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Sample records for nonrural districts allocate

  1. Do Schools in Rural and Nonrural Districts Allocate Resources Differently? An Analysis of Spending and Staffing Patterns in the West Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 099

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jesse; Manship, Karen; Chambers, Jay; Johnson, Jerry; Blankenship, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the first detailed comparison of resource allocation between rural and nonrural districts in the West Region. Three regional characteristics often associated with rural districts were chosen for the analysis: district enrollment, student population density within a district (students per square mile), and drive time from the…

  2. Do Schools in Rural and Nonrural Districts Allocate Resources Differently? An Analysis of Spending and Staffing Patterns in the West Region States. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 099

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jesse; Manship, Karen; Chambers, Jay; Johnson, Jerry; Blankenship, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the first detailed comparison of resource allocation between rural and nonrural districts in the West Region. Three regional characteristics often associated with rural districts were chosen for the analysis: district enrollment, student population density within a district (students per square mile), and drive time from the…

  3. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao;

    2015-01-01

    be the focus in China in future research:More attention need to paid to studying the unified management policy and mechanism of water resources, studying the water resources cycle and transformation under environmental change, studying new methods for water resources carrying capacity and evaluation......The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area....... The progress of research on the rational allocation of water resources in irrigation districts both at home and abroad may be summarized in four key aspects of the policy regarding water re?sources management:① The mechanism of water resource cycle and ② Transformation in irrigation district, ③ The water...

  4. 7 CFR 1735.71 - Nonrural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonrural areas. 1735.71 Section 1735.71 Agriculture... Funds § 1735.71 Nonrural areas. Loan funds may be approved for the acquisition and improvement of... located in and serving a nonrural area is necessary to serve as the nucleus of an expanded system...

  5. The Effects of Charter School Competition on School District Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsen, David; Ni, Yongmei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines two questions: (a) How does resource allocation change in school districts experiencing sustained charter school competition? (b) Among districts exposed to charter competition, are there differences in the resource allocation adjustments between those that do and do not succeed in stemming further enrollment loss to…

  6. Educational Resource Allocation at the Elementary Level: A Case Study of One Elementary School District in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the dispersion of human capital resources within one school district in southern California and compare the use of personnel at each school to the desired allocation informed by the district's strategies and staffing formula. The district's resource distribution was also compared to that of the Evidence…

  7. Personnel Resource Allocation Strategies in a Time of Fiscal Crisis: Case Study of Elementary Schools in a California District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sais, Melissa Marie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze human resource allocation data for all elementary schools in large urban school district to determine whether resources were allocated in ways in that research suggests can lead to improved student achievement. Data from all 46 elementary schools that participated in the study were compared to the…

  8. District Allocation of Human Resources Utilizing the Evidence Based Model: A Study of One High Achieving School District in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Amber Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the Gap Analysis Framework to understand the gaps that exist in human resource allocation of one Southern California school district. Once identified, gaps are closed with the reallocation of human resources, according to the Evidenced Based Model, requiring the re-purposing of core classroom teachers, specialists, special…

  9. District Allocation of Human Resources Utilizing the Evidence Based Model: A Study of One High Achieving School District in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Amber Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the Gap Analysis Framework to understand the gaps that exist in human resource allocation of one Southern California school district. Once identified, gaps are closed with the reallocation of human resources, according to the Evidenced Based Model, requiring the re-purposing of core classroom teachers, specialists, special…

  10. Resource Allocation in Charter and Non-Charter Public Schools in the Appleton Area School District, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Sandra R.

    2012-01-01

    Reform of public schooling has been at the forefront of the national debate over education for more than 25 years. One prominent reform initiative, school chartering, was selected for the study that examined whether a selected school district allocated comparable resources for charter and non-charter schools. The study used the Odden et al.…

  11. Rational allocation of water resources based on ecological groundwater levels:a case study in Jinghui Irrigation District in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Zhou, W. B.; Dong, Q. G.; Liu, B. Y.; Ma, C.

    2016-08-01

    Aimed at the hydrogeological environmental problems caused by over-exploitation and unreasonable utilization of water resources in Jinghui Irrigation District, this paper discusses the ecological groundwater level of the study area and establishes a three-layer optimal allocation model of water resources based on the theory of large scale systems. Then, the genetic algorithm method was employed to optimize the model and obtain the optimal allocation of crop irrigation schedule and water resources under the condition of a 75% assurance rate. Finally, the numerical simulation model of the groundwater was applied to analyze the balance of the groundwater on the basis of the optimal allocation scheme. The results show that the upper limitation of the ecological groundwater in Jinghui Irrigation District ranged from 1.8m to 4.2m, while the lower limitation level ranged from 8m to 28m. By 2020, the condition of the groundwater imbalance that results from adopting the optimal allocation scheme will be much better than that caused by current water utilization scheme. With the exception of only a few areas, the groundwater level in most parts of Jinghui Irrigation District will not exceed the lower limitation of ecological groundwater level.

  12. The benefit of using additional hydrological information from earth observations and reanalysis data on water allocation decisions in irrigation districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaune, Alexander; López, Patricia; Werner, Micha; de Fraiture, Charlotte

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological information on water availability and demand is vital for sound water allocation decisions in irrigation districts, particularly in times of water scarcity. However, sub-optimal water allocation decisions are often taken with incomplete hydrological information, which may lead to agricultural production loss. In this study we evaluate the benefit of additional hydrological information from earth observations and reanalysis data in supporting decisions in irrigation districts. Current water allocation decisions were emulated through heuristic operational rules for water scarce and water abundant conditions in the selected irrigation districts. The Dynamic Water Balance Model based on the Budyko framework was forced with precipitation datasets from interpolated ground measurements, remote sensing and reanalysis data, to determine the water availability for irrigation. Irrigation demands were estimated based on estimates of potential evapotranspiration and coefficient for crops grown, adjusted with the interpolated precipitation data. Decisions made using both current and additional hydrological information were evaluated through the rate at which sub-optimal decisions were made. The decisions made using an amended set of decision rules that benefit from additional information on demand in the districts were also evaluated. Results show that sub-optimal decisions can be reduced in the planning phase through improved estimates of water availability. Where there are reliable observations of water availability through gauging stations, the benefit of the improved precipitation data is found in the improved estimates of demand, equally leading to a reduction of sub-optimal decisions.

  13. Yield response and optimal allocation of irrigation water under actual and simulated climate change scenarios in a southern Italy district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Rubino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential effect of climate change on the optimal allocation of irrigation water was investigated for a Southern Italy district. The study was carried out on 5 representative crops (grapevine, olive, sugar beet, processing tomato, asparagus, considering six simulated climate change conditions, corresponding to three 30-year periods (2011-2040; 2041-2070; 2071-2100 for two greenhouse gas emission schemes proposed by IPCC (A2 and B1, plus the current climatic condition. The framework adopted was based on: i the modeling of crop yield response for increasing levels of water supply, under current and future climatic conditions, through a non-linear regression equation and ii the definition of the best water allocation by means of a mathematical optimization model written in GAMS. Total irrigation water (TIW volume was allowed to vary from a low total supply 10000 m3 to 7000000 m3, whilst a fixed surface, corresponding to that currently occupied in the studied district, was assigned to each crop. The economic return was studied in terms of Value of Production less the fixed and variable irrigation costs (VPlic. The TIW volume that maximized the VPlic of the whole district surface under the current climatic condition was 5697861 m3. The total volume was partitioned among the five crops as a function of the surface occupied: grapevine>olive>processing tomato>asparagus>sugar beet. Nevertheless, grapevine and olive received seasonal volumes corresponding only to 59 and 50% of total irrigation water requirements. On the contrary, processing tomato and asparagus received seasonal water volumes close to those fully satisfying irrigation water requirements (100% and 85% ETc. Future climatic conditions slightly differed from the current one for the expected optimal allocation. Under water shortage conditions (160000 m3 the whole irrigation water was allocated to the horticultural crops. Forecasted growing season features varied to a different extent in

  14. Examining Charter School Policy and Public School District Resource Allocation in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linick, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    This project focuses on the competitive pressure, or the threat of competitive pressure, generated by charter school policy. This paper uses longitudinal district-level data and multiple quasi-experimental designs to examine the relationship between two Ohio charter school policies and changes in public school district instructional resource…

  15. 47 CFR 54.313 - State certification of support for non-rural carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.313... area of a non-rural incumbent local exchange carrier within their jurisdiction to receive support... subject to State jurisdiction. A non-rural incumbent local exchange carrier not subject to...

  16. 7 CFR 1735.13 - Location of facilities and service for nonrural subscribers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of facilities and service for nonrural...-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1735.13 Location of facilities and service for nonrural... location. (b) To the greatest extent practical, loans are limited to providing telephone facilities that...

  17. Failure Analysis of a New Irrigation Water Allocation Mode Based on Copula Approaches in the Zhanghe Irrigation District, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxin Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk analysis of an irrigation water allocation strategy based on physical mechanisms is critically important in practice. Conventional risk analysis only considers the role of the channel system and ignores the factors related to on-farm ponds. This paper proposes a channel-pond joint water supply mode (CPJM based on copula approaches. Two copulas, the Plackett copula and No.16 copula, are chosen and two types of analyses are carried out with the proposed mode: (1 a risk assessment of CPJM with joint probability and conditional probability; and (2 determination of the water supply strategy given the pond water supply frequency. With a case study of the second channel in the Zhanghe Irrigation District (ZID, Southern China, nine combinations of channel water supply frequency (CWSF and pond water supply frequency (PWSF are studied. The results reveal that the failure probabilities of the joint distribution and the conditional distribution of the CPJM are 0.02%–16.54% and 0.45%–33.08%, respectively, with corresponding return period of 42–5000 and 10–222 years. Nevertheless, a previous study has shown that the real probability is 33.3%, which means that the return period is equals to three years. Therefore, the objective failure evaluation of the irrigation water-use strategy is useful for water saving in this channel system. Moreover, the irrigation water allocation strategy can be determined and the failure charts relating the CWSF and PWSF can be obtained for a predetermined PWSF. Thus, the channel-pond joint water supply mode provides a more reasonable estimate of the irrigation water allocation strategy reliability.

  18. 灌区水资源合理配置研究进展%Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐学斌; 黄仲冬; 乔冬梅; 张现超; 李平; Mathias N Andersen

    2015-01-01

    The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area. The progress of research on the rational allocation of water resources in irrigation districts both at home and abroad may be summarized in four key aspects of the policy regarding water re⁃sources management:① The mechanism of water resource cycle and ② Transformation in irrigation district, ③ The water resources optimal allocation model and④The hydrological ecosystem analysis in irrigation district. Our analysis showed that there are four major problems in domestic irrigation water resources allocation:Policies for rational water resources allocation and protection are not in place, unified management mechanism of water resources is not perfect, the model for optimal water resources allocation is not practical, and the basic conditions for optimal allocation of water resources is relatively weak. In order to solve those problems in water resources allocation practice, six important as⁃pects must be the focus in China in future research:More attention need to paid to studying the unified management policy and mechanism of water resources, studying the water resources cycle and transformation under environmental change, studying new methods for water resources carrying capacity and evaluation in irrigation districts, studying the water resources control technology in irrigation districts by hydrology ecological system, studying the technologies of real⁃time risk dispatching and intelligent management in irrigation districts, and finally studying the technology of cou⁃pling optimal allocation technology in irrigation districts.%灌区水资源合理配置是提高灌区水资源利用效率及保障粮食安全的重要途径,也是实现灌区水资源可持续

  19. A comparison of mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors between rural and non-rural transgender persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith J; Iantaffi, Alex; Swinburne-Romine, Rebecca; Bockting, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors of rural and non-rural transgender persons. Online banner advertisements were used to recruit 1,229 self-identified rural and non-rural transgender adults (18+ years) residing in the United States. Primary findings include significant differences in mental health between rural and non-rural transmen; relatively low levels of binge drinking across groups, although high levels of marijuana use; and high levels of unprotected sex among transwomen. The results confirm that mental and physical health services for transgender persons residing in rural areas are urgently needed.

  20. 26 CFR 1.269-4 - Power of district director to allocate deduction, credit, or allowance in part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... evasion or avoidance of Federal income tax for which the acquisition was made. The district director is..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.269-4...(a), but only to such extent as he determines will not result in the evasion or avoidance of Federal...

  1. Coupling allocation model of water resources in Fengtai district of Beijing%丰台区水资源耦合配置模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈义忠; 何理; 卢宏玮; 李晶

    2015-01-01

    Taking Fengtai district as a study object on basis of analyzing water supply and demand , the paper constructed a bi-level optimization model so as to embody the strict control of pollutant emissions from an environmental point of view ,and the maximal economic benefit of water resources system from an economic point of view .Finally the unity of quantity and quality of water resources and coordinative allo-cation of water resources among multi sectors have been achieved .Also, the integrated targets of economy and environment have been realized .The results show that water supply of each planning year in Fengtai district basically can meet the requirement every consumer .The south-to-north water transfer project can play a significant role in the regional allocation system of water resources .It further compared and ana-lyzed the result between bi-level plan model and the two conventional single-objective models so as to pro-vide decision scheme in different scenirous for different makers .%以丰台区水资源配置系统为研究对象,在分析供需水的基础上,构建双层优化模型,其中从环境角度体现对污染物排放量的严格控制,从经济角度体现区域水资源系统经济效益最大化。最终,体现区域水资源数量和质量的统一和不同需水部门之间的合理配置,并达到环境目标和经济目标的集成化。基于模糊满意度算法求解模型,模型结果表明:丰台区各规划水平年的供水量基本上可以满足各用户的需水要求,其中南水北调工程将在区域水资源配置系统中发挥重要作用。进一步地将双层规划模型和两个传统的单目标优化模型的结果进行对比分析,以期为不同决策者提供的规划方案。

  2. Scenario-Based Multi-Objective Optimum Allocation Model for Earthquake Emergency Shelters Using a Modified Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm: A Case Study in Chaoyang District, Beijing, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Xiujuan; Xu, Wei; Ma, Yunjia; Hu, Fuyu

    2015-01-01

    The correct location of earthquake emergency shelters and their allocation to residents can effectively reduce the number of casualties by providing safe havens and efficient evacuation routes during...

  3. Health Service Accessibility and Risk in Cervical Cancer Prevention: Comparing Rural Versus Nonrural Residence in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Yolanda J; Goldberg, Daniel W; Scarinci, Isabel C; Castle, Philip E; Cuzick, Jack; Robertson, Michael; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2016-08-24

    Multiple intrapersonal and structural barriers, including geography, may prevent women from engaging in cervical cancer preventive care such as screening, diagnostic colposcopy, and excisional precancer treatment procedures. Geographic accessibility, stratified by rural and nonrural areas, to necessary services across the cervical cancer continuum of preventive care is largely unknown. Health care facility data for New Mexico (2010-2012) was provided by the New Mexico Human Papillomavirus Pap Registry (NMHPVPR), the first population-based statewide cervical cancer screening registry in the United States. Travel distance and time between the population-weighted census tract centroid to the nearest facility providing screening, diagnostic, and excisional treatment services were examined using proximity analysis by rural and nonrural census tracts. Mann-Whitney test (P cervical cancer preventive health care services and years, women who resided in rural areas had a significantly greater geographic accessibility burden when compared to nonrural areas (4.4 km vs 2.5 km and 4.9 minutes vs 3.0 minutes for screening; 9.9 km vs 4.2 km and 10.4 minutes vs 4.9 minutes for colposcopy; and 14.8 km vs 6.6 km and 14.4 minutes vs 7.4 minutes for precancer treatment services, all P cervical cancer prevention should address the potential benefits of providing the full spectrum of screening, diagnostic and precancer treatment services within individual facilities. Accessibility, assessments distinguishing rural and nonrural areas are essential when monitoring and recommending changes to service infrastructures (eg, mobile versus brick and mortar). © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  4. Analysing trade-offs in resource and labour allocation by smallholder farmers using inverse modelling techniques: a case-study from Kakamega district, western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittonell, P.A.; Wijk, van M.T.; Rufino, M.C.; Vrugt, J.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    Smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa face multiple trade-offs when deciding on the allocation of their financial, labour and nutrient resources. Day-to-day decisions have implications for the sustainability of their farming system, implying multiple trade-offs between short- and long-term objecti

  5. State Profiles of Subcounty Allocation Procedures: Appendix to the Title I, ESEA, Subcounty Allocation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Babette; Paller, Alan T.

    In this appendix to the study of subcounty allocation of Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, state by state profiles of subcounty allocation are provided. The allocation formula and procedures used by each state for fiscal year 1977 are explained. Other data for each state, such as number of school districts and counties which…

  6. Student Mobility in Rural and Nonrural Districts in Five Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 089

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Andrea; Moore, Laurie; Gopalani, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the extent and distribution of student mobility in five Central Region states. The study, which calculated student mobility percentages in each state and compared percentages by locale (city, suburb, town, and rural locale, and degree of rurality) within each state, found no consistent patterns across locales. Research…

  7. ESG Allocations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the Emergency Solutions Grants (ESG), formerly Emergency Shelter Grants, allocation by jurisdiction. The website allows users to look at...

  8. The influences of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on women's choice of prenatal care facility: Investigation of differences between rural and non-rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chi-Liang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI, implemented in 1995, substantially increased the number of health care facilities that can deliver free prenatal care. Because of the increase in such facilities, it is usually assumed that women would have more choices regarding prenatal care facilities and thus experience reduction in travel cost. Nevertheless, there has been no research exploring these issues in the literature. This study compares how Taiwan's NHI program may have influenced choice of prenatal care facility and perception regarding convenience in transportation for obtaining such care for women in rural and non-rural areas in Taiwan. Methods Based on data collected by a national survey conducted by Taiwan's National Health Research Institutes (NHRI in 2000, we tried to compare how women chose prenatal care facility before and after Taiwan's National Health Insurance program was implemented. Basing our analysis on how women answered questionnaire items regarding "the type of major health care facility used and convenience of transportation to and from prenatal care facility," we investigated whether there were disparities in how women in rural and non-rural areas chose prenatal care facilities and felt about the transportation, and whether the NHI had different influences for the two groups of women. Results After NHI, women in rural areas were more likely than before to choose large hospitals for prenatal care services. For women in rural areas, the relative probability of choosing large hospitals to choosing non-hospital settings in 1998–1999 was about 6.54 times of that in 1990–1992. In contrast, no such change was found in women in non-rural areas. For a woman in a non-rural area, she was significantly more likely to perceive the transportation to and from prenatal care facilities to be very convenient between 1998 and 1999 than in the period between 1990 and 1992. No such improvement was found for women in

  9. Knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology: a cross-sectional comparison of rural and non-rural US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanoski Michael T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the signs and symptoms of heart attacks and strokes are important not only in saving lives, but also in preserving quality of life. Findings from recent research have yielded that the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors are higher in rural populations, suggesting that adults living in rural locales may be at higher risk for heart attack and/or stroke. Knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology as well as calling 911 for a suspected heart attack or stroke are essential first steps in seeking care. This study sought to examine the knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptoms among rural adults in comparison to non-rural adults living in the U.S. Methods Using multivariate techniques, a cross-sectional analysis of an amalgamated multi-year Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS database was performed. The dependent variable for this analysis was low heart attack and stroke knowledge score. The covariates for the analysis were: age, sex, race/ethnicity, annual household income, attained education, health insurance status, having a health care provider (HCP, timing of last routine medical check-up, medical care deferment because of cost, self-defined health status and geographic locale. Results The weighted n for this study overall was 103,262,115 U.S. adults > =18 years of age. Approximately 22.0% of these respondents were U.S. adults living in rural locales. Logistic regression analysis revealed that those U.S. adults who had low composite heart attack and stroke knowledge scores were more likely to be rural (OR = 1.218 95%CI 1.216-1.219 rather than non-rural residents. Furthermore, those with low scores were more likely to be: male (OR = 1.353 95%CI 1.352-1.354, >65 years of age (OR = 1.369 95%CI 1.368-1.371, African American (OR = 1.892 95%CI 1.889-1.894, not educated beyond high school (OR = 1.400 955CI 1.399-1.402, uninsured (OR = 1.308 95%CI 1

  10. Legislative Districts - House Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State House of Representatives district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of...

  11. Legislative Districts - Senate Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State Senate district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of Apportionment,...

  12. Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the location of the Town of Cary’s four Town Council districts.Please note that one district, District A, is split into two geo-spatial areas. One area is in...

  13. Scenario-Based Multi-Objective Optimum Allocation Model for Earthquake Emergency Shelters Using a Modified Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm: A Case Study in Chaoyang District, Beijing, China: e0144455

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiujuan Zhao; Wei Xu; Yunjia Ma; Fuyu Hu

    2015-01-01

      The correct location of earthquake emergency shelters and their allocation to residents can effectively reduce the number of casualties by providing safe havens and efficient evacuation routes during...

  14. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  15. Personnel Resource Allocation Strategies in a Time of Fiscal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausner, Larry Joseph, III

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze school level data related to the allocation of resources, and to determine how those resources are used to increase student achievement in the Hampton School District. The study was based on an analysis of one school district located in Los Angeles County in Southern California. All of the…

  16. Visualizing Dynamic Memory Allocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreta, Sergio; Telea, Alexandru

    2007-01-01

    We present a visualization tool for dynamic memory allocation information obtained from instrumenting the runtime allocator used by C programs. The goal of the presented visualization techniques is to convey insight in the dynamic behavior of the allocator. The purpose is to help the allocator desig

  17. Associated Health Allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Associated Health Allocation Database is used to determine the allocation of positions and funds for VA Associated Health programs offered by Veterans Affairs...

  18. 上海市中心城区老年护理床位配置测算模型研究%Measurement model research of aged care beds allocation in aging central district of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓栋; 罗剑锋; 钮小庆

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立以生活自理能力评价为基础的老龄化中心城区的老年护理床位的配置测算模型。方法:通过中心城区街道(居委)整群抽样获取老年人口资料,应用Barthel指数(MBI)法测算出老年人群生活自理能力评价,并以此推算整个区域老年护理资源配置的需求(床位、人力等资源)。结果:1932名60岁以上老年人群长期护理需求量为289人,统计测算全区老年护理需求量为5420人,床位资源需求为老年人口总数的6.2%,老龄化比例是生活自理能力重度依赖老年人比例的16倍。结论:提出老龄化的中心城区老年护理床位配置的3种测算模型。(1)粗略模型。老年护理床位总数=总人口数×60岁以上老年人比例/调整系数。(2)简便模型。按研究区的年龄别重度依赖比例来计算预测区的重度依赖总人数。(3)精确模型。以巴氏指数计算生活重度依赖老年人比例来测算老年护理床位数。%Objective:To establish the measurement model of aged care beds based on self-care ability assessment in aging central district of Shanghai. Methods:The elderly population data was obtained through cluster sampling in central district. The behavior ability was measured with Barthel index,and the nursing care needs for the whole district were calculated based on the result. Results:A total of 289 persons needed nursing care among 1 932 people surveyed. Based on this investigation,5 420 persons needed nursing care in the whole district,the ratio of need was 6.2%of the total elderly population,and the rate of nursing care was one-sixteenth of the aging rate. Conclusion:The configuration of the nursing resources should be based on the number of people whose self-care are severely dependent. There are three methods.(1)Rough model. The total number of aged care beds=total population× the proportion of those aged 60 years old and above/correction coefficient

  19. A marginal revenue equilibrium model for spatial water allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王劲峰; 刘昌明; 王智勇; 于静洁

    2002-01-01

    The outside water is transported into the water-shorted area. It is allocated among many sub-areas that composed the water-shorted area, in order to maximize the total benefit from the input water for the areas. This paper presents a model for spatial water allocation based on the marginal revenue of water utilization, taking the six southern districts of Hebei Province as an example.

  20. Channel Allocation Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Robert S.

    The Frequency Allocation Subcommittee of the Coordinating Committee for Cable Communication Systems, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, was formed to produce a background report on the general problems of frequency allocation and assignments in cable television. The present paper, based on the subcommittee's interim report,…

  1. Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 114th Congressional Districts for the United States. Found within this layer is the listing of the 114th House of Representatives. Elected to...

  2. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  3. Wildlife Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Districts layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature...

  4. Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of warden (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Warden Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative...

  5. Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Forestry Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This is a layer file which...

  6. Fisheries Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Fisheries districts data layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset...

  7. Park Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  8. How Fair are Fair Allocations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøhlk, Sanne; Kiilerich, Lone

    investigates the fairness of such allocations. Previous literature has applied numerous ways of measuring allocation fairness as well as numerous strategies for obtaining allocations. The goal of this paper is to study the fairness of allocations obtained by different allocation methods as viewed by different...... fairness measures. We hope that this will help guide future research towards a rational choice of allocation methods and measures....

  9. CPD Allocations and Awards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The CPD Allocation and Award database provides filterable on-screen and exportable reports on select programs, such as the Community Development Block Grant Program,...

  10. Distributed Storage Allocation Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Derek; Dimakis, Alexandros G.; Ho, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the problem of using several storage nodes to store a data object, subject to an aggregate storage budget or redundancy constraint. It is challenging to find the optimal allocation that maximizes the probability of successful recovery by the data collector because of the large space of possible symmetric and nonsymmetric allocations, and the nonconvexity of the problem. For the special case of probability-l recovery, we show that the optimal allocatio...

  11. 26 CFR 1.482-1 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... performance of services. (2) Authority to make allocations. The district director may make allocations between... rate to use in making such adjustments involves some judgement, the economic analysis on which the... profit split method may be based on the assumption that capitalized intangible development...

  12. What Do We Spend Tto Educate a Child? The Student Resource Allocation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruslow, John T.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the features of a new student resource-allocation model that analyzes resources for individual students, groups, or categories of students and allows the integration of cost analysis into school-district and building-level planning and evaluation. States that use of the model will assist school-district administrators in making more…

  13. Proportional Borda allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmann, Andreas; Klamler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the allocation of indivisible items among a group of agents, a problem which has received increased attention in recent years, especially in areas such as computer science and economics. A major fairness property in the fair division literature is proportionality, which is satisfied whenever each of the n agents receives at least [Formula: see text] of the value attached to the whole set of items. To simplify the determination of values of (sets of) items from ordinal rankings of the items, we use the Borda rule, a concept used extensively and well-known in voting theory. Although, in general, proportionality cannot be guaranteed, we show that, under certain assumptions, proportional allocations of indivisible items are possible and finding such allocations is computationally easy.

  14. Allocating multiple units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Krishna, Kala

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the allocation and rent distribution in multi-unit, combinatorial-bid auctions under complete information. We focus on the natural multi-unit analogue of the first-price auction, where buyers bid total payments, pay their bids, and where the seller allocates goods to maximize his...... revenue. While there are many equilibria in this auction, only efficient equilibria remain when the truthful equilibrium restriction of the menu-auction literature is used. Focusing on these equilibria we first show that the first-price auction just described is revenue and outcome equivalent to a Vickrey...

  15. Geothermal district heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

    1982-06-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  16. Spatial allocation of reclaimed water based on the environmental water demand of urban river system -a case study of Bao' an district, Shenzhen%面向城市水系环境需水的再生水空间配置——以深圳市宝安区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛宁; 秦华鹏

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the heavy pollutant load and huge environmental water demand of urban river system in Bao'an district, an approach of using the reclaimed water from sewage plants as compensatory environmental water of urban rivers was analyzed. One dimension steady and un-steady water quality models were employed to calculate the environmental water demand of ten local rivers under four reclaimed water supply conditions respectively. From the respect of keeping the balance between river environmental water demand and supply, the average reclaimed water quality was put forward. Moreover, the relationship between environmental water demand and the reclaimed water quality was quantitatively analyzed. Furthermore, allocation of reclaimed water was also discussed on the basis of the spatial distribution of urban rivers and the sewage plants planning. The results showed that, environmental water demand of Maozhou and Guanlan River was the most, which was taking more than 60% of the total environmental water demand of local urban rivers. For the sake of keeping the balance between river environmental water demand and reclaimed water, the average reclaimed water quality should be BOE5 =6.0 mg/L. Under the same pollutant load condition, environmental water demand approximately exponentially reduced corresponding to the linear improvement of reclaimed water quality. By optimally allocating the reclaimed water, it could meet the total environmental water demand of local urban rivers. The allocating result could be regarded as a reference of sewage plant designing.%以深圳市宝安区为例,探讨以再生水满足城市水系环境需水的方法.应用一维恒定与非恒定水质模型计算了4种补水水质方案下该区10条主要河流的环境需水量,从水量平衡角度提出全区再生水BOD5的平均值,并进一步分析了补水水质与河流环境需水量的关系.结合该区水系与污水处理系统空间位置,提出3种再生水的空间配

  17. Risk capital allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...

  18. Risk capital allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...

  19. Targeting Schools: Study of Title I Allocations within School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stullich, Stephanie; Donly, Brenda; Stolzberg, Simeon

    Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is intended to support state and local efforts to ensure that all children reach challenging standards by providing additional resources for schools and students that have the farthest to go. The 1994 reauthorization of the ESEA included a number of changes to Title I allocation…

  20. Cost allocation with limited information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    This article investigates progressive development of Aumann-Shapley cost allocation in a multilevel organizational or production structure. In particular, we study a linear parametric programming setup utilizing the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition procedure. Typically cost allocation takes place afte...

  1. Applied cost allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann......–Shapley prices. We suggest to overcome such problems by using lexicographic goal programing techniques. Moreover, cost allocation based on the cost function is unable to account for differences between efficient and actual cost. We suggest to employ the notion of rational inefficiency in order to supply a set...... of assumptions concerning firm behavior. These assumptions enable us to connect inefficient with efficient production and thereby provide consistent ways of allocating the costs arising from inefficiency....

  2. Attention allocation before antisaccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapetek, Anna; Jonikaitis, Donatas; Deubel, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of attention before antisaccades. We used a dual task paradigm, in which participants made prosaccades or antisaccades and discriminated the orientation of a visual probe shown at the saccade goal, the visual cue location (antisaccade condition), or a neutral location. Moreover, participants indicated whether they had made a correct antisaccade or an erroneous prosaccade. We observed that, while spatial attention in the prosaccade task was allocated only to the saccade goal, attention in the antisaccade task was allocated both to the cued location and to the antisaccade goal. This suggests parallel attentional selection of the cued and antisaccade locations. We further observed that in error trials--in which participants made an incorrect prosaccade instead of an antisaccade--spatial attention was biased towards the prosaccade goal. These erroneous prosaccades were mostly unnoticed and were often followed by corrective antisaccades with very short latencies (parallel programming of the reflexive prosaccade to the cue and the antisaccade to the intended location. Taken together, our results suggest that attention allocation and saccade goal selection in the antisaccade task are mediated by a common competitive process.

  3. 11 CFR 106.8 - Allocation of expenses for political party committee phone banks that refer to a clearly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., district, or local committee or organization of a political party where— (1) The communication refers to a... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of expenses for political party... Allocation of expenses for political party committee phone banks that refer to a clearly identified...

  4. Enlisted Personnel Allocation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CSP/AD DATE[: 11/iS/SB TIMH MAGIU: EC01G MAP: EC011IO2 HSL: 0~3401 1 2 2 4 5 6 7 ] 11102 IELI~STED PERSONNEL ALL.OCATION SYS TD ...DD4OGRAPIC GROUP #1] 10 J j9>>>)>>>>>>> Z’<<<<<<<<’((<t Jt>>>>>F Z•<<<<t 3 1 11 I II II .III 1 . ] I I IIIA IIIB .11 3 T; 1/1 HZj 2/3 REUNT3ANMEU

  5. School District Mergers: What One District Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

  6. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  7. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation

  8. Water allocation for agriculture complex terrain under changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putu Santikayasa, I.; Perdinan; Basit, Rizki Abdul

    2017-01-01

    The current water resources management in Indonesia requires the government to pay more attention on sustainable water management. Agriculture as the highest water demand in the country need better water management as the impact of future changing climate. Furthermore, the water managers as well as policy makers may require integrating the climate change assessment into water resources allocation policy and management. Agropolitan in Malang district, East java - Indonesia is an agriculture which is characterized by complex agricultural system and was assigned as a case study. The supply-demand water allocation approach was applied on allocating water to different water users under current and future climatic condition. Both climate and the changing nature of water demand have affected the development and evolution of water allocation. The result shows that the water supply is expected to decrease under future climate comparing with the current condition. Furthermore, it is required to incorporate the future climate information on design the future water policy and management to reduce the adverse impact of changing climate. This study also suggested policy actions as recommendation to better manage current climate variability as well as future uncertainty from climate change impacts on water allocation and resources management.

  9. Discipline for Democracy? School Districts' Management of Conflict and Social Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    An examination of six urban Canadian school districts' policies and co-curricular programs for safe and inclusive schools shows contrasting implicit patterns of citizenship education. Peacekeeping-oriented districts relied heavily on standardized control and exclusion to achieve school safety and allocated few resources to affirming diversity.…

  10. Relationship between Educational Resources and School Achievement: A Mixed Method Intra-District Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Castellanos, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between educational resources (fiscal, personnel and facilities) and school achievement within a large urban/suburban elementary school district. A sequential mixed methods approach reveals inequitable resource allocation trends and patterns between schools within a school district by producing different…

  11. Allocating outsourced warranty service contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Opp; I. Adan; V.G. Kulkarni; J.M. Swaminathan

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by our interactions with a leading manufacturer of computers, in this paper we consider static allocation as applied to the problem of minimizing the costs of outsourcing warranty services to repair vendors. Under static allocation, a manufacturer assigns each item to one of several contra

  12. Risk allocation under liquidity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csóka, P.; Herings, P.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Risk allocation games are cooperative games that are used to attribute the risk of a financial entity to its divisions. In this paper, we extend the literature on risk allocation games by incorporating liquidity considerations. A liquidity policy specifies state-dependent liquidity requirements that

  13. Cost allocation with limited information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    all activities have been performed, for example by finishing all outputs. Here the allocation is made progressively with suggestions for activities. I other words cost allocation is performed in parallel for example with a production planning process. This development does not require detailed...

  14. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  15. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  16. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  17. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  18. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  19. Legislative Districts - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Each coverage contains a COVER-ID field that defines the House or Senate district number. Kansas House and Senate districts were created by the Legislative Research...

  20. Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts layer is part...

  1. High-Quality Professional Development for All Teachers: Effectively Allocating Resources. Research & Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Sarah; Coggshall, Jane G.; Croft, Andrew; Goe, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This Research & Policy Brief addresses the aspect of the teacher support system that is perhaps the most important and often the most weakly implemented: teacher learning and development. This brief includes the following to help state and district leaders select professional learning activities that are worth the allocation of scarce resources:…

  2. 11 CFR 104.17 - Reporting of allocable expenses by party committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contribution, independent expenditure, or coordinated expenditure attributed to each candidate. If a payment... purpose of paying expenses attributable to specific Federal and non-Federal candidates. A State, district... allocation account for the purpose of paying such expenses. In the report covering the period in which each...

  3. Fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the code for fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation, which is an algorithm for topic modeling and text classification. The related paper is at...

  4. Collective credit allocation in science

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Hua-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, since the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors' contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability...

  5. FY12 CPD Formula Allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 budget for the Department of Housing and Urban Development has been enacted. This spreadsheet provide full-year allocations for the Office...

  6. District nursing in Dominica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, PME; Luteijn, AJ; Nasiiro, RS; Bruney, [No Value; Smith, RJA; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1998-01-01

    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the us

  7. District nurse training

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Arnold; Freeling, Paul; Owen, John

    1980-01-01

    Training for district nursing is being reviewed. By 1981 district nurses will have a new administrative structure, a new curriculum, and a new examination. Training for nursing, like that for general practice, is to become mandatory. The history of the development of district nurse training is briefly described.

  8. District nursing in Dominica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, PME; Luteijn, AJ; Nasiiro, RS; Bruney, [No Value; Smith, RJA; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1998-01-01

    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the

  9. How do Parents allocate Time ?

    OpenAIRE

    Bloemen, Hans G.; Stancanelli, Elena G F

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the time allocation of spouses and the impact of economic variables. We present a stylized model of the time allocation of spouses to illustrate the expected impact of wages and non-labour income. The empirical model simultaneously specifies three time-use choices -paid work, childcare, and housework- and wage and employment equations for each spouse, allowing for correlation across the errors of the ten equations. We exploit the rich information in the French time-use s...

  10. How should INGOs allocate resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wisor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs face difficult choices when choosing to allocate resources. Given that the resources made available to INGOs fall far short of what is needed to reduce massive human rights deficits, any chosen scheme of resource allocation requires failing to reach other individuals in great need. Facing these moral opportunity costs, what moral reasons should guide INGO resource allocation? Two reasons that clearly matter, and are recognized by philosophers and development practitioners, are the consequences (or benefit or harm reduction of any given resource allocation and the need (or priority of individual beneficiaries. If accepted, these reasons should lead INGOs to allocate resources to a limited number of countries where the most prioritarian weighted harm reduction will be achieved. I make three critiques against this view. First, on grounds the consequentialist accepts, I argue that INGOs ought to maintain a reasonably wide distribution of resources. Second, I argue that even if one is a consequentialist, consequentialism ought not act as an action guiding principle for INGOs. Third, I argue that additional moral reasons should influence decision making about INGO resource allocation. Namely, INGO decision making should attend to relational reasons, desert, respect for agency, concern for equity, and the importance of expressing a view of moral wrongs.

  11. 15 CFR 335.4 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation. 335.4 Section 335.4... § 335.4 Allocation. (a) For HTS 9902.51.11 and HTS 9902.51.15 each Tariff Rate Quota will be allocated separately. Allocation will be based on an applicant's Worsted Wool Suit production, on a weighted...

  12. Collective credit allocation in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-08-26

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors' contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions.

  13. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engevall, S.

    1996-12-31

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the {tau}-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m{sup 3} can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  14. 75 FR 59206 - Ketchikan-Misty Fiords Ranger District; Tongass National Forest; Alaska; Ketchikan-Misty Fiords...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... visitor days (of the estimated recreation carrying capacity of approximately 148,000 days) annually for... allocate recreation carrying capacity on the District to outfitters and guides through special use permits... consideration. One alternative may allocate one-half of the estimated carrying capacity to outfitters and...

  15. Centralized Allocation in Multiple Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules | generalizat......The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules...... | generalizations of Gale's Top Trading Cycles mechanism. We study the centralized allocation that takes place in multiple markets. For example, the assignment of multiple types of indivisible objects; or the assignment of objects in successive periods. We show that the set of strategy-proof, Pareto efficient...

  16. Allocation Problems and Market Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    The thesis contains six independent papers with a common theme: Allocation problems and market design. The first paper is concerned with fair allocation of risk capital where independent autonomous subunits have risky activities and together constitute the entity's total risk, whose associated risk...... with fractional players to allocate the common cost in an entity to the finite number of outputs. The paper is concerned with the computation of Aumann-Shapley prices when the cost function is estimated as a convex hull of a set of observed data points. It is discussed how to overcome certain problems related...... to non-differentiability of the cost function and inefficiency in production. Staying within the theme of cost sharing a fourth paper analyzes a model for trading green energy in a grid where countries are characterized by stochastic demand and stochastic production. The gain is obtained by trading which...

  17. Allocations for Heterogenous Distributed Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Ntranos, Vasileios; Dimakis, Alexandros G

    2012-01-01

    We study the problem of storing a data object in a set of data nodes that fail independently with given probabilities. Our problem is a natural generalization of a homogenous storage allocation problem where all the nodes had the same reliability and is naturally motivated for peer-to-peer and cloud storage systems with different types of nodes. Assuming optimal erasure coding (MDS), the goal is to find a storage allocation (i.e, how much to store in each node) to maximize the probability of successful recovery. This problem turns out to be a challenging combinatorial optimization problem. In this work we introduce an approximation framework based on large deviation inequalities and convex optimization. We propose two approximation algorithms and study the asymptotic performance of the resulting allocations.

  18. Task allocation in a distributed computing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Walter D.

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual framework is examined for task allocation in distributed systems. Application and computing system parameters critical to task allocation decision processes are discussed. Task allocation techniques are addressed which focus on achieving a balance in the load distribution among the system's processors. Equalization of computing load among the processing elements is the goal. Examples of system performance are presented for specific applications. Both static and dynamic allocation of tasks are considered and system performance is evaluated using different task allocation methodologies.

  19. Methods for Precise Submesh Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Morgenstern

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe and compare several recently proposed algorithms for precise submesh allocation in a two-dimensional mesh connected system. The methods surveyed include various frame sliding strategies, the maximum boundary value heuristic, and interval set scan techniques. In addition, a new enhancement to the interval set scan method is described. This enhancement results in an algorithm that has better allocation and run-time performance under a FCFS scheduling policy than any of the other proposed methods. We present results drawn from an extensive simulation study to illustrate the relative efficiency of the various methods.

  20. Allocation Problems and Market Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    The thesis contains six independent papers with a common theme: Allocation problems and market design. The first paper is concerned with fair allocation of risk capital where independent autonomous subunits have risky activities and together constitute the entity's total risk, whose associated risk......-to-one matching model by including a set of objects, such that a matching consists of two agents from disjoint sets, and an object. Agents' preference lists consist of all possible pairs of objects and agents from the other set, and thus contain important information about agent-object tradeoffs. The notion...

  1. VT Maintenance District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont has eight transportation maintenance districts which are responsible for all maintenance activities on state highways, and for providing technical assistance...

  2. The Discipline of Asset Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzel, Todd E.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of asset allocation for college/university endowment funds focuses on three levels of risk: (1) the absolute risk of the portfolio (usually leading to asset diversification); (2) the benchmark risk (usually comparison with peer institutions; and (3) personal career risk (which may incline managers toward maximizing short-term returns,…

  3. Designing for dynamic task allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, C.J.G. van; Maanen, P.P. van

    2005-01-01

    Future platforms are envisioned in which human-machine teams are able to share and trade tasks as demands in situations change. It seems that human-machine coordination has not received the attention it deserves by past and present approaches to task allocation. In this paper a simple way to make co

  4. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  5. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  6. Cost Allocation and Convex Data Envelopment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    This paper considers allocation rules. First, we demonstrate that costs allocated by the Aumann-Shapley and the Friedman-Moulin cost allocation rules are easy to determine in practice using convex envelopment of registered cost data and parametric programming. Second, from the linear programming...... such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The convexity constraint of the BCC model introduces a non-zero slack in the objective function of the multiplier problem and we show that the cost allocation rules discussed in this paper can be used as candidates to allocate this slack value on to the input (or output...... problems involved it becomes clear that the allocation rules, technically speaking, allocate the non-zero value of the dual variable for a convexity constraint on to the output vector. Hence, the allocation rules can also be used to allocate inefficiencies in non-parametric efficiency measurement models...

  7. Cost Allocation and Convex Data Envelopment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    problems involved it becomes clear that the allocation rules, technically speaking, allocate the non-zero value of the dual variable for a convexity constraint on to the output vector. Hence, the allocation rules can also be used to allocate inefficiencies in non-parametric efficiency measurement models...... such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The convexity constraint of the BCC model introduces a non-zero slack in the objective function of the multiplier problem and we show that the cost allocation rules discussed in this paper can be used as candidates to allocate this slack value on to the input (or output...

  8. 國民中學適足教育經費:臺灣偏遠與非偏遠地區學校的比較 Estimating Adequate Funding to Meet Performance Standards for Junior High School Students: Adequate Funding Comparisons Between Rural and Non-Rural Schools in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    張良丞 Liang-Cheng Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 臺灣學生近年來在國際大型測驗表現亮眼,但如進一步檢視學校所處地區,即可明顯看出臺灣存在巨大的城鄉差距問題:偏遠地區與大城市相比,不僅數學表現較差,且出現各校數學差距相對較大的情況。不足的教育經費可能是導致此差距的原因之一,本研究因此以成本函數法來估算偏遠與非偏遠地區學校達成預期學生學業成就所需的適足經費,並以國中基測數學基礎級、平均數、精熟級來作為適足分數,以估算不同程度所需的適足經費,結果發現,無論何種適足分數,偏遠地區所需的每生適足經費皆比非偏遠地區為高,且超過半數以上的偏遠學校未達適足經費水準。本研究亦根據研究結果,提出改進建議。 Although the mathematical ability of Taiwanese students is ranked high according to the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA, Taiwan faces the problem of a gap in test scores between rural students and their non-rural counterparts, with the latter group scoring higher on average. Inadequate funding is a possible reason for this discrepancy. Therefore, this paper uses the cost function approach to compare adequate funding requirements between rural and non-rural schools. The adequate funding estimates are calculated based on the different levels of mathematics scores in the Basic Competence Test (basic, average, and proficient. The results showed that rural schools require more per student funding than do non-rural schools, irrespective of the use of score levels as references. A greater portion of rural schools were shown to operate under inadequate per student funding compared with non-rural schools. This paper provides further evidence of the urgency of increased investment in rural schools.

  9. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Matteo; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferr...

  10. Legitimate Allocation of Public Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper; Lauridsen, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    governing priorities among groups of patients. The Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) framework suggests an ingenious solution to this problem of moral disagreement. Rather than advocating any substantive distributive principle, its advocates propose a feasible set of conditions, which, if met......Citizens' consent to political decisions is often regarded as a necessary condition of political legitimacy. Consequently, legitimate allocation of healthcare has seemed almost unattainable in contemporary pluralistic societies. The problem is that citizens do not agree on any single principle...

  11. Optimal resource allocation for distributed video communication

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yifeng

    2013-01-01

    While most books on the subject focus on resource allocation in just one type of network, this book is the first to examine the common characteristics of multiple distributed video communication systems. Comprehensive and systematic, Optimal Resource Allocation for Distributed Video Communication presents a unified optimization framework for resource allocation across these systems. The book examines the techniques required for optimal resource allocation over Internet, wireless cellular networks, wireless ad hoc networks, and wireless sensor networks. It provides you with the required foundat

  12. Model Checking Dynamic Allocation and Deallocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distefano, Dino; Rensink, Arend; Katoen, Joost-Pieter

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes Allocational Temporal Logic (ATL) as a formalism to express properties concerning the dynamic allocation (birth) and de-allocation (death) of entities, such as the objects in an object-based system. The logic is interpreted on History-Dependent Automata, extended with a symbolic

  13. Intelligent tactical asset allocation support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced support system for Tactical Asset Allocation. Asset allocation explains over 90% of portfolio performance (Brinson, Hood and Beebower, 1988). Tactical asset allocation adjusts a strategic portfolio on the basis of short term market outlooks. The system includes apredi

  14. 40 CFR 74.26 - Allocation formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.26 Allocation formula. (a) The Administrator will calculate the annual allowance allocation for a combustion source based on the data... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation formula. 74.26 Section...

  15. 45 CFR 304.15 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 304.15 Section 304.15 Public... FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION § 304.15 Cost allocation. A State agency in support of its claims under title IV-D of the Social Security Act must have an approved cost allocation plan on file with...

  16. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC....2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine the... may advise the Secretary to make adjustments to the allocation at any time. (c) The majority of...

  17. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must provide that the single or appropriate Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with...

  18. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public... of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees shall keep on file cost allocation plans or indirect cost agreements, as appropriate, that have...

  19. 25 CFR 39.902 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation. 39.902 Section 39.902 Indians BUREAU OF... Maintenance and Minor Repair Fund § 39.902 Allocation. (a) Interim Maintenance and Minor Repair funds shall be... determining school allocations shall be taken from the facilities inventory maintained by the Division...

  20. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The Defense... contemplated and the contract amount is expected to exceed the small purchase limitation. Allocation (DFSC...

  1. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 1355.57 Section 1355.57 Public... MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation. (a... maintenance payments or adoption assistance payments may be made under the State plan. (b) Cost allocation...

  2. 45 CFR 205.150 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 205.150 Section 205.150 Public... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.150 Cost allocation. A State plan under title I, IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI (AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that the State agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on...

  3. 39 CFR 3060.12 - Asset allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asset allocation. 3060.12 Section 3060.12 Postal... COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.12 Asset allocation. Within 6 months of January 23, 2009, and for each... competitive products enterprise using a method of allocation based on appropriate revenue or cost...

  4. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 457.228 Section 457.228 Public...; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.228 Cost allocation. A State plan must provide that the single or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department...

  5. 15 CFR 923.92 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation. 923.92 Section 923.92....92 Allocation. (a) Subsections 303(4), 306(d)(3)(B) and 306(d)(10) of the Act foster..., areawide agencies, regional agencies and interstate agencies. Such allocations provide for...

  6. Intelligent tactical asset allocation support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced support system for Tactical Asset Allocation. Asset allocation explains over 90% of portfolio performance (Brinson, Hood and Beebower, 1988). Tactical asset allocation adjusts a strategic portfolio on the basis of short term market outlooks. The system includes apredi

  7. Intelligent tactical asset allocation support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced support system for Tactical Asset Allocation. Asset allocation explains over 90% of portfolio performance (Brinson, Hood and Beebower, 1988). Tactical asset allocation adjusts a strategic portfolio on the basis of short term market outlooks. The system includes

  8. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  9. Municipal League Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for the Municipal League Districts in New Mexico. It is a vector digital data structure at a scale of 1:100,000.

  10. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  11. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  12. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  13. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  14. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  15. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  16. On the Ramified Optimal Allocation Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Qinglan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimal allocation problem with ramified transport technology in a spatial economy. Ramified transportation is used to model the transport economy of scale in group transportation observed widely in both nature and efficiently designed transport systems of branching structures. The ramified allocation problem aims at finding an optimal allocation plan as well as an associated optimal allocation path to minimize overall cost of transporting commodity from factories to households. This problem differentiates itself from existing ramified transportation literature in that the distribution of production among factories is not fixed but endogenously determined as observed in many allocation practices. It's shown that due to the transport economy of scale in ramified transportation, each optimal allocation plan corresponds equivalently to an optimal assignment map from households to factories. This optimal assignment map provides a natural partition of both households and allocation paths. We...

  17. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  18. Allocation decisions in network industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolle, Friedel [Europa-Universitaet Viadrina Frankfurt, Lehrstuhl Volkswirtschaftslehre, insbesondere Wirtschaftstheorie (Mikrooekonomie), Postfach 1786 15207 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    In this paper, I want to propagate a new analytical tool: The usage of Menu Auctions for modelling complicated auctions, negotiations, rent seeking, etc. is advocated, because, contrary to 'normal' auctions and bargaining models, an arbitrary number of additional aspects can be taken into account. After concentrating on 'Truthful Equilibria' [Bernheim, B.D., Whinston, M.D., 1986. Menu auctions, resource allocation, and economic influence, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1-31.] a certain broad class of Menu Auctions show unique and efficient allocations. Under an additional concavity condition even the equilibrium bids are unique. Two examples are discussed: the privatisation of a state-owned industry and the buying of wholesale electricity (concluding contracts with a number of producers) by a utility. These examples also serve to trace the sources of 'non-concavities' which can prevent the uniqueness of bids and can provide the auctioneer with incentives to exclude bidders from the competition. (author)

  19. Allocation - the Howe measurement challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, Jim; Moksnes, Paul Ove

    2005-07-01

    The Howe Field is located in the Central North Sea Block 22/12a approximately 160 km east of Aberdeen in a water depth of 85 m. The reservoir lies some 12 km east of the Shell operated Nelson Platform, which is situated in adjacent Block 22/11. The Howe project was initiated by Shell Exploration and Production to augment the operating life and production capacity of the Nelson platform, involving the development of an additional subset infrastructure and the installation of topside facilities. The owners of the Howe Field are Enterprise Oil PLC , Intrepid Energy and OMV. The Howe well fluids are commingled with Nelson fluids. Therefore, it is required to measure the Howe well fluids to differentiate between the fields and to determine how much money each partner is allocated. The commercial agreements have stipulated that the measurements of Howe fluids are required to be measured within an accuracy of +- 5% of reading. In addition to accuracy constraints, it was important to minimise capex to ensure the development was economically viable. Given this, multiphase metering was considered to be a solution for allocation between the different ownerships, as opposed to traditional separator metering. This paper will present the journey of the project activity through the selection criteria, flow loop test, installation, commissioning and the first 3 months of operation of the MPFM including verification with the Nelson test separator. Detailing with careful management and engineering support how to succeed with this type of application. (author) (tk)

  20. An economic framework for valuing information in water scarce irrigation districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaune, Alexander; Werner, Micha; Karimi, Poolad; de Fraiture, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Data and information plays a crucial role in quantifying the abundance of the available water resource and the demand placed on it in water scarce regions, and is central to decision making. This is particularly so for water allocation decisions in large irrigation districts. However, in most irrigation schemes data collection is normally limited due to the economic investments required. As a result, water allocation decisions are normally taken based on incomplete or uncertain data on the current or forecast situation, leading to less optimal decisions being taken in system planning and operation. Wrong water allocation decisions can lead to economic loss in agricultural production, implying low performance of the system and possible impact on the users' livelihoods. The objective of this research is to assess available frameworks in valuing information and to adapt these to support water allocation decisions in irrigation districts. Water allocation decisions made in the planning of irrigation districts as well as in their operation will be evaluated through a decision framework that considers a discrete set of options, each generating different agricultural production loss scenarios relative to uncertain water scarcity conditions. Additional information obtained from improved data can support better decision making and thus constitutes added value. This added value can be interpreted as the marginal benefit of the improved data. The marginal benefit of information will be determined following an economic framework based on the Relative Economic Value theory that is applied in making decisions in a Bayesian setting. Through this framework it is expected to provide economic values of information in support of water allocation decisions in vulnerable irrigation districts. This is an essential step to provide insight on the value of information in water allocation decisions in planning and operation, and ultimately to reduce agricultural production loss.

  1. Distributed algorithms for resource allocation and routing

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zengjian

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, we study distributed algorithms in the context of two fundamental problems in distributed systems, resource allocation and routing. Resource allocation studies how to distribute workload evenly to resources. We consider two different resource allocation models, the diffusive load balancing and the weighted balls-into-bins games. Routing studies how to deliver messages from source to estination efficiently. We design routing algorithms for broadcasting and gossiping in ad hoc n...

  2. Working against Ourselves: Decision Making in a Small Rural School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jean A.; Koenigs, Andrew; Mohn, Gordon; Rasmussen, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine decision making and resource allocation in a small, rural district in a Midwestern state of the USA during a time of economic retrenchment. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative case study methods were used, including focus groups and personal interviews with current and former district…

  3. Survey of Personnel Practices at Single-Campus Community College Districts in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Jack

    In May 1985, a survey was conducted by Napa Valley College (NVC) to determine the salary and personnel practices of the 48 single-campus community college districts in California and compare them with personnel practices at NVC. The survey focused on salary and benefit allocations in school budgets, estimated reserves or ending balance in 1984-85,…

  4. Resource Allocation Using Metaheuristic Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy M. Connor

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on solving problems in the area of software project management using metaheuristic search algorithmsand as such is resea rch in the field of search based software engineering. The main aim of this research is to ev aluate the performance of different metaheuristic search techniques in resource allocat ion and scheduling problemsthat would be typical of software development projects.This paper reports a set of experiments which evaluate the performance of three algorithms, namely simulat ed annealing, tabu search and genetic algorithms. The experimental results indicate thata ll of themetaheuristics search techniques can be used to solve problems in resource allocation an d scheduling within a software project. Finally, a comparative analysis suggests that overa ll the genetic algorithm had performed better than simulated annealing and tabu search.

  5. Statistical Mechanics of Resource Allocation

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    We provide a mathematical model to investigate the resource allocation problem for agents, say, university graduates who are looking for their positions in labor markets. The basic model is described by the so-called Potts spin glass which is well-known in the research field of statistical physics. In the model, each Potts spin (a tiny magnet in atomic scale length) represents the action of each student, and it takes a discrete variable corresponding to the company he/she applies for. We construct the energy to include three distinct effects on the students' behavior, namely, collective effect, market history and international ranking of companies. In this model system, the correlations (the adjacent matrix) between students are taken into account through the pairwise spin-spin interactions. We carry out computer simulations to examine the efficiency of the model. We also show that some chiral representation of the Potts spin enables us to obtain some analytical insights into our labor markets.

  6. Empowering districts to target priorities for improving child health service in Uganda using change management and rapid assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaga, John; Henriksson, Dorcus K; Nkolo, Charles; Tibeihaho, Hector; Musabe, Richard; Katusiime, Margaret; Sinabulya, Zaccheus; Mucunguzi, Stephen; Mbonye, Anthony K; Valadez, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Local health system managers in low- and middle-income countries have the responsibility to set health priorities and allocate resources accordingly. Although tools exist to aid this process, they are not widely applied for various reasons including non-availability, poor knowledge of the tools, and poor adaptability into the local context. In Uganda, delivery of basic services is devolved to the District Local Governments through the District Health Teams (DHTs). The Community and District Empowerment for Scale-up (CODES) project aims to provide a set of management tools that aid contextualised priority setting, fund allocation, and problem-solving in a systematic way to improve effective coverage and quality of child survival interventions. Although the various tools have previously been used at the national level, the project aims to combine them in an integral way for implementation at the district level. These tools include Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) surveys to generate local evidence, Bottleneck analysis and Causal analysis as analytical tools, Continuous Quality Improvement, and Community Dialogues based on Citizen Report Cards and U reports. The tools enable identification of gaps, prioritisation of possible solutions, and allocation of resources accordingly. This paper presents some of the tools used by the project in five districts in Uganda during the proof-of-concept phase of the project. All five districts were trained and participated in LQAS surveys and readily adopted the tools for priority setting and resource allocation. All districts developed health operational work plans, which were based on the evidence and each of the districts implemented more than three of the priority activities which were included in their work plans. In the five districts, the CODES project demonstrated that DHTs can adopt and integrate these tools in the planning process by systematically identifying gaps and setting priority interventions for child survival.

  7. Bounds in the location-allocation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    1981-01-01

    Develops a family of stronger lower bounds on the objective function value of the location-allocation problem. Solution methods proposed to solve problems in location-allocation; Efforts to develop a more efficient bound solution procedure; Determination of the locations of the sources.......Develops a family of stronger lower bounds on the objective function value of the location-allocation problem. Solution methods proposed to solve problems in location-allocation; Efforts to develop a more efficient bound solution procedure; Determination of the locations of the sources....

  8. Cognitive radio networks dynamic resource allocation schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents a survey of dynamic resource allocation schemes in Cognitive Radio (CR) Systems, focusing on the spectral-efficiency and energy-efficiency in wireless networks. It also introduces a variety of dynamic resource allocation schemes for CR networks and provides a concise introduction of the landscape of CR technology. The author covers in detail the dynamic resource allocation problem for the motivations and challenges in CR systems. The Spectral- and Energy-Efficient resource allocation schemes are comprehensively investigated, including new insights into the trade-off

  9. Government Districts, Other - MDC_CommissionerDistrictOffice

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A point feature class of Commissioner District Offices. Only District offices were included in this feature class. Main offices at the Stephen P. Clark Center were...

  10. Election Districts and Precincts, Voter districts, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. It is described as 'Voter districts'. Data by...

  11. Special Taxing Districts, TIF districts, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Special Taxing Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'TIF districts'. Data by...

  12. School Districts, School districts-Elementary, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This School Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'School districts-Elementary'. Data by this...

  13. School Districts, School districts-Middle, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This School Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'School districts-Middle'. Data by this...

  14. Divergence in plant and microbial allocation strategies explains continental patterns in microbial allocation and biogeochemical fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Colin

    2014-10-01

    Allocation trade-offs shape ecological and biogeochemical phenomena at local to global scale. Plant allocation strategies drive major changes in ecosystem carbon cycling. Microbial allocation to enzymes that decompose carbon vs. organic nutrients may similarly affect ecosystem carbon cycling. Current solutions to this allocation problem prioritise stoichiometric tradeoffs implemented in plant ecology. These solutions may not maximise microbial growth and fitness under all conditions, because organic nutrients are also a significant carbon resource for microbes. I created multiple allocation frameworks and simulated microbial growth using a microbial explicit biogeochemical model. I demonstrate that prioritising stoichiometric trade-offs does not optimise microbial allocation, while exploiting organic nutrients as carbon resources does. Analysis of continental-scale enzyme data supports the allocation patterns predicted by this framework, and modelling suggests large deviations in soil C loss based on which strategy is implemented. Therefore, understanding microbial allocation strategies will likely improve our understanding of carbon cycling and climate.

  15. Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computional allocation of peer tutors in learning communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Westera, W. (2007). Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computational allocation of peer tutors in learning communities. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/10/2/5.html

  16. Unified School Districts, Census 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The New Mexico 2000 Unified School Districts layer was derived from the TIGER Line files from the US Census Bureau. The districts are clipped to the state...

  17. State Highway District Boundaries - 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data represents the NM Department of Transportation District boundaries as legislatively defined (i.e. these are not maintenance defined districts).

  18. Constant time worker thread allocation via configuration caching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; O'Brien, John K. P.

    2014-11-04

    Mechanisms are provided for allocating threads for execution of a parallel region of code. A request for allocation of worker threads to execute the parallel region of code is received from a master thread. Cached thread allocation information identifying prior thread allocations that have been performed for the master thread are accessed. Worker threads are allocated to the master thread based on the cached thread allocation information. The parallel region of code is executed using the allocated worker threads.

  19. Modelling district nurse expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    As changes in society and health provision mean that one in four people over the age of 75 will require nursing care at home, pre-registration adult nurse education increasingly prepares student nurses for a future career within the community. District nurses undertake complex, multidimensional health and social assessments and care in a non-clinical setting and work in partnership with patients and their significant others to promote practical and psychological coping mechanisms and self-care. The district nurse's first assessment visit is key to developing a therapeutic partnership and it is often during this visit that expertise in district nursing practice emerges. The holistic, contextual and dynamic aspects of nursing in the home setting can make district nursing expertise difficult to illustrate and demonstrate within the classroom setting. This article explores the ways in which an understanding of expertise development theory can enable the tacit expertise that occurs within the first assessment visit to be made visible to student nurses, using simulation and expert narrative as a pedagogical strategy.

  20. District-Level Downsizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make…

  1. Cost allocation in shortest path games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorneveld, M.; Grahn, S.

    2001-01-01

    A class of cooperative games arising from shortest path problems is dened These shortest path games are shown to be totally balanced and allow a population monotonic allocation scheme Possible methods for obtaining core elements are indicated rst by relating to the allocation rules in taxation and b

  2. 15 CFR 336.4 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation. 336.4 Section 336.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL... § 336.4 Allocation. (a) The Tariff Rate Quota licenses will be issued to eligible manufacturers on...

  3. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  4. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.503 Credit allocation. (a) Based on annual credit activity report information,...

  5. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: "allocation," "induction," and "correlation." Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of…

  6. Evidence on changes in aid allocation criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.; Cassimon, D.; Van Campenhout, B.

    2009-01-01

    Have donors changed their aid-allocation criteria over the past three decades toward greater selectivity, a frequently stated goal of the international development community? Using data on how 22 donors allocated their bilateral aid among 147 countries over 1970-2004, the article finds that after th

  7. Thematic Mapper data for forest resource allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeff, Ilene S.; Merry, Carolyn J.

    1993-01-01

    A technique for classifying a Landsat Thematic Mapper image was demonstrated on the Wayne National Forest of southeastern Ohio. The classified image was integrated into a geographic information system database, and prescriptive forest land use allocation models were developed using the techniques of cartographic modeling. Timber harvest sites and accompanying haul roads were allocated.

  8. Bounds in the location-allocation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    1981-01-01

    Develops a family of stronger lower bounds on the objective function value of the location-allocation problem. Solution methods proposed to solve problems in location-allocation; Efforts to develop a more efficient bound solution procedure; Determination of the locations of the sources....

  9. Adaptive computational resource allocation for sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-hong; FEI E; YAN Yu-jie

    2008-01-01

    To efficiently utilize the limited computational resource in real-time sensor networks, this paper focu-ses on the challenge of computational resource allocation in sensor networks and provides a solution with the method of economies. It designs a mieroeconomic system in which the applications distribute their computational resource consumption across sensor networks by virtue of mobile agent. Further, it proposes the market-based computational resource allocation policy named MCRA which satisfies the uniform consumption of computational energy in network and the optimal division of the single computational capacity for multiple tasks. The simula-tion in the scenario of target tracing demonstrates that MCRA realizes an efficient allocation of computational re-sources according to the priority of tasks, achieves the superior allocation performance and equilibrium perform-ance compared to traditional allocation policies, and ultimately prolongs the system lifetime.

  10. Going beyond horizontal equity: an analysis of health expenditure allocation across geographic areas in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Laura; Lagarde, Mylène; Hanson, Kara

    2015-04-01

    In contexts where health services are mostly publicly provided and access is still limited, health financing systems require some mechanism for distributing financial resources across geographic areas according to population need. Equity in public health expenditure has been evaluated either by comparing allocations across spending units to equitable shares established using resource allocation formulae, or by using benefit incidence analysis to look at the distribution of expenditure across individual service users. In the latter case, the distribution across individuals has typically not been linked to the mechanisms that determine the allocation across geographic areas, and to the utilization of specific services by individuals. In this paper, we apply benefit incidence analysis in an innovative way to assess horizontal and vertical equity in the geographic allocation of recurrent expenditure for outpatient health care across districts in Mozambique. We compare the actual distribution of expenditure with horizontal and vertical equity benchmarks, set according to measures of economic status and need for health care. We quantify the observed inequities and the relative contributions of service use and resource allocation. We analyse government and donor expenditure separately and combined, for the years 2008-2011 to compare changes over time and funding source. We use data from a number of national routine sources. Results show improvements in both horizontal and vertical equity, along with the gradual alignment of government and donor resources over time, which resulted in almost horizontally and vertically equitable resource allocation in 2011. However, inequities in the distribution of expenditure across beneficiaries persisted and were driven by inequities in service use. The discrepancy between economic and need indicators highlighted initial differences in government and donor expenditure targets, raising questions about the purpose of public health

  11. Comprehensive Conservation Plan: Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake...

  12. Credit allocation for research institutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.-P.; Guo, Q.; Yang, K.; Han, J.-T.; Liu, J.-G.

    2017-05-01

    It is a challenging work to assess research performance of multiple institutes. Considering that it is unfair to average the credit to the institutes which is in the different order from a paper, in this paper, we present a credit allocation method (CAM) with a weighted order coefficient for multiple institutes. The results for the APS dataset with 18987 institutes show that top-ranked institutes obtained by the CAM method correspond to well-known universities or research labs with high reputation in physics. Moreover, we evaluate the performance of the CAM method when citation links are added or rewired randomly quantified by the Kendall's Tau and Jaccard index. The experimental results indicate that the CAM method has better performance in robustness compared with the total number of citations (TC) method and Shen's method. Finally, we give the first 20 Chinese universities in physics obtained by the CAM method. However, this method is valid for any other branch of sciences, not just for physics. The proposed method also provides universities and policy makers an effective tool to quantify and balance the academic performance of university.

  13. Liver allocation and distribution: time for a change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ranjit; Hirose, Ryutaro; Mulligan, David

    2017-04-01

    Liver allograft allocation has been a topic of hot debate for over a decade. New redistricting changes have been proposed by the Liver and Intestinal Transplant Committee to the existing United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) liver allocation policy. The basis of this new proposal is similar to the old one with an aim to distribute organs in a fair, efficient and equitable fashion. In this review, we plan to look in depth at the redistribution proposals thus far, their merits and how they may help patients who do not have adequate access to livers. Many authors have criticized the proposed changes to organ distribution to reduce geographic disparity in access to liver transplantation. Our focus in this article is to bring forth the most recent literature and proposed changes in the current distribution system. We will also mention two other possible methods that have been proposed to redesign distribution using concentric circles and neighborhoods. In this article, we also look at the economics of the redistricting proposal and its effects on transplant centers. The UNOS Liver and Intestinal Transplant Committee has recommended a proposal using the eight-district model with proximity circles and three additional Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) points with initial sharing MELD threshold of 25 as a starting point to reduce disparity in patient access to deceased donor livers for transplantation. This proposal has met with significant resistance because of concerns of cost, logistics and impact on existing transplant centers. Other methodologies have also been proposed that have the potential to significantly improve our current disparity of access to life-saving organs. Variation in the supply of donor organs vs. the demand or need for liver transplant by geography and the current defined areas of distribution drive this disparity. Cost benefits to the healthcare system in caring for patients with advanced stages of liver disease may outweigh increased

  14. Shift-invariant target in allocation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Saumen; Biswas, Atanu

    2014-07-10

    We provide a template for finding target allocation proportions in optimal allocation designs where the target will be invariant for both shifts in location and scale of the response distributions. One possible application of such target allocation proportions is to carry out a response-adaptive allocation. While most of the existing designs are invariant for any change in scale of the underlying distributions, they are not location invariant in most of the cases. First, we indicate this serious flaw in the existing literature and illustrate how this lack of location invariance makes the performance of the designs very poor in terms of allocation for any drastic change in location, such as the changes from degrees centigrade to degrees Fahrenheit. We illustrate that unless a target allocation is location invariant, it might lead to a completely irrelevant and useless target for allocation. Then we discuss how such location invariance can be achieved for general continuous responses. We illustrate the proposed method using some real clinical trial data. We also indicate the possible extension of the procedure for more than two treatments at hand and in the presence of covariates.

  15. Dynamic cache resources allocation for energy efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-ming; ZOU Xue-cheng; LEI Jian-ming; LIU Zheng-lin

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a mechanism of low overhead and less runtime, termed dynamic cache resources allocation (DCRA), which allocates each application with required cache resources. The mechanism collects cache hit-miss information at runtime and then analyzes the information and decides how many cache resources should be allocated to the current executing application. The amount of cache resources varies dynamically to reduce the total number of misses and energy consumption. The study of several applications from SPEC2000 shows that significant energy saving is achieved for the application based on the DCRA with an average of 39% savings.

  16. Dynamic Allocation of Sugars in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, L. C.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B. A.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Allocation of carbon and nitrogen is a key factor for plant productivity. Measurements are carried out by tracing 11C-tagged sugars using positron emission tomography and coincidence counting. We study the mechanisms of carbon allocation and transport from carbohydrate sources (leaves) to sinks (stem, shoot, roots) under various environmental conditions such as soil nutrient levels and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The data are analyzed using a transfer function analysis technique to model transport and allocation in barley plants. The experimental technique will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was supported in part by USDOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97-ER41033 and DE-SC0005057.

  17. Phenotypically flexible sex allocation in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, Verena S.; Schaerer, Lukas; Michiels, Nico K.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies on sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites have typically focused either on evolutionary or one-time, ontogenetic optimization of sex allocation, ignoring variation within an individual's lifetime. Here, we study whether hermaphrodites also possess facultative sex allocation,

  18. Discussion of Optimal Allocation of Resources Theory for Communication Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiao-lin; YU Hua; SU Hua-ying

    2004-01-01

    The theory on the resource optimal allocation is discussed in this article. On the base of the discussion, for the main problems existing in the resource allocation of communication enterprises, the reasonable allocating measures are put forward.

  19. Achievements and Challenges of Resource Allocation for Health in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achievements and Challenges of Resource Allocation for Health in a ... and challenges of a resource allocation process in a decentralized health system in ... planning and management aspects for the allocation of financial resources from the ...

  20. resource allocation methodology for internet heterogeneous traffic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    RESOURCE ALLOCATION METHODOLOGY FOR INTERNET. HETEROGENEOUS ... control, III this case, involves determining the optimum network resources - in terms ..... Oriented Network Simulator) Designer” a business. Unit of Cadence ...

  1. Worst-case analysis of heap allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Huber, Benedikt; Schoeberl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In object oriented languages, dynamic memory allocation is a fundamental concept. When using such a language in hard real-time systems, it becomes important to bound both the worst-case execution time and the worst-case memory consumption. In this paper, we present an analysis to determine...... the worst-case heap allocations of tasks. The analysis builds upon techniques that are well established for worst-case execution time analysis. The difference is that the cost function is not the execution time of instructions in clock cycles, but the allocation in bytes. In contrast to worst-case execution...... time analysis, worst-case heap allocation analysis is not processor dependent. However, the cost function depends on the object layout of the runtime system. The analysis is evaluated with several real-time benchmarks to establish the usefulness of the analysis, and to compare the memory consumption...

  2. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  3. Game of Power Allocation on Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuke

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a distributed resource allocation game to study countries' pursuit of targets such as self-survival in the networked international environment. The paper has two general contributions: firstly, it contributes the basic idea that countries' behavior, which is power allocation, is a basic human behavior of resource allocation and the development of this game is the first time countries' behavior has ever been rigorously studied from a resource allocation perspective; secondly, the game itself has an intrinsically interesting and novel mathematical structure --- it actually presents a new technical problem with a surprising amount of informative predictions which arise from the rich parameter space that defines all kinds of possibilities for the networked international environments. The predictions both motivate major theoretical results (e.g., Nash equilibrium existence) and shed light on real world politics.

  4. Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic Performance in ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... while the dependent variables were students' academic performance.

  5. A Novel Register Allocation Algorithm for Testability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Qiang; ZHOU Tao; LI Haijun

    2007-01-01

    In the course of high-level synthesis of integrate circuit, the hard-to-test structure caused by irrational schedule and allocation reduces the testability of circuit. In order to improve the circuit testability, this paper proposes a weighted compatibility graph (WCG), which provides a weighted formula of compatibility graph based on register allocation for testability and uses improved weighted compatibility clique partition algorithm to deal with this WCG. As a result, four rules for testability are considered simultaneously in the course of register allocation so that the objective of improving the design of testability is acquired. Tested by many experimental results of benchmarks and compared with many other models, the register allocation algorithm proposed in this paper has greatly improved the circuit testability with little overhead on the final circuit area.

  6. CDC Allocates $184 Million for Zika Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162694.html CDC Allocates $184 Million for Zika Protection Funds are earmarked for states, territories, local ... million has been earmarked to protect Americans against Zika virus infection, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control ...

  7. Memory Allocation in Distributed Storage Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sardari, Mohsen; Fekri, Faramarz; Soljanin, Emina

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of distributing a file in a network of storage nodes whose storage budget is limited but at least equals to the size file. We first generate $T$ encoded symbols (from the file) which are then distributed among the nodes. We investigate the optimal allocation of $T$ encoded packets to the storage nodes such that the probability of reconstructing the file by using any $r$ out of $n$ nodes is maximized. Since the optimal allocation of encoded packets is difficult to find in general, we find another objective function which well approximates the original problem and yet is easier to optimize. We find the optimal symmetric allocation for all coding redundancy constraints using the equivalent approximate problem. We also investigate the optimal allocation in random graphs. Finally, we provide simulations to verify the theoretical results.

  8. Discrete Tolerance Allocation for Product Families

    OpenAIRE

    Lööf, Johan; Söderberg, Rikard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper extends earlier research on the discrete tolerance allocation problem in order to optimize an entire product family simultaneously. This methodology enables top-down tolerancing approach where requirements on assembly level on products within a family are allocated to single part requirements. The proposed solution has been implemented as an interface with an optimization algorithm coupled with a variation simulation software. The paper also consists of an exten...

  9. Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh

    2014-01-15

    Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an

  10. Using CLV concept for marketing budgets allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Oyner, Olga K.; Sukhorukove, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The paper evaluates the usefulness of customer lifetime value (CLV) as a metric for marketing budget allocation by developing a framework that enables managers to maintain customer relationships proactively through different elements of marketing mix, in order to maximize CLV. The analysis is based on data from a hardware components PC B2B company and suggests that there is a potential for increased sales and CLVs when managers design resource allocation rules that maximize CLV. Managers can ...

  11. Allocative Efficiency of Technically Inefficient Production Units

    OpenAIRE

    Bogetoft, Peter; Fare, Rolf

    1999-01-01

    We discuss how to measure allocative efficiency without presuming technical efficiency. This is relevant when it is easier to introduce reallocations than improvements of technical efficiency. We compare the approach to the traditional one of assuming technical efficiency before measuring allocative efficiency. In particular, we develop necessary and sufficient conditions on the technology to ensure consistent measures and we give dual organizational interpretations of the approaches.

  12. Discrete Tolerance Allocation for Product Families

    OpenAIRE

    Lööf, Johan; Söderberg, Rikard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper extends earlier research on the discrete tolerance allocation problem in order to optimize an entire product family simultaneously. This methodology enables top-down tolerancing approach where requirements on assembly level on products within a family are allocated to single part requirements. The proposed solution has been implemented as an interface with an optimization algorithm coupled with a variation simulation software. The paper also consists of an exten...

  13. Government Districts, Other - MDC_CommissionDistrict2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class representing the Redistricting Commission Plan 11-15, adopted November 15, 2001. This Commission District Boundary layer becomes effective...

  14. Revenue Allocation and Economic Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagwom Yohanna Dang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the impact of revenue allocation on economic development in Nigeria. Specifically, the study looks at how the various revenue allocations to the three tiers of government affect real gross domestic product (RGDP in Nigeria using time series data for the period 1993 to 2012. Error correction model (ECM and Pairwise Granger Causality test are used in analyzing the data. The study carries out test of stationarity of the variables using Augmented Dickey–Fuller unit root test and test of long-run relationship among the variables using Johansen Cointegration test. The study’s findings show that revenue allocations have significant causal relationship with economic development in Nigeria, with only revenue allocation to states having significant negative relationship. Unidirectional causality runs from revenue allocations to real GDP in Nigeria. All variables of the study are cointegrated and have a long-run relationship that 87.62% of the short-run disequilibrium is corrected yearly. The study recommends among others that more financial control and value for money audit should be carried out to minimize wastages and corruption in the states of the federation, so as to change the direction of influence of states’ revenue allocation on economic development.

  15. Analysis of pediatric lung donor allocation policy: a call for change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajarski, Robert; Bowman, Diana M

    2015-04-01

    In an unprecedented legal ruling in June 2013, a US federal district court judge decided that the existing policy for donor lung allocation be vacated to save the life of a ten-year-old girl dying from cystic fibrosis. This case has fueled much controversy in the United States among policy makers, ethicists, and physicians who treat other patients awaiting transplant. This article examines the creation of the current US lung allocation policy and its impact on outcomes and analyzes the multidimensionality of the ruling. After analyzing the current policy and investigating alternatives for donor pool expansion, the article concludes by articulating options that may mitigate the need for current policy revision. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  16. Cooling of chiller condensers by district cooling in supermarkets; Kylning av kylmaskiners kondensorer med fjaerrkyla i livsmedelsbutiker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund Stignor, Caroline [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    the opposite. However, this result is very much dependent upon how the use of electricity has been allocated (distributed) amongst the two products district cooling and district heating. In the environmental comparison the LCA-methodology has been applied. The results show that condenser cooling by district cooling leads to the least environmental impact in all the studied categories, if the district cooling is produced by deep-water source cooling and it is assumed that the used electricity is produced according to marginal production. However, condenser cooling by district cooling cannot compete with the other alternatives where heat recovery is applied if it is assumed that the used electricity is produced according to a Swedish production mix, no matter how the district cooling is produced.

  17. The wind-frequency allocation method on discharge loading of function zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Gao, Tingyao; Hu, Chenyan; Shi, Jiekuan

    2002-06-01

    This paper introduces a new allocation method on discharge loading of each function zone in a total emission control region. The wind frequency, the position of each district, and the pollutant's influence area were taken into account in this new method. The concept of "average downwind distance" was brought forward in this paper. The method here is more reasonable than the original method of area distribution, which was proposed by the "A-value" method in regulation of total emissions in China, by means of the simulation of annual average concentration in the total emission control region.

  18. Recent changes in human resources for health and health facilities at the district level in Indonesia: evidence from 3 districts in Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Peter; Harahap, Nida P; Aryani, Siska

    2011-02-13

    There is continuing discussion in Indonesia about the need for improved information on human resources for health at the district level where programs are actually delivered. This is particularly the case after a central government decision to offer doctors, nurses and midwives on contract the chance to convert to permanent civil service status. Our objective here is to report changes between 2006 and 2008 in numbers and employment status of health staff in three districts following the central government decision. Information was derived from records at the district health office and, where necessary for clarification, discussions with district officials. Across the three districts and all public sector provider categories there was an increase of almost 680 providers between 2006 and 2008 - more than 300 nurses, more than 300 midwives and 25 doctors. The increases for permanent public servants were proportionately much greater (43%) than the total (16%). The increase in those who are permanent civil servants was greatest for nurses (51%) and midwives (35%) with corresponding decreases in the proportion of staff on contract. There was considerable variation between the three districts. There has been a significant increase in the number of healthcare providers in the 3 districts surveyed and the proportion now permanent public servants has increased even more than the increase in total numbers. The changes have the effect of increasing the proportion of total public expenditure allocated to salaries and reducing the flexibility of the districts in managing their own budgets. Because public servants are allowed private practice outside office hours there has also been an increase in the number of private practice facilities offering health care. These changes illustrate the need for a much improved human resources information system and a coherent policy to guide actions on human resources for health at the national, provincial and district levels.

  19. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General objective. The allocation planning process should provide for the equitable distribution of available budget...

  20. 47 CFR 64.903 - Cost allocation manuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation manuals. 64.903 Section 64.903... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.903 Cost allocation manuals. (a) Each... mid-sized incumbent local exchange carriers is required to file a cost allocation manual...

  1. 18 CFR 367.28 - Methods of allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of allocation... Instructions § 367.28 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and compensation for use of capital must be... allocation. Both direct and allocated indirect costs on projects must be assigned among those companies...

  2. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Allocation of Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO...

  3. 26 CFR 1.514(e)-1 - Allocation rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Allocation rules. 1.514(e)-1 Section 1.514(e)-1... Allocation rules. Where only a portion of property is debt-financed property, proper allocation of the basis...)(iii) of § 1.514(b)-1 for illustrations of proper allocation....

  4. The Use of Different Rules to Allocate Reward and Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles W.

    Much research has been conducted about how and when individuals allocate rewards, yet little research exists concerning the allocation of punishment. The process of allocating negative outcomes may be different from the decision making process for positive outcomes. To examine the decision making process for allocating rewards and punishment,…

  5. 20 CFR 633.105 - Allocation of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... invitation to submit applications for State(s) or area(s) open for competition as provided in the... units of government, or public agencies. (b) State allocations (allocable funds). (1) No less than 94... funds for use in a State whose allocation is less than $120,000. (ii) Those funds not allocated will...

  6. SOME NOTES ON COST ALLOCATION IN MULTICASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Skorin-Kapov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the cost allocation strategies with the problef of broadcasting information from some source to a number of communication network users. A multicast routing chooses a minimum cost tree network that spans the source and all the receivers. The cost of such a network is distributed among its receivers who may be individuals or organizations with possibly conflicting interests. Providing network developers, users and owners with practical computable 'fair' cost allocation solution procedures is of great importance for network mamagement. Consequently, this multidisciplinary problem was extensively studied by Operational Researchers, Economists, Mathematicians and Computer Scientists. The fairness of various proposed solutions was even argued in US courts. This presentation overviews some previously published, as well as some recent results, in the development of algorithmic mechanisms to efficiently compute 'attractive' cost allocation solutions for multicast networks. Specifically, we will analyze cooperative game theory based cost allocation models that avoid cross subsidies and/or are distance and population monotonic. We will also present some related open cost allocation problems and the potential contribution that such models might make to this problem in the future.

  7. Healthcare resource allocation decisions affecting uninsured services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Krista Lyn; Taylor, Holly A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Using the example of community access programs (CAPs), the purpose of this paper is to describe resource allocation and policy decisions related to providing health services for the uninsured in the USA and the organizational values affecting these decisions. Design/methodology/approach The study used comparative case study methodology at two geographically diverse sites. Researchers collected data from program documents, meeting observations, and interviews with program stakeholders. Findings Five resource allocation or policy decisions relevant to providing healthcare services were described at each site across three categories: designing the health plan, reacting to funding changes, and revising policies. Organizational values of access to care and stewardship most frequently affected resource allocation and policy decisions, while economic and political pressures affect the relative prioritization of values. Research limitations/implications Small sample size, the potential for social desirability or recall bias, and the exclusion of provider, member or community perspectives beyond those represented among participating board members. Practical implications Program directors or researchers can use this study to assess the extent to which resource allocation and policy decisions align with organizational values and mission statements. Social implications The description of how healthcare decisions are actually made can be matched with literature that describes how healthcare resource decisions ought to be made, in order to provide a normative grounding for future decisions. Originality/value This study addresses a gap in literature regarding how CAPs actually make resource allocation decisions that affect access to healthcare services. PMID:27934550

  8. Multi-robot task allocation for exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ping-an; CAI Zi-xing

    2006-01-01

    The problem of allocating a number of exploration tasks to a team of mobile robots in dynamic environments was studied. The team mission is to visit several distributed targets. The path cost of target is proportional to the distance that a robot has to move to visit the target. The team objective is to minimize the average path cost of target over all targets. Finding an optimal allocation is strongly NP-hard. The proposed algorithm can produce a near-optimal solution to it. The allocation can be cast in terms of a multi-round single-item auction by which robots bid on targets. In each auction round, one target is assigned to a robot that produces the lowest path cost of the target. The allocated targets form a forest where each tree corresponds a robot's exploring targets set. Each robot constructs an exploring path through depth-first search in its target tree. The time complexity of the proposed algorithm is polynomial. Simulation experiments show that the allocating method is valid.

  9. An Analysis and Allocation System for Library Collections Budgets: The Comprehensive Allocation Process (CAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John

    2012-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…

  10. An Analysis and Allocation System for Library Collections Budgets: The Comprehensive Allocation Process (CAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John

    2012-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…

  11. Current Subcounty Allocation Practices: Volume I of the Title I, ESEA, Subcounty Allocation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paller, Alan T.; Gutmann, Babette

    In this report, subcounty allocation of Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) funds is described in terms of direct allocation, use of the statutory formula emphasizing census data, United States Office of Education (USOE) regulations, participating states, geographic and administrative overlaps, hold harmless adjustments…

  12. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  13. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  14. Redesigning the District Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…

  15. Global Register Allocation for SIMD Multiprocessors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BenjaminHAO; DavidPEARSON; 等

    1996-01-01

    It is relatively clear how to map regular,repetitive or grid oriented computations onto SIMD architectures.It is not so clear,however,how to do this for irregular computations even though there may be significant amounts of intrinsic parallelism in branch free code.We study compilation techniques for this type of code when targeted to SIMD computers and illustrate their use on a simple model architecture.In this paper,we present one of the compilation techniques,global register allocation,we have developed for SIMD computers,and demonstrate that it can effectively allocate registers for parallelizing irregular computations in branch free code.This technique is an extension and a modification of the register allocation via graph coloring approach used by sequential compilers.Our performance results validate our method.

  16. Online Stochastic Ad Allocation: Efficiency and Fairness

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Jon; Korula, Nitish; Mirrokni, Vahab S; Stein, Cliff

    2010-01-01

    We study the efficiency and fairness of online stochastic display ad allocation algorithms from a theoretical and practical standpoint. In particular, we study the problem of maximizing efficiency in the presence of stochastic information. In this setting, each advertiser has a maximum demand for impressions of display ads that will arrive online. In our model, inspired by the concept of free disposal in economics, we assume that impressions that are given to an advertiser above her demand are given to her for free. Our main theoretical result is to present a training-based algorithm that achieves a (1-\\epsilon)-approximation guarantee in the random order stochastic model. In the corresponding online matching problem, we learn a dual variable for each advertiser, based on data obtained from a sample of impressions. We also discuss different fairness measures in online ad allocation, based on comparison to an ideal offline fair solution, and develop algorithms to compute "fair" allocations. We then discuss sev...

  17. Fairness versus efficiency of vaccine allocation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ming; Marathe, Achla

    2015-03-01

    To develop a framework to objectively measure the degree of fairness of any allocation rule aimed at distributing a limited stockpile of vaccines to contain the spread of influenza. The trade-off between the efficiency and fairness of allocation strategies was demonstrated through an illustrative simulation study of an influenza epidemic in Southwestern Virginia. A Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered model was used to represent the disease progression within the host. Our findings showed that among all the criteria considered here, the household size (largest first) combined with age (youngest first)-based strategy leads to the best outcome. At 80% fairness, highest efficiency can be achieved but in order to be 100% fair, disease prevalence will have to rise by approximately 1.5%. This research provides a framework to objectively determine the degree of fairness of vaccine allocation strategies. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a conflict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....

  19. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....

  20. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....

  1. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P.; Ebbers, Johnathan; Price, Nicholas W.; Swank, Matthew.; Feer, Stefan P.; Rhodes, Zachary D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  2. Text Categorization with Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZLACKÝ Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the text categorization of Slovak text corpora using latent Dirichlet allocation. Our goal is to build text subcorpora that contain similar text documents. We want to use these better organized text subcorpora to build more robust language models that can be used in the area of speech recognition systems. Our previous research in the area of text categorization showed that we can achieve better results with categorized text corpora. In this paper we used latent Dirichlet allocation for text categorization. We divided initial text corpus into 2, 5, 10, 20 or 100 subcorpora with various iterations and save steps. Language models were built on these subcorpora and adapted with linear interpolation to judicial domain. The experiment results showed that text categorization using latent Dirichlet allocation can improve the system for automatic speech recognition by creating the language models from organized text corpora.

  3. Robust resource allocation in future wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Parsaeefard, Saeedeh; Mokari, Nader

    2017-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art research on robust resource allocation in current and future wireless networks. The authors describe the nominal resource allocation problems in wireless networks and explain why introducing robustness in such networks is desirable. Then, depending on the objectives of the problem, namely maximizing the social utility or the per-user utility, cooperative or competitive approaches are explained and their corresponding robust problems are considered in detail. For each approach, the costs and benefits of robust schemes are discussed and the algorithms for reducing their costs and improving their benefits are presented. Considering the fact that such problems are inherently non-convex and intractable, a taxonomy of different relaxation techniques is presented, and applications of such techniques are shown via several examples throughout the book. Finally, the authors argue that resource allocation continues to be an important issue in future wireless networks, and propose spec...

  4. Competing Principles for Allocating Health Care Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Drew; Gordon, Jason; Watt, Amber M

    2016-10-01

    We clarify options for conceptualizing equity, or what we refer to as justice, in resource allocation. We do this by systematically differentiating, expounding, and then illustrating eight different substantive principles of justice. In doing this, we compare different meanings that can be attributed to "need" and "the capacity to benefit" (CTB). Our comparison is sharpened by two analytical tools. First, quantification helps to clarify the divergent consequences of allocations commended by competing principles. Second, a diagrammatic approach developed by economists Culyer and Wagstaff offers a visual and conceptual aid. Of the eight principles we illustrate, only two treat as relevant both a person's initial health state and a person's CTB per resource unit expended: (1) allocate resources so as to most closely equalize final health states and (2) allocate resources so as to equally restore health states to population norms. These allocative principles ought to be preferred to the alternatives if one deems relevant both a person's initial health state and a person's CTB per resource unit expended. Finally, we examine some possibilities for conceptualizing benefits as relative to how badly off someone is, extending Parfit's thought on Prioritarianism (a prioritizing of the worst off). Questions arise as to how much intervention effects accruing to the worse off count for more and how this changes with improving health. We explicate some recent efforts to answer these questions, including in Dutch and British government circles. These efforts can be viewed as efforts to operationalize need as an allocative principle. Each effort seeks to maximize in the aggregate quanta of effect that are differentially valued in favor of the worst off. In this respect, each effort constitutes one type of Prioritarianism, which Parfit failed to differentiate from other types.

  5. Considerations in asset allocation: investing wisely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Ellen

    2006-12-01

    In this article, the author reviews the steps an investor should take to make sound asset allocation decisions and offers guidelines on assembling a portfolio that helps meet the investor's needs. The most important decision in structuring a broadly diversified investment portfolio is the allocation among and within the three major asset classes: stocks, bonds and short-term reserves. In selecting the appropriate mix, the investor should weigh four interrelated factors-investment objective, time horizon, risk tolerance and personal financial situation. A well-diversified investment portfolio and a disciplined savings program are important factors in reaching financial goals.

  6. Dynamic Task Allocation in Cooperative Robot Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Tsalatsanis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a dynamic task allocation and controller design methodology for cooperative robot teams is presented. Fuzzy logic based utility functions are derived to quantify each robot\\'s ability to perform a task. These utility functions are used to allocate tasks in real-time through a limited lookahead control methodology partially based on the basic principles of discrete event supervisory control theory. The proposed controller design methodology accommodates flexibility in task assignments, robot coordination, and tolerance to robot failures and repairs. Implementation details of the proposed methodology are demonstrated through a warehouse patrolling case study.

  7. Dynamic Task Allocation in Cooperative Robot Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Tsalatsanis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a dynamic task allocation and controller design methodology for cooperative robot teams is presented. Fuzzy logic based utility functions are derived to quantify each robot's ability to perform a task. These utility functions are used to allocate tasks in real-time through a limited lookahead control methodology partially based on the basic principles of discrete event supervisory control theory. The proposed controller design methodology accommodates flexibility in task assignments, robot coordination, and tolerance to robot failures and repairs. Implementation details of the proposed methodology are demonstrated through a warehouse patrolling case study.

  8. Redundancy-Allocation in Pharmaceutical Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Garg

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In present paper three heuristics algorithms to optimize the problem of constrained redundancy allocation in complex system are described and used to allocate redundancy in a manufacturing system namely pharmaceutical plant. Computational procedures of proposed algorithms are outlined. These algorithms are applied to find the best redundancy strategy, combination of components, and levels of redundancy for each subsystem in order to maximize the system reliability under cost constraints .Results of these algorithms are compared to get best possible solution for the proposed problem.

  9. Science achievement as an indicator of educational opportunity available in rural K--12 districts in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capehart, Cheryl Louise

    Purpose of the study. This study examined Rural K--12 Texas districts to investigate whether science achievement could serve as a gauge to measure the availability and quality of rigorous educational opportunities in Rural Texas districts. Procedure. A Case II criterion-group design was used; 2 groups of districts were selected based on their 3-year performances on the 8th grade Science Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS)---the statewide criterion-referenced test. The High Performing Group (HPG) was composed of 30 top performing districts; the Low Performing Group (LPG) was composed of 30 lowest performing districts. Data collection was limited to archived quantitative data from Texas Education Agency's open records. Achievement variables were percent passing (1) Science TASS, (2) Biology End-of-Course (EoC) test and (3) the composite passing all Reading, Writing, and Mathematics TAAS. Academic variables were percent participating in (1) advanced courses, (2) rigorous graduation programs, and (3) college entrance examinations. District quality indicators also included 3 budget variables: (1) average teacher salary, (2) per pupil instructional expenditure, (3) percent allocated for instructional leadership; and 4 staff variables: (1) percent teachers fully certified, (2) percent teachers with advanced degrees, (3) average years teacher experience, (4) average percent non-turnover of teachers. One score per variable was obtained for each district. The HPG and LPG were compared on each variable using the group means, standard deviations, standard errors of the mean, Levene's test for equality of variance, and a t test for equality of means with a 95% confidence level. The Pearson correlation with two-tailed significance calculated the relationship of each independent variable (budget and staff factors) to each dependent variable (performance measures). Science TASS and a Combined Science score (grand mean of Science TASS & Biology EoC passing rates) were

  10. Do capital flows change domestic credit allocation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samarina, Anna; Bezemer, Dirk

    Since the 1990s, domestic bank credit has been reallocated away from lending to non-financial business and toward households. An expanding literature discusses negative effects on growth and stability of this change in credit allocation. We research its drivers. We hypothesize that if foreign

  11. Ethics and resource allocation: an economist's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A

    1986-01-01

    This paper debates some of the issues involved in attempting to apply economic analysis to the health care sector when medical ethics plays such an important part in determining the allocation of resources in that sector. Two distinct ethical positions are highlighted as being fundamental to the understanding of resource allocation in this sector -- deontological and utilitarian theories of ethics. It is argued that medical ethics are often narrowly conceived in that there is a tendency for the individual, rather than society at large, to form the focal point of the production of the service "health care'. Thus medical ethics have been dominated by individualistic ethical coded which do not fully consider questions relating to resource allocation at a social level. It is further argued that the structure of the health care sector augments these "individualistic' ethics. It is also suggested that different actors in the health care sector address questions of resource allocation with respect to different time periods, and that this serves to further enhance the influence of "individualistic' ethical codes in this sector.

  12. RAOPS: Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safegurards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardecki, A.; Markin, J.T.

    1994-03-01

    RAOPS--Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safeguards is extended to a multiobjective return function having the detection probability and expected detection time as criteria. The expected detection time is included as a constraint, based on the well-known Avenhaus model of the optimum number of inventory periods. Examples of computation are provided.

  13. Biased allocation of faces to social categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  14. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and the other public housing projects operated by the PHA, using the data obtained from the system... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation plan. 945.203 Section 945.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued...

  15. Analysts' earnings forecasts and international asset allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Carel; Plantinga, Auke

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether financial analysts’ earnings forecasts are informative from the viewpoint of allocating investments across different stock markets. Therefore we develop a country forecast indicator reflecting the analysts’ prospects for specific stock markets. The

  16. Resource Allocation Problems with Concave Reward Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundel, S.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In a resource allocation problem there is a common-pool resource, which has to be divided among agents. Each agent is characterized by a claim on this pool and an individual concave reward function on assigned resources. An assignment of resources is optimal if the total joint reward is ma

  17. Monotonic Allocation Schemes in Clan Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorneveld, M.; Tijs, S.H.; Grahn, S.

    2000-01-01

    Total clan games are characterized using monotonicity, veto power of the clan members, and a concavity condition reflecting the decreasing marginal contribution of non-clan members to growing coalitions.This decreasing marginal contribution is incorporated in the notion of a bi-monotonic allocation

  18. The relationship between attention allocation and cheating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Motro, Daphna; Rubaltelli, Enrico; Pluchino, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between attention allocation and dishonesty. The goal of the present work was to address this issue using the eyetracking methodology. We developed a novel task in which participants could honestly report seeing a particular card and lose money, or they could f

  19. International dynamic asset allocation and return predictability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basu, D.; Oomen, R.; Stremme, A.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of time varying investment opportunity sets has been documented in the context of international asset allocation, and the economic value associated with these is a topic of lively debate in the academic literature. This paper constructs simple, real-time dynamic international asset allo

  20. Status Characteristics, Reward Allocation, and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcel, Toby L.; Cook, Karen S.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between a group's power and prestige or status hierarchy and group members' patterns of reward allocation was investigated. The addition of evidence concerning actual task performance results in the alignment of reward and status rankings and encourages the use of distribution rules stressing equity as opposed to equality.…

  1. Behind the Resource Domino. Part II: Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, F. C.; Bumbarger, C. S.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the problem of allocation and acquisition of resources from an administrative point of view. Suggests that an administrator's accountability as a leader is fixed in how efficiently and effectively resources are deployed in the organizational goal attainment efforts. (Author/DN)

  2. Administrative Decision Making and Resource Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardy, Susan; Sardy, Hyman

    This paper considers selected aspects of the systems analysis of administrative decisionmaking regarding resource allocations in an educational system. A model of the instructional materials purchase system is presented. The major components of this model are: environment, input, decision process, conversion structure, conversion process, output,…

  3. Cost Allocation as a Coordination Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaw, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows that cost allocation can endogenously arise as a coordination mechanism in a decentralized firm.This result is derived in a setting with multiple (internally supplied) resources shared by multiple users, which constitutes a departure from previous literature.While standard cost

  4. Cost Allocation in a Bank ATM Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjorndal, E.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Koster, M.A.L.

    2003-01-01

    We consider a situation in which a group of banks consider connecting their Automated TellerMachines (ATMs) in a network, so that the banks customers may use ATMs of any bank in the network.The problem studied is that of allocating the total transaction costs arising in the network, among the

  5. Cost Allocation in a Bank ATM Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjorndal, E.; Hamers, H.; Koster, M.A.L.

    2004-01-01

    We consider a situation in which a group of banks consider connecting their Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) in a network, so that the banks customers may use ATMs of any bank in the network. The problem studied is that of allocating the total transaction costs arising in the network, among the

  6. 20 CFR 631.82 - Substate allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substate allocation. 631.82 Section 631.82 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.82 Substate...

  7. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocations. 660.55 Section 660.55 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... sublegal halibut at 15 percent of the Area 2A constant exploitation yield (CEY) for legal size halibut,...

  8. Behind the Resource Domino. Part II: Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, F. C.; Bumbarger, C. S.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the problem of allocation and acquisition of resources from an administrative point of view. Suggests that an administrator's accountability as a leader is fixed in how efficiently and effectively resources are deployed in the organizational goal attainment efforts. (Author/DN)

  9. Dynamic bandwidth allocation in GPON networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozimkiewiez, J.; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Two Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation algorithms used for coordination of the available bandwidth between end users in a GPON network have been simulated using OPNET to determine and compare the performance, scalability and efficiency of status reporting and non status reporting dynamic bandwidth allo...

  10. Cost Allocation as a Coordination Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaw, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows that cost allocation can endogenously arise as a coordination mechanism in a decentralized firm.This result is derived in a setting with multiple (internally supplied) resources shared by multiple users, which constitutes a departure from previous literature.While standard cost allo

  11. Distributed Fair Allocation of Indivisible Goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevaleyre, Y.; Endriss, U.; Maudet, N.

    2017-01-01

    Distributed mechanisms for allocating indivisible goods are mechanisms lacking central control, in which agents can locally agree on deals to exchange some of the goods in their possession. We study convergence properties for such distributed mechanisms when used as fair division procedures. Specifi

  12. Gold Rushes and mineral property rights allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Knud

    Even today, mineral property rights are allocated on what is essentially a first-come, first-serve or open access basis. Access to prospect and locate claims may be restricted in some areas such as national parks, but elsewhere a policy of open access is widely practised, albeit subject to a set...

  13. Risk capital allocation with autonomous subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a set of independent subunits collaborating in order to reduce risk: that is, when subunit portfolios are merged a diversification benefit arises and the risk of the group as a whole is smaller tha...

  14. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, L.A.; Meca, A.; Timmer, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in distribution chains under decentralized control. We consider distribution chains in which a single supplier supplies goods for replenishment of stocks of several retailers who, in turn, sell these goods to their own separate market

  15. Allocation of Cognitive Resources in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye-tracking...

  16. Multiagent task allocation in social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Zhang, Y.; Klos, T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new variant of the task allocation problem, where the agents are connected in a social network and tasks arrive at the agents distributed over the network. We show that the complexity of this problem remains NP-complete. Moreover, it is not approximable within some factor. In c

  17. Distributed Task Allocation in Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Zhang, Y.; Klos, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new variant of the task allocation problem, where the agents are connected in a social network and tasks arrive at the agents distributed over the network. We show that the complexity of this problem remains NPhard. Moreover, it is not approximable within some factor. We develo

  18. Multiagent task allocation in social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs); Y. Zhang (Yingqian); T.B. Klos (Tomas)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper proposes a new variant of the task allocation problem, where the agents are connected in a social network and tasks arrive at the agents distributed over the network. We show that the complexity of this problem remains NP-complete. Moreover, it is not approximable within some

  19. Sequential auctions for full truckload allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Martijn R.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we examine the use of sequential auctions for the dynamic allocation of transportation jobs. For all players, buyers and sellers, we develop strategies and examine their performance both in terms of individual benefits and with respect to the global logistical performance (resource

  20. Government Districts, Other - MO 2014 Springfield Conditional Overlay Districts (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Conditional Overlay District polygons for the City of Springfield, inside city limits only. Created and maintained by the GIS Division of the Information Systems...

  1. Zoning Districts - MO 2011 Springfield Conditional Overlay Districts (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Conditional Overlay District polygons for the City of Springfield, inside city limits only. Created and maintained by the GIS Division of the Information Systems...

  2. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  3. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  4. Government Districts, Other, National Register districts, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Government Districts, Other dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'National Register...

  5. Energy allocation in two species of Eutardigrada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena REBECCHI

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve our knowledge on life histories in tardigrades and the energy allocated for their reproduction and growth, we have studied two species (Macrobiotus richtersi and Hypsibius convergens differing in evolutionary histories, diet and ways of oviposition. For both species we considered a bisexual population dwelling in the same substrate. In both species we investigated energy allocations in males with a testis rich in spermatozoa and females, each with an ovary containing oocytes in advanced vitellogenesis. The age of the specimens was estimated on the basis of buccal tube length and body size. Body and gonad areas were calculated using an image analysis program. In both species females reach a larger size than males. Macrobiotus richtersi has both a significantly longer buccal tube and wider body area than H. convergens. Statistical analyses show that the buccal tube has a positive correlation with body area and gonad area. For an estimate of the relative energy allocated for reproduction in one reproductive event (relative reproductive effort = RRE, we have used the ratio between gonad area and body area. In males of both species, the absolute amount of energy and the RRE is statistically lower than that of females. Males and females of H. convergens have a RRE higher than those of M. richtersi. In M. richtersi, the gonad increases proportionally more when animals are large (old, whereas in H. convergens this direct relationship is not detectable. In M. richtersi the energy allocated for a reproductive event increases during the life of the females. In males, the increase of the gonad size is progressive during the animal life. In each reproductive event, females of H. convergens allocate a lower amount of energy in absolute value when compared to M. richtersi. Nevertheless, when considering the RRE, their investment is higher than that of M. richtersi.

  6. The Functional Allocation of the Superintendent's Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Albert C.; And Others

    1967-01-01

    The amount of time a school superintendent spends in the various functions of his job is studied. The data used were those collected by Robert Utter and Gordon Anderson in 76 school districts in the Metropolitan School Study Council and the Associated Public School Systems during 1964-65. Included were school systems ranging in size from 975 to…

  7. Using costing as a district planning and management tool in Balochistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A; Ali, B; Naeem, A; Vassall, A

    2001-06-01

    This paper reports on two studies in the province of Balochistan, Pakistan, analyzing the costs of primary care facilities and district and divisional hospitals. There are no known previous cost studies within Balochistan and the information gained is a critical element in developing a more rational allocation of resources within the health sector. The results demonstrate both the high level of under-funding of primary care within the health sector and the current inefficiency of allocation towards primary care and, within budgets, between different line items. Medicines in particular are significantly under-funded at the expense of staffing costs. The results are of use in developing more bottom-up budgeting systems within a more rational resource allocation system that is being developed as an element of the more decentralized health system towards which the province is working.

  8. health in Wakiso District, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a qualitative study on the perceptions of domestic violence in Wakiso district, payment of bride price emerged as .... Bride price payment was found acceptable to many older women .... Issues in Mental Health Nursing 1989; 10: 209-227. 11.

  9. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  10. Allegheny County School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  11. Allegheny County School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  12. VT Senate Districts 1992 - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The senatorial district designations for this layer were taken from a trace map of unknown origin. A visual compilation of the traced lines and...

  13. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  14. Districts for 104th Congress

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of 104th Congressional District boundaries obtained from the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The 103rd Congress was the first Congress that...

  15. Allocative efficiency of smallholder common bean producers in Uganda: A stochastic frontier and Tobit model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibiko, K.W.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated allocative efficiency levels of common bean farms in Eastern Uganda and the factors influencing allocative efficiencies of these farms. To achieve this objective, a sample of 480 households was randomly selected in Busia, Mbale, Budaka and Tororo districts in Eastern Uganda. Data was collected using a personally administered structured questionnaire with a focus on household decision makers; whereas a stochastic frontier model and a two limit Tobit regression model were employed in the analysis. It was established that the mean allocative efficiency was 29.37% and it was significantly influenced by farm size, off-farm income, asset value and distance to the market. Therefore the study suggested the need for policies to discourage land fragmentation and promote road and market infrastructure development in the rural areas. The study also revealed the need for farmers to be trained on entrepreneurial skills so that they can invest their farm profits into more income generating activities that will harness more farming capital.

  16. 76 FR 20971 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Intent To File License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of..., 2011. d. Submitted By: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District. e. Name of Project... Regulatory Affairs, Turlock Irrigation District, P.O. Box 949, Turlock, California 95381, 209-883-8241...

  17. District Governance and Student Learning in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Menno; de Ree, Joppe

    2014-01-01

    We document the likely importance of district governance and teacher management policies in relation to student learning in Indonesian primary schools. As the responsibility to deliver primary education has been decentralized to district governments, we expect district specific variations in teacher management policies. Consequently, we also expect variations in learning trajectories across districts. We document substantial heterogeneity in learning gains across districts. Furthermore, we sh...

  18. Mechanisms and direction of allocation bias in randomised clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Asger Sand; Laursen, David R. T.; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2016-01-01

    clinical trials. METHODS: Two systematic reviews and a theoretical analysis. We conducted one systematic review of empirical studies of motives/methods for deciphering patient allocation sequences; and another review of methods publications commenting on allocation bias. We theoretically analysed...

  19. Computation of loss allocation in electric power networks using loss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computation of loss allocation in electric power networks using loss vector. ... The losses to be allocated are derived from load flow of a specified power network and operating conditions. Loss vectors associated with demand ... Article Metrics.

  20. Balanced Contributions for Multi-Issue Allocation Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo-Freire, S.; Alonso-Meijide, J.M.; Casas-Mendez, B.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a property of balanced contributions in the context of multi-issue allocation situations.Using this property, we characterise the run-to-thebank rule for multi-issue allocation situations.

  1. Dynamic capacity allocation for low-cost multicarrier multimode PON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taniman, R.O.; van Bochove, A.C.; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Sikkes, B.

    2007-01-01

    A stable-matching-based multiuser multicarrier capacity allocation algorithm is proposed. It responds to ONU backlogs and dynamic subchannel gains. Benchmarked against Binary Linear Programming, it results in just 5% less allocated capacity, at much lower complexity.

  2. An Improved Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm for Ethernet PON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes an improved Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) algorithm for EPON, which combines static and traditional dynamic allocation schemes. Simulation result shows that the proposed algorithm may effectively improve the performance of packet delay.

  3. Dynamic capacity allocation for low-cost multicarrier multimode PON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taniman, R.O.; Bochove, van A.C.; Boer, de P.T.; Sikkes, B.

    2007-01-01

    A stable-matching-based multiuser multicarrier capacity allocation algorithm is proposed. It responds to ONU backlogs and dynamic subchannel gains. Benchmarked against Binary Linear Programming, it results in just 5% less allocated capacity, at much lower complexity.

  4. Optimal Joint Multiple Resource Allocation Method for Cloud Computing Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Kuribayashi, Shin-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources. To provide cloud computing services economically, it is important to optimize resource allocation under the assumption that the required resource can be taken from a shared resource pool. In addition, to be able to provide processing ability and storage capacity, it is necessary to allocate bandwidth to access them at the same time. This paper proposes an optimal resource allocation method for cloud computing environments. First, this paper develops a resource allocation model of cloud computing environments, assuming both processing ability and bandwidth are allocated simultaneously to each service request and rented out on an hourly basis. The allocated resources are dedicated to each service request. Next, this paper proposes an optimal joint multiple resource allocation method, based on the above resource allocation model. It is demonstrated by simulation evaluation that the p...

  5. Energy Aware Task Allocation with Unequal Clustering in WSN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Devesh Pratap Singh; R H Goudar; Bhasker Pant

    2014-01-01

    ...) Energy aware task allocation with unequal clustering in WSN that provide the task allocation among clusters according to their strength of the battery, it helps in balancing the work in network...

  6. The complexity of economic equilibria for house allocation markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekete, Sándor P.; Skutella, Martin; Woeginger, Gerhard J.

    2003-01-01

    We prove NP-completeness of deciding the existence of an economic equilibrium in so-called house allocation markets. House allocation markets are markets with indivisible goods in which every agent holds exactly one copy of some good.

  7. Dynamic capacity allocation for low-cost multicarrier multimode PON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taniman, R.O.; van Bochove, A.C.; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Sikkes, B.

    A stable-matching-based multiuser multicarrier capacity allocation algorithm is proposed. It responds to ONU backlogs and dynamic subchannel gains. Benchmarked against Binary Linear Programming, it results in just 5% less allocated capacity, at much lower complexity.

  8. On Allocation Policies for Power and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Dyachuk, Dmytro; 10.1109/GRID.2010.5697986

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of Internet-based services and applications, power efficiency is becoming a major concern for data center operators, as high electricity consumption not only increases greenhouse gas emissions, but also increases the cost of running the server farm itself. In this paper we address the problem of maximizing the revenue of a service provider by means of dynamic allocation policies that run the minimum amount of servers necessary to meet user's requirements in terms of performance. The results of several experiments executed using Wikipedia traces are described, showing that the proposed schemes work well, even if the workload is non-stationary. Since any resource allocation policy requires the use of forecasting mechanisms, various schemes allowing compensating errors in the load forecasts are presented and evaluated.

  9. Traffic resource allocation for complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Xiang; Hu Mao-Bin; Long Jian-Cheng; Ding Jian-Xun; Shi Qin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,an optimal resource allocation strategy is proposed to enhance traffic dynamics in complex networks.The network resources are the total node packet-delivering capacity and the total link bandwidth.An analytical method is developed to estimate the overall network capacity by using the concept of efficient betweenness (ratio of algorithmic betweenness and local processing capacity).Three network structures (scale-free,small-world,and random networks) and two typical routing protocols (shortest path protocol and efficient routing protocol) are adopted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed strategy.Our results show that the network capacity is reversely proportional to the average path length for a particular routing protocol and the shortest path protocol can achieve the largest network capacity when the proposed resource allocation strategy is adopted.

  10. Aircraft Stand Allocation with Associated Resource Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tor Fog; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin

    An aircraft turn-round refers to the set of processes taking place from when an aircraft parks at its arrival stand until the time it departs from its departure stand. When handling a turn-round, the different processes involved (arrival, disembarkation of passengers, cleaning, etc.) require...... different ground handling resources (taxiways, aircraft stands, gates, etc) at different times. Each resource can be claimed by at most one turn-round at a time. The aircraft stand allocation problem with associated resource scheduling is the problem of allocating the required ground handling resources...... to handle a given set of aircraft turn-rounds. We develop a set packing-based model formulation of the problem which is both flexible in the sense that it can encapsulate any type of resource required during the handling of a turn-round and strong in the sense that conflicts that occur when two or more turn...

  11. The dynamics of farm land allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    This study develops a dynamic multi-output model of farmers’ crop allocation decisions that allows estimation of both short-run and long-run adjustments to a wide array of economic incentives. The method can be used to inform decision-makers about a number of issues including agricultural policy...... reform and environmental regulation. The model allows estimation of dynamic effects relating to price expectations adjustment, investment lags and crop rotation constraints. Estimation is based on micro-panel data from Danish farmers that includes acreage, output and variable input utilisation...... at the crop level. Results indicate that there are substantial differences between the shortrun and long-run land allocation behaviour of Danish farmers and that there are substantial differences in the time lags associated with different crops. Since similar farming conditions are found in northern Europe...

  12. Response-Adaptive Allocation for Circular Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Atanu; Dutta, Somak; Laha, Arnab Kumar; Bakshi, Partho K

    2015-01-01

    Response-adaptive designs are used in phase III clinical trials to allocate a larger proportion of patients to the better treatment. Circular data is a natural outcome in many clinical trial setup, e.g., some measurements in opthalmologic studies, degrees of rotation of hand or waist, etc. There is no available work on response-adaptive designs for circular data. With reference to a dataset on cataract surgery we provide some response-adaptive designs where the responses are of circular nature and propose some test statistics for treatment comparison under adaptive data allocation procedure. Detailed simulation study and the analysis of the dataset, including redesigning the cataract surgery data, are carried out.

  13. Spectrum Allocation in Two-Tier Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekhar, Vikram

    2008-01-01

    Two-tier networks, comprising a conventional cellular network overlaid with shorter range hotspots (e.g. femtocells, distributed antennas, or wired relays), offer an economically viable way to improve cellular system capacity. The capacity-limiting factor in such networks is interference. The cross-tier interference between macrocells and femtocells can suffocate the capacity due to the near-far problem, so in practice hotspots should use a different frequency channel than the potentially nearby high-power macrocell users. Centralized or coordinated frequency planning, which is difficult and inefficient even in conventional cellular networks, is all but impossible in a two-tier network. This paper proposes and analyzes an optimum decentralized spectrum allocation policy for two-tier networks that employ frequency division multiple access (including OFDMA). The proposed allocation is optimal in terms of Area Spectral Efficiency (ASE), and is subjected to a sensible Quality of Service (QoS) requirement, which g...

  14. Inventory Allocation for Online Graphical Display Advertising

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jian; Vassilvitskii, Sergei; Tomlin, John; Shanmugasundaram, Jayavel; Anastasakos, Tasos; Kennedy, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a multi-objective/goal programming model for the allocation of inventory of graphical advertisements. The model considers two types of campaigns: guaranteed delivery (GD), which are sold months in advance, and non-guaranteed delivery (NGD), which are sold using real-time auctions. We investigate various advertiser and publisher objectives such as (a) revenue from the sale of impressions, clicks and conversions, (b) future revenue from the sale of NGD inventory, and (c) "fairness" of allocation. While the first two objectives are monetary, the third is not. This combination of demand types and objectives leads to potentially many variations of our model, which we delineate and evaluate. Our experimental results, which are based on optimization runs using real data sets, demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the proposed model.

  15. HIV treatment and reproductive health in the health system in Burkina Faso: resource allocation and the need for integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windisch, Ricarda; de Savigny, Don; Onadja, Geneviève; Somda, Antoine; Wyss, Kaspar; Sié, Ali; Kouyaté, Bocar

    2011-11-01

    Organizational changes, increased funding and the demands of HIV antiretroviral (ARV) treatment create particular challenges for governance in the health sector. We assess resource allocation, policy making and integration of the national responses to ARV provision and reproductive health in Burkina Faso, using national and district budgets related to disease burden, policy documents, organizational structures, and coordination and implementation processes. ARV provision represents the concept of a "crisis scenario", in which reforms are pushed due to a perception of urgent need, whereas the national reproductive health programme, which is older and more integrated, represents a "politics-as-usual scenario". Findings show that the early years of the national response to HIV and AIDS were characterized by new institutions with overlapping functions, and failure to integrate with and strengthen existing structures. National and district budget allocations for HIV compared to other interventions were disproportionately high when assessed against burden of disease. Strategic documents for ARV provision were relatively less developed and referred to, compared to those of the Ministry of Health Directorates for HIV and for Family Health and district health planning teams for reproductive health services. Imbalances and new structures potentially trigger important adverse effects which are difficult to remedy and likely to increase due to the dynamics they create. It therefore becomes crucial, from the outset, to integrate HIV/AIDS funding and responses into health systems.

  16. Student Time Allocation and Educational Production Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Bratti, Massimiliano; Stefano STAFFOLANI

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of lecture attendance and self-study on undergraduate students' academic performance. We first introduce a simple theoretical model in which students decide the optimal allocation of their time between lecture attendance, self-study and leisure. Under some assumptions, we find a positive relationship between lecture attendance and time devoted to self-study in each course, from which we infer that estimates of the elasticity of student performance with ...

  17. The dynamics of farm land allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    This study develops a dynamic multi-output model of farmers’ crop allocation decisions that allows estimation of both short-run and long-run adjustments to a wide array of economic incentives. The method can be used to inform decision-makers about a number of issues including agricultural policy...... and parts of the USA and Canada, this result may have more general interest....

  18. INTERNET MARKETING BUDGET ALLOCATION: FROM PRACTITIONER'S PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    LAN ZHAO; JISHAN ZHU

    2010-01-01

    Consider a firm promotes its products through several Internet media with a fixed Internet marketing budget and models the budget allocation decisions as a competitive game, in which each firm formulates its own optimization model that is influenced by the competitors' moves as well. One challenge to the application of such model in practice is how to deal with asymmetric information. In this paper, we discuss several issues that are often asked by the practitioners that are related to dealin...

  19. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  20. Optimal allocation of trend following strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.

  1. Register Allocation By Model Transformer Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yin

    2012-01-01

    Register allocation has long been formulated as a graph coloring problem, coloring the conflict graph with physical registers. Such a formulation does not fully capture the goal of the allocation, which is to minimize the traffic between registers and memory. Linear scan has been proposed as an alternative to graph coloring, but in essence, it can be viewed as a greedy algorithm for graph coloring: coloring the vertices not in the order of their degrees, but in the order of their occurence in the program. Thus it suffers from almost the same constraints as graph coloring. In this article, I propose a new method of register allocation based on the ideas of model transformer semantics (MTS) and static cache replacement (SCR). Model transformer semantics captures the semantics of registers and the stack. Static cache replacement relaxes the assumptions made by graph coloring and linear scan, aiming directly at reducing register-memory traffic. The method explores a much larger solution space than that of graph c...

  2. Pilot's visual attention allocation modeling under fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xu; Wanyan, Xiaoru; Zhuang, Damin

    2015-01-01

    Human factors involved with visual attention mechanism and fatigue are critical causes of modern aviation accidents. To investigate the connection between attention and flight fatigue, a mathematical model of pilot's visual attention allocation was established based on information processing channels. Multi-task condition and current psychophysical state were taken into account as well. Sixteen participants were recruited to perform a long-term dual-task in a Boeing 737-800 flight simulator. The primary task was an envelope flight task and the secondary was an unusual attitude (UA) recovery task. Reaction time of the secondary task was recorded as a behavior performance index, while heart rate and respiration rate were measured as physiological indices as well as fixation distribution as attention allocation index. The experiment results showed a significant affect of experiment time that indicated the occurrence and influence of fatigue. Eye movement tracking also revealed good agreement with the predictable model and hence verified its effectiveness. Moreover, applicability of the model was validated under flight fatigue and multiple tasks condition. The current study provided a quantitative connection between pilot's visual attention allocation and flight fatigue, which was verified in the ergonomics experiment.

  3. Adapting water allocation management to drought scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Giacomelli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change dynamics have significant consequences on water resources on a watershed scale. With water becoming scarcer and susceptible to variation, the planning and reallocation decisions in watershed management need to be reviewed. This research focuses on an in-depth understanding of the current allocation balance of water resources among competitors, placed along the course of the Adda River. In particular, during the summer period, the demand for water dramatically increases. This is due to the increase in irrigation activities in the lower part of the basin and to the highest peaks of tourist inflow, in the Como Lake and Valtellina areas. Moreover, during these months, the hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper part of the Adda River basin (the Valtellina retain most of the volume of water coming from the snow and glacier melt. The existing allocation problem among these different competing users is exacerbated by the decreasing water supplies. The summer of 2003 testified the rise in a number of allocation problems and situations of water scarcity that brought about environmental and economical consequences. The RICLIC project is committed to the understanding of water dynamics on a regional scale, to quantify the volumes involved and offer local communities an instrument to improve a sustainable water management system, within uncertain climate change scenarios.

  4. Irrational time allocation in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bastiaan; Krajbich, Ian; Miller, Kevin; Cheong, Jin Hyun; Botvinick, Matthew; Fehr, Ernst

    2016-01-13

    Time is an extremely valuable resource but little is known about the efficiency of time allocation in decision-making. Empirical evidence suggests that in many ecologically relevant situations, decision difficulty and the relative reward from making a correct choice, compared to an incorrect one, are inversely linked, implying that it is optimal to use relatively less time for difficult choice problems. This applies, in particular, to value-based choices, in which the relative reward from choosing the higher valued item shrinks as the values of the other options get closer to the best option and are thus more difficult to discriminate. Here, we experimentally show that people behave sub-optimally in such contexts. They do not respond to incentives that favour the allocation of time to choice problems in which the relative reward for choosing the best option is high; instead they spend too much time on problems in which the reward difference between the options is low. We demonstrate this by showing that it is possible to improve subjects' time allocation with a simple intervention that cuts them off when their decisions take too long. Thus, we provide a novel form of evidence that organisms systematically spend their valuable time in an inefficient way, and simultaneously offer a potential solution to the problem.

  5. Legal briefing: organ donation and allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to organ donation and allocation. This topic has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. Organ donation and allocation have also recently been the subjects of significant public policy attention. In the past several months, legislatures and regulatory agencies across the United States and across the world have changed, or considered changing, the methods for procuring and distributing human organs for transplantation. Currently, in the U.S., more than 100,000 persons are waiting for organ transplantation. In China, more than 1.5 million people are waiting. Given the chronic shortage of available organs (especially kidneys and livers) relative to demand, the primary focus of most legal developments has been on increasing the rate of donation. These and related developments are usefully divided into the following 12 topical categories: 1. Revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. 2. Presumed Consent and Opt-Out. 3. Mandated Choice. 4. Donation after Cardiac Death. 5. Payment and Compensation. 6. Donation by Prisoners. 7. Donor Registries. 8. Public Education. 9. Other Procurement Initiatives. 10. Lawsuits and Liability. 11. Trafficking and Tourism. 12. Allocation and Distribution.

  6. Dynamic Channel Allocation Management Using Agents Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion BOGDAN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Channel allocation schemes are management techniques meant to solve the radio access problem in the telecommunications area. There are several known schemes namely: static, dynamic, hybrid and flexible channel allocation schemes. In our work we developed the channel allocation scheme using a decentralized structure, based on software agents. In order to create such a structure, some functions must be carried out by some specialized functional entities. Each functional entity is implemented with an agent, having a specific role. Using this manner of implementation, different functions of the system can be implemented at different sites, located apart and also the structure can be modularized. In our work we have created the agents structure and the communications between agents, on the use of Multiagent Systems Engineering Technology. We also involved the AgentTool platform to automate the creation of the agents structure and the code resulted was in Java. In order to realize the test of our system we considered a shape of 21 radio areas, each including a number of users. Each wireless user can initiate a number of calls per hour and each call last a holding time. The communications between agents were realized for the TCP/IP protocol, based on socket connections.

  7. 78 FR 3892 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status On January 9, 2013, the Modesto Irrigation District (Modesto) filed a motion...

  8. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  9. 45 CFR 400.319 - Allocation of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... use welfare data as an additional factor in the allocation of targeted assistance funds if it so... population data in its allocation formula. (b) A State must assure that not less than 95 percent of the total... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation of funds. 400.319 Section...

  10. 42 CFR 121.8 - Allocation of organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... post-transplant, risk-adjusted patient and graft survival rates following transplantation, risk... together with the revised allocation policies. (2) Special rule for initial revision of liver allocation policies. When the OPTN transmits to the Secretary its initial revision of the liver allocation...

  11. 17 CFR 256.01-11 - Methods of allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of allocation. 256.01... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-11 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and... applicable and currently effective methods of allocation filed with the Commission. Both direct and...

  12. 26 CFR 1.456-3 - Method of allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of allocation. 1.456-3 Section 1.456-3...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.456-3 Method of allocation. (a... method of aggregation and allocation is consistently followed....

  13. 48 CFR 1631.203-70 - Allocation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Allocation techniques. 1631... PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.203-70 Allocation techniques. (a... preferred allocation technique is one that shows the consumption of resources in performance of...

  14. 26 CFR 1.455-3 - Method of allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of allocation. 1.455-3 Section 1.455-3...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.455-3 Method of allocation. (a... reasonable manner, provided the method of aggregation and allocation is consistently followed....

  15. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  16. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  17. Change of strategy is required for malaria elimination: a case study in Purworejo District, Central Java Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murhandarwati, E Elsa Herdiana; Fuad, Anis; Sulistyawati; Wijayanti, Mahardika Agus; Bia, Michael Badi; Widartono, Barandi Sapta; Kuswantoro; Lobo, Neil F; Supargiyono; Hawley, William A

    2015-08-16

    Malaria has been targeted for elimination from Indonesia by 2030, with varying timelines for specific geographical areas based on disease endemicity. The regional deadline for malaria elimination for Java island, given the steady decrease of malaria cases, was the end of 2015. Purworejo District, a malaria-endemic area in Java with an annual parasite incidence (API) of 0.05 per 1,000 population in 2009, aims to enter this elimination stage. This study documents factors that affect incidence and spatial distribution of malaria in Purworejo, such as geomorphology, topography, health system issues, and identifies potential constraints and challenges to achieve the elimination stage, such as inter-districts coordination, decentralization policy and allocation of financial resources for the programme. Historical malaria data from 2007 to 2011 were collected through secondary data, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions during study year (2010-2011). Malaria cases were mapped using the village-centroid shape file to visualize its distribution with geomorphologic characteristics overlay and spatial distribution of malaria. API in each village in Purworejo and its surrounding districts from 2007 to 2011 was stratified into high, middle or low case incidence to show the spatiotemporal mapping pattern. The spatiotemporal pattern of malaria cases in Purworejo and the adjacent districts demonstrate repeated concentrated occurrences of malaria in specific areas from 2007 to 2011. District health system issues, i.e., suboptimal coordination between primary care and referral systems, suboptimal inter-district collaboration for malaria surveillance, decentralization policy and the lack of resources, especially district budget allocations for the malaria programme, were major constraints for programme sustainability. A new malaria elimination approach that fits the local disease transmission, intervention and political system is required. These changes include timely

  18. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie; Zeng Chang-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed.

  19. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yun-Xiao; Zhou, Jie; Zeng, Chang-Chang

    2010-11-01

    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed.

  20. Adaptive Power and Bit Allocation in Multicarrier Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Yong-qing; PENG Qi-cong; SHAO Huai-zong

    2007-01-01

    We present two adaptive power and bit allocation algorithms for multicarrier systems in a frequency selective fading environment. One algorithm allocates bit based on maximizing the channel capacity, another allocates bit based on minimizing the bit-error-rate(BER). Two algorithms allocate power based on minimizing the BER. Results show that the proposed algorithms are more effective than Fischer's algorithm at low average signal-to-noise ration (SNR). This indicates that our algorithms can achieve high spectral efficiency and high communication reliability during bad channel state. Results also denote the bit and power allocation of each algorithm and effects of the number of subcarriers on the BER performance.

  1. A Method of Reliability Allocation of a Complicated Large System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-sheng; QIN Yuan-yuan; WANG Dao-bo

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of reliability allocation for a complicated large system, a new thought is brought up. Reliability allocation should be a kind of decision-making behavior; therefore the more information is used when apportioning a reliability index, the more reasonable an allocation is obtained. Reliability allocation for a complicated large system consists of two processes, the first one is a reliability information reporting process fromt bottom to top, and the other one is a reliability index apportioning process from top to bottom. By a typical example, we illustrate the concrete process of reliability allocation algorithms.

  2. Pricing in combinatorial double auction-based grid allocation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; LIU Yuan-an; LIU Kai-ming; MA Xiao-lei; YANG Ming

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a novel grid resource allocation model, in which the users and the grid service providers participate in the combinatorial double auction for the resource allocation. To obtain the detailed resource allocation status and the price information, a novel pricing algorithm is designed for the allocation model. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm completes the resource allocation and pricing efficiently, and exhibits incentive compatible characteristic. Moreover,users with the higher average price and providers with the lower average price get compensation during the pricing process.

  3. Effectiveness of Weather Derivatives as a Cross-Hedging Instrument against Climate Change: The Cases of Reservoir Water Allocation Management in Guanajuato, Mexico and Lambayeque, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez-Torres, Miriam; Sanchez-Aragon, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing climate change will increase competition for water. Diversified demand for water—in contrast with the rigid design of water systems, institutions and infrastructure—could hinder the implementation of adaptation policies in water management for Latin American countries. In this context, weather derivatives are proposed as a complementary mechanism for the successful adoption of more efficient water allocations in irrigation districts. Weather derivatives spread risks and incorporate a ...

  4. Pollution permits allocation and imperfect competition; Allocation de permis de pollution et concurrence imparfaite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S.

    2004-12-15

    The aim of this thesis is to highlight the imperfections on the permits markets and to analyze their consequences on markets' efficiency. More precisely, we try to identify the implications of the initial allocation of permits when such imperfections are present. We try to draw some conclusions for the regulator concerning the different forms of the permits' allocation. After having described and compared these forms, we define in which circumstances the initial allocation matters in terms of efficiency. Then, we study different forms of imperfections. First, we take into account the information asymmetry between firms and the regulator and we define an optimal mechanism to sell pollution permits. Then, we analyze a market power on a differentiated pollution permits market. At last, we study the exclusionary manipulation of pollution permits market. (author)

  5. Performance evaluation of sensor allocation algorithm based on covariance control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The covariance control capability of sensor allocation algorithms based on covariance control strategy is an important index to evaluate the performance of these algorithms. Owing to lack of standard performance metric indices to evaluate covariance control capability, sensor allocation ratio, etc, there are no guides to follow in the design procedure of sensor allocation algorithm in practical applications. To meet these demands, three quantified performance metric indices are presented, which are average covariance misadjustment quantity (ACMQ), average sensor allocation ratio (ASAR) and matrix metric influence factor (MMIF), where ACMQ, ASAR and MMIF quantify the covariance control capability, the usage of sensor resources and the robustness of sensor allocation algorithm, respectively. Meanwhile, a covariance adaptive sensor allocation algorithm based on a new objective function is proposed to improve the covariance control capability of the algorithm based on information gain. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm have the advantage over the preceding sensor allocation algorithm in covariance control capability and robustness.

  6. CHANNEL DE-ALLOCATION SCHEMES FOR GSM/GPRS NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Tigang; Fan Pingzhi; Kam Yiu Lam

    2005-01-01

    Several channel de-allocation schemes for GSM/GPRS(General Packet Radio Service) networks are proposed in this paper. For DRA (Dynamical Resource Allocation) with de-allocation mechanism, if a new voice call arrives and finds that all the channels are busy,then one of the GPRS packets which occupy more than one channel for data transmission may release a channel for the new voice call. This paper presents 5 de-allocation mechanisms, i.e.DA-RANDOM, DA-RICHEST, DA-POOREST, DA-OLDEST and DA-YOUNGEST, to select the GPRS packet for releasing the appropriate channel. Simulation results show that DAOLDEST achieves the best performance, especially in packets blocking probability, among all the de-allocation schemes. Although the performance of the proposed de-allocation schemes is not significantly different, they are all much better than that of the scheme without de-allocation.

  7. Fair subcarrier-power allocation scheme for multiuser multicarrier systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Abd-Elnaby; Germien G Sedhom; Nagy W Messiha; Xu Zhu; Fathi E Abd El-Samie

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiple access (MU-OFDM) is to maximize the total system capacity in wireless communication systems. Thus, the problem in MU-OFDM system is the adaptive allocation of the resources (subcarriers, bits and power) to different users subject to several restrictions to maximize the total system capacity. In this work, a proposed subcarrier allocation algorithm was presented to assign the subcarriers with highest channel gain to the users. After the subcarrier allocation, subcarrier gain-based power allocation (SGPA) was employed for power and bit loading. The simulation results show that the proposed subcarrier-power allocation scheme can achieve high total system capacity and good fairness in allocating the resources to the users with slightly high computational complexity compared to the existing subcarrier allocation algorithms.

  8. The effects of Constitutional Amendment 29 on the regional allocation of public funds for the National Health Service in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Sérgio Francisco; de França, José Rivaldo Mello; Nunes, André

    2016-02-01

    This article analyzes the effects of Constitutional Amendment 29 in financing the Brazilian National Health Service, SUS, between 2000 and 2010. The aim was to analyze how the resources that were allocated by the three spheres of government were used on a general basis and in specific regions. Analysis was also conducted on the possible repercussions of the Amendment in the allocation of finances for SUS. The results showed: an important increase in the designated resources that were used by the three spheres of government during the aforementioned period. There was an increase in real terms of 112% in consolidated spending and an 89% increase in spending per capita by the three spheres. There was also more participation from the States, the Federal District and the Municipalities in financing the system. However, in spite of the increase in the use of financial resources, regional inequalities, in relation to spending per capita, remained practically unchanged.

  9. Industrial District as a Corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MOHAMMADY GARFAMY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comparison study of industrial districts in two European countries, Spain and Sweden, using the conceptual framework of corporation. The relevance of this approach is based on the specific qualities that the industrial districts have, including the preexisting conditions, local traditions, products and production characteristics, marketing strategies, local policies and present challenges. The findings indicate the ways in which different patterns of inter-firm relationships, organization of production and dynamics of local alliances have shaped divergent regional responses to the industrial construction.

  10. FAME - a function allocation design tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bye, Andreas; Hoffmann, Mario

    2001-02-15

    Function allocation between man and machine is a key issue when designing automation systems. One should allocate functions in order to maximise the operator's understanding of the situation and ability to handle unexpected events. This should be done by optimising his/her possibility to observe the state of the plant and to control the plant. Thus function allocation cannot be separated from an analysis of the human system interaction, since the information presented to the operators and the controls available for them to manipulate the process significantly affect their tasks and thus influence their role. FAME is a design support tool for analysis of these issues at an early stage in the design process. Simulations in FAME, utilising analytical models, provide a useful supplement to empirical data when studying the effects of automation on the performance of control room operators. FAME consists of components simulating the behaviour of the operator and the automation, as well as a component for the interaction with a process simulator. The Contextual Control Model, COCOM, is chosen as the basis for the operator component in FAME. A goal-oriented approach is taken, and Goals-Means Task Analysis, GMTA, is used to represent the relations between the goals and the means in the simulation of the scenarios. This report discusses how FAME can support the design process through a series of simulations analysing the operator's ability to control the system and their situation understanding during dynamic plant operation. This is done by emphasizing the fulfilment of goals when evaluating input and selecting actions for output. FAME thus puts the operator in the centre of the analysis, and a comparison between human and machine capabilities is not included in this approach. This report describes the underlying principles of FAME and the main requirements to operator simulation in this context. (Author)

  11. Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 140 799 UPC 6 1 981 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:??; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between berth and terminals area, number of containers in an arrived ship and estimation of available area in each terminal at a port. We proposed two types of models for optimistic and pessimistic situations. The proposed models have been coded in LINGO8.0 solver and a numerical example has been solved for illustration purpose. The full analysis of the proposed models can cause an optimum allocation of containers of several ships to different terminals of berths in fuzzy environment.

  12. Future Services for District Heating Solutions in Residential Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannele Ahvenniemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we discussed the potential interest in heating related services acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the customer needs. The results indicate the importance of certain criteria when choosing the heating system in households: easiness, comfort and affordability seem to dominate the house builders’ preferences. Also environmental awareness seems to be for many an important factor when making a decision about the heating of the house. Altogether, based on the results of this study, we suggest that the prospects of district heating could benefit from highlighting certain aspects and strengths in the future. District heating companies need to increase flexibility, readiness to adopt new services, to invest in new marketing strategies and improving the communication skills.

  13. Bidirectional ROF Links with Dynamic Capacity Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Chandan , Dharmendra Singh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available : Radio over fiber (ROF technology is an integration of wireless and fiber optic network. It plays vital role for broad band wireless communication. The well known advantages of optical as a transmission medium such as low loss, light weight, large bandwidth characteristics, small size and low cable cost make it the ideal and most flexible solution for efficiently transporting radio signals to remotely located antenna site in a wireless network. The joint venture of radio signal and optical fiber technology provides dynamic capacity allocation in radio over fiber links.

  14. Negotiating Socially Optimal Allocations of Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Endriss, U; Sadri, F; Toni, F; 10.1613/jair.1870

    2011-01-01

    A multiagent system may be thought of as an artificial society of autonomous software agents and we can apply concepts borrowed from welfare economics and social choice theory to assess the social welfare of such an agent society. In this paper, we study an abstract negotiation framework where agents can agree on multilateral deals to exchange bundles of indivisible resources. We then analyse how these deals affect social welfare for different instances of the basic framework and different interpretations of the concept of social welfare itself. In particular, we show how certain classes of deals are both sufficient and necessary to guarantee that a socially optimal allocation of resources will be reached eventually.

  15. Asset allocation using option-implied moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaludin, H.; Abdullah, M. H.; Tolos, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    This study uses an option-implied distribution as the input in asset allocation. The computation of risk-neutral densities (RND) are based on the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) index option and its constituents. Since the RNDs estimation does not incorporate risk premium, the conversion of RND into risk-world density (RWD) is required. The RWD is obtained through parametric calibration using the beta distributions. The mean, volatility, and covariance are then calculated to construct the portfolio. The performance of the portfolio is evaluated by using portfolio volatility and Sharpe ratio.

  16. Combat Resource Allocation Planning in Naval Engagements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Valcartier; August 2007. Management of tactical combat resources, as a part of military naval Command & Con- trol (C2) process , provides a real world multi...systèmes d’agents et multi-agents est présentée et les problèmes de planifi - cation en temps réel et de l’allocation des ressources sont abordés...data to be processed under time-critical conditions pose significant challenges for future shipboard Command & Control Systems (CCSs). Among other

  17. Nonparametric correlation models for portfolio allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Casas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes time-varying nonparametric and semiparametric estimators of the conditional cross-correlation matrix in the context of portfolio allocation. Simulations results show that the nonparametric and semiparametric models are best in DGPs with substantial variability or structural...... breaks in correlations. Only when correlations are constant does the parametric DCC model deliver the best outcome. The methodologies are illustrated by evaluating two interesting portfolios. The first portfolio consists of the equity sector SPDRs and the S&P 500, while the second one contains major...

  18. Radio resource allocation and dynamic spectrum access

    CERN Document Server

    Benmammar , Badr

    2013-01-01

    We are currently witnessing an increase in telecommunications norms and standards given the recent advances in this field. The increasing number of normalized standards paves the way for an increase in the range of services available for each consumer. Moreover, the majority of available radio frequencies have already been allocated. This explains the emergence of cognitive radio (CR) - the sharing of the spectrum between a primary user and a secondary user.In this book, we will present the state of the art of the different techniques for spectrum access using cooperation and competit

  19. Government Districts, Other, Voting districts, fire districts, inspector districts, engineering districts, school zones, recreation leagues, Published in 2014, Not Applicable scale, GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Government Districts, Other dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2014. It is...

  20. Iowa Congressional Districts for 2013-2022

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Congressional district boundaries, enacted April 19, 2011, effective beginning with the elections in 2012 for the 113th U.S. Congress. The districts will remain in...

  1. Location - Managed Facility - St. Paul District (MVP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — St. Paul District - US Army Corps of Engineers Managed Facility locations. District headquarters, Natural Resource, Recreation, Lock and Dam, and Regulatory offices...

  2. Crosby Wetland Management District Narrative report: 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crosby Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  3. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  4. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  5. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  6. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  7. Small School Districts: Providing Personalized Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottmann, Monte

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses secondary vocational education and the small school districts of the future, which he believes can provide adequate vocational education opportunities by cooperating with other districts through their Cooperative Educational Service Agency. (Author/CH)

  8. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  9. Environmental flow allocation and statistics calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Flow Allocation and Statistics Calculator (EFASC) is a computer program that calculates hydrologic statistics based on a time series of daily streamflow values. EFASC will calculate statistics for daily streamflow in an input file or will generate synthetic daily flow series from an input file based on rules for allocating and protecting streamflow and then calculate statistics for the synthetic time series. The program reads dates and daily streamflow values from input files. The program writes statistics out to a series of worksheets and text files. Multiple sites can be processed in series as one run. EFASC is written in MicrosoftRegistered Visual BasicCopyright for Applications and implemented as a macro in MicrosoftOffice Excel 2007Registered. EFASC is intended as a research tool for users familiar with computer programming. The code for EFASC is provided so that it can be modified for specific applications. All users should review how output statistics are calculated and recognize that the algorithms may not comply with conventions used to calculate streamflow statistics published by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  10. POWER ALLOCATION OF DATA DEPENDENT SUPERIMPOSED TRAINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ping; Yuan Weina; Fan Pingzhi

    2008-01-01

    Data Dependent Superimposed Training (DDST) scheme outperforms the traditional superimposed training by fully canceling the effects of unknown data in channel estimator. In DDST,however,the channel estimation accuracy and the data detection or channel equalization performance are affected significantly by the amount of power allocated to data and superimposed training sequence,which is the motivation of this research. In general,for DDST,there is a tradeoff between the channel estimation accuracy and the data detection reliability,i.e.,the more accurate the channel estimation,the more reliable the data detection; on the other hand,the more accurate the channel estimation,the more demanding on the power consumption of training sequence,which in turn leads to the less reliable data detection. In this paper,the relationship between the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the data detector and the training sequence power is analyzed. The optimal power allocation of the training sequence is derived based on the criterion of maximizing SNR of the detector. Analysis and simulation results show that for a fixed transmit power,the SNR and the Symbol Error Rate (SER) of detector vary nonlinearly with the increasing of training sequence power,and there exists an optimal power ratio,which accords with the derived optimal power ratio,among the data and training sequence.

  11. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Lan; Xing, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  12. Location-Based Resource Allocation for OFDMA

    KAUST Repository

    Ghorbel, Mahdi

    2011-05-01

    Cognitive radio is one of the hot topics for emerging and future wireless communication. It has been proposed as a suitable solution for the spectrum scarcity caused by the increase in frequency demand. The concept is based on allowing unlicensed users, called cognitive or secondary users, to share the unoccupied frequency bands with their owners, called the primary users, under constraints on the interference they cause to them. In order to estimate this interference, the cognitive system usually uses the channel state information to the primary user, which is often impractical to obtain. However, we propose to use location information, which is easier to obtain, to estimate this interference. The purpose of this work is to propose a subchannel and power allocation method which maximizes the secondary users\\' total capacity under the constraints of limited budget power and total interference to the primary under certain threshold. We model the problem as a constrained optimization problem for both downlink and uplink cases. Then, we propose low-complexity resource allocation schemes based on the waterfilling algorithm. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed method with comparison to the exhaustive search algorithm.

  13. Bidding for Representative Allocations for Display Advertising

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Arpita; Papineni, Kishore; Vassilvitskii, Sergei

    2009-01-01

    Display advertising has traditionally been sold via guaranteed contracts -- a guaranteed contract is a deal between a publisher and an advertiser to allocate a certain number of impressions over a certain period, for a pre-specified price per impression. However, as spot markets for display ads, such as the RightMedia Exchange, have grown in prominence, the selection of advertisements to show on a given page is increasingly being chosen based on price, using an auction. As the number of participants in the exchange grows, the price of an impressions becomes a signal of its value. This correlation between price and value means that a seller implementing the contract through bidding should offer the contract buyer a range of prices, and not just the cheapest impressions necessary to fulfill its demand. Implementing a contract using a range of prices, is akin to creating a mutual fund of advertising impressions, and requires {\\em randomized bidding}. We characterize what allocations can be implemented with rando...

  14. Resource allocation to reproduction in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Lika, Konstadia

    2014-11-01

    The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that a fraction κ of mobilised reserve is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or reproduction (in adults). All DEB parameters have been estimated for 276 animal species from most large phyla and all chordate classes. The goodness of fit is generally excellent. We compared the estimated values of κ with those that would maximise reproduction in fully grown adults with abundant food. Only 13% of these species show a reproduction rate close to the maximum possible (assuming that κ can be controlled), another 4% have κ lower than the optimal value, and 83% have κ higher than the optimal value. Strong empirical support hence exists for the conclusion that reproduction is generally not maximised. We also compared the parameters of the wild chicken with those of races selected for meat and egg production and found that the latter indeed maximise reproduction in terms of κ, while surface-specific assimilation was not affected by selection. We suggest that small values of κ relate to the down-regulation of maximum body size, and large values to the down-regulation of reproduction. We briefly discuss the ecological context for these findings.

  15. District, north-east Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall geometric mean parasite density (GMPD) was 77.4 parasites/ptl of blood and median parasite density was 200 ... world malaria incidence is estimated at 300 to 500 ... In holoendemic areas, including the coastal regions ... The district has a population of approximately .... off points for areas with different altitudes.

  16. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of...: May 24, 2010. d. Applicant: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District. e. Name of.... g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 USC 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Turlock...

  17. 75 FR 35778 - Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of... Competing Applications June 16, 2010. On February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the...

  18. 77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of... and the Modesto Irrigation District (collectively, the Districts), are co-licensees for the Don Pedro... Steelhead Full Life-Cycle Population Models; and Request 9--Effects of the Project and Related Facilities on...

  19. Reproductive Allocation Patterns in Different Density Populations of Spring Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Liu; Gen-Xuan Wang; Liang Wei; Chun-Ming Wang

    2008-01-01

    The effects of Increased intraspecific competition on size hierarchies (size inequality) and reproductive allocation were investigated in populations of the annual plant, spdng wheat (Triticum aestivum). A series of densities (100, 300, 1 000, 3 000 and 10 000 plants/m2) along a gradient of competition intensity were designed in this experiment. The results showed that average shoot biomass decreased with increased density. Reproductive allocation was negatively correlated to Gini coefficient (R2=0.927), which suggested that reproductive allocation is inclined to decrease as size inequality increases. These results suggest that both vegetative and reproductive structures were significantly affected by intensive competition. However, results also indicated that there were different relationships between plant size and reproductive allocation pattern in different densities. In the lowest density population, lacking competition (100 plants/m2), individual reproductive allocation was size independent but, in high density populations (300, 1 000, 3 000 and 10 000 plants/m2), where competition occurred, individual reproductive allocation was size dependent: the small proportion of larger individuals were winners In competition and got higher reproductive allocation (lower marginal reproductive allocation; MRA), and the larger proportion of smaller individuals were suppressed and got lower reproductive allocation (higher MRA). In conclusion, our results support the prediction that elevated intraspecific competition would result in higher levels of size inequality and decreased reproductive allocation (with a negative relationship between them). However, deeper analysis indicated that these frequency- and size-dependent reproductive strategies were not evolutionarily stable strategies.

  20. The Philadelphia School District's Ongoing Financial Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, John; Kuperberg, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the budget crisis that the School District of Philadelphia has faced for the past few years. Three specific events triggered the 2012 crisis: an abrupt reduction in federal and state funding, the inability of the district to cut many of its costs, and political pressures on the district to spend available revenues in a given…

  1. School District Cash Management. Program Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Legislative Commission on Expenditure Review, Albany.

    New York State law permits school districts to invest cash not immediately needed for district operation and also specifies the kinds of investments that may be made in order to ensure the safety and liquidity of public funds. This audit examines cash management and investment practices in New York state's financially independent school districts.…

  2. School District Cash Management. Program Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Legislative Commission on Expenditure Review, Albany.

    New York State law permits school districts to invest cash not immediately needed for district operation and also specifies the kinds of investments that may be made in order to ensure the safety and liquidity of public funds. This audit examines cash management and investment practices in New York state's financially independent school districts.…

  3. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... included in either the Quincy or South Irrigation Districts which lies east of township vertical line R27E... Irrigation Districts which lies west of township line R28E. (c) District No. 3—The counties of Benton...

  4. Groundwater and geothermal: urban district heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mounts, R.; Frazier, A.; Wood, E.; Pyles, O.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes how several cities use groundwater and geothermal energy in district heating systems. It begins with groundwater, introducing the basic technology and techniques of development, and describing two case studies of cities with groundwater-based district heating systems. The second half of the report consists of three case studies of cities with district heating systems using higher temperature geothermal resources.

  5. 78 FR 58049 - Proposed Establishment of the Adelaida District, Creston District, El Pomar District, Paso Robles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... year defines climatic regions. Climatic region I has less than 2,500 GDDs per year; region II, 2,501 to... District.... Valley floor transitioning to mountain slopes; elevations between 1,160 to 2,086 feet... of 11.4 inches; Winkler III climate. Santa Margarita Ranch Valley floor and hillsides;...

  6. Market power in auction and efficiency in emission permits allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min Xing; Yang, Dong Xiao; Chen, Zi Yue; Nie, Pu Yan

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyzes how to achieve the cost-effectiveness by initial allocation of CO2 emission permits when a single dominant firm in production market has market power in auction, and compare two prevalent allocation patterns, mixed allocation and single auction. We show how the firm with market power may manipulate the auction price, thereby this leads to fail to achieve cost-effective solution by auction unless the total permits for allocation equal to the effective emissions cap. Provided that the market power firm receives strictly positive free permits, the effective emissions cap of mixed allocation is larger than that of single auction. The production market share of dominant firm is increasing with the free permits it holds. Finally, we examine the compliance costs and welfare of mixed allocation and single auction, the result show that the former is preferred to the later when policy makers consider economic welfare without welfare cost due to CO2 emissions.

  7. Metacognitive and control strategies in study-time allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, L K; Metcalfe, J

    2000-01-01

    This article investigates how people's metacognitive judgments influence subsequent study-time-allocation strategies. The authors present a comprehensive literature review indicating that people allocate more study time to judged-difficult than to judged-easy items--consistent with extant models of study-time allocation. However, typically, the materials were short, and participants had ample time for study. In contrast, in Experiment 1, when participants had insufficient time to study, they allocated more time to the judged-easy items than to the judged-difficult items, especially when expecting a test. In Experiment 2, when the materials were shorter, people allocated more study time to the judged-difficult materials. In Experiment 3, under high time pressure, people preferred studying judged-easy sonnets; under moderate time pressure, they showed no preference. These results provide new evidence against extant theories of study-time allocation.

  8. Simplifying rules for optimal allocation of preventive care resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandjour, Afschin

    2012-04-01

    Given the limited resources for preventive care, policy-makers need to consider the efficiency/cost-effectiveness of preventive measures, such as drugs and vaccines, when allocating preventive care resources. However, in many settings only limited information on lifetime costs and effects of preventive measures exists. Therefore, it seems useful to provide policy-makers with some simplifying rules when allocating preventive care resources. The purpose of this article is to investigate the relevance of risk and severity of the disease to be prevented for the optimal allocation of preventive care resources. The report shows - based on a constrained optimization model - that optimal allocation of preventive care resources does, in fact, depend on both factors. Resources should be allocated to the prevention of diseases with a higher probability of occurrence or larger severity. This article also identifies situations where preventive care resources should be allocated to the prevention of less severe disease.

  9. Resource Allocation of Agricultural Science and Technology R&D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The status quo of resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D(research and development)both at home and abroad,including the amount and function of agricultural science and technology research funds,human resources in the resources of agricultural science and technology R&D,the efficiency of resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D,the management system of agricultural scientific innovation and the operation status of scientific funds,is analyzed.The problems in the current resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D are put forward,including unreasonable resource allocation;low efficiency,and low efficiency of the transformation of agricultural scientific achievements.The highly effective resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D is analyzed from the aspects of resource allocation structure,environment,channel,spatial layout and industrial chain.

  10. Public Investment Regional Allocation: Evaluation of applicability of two methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Geraki, Martha; Serafeim POLYZOS; Krikeli, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Regional allocation of public investment has been considered of a great interest over the years. Regional policy uses investments as a basic developmental tool and it seeks for an effective allocation among the regions. In addition, national economic policy distributes investments aiming at both economic development of less developed regions and maximization of national product. Therefore, an effective allocation by the central government is of a great significance. In addition, national econ...

  11. Cost allocation policy review: options and preferred alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    This policy review of the consultation process on the electricity cost allocation issue is presented with specific cost allocation policy issues addressed herein, such as: the new microFIT rate, accounting changes and the transition to IFRS, and review of allocating costs to load displacement generation. This report gave the current situation for all these issues, previous work, issues, viable options for dealing with these issues and the preferred alternatives.

  12. Allocation and Admission Policies for Service Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzucco, Michele; Fisher, Mike; McKee, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A service provisioning system is examined, where a number of servers are used to offer different types of services to paying customers. A customer is charged for the execution of a stream of jobs; the number of jobs in the stream and the rate of their submission is specified. On the other hand, the provider promises a certain quality of service (QoS), measured by the average waiting time of the jobs in the stream. A penalty is paid if the agreed QoS requirement is not met. The objective is to maximize the total average revenue per unit time. Dynamic policies for making server allocation and stream admission decisions are introduced and evaluated. The results of several simulations are described.

  13. Vaccines: from valuation to resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David E; Madhavan, Guruprasad

    2015-06-08

    This review focuses on selected challenges and opportunities concerning broader valuation of vaccines and immunization. The challenges involve conceptualizing and measuring the value of vaccines, while the opportunities relate to the strategic and systematic use of that information in health policy decisions that range from the adoption of particular vaccines in national immunization plans to the allocation of resources to vaccine research, development, and delivery. Clarifying the demonstrable individual, family, and community-level benefits of vaccines will allow the public health community to make better-informed and more meaningful comparisons of the costs of vaccines in relation to their full benefits. Taking advantage of this opportunity will require enhanced data collection and the development of strategic planning tools for transparently assessing trade-offs among the myriad attributes of different vaccines in various social and economic contexts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  15. Resources Allocation Schemas for Web Information Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kang; SHEN Meiming; ZHENG Weimin

    2005-01-01

    The web is an extremely dynamic world where information is updated even every second. A web information monitoring system fetches information from the web continuously and finds changes by comparing two versions of the same page. The updating of a specific web page is modeled as a Poisson process with parameter to indicate the change frequency. As the amount of computing resources is limited, it is necessary to find some policies for reducing the overall change-detection time. Different allocation schemas are evaluated experimentally to find out which one is the most suitable for the web information monitoring problem. The experimental data shows the runtime characteristics of the overall system performance and the relationship to the total amount of resources.

  16. Nonparametric correlation models for portfolio allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Casas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    breaks in correlations. Only when correlations are constant does the parametric DCC model deliver the best outcome. The methodologies are illustrated by evaluating two interesting portfolios. The first portfolio consists of the equity sector SPDRs and the S&P 500, while the second one contains major......This article proposes time-varying nonparametric and semiparametric estimators of the conditional cross-correlation matrix in the context of portfolio allocation. Simulations results show that the nonparametric and semiparametric models are best in DGPs with substantial variability or structural...... currencies. Results show the nonparametric model generally dominates the others when evaluating in-sample. However, the semiparametric model is best for out-of-sample analysis....

  17. Unsupervised Feature Selection for Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Weiran; Du Gang; Chen Guang; Guo Jun; Yang Jie

    2011-01-01

    As a generative model Latent Dirichlet Allocation Model,which lacks optimization of topics' discrimination capability focuses on how to generate data,This paper aims to improve the discrimination capability through unsupervised feature selection.Theoretical analysis shows that the discrimination capability of a topic is limited by the discrimination capability of its representative words.The discrimination capability of a word is approximated by the Information Gain of the word for topics,which is used to distinguish between “general word” and “special word” in LDA topics.Therefore,we add a constraint to the LDA objective function to let the “general words” only happen in “general topics”other than “special topics”.Then a heuristic algorithm is presented to get the solution.Experiments show that this method can not only improve the information gain of topics,but also make the topics easier to understand by human.

  18. Allocation and Location of Transport Logistics Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mocková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The facility allocation problem sets out to determine the optimal number of facilities to be opened. Based on multiple criteria evaluation, the optimal location of the facilities is usually solved subsequently. Several considerations, e.g. technical parameters, costs and finance must be taken into account. Economic analysis is carried out on the basis of the specific instance of the problem.Let us assume that the number of potentially located facilities is known. Then the problem of the optimal location of a given number of facilities in a network is referred to as the facility location problem. The solution to the problem is a set of facilities optimally located in an area such that this area is fully covered by the required services that the facilities provide. An example of a real-life problem of this type is the location of logistics centers. 

  19. Portfolio Allocation Subject to Credit Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio de Deus Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Credit Risk is an important dimension to be considered in the risk management procedures of financial institutions. Is a particularly useful in emerging markets where default rates on bank loan products are usually high. It is usually calculated through highly costly Monte Carlo simulations which consider different stochastic factors driving the uncertainly associated to the borrowers liabilities. In this paper, under some restrictions, we drive closed form formulas for the probability distributions of default rates of bank loans products involving a big number of clients. This allows us to quickly obtain the credit risk of such products. Moreover, using these probability distributions, we solve the problem of optimal portfolio allocation under default risk.

  20. Two phase decision algorithm of replica allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo Chaoshu; Liu Xinsong; Wang Zheng; Li Yi

    2006-01-01

    In distributed parallel server system, location and redundancy of replicas have great influence on availability and efficiency of the system. In order to improve availahility and efficiency of the system, two phase decision algorithm of replica allocation is proposed. The algorithm which makes use of auto-regression model dynamically predicts the future count of READ and WRITE operation, and then determines location and redundancy of replicas by considering availability, CPU and bands of the network. The algorithm can not only ensure the requirement of availability, but also reduce the system resources consumed by all the operations in a great scale. Analysis and test show that communication complexity and time complexity of the algorithm satisfy O( n ), resource optimizing scale increases with the increase of READ count.

  1. KANBAN allocation in a serial suply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Andrés Sánchez C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project is to simulate a Kanban system using N stages with the objective of maintaining an acceptable throughput and mean system time. The document shows the production systems where Kanban is applicable and what the potential benefits are. A serial of simulations will be done using a demand given by a poison distribution with rate λ ^ ext. The simulation aimed to find the best number of withdrawal Kanban on all stages when the values of μ (for exponential distribution of the process and λ ^ ext increase and decrease. At the end of this simulation, the best way to allocate the withdrawal Kanban over N stages with the objective of maintaining acceptable throughput and mean system time will be clearer thus the conclusions of this work will be done.

  2. The Relationship between Student Achievement, School District Economies of Scale, School District Size, and Student Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between student achievement, school district economies of scale, school district size and student socioeconomic status were measured for 131 school districts in the state of Oregon. Data for school districts ranging in size from districts with around 300 students to districts with more than 40,000 students were collected for…

  3. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  4. Adaptive Resource Allocation and Internet Traffic Engineering on Data Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Hussein

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper describes the issues of bandwid th allocation, optimum capacity allocation, network operational cost reduction, and improve Int ernet user experience. Traffic engineering (TE is used to manipulate network traffic to achie ve certain requirements and meets certain needs. TE becomes one of the most important buildin g blocks in the design of the Internet backbone infrastructure. Research objective: effici ent allocation of bandwidth across multiple paths. Optimum path selection. Minimize network tra ffic delays and maximize bandwidth utilization over multiple network paths. The bandwi dth allocation is performed proportionally over multiple paths based on the path capacity.

  5. Life cycle methodology for copper : allocation and recycling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobling-Reisemann, S. [Bremen Univ., Bremen (Germany). Faculty of Production Engineering; Tikana, L.; Sievers, H.; Klassert, A. [Deutsches Kupferinstitut, Dusseldorf (Germany). Life Cycle Centre

    2007-07-01

    This paper provided an overview of different methodologies available for recycling and assessing the life cycles of copper ores. Approaches towards allocation in life cycle assessments (LCA) included detailed modelling; system expansion; physical allocation; economic allocation; and subsequent-use allocation. Approaches towards recycling included system expansion, cut-off approaches, open loop approach; value corrected substitution; and the cascade approach. Sulphuric acid and steam are produced as by-products during copper production, and most copper ores contain molybdenum, gold, silver, and nickel. The environmental impacts of copper by-products must be considered when conducting LCAs. Existing standards allow different implementation methods for recycling and allocation into metal LCAs, and the selection of a methodology can significantly influence the ecological profile of copper and copper products. Allocation is needed when processes with more than 1 function are investigated. ISO standards recommend avoiding allocation problems by using detailed system modelling. Allocation factors should be chosen that reflect the physical relationship between the functional units produced and their associated environmental burdens. Case studies were presented to demonstrate allocations of co- and byproducts and recycling in copper production. 19 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  6. If Not Only Numbers Count: Allocation of Equal Chances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlies Ahlert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that medical guidelines specify the appropriate amount of a divisible good which each individual should receive. Individual requirements and probabilities that the treatment is successful if an appropriate amount is received differ. The same applies to the success probabilities if individuals are inadequately treated. If supply is insufficient to serve all with appropriate amounts an allocation decision is necessary. We define probabilistic allocation rules that allocate chances of successful treatment to all individuals. We analyse a specific random allocation rule that assigns maximal equal gains of chances. We characterize the equal gain rule axiomatically.

  7. Marginal pricing and supplement cost allocation in transmission open access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnick, H.; Palma, R.; Fernandez, J.E. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Escuela de Ingenieria

    1995-05-01

    The application of marginal costing to transmission pricing in open access schemes requires the collection of a supplement to finance the transmission systems. The paper describes the application of marginal cost based pricing in the Chilean power system and the difficulties faced in allocating the supplement among parties involved. Alternatives methods for defining the allocation are formulated. Generalized generation and load distribution factors for cost allocation are formulated and implemented. The methods are applied to allocate payments for transmission services provided by the transmission network and by a distribution company.

  8. Scheduling Coast Guard District Cutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    DESCRIPTION ..... ............ .. 14 D. COSTS, PENALTIES, AND MEASURES OF EFFECTIVENESS 15 iv IV . COMPUTATIONAL EXPERIENCE ............ 19 A. TEST PROBLEMS...used. Using the model of Chapter III, computational performance for a year’s worth of actual data from the First District is presented in Chapter IV ...2G, B-2NY, B-2SAR, C); t - week the cutter assumes the patrol status. COSTO - cost of scheduling cutter i to patrol k; (1 if ship i is available for

  9. An Approach for Transmission Loss and Cost Allocation by Loss Allocation Index and Co-operative Game Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Baseem; Agnihotri, Ganga; Mishra, Anuprita S.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work authors proposed a novel method for transmission loss and cost allocation to users (generators and loads). In the developed methodology transmission losses are allocated to users based on their usage of the transmission line. After usage allocation, particular loss allocation indices (PLAI) are evaluated for loads and generators. Also Cooperative game theory approach is applied for comparison of results. The proposed method is simple and easy to implement on the practical power system. Sample 6 bus and IEEE 14 bus system is used for showing the effectiveness of proposed method.

  10. Fuzzy Neighborhood Allocation (FNA): A Fuzzy Approach to Improve Near Neighborhood Allocation in DDB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basseda, Reza; Rahgozar, Maseud; Lucas, Caro

    Allocating data fragments in distributed database systems is an important issue in distributed database (DDB) systems. In this paper, we are going to improve the effectiveness of current NNA algorithm using a Fuzzy inference engine. Results indicate that, our fuzzy based NNA algorithm leads 5% gain in some of systems performance metrics. This algorithm, providing a data clustering mechanism, which is very suitable for DDBS in the networks, with heavy traffic loads, and frequent data access requests.

  11. Coding and Allocation for Distributed Data Storage: Fundamental Tradeoffs, Coding Schemes and Allocation Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Andriyanova, Iryna

    2013-01-01

    Doctoral; Distributed storage is one of the most actively developing topics nowadays, thanks to the growing need of storing more and more large amounts of data and to new distributed applications as cloud computing, multimedia content delivery etc. The core of each distributed storage system (DSS) is its erasure-correcting code; the core of the DSS networking protocol is its allocation pattern.With new aforementioned storage applications we are about to attain the limit of well-developed codi...

  12. The choice between allocation principles: amplifying when equality dominates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eek, Daniel; Selart, Marcus

    2009-04-01

    One hundred and ninety participants (95 undergraduates and 95 employees) responded to a factorial survey in which a number of case-based organizational allocation tasks were described. Participants were asked to imagine themselves as employees in fictitious organizations and chose among three allocations of employee-development schemes invested by the manager in different work groups. The allocations regarded how such investments should be allocated between two parties. Participants chose twice, once picking the fairest and once the best allocation. One between-subjects factor varied whether the parties represented social (i.e., choosing among allocations between two different work groups) or temporal comparisons (i.e., choosing among allocations between the present and the following year). Another between-subjects factor varied whether participants' in-group was represented by the parties or not. One allocation maximized the outcome to one party, another maximized the joint outcome received by both parties, and a third provided both parties with equal but lower outcomes. It was predicted that equality, although always deficient to both parties, would be the preferred allocation when parties represented social comparisons and when choices were based on fairness. When parties represented temporal comparisons, and when choices were based on preference, maximizing the joint outcome was hypothesized to be the preferred allocation. Results supported these hypotheses. Against what was predicted, whether the in-group was represented by the parties or not did not moderate the results, indicating that participants' allocation preferences were not affected by self-interest. The main message is that people make sensible distinctions between what they prefer and what they regard as fair. The results were the same for participating students who imagined themselves as being employees and participants who were true employees, suggesting that no serious threats to external

  13. In the interests of time: improving HIV allocative efficiency modelling via optimal time-varying allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Shattock

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: International investment in the response to HIV and AIDS has plateaued and its future level is uncertain. With many countries committed to ending the epidemic, it is essential to allocate available resources efficiently over different response periods to maximize impact. The objective of this study is to propose a technique to determine the optimal allocation of funds over time across a set of HIV programmes to achieve desirable health outcomes. Methods: We developed a technique to determine the optimal time-varying allocation of funds (1 when the future annual HIV budget is pre-defined and (2 when the total budget over a period is pre-defined, but the year-on-year budget is to be optimally determined. We use this methodology with Optima, an HIV transmission model that uses non-linear relationships between programme spending and associated programmatic outcomes to quantify the expected epidemiological impact of spending. We apply these methods to data collected from Zambia to determine the optimal distribution of resources to fund the right programmes, for the right people, at the right time. Results and discussion: Considering realistic implementation and ethical constraints, we estimate that the optimal time-varying redistribution of the 2014 Zambian HIV budget between 2015 and 2025 will lead to a 7.6% (7.3% to 7.8% decrease in cumulative new HIV infections compared with a baseline scenario where programme allocations remain at 2014 levels. This compares to a 5.1% (4.6% to 5.6% reduction in new infections using an optimal allocation with constant programme spending that recommends unrealistic programmatic changes. Contrasting priorities for programme funding arise when assessing outcomes for a five-year funding period over 5-, 10- and 20-year time horizons. Conclusions: Countries increasingly face the need to do more with the resources available. The methodology presented here can aid decision-makers in planning as to when to

  14. Public-Private Partnerships : Risk Allocation and Value for Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the allocation and valuation of public-private partnerships (PPPs). First, the paper discusses why governments pursue PPPs and how value for money (VfM) is achieved. Second, the paper reviews the principles of risk allocation and valuation from an academic and pu

  15. Public-Private Partnerships : Risk Allocation and Value for Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    This paper reviews the literature on the allocation and valuation of public-private partnerships (PPPs). First, the paper discusses why governments pursue PPPs and how value for money (VfM) is achieved. Second, the paper reviews the principles of risk allocation and valuation from an academic and

  16. Public-Private Partnerships : Risk Allocation and Value for Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the allocation and valuation of public-private partnerships (PPPs). First, the paper discusses why governments pursue PPPs and how value for money (VfM) is achieved. Second, the paper reviews the principles of risk allocation and valuation from an academic and

  17. Joint overbooking and seat allocation for fare families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Robert; Fiig, Thomas; Bondoux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Revenue Management Systems (RMS) traditionally solve the seat allocation problem separately from the overbooking problem. Overbooking is managed by inflating the authorization levels obtained from seat allocation by various heuristics. This approach although suboptimal, is necessitated because of...... independent demand model, which is readily solved. The resulting availability control can easily by implemented in existing RMS...

  18. 41 CFR 51-6.2 - Allocation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allocation process. 51-6.2 Section 51-6.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.2 Allocation process. (a) In those cases where a direct order authorization has not been...

  19. 48 CFR 8.705-3 - Allocation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation process. 8.705-3 Section 8.705-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.705-3 Allocation process. (a) When the direct order process has...

  20. Allocating instruction time: How language instruction can affect multiple skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, L.; Diris, R.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    There exists substantial variation in how schools allocate instruction time to school subjects. The effectiveness of that allocation depends on the immediate effect of instruction in one subject on achievement in the same subject, on how skills further develop over time, and on possible spillover

  1. Simulated waiting list prioritization for equitable allocation of donor lungs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwens, JP; Groen, H; TenVergert, EM; Koeter, GH; van der Bij, W

    Background: In lung transplantation (LTx), allocation of donor lungs is usually based on blood group, height and waiting time. Long waiting times favor patients with a slowly progressive end-stage lung disease and make the current allocation system the subject of discussion. In an attempt to

  2. 24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604 ADDI allocation formula. (a) General. HUD will provide ADDI funds to participating jurisdictions in...

  3. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that is... that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules for...

  4. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign trust created by a...

  5. Freedom of Establishment and the Balanced Allocation of Tax Jurisdiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    in order to present a (more) coherent approach to evaluating national anti-abuse legislation. It is submitted that the justification ground of “balanced allocation of tax jurisdiction” and the arm’s length principle for allocation of income should form an important basis under EU law for the evaluation...

  6. Nutritional bias as a new mode of adjusting sex allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magrath, M. J. L.; van Lieshout, E; Visser, G. H.; Komdeur, J

    2004-01-01

    Sex biases in the allocation of resources to offspring occur in a broad range of taxa. Parents have been shown to achieve such biases either by producing numerically more of one sex or by providing the individuals of one sex with a greater quantity of resources. In addition, skews in allocation coul

  7. On capital allocation for stochastic arrangement increasing actuarial risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the increasing convex ordering of the optimal discounted capital allocations for stochastic arrangement increasing risks with stochastic arrangement decreasing occurrence times. The application to optimal allocation of policy limits is presented as an illustration as well.

  8. GENERATING SOPHISTICATED SPATIAL SURROGATES USING THE MIMS SPATIAL ALLOCATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Multimedia Integrated Modeling System (MIMS) Spatial Allocator is open-source software for generating spatial surrogates for emissions modeling, changing the map projection of Shapefiles, and performing other types of spatial allocation that does not require the use of a comm...

  9. Foreign Bank Entry and Credit Allocation in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Havrylchyk, O.; Jurzyk, E.; Kozak, S.

    2009-01-01

    We employ a unique data set containing bank-specific information to explore how foreign bank entry determines credit allocation in emerging markets. We investigate the impact of the mode of foreign entry (greenfield or takeover) on banks’ portfolio allocation to borrowers with different degrees of

  10. Foreign Bank Entry and Credit Allocation in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Havrylchyk, O.; Jurzyk, E.; Kozak, S.

    2009-01-01

    We employ a unique data set containing bank-specific information to explore how foreign bank entry determines credit allocation in emerging markets. We investigate the impact of the mode of foreign entry (greenfield or takeover) on banks’ portfolio allocation to borrowers with different degrees of i

  11. Resource Allocation Models and Accountability: A Jamaican Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) may be funded privately, by the state or by a mixture of the two. Nevertheless, any state financing of HE necessitates a mechanism to determine the level of support and the channels through which it is to be directed; that is, a resource allocation model. Public funding, through resource allocation models,…

  12. What Does it Really Cost? Allocating Indirect Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Herbert; Davenport, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the costs of a system/service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a three-step process: selecting cost objectives, pooling related overhead costs, and selecting costs bases to connect the objectives to the pooled costs. Argues that activity-based costing…

  13. 40 CFR 35.925-4 - State allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State allocation. 35.925-4 Section 35.925-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... allocation. That the award of grant assistance for a particular project will not cause the total of all...

  14. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and...

  15. Multisorted Tree-Algebras for Hierarchical Resources Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Patrick Zobo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a generic abstract model for the study of disparities between goals and results in hierarchical multiresources allocation systems. In an organization, disparities in resource allocation may occur, when, after comparison of a resource allocation decision with an allocation reference goal or property, some agents have surplus resources to accomplish their tasks, while at the same time other agents have deficits of expected resources. In the real world, these situations are frequently encountered in organizations facing scarcity of resources and/or inefficient management. These disparities can be corrected using allocation decisions, by measuring and reducing gradually such disparities and their related costs, without totally canceling the existing resource distribution. While a lot of research has been carried out in the area of resource allocation, this specific class of problems has not yet been formally studied. The paper exposes the results of an exploratory research study of this class of problems. It identifies the commonalities of the family of hierarchical multiresource allocation systems and proposes the concept of multisorted tree-algebra for the modeling of these problems. The research presented here is not yet an in-depth descriptive research study of the mathematical theory of multisorted tree-algebra, but a formal study on modelling hierarchical multiresource allocation problems.

  16. Allocating instruction time: How language instruction can affect multiple skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, L.; Diris, R.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    There exists substantial variation in how schools allocate instruction time to school subjects. The effectiveness of that allocation depends on the immediate effect of instruction in one subject on achievement in the same subject, on how skills further develop over time, and on possible spillover ef

  17. Spatial allocation of farming systems and farming indicators in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, M.; Elbersen, B.S.; Staritsky, I.G.; Andersen, E.; Heckelei, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article an approach to spatially allocate farm information to a specific environmental context is presented. At this moment the European wide farm information is only available at a rather aggregated administrative level. The suggested allocation approach adds a spatial dimension to all samp

  18. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  19. Public-Private Partnerships : Risk Allocation and Value for Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the allocation and valuation of public-private partnerships (PPPs). First, the paper discusses why governments pursue PPPs and how value for money (VfM) is achieved. Second, the paper reviews the principles of risk allocation and valuation from an academic and pu

  20. Selecting method of districts with science and technology program's priority support and its positive analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-qi; WANG Xue-yuan

    2008-01-01

    According to growth pole theory, this paper puts forward that when allocating regional science and technology (S&T) innovation resources based on S&T program, should abide the principle that important are areceives priority support; Meanwhile, it designs method to ascertain district S&T advantage and S&T innovation resources utilizing efficiency as well as S&T developing speed by using component analysis and DEA method, and then constructs three-dimension selecting model ,by which a positive research on Heilongjiang is made, the purpose of which is to offer scientific method support and decision-making foundation for making regional S&T program.

  1. 4G femtocells resource allocation and interference management

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Haijun; Wen, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    This brief examines resource allocation and interference management for 4G femtocells. It introduces 4G femtocells in the context of 4G mobile networks and discusses related technical challenges in resource allocation and interference management. Topics include ant colony algorithm based downlink resource allocation, intelligent scheduling and power control, uplink and downlink for two-tier networks, quality of service (QoS) constraints and the cross-tier interference constraint. The authors present algorithms to alleviate common femtocell-related problems such as subchannel power allocation. The complexity of the proposed resource allocation algorithms is analyzed, and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is verified by simulations. This concise and practical book directly addresses common problems relating to femtocells and resource management. It serves as a useful tool for researchers in the field. Advanced-level students or professionals interested in femtocells and networks will also find the co...

  2. Accounting of allocation of production enterprises’ overhead costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.V. Ivaniuta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the complexity of engineering technological cycles, the use of traditional approaches to the allocation of overhead costs at the researching enterprises is inexpedient and inefficient. The authors find out that to solve this problem it is not enough to choose only one base of allocation because the formed prime cost with such an approach will not meet the reality. That is why it is suggested to use a multilevel allocation of overhead costs. The proposed approach involves the allocation of overhead costs at the following levels: fixed and variable, with shops of main and auxiliary production, calculation stations, some orders. Each level involves the selection of individual allocation bases that are grouped on economic, technological and integrated ones.

  3. Study of large medical equipment allocation in Xuzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the allocation and management of large medical equipment (LME) in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, China, in order to make the best use of LME to meet the medical needs of local people. Methods: The research collected data from all hospitals that have LME in Xuzhou using questionnaire; 38 (97.4%) hospitals returned the questionnaire. Results: In Xuzhou, there are a total of 71 pieces of LME, each serving 126600 people in an area of 163 km2. Sixty-two percent of them are allocated in urban areas, with Gini coefficient at 0.52, indicating imbalance and biased allocation of LME. Conclusion: The allocation of LME in Xuzhou is out of control and unfairly allocated.

  4. Suboptimal Rate Adaptive Resource Allocation for Downlink OFDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanam Sadr

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the performance of low complexity adaptive resource allocation in the downlink of OFDMA systems with fixed or variable rate requirements (with fairness consideration. Two suboptimal resource allocation algorithms are proposed using the simplifying assumption of transmit power over the entire bandwidth. The objective of the first algorithm is to maximize the total throughput while maintaining rate proportionality among the users. The proposed suboptimal algorithm prioritizes the user with the highest sensitivity to the subcarrier allocation, and the variance over the subchannel gains is used to define the sensitivity of each user. The second algorithm concerns rate adaptive resource allocation in multiuser systems with fixed rate constraints. We propose a suboptimal joint subchannel and power allocation algorithm which prioritizes the users with the highest required data rates. The main feature of this algorithm is its low complexity while achieving the rate requirements.

  5. Downlink resource allocation for multichannel TDMA visible light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr M.

    2017-05-12

    Optical wireless communications (OWC) in general and resource allocation in OWC networks particularly have gained lots of attention recently. In this work, we consider the resource allocation problem of a visible light communication downlink transmission system based on time division multiple access with the objective of maximizing spectral efficiency (SE). As for the operational conditions, we impose constraints on the average optical intensity, the energy consumption and the quality-of-service. To solve the non-convex problem, we transform the objective function into a difference of concave functions by solving a second order differential inequality. Then, we propose a low-complexity algorithm to solve the resource allocation problem. Finally, we show by simulations the SE performance gains achieved by optimizing the power allocation over equal power allocation in the considered system. Numerical results show the SE gains achieved by using this solution.

  6. Objective function of cost in optimal tolerance allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An objective function model is proposed for cost in optimizing and allocating tolerance with consideration of manufacturing conditions. With the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, a manufacturing difficulty coefficient is derived, which takes into account of several factors affecting the manufacturing cost, including the forming means of the blank, size, machining surface features, operator's skills and machinability of materials.The coefficient is then converted into a weight factor used in the inversed square model representing the relationship between the cost and tolerance, and, hence, an objective function for cost is established in optimizing and allocating tolerance. The higher is the manufacturing difficulty coefficient, the higher is the relative manufacturing cost and the higher is the weight factor of the tolerance allocation, which indicates the increase of the tolerance's effects on the total manufacturing cost and, therefore, a larger tolerance should be allocated. The computer-aided tolerance allocation utilizing this model makes it more convenient, accurate and practicable.

  7. Robust Inversion and Data Compression in Control Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodel, A. Scottedward

    2000-01-01

    We present an off-line computational method for control allocation design. The control allocation function delta = F(z)tau = delta (sub 0) (z) mapping commanded body-frame torques to actuator commands is implicitly specified by trim condition delta (sub 0) (z) and by a robust pseudo-inverse problem double vertical line I - G(z) F(z) double vertical line less than epsilon (z) where G(z) is a system Jacobian evaluated at operating point z, z circumflex is an estimate of z, and epsilon (z) less than 1 is a specified error tolerance. The allocation function F(z) = sigma (sub i) psi (z) F (sub i) is computed using a heuristic technique for selecting wavelet basis functions psi and a constrained least-squares criterion for selecting the allocation matrices F (sub i). The method is applied to entry trajectory control allocation for a reusable launch vehicle (X-33).

  8. Spectrum Allocation Based on Game Theory in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiufen Ni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of intelligent communication technology, the characteristic of dynamic spectrum allocation of cognitive radio provides feasible scheme for sharing with the spectrum resources among the primary user and secondary users, which solves the current spectrum resource scarcity problem. In this paper, we comprehensively explored the cognitive radio spectrum allocation models based on game theory from cooperative game and non-cooperative game, which provide detailed overview and analysis on the state of the art of spectrum allocation based on game theory. In order to provide flexible and efficient spectrum allocation in wireless networks, this paper also provides the general framework model based on game theory for cognitive radio spectrum allocation.

  9. Output-based allocation and investment in clean technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Storroesten, Halvor Briseid

    2011-07-01

    Allocation of emission allowances may affect firms' incentives to invest in clean technologies. In this paper we show that so-called output-based allocation tends to stimulate such investments as long as individual firms do not assume the regulator to tighten the allocation rule as a consequence of their investments. The explanation is that output-based allocation creates an implicit subsidy to the firms' output, which increases production, leads to a higher price of allowances, and thus increases the incentives to invest in clean technologies. On the other hand, if the firms expect the regulator to tighten the allocation rule after observing their clean technology investment, the firms' incentives to invest are moderated. If strong, this last effect may outweigh the enhanced investment incentives induced by increased output and higher allowance price. (Author)

  10. Permit Allocation in Emissions Trading using the Boltzmann Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Ji-Won; Isard, Walter

    2011-01-01

    In emissions trading, the initial permit allocation is an intractable issue because it needs to be essentially fair to the participating countries. There are many ways to distribute a given total amount of emissions permits among countries, but the existing distribution methods such as auctioning and grandfathering have been debated. Here we describe a new model for permit allocation in emissions trading using the Boltzmann distribution. The Boltzmann distribution is introduced to permit allocation by combining it with concepts in emissions trading. A price determination mechanism for emission permits is then developed in relation to the {\\beta} value in the Boltzmann distribution. Finally, it is demonstrated how emissions permits can be practically allocated among participating countries in empirical results. The new allocation model using the Boltzmann distribution describes a most probable, natural, and unbiased distribution of emissions permits among multiple countries. Based on its simplicity and versati...

  11. Capturing district nursing through a knowledge-based electronic caseload analysis tool (eCAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kay

    2014-03-01

    The Electronic Caseload Analysis Tool (eCAT) is a knowledge-based software tool to assist the caseload analysis process. The tool provides a wide range of graphical reports, along with an integrated clinical advisor, to assist district nurses, team leaders, operational and strategic managers with caseload analysis by describing, comparing and benchmarking district nursing practice in the context of population need, staff resources, and service structure. District nurses and clinical lead nurses in Northern Ireland developed the tool, along with academic colleagues from the University of Ulster, working in partnership with a leading software company. The aim was to use the eCAT tool to identify the nursing need of local populations, along with the variances in district nursing practice, and match the workforce accordingly. This article reviews the literature, describes the eCAT solution and discusses the impact of eCAT on nursing practice, staff allocation, service delivery and workforce planning, using fictitious exemplars and a post-implementation evaluation from the trusts.

  12. Submodular Cost Allocation Problem and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chekuri, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    We study the Minimum Submodular-Cost Allocation problem (MSCA). In this problem we are given a finite ground set $V$ and $k$ non-negative submodular set functions $f_1 ,..., f_k$ on $V$. The objective is to partition $V$ into $k$ (possibly empty) sets $A_1 ,..., A_k$ such that the sum $\\sum_{i=1}^k f_i(A_i)$ is minimized. Several well-studied problems such as the non-metric facility location problem, multiway-cut in graphs and hypergraphs, and uniform metric labeling and its generalizations can be shown to be special cases of MSCA. In this paper we consider a convex-programming relaxation obtained via the Lov\\'asz-extension for submodular functions. This allows us to understand several previous relaxations and rounding procedures in a unified fashion and also develop new formulations and approximation algorithms for several problems. In particular, we give a $(1.5 - 1/k)$-approximation for the hypergraph multiway partition problem. We also give a $\\min\\{2(1-1/k), H_{\\Delta}\\}$-approximation for the hypergraph...

  13. Biased allocation of faces to social categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniël H J; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2011-06-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features--a stereotypical negative trait--to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if they were prejudiced. On the contrary, the stereotype-irrelevant negative trait stupid did not lead to overallocation to the Moroccan category. In Study 3, using the stigmatized category homosexual, the previously used negative trait criminal--irrelevant to the homosexual stereotype--did not lead to overallocation, but the stereotype-relevant positive trait femininity did. These results demonstrate that normative fit is higher for faces with stereotype-relevant features regardless of valence. Moreover, individual differences in implicit prejudice predicted the extent to which stereotype-relevant traits elicited overallocation: Whereas more negatively prejudiced people showed greater overallocation of faces associated with negative stereotype-relevant traits, they showed less overallocation of faces associated with positive stereotype-relevant traits. These results support our normative fit hypothesis: In general, normative fit is better for faces with stereotypical features. Moreover, normative fit is enhanced for prejudiced individuals when these features are evaluatively congruent. Social categorization thus may be biased in itself.

  14. Impaired effort allocation in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadway, Michael T; Peterman, Joel S; Zald, David H; Park, Sohee

    2015-02-01

    A hallmark of negative symptoms in schizophrenia is reduced motivation and goal directed behavior. While preclinical models suggest that blunted striatal dopamine levels can produce such reductions, this mechanism is inconsistent with evidence for enhanced striatal dopamine levels in schizophrenia. In seeking to reconcile this discrepancy, one possibility is that negative symptoms reflect a failure of striatal motivational systems to mobilize appropriately in response to reward-related information. In the present study, we used a laboratory effort-based decision-making task in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls to examine allocation of effort in exchange for varying levels of monetary reward. We found that patients and controls did not differ in the overall amount of effort expenditure, but patients made significantly less optimal choices in terms of maximizing rewards. These results provide further evidence for a selective deficit in the ability of schizophrenia patients to utilize environmental cues to guide reward-seeking behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Inverse Statistics and Asset Allocation Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgorian, Meysam

    In this paper using inverse statistics analysis, the effect of investment horizon on the efficiency of portfolio selection is examined. Inverse statistics analysis is a general tool also known as probability distribution of exit time that is used for detecting the distribution of the time in which a stochastic process exits from a zone. This analysis was used in Refs. 1 and 2 for studying the financial returns time series. This distribution provides an optimal investment horizon which determines the most likely horizon for gaining a specific return. Using samples of stocks from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) as an emerging market and S&P 500 as a developed market, effect of optimal investment horizon in asset allocation is assessed. It is found that taking into account the optimal investment horizon in TSE leads to more efficiency for large size portfolios while for stocks selected from S&P 500, regardless of portfolio size, this strategy does not only not produce more efficient portfolios, but also longer investment horizons provides more efficiency.

  16. Dynamic Channel Allocation in Sectored Cellular Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is known that dynamic channel assignment(DCA) strategy outperforms the fixed channel assignment(FCA) strategy in omni-directional antenna cellular systems. One of the most important methods used in DCA was channel borrowing. But with the emergence of cell sectorization and spatial division multiple access(SDMA) which are used to increase the capacity of cellular systems, the channel assignment faces a series of new problems. In this paper, a dynamic channel allocation scheme based on sectored cellular systems is proposed. By introducing intra-cell channel borrowing (borrowing channels from neighboring sectors) and inter-cell channel borrowing (borrowing channels from neighboring cells) methods, previous DCA strategies, including compact pattern based channel borrowing(CPCB) and greedy based dynamic channel assignment(GDCA) schemes proposed by the author, are improved significantly. The computer simulation shows that either intra-cell borrowing scheme or inter-cell borrowing scheme is efficient enough to uniform and non-uniform traffic service distributions.

  17. Ad Serving Using a Compact Allocation Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Peiji; Mandalapu, Srinath; Nagarajan, Chandrashekhar; Shanmugasundaram, Jayavel; Vassilvitskii, Sergei; Vee, Erik; Yu, Manfai; Zien, Jason

    2012-01-01

    A large fraction of online display advertising is sold via guaranteed contracts: a publisher guarantees to the advertiser a certain number of user visits satisfying the targeting predicates of the contract. The publisher is then tasked with solving the ad serving problem - given a user visit, which of the thousands of matching contracts should be displayed, so that by the expiration time every contract has obtained the requisite number of user visits. The challenges of the problem come from (1) the sheer size of the problem being solved, with tens of thousands of contracts and billions of user visits, (2) the unpredictability of user behavior, since these contracts are sold months ahead of time, when only a forecast of user visits is available and (3) the minute amount of resources available online, as an ad server must respond with a matching contract in a fraction of a second. We present a solution to the guaranteed delivery ad serving problem using {\\em compact allocation plans}. These plans, computed offl...

  18. Biomass allocation patterns across China's terrestrial biomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Wang

    Full Text Available Root to shoot ratio (RS is commonly used to describe the biomass allocation between below- and aboveground parts of plants. Determining the key factors influencing RS and interpreting the relationship between RS and environmental factors is important for biological and ecological research. In this study, we compiled 2088 pairs of root and shoot biomass data across China's terrestrial biomes to examine variations in the RS and its responses to biotic and abiotic factors including vegetation type, soil texture, climatic variables, and stand age. The median value of RS (RSm for grasslands, shrublands, and forests was 6.0, 0.73, and 0.23, respectively. The range of RS was considerably wide for each vegetation type. RS values for all three major vegetation types were found to be significantly correlated to mean annual precipitation (MAP and potential water deficit index (PWDI. Mean annual temperature (MAT also significantly affect the RS for forests and grasslands. Soil texture and forest origin altered the response of RS to climatic factors as well. An allometric formula could be used to well quantify the relationship between aboveground and belowground biomass, although each vegetation type had its own inherent allometric relationship.

  19. Network channel allocation and revenue maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Timo; Joutsensalo, Jyrki

    2002-09-01

    This paper introduces a model that can be used to share link capacity among customers under different kind of traffic conditions. This model is suitable for different kind of networks like the 4G networks (fast wireless access to wired network) to support connections of given duration that requires a certain quality of service. We study different types of network traffic mixed in a same communication link. A single link is considered as a bottleneck and the goal is to find customer traffic profiles that maximizes the revenue of the link. Presented allocation system accepts every calls and there is not absolute blocking, but the offered data rate/user depends on the network load. Data arrival rate depends on the current link utilization, user's payment (selected CoS class) and delay. The arrival rate is (i) increasing with respect to the offered data rate, (ii) decreasing with respect to the price, (iii) decreasing with respect to the network load, and (iv) decreasing with respect to the delay. As an example, explicit formula obeying these conditions is given and analyzed.

  20. Discrete resource allocation in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Brian; Ester, Edward F; Awh, Edward

    2009-10-01

    Are resources in visual working memory allocated in a continuous or a discrete fashion? On one hand, flexible resource models suggest that capacity is determined by a central resource pool that can be flexibly divided such that items of greater complexity receive a larger share of resources. On the other hand, if capacity in working memory is defined in terms of discrete storage "slots," then observers may be able to determine which items are assigned to a slot but not how resources are divided between stored items. To test these predictions, the authors manipulated the relative complexity of the items to be stored while holding the number items constant. Although mnemonic resolution declined when set size increased (Experiment 1), resolution for a given item was unaffected by large variations in the complexity of the other items to be stored when set size was held constant (Experiments 2-4). Thus, resources in visual working memory are distributed in a discrete slot-based fashion, even when interitem variations in complexity motivate an asymmetrical division of resources across items. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Intra-plant cost allocation; Innerbetriebliche Leistungsverrechnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berroth, M. [Pfalzwerke AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany); Briem, G. [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany); Filser, M. [Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany); Funke, R. [Stadtwerke Braunschweig GmbH (Germany); Hecker, W.; Woelfing, P. [Gedos Wuerzburg (Germany); Kaldewei, R. [Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen A.G. (VEW), Dortmund (Germany); Paptistella, R. (Staedtische Werke Nuernberg); Ries, P. [Berliner Kraft- und Licht (BEWAG)-AG, Berlin (Germany); Stehli, H. [Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaets-Werke e.V. (VDEW),Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wachter, K. [EnBW Energie AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Zinser, E. [Mannheimer Versorgungs- und Verkehrsgesellschaft mbH (MVV), Mannheim (Germany)

    1999-12-13

    Since the introduction of competitive structures like profit centers in electric utilities as marketers in the liberalized energy sector, there is inceasing demand for business management methods and tools for valuation and control of corporate and departmental output of goods and services in particular. The author gives a step-by-step survey of activities to be taken for establishing a system of intra-plant cost allocation in an electric utility, as a basis for preparation of the statement of operating results of the profit centers, and as a measure intended to make the utility fit for the increasingly competitive market environment. (orig./CB) [German] Durch die Einfuehrung von Wettbewerbselementen wie interner Profitcenter bei Stromversorgungsunternehmen waechst der Bedarf an betriebswirtschaftlichen Methoden und Instrumenten zur Bewertung und Steuerung der internen Leistungserstellung, besonders der Dienstleistungen. Die Verfasser erlaeutern in anschaulichen Schritten die Voraussetzungen und Anwendungsbereiche der Innerbetrieblichen Leistungsverrechnung. Wichtige Aspekte sind in diesem Zusammenhang die Steigerung der Motivation und des Verantwortungsbewusstseins der Leistungserbringer. Die Innerbetriebliche Leistungsverrechnung bildet die Grundlage fuer die Ergebnisrechnung interner Profitcenter und bereitet ueber die Nutzung interner Maerkte auf eine verschaerfte Wettbewerbssituation in der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft vor. (orig.)

  2. Predicting Component Failures Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA is a statistical topic model that has been widely used to abstract semantic information from software source code. Failure refers to an observable error in the program behavior. This work investigates whether semantic information and failures recorded in the history can be used to predict component failures. We use LDA to abstract topics from source code and a new metric (topic failure density is proposed by mapping failures to these topics. Exploring the basic information of topics from neighboring versions of a system, we obtain a similarity matrix. Multiply the Topic Failure Density (TFD by the similarity matrix to get the TFD of the next version. The prediction results achieve an average 77.8% agreement with the real failures by considering the top 3 and last 3 components descending ordered by the number of failures. We use the Spearman coefficient to measure the statistical correlation between the actual and estimated failure rate. The validation results range from 0.5342 to 0.8337 which beats the similar method. It suggests that our predictor based on similarity of topics does a fine job of component failure prediction.

  3. TRANSFER PRICING FOR COORDINATION AND PROFIT ALLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Thomas Martini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines coordination and profit allocation in a profit-center organization using a single transfer price. The model includes compensations, taxes, and minority interests of two divisions deciding on capacity and sales. The analysis covers arm’s length transfer prices which are either administered by central management or negotiated by the divisions. Administered transfer prices refer to past transactions and therefore maximize firm-wide profit net of divisional compensations, taxes, and minority profit shares only for given decentralized decisions. From an ex-ante perspective, it is shown that adverse effects on coordination may result in inefficient divisional profits of which all stakeholders suffer. We motivate a positive effect of advance pricing agreements, intra-firm guidelines, and restrictive treatments of changes in the firm’s accounting policy. By contrast, negotiations ignore compensations, taxes, and minority shares but yield efficient divisional profits. Negotiations seem compelling as they perfectly reflect the arm’s length principle. Moreover, common practices such as arbitration or one-step pricing schemes allow the firm to engage in manipulation at the expense of other stakeholders.

  4. Dynamic Allocation Strategy Based on Pre-allocation and Agent to Implement Ada95's Distributed Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuFu-xi; FuJian-ming; WuChan-le; CaoZheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the model of how the Agent is applied to implement distributed computing of Ada95 and presents a dynamic allocation strategy for distributed computing that based on pre-allocationand Agent. The aim of this strategy is realizing dynamic equilibrium allocation.

  5. District nurse clinics: accountability and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2013-02-01

    The numbers of district nurse clinics are continuing to grow in primary care and they provide timely and more cost effective intervention for patients. The clinics provide exciting opportunities for district nurses but also carry an increased risk of exposure to liability. This article discusses some of the key areas of accountability underpinning the duty of care of district nurses working in nurse-led clinics.

  6. Enhancing assertiveness in district nurse specialist practice

    OpenAIRE

    Green, J.

    2016-01-01

    District nurse (DN) care delivery has undergone substantial change in recent years due to changing demographics and service delivery demands that have called for a move of care delivery from secondary to primary care. The title District Nurse is recorded with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) on completion of the Specialist Practice Qualification in District Nursing (SPQ DN), which purports to be a 'transformational' course that prepares future caseload holders to manage their team and ...

  7. Election Districts and Precincts, VotingDistricts, Published in 2008, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'VotingDistricts'. Data by this...

  8. Government Districts, Other, ConservancyDistricts, Published in 2000, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Government Districts, Other dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2000. It is described as 'ConservancyDistricts'. Data by this...

  9. School Districts, Walworth County School Districts, Published in 2010, Not Applicable scale, Walworth County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This School Districts dataset, published at Not Applicable scale as of 2010. It is described as 'Walworth County School Districts'. Data by this publisher are often...

  10. Election Districts and Precincts, City Council districts, Published in 2005, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. It is described as 'City Council districts'....

  11. Election Districts and Precincts, School Board districts, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. It is described as 'School Board districts'....

  12. Election Districts and Precincts, County Council districts, Published in 2005, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. It is described as 'County Council districts'....

  13. School Districts, washoe county school district, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This School Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'washoe county school district'....

  14. Accounting for Parcel-Allocation Variability in Practice: Combining Sources of Uncertainty and Choosing the Number of Allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterba, Sonya K; Rights, Jason D

    2016-01-01

    Item parceling remains widely used under conditions that can lead to parcel-allocation variability in results. Hence, researchers may be interested in quantifying and accounting for parcel-allocation variability within sample. To do so in practice, three key issues need to be addressed. First, how can we combine sources of uncertainty arising from sampling variability and parcel-allocation variability when drawing inferences about parameters in structural equation models? Second, on what basis can we choose the number of repeated item-to-parcel allocations within sample? Third, how can we diagnose and report proportions of total variability per estimate arising due to parcel-allocation variability versus sampling variability? This article addresses these three methodological issues. Developments are illustrated using simulated and empirical examples, and software for implementing them is provided.

  15. 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Werner, Sven; Wiltshire, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper defines the concept of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) including the relations to District Cooling and the concepts of smart energy and smart thermal grids. The motive is to identify the future challenges of reaching a future renewable non-fossil heat supply as part...... of the implementation of overall sustainable energy systems. The basic assumption is that district heating and cooling has an important role to play in future sustainable energy systems – including 100 percent renewable energy systems – but the present generation of district heating and cooling technologies will have...

  16. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Mohapatra

    2015-04-01

    Hazards associated with tropical cyclones (TCs) are long-duration rotatory high velocity winds, very heavy rain, and storm tide. India has a coastline of about 7516 km of which 5400 km is along the mainland. The entire coast is affected by cyclones with varying frequency and intensity. Thus classification of TC hazard proneness of the coastal districts is very essential for planning and preparedness aspects of management of TCs. So, an attempt has been made to classify TC hazard proneness of districts by adopting a hazard criteria based on frequency and intensity of cyclone, wind strength, probable maximum precipitation, and probable maximum storm surge. Ninety-six districts including 72 districts touching the coast and 24 districts not touching the coast, but lying within 100 km from the coast have been classified based on their proneness. Out of 96 districts, 12 are very highly prone, 41 are highly prone, 30 are moderately prone, and the remaining 13 districts are less prone. This classification of coastal districts based on hazard may be considered for all the required purposes including coastal zone management and planning. However, the vulnerability of the place has not been taken into consideration. Therefore, composite cyclone risk of a district, which is the product of hazard and vulnerability, needs to be assessed separately through a detailed study.

  17. District Fiscal Policy and Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary G. Huang

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available School restructuring raises questions about the role of school districts in improving student learning. Centralization by state governments and decentralization to individual schools as proposed in systemic reform leave districts' role unsettled. Empirical research on the district role in the context of ongoing reform is inadequate. This analysis of combined data from the NAEP and the Common Core of Data (CCD was intended to address the issue. We analyzed 1990, 1992, and 1996 NAEP 8th grade mathematics national assessment data in combination with CCD data of corresponding years to examine the extent to which student achievement was related to districts' control over instructional expenditure, adjusting for relevant key factors at both district and student levels. Upon sample modification, we used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to estimate the relationships of student achievement to two district fiscal policy indictors, current expenditure per pupil (CEPP and districts' discretionary rates for instructional expenditure (DDR. Net of relevant district factors, DDR was found unrelated to districts' average 8th grade math performance. The null effect was consistent in the analysis of the combined NAEP-CCD data for 1990, 1992, and 1996. In contrast, CEPP was found related to higher math performance in a modest yet fairly consistent way. Future research may be productive to separately study individual states and integrate the findings onto the national level.

  18. Rehabilitation of district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Peter [AaF-Energikonsult Syd AB (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    Often the choice is between reparation or exchange of a damaged section of the network. If the exchange is based on the wrong assumptions, large sections of undamaged pipelines could be removed. Most important for the district heating company is to decide which strategy to use for the future exchange of the pipelines. Whichever strategy used, it has to based on an assessment of the network and/or assumptions based on that assessment. The question if it is possible extend the life span of the pipelines arises. What is the most economical choice, the exchange or the renovation. (au)

  19. Agent-based evacuation simulation for spatial allocation assessment of urban shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia; Wen, Jiahong; Jiang, Yong

    2015-12-01

    The construction of urban shelters is one of the most important work in urban planning and disaster prevention. The spatial allocation assessment is a fundamental pre-step for spatial location-allocation of urban shelters. This paper introduces a new method which makes use of agent-based technology to implement evacuation simulation so as to conduct dynamic spatial allocation assessment of urban shelters. The method can not only accomplish traditional geospatial evaluation for urban shelters, but also simulate the evacuation process of the residents to shelters. The advantage of utilizing this method lies into three aspects: (1) the evacuation time of each citizen from a residential building to the shelter can be estimated more reasonably; (2) the total evacuation time of all the residents in a region is able to be obtained; (3) the road congestions in evacuation in sheltering can be detected so as to take precautionary measures to prevent potential risks. In this study, three types of agents are designed: shelter agents, government agents and resident agents. Shelter agents select specified land uses as shelter candidates for different disasters. Government agents delimitate the service area of each shelter, in other words, regulate which shelter a person should take, in accordance with the administrative boundaries and road distance between the person's position and the location of the shelter. Resident agents have a series of attributes, such as ages, positions, walking speeds, and so on. They also have several behaviors, such as reducing speed when walking in the crowd, helping old people and children, and so on. Integrating these three types of agents which are correlated with each other, evacuation procedures can be simulated and dynamic allocation assessment of shelters will be achieved. A case study in Jing'an District, Shanghai, China, was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. A scenario of earthquake disaster which occurs in nighttime

  20. 78 FR 37538 - Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of... Competing Applications On April 19, 2013, the Idaho and New Sweden Irrigation Districts, filed a joint... Street, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83404; phone: (208) 522-2356. Mr. Louis Thiel, Chairman, New Sweden...

  1. A Preliminary Evaluation of Bandwidth Allocation Model Dynamic Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael F. Reale

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bandwidth Allocation Models (BAMs are used in order to define Bandwidth Constraints (BCs in a per-class basis for MPLS/DS-TE networks and effectively define how network resources like bandwidth are obtained and shared by applications. The BAMs proposed (MAM – Maximum Allocation Model, RDM – Russian Dolls Model, G-RDM – Generic RDM and AllocTC-Sharing attempt to optimize the use of bandwidth resources on a per-link basis with different allocation and resource sharing characteristics. As such, the adoption of distinct BAMs and/or changes in network resource demands (network traffic profile may result in different network traffic allocation and operational behavior for distinct BAMs. This paper evaluates the resulting network characteristics (li nk utilization, preemption and flows blocking of using BAMs dynamically with different traffic scenarios. In brief, it is investigated the dynamics of BAM switching with distinct traffic scenarios. The paper presents initially the investigated BAMs in relation to their behavior and resource allocation characteristics. Then, distinct BAMs are compared using different traffic scenarios in order to investigate the impact of a dynamic change of the BAM configured in the network. Finally, the paper shows that the adoption of a dynamic BAM allocation strategy may result in benefits for network operation in terms of link utilization, preemption and flows blocking.

  2. Systematic Task Allocation Evaluation in Distributed Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Jürgen; Lamersdorf, Ansgar

    Systematic task allocation to different development sites in global software development projects can open business and engineering perspectives and help to reduce risks and problems inherent in distributed development. Relying only on a single evaluation criterion such as development cost when distributing tasks to development sites has shown to be very risky and often does not lead to successful solutions in the long run. Task allocation in global software projects is challenging due to a multitude of impact factors and constraints. Systematic allocation decisions require the ability to evaluate and compare task allocation alternatives and to effectively establish customized task allocation practices in an organization. In this article, we present a customizable process for task allocation evaluation that is based on results from a systematic interview study with practitioners. In this process, the relevant criteria for evaluating task allocation alternatives are derived by applying principles from goal-oriented measurement. In addition, the customization of the process is demonstrated, related work and limitations are sketched, and an outlook on future work is given.

  3. RESSOURCES ALLOCATION POSSIBILITIES WITHIN HEALTH SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manea Liliana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The state policy in the health care area must take into account the complexity and specificity of the domain. Health means not only “to treat”, but also “to prevent” and “to recover and rehabilitate the individual physically”. Regardless of the adopted health insurance system, the health system is facing a big problem and this is the insufficient funds necessary to function properly. The underfunding may have various causes, from a wrong health policy, based on “treating” instead of “preventing”, by the misuse of funds. This papers intended to formulate assumptions that underpin the research I am conducting within the Doctoral Research Program held at the Valahia University of Targoviste, which aims at using the management control in increasing the health services performance. The application of the accounting and management control methods in determining health costs can be a beginning to streamline the system. This is also a result of the fact that health care is a public service with specific characteristics: it can not be subject only to market requirements but at the same time he must undergo an administrative savings, representing a typical case of market failure. The increased cost of treatment, as well as the decline in their quality can be determined by the discrepancy between the funding and payment mechanisms. Different payment systems currently available do nothing but perpetuate the shortcomings in the system. Switching to the introduction of cost and budgets by cost centers or object (if solved can be a step forward for a better management of resources. In this context, we consider as a necessity to be imposed the cost analysis on responsibility centers, the definition of the cost object and cost center identification and determination of direct costs and those indirect services to choose the basis for the allocation of cost centers and the determination of each actual cost per diagnosis.

  4. Detecting non-binomial sex allocation when developmental mortality operates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Richard D; Kapranas, Apostolos; Hardy, Ian C W

    2016-11-01

    Optimal sex allocation theory is one of the most intricately developed areas of evolutionary ecology. Under a range of conditions, particularly under population sub-division, selection favours sex being allocated to offspring non-randomly, generating non-binomial variances of offspring group sex ratios. Detecting non-binomial sex allocation is complicated by stochastic developmental mortality, as offspring sex can often only be identified on maturity with the sex of non-maturing offspring remaining unknown. We show that current approaches for detecting non-binomiality have limited ability to detect non-binomial sex allocation when developmental mortality has occurred. We present a new procedure using an explicit model of sex allocation and mortality and develop a Bayesian model selection approach (available as an R package). We use the double and multiplicative binomial distributions to model over- and under-dispersed sex allocation and show how to calculate Bayes factors for comparing these alternative models to the null hypothesis of binomial sex allocation. The ability to detect non-binomial sex allocation is greatly increased, particularly in cases where mortality is common. The use of Bayesian methods allows for the quantification of the evidence in favour of each hypothesis, and our modelling approach provides an improved descriptive capability over existing approaches. We use a simulation study to demonstrate substantial improvements in power for detecting non-binomial sex allocation in situations where current methods fail, and we illustrate the approach in real scenarios using empirically obtained datasets on the sexual composition of groups of gregarious parasitoid wasps.

  5. Utility-based bandwidth allocation algorithm for heterogeneous wireless networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Rong; WANG XiuJuan; CHEN QianBin; SVENSSON Tommy

    2013-01-01

    In next generation wireless network (NGWN), mobile users are capable of connecting to the core network through various heterogeneous wireless access networks, such as cellular network, wireless metropolitan area network (WMAN), wireless local area network (WLAN), and ad hoc network. NGWN is expected to provide high-bandwidth connectivity with guaranteed quality-of-service to mobile users in a seamless manner; however, this desired function demands seamless coordination of the heterogeneous radio access network (RAN) technologies. In recent years, some researches have been conducted to design radio resource management (RRM) architectures and algorithms for NGWN; however, few studies stress the problem of joint network performance optimization, which is an essential goal for a cooperative service providing scenario. Furthermore, while some authors consider the competition among the service providers, the QoS requirements of users and the resource competition within access networks are not fully considered. In this paper, we present an interworking integrated network architecture, which is responsible for monitoring the status information of different radio access technologies (RATs) and executing the resource allocation algorithm. Within this architecture, the problem of joint bandwidth allocation for heterogeneous integrated networks is formulated based on utility function theory and bankruptcy game theory. The proposed bandwidth allocation scheme comprises two successive stages, i.e., service bandwidth allocation and user bandwidth allocation. At the service bandwidth allocation stage, the optimal amount of bandwidth for different types of services in each network is allocated based on the criterion of joint utility maximization. At the user bandwidth allocation stage, the service bandwidth in each network is optimally allocated among users in the network according to bankruptcy game theory. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of

  6. Community-aware task allocation for social networked multiagent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanyuan; Jiang, Yichuan

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel community-aware task allocation model for social networked multiagent systems (SN-MASs), where the agent' cooperation domain is constrained in community and each agent can negotiate only with its intracommunity member agents. Under such community-aware scenarios, we prove that it remains NP-hard to maximize system overall profit. To solve this problem effectively, we present a heuristic algorithm that is composed of three phases: 1) task selection: select the desirable task to be allocated preferentially; 2) allocation to community: allocate the selected task to communities based on a significant task-first heuristics; and 3) allocation to agent: negotiate resources for the selected task based on a nonoverlap agent-first and breadth-first resource negotiation mechanism. Through the theoretical analyses and experiments, the advantages of our presented heuristic algorithm and community-aware task allocation model are validated. 1) Our presented heuristic algorithm performs very closely to the benchmark exponential brute-force optimal algorithm and the network flow-based greedy algorithm in terms of system overall profit in small-scale applications. Moreover, in the large-scale applications, the presented heuristic algorithm achieves approximately the same overall system profit, but significantly reduces the computational load compared with the greedy algorithm. 2) Our presented community-aware task allocation model reduces the system communication cost compared with the previous global-aware task allocation model and improves the system overall profit greatly compared with the previous local neighbor-aware task allocation model.

  7. Maternal mortality in Bijapur district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya A. Thobbi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study is to evaluate the incidence of maternal deaths, causes responsible for maternal mortality, direct and indirect factors, and various preventable methods to reduce maternal mortality rate. Background: 95% of maternal deaths occur in Asia and Africa. The need for undertaking this study is to know the maternal mortality rate, analyze the causes and preventable factors of death occurring in the district of Bijapur, Karnataka, India. Methodology: It is a study of 2years from the Records of District Health Office and Institutions on maternal mortality from June 2011 to May 2013 in Bijapur. Results: In two years there were fifty eight maternal deaths and seventy nine thousand five hundred and sixty six live births, hence maternal mortality ratio was seventy three per lakh live births. Eighty two percent of maternal deaths occurred in families who belonged to Below Poverty Line. Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy was 79.3%. Severe anemia (Hemoglobin <7g% seen in 5.1% was the most common indirect cause of death. Forty three percent of the deaths occurred at private setups. Hemorrhage, Septicemia and Preeclampsia & Eclampsia were responsible for 44.82%, 15.51% and 6.89% respectively. Conclusion: Majority of the maternal deaths are preventable if these four delays are avoided: a Delay in identifying the problem. b Delay in seeking care. c Delay in reaching the referral institute. d Delay in getting treatment on reaching the referral institute.

  8. A Novel Subcarrier Allocation Algorithm for MC-CDMA Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyman, Muhammet Nuri; Saçakli, Bircan

    2016-09-01

    Multi carrier modulation techniques such as MC-CDMA are used in high-speed communication applications. Due to MC-CDMA being a multiuser in technology, the subcarrier quantity allocated per user decreases in case the quantity of active users increases. Consequently, data rates per user are reduced with the increase in the bit error rate (BER). Efficient allocation of subcarriers to users within the system can aid the overcoming of this problem. This study develops a new algorithm for subcarrier allocation and system performance improvement in terms of BER, and data rates in comparison to other algorithms were ensured.

  9. Competition for export markets and the allocation of foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Fabian; Neumayer, Eric; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    and services to a specific recipient country at both stages of their allocation of aid for economic infrastructure and production sectors. By contrast, evidence for export competition driving aid allocation is lacking for more altruistic donors and for aid in social infrastructure.......We account for competition for export markets among donor countries of foreign aid by analyzing spatial dependence in aid allocation. Employing sector-specific aid data, we find that the five largest donors react to aid giving by other donors with whom they compete in terms of exporting goods...

  10. A new network losses allocation method in deregulated environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng-min; HOU Zhi-jian

    2005-01-01

    Network losses allocation is one of the major problems in the market environment. The quadric function of the injected nodal power is used in this paper as a representation for network losses, which are allocated fairly using the called market equilibrium principle while the bidding curves are corrected. The power market equilibrium is simulated as three different models that can be solved simply by the optimal power flow algorithm combining the generation scheduling problem with network losses allocation. The case study is made at an IEEE-30 nodes system and a perfect result is proved in this paper.

  11. Efficient Power Allocation for Video over Superposition Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we consider a wireless multimedia system by mapping scalable video coded (SVC) bit stream upon superposition coded (SPC) signals, referred to as (SVC-SPC) architecture. Empirical experiments using a software-defined radio(SDR) emulator are conducted to gain a better understanding of its efficiency, specifically, the impact of the received signal due to different power allocation ratios. Our experimental results show that to maintain high video quality, the power allocated to the base layer should be approximately four times higher than the power allocated to the enhancement layer.

  12. Optimal resource allocation in random networks with transportation bandwidths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, C. H.; Wong, K. Y. Michael

    2009-03-01

    We apply statistical physics to study the task of resource allocation in random sparse networks with limited bandwidths for the transportation of resources along the links. Recursive relations from the Bethe approximation are converted into useful algorithms. Bottlenecks emerge when the bandwidths are small, causing an increase in the fraction of idle links. For a given total bandwidth per node, the efficiency of allocation increases with the network connectivity. In the high connectivity limit, we find a phase transition at a critical bandwidth, above which clusters of balanced nodes appear, characterized by a profile of homogenized resource allocation similar to the Maxwell construction.

  13. EPA Recognizes Charleston County School District for Reducing Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - Today, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognized the Charleston County School District for the District's achievements in reducing food waste. The District cultivated one of the state's first student-driven commercial compostin

  14. Hastings Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Hastings Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments for the 1977 calendar year. The report begins by giving District...

  15. Hastings Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Hastings Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments for the 1978 calendar year. The report begins by giving District...

  16. Superintendent Leadership: Focusing on District Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tanya A.; Adams, Jeffery S.; Smith, Dwayne E.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a problem-based learning project focusing on superintendent leadership and stakeholder influence of school district culture. Current research findings suggest the importance of superintendent leadership in assessing, influencing, and enhancing school district culture. Multiple scholars wrote literature in the area of…

  17. Special Education Paraprofessionals in District Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Craig; Howley, Aimee; Telfer, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    This survey research investigated the experience of Ohio districts using paraprofessionals assigned to special education students. This study provides a unique statewide description of district experience. Based on themes from the literature and preliminary conversations with educational practitioners in Ohio, the survey conceptualized district…

  18. 7 CFR 953.11 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District. 953.11 Section 953.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements.... District No. 3. James City and Nansemond Counties and the cities of Chesapeake and Virginia Beach in...

  19. Superintendent Leadership: Focusing on District Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tanya A.; Adams, Jeffery S.; Smith, Dwayne E.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a problem-based learning project focusing on superintendent leadership and stakeholder influence of school district culture. Current research findings suggest the importance of superintendent leadership in assessing, influencing, and enhancing school district culture. Multiple scholars wrote literature in the area of…

  20. School District Reorganization: A Qualified Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canter, Gary

    The circumstances preceding and following the 1984 merger of two small school districts in North Central New York State contained cooperation, controversy, and disharmony. The school districts had enough similarities--in their rural, agricultural base, in the pride and loyalty with which many residents viewed their schools, in the central role…

  1. The Soil Conservation District Movement in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Thomas Cochran; And Others

    The development of soil conservation districts in Tennessee is the subject of this graduate study. Related literature, existing records, and personal interviews are used to record progress since Tennessee adopted Public Law 46 establishing soil conservation districts in 1939. In 1959 all 95 counties of Tennessee had organized soil conservation…

  2. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  3. Zhengdong New District: A Water City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    ON April 12, 2002, at the Yuda World Trade Building, Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, a signing ceremony for the first group of developers to enter Zhengdong New District was in progress. Government officials announced, "In the years to come, Zhengdong New District will be a government focus.

  4. Distributed processor allocation for launching applications in a massively connected processors complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Kevin

    2008-11-18

    A compute processor allocator architecture for allocating compute processors to run applications in a multiple processor computing apparatus is distributed among a subset of processors within the computing apparatus. Each processor of the subset includes a compute processor allocator. The compute processor allocators can share a common database of information pertinent to compute processor allocation. A communication path permits retrieval of information from the database independently of the compute processor allocators.

  5. Energy Assessment of Automated Mobility Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Automated vehicles (AVs) are increasingly being discussed as the basis for on-demand mobility services, introducing a new paradigm in which a fleet of AVs displace private automobiles for day-to-day travel in dense activity districts. This project examines such a concept to displace privately owned automobiles within a region containing dense activity generators (jobs, retail, entertainment, etc.), referred to as an automated mobility district (AMDs). The project reviews several such districts including airport, college campuses, business parks, downtown urban cores, and military bases, with examples of previous attempts to meet the mobility needs apart from private automobiles, some with automated technology and others with more traditional transit based solutions. The issues and benefits of AMDs are framed within the perspective of intra-district, inter-district, and border issues, and the requirements for a modeling framework are identified to adequately reflect the breadth of mobility, energy, and emissions impact anticipated with AMDs.

  6. Portfolio allocation under the vendor managed inventory: A Markov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portfolio allocation under the vendor managed inventory: A Markov decision process. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Markov decision processes have been applied in solving a wide range of optimization ...

  7. 50 CFR 600.325 - National Standard 4-Allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (ii) Promotion of conservation. Numerous methods of allocating fishing privileges are considered... mix, price, or economic or social benefit of the product. To the extent that rebuilding plans or...

  8. Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes transmission cost allocation methodologies for transmission projects developed to maintain or enhance reliability, to interconnect new generators, or to access new resources and enhance competitive bulk power markets, otherwise known as economic transmission projects.

  9. Allocation of Ground Handling Resources at Copenhagen Airport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tor Fog

    capacity as a potential bottleneck that may slow this growth. Many European airports are already operating at the limit of their capacity; moreover, they are under competitive pressure from both nearby airports and fast-growing mega-hubs in the Middle East. Providing efficient and reliable airport...... that these processes give rise to. The primary focus is on ground handling resource allocation problems, it looks in detail at the following problems: the check-in counter allocation problem, the baggage make-up position problem, the tactical stand and gate allocation problem, the operational stand and gate allocation...... to generate appropriate initial variables, enabling the heuristic to efficiently find near-optimal and operationally valid solutions. The work described in this thesis was carried out in the context of an Industrial PhD project at Copenhagen Airport in collaboration with the Technical University of Denmark...

  10. Predicting Nigeria budget allocation using regression analysis: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting Nigeria budget allocation using regression analysis: A data mining approach. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Budget is used by the Government as a guiding tool for planning and management of its resources to aid in ...

  11. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a... comply with any International Monetary Fund or other suitable adjustment program; or (B) Whether...

  12. Hybrid Heuristic Approaches for Tactical Berth Allocation Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iris, Cagatay; Larsen, Allan; Pacino, Dario;

    Tactical berth allocation problem deals with: the berth allocation (as- signs and schedules vessels to berth-positions), and the quay crane (QC) assignment (finds number of QCs that will serve). In this work, we strengthen the current mathematical models (MM) with novel lower bounds and valid ine...... inequalities. And, we propose a hybrid heuristic which combines MM with greedy and search heuristics. Results show that problem can be solved efficiently respect to optimality and computational time.......Tactical berth allocation problem deals with: the berth allocation (as- signs and schedules vessels to berth-positions), and the quay crane (QC) assignment (finds number of QCs that will serve). In this work, we strengthen the current mathematical models (MM) with novel lower bounds and valid...

  13. Aid allocation, selectivity, and the quality of governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad In’airat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of good governance in the economic growth and development agenda in the last two decades, along with the failure of aid conditionality to produce positive growth results, motivated expost selectivity instead of the ex-ante conditionality as a new approach to aid allocation. This paper aims to explore whether aid selectivity on the basis of the quality of governance is employed as a criterion in foreign aid allocation. The paper uses different instrumental variables as estimators to analyze the determinants of aid allocation over the period 2001-2010. The results produced strong evidence that countries with good governance are given preferential treatment by donors. Among the six governance indicators, it seems that voice and accountability and control of corruption are critical in the aid allocation decision.

  14. DETERMININGS OF FARM WORK ALLOCATION IN BRAZILIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe de Morais Cangussu Pessoa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the determinings of farm work allocation in Brazilian regions, based on micro data of National Household Sample Survey 2009. For that, the empirical procedure consisted in the use of two models: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and the Logit Model. The model Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed good fit and defined two latent variables: qualification and income. As to the Logit Model, the results showed that the fact of a man living in rural areas increases the likelihood of being allocated in farm work, however if he is white this probability decrease. Besides, the variables qualification and income have a negative relation with farm work allocation, being the Midwest region that contributed most for people being allocated in farm work.

  15. A Distributed Cooperative Power Allocation Method for Campus Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, He; Sun, Yannan; Carroll, Thomas E.; Somani, Abhishek

    2015-09-01

    We propose a coordination algorithm for cooperative power allocation among a collection of commercial buildings within a campus. We introduced thermal and power models of a typical commercial building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system, and utilize model predictive control to characterize their power flexibility. The power allocation problem is formulated as a cooperative game using the Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) concept, in which buildings collectively maximize the product of their utilities subject to their local flexibility constraints and a total power limit set by the campus coordinator. To solve the optimal allocation problem, a distributed protocol is designed using dual decomposition of the Nash bargaining problem. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed allocation method

  16. The entity-to-algorithm allocation problem: Extending the analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the investigation into the algorithm selection problem in hyper-heuristics, otherwise referred to as the entity-to-algorithm allocation problem, introduced by Grobler et al.. Two newly developed population-based portfolio...

  17. Analysis of national allocation plans for the EU ETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zetterberg, Lars; Nilsson, Kristina; Aahman, Markus; Kumlin, Anna-Sofia; Birgersdotter, Lena

    2004-08-01

    The EU ETS is a Community-wide scheme established by Directive 2003/87/EC for trading allowances to cover the emissions of greenhouse gases from permitted installations. The first phase of the EU ETS runs from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2007. Each Member State must develop a National Allocation Plan for the first phase stating: the total quantity of allowances that the Member State intends to issue during that phase; and how it proposes to distribute those allowances among the installations which are subject to the scheme In this paper twelve of the national allocation plans have been analysed and compared to the criteria stated in the EU Directive. The twelve allocation plans analysed are: the Austrian, the Danish, the Finnish, the German, the Irish, the Lithuanian, the Luxembourg, the Dutch, the Swedish, the British and the draft Flemish (Belgium) and Portuguese. Generally most countries have allocated generously to the trading sector. The allocation has often been based on future needs. For most sectors the allocation is higher than current emissions. Many countries will have to make large reductions in the non-trading sector and/or buy credits through JI- and CDM-projects in order to fulfil their commitment according to the EU burden sharing agreement of the Kyoto Protocol. In many of the allocation plans the emission reducing measures in the non-trading sector is poorly described and the credibility of the measures are hard to determine. Two sectors have been analysed in more detail, the energy and the mineral oil refining sectors. Figures presenting allocation vs. current emissions for those sectors are given for those countries where data was available in the allocation plan. The energy sector has been considered to have the best possibilities to pass on costs for the allowances to the consumers and hence the allocation to this sector is often more restricted than the allocation to other sectors. The mineral oil refining sector is more exposed to

  18. An algorithm for earthwork allocation considering non-linear factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ren-chao; LIU Jin-fei

    2008-01-01

    For solving the optimization model of earthwork allocation considering non-linear factors, a hybrid al-gorithm combined with the ant algorithm (AA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed in this pa-per. Then the proposed method and the LP method are used respectively in solving a linear allocation model of a high rockfill dam project. Results obtained by these two methods are compared each other. It can be conclu-ded that the solution got by the proposed method is extremely approximate to the analytic solution of LP method. The superiority of the proposed method over the LP method in solving a non-linear allocation model is illustrated by a non-linear case. Moreover, further researches on improvement of the algorithm and the allocation model are addressed.

  19. Theory and model of water resources complex adaptive allocation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOJianshi; WANGZhongjing; WENGWenbin

    2003-01-01

    Complex adaptive system theory is a new and important embranchment of system science,which provides a new thought to research water resources allocation system.Based on the analysis of complexity and complex adaptive mechanism of water resources allocation system,a fire-new analysis model is presented in this paper.With the description of Dynamical mechanism of system,behavior characters of agents and the evalustion method of system status,an integrity research system is built to analyse the evolvement rule of water resources allocation system.And a brief research for the impact of water resources allocation in beneficial regions of the Water Transfer from south to North China Project is conducted.

  20. Radio resource allocation over fading channels under statistical delay constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Le-Ngoc, Tho

    2017-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents radio resource allocation schemes for buffer-aided communications systems over fading channels under statistical delay constraints in terms of upper-bounded average delay or delay-outage probability. This Brief starts by considering a source-destination communications link with data arriving at the source transmission buffer. The first scenario, the joint optimal data admission control and power allocation problem for throughput maximization is considered, where the source is assumed to have a maximum power and an average delay constraints. The second scenario, optimal power allocation problems for energy harvesting (EH) communications systems under average delay or delay-outage constraints are explored, where the EH source harvests random amounts of energy from renewable energy sources, and stores the harvested energy in a battery during data transmission. Online resource allocation algorithms are developed when the statistical knowledge of the random channel fading, data arrivals...