was 28.1-94.4 (mean 73.7) in those without lesions. There was no significant association between the FEV{sub 1}% and the presence of subcarinal bronchial diverticula (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Our data demonstrate that thin-section chest CT commonly demonstrates main bronchial diverticula in the subcarinal region in patients without airflow limitations. We propose that the presence of a small number of tiny bronchial diverticula under the carina may not be a criterion for the diagnosis of COPD

  5. Coexistence of bronchial atresia and bronchogenic cyst: diagnostic criteria and embryologic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, C.; Kuhn, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    We report a case in a neonate of concurrent bronchial atresia and bronchogenic cyst. An accurate, noninvasive, preoperative diagnosis of this unusual combination of anomalies was made by ultrafast computed tomography (UFCT). This case supports the hypothesis that bronchial atresia results from an event occurring in the 5th-6th week of embryological development, rather than after the 16th week as previously believed. (orig.)

  6. Utility of 67Ga scintigraphy and bronchial washings in the diagnosis and treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuazon, C.U.; Delaney, M.D.; Simon, G.L.; Witorsch, P.; Varma, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and suspected Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were evaluated by 67 Ga scintigraphy and fiberoptic bronchoscopy for initial diagnosis and response to therapy. Lung uptake of 67 Ga was demonstrated in 100% of AIDS patients with P. carinii pneumonia, including those with subclinical infection. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy identified P. carinii in the bronchial washings of 100% of cases (19 patients), whereas only 13 of 16 (81%) patients had P. carinii in lung tissue obtained by transbronchial biopsy. Repeat fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed in 16 of 20 patients. After 2 to 4 wk of therapy, P. carinii was identified in bronchial washings in 8 of 16 (50%) patients and in transbronchial biopsy in 1 of 10 (10%) patients examined. Bronchial washing has a higher yield than transbronchial biopsy in demonstrating P. carinii in patients with AIDS and may evolve as the procedure of choice in such patients. Based on the clinical course and results of 67 Ga scintigraphy and fiberoptic bronchoscopy in AIDS patients with P. carinii pneumonia, optimal therapy may require at least 3 wk of treatment

  7. Sleep apnea is associated with bronchial inflammation and continuous positive airway pressure-induced airway hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devouassoux, Gilles; Lévy, Patrick; Rossini, Eliane; Pin, Isabelle; Fior-Gozlan, Michèle; Henry, Mireille; Seigneurin, Daniel; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2007-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is associated with systemic and upper airway inflammation. Pharyngeal inflammation has a potential role in upper airway collapse, whereas systemic inflammation relates to cardiovascular morbidity. However, the presence of an inflammatory involvement of lower airway has been poorly investigated. The aim of the study was to demonstrate an inflammatory process at the bronchial level in patients with OSA and to analyze effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) application and humidification on bronchial mucosa. The study was conducted by using sequential induced sputum for cell analysis and IL-8 production, nitric oxide exhalation measurement, and methacholine challenge before and after CPAP. Bronchial neutrophilia and a high IL-8 concentration were observed in untreated OSA compared with controls (75% +/- 20% vs 43% +/- 12%, P Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is associated with bronchial inflammation. Our data demonstrate CPAP effect on the development of AHR, possibly facilitated by the pre-existing inflammation. Both issues should be evaluated during long-term CPAP use. Results showing a spontaneous bronchial inflammation in OSA and the development of a CPAP-related AHR require a long-term follow-up to evaluate consequences on chronic bronchial obstruction.

  8. [Can obstructive bronchitis be a risk factor of bronchial asthma in infants and small children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiorowska, Joanna; Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczysława

    2009-01-01

    One of more frequent reasons for hospitalizations concerning infants and small children are obstructive bronchitis. Great prevalence of bronchial tree obturation during infancy and in small children is a result of anatomical and functional differences of airways and immunological differences that occur in infants and small children. The most frequent cause of bronchial tree obturation is infection induced by viruses, rarely by bacteria. Recurrences of bronchial tree obturation are observed in some patients. Obturation recurrences can be caused by number of diseases that appear during infancy and in small children, for example cystic fibrosis of the pancreas. Also the presence of foreign body in the airways, immotile cilia syndrome, immunological disturbances, innate anomalies of the respiratory system and the circulatory system and bronchial asthma can result in obturation recurrences. Various clinical criteria are established and new markers of allergic inflammation are searched in view of difficulties to diagnose bronchial asthma in the youngest children. There are no unequivocal rules to diagnose bronchial asthma in infants and small children despite these searches.

  9. Evaluation of Tracheal and Main Bronchial Diverticula Using Thin-Section MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jou, Sung Shick; Kim, Young Tong; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Yung; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Han, Jong Kyu [Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    To evaluate the characteristics of tracheal and main bronchial diverticula in relation with emphysema. A total of 967 CT images were reconstructed with 1.25 mm axial images over 2 months. The incidence, size, number, and location of the tracheal and main bronchial diverticula were analyzed using 3D medical software (Seoul, Korea). The incidence of emphysema and the relationship between emphysema and the size of the diverticula were analyzed. In total, 50 patients (5.1%) showed tracheal diverticula in the right posterolateral wall. In addition, 51 patients (5.2%) showed 89 (9.4%) main bronchial diverticula in the inferior wall, while 68 (72%) showed diverticula in the left posterolateral wall. Tracheal diverticula (6.4 {+-} 5.0 mm, 1.0 {+-} 0.2) were larger and fewer than the main bronchial diverticula (2.1 {+-} 2.0 mm, 1.8 {+-} 1.6) (p<0.05). Moreover, tracheal diverticula (10.3 {+-} 7.4 mm) with emphysema in 13 patients (26%), were larger than those without emphysema (5.1 {+-} 3.0 mm) (p<0.05). On thin-section MDCT, the rates of incidence for tracheal and main bronchial diverticula are about 5%, respectively. Tracheal diverticula in the right posterolateral wall are smaller and fewer than the main bronchial diverticula, which are located primarily in the inferior wall of the left bronchus. Tracheal diverticula with emphysema are larger than those without emphysema.

  10. Nanoparticles modify dendritic cell homeostasis and induce non-specific effects on immunity to malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Sue D; Kong, Ying Y; Hanley, Jennifer; Fuchsberger, Martina; Crimeen-Irwin, Blessing; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Many current vaccines to a specific pathogen influence responses to other pathogens in a process called heterologous immunity. We propose that their particulate nature contributes to non-specific effects. Herein, we demonstrate polystyrene nanoparticles modulate dendritic cell (DC) homeostasis, thereby promoting a persistent enhanced state of immune readiness to a subsequent infectious challenge. Particles (approximately 40 nm and 500 nm carboxylated polystyrene nanoparticles; PSNPs) alone or conjugated to a model antigen were injected in mice, and DCs in draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and bone-marrow (BM) quantified by flow cytometry. BM cells were tested for capacity to generate DCs upon culture with granulocyte and macrophage colony stimulating factor. Mice were challenged with Plasmodium yoelli. Blood parasitaemias were monitored by GIEMSA. Sera was analyzed for antibodies by ELISA. Intradermal administration of 40 nm PSNPs induced anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, increased numbers and proportions of DCs in the dLN, and increased the capacity of BM to generate DCs. Consistent with these unexpected changes, 40 nm PSNPs pre-injected mice had enhanced ability to generate immunity to a subsequent malarial infection. Intradermal administration of 40 nm PSNPs modifies DC homeostasis, which may at least in part explain the observed beneficial heterologous effects of current particulate vaccines. Further nanotechnological developments may exploit such strategies to promote beneficial non-specific effects. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Non-specific symptoms as clues to changes in emotional well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blumberg Gari

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Somatic symptoms are a common reason for visits to the family physician. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between non-specific symptoms and changes in emotional well-being and the degree to which the physician considers the possibility of mental distress when faced with such patients. Methods - Patients who complained of two or more symptoms including headache, dizziness, fatigue or weakness, palpitations and sleep disorders over one year were identified from the medical records of a random sample of 45 primary care physicians. A control group matched for gender and age was selected from the same population. Emotional well-being was assessed using the MOS-SF 36 in both groups. Results - The study group and the control group each contained 110 patients. Completed MOS questionnaires were obtained from 92 patients, 48 patients with somatic symptoms and 44 controls. Sixty percent of the patients with somatic symptoms experienced decreased emotional well being compared to 25% in the control group (p = 0.00005. Symptoms of dizziness, fatigue and sleep disturbances were significantly linked with mental health impairments. Primary care physicians identified only 6 of 29 patients (21% whose responses revealed functional limitations due to emotional problems as suffering from an emotional disorder and only 6 of 23 patients (26% with a lack of emotional well being were diagnosed with an emotional disorder. Conclusions - Non-specific somatic symptoms may be clues to changes in emotional well-being. Improved recognition and recording of mental distress among patients who complain of these symptoms may enable better follow up and treatment.

  12. Paraspinous Lidocaine Injection for Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Marta; Imamura, Satiko Tomikawa; Targino, Rosa Alves; Morales-Quezada, León; Onoda Tomikawa, Luis C; Onoda Tomikawa, Luis G; Alfieri, Fabio M; Filippo, Thais R; da Rocha, Ivan D; Neto, Raul Bolliger; Fregni, Felipe; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo

    2016-05-01

    In this large, sham-controlled, randomized trial, we examined the efficacy of the combination of standard treatment and paraspinous lidocaine injection compared with standard therapy alone in subjects with chronic low back pain. There is little research-based evidence for the routine clinical use of paraspinous lidocaine injection for low back pain. A total of 378 subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain were randomized to 3 groups: paraspinous lidocaine injection, analgesics, and exercises (group 1, LID-INJ); sham paraspinous lidocaine injection, analgesics, and exercises (group 2, SH-INJ); and analgesics and exercises (group 3, STD-TTR). A blinded rater assessed the study outcomes at 3 time points: baseline, after treatment, and after 3 months of follow-up. There were increased frequency of pain responses and better low back functional scores in the LID-INJ group compared with the SH-INJ and STD-TTR groups. These effects remained at the 3-month follow-up but differed between all 3 groups. There were significant changes in pain threshold immediately after treatment, supporting the effects of this intervention in reducing central sensitization. Paraspinous lidocaine injection therapy is not associated with a higher risk of adverse effects compared with conventional treatment and sham injection. Its effects on hyperalgesia might correlate with changes in central sensitization. NCT02387567. There are few data to support paraspinous lidocaine injection use in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. Our results show that this therapy when combined with standard therapy significantly increases the number of responders versus standard treatment alone. Its effects on hyperalgesia might correlate with a change in central sensitization. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Duodenal-bronchial fistula: an unusual cause of shortness of breath and a productive cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Wong, BMBS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal-bronchial fistulas are very uncommon, even among the already rare subgroup of abdominal-bronchial fistulas. We describe a case of a woman with Crohn's disease who presented with shortness of breath and a productive cough who was found to have a duodeanl bronchial fistula on computed tomography scan. We demonstrate with this case how these rare cases can lead to chronic lung aspirations and require multidisciplinary involvement.

  14. Non-specific Effects of Vaccines and Stunting: Timing May Be Essential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike L.T. Berendsen

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: We found a general time-dependent pattern of non-specific effects of vaccination, with positive associations for vaccinations given early in life and negative associations for vaccinations given later in infancy. If confirmed in further research, our findings may provide a new perspective on the non-specific effects of vaccination.

  15. Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain Patients Are Deconditioned and Have An Increased Body Fat Percentage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodselmans, Audy P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare data on the level of aerobic capacity and body composition of nonspecific chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients with normative data matched for sex, age and level of sporting activity. The study population consisted of 101 outpatients with nonspecific CLBP who had entered a rehabilitation…

  16. Meta-analysis: exercise therapy for nonspecific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Jill A; van Tulder, Maurits W; Malmivaara, Antti V; Koes, Bart W

    2005-05-03

    Exercise therapy is widely used as an intervention in low back pain. To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise therapy in adult nonspecific acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain versus no treatment and other conservative treatments. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases to October 2004; citation searches and bibliographic reviews of previous systematic reviews. Randomized, controlled trials evaluating exercise therapy for adult nonspecific low back pain and measuring pain, function, return to work or absenteeism, and global improvement outcomes. Two reviewers independently selected studies and extracted data on study characteristics, quality, and outcomes at short-, intermediate-, and long-term follow-up. 61 randomized, controlled trials (6390 participants) met inclusion criteria: acute (11 trials), subacute (6 trials), and chronic (43 trials) low back pain (1 trial was unclear). Evidence suggests that exercise therapy is effective in chronic back pain relative to comparisons at all follow-up periods. Pooled mean improvement (of 100 points) was 7.3 points (95% CI, 3.7 to 10.9 points) for pain and 2.5 points (CI, 1.0 to 3.9 points) for function at earliest follow-up. In studies investigating patients (people seeking care for back pain), mean improvement was 13.3 points (CI, 5.5 to 21.1 points) for pain and 6.9 points (CI, 2.2 to 11.7 points) for function, compared with studies where some participants had been recruited from a general population (for example, with advertisements). Some evidence suggests effectiveness of a graded-activity exercise program in subacute low back pain in occupational settings, although the evidence for other types of exercise therapy in other populations is inconsistent. In acute low back pain, exercise therapy and other programs were equally effective (pain, 0.03 point [CI, -1.3 to 1.4 points]). Limitations of the literature, including low-quality studies with heterogeneous outcome measures inconsistent

  17. Non-specific filtering of beta-distributed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhui; Laird, Peter W; Hinoue, Toshinori; Groshen, Susan; Siegmund, Kimberly D

    2014-06-19

    Non-specific feature selection is a dimension reduction procedure performed prior to cluster analysis of high dimensional molecular data. Not all measured features are expected to show biological variation, so only the most varying are selected for analysis. In DNA methylation studies, DNA methylation is measured as a proportion, bounded between 0 and 1, with variance a function of the mean. Filtering on standard deviation biases the selection of probes to those with mean values near 0.5. We explore the effect this has on clustering, and develop alternate filter methods that utilize a variance stabilizing transformation for Beta distributed data and do not share this bias. We compared results for 11 different non-specific filters on eight Infinium HumanMethylation data sets, selected to span a variety of biological conditions. We found that for data sets having a small fraction of samples showing abnormal methylation of a subset of normally unmethylated CpGs, a characteristic of the CpG island methylator phenotype in cancer, a novel filter statistic that utilized a variance-stabilizing transformation for Beta distributed data outperformed the common filter of using standard deviation of the DNA methylation proportion, or its log-transformed M-value, in its ability to detect the cancer subtype in a cluster analysis. However, the standard deviation filter always performed among the best for distinguishing subgroups of normal tissue. The novel filter and standard deviation filter tended to favour features in different genome contexts; for the same data set, the novel filter always selected more features from CpG island promoters and the standard deviation filter always selected more features from non-CpG island intergenic regions. Interestingly, despite selecting largely non-overlapping sets of features, the two filters did find sample subsets that overlapped for some real data sets. We found two different filter statistics that tended to prioritize features with

  18. Endoscopic bronchial valve treatment: patient selection and special considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhardt R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ralf Eberhardt,1,2 Daniela Gompelmann,1,2 Felix JF Herth,1,2 Maren Schuhmann1 1Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik at the University of Heidelberg, 2Translational Lung Research Center, Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Heidelberg, Germany Abstract: As well as lung volume reduction surgery, different minimally invasive endoscopic techniques are available to achieve lung volume reduction in patients with severe emphysema and significant hyperinflation. Lung function parameters and comorbidities of the patient, as well as the extent and distribution of the emphysema are factors to be considered when choosing the patient and the intervention. Endoscopic bronchial valve placement with complete occlusion of one lobe in patients with heterogeneous emphysema is the preferred technique because of its reversibility. The presence of high interlobar collateral ventilation will hinder successful treatment; therefore, endoscopic coil placement, polymeric lung volume reduction, or bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation as well as lung volume reduction surgery can be used for treating patients with incomplete fissures. The effect of endoscopic lung volume reduction in patients with a homogeneous distribution of emphysema is still unclear and this subgroup should be treated only in clinical trials. Precise patient selection is necessary for interventions and to improve the outcome and reduce the risk and possible complications. Therefore, the patients should be discussed in a multidisciplinary approach prior to determining the most appropriate treatment for lung volume reduction. Keywords: lung emphysema, valve treatment, collateral ventilation, patient selection, outcome

  19. Detection of trisomy 7 in bronchial cells from uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechner, J.F.; Neft, R.E.; Belinsky, S.A. [and others

    1995-12-01

    New Mexico was the largest producer of uranium in the western world during 1960s and 1970s. Investigators at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine`s Epidemiology and Cancer Control Program have been conducting epidemiological studies on uranium miners over the past 2 decades. Currently, this cohort includes more than 3600 men who had completed at least 1 y of underground work experience in New Mexico by December 31, 1976. These miners, who are now in their 5th through 7th decades, the age when lung cancer incidence is highest, are at high risk for developing this disease because they were exposed to high levels of radon progeny in the mines, and they also smoked tobacco. However, not all people comparably exposed develop lung cancer; in fact, the lifetime risk of lung cancer for the smoking uranium miners has been projected by epidemiological analyses to be no higher than 50%. Therefore, the identification of gene alterations in bronchial epithelium would be a valuable tool to ascertain which miners are at greatest risk for lung cancer. The underlying significance of the current effort confirms the hypothesis that chronic exposure to high concentrations of {alpha}-particles and tobacco smoke produces genetically altered lung epithelial cells throughout the respiratory tract of some susceptible individuals before they develop clinical disease.

  20. Detection of trisomy 7 in bronchial cells from uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechner, J.F.; Neft, R.E.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    New Mexico was the largest producer of uranium in the western world during 1960s and 1970s. Investigators at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine's Epidemiology and Cancer Control Program have been conducting epidemiological studies on uranium miners over the past 2 decades. Currently, this cohort includes more than 3600 men who had completed at least 1 y of underground work experience in New Mexico by December 31, 1976. These miners, who are now in their 5th through 7th decades, the age when lung cancer incidence is highest, are at high risk for developing this disease because they were exposed to high levels of radon progeny in the mines, and they also smoked tobacco. However, not all people comparably exposed develop lung cancer; in fact, the lifetime risk of lung cancer for the smoking uranium miners has been projected by epidemiological analyses to be no higher than 50%. Therefore, the identification of gene alterations in bronchial epithelium would be a valuable tool to ascertain which miners are at greatest risk for lung cancer. The underlying significance of the current effort confirms the hypothesis that chronic exposure to high concentrations of α-particles and tobacco smoke produces genetically altered lung epithelial cells throughout the respiratory tract of some susceptible individuals before they develop clinical disease

  1. Physical exercise program for children with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentágothai, K; Gyene, I; Szócska, M; Osváth, P

    1987-01-01

    A long-term physical exercise program was established for a large number of children with bronchial asthma. Asthmatic children were first taught to swim on their backs to prevent breathing problems customary for beginners using other strokes. They concurrently participated in gymnasium exercises, and the program was later completed with outdoor running. Program effectiveness was evaluated by monitoring asthmatic symptoms, changes in medication, and changes in the activity and physical fitness of the children. Data collected from 121 children showed that during the first year in the program the number of days with asthmatic symptoms decreased in a large majority of the patients while medication was decreased. School absenteeism and hospitalization dropped markedly. Parental evaluation of the children indicated much improvement in 51.2%, improvement in 40.5%, unchanged condition in 7.4%, and deterioration of general health was only reported in one child (0.8%). The same extent of improvement continued during the second year. The Cooper test was applied for the first time to such an exercise program and indicated that the participating asthmatic children performed as well as a control group of nonasthmatic children, and the cardiovascular efficiency of the asthmatics was actually better.

  2. Prognostic factors in bronchial arterial embolization for hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eui Jong; Yoon, Yup; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Lim, Joo Won; Sung, Dong Wook

    1994-01-01

    To find the rebleeding factors in bronchial arterial embolization for treatment of hemoptysis, a retrospective study was performed. Medical records, angiographic findings and embolic materials of 35 patients who had undertaken arterial embolization for control of hemoptysis were reviewed. The period of follow-up for rebleeding was from 3 to 32 months after arterial embolization. We investigated the angiographic findings of extravasation, neovascularity, intervascular shunt, aneurysm and periarterial diffusion. Neovascularity was classified as mild(numerable neovascularity) and severe(innumerable). Rebleeding occurred in 15(43%) among 35 cases. Only two of 11 cases with no past episode of hemoptysis showed recurrence, while 9 of 15 cases who had more than three episodes did. Severe neovascularity were seen in 11 of 15 recurred cases, but seven of 20 non- recurred cases showed severe neovascularity. More than three angiographic findings representing hemoptysis were seen on 11(73%) among recurred 15 cases and seven(35%) among non- recurred 20 cases. The lesion was supplied by more than two different arteries on 8(54%) of the recurred cases, but only three(15%) of the non- recurred cases. Six of seven cases persistent neovascularity after arterial embolization were recurred. The history of repeated hemoptysis, severe neovascularity, variable angiographic findings, and post-embolization persistency of neovascularity were the factors related with the rebleeding after arterial embolization for hemoptysis. Careful and active arterial embolization are required on these conditions

  3. Prognostic factors in bronchial arterial embolization for hemoptysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Jong; Yoon, Yup; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Lim, Joo Won; Sung, Dong Wook [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    To find the rebleeding factors in bronchial arterial embolization for treatment of hemoptysis, a retrospective study was performed. Medical records, angiographic findings and embolic materials of 35 patients who had undertaken arterial embolization for control of hemoptysis were reviewed. The period of follow-up for rebleeding was from 3 to 32 months after arterial embolization. We investigated the angiographic findings of extravasation, neovascularity, intervascular shunt, aneurysm and periarterial diffusion. Neovascularity was classified as mild(numerable neovascularity) and severe(innumerable). Rebleeding occurred in 15(43%) among 35 cases. Only two of 11 cases with no past episode of hemoptysis showed recurrence, while 9 of 15 cases who had more than three episodes did. Severe neovascularity were seen in 11 of 15 recurred cases, but seven of 20 non- recurred cases showed severe neovascularity. More than three angiographic findings representing hemoptysis were seen on 11(73%) among recurred 15 cases and seven(35%) among non- recurred 20 cases. The lesion was supplied by more than two different arteries on 8(54%) of the recurred cases, but only three(15%) of the non- recurred cases. Six of seven cases persistent neovascularity after arterial embolization were recurred. The history of repeated hemoptysis, severe neovascularity, variable angiographic findings, and post-embolization persistency of neovascularity were the factors related with the rebleeding after arterial embolization for hemoptysis. Careful and active arterial embolization are required on these conditions.

  4. Quantification of bronchial dimensions at MDCT using dedicated software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillet, P.Y.; Fetita, C.I.; Saragaglia, A.; Perchet, D.; Preteux, F.; Beigelman-Aubry, C.; Grenier, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the feasibility of quantification of bronchial dimensions at MDCT using dedicated software (BronCare). We evaluated the reliability of the software to segment the airways and defined criteria ensuring accurate measurements. BronCare was applied on two successive examinations in 10 mild asthmatic patients. Acquisitions were performed at pneumotachographically controlled lung volume (65% TLC), with reconstructions focused on the right lung base. Five validation criteria were imposed: (1) bronchus type: segmental and subsegmental; (2) lumen area (LA)>4 mm 2 ; (3) bronchus length (Lg) > 7 mm; (4) confidence index - giving the percentage of the bronchus not abutted by a vessel - (CI) >55% for validation of wall area (WA) and (5) a minimum of 10 contiguous cross-sectional images fulfilling the criteria. A complete segmentation procedure on both acquisitions made possible an evaluation of LA and WA in 174/223 (78%) and 171/174 (98%) of bronchi, respectively. The validation criteria were met for 56/69 (81%) and for 16/69 (23%) of segmental bronchi and for 73/102 (72%) and 58/102 (57%) of subsegmental bronchi, for LA and WA, respectively. In conclusion, BronCare is reliable to segment the airways in clinical practice. The proposed criteria seem appropriate to select bronchi candidates for measurement. (orig.)

  5. Detection of p53 gene mutations in bronchial biopsy samples of patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irshad, S.; Nawaz, T.

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue. It is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for 1.2 million deaths annually. The goal of this study was to detect the p53 gene mutations in lung cancer, in local population of Lahore, Pakistan. These mutations were screened in the bronchial biopsy lung cancer tissue samples. For this purpose microtomed tissue sections were collected. Following DNA extraction from tissue sections, the p53 mutations were detected by amplifying Exon 7 (145 bp) and Exon 8 (152 bp) of the p53 gene. PCR then followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for screening the p53 gene mutations. This results of SSCP were visualized of silver staining. The results showed different banding pattern indicating the presence of mutation. Majority of the mutations were found in Exon 7. Exon 7 of p53 gene may be the mutation hotspot in lung cancer. In lung cancer, the most prevalent mutations of p53 gene are G -> T transversions; other types of insertions and deletions are also expected, however, the exact nature of mutations in presented work could be confirmed by direct sequencing. (author)

  6. The species translation challenge-a systems biology perspective on human and rat bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussin, Carine; Mathis, Carole; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Messinis, Dimitris E; Dulize, Rémi H J; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Melas, Ioannis N; Sakellaropoulos, Theodore; Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Bilal, Erhan; Meyer, Pablo; Talikka, Marja; Boué, Stéphanie; Norel, Raquel; Rice, John J; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The biological responses to external cues such as drugs, chemicals, viruses and hormones, is an essential question in biomedicine and in the field of toxicology, and cannot be easily studied in humans. Thus, biomedical research has continuously relied on animal models for studying the impact of these compounds and attempted to 'translate' the results to humans. In this context, the SBV IMPROVER (Systems Biology Verification for Industrial Methodology for PROcess VErification in Research) collaborative initiative, which uses crowd-sourcing techniques to address fundamental questions in systems biology, invited scientists to deploy their own computational methodologies to make predictions on species translatability. A multi-layer systems biology dataset was generated that was comprised of phosphoproteomics, transcriptomics and cytokine data derived from normal human (NHBE) and rat (NRBE) bronchial epithelial cells exposed in parallel to more than 50 different stimuli under identical conditions. The present manuscript describes in detail the experimental settings, generation, processing and quality control analysis of the multi-layer omics dataset accessible in public repositories for further intra- and inter-species translation studies.

  7. The species translation challenge—A systems biology perspective on human and rat bronchial epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussin, Carine; Mathis, Carole; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Messinis, Dimitris E; Dulize, Rémi H J; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Melas, Ioannis N; Sakellaropoulos, Theodore; Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Bilal, Erhan; Meyer, Pablo; Talikka, Marja; Boué, Stéphanie; Norel, Raquel; Rice, John J; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The biological responses to external cues such as drugs, chemicals, viruses and hormones, is an essential question in biomedicine and in the field of toxicology, and cannot be easily studied in humans. Thus, biomedical research has continuously relied on animal models for studying the impact of these compounds and attempted to ‘translate’ the results to humans. In this context, the SBV IMPROVER (Systems Biology Verification for Industrial Methodology for PROcess VErification in Research) collaborative initiative, which uses crowd-sourcing techniques to address fundamental questions in systems biology, invited scientists to deploy their own computational methodologies to make predictions on species translatability. A multi-layer systems biology dataset was generated that was comprised of phosphoproteomics, transcriptomics and cytokine data derived from normal human (NHBE) and rat (NRBE) bronchial epithelial cells exposed in parallel to more than 50 different stimuli under identical conditions. The present manuscript describes in detail the experimental settings, generation, processing and quality control analysis of the multi-layer omics dataset accessible in public repositories for further intra- and inter-species translation studies. PMID:25977767

  8. Bronchial provocation testing does not detect exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Hull, James H; Sverrild, Asger; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-01-02

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is a key differential diagnosis for asthma in the presence of exertional respiratory symptoms. Continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (CLE), the current gold standard diagnostic test for EILO, has practical limitations. We aimed to establish if inspiratory flow data obtained during standard bronchoprovocation testing, to establish the presence of extra-thoracic hyper-responsiveness, may prove diagnostic for EILO and thus preclude requirement for CLE testing. We consecutively evaluated 37 adult subjects with exertional dyspnea and possible asthma referred over 6 months. All subjects received comprehensive assessment including a detailed clinical evaluation; pulmonary function testing, indirect and direct bronchial provocation testing, and CLE testing. Out of 37 subjects, moderate or severe EILO was diagnosed in 8 subjects (22%, all female) while 5 (14%) had both asthma and EILO. There was no correlation between degree of EILO during CLE and mean decrease in forced inspiratory flow (%FIF 50 ) obtained during neither the Methacholine (r = -0.15; p = 0.38) nor Mannitol (r = 0.04; p = 0.84) provocation tests. Inspiratory flow parameters obtained during bronchoprovocation tests did not reliably detect EILO. It remains that CLE is an important and key investigation modality in establishing a secure diagnosis of EILO.

  9. Apple Flavonoids Suppress Carcinogen-Induced DNA Damage in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazhappilly Cijo George

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scope. Human neoplastic transformation due to DNA damage poses an increasing global healthcare concern. Maintaining genomic integrity is crucial for avoiding tumor initiation and progression. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of an apple flavonoid fraction (AF4 against various carcinogen-induced toxicity in normal human bronchial epithelial cells and its mechanism of DNA damage response and repair processes. Methods and Results. AF4-pretreated cells were exposed to nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketones (NNK, NNK acetate (NNK-Ae, methotrexate (MTX, and cisplatin to validate cytotoxicity, total reactive oxygen species, intracellular antioxidants, DNA fragmentation, and DNA tail damage. Furthermore, phosphorylated histone (γ-H2AX and proteins involved in DNA damage (ATM/ATR, Chk1, Chk2, and p53 and repair (DNA-PKcs and Ku80 mechanisms were evaluated by immunofluorescence and western blotting, respectively. The results revealed that AF4-pretreated cells showed lower cytotoxicity, total ROS generation, and DNA fragmentation along with consequent inhibition of DNA tail moment. An increased level of γ-H2AX and DNA damage proteins was observed in carcinogen-treated cells and that was significantly (p≤0.05 inhibited in AF4-pretreated cells, in an ATR-dependent manner. AF4 pretreatment also facilitated the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs and thus initiation of repair mechanisms. Conclusion. Apple flavonoids can protect in vitro oxidative DNA damage and facilitate repair mechanisms.

  10. Lyme neuroborreliosis in cases of non-specific neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaldsnes, Erlend; Eikeland, Randi; Berild, Dag

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid is required in order to diagnose Lyme neuroborreliosis. We investigated the symptoms of patients in a highly endemic area who were referred for evaluation of possible Lyme neuroborreliosis, and explored whether cerebrospinal fluid analysis confirmed or ruled out the diagnosis. We reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent lumbar puncture at Sørlandet Hospital Arendal in the period 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2013. A total of 140 patients were referred with suspected Lyme neuroborreliosis. Of these, 110 patients had non-specific neurological symptoms (e.g. fatigue, dizziness and headache), only one of whom received a diagnosis of possible Lyme neuroborreliosis. Thirty patients had symptoms typical of the condition (such as radiculitis or peripheral facial nerve palsy). Six of these were diagnosed with definite Lyme neuroborreliosis, and one with possible Lyme neuroborreliosis. None of those diagnosed with Lyme neuroborreliosis had had symptoms lasting more than six months. The probability of Lyme neuroborreliosis is low in the absence of typical symptoms of the condition, even when anti-Borrelia antibodies are detected in serum and especially when the symptoms are of long duration.

  11. Non-specific low back pain: occupational or lifestyle consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stričević, Jadranka; Papež, Breda Jesenšek

    2015-12-01

    Nursing occupation was identified as a risk occupation for the development of low back pain (LBP). The aim of our study was to find out how much occupational factors influence the development of LBP in hospital nursing personnel. Non-experimental approach with a cross-sectional survey and statistical analysis. Nine hundred questionnaires were distributed among nursing personnel, 663 were returned and 659 (73.2 %) were considered for the analysis. Univariate and multivariate statistics for LBP risk was calculated by the binary logistic regression. The χ(2), influence factor, 95 % confidence interval and P value were calculated. Multivariate binary logistic regression was calculated by the Wald method to omit insignificant variables. Not performing exercises represented the highest risk for the development of LBP (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.7-4.4; p  10 kg (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.5-3.8; p focusing on mechanical causes and direct workload in the development of non-specific LBP, the complex approach to LBP including genetics, psychosocial environment, lifestyle and quality of life is coming more to the fore.

  12. Muscle Control and Non-specific Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Marc; Deckers, Kristiaan; Eldabe, Sam; Kiesel, Kyle; Gilligan, Chris; Vieceli, John; Crosby, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is the most prevalent of the painful musculoskeletal conditions. CLBP is a heterogeneous condition with many causes and diagnoses, but there are few established therapies with strong evidence of effectiveness (or cost effectiveness). CLBP for which it is not possible to identify any specific cause is often referred to as non-specific chronic LBP (NSCLBP). One type of NSCLBP is continuing and recurrent primarily nociceptive CLBP due to vertebral joint overload subsequent to functional instability of the lumbar spine. This condition may occur due to disruption of the motor control system to the key stabilizing muscles in the lumbar spine, particularly the lumbar multifidus muscle (MF). This review presents the evidence for MF involvement in CLBP, mechanisms of action of disruption of control of the MF, and options for restoring control of the MF as a treatment for NSCLBP. Imaging assessment of motor control dysfunction of the MF in individual patients is fraught with difficulty. MRI or ultrasound imaging techniques, while reliable, have limited diagnostic or predictive utility. For some patients, restoration of motor control to the MF with specific exercises can be effective, but population results are not persuasive since most patients are unable to voluntarily contract the MF and may be inhibited from doing so due to arthrogenic muscle inhibition. Targeting MF control with restorative neurostimulation promises a new treatment option. © 2017 The Authors. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Neuromodulation Society.

  13. Brief exposure to sensory cues elicits stimulus-nonspecific general sensitization in an insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Minoli

    Full Text Available The effect of repeated exposure to sensory stimuli, with or without reward is well known to induce stimulus-specific modifications of behaviour, described as different forms of learning. In recent studies we showed that a brief single pre-exposure to the female-produced sex pheromone or even a predator sound can increase the behavioural and central nervous responses to this pheromone in males of the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis. To investigate if this increase in sensitivity might be restricted to the pheromone system or is a form of general sensitization, we studied here if a brief pre-exposure to stimuli of different modalities can reciprocally change behavioural and physiological responses to olfactory and gustatory stimuli. Olfactory and gustatory pre-exposure and subsequent behavioural tests were carried out to reveal possible intra- and cross-modal effects. Attraction to pheromone, monitored with a locomotion compensator, increased after exposure to olfactory and gustatory stimuli. Behavioural responses to sucrose, investigated using the proboscis extension reflex, increased equally after pre-exposure to olfactory and gustatory cues. Pheromone-specific neurons in the brain and antennal gustatory neurons did, however, not change their sensitivity after sucrose exposure. The observed intra- and reciprocal cross-modal effects of pre-exposure may represent a new form of stimulus-nonspecific general sensitization originating from modifications at higher sensory processing levels.

  14. Yoga treatment for chronic non-specific low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, L. Susan; Skoetz, Nicole; Pilkington, Karen; Vempati, Ramaprabhu; D’Adamo, Christopher R; Berman, Brian M

    2017-01-01

    Background Non-specific low back pain is a common, potentially disabling condition usually treated with self-care and non-prescription medication. For chronic low back pain, current guidelines state that exercise therapy may be beneficial. Yoga is a mind-body exercise sometimes used for non-specific low back pain. Objectives To assess the effects of yoga for treating chronic non-specific low back pain, compared to no specific treatment, a minimal intervention (e.g. education), or another active treatment, with a focus on pain, function, and adverse events. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, five other databases and four trials registers to 11 March 2016 without restriction of language or publication status. We screened reference lists and contacted experts in the field to identify additional studies. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials of yoga treatment in people with chronic non-specific low back pain. We included studies comparing yoga to any other intervention or to no intervention. We also included studies comparing yoga as an adjunct to other therapies, versus those other therapies alone. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted outcome data, and assessed risk of bias. We contacted study authors to obtain missing or unclear information. We evaluated the overall certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included 12 trials (1080 participants) carried out in the USA (seven trials), India (three trials), and the UK (two trials). Studies were unfunded (one trial), funded by a yoga institution (one trial), funded by non-profit or government sources (seven trials), or did not report on funding (three trials). Most trials used Iyengar, Hatha, or Viniyoga forms of yoga. The trials compared yoga to no intervention or a non-exercise intervention such as education (seven trials), an exercise intervention (three trials), or both exercise and non

  15. Yoga treatment for chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, L Susan; Skoetz, Nicole; Pilkington, Karen; Vempati, Ramaprabhu; D'Adamo, Christopher R; Berman, Brian M

    2017-01-12

    Non-specific low back pain is a common, potentially disabling condition usually treated with self-care and non-prescription medication. For chronic low back pain, current guidelines state that exercise therapy may be beneficial. Yoga is a mind-body exercise sometimes used for non-specific low back pain. To assess the effects of yoga for treating chronic non-specific low back pain, compared to no specific treatment, a minimal intervention (e.g. education), or another active treatment, with a focus on pain, function, and adverse events. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, five other databases and four trials registers to 11 March 2016 without restriction of language or publication status. We screened reference lists and contacted experts in the field to identify additional studies. We included randomized controlled trials of yoga treatment in people with chronic non-specific low back pain. We included studies comparing yoga to any other intervention or to no intervention. We also included studies comparing yoga as an adjunct to other therapies, versus those other therapies alone. Two authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted outcome data, and assessed risk of bias. We contacted study authors to obtain missing or unclear information. We evaluated the overall certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 12 trials (1080 participants) carried out in the USA (seven trials), India (three trials), and the UK (two trials). Studies were unfunded (one trial), funded by a yoga institution (one trial), funded by non-profit or government sources (seven trials), or did not report on funding (three trials). Most trials used Iyengar, Hatha, or Viniyoga forms of yoga. The trials compared yoga to no intervention or a non-exercise intervention such as education (seven trials), an exercise intervention (three trials), or both exercise and non-exercise interventions (two trials). All trials were at high risk of performance and detection bias because

  16. Individual preferences for physical exercise as secondary prevention for non-specific low back pain: A discrete choice experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Aboagye

    Full Text Available Exercise is effective in improving non-specific low back pain (LBP. Certain components of physical exercise, such as the type, intensity and frequency of exercise, are likely to influence participation among working adults with non-specific LBP, but the value and relative importance of these components remain unknown. The study's aim was to examine such specific components and their influence on individual preferences for exercise for secondary prevention of non-specific LBP among working adults.In a discrete choice experiment, working individuals with non-specific LBP answered a web-based questionnaire. Each respondent was given ten pairs of hypothetical exercise programs and asked to choose one option from each pair. The choices comprised six attributes of exercise (i.e., type of training, design, intensity, frequency, proximity and incentives, each with either three or four levels. A conditional logit regression that reflected the random utility model was used to analyze the responses.The final study population consisted of 112 participants. The participants' preferred exercise option was aerobic (i.e., cardiovascular rather than strength training, group exercise with trainer supervision, rather than individual or unsupervised exercise. They also preferred high intensity exercise performed at least once or twice per week. The most popular types of incentive were exercise during working hours and a wellness allowance rather than coupons for sports goods. The results show that the relative value of some attribute levels differed between young adults (age ≤ 44 years and older adults (age ≥ 45 years in terms of the level of trainer supervision required, exercise intensity, travel time to exercise location and financial incentives. For active study participants, exercise frequency (i.e., twice per week, 1.15; CI: 0.25; 2.06 influenced choice of exercise. For individuals with more than one child, travel time (i.e., 20 minutes, -0.55; CI: 0

  17. DSA findings and bronchial arterial embolization of bronchiectasis with massive hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guobin; Liu Junfang; Hu Jinxiang; Long Qingyun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore DSA findings curative measures and effects of bronchial arterial embolization (BAE)of bronchiectasis with massive hemoptysis. Methods: 35 patients with massive hemoptysis due to bronchiectasis were performed selective bronchial arterial DSA and BAE referring to image data of chest plain film and CT. Embolic materials were polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)and/or gelatinum sponge particles. Curative effects were followed-up for 3 months to 3 years. Results: (1)DSA revealed bronchial artery as being the only abnormal vessel accounted for 74.3%, bronchial artry combined with nonbronchial systemic artery as 22.9% and only non-bronchial artery involved 2.9%. Abnormal vessel number was 1-5 (mean 1.8) per case; Direct and indirect bleeding sign was displayed as 25.7% and 100% respectively. (2)Curative and embolization effects were shown as 61 target vessels of 34 patients being embolized and total effective rate reaching 85.3%; of which 16 cases were adopted super-selective technique, 1 case was failure of stopping bleeding for two times within 3 days, 4 cases recurred within 3 months and 2 cases recurred over 3 months; with recurrent rate of 20.6%, but no serious complications such as spinal cord injury. Conclusions: DSA examination and selective BAE of bronchiectasis with massive hemoptysis could provide high positive angiographic features and reliable curative effect. (authors)

  18. Timing of silicone stent removal in patients with post-tuberculosis bronchial stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jung Seop; Kim, Hojoong; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Um, Sang-Won; Koh, Won-Jung; Suh, Gee Young; Chung, Man Pyo; Kwon, O Jung

    2013-10-01

    In patients with post-tuberculosis bronchial stenosis (PTBS), the severity of bronchial stenosis affects the restenosis rate after the silicone stent is removed. In PTBS patients with incomplete bronchial obstruction, who had a favorable prognosis, the timing of stent removal to ensure airway patency is not clear. We evaluated the time for silicone stent removal in patients with incomplete PTBS. A retrospective study examined PTBS patients who underwent stenting and removal of a silicone stent. Incomplete bronchial stenosis was defined as PTBS other than total bronchial obstruction, which had a luminal opening at the stenotic segment on bronchoscopic intervention. The duration of stenting was defined as the interval from stent insertion to removal. The study included 44 PTBS patients and the patients were grouped at intervals of 6 months according to the duration of stenting. Patients stented for more than 12 months had a significantly lower restenosis rate than those stented for less than 12 months (4% vs. 35%, P = 0.009). Multiple logistic regression revealed an association between stenting for more than 12 months and a low restenosis rate (odds ratio 12.095; 95% confidence interval 1.097-133.377). Moreover, no restenosis was observed in PTBS patients when the stent was placed more than 14 months previously. In patients with incomplete PTBS, stent placement for longer than 12 months reduced restenosis after stent removal.

  19. Timing of silicone stent removal in patients with post-tuberculosis bronchial stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Seop Eom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In patients with post-tuberculosis bronchial stenosis (PTBS, the severity of bronchial stenosis affects the restenosis rate after the silicone stent is removed. In PTBS patients with incomplete bronchial obstruction, who had a favorable prognosis, the timing of stent removal to ensure airway patency is not clear. Aims: We evaluated the time for silicone stent removal in patients with incomplete PTBS. Settings and Design: A retrospective study examined PTBS patients who underwent stenting and removal of a silicone stent. Methods: Incomplete bronchial stenosis was defined as PTBS other than total bronchial obstruction, which had a luminal opening at the stenotic segment on bronchoscopic intervention. The duration of stenting was defined as the interval from stent insertion to removal. The study included 44 PTBS patients and the patients were grouped at intervals of 6 months according to the duration of stenting. Results: Patients stented for more than 12 months had a significantly lower restenosis rate than those stented for less than 12 months (4% vs. 35%, P = 0.009. Multiple logistic regression revealed an association between stenting for more than 12 months and a low restenosis rate (odds ratio 12.095; 95% confidence interval 1.097-133.377. Moreover, no restenosis was observed in PTBS patients when the stent was placed more than 14 months previously. Conclusions: In patients with incomplete PTBS, stent placement for longer than 12 months reduced restenosis after stent removal.

  20. Evaluation on the imaging of the bronchial blood flow using nuclear angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Hirayama, Jiro; Kanai, Hisakata; Kobayashi, Toshio; Handa, Kenjiro

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear angiocardiography with sup(99m)TcO 4 - was performed for the purpose of the delineation of the systemic perfusion in various lung diseases, using a scintillation camera with a digital minicomputer system. The images of the bronchial blood flow were obtained in cases with primary lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, lung abscess, bronchiectasis and chronic bronchitis. The fair images of the bronchial blood flow were taken in cases of peripheral type, adenocarcinoma and primary foci of atelectatic type in primary lung cancer. The grade of delineation of the bronchial blood flow and vascularity of bronchial artery in foci of primary lung cancer were correlative to the grade of accumulation of 197 HgCl 2 , respectively. The joint use of nuclear angiocardiography and other imagings such as tumor or perfusion one was useful for evaluation of the pulmonary and systemic circulation, and that made isotope diagnosis of primary lung cancer more reliable too. The image as a isocount map extracted out of the image of 197 HgCl 2 or sup(99m)Tc-MAA, was superimposed to the brightness image of the nuclear angiocardiogram (aortic phase). This image superimposition methods were valuable to improve anatomic orientation of the nuclear angiocardiogram. The delineation of the bronchial blood flow on the subtraction image, which obtained from the two time-different images in aortic phase of the nuclear angiocardiogram, was better than that of the original images. (author)

  1. Variations of right bronchial tree: a study with multi-detector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Meng, Min; Huang, Min; Zhao, Xinya

    2018-05-03

    The aim was to display variations of right bronchial tree. The bronchial tree images of 238 patients were reconstructed using the postprocessing technique of CT. We revealed four cases rare bronchial branching patterns of right superior lobe. 1 case was referred to as tracheal bronchus. In 1 case, B1 was located in the place of the right superior lobar bronchus and B2 + 3 arose from the right merge of the IB. In 1 case, the right superior lobar bronchus has only two divisions for B1 and B3, and the bronchus B2 arose from the right merge of the IB. In 1 case, B1 branched into four bronchi. We revealed 15 cases of rare bronchial branching patterns of right inferior lobe. In nine cases, the basal trunk bronchus bifurcated into B7 + 8 and B9 + l0. In three cases, B8 branched from the basal trunk bronchus before B7. In two cases, basal trunk bronchus bifurcated into B7 + 8 + 9 and B10. In 1 case, the basal trunk bronchus bifurcated into the common stem of B7 + 10 and B8 + 9. Variations of right bronchial tree were displayed in the present study. This information may have important implications for diagnosis of symptomatic patients and performing certain procedures, including bronchoscopy, endotracheal intubation, and lung resection.

  2. [Management of patients with bronchial asthma received general anesthesia and surgical intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Masako; Tajima, Makoto; Ogawa, Cyuhei; Otomo, Mamoru; Suzuki, Naohito; Sano, Yasuyuki

    2002-01-01

    Stimulation to bronchial mucosa is one of the major risk factor of asthma attack. When patients receive surgical intervention and general anesthesia, they are always exposed to stimulation to bronchial mucosa. Prevention method of bronchial asthma attack during surgical intervention is not established yet. We investigated that clinical course of patients with bronchial asthma who received general anesthesia and surgical intervention. Seventy-six patients with bronchial asthma were received general anesthesia and surgical intervention from 1993 to 1998. Twenty-four patients were mild asthmatic patients, 39 were moderate asthmatic patients and 13 were severe asthmatic patients. Preoperative treatment for preventing asthma attack was as follows; Eight patients were given intravenous infusion of aminophylline before operation. Fifty-two patients were given intravenous infusion of aminophylline and hydrocortisone before operation. Three patients were given intravenous infusion of hydrocortisone for consecutive 3 days before operation. Thirteen patients were given no treatment for preventing asthma attack. One patient was suffered from asthma attack during operation. She was given no preventing treatment for asthma attack before operation. Three patients were suffered from asthma attack after operation. No wound dehiscence was observed in all patients. To prevent asthma attack during operation, intravenous infusion of steroid before operation is recommended, when patients with asthma receive general anesthesia and surgical intervention.

  3. Omalizumab reduces bronchial mucosal IgE and improves lung function in non-atopic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Prathap; Chan, Yih-Chih; Wu, Shih-Ying; Ohm-Laursen, Line; Thomas, Clare; Durham, Stephen R; Menzies-Gow, Andrew; Rajakulasingam, Raj K; Ying, Sun; Gould, Hannah J; Corrigan, Chris J

    2016-12-01

    Omalizumab therapy of non-atopic asthmatics reduces bronchial mucosal IgE and inflammation and preserves/improves lung function when disease is destabilised by staged withdrawal of therapy.18 symptomatic, non-atopic asthmatics were randomised (1:1) to receive omalizumab or identical placebo treatment in addition to existing therapy for 20 weeks. Bronchial biopsies were collected before and after 12-14 weeks of treatment, then the patients destabilised by substantial, supervised reduction of their regular therapy. Primary outcome measures were changes in bronchial mucosal IgE + cells at 12-14 weeks, prior to regular therapy reduction, and changes in lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s) after destabilisation at 20 weeks. Quality of life was also monitored.Omalizumab but not placebo therapy significantly reduced median total bronchial mucosal IgE + cells (pomalizumab treated patients, with significant differences in absolute (p=0.04) and % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (p=0.015).Omalizumab therapy of non-atopic asthmatics reduces bronchial mucosal IgE + mast cells and improves lung function despite withdrawal of conventional therapy. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  4. In vivo microscopic imaging of the bronchial mucosa using an endo-cytoscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Kiyoshi; Fujiwara, Taiki; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Alaa, Mohamed; Chiyo, Masako; Nakajima, Takahiro; Hoshino, Hidehisa; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Nakatani, Yukio; Yoshino, Ichiro

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the capabilities of an endo-cytoscopy system (ECS) that enables microscopic imaging of the tracheobronchial tree during bronchoscopy, including normal bronchial epithelium, dysplastic mucosa and squamous cell carcinoma. The newly developed ECS has a 3.2 mm diameter that can be passed through the 4.2 mm working channel of a mother endoscope for insertion of the ECS. It has a high magnification of 570× on a 17 in. video monitor. Twenty-two patients (7 squamous cell carcinoma, 11 squamous dysplasia and 4 after PDT therapies) were underwent white light, NBI light and AFI bronchoscopy. Both abnormal areas of interest and normal bronchial mucosa were stained with 0.5% methylene blue and examined with ECS at high magnification (570×). Histological examinations using haematoxylin and eosin staining were made of biopsied specimens. Analyzed ECS images were compared with the corresponding histological examinations. In normal bronchial mucosa, ciliated columnar epithelial cells were visible. In bronchial squamous dysplasia, superficial cells with abundant cytoplasm were arranged regularly. In squamous cell carcinoma, large, polymorphic tumor cells showed increased cellular densities with irregular stratified patterns. These ECS images corresponded well with the light-microscopic examination of conventional histology. ECS was useful for the discrimination between normal bronchial epithelial cells and dysplastic cells or malignant cells during bronchoscopy in real time. This novel technology has an excellent potential to provide in vivo diagnosis during bronchoscopic examinations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bronchial artery embolization for therapy of pulmonary bleeding in patients with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalhammer, A.; Jacobi, V.; Balzer, J.; Straub, R.; Vogl, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Acute pulmonary emergencies in patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) can be found in cases of pneumothorax as well as hemoptysis. If the bleeding cannot be stopped by conservative methods, an embolization of the bronchial arteries should be done. Materials and Method: 11 patients were embolized using a combination of PVA particles and microcoils. Results: From January 1996 to June 2001 17 bronchial arteries in 11 patients were embolized. 7 patients suffered from chronical hemoptysis, 4 patients had an acute hemoptysis. In 4 patients both sides were embolized, in 3 patients only one side. The remaining 4 patients needed a second intervention, embolizing the other side. The primary embolizated bronchial artery was still closed in all 4 patients. In 1 patient the selective catheterization of a bronchial artery was not successful, thus the embolization could not be carried out. 1 patient died 5 days after the intervention due to a fulminant pneumonia (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) without recurrent bleeding. In two patients atypical branches from intercostal arteries feeding the bronchial arteries were detected and successfully embolized. All patients profited from the therapy, as bleeding could be stopped or at least be reduced. 3 patients suffered from back pain during or after intervention. There were no severe complications like neurological deficiencies or necroses. (orig.) [de

  6. CYTOLOGICAL AND MORPHOMETRIC ESTIMATE OF THE INFLAMMATION AMONG THE CHILDREN, SUFFERING FROM MODERATELY SEVERE BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Dulina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for the new noninvasive and information methods to estimate the intensity of the inflammatory processes during the bronchial asthma is an important task for the modern medicine, pediatrics, in particular. We have examined 20 children, suffering from moderately severe bronchial asthma in remission. patients underwent the induction of the sputum by means of nail hypertonic solution, bronchoscopic examination along with the sampling of the lavage fluid and bronchial biopsy, cytometry of the induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, morphometric examination of the biopsy samples of bronchi walls, determination of the nitric oxide contents in the expired air. We revealed high self descriptiveness of the cytological characteristics of the induced sputum. High percentage of neutrophiles and eosinophiles in the induced sputum disclosed during remission of the bronchial asthma, as well as thickness increase of the basilemma, ratio distortion of the ciliated and cyathiform cells in the favor of the latter, especially along with the high nitric oxide contents in the expired air indicate the continuous persistence in the allergic respiratory inflammation.Key words: induced sputum, bronchial asthma, children.

  7. Application of adjusted subpixel method (ASM) in HRCT measurements of the bronchi in bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincewicz, Grzegorz; Rumiński, Jacek; Krzykowski, Grzegorz

    2012-02-01

    Recently, we described a model system which included corrections of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) bronchial measurements based on the adjusted subpixel method (ASM). To verify the clinical application of ASM by comparing bronchial measurements obtained by means of the traditional eye-driven method, subpixel method alone and ASM in a group comprised of bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals. The study included 30 bronchial asthma patients and the control group comprised of 20 volunteers with no symptoms of asthma. The lowest internal and external diameters of the bronchial cross-sections (ID and ED) and their derivative parameters were determined in HRCT scans using: (1) traditional eye-driven method, (2) subpixel technique, and (3) ASM. In the case of the eye-driven method, lower ID values along with lower bronchial lumen area and its percentage ratio to total bronchial area were basic parameters that differed between asthma patients and healthy controls. In the case of the subpixel method and ASM, both groups were not significantly different in terms of ID. Significant differences were observed in values of ED and total bronchial area with both parameters being significantly higher in asthma patients. Compared to ASM, the eye-driven method overstated the values of ID and ED by about 30% and 10% respectively, while understating bronchial wall thickness by about 18%. Results obtained in this study suggest that the traditional eye-driven method of HRCT-based measurement of bronchial tree components probably overstates the degree of bronchial patency in asthma patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of adjusted subpixel method (ASM) in HRCT measurements of the bronchi in bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincewicz, Grzegorz; Rumiński, Jacek; Krzykowski, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently, we described a model system which included corrections of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) bronchial measurements based on the adjusted subpixel method (ASM). Objective: To verify the clinical application of ASM by comparing bronchial measurements obtained by means of the traditional eye-driven method, subpixel method alone and ASM in a group comprised of bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals. Methods: The study included 30 bronchial asthma patients and the control group comprised of 20 volunteers with no symptoms of asthma. The lowest internal and external diameters of the bronchial cross-sections (ID and ED) and their derivative parameters were determined in HRCT scans using: (1) traditional eye-driven method, (2) subpixel technique, and (3) ASM. Results: In the case of the eye-driven method, lower ID values along with lower bronchial lumen area and its percentage ratio to total bronchial area were basic parameters that differed between asthma patients and healthy controls. In the case of the subpixel method and ASM, both groups were not significantly different in terms of ID. Significant differences were observed in values of ED and total bronchial area with both parameters being significantly higher in asthma patients. Compared to ASM, the eye-driven method overstated the values of ID and ED by about 30% and 10% respectively, while understating bronchial wall thickness by about 18%. Conclusions: Results obtained in this study suggest that the traditional eye-driven method of HRCT-based measurement of bronchial tree components probably overstates the degree of bronchial patency in asthma patients.

  9. Tungsten-induced carcinogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laulicht, Freda; Brocato, Jason; Cartularo, Laura; Vaughan, Joshua; Wu, Feng; Kluz, Thomas; Sun, Hong [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States); Oksuz, Betul Akgol [Genome Technology Center, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Shen, Steven [Center for Health Informatics and Bioinformatics, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Peana, Massimiliano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Costa, Max, E-mail: Max.Costa@nyumc.org [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Metals such as arsenic, cadmium, beryllium, and nickel are known human carcinogens; however, other transition metals, such as tungsten (W), remain relatively uninvestigated with regard to their potential carcinogenic activity. Tungsten production for industrial and military applications has almost doubled over the past decade and continues to increase. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate tungsten's ability to induce carcinogenic related endpoints including cell transformation, increased migration, xenograft growth in nude mice, and the activation of multiple cancer-related pathways in transformed clones as determined by RNA sequencing. Human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) exposed to tungsten developed carcinogenic properties. In a soft agar assay, tungsten-treated cells formed more colonies than controls and the tungsten-transformed clones formed tumors in nude mice. RNA-sequencing data revealed that the tungsten-transformed clones altered the expression of many cancer-associated genes when compared to control clones. Genes involved in lung cancer, leukemia, and general cancer genes were deregulated by tungsten. Taken together, our data show the carcinogenic potential of tungsten. Further tests are needed, including in vivo and human studies, in order to validate tungsten as a carcinogen to humans. - Highlights: • Tungsten (W) induces cell transformation and increases migration in vitro. • W increases xenograft growth in nude mice. • W altered the expression of cancer-related genes such as those involved in leukemia. • Some of the dysregulated leukemia genes include, CD74, CTGF, MST4, and HOXB5. • For the first time, data is presented that demonstrates tungsten's carcinogenic potential.

  10. Use of food waste as fish feeds: effects of prebiotic fibers (inulin and mannanoligosaccharide) on growth and non-specific immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Wing Y; Cheng, Zhang; Choi, Wai M; Lun, Clare H I; Man, Yu B; Wong, James T F; Chen, Xun W; Lau, Stanley C K; Wong, Ming H

    2015-11-01

    The effects of inulin and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the growth performance and non-specific immunity of grass carp were studied. Two doses of prebiotic fiber with 0.2 or 2% of the fibers are being mixed into fish feed pellets. Fish growth as well as selected non-specific immune parameters of grass carp were tested in a feeding trial, which lasted for 8 weeks. Fish was fed at 2.5% body mass per day. INU02, INU2, and MOS2 significantly improved relative weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, and food conversion ratio of grass carp fed with food waste-based diet. In terms of non-specific immune response, grass carp showed significant improvement in all three tested parameters (total serum immunoglobin, bactericidal activity, and anti-protease activity). Adding 2% of inulin (INU2) into food waste diets seemed to be more preferable than other supplemented experimental diets (INU02, MOS02, MOS2), as it could promote growth of grass carp as well as improving the non-specific immune systems of grass carp.

  11. A new non-specificity measure in evidence theory based on belief intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yi; Han Deqiang; Jean Dezert

    2016-01-01

    In the theory of belief functions, the measure of uncertainty is an important concept, which is used for representing some types of uncertainty incorporated in bodies of evidence such as the discord and the non-specificity. For the non-specificity part, some traditional measures use for reference the Hartley measure in classical set theory;other traditional measures use the simple and heuristic function for joint use of mass assignments and the cardinality of focal elements. In this paper, a new non-specificity measure is proposed using lengths of belief intervals, which represent the degree of imprecision. Therefore, it has more intuitive physical meaning. It can be proved that our new measure can be rewritten in a general form for the non-specificity. Our new measure is also proved to be a strict non-specificity measure with some desired properties. Numerical examples, simulations, the related analyses and proofs are provided to show the characteristics and good properties of the new non-specificity definition. An example of an application of the new non-specificity measure is also presented.

  12. Characterization and antifungal properties of wheat nonspecific lipid transfer proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin-Yue; Gaudet, Denis A; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Frick, Michele; Puchalski, Byron; Laroche, André

    2008-03-01

    This study simultaneously considered the phylogeny, fatty acid binding ability, and fungal toxicity of a large number of monocot nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (ns-LTP). Nine novel full-length wheat ns-LTP1 clones, all possessing coding sequences of 348 bp, isolated from abiotic- and biotic-stressed cDNA libraries from aerial tissues, exhibited highly conserved coding regions with 78 to 99 and 71 to 100% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two major ns-LTP families in wheat. Eight wheat ns-LTP genes from different clades were cloned into the expression vector pPICZalpha and transformed into Pichia pastoris. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, and in vitro lipid binding activity assay confirmed that the eight ns-LTP were all successfully expressed and capable of in vitro binding fatty acid molecules. A comparative in vitro study on the toxicity of eight wheat ns-LTP to mycelium growth or spore germination of eight wheat pathogens and three nonwheat pathogens revealed differential toxicities among different ns-LTP. Values indicating 50% inhibition of fungal growth or spore germination of three selected ns-LTP against six fungi ranged from 1 to 7 microM. In vitro lipid-binding activity of ns-LTP was not correlated with their antifungal activity. Using the fluorescent probe SYTOX Green as an indicator of fungal membrane integrity, the in vitro toxicity of wheat ns-LTP was associated with alteration in permeability of fungal membranes.

  13. Nonspecific abdominal pain in pediatric primary care: evaluation and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Elizabeth M; Fiks, Alexander G

    2015-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of children with nonspecific abdominal pain (AP) in primary care, their evaluation, and their outcomes. Between 2007 and 2009, a retrospective cohort of children from 5 primary care practices was followed from an index visit with AP until a well-child visit 6 to 24 months later (outcome visit). Using International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision (ICD-9), codes and chart review, we identified afebrile children between 4 and 12 years old with AP. Use of diagnostic testing was assessed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the association of index visit clinical and demographic variables with persistent pain at the outcome visit, and receipt of a specific diagnosis. Three hundred seventy-five children presented with AP, representing 1% of the total population of 4- to 12-year-olds during the study period. Eighteen percent of children had persistent pain, and 70% of the study cohort never received a specific diagnosis for their pain. Seventeen percent and 14% of children had laboratory and radiology testing at the index visit, respectively. Only 3% of laboratory evaluations helped to yield a diagnosis. Among variables considered, only preceding pain of more than 7 days at the index visit was associated with persistent pain (odds ratio 2.15, 95% confidence interval 1.19-3.89). None of the variables considered was associated with receiving a specific diagnosis. Most children with AP do not receive a diagnosis, many have persistent pain, and very few receive a functional AP diagnosis. Results support limited use of diagnostic testing and conservative management consistent with national policy statements. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact Assessment of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Organotypic Bronchial Epithelial Tissue Cultures: A Comparison of Mono-Culture and Coculture Model Containing Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Anita R.; Xiang, Yang; Frentzel, Stefan; Talikka, Marja; Leroy, Patrice; Kuehn, Diana; Guedj, Emmanuel; Martin, Florian; Mathis, Carole; Ivanov, Nikolai V.; Peitsch, Manuel C.; Hoeng, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Organotypic 3D cultures of epithelial cells are grown at the air–liquid interface (ALI) and resemble the in vivo counterparts. Although the complexity of in vivo cellular responses could be better manifested in coculture models in which additional cell types such as fibroblasts were incorporated, the presence of another cell type could mask the response of the other. This study reports the impact of whole cigarette smoke (CS) exposure on organotypic mono- and coculture models to evaluate the relevancy of organotypic models for toxicological assessment of aerosols. Two organotypic bronchial models were directly exposed to low and high concentrations of CS of the reference research cigarette 3R4F: monoculture of bronchial epithelial cells without fibroblasts (BR) and coculture with fibroblasts (BRF) models. Adenylate kinase (AK)-based cytotoxicity, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1/1B1 activity, tissue histology, and concentrations of secreted mediators into the basolateral media, as well as transcriptomes were evaluated following the CS exposure. The results demonstrated similar impact of CS on the AK-based cytotoxicity, CYP1A1/1B1 activity, and tissue histology in both models. However, a greater number of secreted mediators was identified in the basolateral media of the monoculture than in the coculture models. Furthermore, annotation analysis and network-based systems biology analysis of the transcriptomic profiles indicated a more prominent cellular stress and tissue damage following CS in the monoculture epithelium model without fibroblasts. Finally, our results indicated that an in vivo smoking-induced xenobiotic metabolism response of bronchial epithelial cells was better reflected from the in vitro CS-exposed coculture model. PMID:26085348

  15. Changes in Hematological, Biochemical and Non-specific Immune Parameters of Olive Flounder, , Following Starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hyun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Triplicate groups of fed and starved olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (body weight: 119.8±17.46 g, were examined over 42 days for physiological changes using hematological, biochemical, and non-specific immune parameters. No significant differences in concentrations of blood hemoglobin and hematocrit and plasma levels of total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, and cortisol were detected between fed and starved groups at any sampling time throughout the experiment. In contrast, plasma total protein concentrations were significantly lower in starved fish than in fed fish from day 7 onwards. Moreover, plasma lysozyme concentrations were significantly higher in starved flounder from day 21 onwards. This result confirms that the response of olive flounder to short-term (less than about 1.5 months starvation consists of a readjustment of metabolism rather than the activation of an alarm-stress response. The present results indicate that starvation does not significantly compromise the health status of fish despite food limitation.

  16. Measles, immune suppression and vaccination: direct and indirect nonspecific vaccine benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    The measles virus is among the most transmissible viruses known to infect humans. Prior to measles vaccination programs, measles infected over 95% of all children and was responsible for over 4 million deaths each year. Measles vaccination programs have been among the greatest public health achievements reducing, eliminating endemic measles in the whole of the Americas and across much of the globe. Where measles vaccines are introduced, unexpectedly large reductions in all-cause childhood mortality have been observed. These gains appear to derive in part from direct heterologous benefits of measles vaccines that enhance innate and adaptive immune responses. Additionally, by preventing measles infections, vaccination prevents measles-associated short- and long-term immunomodulating effects. Before vaccination, these invisible hallmarks of measles infections increased vulnerability to non-measles infections in nearly all children for weeks, months, or years following acute infections. By depleting measles incidence, vaccination has had important indirect benefits to reduce non-measles mortality. Delineating the relative importance of these two modes of survival benefits following measles vaccine introduction is of critical public health importance. While both support continued unwavering global commitments to measles vaccination programs until measles eradication is complete, direct heterologous benefits of measles vaccination further support continued commitment to measles vaccination programs indefinitely. We discuss what is known about direct and indirect nonspecific measles vaccine benefits, and their implications for continued measles vaccination programs. © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. IL-17A induces Pendrin expression and chloride-bicarbonate exchange in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M Adams

    Full Text Available The epithelium plays an active role in the response to inhaled pathogens in part by responding to signals from the immune system. Epithelial responses may include changes in chemokine expression, increased mucin production and antimicrobial peptide secretion, and changes in ion transport. We previously demonstrated that interleukin-17A (IL-17A, which is critical for lung host defense against extracellular bacteria, significantly raised airway surface pH in vitro, a finding that is common to a number of inflammatory diseases. Using microarray analysis of normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE cells treated with IL-17A, we identified the electroneutral chloride-bicarbonate exchanger Pendrin (SLC26A4 as a potential mediator of this effect. These data were verified by real-time, quantitative PCR that demonstrated a time-dependent increase in Pendrin mRNA expression in HBE cells treated with IL-17A up to 48 h. Using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, we confirmed that Pendrin protein expression is increased in IL-17 treated HBE cells and that it is primarily localized to the mucosal surface of the cells. Functional studies using live-cell fluorescence to measure intracellular pH demonstrated that IL-17A induced chloride-bicarbonate exchange in HBE cells that was not present in the absence of IL-17A. Furthermore, HBE cells treated with short interfering RNA against Pendrin showed substantially reduced chloride-bicarbonate exchange. These data suggest that Pendrin is part of IL-17A-dependent epithelial changes and that Pendrin may therefore be a therapeutic target in IL-17A-dependent lung disease.

  18. Vitamin D and Bronchial Asthma: An Overview of Data From the Past 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sannette C; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin D is a potent immunomodulator capable of dampening inflammatory signals in several cell types involved in the asthmatic response. Its deficiency has been associated with increased inflammation, exacerbations, and overall poor outcomes in patients with asthma. Given the increase in the prevalence of asthma over the past few decades, there has been enormous interest in the use of vitamin D supplementation as a potential therapeutic option. Here, we critically reviewed the most recent findings from in vitro studies, animal models, and clinical trials regarding the role of vitamin D in treating bronchial asthma. Using the key terms [Vitamin D, asthma, clinical trials, in vivo and in vitro studies], the [PubMed, Google Scholar] databases were searched for [clinical trials, original research articles, meta-analyses, and reviews], English-language articles published from [2012] to the present. Articles that were [Articles that did not meet these criteria were excluded] excluded from the analysis. Several studies have found that low serum levels of vitamin D (vitamin D may ameliorate several hallmark features of asthma. However, the findings obtained from clinical trials are controversial and do not unequivocally support a beneficial role of vitamin D in asthma. Largely, interventional studies in children, pregnant women, and adults have primarily found little to no effect of vitamin D supplementation on improved asthma symptoms, onset, or progression of the disease. This could be related to the severity of the disease process and other confounding factors. Despite the conflicting data obtained from clinical trials, vitamin D deficiency may influence the inflammatory response in the airways. Further studies are needed to determine the exact mechanisms by which vitamin D supplementation may induce antiinflammatory effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacogenetic Aspects of Airways’ Obstruction Relief Therapy of Bronchial Asthma Attacks in Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Mikaluk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available On the base of a complex examination of 215 schoolchildren who suffer bronchial asthma, there have been established that clinical manifestations of severity of bronchial obstructive syndrome during disease exacerbation do not depend on acetylating status. However, a homozygosity on both alleles of the glutathione transferase gene (GSTT1+M1+ has been connected to greater severity of asthma attacks, while a lack of the T-allele in children with slow acetylating phenotype has been associated with more frequent use of systemic corticosteroids and somewhat better results of airways obstruction relief therapy. Occurrence of GSTT1+M1+ genotype in patients with accelerated processes of acetylation significantly increased the risk of the inefficiency of bronchial obstruction relief therapy (odds ratio 12.4, relative risk — 6.4, the absolute risk — 50 %.

  20. Dysfunction of Right Heart in Attack Period of Bronchial Asthma in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.А. Kondratiev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There were performed Doppler echocardiography investigations of functional state of the right heart in 42 children aged 5–17 years old in attack period of bronchial asthma of moderate to severe degree. Changes of intra-cardiac hemodynamics of the right heart in children in attack period of bronchial asthma were characterized by disturbance of systolic and diastolic function of the right ventricle and right atrium. Combined systolic-diastolic variant of the right ventricle dysfunction was typical for attack period of bronchial asthma in children and developed in 95.5 % of cases. Elevation of pressure in pulmonary artery was typical and significantly more often occurred in severe asthma attack, herewith pulmonary hypertension of the second degree predominated.

  1. Determination of blood ET-1 and related cytokines in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jiangang; Ling Wanli; Ma Yunbao; Zhang Xiaoyi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the role of endothelin and related cytokines (IL-5, IL-6, IL-8) in the development of bronchial asthma in pediatric patients. Methods: Plasma ET-1 (with RIA) and serum IL-5 (with ELISA), IL-6, IL-8 (with RIA) levels were measured in 42 pediatric patients with bronchial asthma and 30 controls. Results: The plasma ET-1 levels in the patients during acute attack (n=22) were significantly higher than those in patients during remission (n=20) as well as in controls (P 0.05). Levels of ET-1 were positively correlated with those of IL-5 (during attack, r=0.560, P<0.01; during remission, r=0.435, P<0.01). Conclusion: ET and the cytokines IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 participated in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma through different mechanisms and dynamic determination of which could reflect the progression of the disease. (authors)

  2. The Effectiveness of Practicing Pranayama Yoga on Some Respiratory Indicators in Patients Suffering from Bronchial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khue Ai Thi HOANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is considered as a large burden of disease cross the world wasting billions of dollars each year. Using drug for treatment is not only expensive but also causes many adverse health affect. The study aim s to assess the effects of pranayama yoga practice on lung functions in patients with bronchial diseases. This is a controlled trial study. After three months of yoga practice, breath indicators such as FVC, FEV 1, FEV1/FVC, PEFR of intervention group sign ificantly improved with p value < .01 to .001 in comparison wi th the previous three months of the control group. Practicing pranayama yoga is beneficial to patients with bronchial asthma.

  3. Morphological Analysis of Bronchial Arteries and Variants with Computed Tomography Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nallely Esparza-Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of anatomical variants of bronchial arteries using computed tomographic angiography in a population of northeastern Mexico. An observational, transversal, descriptive, comparative, retrospective study was performed using 139 imaging studies of Mexican patients in which we evaluated the following parameters from the left and right bronchial arteries: artery origin, branching pattern, arterial ostium, vertebral level of origin, diameter, and mediastinal trajectory. The anatomies of the bronchial arteries were similar in both genders, except distribution for vertebral origin level (p  0.006 and the diameter (p  0.013. Left and right arteries were similar, except for the mediastinal trajectory in reference to the esophagus (p<0.001 as well as the arterial diameter (p<0.001 and lumen diameter.

  4. Proinflammatory effects and oxidative stress within human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM>2.5) collected from Cotonou, Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachon, Boris Fresnel; Firmin, Stéphane; Verdin, Anthony; Ayi-Fanou, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    After particulate matter (PM) collection in Cotonou (Benin), a complete physicochemical characterization of PM 2.5 and PM >2.5 was led. Then, their adverse health effects were evaluated by using in vitro culture of human lung cells. BEAS-2B (bronchial epithelial cells) were intoxicated during short-term exposure at increasing PM concentrations (1.5–96 μg/cm 2 ) to determine global cytotoxicity. Hence, cells were exposed to 3 and 12 μg/cm 2 to investigate the potential biological imbalance generated by PM toxicity. Our findings showed the ability of both PM to induce oxidative stress and to cause inflammatory cytokines/chemokines gene expression and secretion. Furthermore, PM were able to induce gene expression of enzymes involved in the xenobiotic metabolism pathway. Strong correlations between gene expression of metabolizing enzymes, proinflammatory responses and cell cycle alteration were found, as well as between proinflammatory responses and cell viability. Stress oxidant parameters were highly correlated with expression and protein secretion of inflammatory mediators. Highlights: • The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic potential of collected particles. • Toxicological effects were determined by using human bronchial epithelial cells. • Both particles induced oxidative stress, proinflammatory response and cell alterations. • Metabolizing enzymes were linked to proinflammatory responses and cell alterations. • Oxidative stress was highly correlated to the proinflammatory mediators. -- This study evidences the toxic potential of African fine and coarse particulate matters on respiratory epithelial cells

  5. Study of effect of inhaled versus oral corticosteroids on sputum granzyme B in patients with moderate persistent bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa K. Shoeib

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Granzyme B levels are elevated in bronchial asthma. Granzyme B could play a role in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Both inhaled and oral corticosteroids lowered granzyme B levels significantly. The lowering effect of inhaled corticosteroids on sputum granzyme B is more than that of the oral corticosteroids.

  6. Techniques in human airway inflammation - Quantity and morphology of bronchial biopsy specimens taken by forceps of three sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleva, RM; Kraan, J; Smith, M; ten Hacken, NHT; Postma, DS; Timens, W

    Background: In recent years, fiberoptic bronchoscopy has been introduced successfully in the research of bronchial asthma. Bronchial biopsy specimens obtained by this procedure are small, and an optimal biopsy technique is necessary to obtain high-quality tissue samples, as sufficient length of

  7. MODERN ASPECTS OF THE COMBINED PATHOLOGY: BRONCHIAL ASTHMA AND DISEASES OF THE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT SEGMENTS AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Arshba

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the combined pathology in childhood, namely a combination of bronchial asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease. The authors highlighted the key theories of the disease etiopathogenesis under alternating environmental conditions. They also highlighted the results of their own studies.Key words: bronchial asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease, children.

  8. Chronic recurrent hemoptysis: effectiveness of bronchial artery embolization in 25 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Ik; Shim, Hyung Jin; Wang, Chi Hyung; Hyun, Yu; Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Young Goo; Kim, Kun Sang [Chungang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-15

    Bronchial artery embolization has been effective in the treatment of massive hemoptysis. The purpose of this study was to report the effectiveness of bronchial artery embolization in patients with chronic recurrent hemoptysis intractable to medical treatment. This study included 25 patients who were admitted for treatment of chronic recurrent hemoptysis with bronchial artery embolization. Chronic recurrent hemoptysis was defined as condition in tractable to medical treatment persistently and occurring over two times per two months The target vessels for embolization were selected in consideration of the results of aortography as well as the finding of chest radiography and bronchoscopy. After selective arteriography for embolization by using 5-French Simmons catheter, embolic agents(mainly polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) and additionally gelfoam and coils) were released through the catheter. The results of the embolization were assessed with review of medical records. The cases of the hemoptysis were pulmonary tuberculosis(n=12.48%), bronchiectasis(n=6.24%), aspergilloma(n=3.12%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(n=2.8%), chronic bronchitis(n=1.4%) and lung abscess(n=1.4%). Selective embolization was carried out in 49 sites(42 in bronchial artery and 7 in nonbronchial systemic collaterals). Early success rate within 2 months was 96%. After long-term follow up study (6-30 months, average 15 months), complete remission was 72%, partial remission 12% and recurrence 12% respectively. During and after embolization, major complications such as spinal cord injury or bronchial wall necrosis was not found. Minor complications were chest pain, shoulder pain and chilling sense, which were relieved spontaneously within a few days. High success rate and relatively low recurrence with no significant complication were achieved with bronchial artery embolization in the patients complaining of chronic recurrent hemoptysis.

  9. INTERMITTENT HYPOBARIC HYPOXIC STIMULATION IN TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA AT THE PERIOD OF REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D. Alemanova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is one of the widespread chronic diseases of lungs. Immune mechanisms of disorder are one of the causes which lead to pathologic changes in lungs. The aim: to determine the clinical and immunologic effectiveness of pressure adaptation to the periodical hypobaric hypoxic stimulation of treatment of children with bronchial asthma of prepubertal and pubertal periods. In the present work there were observed the clinical and immunologic parameters of 129 children with the verified atopic bronchial asthma of different degree at the remission period before and after the course of pressure adaptation to the periodical hypobaric hypoxic stimulation in conditions of the medical hypobaric pressure chamber with many seats «Ural'1». Clinic effectiveness of hypobaric hypoxic stimulation revealed in continuation of remissions and diminishing of total numerical score of asthma degree. The positive dynamic indexes of cytokine profile was observed. It revealed in reduction of IL 1_, IL 4, IL 5, IL 18 levels and stimulated production of IFN - in blood serum. The course of hypobaric hypoxic stimulation has the positive impact on the named indexes of the patients with bronchial asthma and its intensity depends on the degree of disease and of the age of the child' patient. Thus the use of pressure adaptation to the periodical hypobaric hypoxic stimulation in treatment of children's with bronchial asthma led to the immunologic positive dynamics, especially of the children of prepubertal period. Determination of the immunologic indexes and the level of the cytokines can be used as the additional tests for the evaluation of the effectiveness of pressure adaptation to the periodical hypobaric hypoxic stimulation of children.Key words: bronchial asthma, periodical hypobaric hypoxic stimulation, cytokines, children.

  10. Establishment and bronchial arteriography of the models of canine lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xicai; Wang Xiaodong; Li Bin; Shi Jianguang; Liu Yong; Xu Nanxun; Ma Weijun; Yang Haixian; Bai Jingwen; Li Weidong; Liu Shuping; Liu Anpu

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the establishment and bronchial arteriography of the models of canine lung cancer, and to facilitate further diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Methods: Twenty-two dogs were respectively administrated with 3 ml suspension of lipiodol-ultrafluid mixed with 3- methylcholanthrene (MCA) and diethylnitrosamine (DEN). The suspension was injected into the diaphragmic lobe of right lung with the co-axial catheter through endotracheal intubation. The dogs were randomly divided into 5 groups, group A (4 dogs), B (4), C (4), D (5), and E (5), which were sacrificed after observation for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Then the image analysis and histopathologic examinations were carried out at different period. 5 dogs in group E were examined by bronchial arteriography. Results: Peribronchiolitis and atelectasis appeared at early stage (one month). Chronic granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis of lung tissue were gradually formed after 3 months. Proliferation of stem cells in bronchioles and atypical hyperplasia were found from 6 to 12 months. At last, the squamous carcinoma and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma were induced after 18 months. The lung cancer and precancerous lesion were found in 4 of 5 dogs at the 18 th month. The bronchial arteriography in the 5 dogs showed that 3 bronchial arteries were found as the supplying blood artery to the tumor. Conclusion: The suspension of lipiodol-ultrafluid mixed with MCA and DEN was exactly injected with the co-axial catheter through endotracheal intubation to establish the models of canine lung cancer. The inducible rate of the method was high and the location of lung cancer was accurate. It was affirmed that the blood supply artery of canine lung cancer was bronchial artery. Bronchial arteriography was of momentous significance to the diagnosis of early lung cancer. The establishment of the models of canine lung cancer was significant in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. The models

  11. Isolated bronchial artery involvement by polyarteritis nodosa presenting as hemoptysis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Su Rin; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Lee, Kwang Hoon [Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis that involves medium- and small-sized arteries. PAN may affect any organ, and the presenting symptom of PAN varies depending on the organs affected. However, PAN generally spares the lung; thus, a report of PAN involving the bronchial artery is extremely rare, and hemoptysis has not been reported as the sole presenting symptom. Here, we report the case of a 39-year-old woman with hemoptysis who was diagnosed with PAN involving only the bronchial artery by angiography without involvement of the visceral arteries. Details of this case and a literature review are presented.

  12. Refined staging in hilar bronchial neoplasms with ECG-gated multislice-CT. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlmann, S.; Daliri, A.; Froelich, J.J.; Nowak, R.; Michulla, R.

    2008-01-01

    Equivocal initial CT-based staging in 2 patients with hilar bronchial neoplasms was reassessed with retrospective ECG-gated Multislice-CT and optimized examination parameters prior to definition of treatment. An initially suspected irresectable T 4 tumor with mediastinal infiltration was downstaged to T 2 in one case, while tumor infiltration into the left atrium could be confirmed in the other case. In doubtful conditions, ECG-gated multislice CT with optimized examination parameters may be helpful for refined staging in patients with hilar bronchial neoplasma, thus possibly influencing treatment strategies. (orig.)

  13. Local deposition patterns of inhaled radon progeny in human bronchial airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heistracher, T.; Hofmann, W.; Balashazy, I.

    1996-01-01

    The local distribution of radon decay products deposited within bronchial bifurcations, particularly the formation of hot spots, may be more relevant for the determination of cellular doses in bronchial tissue than the commonly computed deposition efficiency, which is conceptually equivalent to the assumption of a uniform nuclide distribution. It is well known that the initial states of lung cancer in humans preferably occur in upper airways close to the cardinal location. In this study we use a recently developed geometric approach of a physiologically realistic bifurcation to demonstrate the site sensitivity of radon progeny deposition for two particle sizes, which are representative of the unattached and attached fraction of radon progeny

  14. Bronchial asthma: correlation of high resolution computerized tomography findings with clinical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogami, Roberto; Marchiori, Edson; Kirk, Kennedy; Capone, Domenico; Daltro, Pedro

    1999-01-01

    In this work we did a sectional study of 31 asthmatic patients with several levels of disease severity, which were submitted to high resolution computed tomography of the thorax and spirometry, between the months of July, 1995 and August, 1997. The tomographic findings were correlated with the clinical classification of the patients and the most frequent tomographic findings were bronchial wall thickening, bronchial dilatation, air trapping, centrilobular opacities, cicatricial linear shadows, mucoid impaction, emphysema and atelectasis. In asthmatic patients of long duration we observed small airway disease and irreversible lesions as the predominant findings. In smoking patients there was no high frequency of emphysema. (author)

  15. MRI assessment of bronchial compression in absent pulmonary valve syndrome and review of the syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taragin, Benjamin H.; Berdon, Walter E.; Prinz, B.

    2006-01-01

    Absent pulmonary valve syndrome (APVS) is a rare cardiac malformation with massive pulmonary insufficiency that presents with short-term and long-term respiratory problems secondary to severe bronchial compression from enlarged central and hilar pulmonary arteries. Association with chromosome 22.Q11 deletions and DiGeorge syndrome is common. This historical review illustrates the airway disease with emphasis on assessment of the bronchial compression in patients with persistent respiratory difficulties post-valvular repair. Cases that had MRI for cardiac assessment are used to illustrate the pattern of airway disease. (orig.)

  16. Anterior infradiaphragmatic free gas following bronchial rupture: case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Eamon; Chapeikin, Gavin

    2004-01-01

    Bronchial rupture is an uncommon injury that presents clinically and radiologically with tension or non-tension pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema caused by air leak and migration of free gas. Infradiaphragmatic gas has previously been demonstrated in mechanically ventilated patients with pneumomediastinum and is secondary to passage of air via anterior and posterior trans-diaphragmatic pathways. We present a case of bronchial rupture complicated by extensive infradiaphragmatic gas following mechanical ventilation that illustrates these pathways and some of the major radiographic signs associated with this injury Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  17. Cushing's like syndrome in typical bronchial carcinoid a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedicelli, Ilaria; Patriciello, Giuseppina; Scala, Giovanni; Sorrentino, Antonietta; Gravino, Gennaro; Patriciello, Pasquale; Zeppa, Pio; Di Crescenzo, Vincenzo; Vatrella, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome occurred in 1-5% of cases of bronchial carcinoids. In this paper we describe a case of typical bronchial carcinoid in a nonsmoker young male with clinical manifestations mimicking a Cushing's syndrome. The patient performed chest radiograph and computed tomography. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed the presence of an endobronchial mass occluding the bronchus intermedius. A rigid bronchoscopy was necessary for the conclusive diagnosis and for partial resection of the intraluminal tumor. Despite of the presence of Cushingoid features, the normal blood levels of ACTH and cortisol excluded the coexistence of a Cushing's syndrome. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Left bronchial artery arising from a replaced left hepatic artery in a patient with massive hemoptysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khil, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jae Myung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    A 70-year-old man with a 3-year history of bronchiectasis presented with massive hemoptysis that had lasted for 3 days. In our attempt to perform bronchial artery embolization, upper abdominal angiography was required to locate the left bronchial artery, which in this case was of anomalous origin, arising from a replaced left hepatic artery, which arose from the left gastric artery-a very unusual anatomical variant. We performed embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles, and the patient's symptoms resolved completely, with no additional complications after conservative treatment.

  19. Radioimmunological allergy diagnostics in infants suffering from asthmatoid bronchitis, bronchial asthma, and hay fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siafarikas, K.; Glaubitt, D.; Wanzeck, E.; Staedtische Krankenanstalten Krefeld

    1975-01-01

    The occurence of circulating specific antibodies against milk protein, hen protein, fish (cod), against cat, dog and horse epithelium as well as against 2 types of house dust was investigated with 11 children in the age of 1-6 years having asthmatoid bronchitis, 23 children aging from 2-15 years with bronchial asthma and 3 children aging from 6-13 years with hay fever, using the radioallergosorbens test (RAST). Children having asthmatoid bronchitis for the first time exhibited a smaller number and a lesser extent of positive radioallergosorben test results then children with bronchial asthma. The children with hay fever exhibited exclusively negative test results. (orig./LN) [de

  20. Congenital bronchial atresia coexistent with intralobar pulmonary sequestration: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Young Min; Ku, Ja Hong; Lee, Dong Keun; Chung, Kyung Ho; Kim, Chong Soo; Sohn, Myung Hee; Choi, Ki Chul

    1995-01-01

    Bronchial atresia coexistent with intralobar pulmonary sequestration is so rare that only two cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of congential bronchial atresia coexistent with intralobar pulmonary sequestation in a 51-year-old woman. Computed tomography showed the branching mass with hyperinflation of adjacent pulmonary parenchyma in the medial segment of the right middle lobe and a large thin-walled cystic mass with air-fluid levels in the medial basal segment of the right lower lobe. Selective inferior phrenic arteriography showed two aberrant arteries supplying the large cystic mass in the right lower lobe. The venous drainage was through the right pulmonary vein

  1. Congenital bronchial atresia coexistent with intralobar pulmonary sequestration: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Young Min; Ku, Ja Hong; Lee, Dong Keun; Chung, Kyung Ho; Kim, Chong Soo; Sohn, Myung Hee; Choi, Ki Chul [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-15

    Bronchial atresia coexistent with intralobar pulmonary sequestration is so rare that only two cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of congential bronchial atresia coexistent with intralobar pulmonary sequestation in a 51-year-old woman. Computed tomography showed the branching mass with hyperinflation of adjacent pulmonary parenchyma in the medial segment of the right middle lobe and a large thin-walled cystic mass with air-fluid levels in the medial basal segment of the right lower lobe. Selective inferior phrenic arteriography showed two aberrant arteries supplying the large cystic mass in the right lower lobe. The venous drainage was through the right pulmonary vein.

  2. Pain relief is associated with decreasing postural sway in patients with non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhe, Alexander; Fejer, René; Walker, Bruce

    2012-03-21

    Increased postural sway is well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby a linear relationship between higher pain intensities and increasing postural sway has been described. No investigation has been conducted to evaluate whether this relationship is maintained if pain levels change in adults with non-specific low back pain. Thirty-eight patients with non-specific low back pain and a matching number of healthy controls were enrolled. Postural sway was measured by three identical static bipedal standing tasks of 90 sec duration with eyes closed in narrow stance on a firm surface. The perceived pain intensity was assessed by a numeric rating scale (NRS-11). The patients received three manual interventions (e.g. manipulation, mobilization or soft tissue techniques) at 3-4 day intervals, postural sway measures were obtained at each occasion. A clinically relevant decrease of four NRS scores in associated with manual interventions correlated with a significant decrease in postural sway. In contrast, if no clinically relevant change in intensity occurred (≤ 1 level), postural sway remained similar compared to baseline. The postural sway measures obtained at follow-up sessions 2 and 3 associated with specific NRS level showed no significant differences compared to reference values for the same pain score. Alterations in self-reported pain intensities are closely related to changes in postural sway. The previously reported linear relationship between the two variables is maintained as pain levels change. Pain interference appears responsible for the altered sway in pain sufferers. This underlines the clinical use of sway measures as an objective monitoring tool during treatment or rehabilitation.

  3. IL-13 induces a bronchial epithelial phenotype that is profibrotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Bao T

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-13 and mechanical perturbations (e.g. scrape injury to the epithelium release profibrotic factors such as TGF-β2, which may, in turn, stimulate subepithelial fibrosis in asthma. We hypothesized that prolonged IL-13 exposure creates a plastic epithelial phenotype that is profibrotic through continuous secretion of soluble mediators at levels that stimulate subepithelial fibrosis. Methods Normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE were treated with IL-13 (0, 0.1, 1, or 10 ng/ml for 14 days (day 7 to day 21 following seeding at an air-liquid interface during differentiation, and then withdrawn for 1 or 7 days. Pre-treated and untreated NHBE were co-cultured for 3 days with normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF embedded in rat-tail collagen gels during days 22–25 or days 28–31. Results IL-13 induced increasing levels of MUC5AC protein, and TGF-β2, while decreasing β-Tubulin IV at day 22 and 28 in the NHBE. TGF-β2, soluble collagen in the media, salt soluble collagen in the matrix, and second harmonic generation (SHG signal from fibrillar collagen in the matrix were elevated in the IL-13 pre-treated NHBE co-cultures at day 25, but not at day 31. A TGF-β2 neutralizing antibody reversed the increase in collagen content and SHG signal. Conclusion Prolonged IL-13 exposure followed by withdrawal creates an epithelial phenotype, which continuously secretes TGF-β2 at levels that increase collagen secretion and alters the bulk optical properties of an underlying fibroblast-embedded collagen matrix. Extended withdrawal of IL-13 from the epithelium followed by co-culture does not stimulate fibrosis, indicating plasticity of the cultured airway epithelium and an ability to return to a baseline. Hence, IL-13 may contribute to subepithelial fibrosis in asthma by stimulating biologically significant TGF-β2 secretion from the airway epithelium.

  4. Occupational rhinitis and bronchial asthma due to artichoke (Cynara scolymus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Juan-Carlos; García-Sells, Javier; Bartolomé, Borja; Negro, José-María

    2003-07-01

    The artichoke is a perennial horticultural plant that belongs to the Compositae family. To present case studies of 2 vegetable warehouse workers who developed occupational rhinitis and bronchial asthma by sensitization to artichoke. Skin prick tests with common inhalants and foods were performed. Specific IgE to artichoke, Parietaria judaica pollen, and Olea europaea pollen extracts was measured by a specific IgE enzyme immunosorbent assay kit. Molecular mass of the allergens was studied by the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) immunoblotting technique. Patients underwent a nasal challenge test, and one patient provided peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) measurements in her workplace. In both patients, results of skin prick tests to artichoke were positive. Levels of specific IgE for artichoke were 0.68 kU/L in patient 1 and 2.14 kU/L in patient 2. The protein composition of the artichoke extract, studied by SDS-PAGE, showed that most bands ranged from 30 to 14 kDa. The IgE-binding bands with the serum samples of patient 1 showed apparent molecular masses of 56, 48, 38, 31, 27, 25, 16, and 15 kDa; however, the serum samples of patient 2 showed IgE bands of 21 and 19 kDa. Western blotting of artichoke extract showed a complete inhibition of IgE-binding bands when serum samples were preincubated with P. judaica pollen extract. Nasal challenge with artichoke extract triggered a peak nasal inspiratory flow decrease of 81% and 85% in patient 1 and patient 2, respectively. Finally, patient 1 recorded a PEFR decrease of up to 36% after exposure to artichoke in her workplace. SDS-PAGE immunoblotting inhibition performed for the artichoke extract showed a total disappearance of the specific IgE binding bands when serum samples were previously incubated with P. judaica pollen extract, thus establishing the existence of a serologic cross-reactivity between artichoke and P. judaica pollen.

  5. Extensibility and stiffness of the hamstrings in patients with nonspecific low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbertsma, JPK; Goeken, LNH; Hof, AL; Groothoff, JW; Eisma, WH; Göeken, L.N.H.

    Objective: To investigate the extensibility and stiffness of the hamstrings in patients with nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Design: An experimental design. Setting: A university laboratory for human movement analysis in a department of rehabilitation medicine. Participants: Forty subjects, a

  6. Molecular printboards as a general platform for protein immobilization: A supramolecular solution to nonspecific adsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, M.J.W.; Mulder, A.; Tampe, Robert; Reinhoudt, David; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2007-01-01

    Be specific: A supramolecular adsorbate consisting of an adamantyl group (red) and an oligo(ethylene glycol) chain has been designed to prevent nonspecific protein adsorption at cyclodextrin molecular printboards. The adamantyl group allows specific and reversible interactions. Specific

  7. A non-specific biomarker of disease activity in HIV/AIDS patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A general non-specific marker of disease activity that could alert the clinician and prompt further investiga- tion would be of ... laration of Helsinki, the National Health Act and the ..... CD8+ lymphocytes and neopterin are related to.

  8. Non-genomic estrogen regulation of ion transport and airway surface liquid dynamics in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinciane Saint-Criq

    Full Text Available Male cystic fibrosis (CF patients survive longer than females and lung exacerbations in CF females vary during the estrous cycle. Estrogen has been reported to reduce the height of the airway surface liquid (ASL in female CF bronchial epithelium. Here we investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol on the airway surface liquid height and ion transport in normal (NuLi-1 and CF (CuFi-1 bronchial epithelial monolayers. Live cell imaging using confocal microscopy revealed that airway surface liquid height was significantly higher in the non-CF cells compared to the CF cells. 17β-estradiol (0.1-10 nM reduced the airway surface liquid height in non-CF and CF cells after 30 min treatment. Treatment with the nuclear-impeded Estrogen Dendrimer Conjugate mimicked the effect of free estrogen by reducing significantly the airway surface liquid height in CF and non-CF cells. Inhibition of chloride transport or basolateral potassium recycling decreased the airway surface liquid height and 17β-estradiol had no additive effect in the presence of these ion transporter inhibitors. 17β-estradiol decreased bumetanide-sensitive transepithelial short-circuit current in non-CF cells and prevented the forskolin-induced increase in ASL height. 17β-estradiol stimulated an amiloride-sensitive transepithelial current and increased ouabain-sensitive basolateral short-circuit current in CF cells. 17β-estradiol increased PKCδ activity in CF and non-CF cells. These results demonstrate that estrogen dehydrates CF and non-CF ASL, and these responses to 17β-estradiol are non-genomic rather than involving the classical nuclear estrogen receptor pathway. 17β-estradiol acts on the airway surface liquid by inhibiting cAMP-mediated chloride secretion in non-CF cells and increasing sodium absorption via the stimulation of PKCδ, ENaC and the Na(+/K(+ATPase in CF cells.

  9. Heightened bronchial hyperresponsiveness in the absence of heightened atopy in children with current wheezing and low income status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallol, J; Castro-Rodriguez, J A; Cortez, E; Aguirre, V; Aguilar, P; Barrueto, L

    2008-02-01

    Although global studies such as the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) have provided valuable data on the prevalence of asthma in children in Latin America, there is little information on the relationship between asthma symptoms, pulmonary function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and atopy in the region. This study examined the relationship between self-reported wheezing in the past 12 months, pulmonary function, airway responsiveness and atopy in children from a low income population in a neighbourhood of Santiago, Chile. Two random samples (100 each) of children aged 13-14 years who participated in ISAAC phase I were selected according to whether or not they reported wheezing in the past 12 months. Spirometry, the methacholine bronchial challenge test and the prick test were performed in all individuals. Children who reported current wheezing had significantly higher BHR to methacholine compared with those without wheezing (71.6% vs 52.6%; p = 0.007) and no significant difference was found in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (116.7 (12.3)% vs 120.3 (14.5%); p = 0.11). The prevalence of atopy was not significantly different between those children who reported wheezing compared with those who did not (44.2% vs 42.3%; p = 0.89). Multiple regression analysis showed that only BHR to methacholine (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.25 to 4.13; p = 0.01) and maternal asthma (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 8.3, p = 0.03) were significant risk factors for current wheezing. Our results support previous findings suggesting that in adolescents from underprivileged populations, self-reported current wheezing is related to BHR but not to atopy.

  10. Significance of non-specific complaints in asymptomatic cerebral infarction. Approach based on the cerebral circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakayori, Osamu; Kitamura, Shin; Nagazumi, Atsushi; Terashi, Akirou [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Seventy-three cases with asymptomatic cerebral infarction detected by MR scanning and 80 cases of past stroke patients were evaluated. The regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) using the SPECT, idoine-123-IMP autoradiography (ARG) method was measured. Twenty-two patients with non-specific complaints (dizziness, numbness of the extremities, headache, etc.) without cerebrovascular risk factors were also examined as controls. Fifty-two percent of the asymptomatic infarction cases had non-specific complaints. The regional CBF in all cerebral non-specific complaints showed significantly lower values as compared to the controls. There was no difference in CBF values between the asymptomatic infarction cases with non-specific complaints and the past stroke patients. Among the asymptomatic infarction patients, cases with both non-specific complaints and hypertension displayed significantly lower CBF values, especially in the frontal and temporal cortical regions, than did cases without non-specific complaints or hypertension. These findings suggest that the patient`s complaints should be taken into consideration when determining the clinical treatment of asymptomatic infarction. (author)

  11. Exposure to urban PM1 in rats: development of bronchial inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filep, Ágnes; Fodor, Gergely H; Kun-Szabó, Fruzsina; Tiszlavicz, László; Rázga, Zsolt; Bozsó, Gábor; Bozóki, Zoltán; Szabó, Gábor; Peták, Ferenc

    2016-03-10

    Several epidemiological and laboratory studies have evidenced the fact that atmospheric particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of respiratory morbidity. It is well known that the smallest fraction of PM (PM1 - particulate matter having a diameter below 1 μm) penetrates the deepest into the airways. The ratio of the different size fractions in PM is highly variable, but in industrial areas PM1 can be significant. Despite these facts, the health effects of PM1 have been poorly investigated and air quality standards are based on PM10 and PM2.5 (PM having diameters below 10 μm and 2.5 μm, respectively) concentrations. Therefore, this study aimed at determining whether exposure to ambient PM1 at a near alert threshold level for PM10 has respiratory consequences in rats. Rats were either exposed for 6 weeks to 100 μg/m(3) (alert threshold level for PM10 in Hungary) urban submicron aerosol, or were kept in room air. End-expiratory lung volume, airway resistance (Raw) and respiratory tissue mechanics were measured. Respiratory mechanics were measured under baseline conditions and following intravenous methacholine challenges to characterize the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AH). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed and lung histology was performed. No significant differences were detected in lung volume and mechanical parameters at baseline. However, the exposed rats exhibited significantly greater MCh-induced responses in Raw, demonstrating the progression of AH. The associated bronchial inflammation was evidenced by the accumulation of inflammatory cells in BALF and by lung histology. Our findings suggest that exposure to concentrated ambient PM1 (mass concentration at the threshold level for PM10) leads to the development of mild respiratory symptoms in healthy adult rats, which may suggest a need for the reconsideration of threshold limits for airborne PM1.

  12. Serum prolidase activity and oxidative status in patients with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Alpay; Zeyrek, Dost; Atas, Ali; Celik, Hakim; Aksoy, Nurten; Erel, Ozcan

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is a disease where there is an accumulation of collagen in the reticular basal membrane of the airway leading to chronic inflammation. The enzyme prolidase plays an important role in the breakdown of collagen and the breakdown of intracellular protein especially in the final stage when peptides and dipeptides contain a high level of proline. To evaluate the relationship between prolidase activity and oxidative status in asthma patients. Comparison was made between 42 patients diagnosed with bronchial asthma and 32 healthy children of similar age and gender. Serum prolidase activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Oxidative status was determined using total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) measurement. The prolidase activity of the asthma patient group was statistically significant compared with the control group (P< or =0.001). TAC and TOS levels in the asthma patient group were higher than the control group (P< or =0.001, P< or =0.002, respectively). No correlation was found between the prolidase and oxidative levels of the two groups. A positive correlation was determined between the prolidase activity and TAC in the asthma patient group (P< or =0.001, r=0.501). The prolidase enzyme activity, which plays a role in the collagen turnover, was low in the asthma patients; therefore, their collagen metabolism had undergone a change and this indicates that there may be an effect on the accumulation of collagen in the reticular basal membrane. Moreover, the high level of TOS indicates that these patients were exposed to severe oxidative stress with an increased TAC response. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Role of aberrant metalloproteinase activity in the pro-inflammatory phenotype of bronchial epithelium in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postma Dirkje S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoke, the major risk factor for COPD, is known to activate matrix metalloproteinases in airway epithelium. We investigated whether metalloproteinases, particularly A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase (ADAM17, contribute to increased pro-inflammatory epithelial responses with respect to the release of IL-8 and TGF-α, cytokines implicated in COPD pathogenesis. Methods We studied the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE and metalloproteinase inhibitors on TGF-α and IL-8 release in primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs from COPD patients, healthy smokers and non-smokers. Results We observed that TGF-α was mainly shed by ADAM17 in PBECs from all groups. Interestingly, IL-8 production occurred independently from ADAM17 and TGF-α shedding, but was significantly inhibited by broad-spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor TAPI-2. CSE did not induce ADAM17-dependent TGF-α shedding, while it slightly augmented the production of IL-8. This was accompanied by reduced endogenous inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-3 levels, suggesting that CSE does not directly but rather indirectly alter activity of ADAM17 through the regulation of its endogenous inhibitor. Furthermore, whereas baseline TGF-α shedding was lower in COPD PBECs, the early release of IL-8 (likely due to its shedding was higher in PBECs from COPD than healthy smokers. Importantly, this was accompanied by lower TIMP-2 levels in COPD PBECs, while baseline TIMP-3 levels were similar between groups. Conclusions Our data indicate that IL-8 secretion is regulated independently from ADAM17 activity and TGF-α shedding and that particularly its early release is differentially regulated in PBECs from COPD and healthy smokers. Since TIMP-2-sensitive metalloproteinases could potentially contribute to IL-8 release, these may be interesting targets to further investigate novel therapeutic strategies in COPD.

  14. Chronic Recurrent Non-specific Parotitis: A Case Report and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalakshmi, Saibaba; Kandula, Srinivas; Shilpa, Patil; Kokila, Ganganna

    2017-01-01

    Chronic recurrent non-specific parotitis is characterized by recurrent episodes of swelling and pain of unknown etiology in the parotid gland. Sialography is a hallmark in the diagnosis of salivary gland disorders; newer imaging modalities like CT-Sialography, sialoendoscopy and MRI can be used. Various treatment modalities have been tried, from conservative approach to surgical excision depending on the recurrence rate and severity of the condition. Although symptomatic treatment with antibiotics and analgesic, injection of intraductal medicament, aggressive treatment like duct ligation or excision of gland are some of the treatment modalities, there is no established algorithm as to which treatment method should be opted in such clinical situation. A 20 years old male patient reported with pain and salty taste in the mouth that had began before a week. Examination revealed an elevated right parotid papilla; ropy, cloudy appearing saliva was oozing out on milking the gland. Unstimulated and stimulated whole salivary flow rate was assessed using drooling method. Sialography was used as a diagnostic and a therapeutic aid. In our case, sialography as a treatment showed a good response with no recurrence after two years of follow-up. We highlighted the role of sialography as a therapeutic aid. Recurrent attacks significantly affect the quality of life and also lead to progressive gland destruction. Preventing or reducing the frequency of recurrence remains the goal of therapeutic procedure. Hence, conventional sialography is useful in the diagnosis and also effective as a therapeutic aid in recurrent parotitis.

  15. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Gene and Association with Non-specific Digestive Disorder in Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Fu Liu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The NLRP12 (NLR family, pyrin domain containing 12 serves as a suppressor factor in the inflammatory response and protects the host against inflammation-induced damage. In the present study, we aimed to study the polymorphisms of NLRP12 gene and its association with susceptibility to non-specific digestive disorder (NSDD in rabbits. We re-sequenced the entire coding region of the rabbit NLRP12 gene and detected a total of 19 SNPs containing 14 synonymous and five non-synonymous variations. Among them, the coding SNP (c.1682A>G, which would carry a potential functional implication, was subsequently subjected to genotyping for case-control association study (272 cases and 267 controls. The results revealed that allele A was significantly protective against NSDD with an odds ratio value of 0.884 (95% confidence interval, 0.788 to 0.993; p = 0.038. We also experimentally induced NSDD in growing rabbits by feeding a fibre-deficient diet and subsequently investigated NLRP12 mRNA expression. The mRNA expression of NLRP12 in healthy status was significantly higher than that in severe NSDD (p = 0.0016. The highest expression was observed in individuals carrying the protective genotype AA (p = 0.0108. These results suggested that NLRP12 was significantly associated with the NSDD in rabbits. However, the precise molecular mechanism of NLRP12 involving in the development of rabbit NSDD requires further research.

  16. Radiographic and high resolution CT findings of non-specific interstitial pneumonia/fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Satoshi [Tosei General Hospital, Seto, Aichi (Japan); Yokoi, Toyoharu; Suzuki, Ryujiro; Noda, Yasunobu; Kato, Toshiyuki; Kaneko, Michie

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the radiographic and high resolution CT findings in fifteen patients with biopsy proven nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. The most common radiographic findings in NSIP were bilateral infiltrates involving alveolar pattern, interstitial pattern, and mixed alveolar-interstitial pattern, which distributed mainly in the middle and lower lung zones. Loss of lung volumes were common. The predominant findings of linear and reticular opacities on HRCT were peribronchovascular interstitial thickening, parenchymal bands, intralobular interstitial thickening, and traction bronchiectasis. Honeycombing was not noted in any patient on initial CT scans. The predominant findings of increased lung opacity were mixed pattern of ground glass opacity and consolidation. Because these findings mimic those of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia, distinction between NSIP and IPF/UIP seems to be difficult by radiographic and HRCT findings. The response to corticosteroid therapy was good. At follow up HRCT, the pulmonary abnormalities observed on initial scans had disappeared or were diminished in most cases. Intralobular interstitial thickening and traction bronchiectasis, that have been considered to be an indicator of irreversible fibrosis, occasionally disappeared after corticosteroid therapy. (author)

  17. Serial high resolution CT in non-specific interstitial pneumonia: prognostic value of the initial pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Screaton, N.J. [Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: nicholas.screaton@papworth.nhs.uk; Hiorns, M.P. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Lee, K.S. [Samsung Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea); Franquet, T. [Hospital de Saint Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Johkoh, T. [Department of Medical Physics and Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Fujimoto, K. [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Ichikado, K. [First Department of Internal Medicine, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Colby, T.V. [Department of Laboratory Medicine/Pathology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Mueller, N.L. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver (Canada)

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the relationship between initial CT pattern and serial changes in CT findings and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serial high resolution (HR) CTs and PFTs were retrospectively analyzed in 38 cases of histologically proven NSIP, including 4 with cellular NSIP, 13 with mixed cellular and fibrotic NSIP, and 21 with fibrotic NSIP. The presence and extent of various CT findings were assessed. A fibrosis index (defined as the ratio of the extent of a reticular/honeycomb pattern to the overall extent of abnormal parenchyma) was derived. RESULTS: The predominant CT pattern was reticular/honeycomb in 27 (84%) cases and ground-glass/consolidation in 6 (16%) cases. Between scans, mean disease extent reduced by 5.2%. Disease extent reduced by >10% in 13 (34%) and increased by >10% in 6 (16%) patients. Histopathological subtype of NSIP did not correlate with individual CT pattern, predominant pattern, fibrosis index or serial change in disease extent on CT or PFTs. Response on follow-up CT was associated with fibrosis index, predominant pattern and extent of consolidation on initial CT. CONCLUSION: In NSIP disease, progression on CT correlates with the predominant CT pattern, fibrosis index, and extent of consolidation but not with histopathological subtype. An inflammatory (ground-glass/consolidation) predominant pattern is associated with better outcome in terms of disease extent on HRCT.

  18. AIMAR survey on complex forms of bronchial asthma and COPD, their management and perception of critical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Claudio F; Visconti, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The management of patients with complex forms of bronchial asthma and COPD is not usually addressed in the major international guidelines and management documents which exclusively address pure forms. AIMAR thus undertook a survey to obtain information about: a) the perceived frequency of complex forms of asthma/COPD in adult patients and in the elderly; b) patient management regarding the complex forms (focus on therapeutic goals and consequent treatment); c) the management problems perceived in diagnosis, management, monitoring, indices of appropriateness in pharmacological treatment and adherence to treatment. The survey consisted of 18 multiple choice questions, completed by means of a web-based electronic form published in internet. All the data and responses inserted in the system were checked on-line for coherence and completeness directly during the phase of insertion and each participant had one only possibility of participating. The data thus collected were memorized directly within a relational database, based on consolidated open-source MySQL technology, and thus were immediately available for examination also during the course of the survey. Access to the data, mediated by a "back office" system of interrogation and report, enabled constant monitoring of the survey as it was being carried out, as well as extractions and verification, even on smaller data sets. The survey was carried out in the full month of December 2013 and first half of January 2014. A total of 252 questionnaires were collected from the following physician groups: pneumologists (n = 180), general practitioners (GPs) (n = 32), allergologists (n = 8), internal medicine specialists (n = 20), other specialists (n = 12). Complex forms of bronchial asthma and COPD are frequently observed and considered present in variable percentages ranging from about 10% to about 50% of patients visited and considered typical of patients with a previous history of asthma. Risk factors

  19. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in sheep bronchial explants is associated with enhanced ETB receptor-mediate contractile functional and autoradiographic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, L.B.; D'Aprile, A.C.; Betts, R.J.; Goldie, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important precipitant of asthma in children. The impact of RSV infection on endothelin (ET) receptor density and function in airways is unknown. In the present study, sheep bronchial rings were maintained as explants in culture for up to 48 h. During this time, both the structural integrity of the epithelium and carbachol responsiveness were preserved. Bronchial rings in culture were exposed to non-infected culture medium or to RSV (1/50 TCID 50 ) for 0, 24 and 48 h which caused marked damage to and loss of the epithelium. RSV infection did not significantly alter responsiveness to ET-1 at either 24 (Control EC 40 = 102 nM, 95% confidence limits, 76-138 nM vs RSV EC 40 = 66 nM, 95% confidence limits, 48-91 nM, n=5-6, P>0.05) or 48 h (Control EC 40 35 nM, 95% confidence limits, 19-66 nM vs RSV EC 40 = 55 nM, 95% confidence limits, 32-93 nM, n=8, P>0.05). As seen previously (Goldie et al., 1994), sarafotoxin S6c (StxS6c, ET B -selective) did not cause contraction in non-infected sheep bronchial explants. In contrast, StxS6c (300 nM) increased tone by 8±3% carbachol Emax (n=6-8) in explants exposed to RSV for 24 or 48 h. Light microscopic autoradiography was used to determine the relative distribution of ET A and ET B receptors using [ 125 I]-ET-1, BQ-123 (ET A -selective) and StxS6c. Sheep airway smooth muscle contains a homogeneous population of ET A receptors (Goldie et al., 1994). Since StxS6c caused significant contraction in RSV-infected bronchial explants, it was surprising that autoradiographic techniques failed to detect airway smooth muscle ET B receptors in these preparations. It is likely that ET B receptors fell below the level of detection of autoradiography. The significant StxS6c-induced contraction of sheep bronchi suggests the novel expression of ET B receptors triggered by RSV which might be relevant to RSV-associated asthma. Copyright (2001) Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental

  20. Anti-apoptotic effects of Z alpha1-antitrypsin in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, C M

    2010-05-01

    alpha(1)-antitrypsin (alpha(1)-AT) deficiency is a genetic disease which manifests as early-onset emphysema or liver disease. Although the majority of alpha(1)-AT is produced by the liver, it is also produced by bronchial epithelial cells, amongst others, in the lung. Herein, we investigate the effects of mutant Z alpha(1)-AT (ZAAT) expression on apoptosis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) and delineate the mechanisms involved. Control, M variant alpha(1)-AT (MAAT)- or ZAAT-expressing cells were assessed for apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, cell viability, phosphorylation of Bad, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation and induced expression of a selection of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes. Expression of ZAAT in 16HBE14o- cells, like MAAT, inhibited basal and agonist-induced apoptosis. ZAAT expression also inhibited caspase-3 activity by 57% compared with control cells (p = 0.05) and was a more potent inhibitor than MAAT. Whilst ZAAT had no effect on the activity of Bad, its expression activated NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression above control or MAAT-expressing cells. In 16HBE14o- cells but not HEK293 cells, ZAAT upregulated expression of cIAP-1, an upstream regulator of NF-kappaB. cIAP1 expression was increased in ZAAT versus MAAT bronchial biopsies. The data suggest a novel mechanism by which ZAAT may promote human bronchial epithelial cell survival.

  1. Clearance of lead-212 ions from rabbit bronchial epithelium to blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.; Greenhalgh, J.R.; Smith, H.

    1977-01-01

    The absorption of 212 Pb ions from bronchial epithelium to blood has been investigated in anaesthetized rabbits. The 212 Pb ions were introduced by intubation either into the trachea or into smaller, more distal bronchi. Removal from lung was followed by external γ-counting. Mucociliary clearance to the GI tract was blocked by tracheostomy. Two distinct phases of clearance from bronchial epithelium to blood were observed. Approximately 20% of deposited 212 Pb was rapidly absorbed with a half-time of about 4 min, the remainder with a biological half-time of about 9 h, irrespective of the site of instillation in the bronchial tree. Two hours after deposition, the 212 Pb remaining in lung was found to be partitioned between mucus and the bronchial epithelium, with a substantial but minor fraction in the epithelium. Uptake of 212 Pb in the skeleton was estimated to be about 20% of the 212 Pb entering the blood circulation. Removal by the kidneys, at 25%, was comparable with skeletal uptake. These results are compared with previously published work using rodents, dogs and man which demonstrated either rapid or slow absorption but not both phases occurring together. (author)

  2. [Quantitative image analysis in pulmonary pathology - digitalization of preneoplastic lesions in human bronchial epithelium (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, T; Müller, K M; Kämper, H

    1979-01-01

    The report concerns the first phase of a quantitative study of normal and abnormal bronchial epithelium with the objective of establishing the digitalization of histologic patterns. Preparative methods, data collecting and handling, and further mathematical analysis are described. In cluster and discriminatory analysis the digitalized histologic features can be used to separate and classify the individual cases into the respective diagnostic groups.

  3. Incremental yield of bronchial washing for diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Soto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the increased diagnostic yield for pulmonary tuberculosis using bronchial washing cultures compared with sputum cultures. METHODS Study conducted with 61 adults in Lima, Peru, from January 2006 to December 2007. The yield of sputum cultures was compared with the yield of acid-fast bacilli smears and cultures of bronchial washing for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in suspected cases of clinical tuberculosis with negative acid fast bacilli sputum smears. RESULTS Twenty seven (95%CI 32;58 of the cases were eventually diagnosed with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Bronchial washing samples detected 23 (95%CI 72;99 of the smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases compared with 15 (95%CI 37;74 for sputum cultures (p = 0.02. The incremental diagnostic yield of acid fast bacilli smear and culture of bronchial washing specimens over sputum culture was 44% (95%CI 25;65. CONCLUSIONS In function of the epidemiological context and the resources available, bronchoscopy should be deployed as part of a comprehensive work up that optimizes smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis and minimizes risk and costs.

  4. Bronchial thermoplasty: a novel treatment for severe asthma requiring monitored anesthesia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jamille A; Rowen, David W; Rose, David D

    2011-12-01

    Dexmedetomidine used in monitored anesthesia care produces a safe and effective technique well documented in research. We report the successful use of dexmedetomidine for sedation during bronchial thermoplasty, a new treatment for patients with severe persistent asthma refractory to inhaled corticosteroids and long-term beta-2 agonists.

  5. Phenotypes Determined by Cluster Analysis in Moderate to Severe Bronchial Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youroukova, Vania M; Dimitrova, Denitsa G; Valerieva, Anna D; Lesichkova, Spaska S; Velikova, Tsvetelina V; Ivanova-Todorova, Ekaterina I; Tumangelova-Yuzeir, Kalina D

    2017-06-01

    Bronchial asthma is a heterogeneous disease that includes various subtypes. They may share similar clinical characteristics, but probably have different pathological mechanisms. To identify phenotypes using cluster analysis in moderate to severe bronchial asthma and to compare differences in clinical, physiological, immunological and inflammatory data between the clusters. Forty adult patients with moderate to severe bronchial asthma out of exacerbation were included. All underwent clinical assessment, anthropometric measurements, skin prick testing, standard spirometry and measurement fraction of exhaled nitric oxide. Blood eosinophilic count, serum total IgE and periostin levels were determined. Two-step cluster approach, hierarchical clustering method and k-mean analysis were used for identification of the clusters. We have identified four clusters. Cluster 1 (n=14) - late-onset, non-atopic asthma with impaired lung function, Cluster 2 (n=13) - late-onset, atopic asthma, Cluster 3 (n=6) - late-onset, aspirin sensitivity, eosinophilic asthma, and Cluster 4 (n=7) - early-onset, atopic asthma. Our study is the first in Bulgaria in which cluster analysis is applied to asthmatic patients. We identified four clusters. The variables with greatest force for differentiation in our study were: age of asthma onset, duration of diseases, atopy, smoking, blood eosinophils, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs hypersensitivity, baseline FEV1/FVC and symptoms severity. Our results support the concept of heterogeneity of bronchial asthma and demonstrate that cluster analysis can be an useful tool for phenotyping of disease and personalized approach to the treatment of patients.

  6. Bronchial intubation could be detected by the visual stethoscope techniques in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tetsuro; Suzuki, Akira; Mimuro, Soichiro; Makino, Hiroshi; Sato, Shigehito

    2012-12-01

    We created a system that allows the visualization of breath sounds (visual stethoscope). We compared the visual stethoscope technique with auscultation for the detection of bronchial intubation in pediatric patients. In the auscultation group, an anesthesiologist advanced the tracheal tube, while another anesthesiologist auscultated bilateral breath sounds to detect the change and/or disappearance of unilateral breath sounds. In the visualization group, the stethoscope was used to detect changes in breath sounds and/or disappearance of unilateral breath sounds. The distance from the edge of the mouth to the carina was measured using a fiberoptic bronchoscope. Forty pediatric patients were enrolled in the study. At the point at which irregular breath sounds were auscultated, the tracheal tube was located at 0.5 ± 0.8 cm on the bronchial side from the carina. When a detectable change of shape of the visualized breath sound was observed, the tracheal tube was located 0.1 ± 1.2 cm on the bronchial side (not significant). At the point at which unilateral breath sounds were auscultated or a unilateral shape of the visualized breath sound was observed, the tracheal tube was 1.5 ± 0.8 or 1.2 ± 1.0 cm on the bronchial side, respectively (not significant). The visual stethoscope allowed to display the left and the right lung sound simultaneously and detected changes of breath sounds and unilateral breath sound as a tracheal tube was advanced. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Adrenal function in children with bronchial asthma treated with beclomethasone dipropionate or budesonide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Damkjaer Nielsen, M; Andersen, B

    1988-01-01

    The effect of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate and budesonide on the adrenal function was studied in 30 children (aged 7 to 15 years) with mild bronchial asthma. The trial was designed as a prospective double-blind parallel study of the effect of stepwise increase of either beclomethasone dipr...

  8. Horseshoe lung - a case report with unusual bronchial and pleural anomalies and a proposed new classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figa, F.H.; Yoo, S.J.; Burrows, P.E.; Turner-Gomes, S.; Freedom, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    One case of horseshoe lung with associated scimitar syndrome is presented. Unusual bronchial and pleural anomalies as delineated by CT and plain chest radiographic imaging are described. The presence of bilateal fissures led to a newly proposed classification of horseshoe lung based on pleural anatomy. (orig.)

  9. Horseshoe lung - a case report with unusual bronchial and pleural anomalies and a proposed new classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figa, F H [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Division of Cardiology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada); Yoo, S J; Burrows, P E [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Division of Cardiology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada); Turner-Gomes, S [McMaster Univ. Medical Center, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Freedom, R M [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Division of Cardiology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1993-03-01

    One case of horseshoe lung with associated scimitar syndrome is presented. Unusual bronchial and pleural anomalies as delineated by CT and plain chest radiographic imaging are described. The presence of bilateal fissures led to a newly proposed classification of horseshoe lung based on pleural anatomy. (orig.)

  10. Diagnosis of bronchial asthma in sensitization to yeast-like fungus candida ablicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnasheva, R.Kh.; Gumerova, A.M.; Glushko, N.I.; Rakhmatullina, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    The peculiarities of bronchial asthma caused by hypersensitivity to antigens Candida albicans are studied. The allergen Candida albicans developed in the Kazan SIEM is used in the specific diagnosis. The various types of reactions in skin and provocative inhalation tests are analyzed, the role of specific immunoglobulins E is stressed

  11. Identification of PCDH1 as a Novel Susceptibility Gene for Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, Gerard H.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Howard, Timothy D.; Zheng, S. Lilly; Hawkins, Greg A.; Ampleford, Elizabeth J.; Xu, Jianfeng; Koning, Henk; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Nolte, Ilja M.; van Diemen, Cleo C.; Boezen, H. Marike; Timens, Wim; Whittaker, Paul A.; Stine, O. Colin; Bartons, Sheila J.; Holloway, John W.; Holgate, Stephen T.; Graves, Penelope E.; Martinez, Fernando D.; van Oosterhout, Antoon J.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease that affects more than 300 million individuals worldwide. Asthma is caused by interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is a hallmark of asthma and results from increased sensitivity of the airways

  12. Current Approaches to the Choice of Basic Therapy for Mild Persistent Bronchial Asthma in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Nedelska

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions. Leukotrien modifier as monotherapy is indicated to 6–7-year-old children with mild persistent bronchial asthma and serum levels of leukotrienes from 500 to 1000 pg/ml. At the level of leukotrienes below 500 pg/ml it is advisable to administer fluticasone propionate, above 1000 pg/ml — combination of leukotrien modifier and inhaled corticosteroid.

  13. The diagnostic value of CT bronchial sign in peripheral solitary pulmonary lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Pengfei; Xiao Xiangsheng; Liu Shiyuan; Yu Hong; Li Huimin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differential diagnostic values of CT bronchial sign for peripheral solitary pulmonary lesions (SPLs). Methods: One hundred and eleven patients with peripheral SPLs were scanned using multi-slice helical CT (MSCT), and multiplanar reconstruction was performed to show the relationship between the lesion and bronchus, the differences between the benign and malignancy were compared by using chi-square test. Results: Bronchial cutoff rate in malignant lesions (47/95, 49.5%) was markedly higher than that in benign lesions (10/42,23.8%. χ 2 =7.896, P 2 =6.975,4.818, P 2 =7.390,P 2 =0.641,0.062, P>0.05). The focal bronchial wall thickening in malignancy (21/22) was markedly higher than benign lesions (1/22. χ 2 =4.185, P 2 =8.650, P<0.05). Conclusion: CT bronchial sign is very important in the differentiation of benign and malignant pulmonary lesions. (authors)

  14. [Use of drinking mineral waters in children with bronchial asthma and associated biliary tract diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, N V; Chalaia, E N; Demina, S V

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that supplementation of therapy of bronchial asthma in children by mineral water (Essentuki No 4) has marked beneficial effect on the functional activity of digestive organs and the respiratory system. It is recommended that drinking mineral waters be included in the course of the resort-and-spa treatment of such patients.

  15. The high opening of the right bronchial artery with a non-typical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, R; Madej, B; Anasiewicz, A

    1995-01-01

    Authors describing the bronchial vessels agree to the fact that they are characterised by a great variability in regard to their number and the place where they leave aorta (1, 2, 6). The characteristic feature of the right bronchial artery is that it often forms common trunks with other vessels (mainly with the first right aortic intercostal branch or with one of the upper oesophageal arteries). It can also have a common let-out trunk with the left upper bronchial artery (4). Bearing in mind that the operations on trachea and bronchi are difficult, and that it is very important to maintain the blood supply of the walls in the operated organs we have decided to publish our observations. They refer to a case, not described before, in which the right bronchial artery left the aortic arch in a high position making the vascular supply to the front lower half of the trachea and its bifurcation. Then, it went down to the membranous part of the right bronchus.

  16. A solitary bronchial papilloma with unusual endoscopic presentation: case study and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frejeville Marie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solitary endobronchial papillomas (SEP are rare tumors and most of them are described by case report. A misdiagnosis is common with viral related papillomas. A histopathological classification has recently permitted a major advancement in the understanding of the disease. Case Presentation We report a case of a mixed bronchial papilloma with an unusual endoscopic presentation. The literature was extensively reviewed to ascertain the unusual characteristics of the current case. A 39-year of age male was referred to our institution for the investigation of a slight hemoptysis. Routine examination was normal. A fibroscopy revealed an unusual feature of the right main bronchus. The lesion was a plane, non-bleeding, non-glistering sub-mucosal proliferation. No enhanced coloration was noticed. Biopsies revealed a mixed solitary bronchial papilloma. In situ HPV hybridization was negative. Endoscopic treatment (electrocautery was effective with no relapse. Conclusion This lesion contrasts with the data of the literature where papilloma were described as wart-like lesions or cauliflower tumors, with symptoms generally related to bronchial obstruction. We advise chest physicians to be cautious with unusually small swollen lesions of the bronchi that may reveal a solitary bronchial papilloma. Endoscopic imaging can significantly contribute to the difficult diagnosis of SEP by pulmonary physicians and endoscopists.

  17. Bronchial histamine challenge. A combined interrupter-dosimeter method compared with a standard method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlovic, M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Madsen, F

    1985-01-01

    We compared the provocative concentration (PC) values obtained by two different methods of performing bronchial histamine challenge. One test was done on an APTA, an apparatus which allows simultaneous provocation with histamine and measurement of airway resistance (Rtot) by the interrupter metho...

  18. Small airways dysfunction and neutrophilic inflammation in bronchial biopsies and BAL in COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapperre, Thérèse S.; Willems, Luuk N. A.; Timens, Wim; Rabe, Klaus F.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Sterk, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The single-breath N(2) test (sbN(2)-test) is closely related to small airways pathology in resected lung specimens of smokers. We investigated whether uneven ventilation and airway closure are associated with specific markers of airway inflammation as obtained by bronchial biopsies, BAL,

  19. Small airways dysfunction and neutrophilic inflammation in bronchial biopsies and BAL in COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapperre, Therese S.; Willems, Luuk N. A.; Timens, Wim; Rabe, Klaus F.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Sterk, Peter J.

    Background: The single-breath N-2 test (sbN(2)-test) is closely related to small airways pathology in resected lung specimens of smokers. We investigated whether uneven ventilation and airway closure are associated with specific markers of airway inflammation as obtained by bronchial biopsies, BAIL,

  20. Posterior Circulation Stroke After Bronchial Artery Embolization. A Rare but Serious Complication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborda, Alicia; Tejero, Carlos; Fredes, Arturo; Cebrian, Luis; Guelbenzu, Santiago; Gregorio, Miguel Ángel de

    2013-01-01

    Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is the treatment of choice for massive hemoptysis with rare complications that generally are mild and transient. There are few references in the medical literature with acute cerebral embolization as a complication of BAE. We report a case of intracranial posterior territory infarctions as a complication BAE in a patient with hemoptysis due to bronchiectasis.

  1. Posterior Circulation Stroke After Bronchial Artery Embolization. A Rare but Serious Complication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborda, Alicia [Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Pediatria, Radiologia y Medicina Fisica, Grupo de Investigacion en Tecnicas Minimamente Invasivas, GITMI (Spain); Tejero, Carlos [Hospital Clinico Universitario Lozano Blesa, Servicio de Neurologia (Spain); Fredes, Arturo, E-mail: fredesarturo@gmail.com [Universidad de Zaragoza, Hospital Quiron, Departamento de Pediatria, Radiologia y Medicina Fisica, Grupo de Investigacion en Tecnicas Minimamente Invasivas, GITMI (Spain); Cebrian, Luis; Guelbenzu, Santiago; Gregorio, Miguel Angel de, E-mail: mgregori@unizar.es [Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Pediatria, Radiologia y Medicina Fisica, Grupo de Investigacion en Tecnicas Minimamente Invasivas, GITMI (Spain)

    2013-06-15

    Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is the treatment of choice for massive hemoptysis with rare complications that generally are mild and transient. There are few references in the medical literature with acute cerebral embolization as a complication of BAE. We report a case of intracranial posterior territory infarctions as a complication BAE in a patient with hemoptysis due to bronchiectasis.

  2. PHARMACIST’S STRATEGIES IN TREATING ASTHMA BRONCHIALE OUTPATIEN

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    Amelia Lorensia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   Asthma is one of the major health problems in the world. Actual asthma symptoms can be treated and controlled, so that most patients can prevent the onset of symptoms throughout the day, to prevent a serious attack. Pharmacists play a role in pharmaceutical care that aims to find health care system needed to improve drug therapy of complex and significant value of drug-related morbidity and mortality, functions to improve pharmacotherapy outcomes and quality of life of patients with asthma. The patient's belief about health and illness and related behaviors are also very important to the effectiveness of pharmaceutical care. Objective research to study the role of pharmacists in pharmaceutical care in the treatment of outpatient asthma bronchiale. The type of study was cross-sectional. The number of respondents recruited was 22 patients. In this study data were obtained by direct interview using a form of data collection, accompanied by observations of the patients. Result research Patients involved in this study were 22. The total numbers of DRPs were 20 cases (problem-based and 23 cases (cause-based. The class of drugs causing most DRPs was beta-2 agonist. The subjective perceptions of symptoms experienced by the majority of patients with asthma were: shortness of breath (100%, wheezing sound (90%, fatigue and difficulty sleeping (85%. The cognitive aspect of illness perceived by the patients regarding identity, cause of illness and cure or control was correct, but those concerning consequences and timeline were still lacking. This study demonstrates that the role of pharmacists in pharmaceutical care in ambulatory asthma patients has a nature of direct counseling to patients and monitoring. Monitoring of patients on a regular basis and analysis of the occurrence of drug-related problems might help the patients to get effective, safe and rational treatment.   Keywords:    asthma, pharmaceutical care, drug related problems

  3. Impact of endobronchial coiling on segmental bronchial lumen in treated and untreated lung lobes: Correlation with changes in lung volume, clinical and pulmonary function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloth, C; Thaiss, W M; Hetzel, J; Ditt, H; Grosse, U; Nikolaou, K; Horger, M

    2016-07-01

    To assess the impact of endobronchial coiling on the segment bronchus cross-sectional area and volumes in patients with lung emphysema using quantitative chest-CT measurements. Thirty patients (female = 15; median age = 65.36 years) received chest-CT before and after endobronchial coiling for lung volume reduction (LVR) between January 2010 and December 2014. Thin-slice (0.6 mm) non-enhanced image data sets were acquired both at end-inspiration and end-expiration using helical technique and 120 kV/100-150 mAs. Clinical response was defined as an increase in the walking distance (Six-minute walk test; 6MWT) after LVR-therapy. Additionally, pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements were used for clinical correlation. In the treated segmental bronchia, the cross-sectional lumen area showed significant reduction (p  0.05). In the ipsilateral lobes, the lumina showed no significant changes. In the contralateral lung, we found tendency towards increased cross-sectional area in inspiration (p = 0.06). Volumes of the treated segments correlated with the treated segmental bronchial lumina in expiration (r = 0.80, p volume of the treated lobe in responders only. Endobronchial coiling causes significant decrease in the cross-sectional area of treated segment bronchi in inspiration and a slight increase in expiration accompanied by a volume reduction. • Endobronchial coiling has indirect impact on cross-sectional area of treated segment bronchi • Volume changes of treated lobes correlate with changes in bronchial cross-sectional area • Coil-induced effects reflect their stabilizing and stiffening impact on lung parenchyma • Endobronchial coiling reduces bronchial collapsing compensating the loss of elasticity.

  4. Disorders of cardiac hemodynamic in attack period of bronchial asthma in children

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    Kondratiev V.А.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By dopplerechocardiography method there was studied functional state of cardiac ventricles and character of hemodynamic disorders in 48 patients aged 5-17 years in attack period of moderately-severe and severe bronchial asthma. Group of comparison included 40 healthy peers. Disorders of central and peripheral hemodynamic in attack period of bronchial asthma in children were accompanied both by systolic and diastolic dysfunction of the left and right heart ventricles, herewith right ventricle was functioning in the mode of hyperdynamic, and left one – in the mode of hypodynamic. Combined systolic-diastolic variant of dysfunction both of right and left ventricles was developing in 58,3% of patients with moderately-severe and in 91,6% of patients with severe bronchial asthma. In the attack period of bronchial asthma in children equal directionality of systolic and diastolic dysfunction of heart ventricles was developing; this was characterized by synchronization of their function. Assessment of functional interaction of the ventricles under conditions of severe asthma attack showed direct and high (r=0,67 correlative interaction between finding of Tei index of the left and right ventricles, which characterize their systolic function; this, under conditions of increased hemodynamic pre-loading testified to compensatory increase of systolic interaction of ventricles. Direct and high (r=0,69 correlative interaction between time indices of isovolumic relaxation of the left and right ventricles, characterizing their diastolic function, testified to compensatory increase of diastolic interaction of ventricles under conditions of increase of hemodynamic post-loading. Imbalance of central and peripheral link of hemodynamic in attack period of bronchial asthma in children testified to development of cardiac insufficiency, which was compensated predominantly at the expense of increase of heart contractions rate.

  5. Prevention of Bronchial Hyperplasia by EGFR Pathway Inhibitors in an Organotypic Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangsoon; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Kang, Shin Myung; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Gold, Kathryn Ann; Kim, Edward S.; Hittelman, Walter N.; Hong, Waun Ki; Koo, Ja Seok

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection or prevention strategies are urgently needed to increase survival. Hyperplasia is the first morphologic change that occurs in the bronchial epithelium during lung cancer development, followed by squamous metaplasia, dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive tumor. The current study was designed to determine the molecular mechanisms that control bronchial epithelium hyperplasia. Using primary normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells cultured using the 3-dimensional organotypic method, we found that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha, and amphiregulin induced hyperplasia, as determined by cell proliferation and multilayered epithelium formation. We also found that EGF induced increased cyclin D1 expression, which plays a critical role in bronchial hyperplasia; this overexpression was mediated by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway but not the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Erlotinib, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and U0126, a MEK inhibitor, completely inhibited EGF-induced hyperplasia. Furthermore, a promoter analysis revealed that the activator protein-1 transcription factor regulates EGF-induced cyclin D1 overexpression. Activator protein-1 depletion using siRNA targeting its c-Jun component completely abrogated EGF-induced cyclin D1 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that bronchial hyperplasia can be modeled in vitro using primary NHTBE cells maintained in a 3-dimensional (3-D) organotypic culture. EGFR and MEK inhibitors completely blocked EGF-induced bronchial hyperplasia, suggesting that they have a chemopreventive role. PMID:21505178

  6. Non-specific immunity of BCG vaccine: A perspective of BCG immunotherapy

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    Najeeha Talat Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BCG is a widely used vaccine worldwide for neonates including Pakistan. BCG has more than 90% coverage through the EPI program which was introduced in 1965 in Pakistan. BCG has limited efficacy against the transmissible form of pulmonary tuberculosis in high TB endemic countries. However, BCG vaccination continues in these countries because BCG confers protection against the disseminated form of TB in children. BCG has also shown some protection against leprosy and certain forms of cancers. One reason for such nonspecific protection may be that BCG activates APCs via PAMPS that interacts with TLRs (2, 4 & 8, which initiate the inflammatory cascade thereby recruiting inflammatory cells to the site of infection and providing maturation signals for neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells. Such activation may be crucial for restricting the infection at the initial site. Furthermore, activation of the pro-inflammatory cascade also results in expression of adhesion molecules, co-stimulatory molecules as well as MHC class II molecule. MHC class II molecules engage CD4+ cells via the TCR receptor while the adhesion and costimulatory molecules bind to their respective receptors on CD4+ T cells for additional high affinity binding for T cell activation. Although activation of the innate arm may not provide subsequent memory, activation of T cells may introduce a certain level of memory response and therefore, may form a rational basis for BCG immunotherapy. This review, therefore, focuses on the immune activation related to both the innate and adaptive arm of the immune response that has been reported and further explores the utility of BCG immunotherapy related to non TB conditions.

  7. Aberrant Left Inferior Bronchial Artery Originating from the Left Gastric Artery in a Patient with Acute Massive Hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Sen; Sun, Xi-Wen; Yu, Dong; Jie, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Massive hemoptysis is a life-threatening condition, and the major source of bleeding in this condition is the bronchial circulation. Bronchial artery embolization is a safe and effective treatment for controlling hemoptysis. However, the sites of origin of the bronchial arteries (BAs) have numerous anatomical variations, which can result in a technical challenge to identify a bleeding artery. We present a rare case of a left inferior BA that originated from the left gastric artery in a patient with recurrent massive hemoptysis caused by bronchiectasis. The aberrant BA was embolized, and hemoptysis has been controlled for 8 months

  8. Clinical significance of changes of serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels in elderly patients with chronic bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels in elderly patients with chronic bronchial asthma. Methods: Serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels were determined with RIA in 55 elderly patients with chronic bronchial asthma and 35 controls. Results: Serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Abnormal high serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels were important pathophysiologic features in chronic bronchial asthma. (authors)

  9. Aberrant Left Inferior Bronchial Artery Originating from the Left Gastric Artery in a Patient with Acute Massive Hemoptysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Sen, E-mail: jasfly77@vip.163.com; Sun, Xi-Wen, E-mail: xwsun@citiz.net; Yu, Dong, E-mail: yudong_mail@126.com; Jie, Bing, E-mail: jbshh@163.com [Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (China)

    2013-10-15

    Massive hemoptysis is a life-threatening condition, and the major source of bleeding in this condition is the bronchial circulation. Bronchial artery embolization is a safe and effective treatment for controlling hemoptysis. However, the sites of origin of the bronchial arteries (BAs) have numerous anatomical variations, which can result in a technical challenge to identify a bleeding artery. We present a rare case of a left inferior BA that originated from the left gastric artery in a patient with recurrent massive hemoptysis caused by bronchiectasis. The aberrant BA was embolized, and hemoptysis has been controlled for 8 months.

  10. ATP catabolism by tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase contributes to development of ARDS in influenza-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Parker S; Doolittle, Lauren M; Hickman-Davis, Judy M; Davis, Ian C

    2018-01-01

    Influenza A viruses are highly contagious respiratory pathogens that are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide on an annual basis. We have shown previously that influenza infection of mice leads to increased ATP and adenosine accumulation in the airway lumen. Moreover, we demonstrated that A 1 -adenosine receptor activation contributes significantly to influenza-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, we found that development of ARDS in influenza-infected mice does not require catabolism of ATP to adenosine by ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73). Hence, we hypothesized that increased adenosine generation in response to infection is mediated by tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), which is a low-affinity, high-capacity enzyme that catabolizes nucleotides in a nonspecific manner. In the current study, we found that whole lung and BALF TNAP expression and alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity increased as early as 2 days postinfection (dpi) of C57BL/6 mice with 10,000 pfu/mouse of influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1). Treatment at 2 and 4 dpi with a highly specific quinolinyl-benzenesulfonamide TNAP inhibitor (TNAPi) significantly reduced whole lung alkaline phosphatase activity at 6 dpi but did not alter TNAP gene or protein expression. TNAPi treatment attenuated hypoxemia, lung dysfunction, histopathology, and pulmonary edema at 6 dpi without impacting viral replication or BALF adenosine. Treatment also improved epithelial barrier function and attenuated cellular and humoral immune responses to influenza infection. These data indicate that TNAP inhibition can attenuate influenza-induced ARDS by reducing inflammation and fluid accumulation within the lung. They also further emphasize the importance of adenosine generation for development of ARDS in influenza-infected mice.

  11. The Role of Non-specific and Specific Immune Systems in Poultry against Newcastle Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 which belong to Avulavirus genus and Paramyxoviridae family. The birds have abnormalities in humoral (bursa fabricius and cellular (thymus and spleen lymphoid organs. Lesions decrease the immune system. Immune system consists of non-specific and specific immune systems. The main components of non-specific immunity are physical and chemical barrier (feather and skin or mucosa, phagocytic cells (macrophages and natural killer, protein complement and the mediator of inflammation and cytokines. Interferons (IFNs belong to a group of cytokines that play a major role in the nonspecific or innate (natural immunity. The virulent ND virus encodes protein of V gene can be suppressed IFN type I. This leads to non-specific immune system fail to respond to the virulent strains resulting in severe pathogenicity. The defense mechanism of the host is replaced by specific immunity (adaptive immunity when natural immunity fails to overcome the infection. The specific immune system consists of humoral mediated immunity (HMI and cell-mediated immunity (CMI. The cells of immune system that react specifically with the antigen are B lymphocytes producing the antibodies, T lymphocytes that regulate the synthesis of antibodies and T cells as effector or the direct cytotoxic cells. Both non-specific and specific immunities are complementary against the invasion of ND virus in the birds. The objective of this article is to discuss the role of non specific and specific immune system in ND.

  12. Allele mining in barley genetic resources reveals genes of race-nonspecific powdery mildew resistance

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    Annika eSpies

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Race-nonspecific, or quantitative, pathogen resistance is of high importance to plant breeders due to its expected durability. However, it is usually controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL and therefore difficult to handle in practice. Knowing the genes that underlie race-nonspecific resistance would allow its exploitation in a more targeted manner. Here, we performed an association-genetic study in a customized worlwide collection of spring barley accessions for candidate genes of race-nonspecific resistance to the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh and combined data with results from QTL-mapping- as well as functional-genomics approaches. This led to the idenfication of 11 associated genes with converging evidence for an important role in race-nonspecific resistance in the presence of the Mlo-gene for basal susceptibility. Outstanding in this respect was the gene encoding the transcription factor WRKY2. The results suggest that unlocking plant genetic resources and integrating functional-genomic with genetic approaches accelerates the discovery of genes underlying race-nonspecific resistance in barley and other crop plants.

  13. The Use of Breathing Exercises in the Treatment of Chronic, Nonspecific Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Barton E; Bliven, Kellie C Huxel

    2017-09-01

    Clinical Scenario: Research has shown a link between poor core stability and chronic, nonspecific low back pain, with data to suggest that alterations in core muscle activation patterns, breathing patterns, lung function, and diaphragm mechanics may occur. Traditional treatment approaches for chronic, nonspecific low back pain focus on exercise and manual therapy interventions, however it is not clear whether breathing exercises are effective in treating back pain. Focused Clinical Question: In adults with chronic, nonspecific low back pain, are breathing exercises effective in reducing pain, improving respiratory function, and/or health related quality of life? Summary of Key Findings: Following a literature search, 3 studies were identified for inclusion in the review. All reviewed studies were critically appraised at level 2 evidence and reported improvements in either low back pain or quality of life following breathing program intervention. Clinical Bottom Line: Exercise programs were shown to be effective in improving lung function, reducing back pain, and improving quality of life. Breathing program frequencies ranged from daily to 2-3 times per week, with durations ranging from 4 to 8 weeks. Based on these results, athletic trainers and physical therapists caring for patients with chronic, nonspecific low back pain should consider the inclusion of breathing exercises for the treatment of back pain when such treatments align with the clinician's own judgment and clinical expertise and the patient's preferences and values. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists to support the use of breathing exercises in the treatment of chronic, nonspecific low back pain.

  14. Altered ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to chemically distinct metal welding fume particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedan, Jeffrey S., E-mail: jsf2@cdc.gov; Thompson, Janet A.; Meighan, Terence G.; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C.; Antonini, James M.

    2017-07-01

    Welding fume inhalation causes pulmonary toxicity, including susceptibility to infection. We hypothesized that airway epithelial ion transport is a target of fume toxicity, and investigated the effects of fume particulates from manual metal arc-stainless steel (MMA-SS) and gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) on ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) cultured in air-interface. MMA-SS particles, more soluble than GMA-MS particles, contain Cr, Ni, Fe and Mn; GMA-MS particles contain Fe and Mn. MMA-SS or GMA-MS particles (0.0167–166.7 μg/cm{sup 2}) were applied apically to NHBEs. After 18 h transepithelial potential difference (V{sub t}), resistance (R{sub t}), and short circuit current (I{sub sc}) were measured. Particle effects on Na{sup +} and Cl¯ channels and the Na{sup +},K{sup +},2Cl¯-cotransporter were evaluated using amiloride (apical), 5-nitro-2-[(3-phenylpropyl)amino]benzoic acid (NPPB, apical), and bumetanide (basolateral), respectively. MMA-SS (0.0167–16.7 μg/cm{sup 2}) increased basal V{sub t}. Only 16.7 μg/cm{sup 2} GMA-MS increased basal V{sub t} significantly. MMA-SS or GMA-MS exposure potentiated I{sub sc} responses (decreases) to amiloride and bumetanide, while not affecting those to NPPB, GMA-MS to a lesser degree than MMA-SS. Variable effects on R{sub t} were observed in response to amiloride, and bumetanide. Generally, MMA-SS was more potent in altering responses to amiloride and bumetanide than GMA-MS. Hyperpolarization occurred in the absence of LDH release, but decreases in V{sub t}, R{sub t}, and I{sub sc} at higher fume particulate doses accompanied LDH release, to a greater extent for MMA-SS. Thus, Na{sup +} transport and Na{sup +},K{sup +},2Cl¯-cotransport are affected by fume exposure; MMA-MS is more potent than GMA-MS. Enhanced Na{sup +} absorption and decreased airway surface liquid could compromise defenses against infection. - Highlights: • Welding fume particle toxicity was investigated in human bronchial

  15. Back Schools for chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Patrícia; Heymans, Martijn W; van Tulder, Maurits W; Esmail, Rosmin; Koes, Bart W; Poquet, Nolwenn; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine; Maher, Christopher G

    2017-08-03

    Many people with low back pain (LBP) become frequent users of healthcare services in their attempt to find treatments that minimise the severity of their symptoms. Back School consists of a therapeutic programme given to groups of people that includes both education and exercise. However, the content of Back School has changed over time and appears to vary widely today. This review is an update of a Cochrane review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of Back School. We split the Cochrane review into two reviews, one focusing on acute and subacute LBP, and one on chronic LBP. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effect of Back School on pain and disability for adults with chronic non-specific LBP; we included adverse events as a secondary outcome. In trials that solely recruited workers, we also examined the effect on work status. We searched for trials in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, two other databases and two trials registers to 15 November 2016. We also searched the reference lists of eligible papers and consulted experts in the field of LBP management to identify any potentially relevant studies we may have missed. We placed no limitations on language or date of publication. We included only RCTs and quasi-RCTs evaluating pain, disability, and/or work status as outcomes. The primary outcomes for this update were pain and disability, and the secondary outcomes were work status and adverse events. Two review authors independently performed the 'Risk of bias' assessment of the included studies using the 'Risk of bias' assessment tool recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. We summarised the results for the short-, intermediate-, and long-term follow-ups. We evaluated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. For the outcome pain, at short-term follow-up, we found very low-quality evidence that Back School is more effective than no

  16. Immunological Links to Nonspecific Effects of DTwP and BCG Vaccines on Infant Mortality

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    Mogens Helweg Claesson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of mainly observational studies suggest that many African females below the age of one year die each year from the nonspecific effects of vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids and killed (whole-cell Bordetella pertussis (DTwP. In contrast, similar studies suggest that many African females and males may have their lives saved each year by the nonspecific immunological benefits of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG vaccination. From an immunological point of view, we hypothesise that the adverse effects of DTwP vaccine may occur because of the Th2-polarising effect of the aluminium phosphate adjuvant in the vaccine and because intramuscular administration of the vaccine may cause chronic inflammation at the site of injection. However, the Th1-polarising effect of BCG is likely to be beneficial. Sexual dimorphism affecting immune functions and vitamin A supplementation may influence both the deleterious and beneficial nonspecific effects of immunisation.

  17. Comparison of the Bronchodilative Effects of Salbutamol Delivered via Three Mesh Nebulizers in Children with Bronchial Asthma

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    Fumitake Kurosaka

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Overall, all 3 mesh nebulizers were useful devices in treating bronchial asthma, although some differences in lung function improvement were evident. The limitation of this study is that subjects did not include patients with severe asthma attacks.

  18. Comparison of gene expression profiles of normal human bronchial epithelial cells in 2D and 3D cultural conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The experiment is part of a project to study DNA repair process after ionizing radiation in organotypic 3-dimentional human bronchial epithlial cell culture. Human...

  19. Pattern of vitamin D in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and in patients with bronchial asthma

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    Essam Gouda

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent in COPD and bronchial asthma (100% and 50% respectively. Low levels of vitamin D were associated with low FEV1%, frequent exacerbations in patients with COPD and bronchial asthma, and increased COPD severity as assessed by GOLD guidelines. Important statistically significant negative associations between vitamin D level and both asthma control and asthma severity according to GINA classification were also found. Thus it is advised to include vitamin D levels in the routine assessment of patients with bronchial asthma and COPD, as well as studying the importance and clinical impact of oral supplementation of vitamin D in patients with COPD and bronchial asthma should be an important goal of future research.

  20. Clinical significance of determination of serum TNF, IL-8 and GM-CSF levels in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Donglin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum TNF, IL-8 and GM-CSF in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. Methods: Serum TNF, IL-8 and GM-CSF levels were measured with RIA in 32 pediatric patients with bronchial asthma and 30 controls. Results: Serum levels of TNF, IL-8 and GM-CSF were very significantly higher in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma than those in controls (P<0.01). After one week treatment, the levels dropped considerably but still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: These cytokines participated in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Monitoring the changes of their serum levels was helpful for the management of the diseases. (authors)