WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonrisk sample associations

  1. Exposure to Domestic and Community Violence in a Nonrisk Sample: Associations with Child Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Neena M.

    2008-01-01

    Limited data exist on the unique, additive, and interactive effects of exposure to domestic and community violence on children's functioning, particularly in community samples. This study examined relations between children's violence exposure, at home and in the community, and symptoms of externalizing and internalizing problems. Parents reported…

  2. Plantar pitted keratolysis: a study from non-risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Feride Kaptanoglu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pitted keratolysis is an acquired, superficial bacterial infection of the skin which is characterized by typical malodor and pits in the hyperkeratotic areas of the soles. It is more common in barefooted people in tropical areas, or those who have to wear occlusive shoes, such as soldiers, sailors and athletes. In this study, we evaluated 41 patients who had been diagnosed with plantar pitted keratolysis. The patients were of high socioeconomic status, were office-workers, and most had a university degree. Malodor and plantar hyperhydrosis were the most frequently reported symptoms. The weight-bearing metatarsal parts of the feet were those most affected. Almost half the women in the study gave a history of regular pedicure and foot care in a spa salon. Mean treatment duration was 19 days. All patients were informed about the etiology of the disease, predisposing factors and preventive methods. Recurrences were observed in only 17% of patients during the one year follow-up period. This study emphasizes that even malodorous feet among non-risk city dwellers may be a sign of plantar pitted keratolysis. A study of the real incidence of the disease in a large population-based series is needed.

  3. Sex differences in behavioral impulsivity in at-risk and non-risk drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eWeafer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mounting evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that females are more vulnerable to drug and alcohol abuse than males. Some of this increased risk may be related to behavioral traits, such as impulsivity. Here we examined sex differences in two forms of behavioral impulsivity (inhibitory control and impulsive choice in young men and women, in relation to their level of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems (at-risk or non-risk. Methods: Participants performed a go/no-go task to assess inhibitory control and a measure of delay discounting to assess impulsive choice. Results: On the measure of inhibitory control, at-risk women committed significantly more inhibitory errors than at-risk men, indicating poorer behavioral control among the women. By contrast, no sex differences were observed between at-risk men and women in delay discounting, or between the male and female non-risk drinkers on any measure. Conclusion: Heavy drinking women displayed poorer inhibitory control than heavy drinking men. It remains to be determined whether the sex differences in inhibitory control are the result of drinking, or whether they pre-dated the problematic drinking in these individuals.

  4. Heart Rate Reactivity during Contingency Learning in 5- to 10-Month-Old at-Risk and Non-Risk Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, W. S.; Weir, C. G.

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the dynamic relation between contingency learning and heart rate with risk and non-risk babies 5- to 10-months-old. Four groups were compared in a two contingency treatments (contingent, yoked) x two risk status design. Concurrent heart rate was monitored during three phases of a contingency learning task (baseline,…

  5. Students' Intuitive Strategies in Judging Association When Comparing Two Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estepa, Antonio; Batanero, Carmen; Sanchez, F. T.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an experimental study on students' strategies and association judgments when faced with comparison of a numerical variable in two different samples. Classifies the strategies from a mathematical standpoint to identify theorems in action and two types of misconceptions about association. Contains 21 references. (Author/ASK)

  6. Multi-Scaling Sampling: An Adaptive Sampling Method for Discovering Approximate Association Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai-Yan Jia; Xie-Ping Gao

    2005-01-01

    One of the obstacles of the efficient association rule mining is the explosive expansion of data sets since it is costly or impossible to scan large databases, esp., for multiple times. A popular solution to improve the speed and scalability of the association rule mining is to do the algorithm on a random sample instead of the entire database. But how to effectively define and efficiently estimate the degree of error with respect to the outcome of the algorithm, and how to determine the sample size needed are entangling researches until now. In this paper, an effective and efficient algorithm is given based on the PAC (Probably Approximate Correct) learning theory to measure and estimate sample error. Then, a new adaptive, on-line, fast sampling strategy - multi-scaling sampling - is presented inspired by MRA (Multi-Resolution Analysis) and Shannon sampling theorem, for quickly obtaining acceptably approximate association rules at appropriate sample size. Both theoretical analysis and empirical study have showed that the sampling strategy can achieve a very good speed-accuracy trade-off.

  7. An Arabidopsis example of association mapping in structured samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A potentially serious disadvantage of association mapping is the fact that marker-trait associations may arise from confounding population structure as well as from linkage to causative polymorphisms. Using genome-wide marker data, we have previously demonstrated that the problem can be severe in a global sample of 95 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, and that established methods for controlling for population structure are generally insufficient. Here, we use the same sample together with a number of flowering-related phenotypes and data-perturbation simulations to evaluate a wider range of methods for controlling for population structure. We find that, in terms of reducing the false-positive rate while maintaining statistical power, a recently introduced mixed-model approach that takes genome-wide differences in relatedness into account via estimated pairwise kinship coefficients generally performs best. By combining the association results with results from linkage mapping in F2 crosses, we identify one previously known true positive and several promising new associations, but also demonstrate the existence of both false positives and false negatives. Our results illustrate the potential of genome-wide association scans as a tool for dissecting the genetics of natural variation, while at the same time highlighting the pitfalls. The importance of study design is clear; our study is severely under-powered both in terms of sample size and marker density. Our results also provide a striking demonstration of confounding by population structure. While statistical methods can be used to ameliorate this problem, they cannot always be effective and are certainly not a substitute for independent evidence, such as that obtained via crosses or transgenic experiments. Ultimately, association mapping is a powerful tool for identifying a list of candidates that is short enough to permit further genetic study.

  8. Small Sample Kernel Association Tests for Human Genetic and Microbiome Association Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Chen, Wenan; Zhao, Ni; Wu, Michael C; Schaid, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Kernel machine based association tests (KAT) have been increasingly used in testing the association between an outcome and a set of biological measurements due to its power to combine multiple weak signals of complex relationship with the outcome through the specification of a relevant kernel. Human genetic and microbiome association studies are two important applications of KAT. However, the classic KAT framework relies on large sample theory, and conservativeness has been observed for small sample studies, especially for microbiome association studies. The common approach for addressing the small sample problem relies on computationally intensive resampling methods. Here, we derive an exact test for KAT with continuous traits, which resolve the small sample conservatism of KAT without the need for resampling. The exact test has significantly improved power to detect association for microbiome studies. For binary traits, we propose a similar approximate test, and we show that the approximate test is very powerful for a wide range of kernels including common variant- and microbiome-based kernels, and the approximate test controls the type I error well for these kernels. In contrast, the sequence kernel association tests have slightly inflated genomic inflation factors after small sample adjustment. Extensive simulations and application to a real microbiome association study are used to demonstrate the utility of our method. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  9. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism rs821597 in gene disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 with white matter integrity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏钦令

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the association of a single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP)rs821597 in gene disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1(DISC1)with white matter integrity in healthy people.Methods Sixty healthy persons were genotyped at the SNP rs821597 in DISC1 and were divided into two groups(risk allele carriers and non-risk allele

  10. Repeated measurement sampling in genetic association analysis with genotyping errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Renzhen; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Yaning

    2007-02-01

    Genotype misclassification occurs frequently in human genetic association studies. When cases and controls are subject to the same misclassification model, Pearson's chi-square test has the correct type I error but may lose power. Most current methods adjusting for genotyping errors assume that the misclassification model is known a priori or can be assessed by a gold standard instrument. But in practical applications, the misclassification probabilities may not be completely known or the gold standard method can be too costly to be available. The repeated measurement design provides an alternative approach for identifying misclassification probabilities. With this design, a proportion of the subjects are measured repeatedly (five or more repeats) for the genotypes when the error model is completely unknown. We investigate the applications of the repeated measurement method in genetic association analysis. Cost-effectiveness study shows that if the phenotyping-to-genotyping cost ratio or the misclassification rates are relatively large, the repeat sampling can gain power over the regular case-control design. We also show that the power gain is not sensitive to the genetic model, genetic relative risk and the population high-risk allele frequency, all of which are typically important ingredients in association studies. An important implication of this result is that whatever the genetic factors are, the repeated measurement method can be applied if the genotyping errors must be accounted for or the phenotyping cost is high.

  11. Associated factors of obesity in Spanish representative samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Ortega Anta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and the serious health and economic consequences, the scientific community, health professionals and health agencies are looking for the best strategies to prevent/ fight this trend. In order to plan the most appropriate intervention measures the first step is to identify the associated factors of obesity. This paper presents the results of research conducted/coordinated by our research team and promoted by the Spanish Food Safety Agency (AESAN, in the last five years. These studies were focussed on representative samples of the Spanish population, paying attention to the condition of overweight/obesity and their associated factors. The first study, FANPE ("Fuentes alimentarias de nutrientes de la población española" (2009, was centered in 418 adults (18-60 years from 15 provinces (30 sampling points. Its aim was to analyze the dietary sources of nutrients, paying particular attention to sodium. This research showed that the risk of overweight/obesity increases with age, in people who have follow weight control diets, in ex-smokers, married people and those who slept less than 8.5 hours per day, while the risk is lower in women, people who make sport and those with an University degree. It was also found that overweight people had higher sodium intake and urine excretion. Therefore, and having in mind that 88.2% of the subjects took more than 2 g/day of sodium (the maximum recommended, it is advised to lower the sodium intake not only from the health point of view but also as a probably strategy against obesity. The study ALADINO (Estudio de Alimentación, Actividad física, Desarrollo Infantil y Obesidad- Study of the Diet, Physical Activity, Child Development and Obesity (2010-2011 was focused on 7659 children (6-9 years from 19 autonomous communities. We founded a higher percentage of overweight/obesity in boys than in girls, and a significant increase in the figures from the age of 7

  12. Associated factors of obesity in Spanish representative samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Anta, Rosa M; López-Solaber, Ana M; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón

    2013-09-01

    Given the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and the serious health and economic consequences, the scientific community, health professionals and health agencies are looking for the best strategies to prevent/ fight this trend. In order to plan the most appropriate intervention measures the first step is to identify the associated factors of obesity. This paper presents the results of research conducted/coordinated by our research team and promoted by the Spanish Food Safety Agency (AESAN), in the last five years. These studies were focussed on representative samples of the Spanish population, paying attention to the condition of overweight/obesity and their associated factors. The first study, FANPE ("Fuentes alimentarias de nutrientes de la población española") (2009), was centered in 418 adults (18-60 years) from 15 provinces (30 sampling points). Its aim was to analyze the dietary sources of nutrients, paying particular attention to sodium. This research showed that the risk of overweight/obesity increa ses with age, in people who have follow weight control diets, in ex-smokers, married people and those who slept less than 8.5 hours per day, while the risk is lower in women, people who make sport and those with a University degree. It was also found that overweight people had higher sodium intake and urine excretion. Therefore, and having in mind that 88.2% of the subjects took more than 2 g/day of sodium (the maximum recommended), it is advised to lower the sodium intake not only from the health point of view but also as a probably strategy against obesity. The study ALADINO (Estudio de Alimentación, Actividad física, Desarrollo Infantil y Obesidad--Study of the Diet, Physical Activity, Child Development and Obesity) (2010-2011) was focused on 7659 children (6-9 years) from 19 autonomous communities. We founded a higher percentage of overweight/obesity in boys than in girls, and a significant increase in the figures from the age of 7. Being

  13. Hemolysis associated with pneumatic tube system transport for blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Hasan; Bayir, Aysegul; Ak, Ahmet; Degirmenci, Selim; Akinci, Murat; Agacayak, Ahmet; Marcil, Emine; Azap, Melih

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of hemolysis of blood samples may be increased by transport in a pneumatic tube system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pneumatic tube system transport on hemolysis of blood samples. Blood samples were transported from the emergency department to the hospital laboratory manually by hospital staff (49 patients) or with a pneumatic tube system (53 patients). The hemolysis index and serum chemistry studies were performed on the blood samples and compared between the different methods of transport. The blood samples that were transported by the pneumatic tube system had a greater frequency of hemolysis and greater mean serum potassium and median creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels than samples transported manually. Blood samples transported from the emergency department to the hospital laboratory by a pneumatic tube system may have a greater frequency of hemolysis than samples transported manually. This may necessitate repeat phlebotomy and cause a delay in completing the laboratory analysis.

  14. Characteristics of patients receiving pharmaceutical samples and association between sample receipt and out-of-pocket prescription costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, G Caleb; Zhang, James; Basu, Anirban

    2008-04-01

    Pharmaceutical samples are widely used for promotion and marketing, yet little is known about who receives samples or how their use is associated with patient's prescription costs. To examine the characteristics of those receiving samples and the relationship between sample receipt and out-of-pocket prescription costs. DESIGN, SUBJECTS, AND MEASURES: We divided the 2002-2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationally representative, panel-design longitudinal study, into baseline and analysis periods. We conducted logistic and generalized linear regression analysis of 5709 individuals in the analysis period who did not receive samples during the baseline period. The primary outcome measures were sample receipt and prescription expenditures. Fourteen percent of individuals received at least 1 sample during the analysis period. On multivariate analyses sample receipt was greater among those who were younger and those not on Medicaid. In generalized linear regressions controlling for demographic characteristics and health care utilization, the predicted 180-day out-of-pocket prescription expenditures were $178 [standard error (SE), $3.9] for those never receiving samples. Among those receiving samples, the corresponding out-of-pocket expenditures were $166 (SE, $8.9) for periods before sample receipt (P = 0.16 for comparison with those not receiving samples), $244 (SE, $9.2) for periods during sample receipt (P < 0.001 for comparison with periods before sample receipt) and $212 (SE, $12.4) for periods following sample receipt (P = 0.008 for comparison with periods before sample receipt). Results were qualitatively similar when total prescription costs were examined. Individuals receiving samples have higher prescription expenditures than their counterparts. These findings suggest that sample recipients remain disproportionately burdened by prescription costs even after sample receipt.

  15. Problematic Internet use and associated risks in a college sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derbyshire, Katherine L; Lust, Katherine A; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2013-01-01

    understanding of this relationship. METHOD: A sample (n=2108) of college students (56.9% female) was examined using a self-report Internet survey concerning demographic characteristics, Internet use, health behaviors, psychosocial functioning, and psychiatric comorbidities. The IAT was used to determine levels......OBJECTIVE: The Internet is commonly used among young adults; however, Internet use may become a problematic behavior. Past research has examined Internet behavior in young adults and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues, yet further research is needed to gain a more comprehensive...

  16. Nucleic acid isolation from ecological samples--fungal associations, mycorrhizae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Roger T

    2005-01-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi are among the most common symbioses found in terrestrial ecosystems, both natural and managed. They are important for many reasons, but most notably because of their positive effects on plant growth, which are mediated by their uptake of nutrients from the soil and transport of these to the roots. Moreover, many edible fungi are mycorrhizal. The study of mycorrhizal fungi has been hampered by the inability to identify species and individuals in the soil. This has been greatly aided by DNA-based methods, which first require the extraction of DNA. Herein, I discuss some general concerns that must be considered when extracting and purifying DNA from ecological samples and offer specific methods for soil, mycorrhizal roots, and fruiting bodies. These methods are rapid, safe, effective, relatively inexpensive, and convenient because they are based on commercially available kits.

  17. Developing Criteria for Sample Sizes in Jet Engine Analytical Component Inspections and the Associated Confidence Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    5 Sample The samples taken from each population will not be random samples . They will be nonprobability , purposive samples . More specifically, they...section will justify why statistical techniques based on the assumption of a random sample , will be used. First, this is the only possible method of...w lu 88 12 21 029 AFIT/GSM/LSM/88S-22 DEVELOPING CRITERIA FOR SAMPLE SIZES IN JET ENGINE ANALYTICAL COMPONENT INSPECTIONS AND THE ASSOCIATED

  18. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  19. No evidence for the association between a polymorphism in the PCLO depression candidate gene with memory bias in remitted depressed patients and healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna N Vrijsen

    Full Text Available The PCLO rs2522833 candidate polymorphism for depression has been associated to monoaminergic neurotransmission. In healthy and currently depressed individuals, the polymorphism has been found to affect activation of brain areas during memory processing, but no direct association of PCLO with memory bias was found. We hypothesized that the absence of this association might have been obscured by current depressive symptoms or genetically driven individual differences in reactivity to stressful events. Experiencing stressful childhood events fosters dysfunctional assumptions that are related to cognitive biases, and may modulate the predisposition for depression via epigenetic effects. The association between PCLO and memory bias, as well as interaction between PCLO and childhood events was studied in patients remitted from depression (N = 299, as well as a sample of healthy individuals (N = 157. The participants performed an emotional verbal memory task after a sad mood induction. Childhood trauma and adversity were measured with a questionnaire. The Genotype main effect, and Genotype by Childhood Events interaction were analyzed for memory bias in both samples. PCLO risk allele carrying remitted depressed patients did not show more negatively biased memory than non-risk allele carriers, not even patients with stressful childhood events. A similar pattern of results was found in healthy individuals. Memory bias may not be strongly associated with the PCLO rs2522833 polymorphism. We did not find any support for the PCLO-childhood events interaction, but the power of our study was insufficient to exclude this possibility.

  20. Novel Technique for Sampling of Breast Implant-associated Seroma in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dorp, Martijn; T'Kindt, Johan; Mertens, Marianne; Colpaert, Steven D M

    2016-04-01

    We describe a novel technique for the sampling of breast implant-associated seroma. Using a blunt-tip lipofilling cannula, we have the freedom of movement to sample all fluid collections and prevent the misfortunes of damaging the implant. Also, we have demonstrated the inability of the Coleman style I lipofilling cannula to perforate a silicone breast implant. This practical and reliable technique will prove to be useful in managing the breast implant-associated seroma, especially with the rising incidence of the anaplastic large cell lymphoma, where the sampling of seroma is mandatory.

  1. Software engineering the mixed model for genome-wide association studies on large samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed models improve the ability to detect phenotype-genotype associations in the presence of population stratification and multiple levels of relatedness in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but for large data sets the resource consumption becomes impractical. At the same time, the sample siz...

  2. A small-sample multivariate kernel machine test for microbiome association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiang; Tong, Xingwei; Zhao, Ni; Maity, Arnab; Wu, Michael C; Chen, Jun

    2017-04-01

    High-throughput sequencing technologies have enabled large-scale studies of the role of the human microbiome in health conditions and diseases. Microbial community level association test, as a critical step to establish the connection between overall microbiome composition and an outcome of interest, has now been routinely performed in many studies. However, current microbiome association tests all focus on a single outcome. It has become increasingly common for a microbiome study to collect multiple, possibly related, outcomes to maximize the power of discovery. As these outcomes may share common mechanisms, jointly analyzing these outcomes can amplify the association signal and improve statistical power to detect potential associations. We propose the multivariate microbiome regression-based kernel association test (MMiRKAT) for testing association between multiple continuous outcomes and overall microbiome composition, where the kernel used in MMiRKAT is based on Bray-Curtis or UniFrac distance. MMiRKAT directly regresses all outcomes on the microbiome profiles via a semiparametric kernel machine regression framework, which allows for covariate adjustment and evaluates the association via a variance-component score test. Because most of the current microbiome studies have small sample sizes, a novel small-sample correction procedure is implemented in MMiRKAT to correct for the conservativeness of the association test when the sample size is small or moderate. The proposed method is assessed via simulation studies and an application to a real data set examining the association between host gene expression and mucosal microbiome composition. We demonstrate that MMiRKAT is more powerful than large sample based multivariate kernel association test, while controlling the type I error. A free implementation of MMiRKAT in R language is available at http://research.fhcrc.org/wu/en.html.

  3. Association Between Neighborhood-Level Deprivation and Disability in a Community Sample of People With Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Norbert; Nitka, Danit; Gariepy, Genevieve; MALLA, ASHOK; Wang,Jianli; Boyer, Richard; Messier, Lyne; Strychar, Irene; LESAGE, ALAIN

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of the present study was to analyze the association between neighborhood deprivation and self-reported disability in a community sample of people with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Random digit dialing was used to select a sample of adults with self-reported diabetes aged 18–80 years in Quebec, Canada. Health status was assessed by the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II. Material and social deprivation was measured using the Pamp...

  4. Association of MCTP2 gene variants with schizophrenia in three independent samples of Scandinavian origin (SCOPE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurovic, Srdjan; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Kähler, Anna K;

    2009-01-01

    The MCTP2 gene is involved in intercellular signal transduction and synapse function. We genotyped 37 tagging SNPs across the MCTP2 gene to study a possible association with schizophrenia in three independent Scandinavian samples. We report, for the first time, a possible involvement of MCTP2...... as a potential novel susceptibility gene for schizophrenia....

  5. The Compton-Belkovich Region of the Moon: Remotely Sensed Observations and Lunar Sample Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Lawrence, D. J.; Lawson, S. L.; Prettyman, T. H.

    2002-01-01

    Clementine (UVVIS, FeO, and LWIR) data, and Lunar Prospector gamma-ray data for Th are compared with compositional data from lunar samples to show evidence of an association between the Compton-Belkovich high-Th anomaly and alkali anorthosites. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Tonic immobility in a large community sample : Prevalence and association with PTSD symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    People can be paralyzed when facing threat. Such paralysis, or “peritraumatic tonic immobility” (TI), is important as it seems associated with later PTSD development. However, the prevalence of TI is not known. This study investigated its prevalence in a large representative sample as well as its as

  7. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH BRONCHIAL RESPONSIVENESS TO HISTAMINE IN A POPULATION-SAMPLE OF ADULTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIJCKEN, B; SCHOUTEN, JP; MENSINGA, TT; WEISS, ST; DEVRIES, K; VANDERLENDE, R

    The association of age, gender, number of eosinophils, area of residence, cigarette smoking, respiratory symptom prevalence, and FEV1 with the level of bronchial responsiveness was studied in a random sample of 2,216 subjects aged 15 to 72 yr. Subjects participated in the Dutch longitudinal study on

  8. STRONG CONSISTENCY OF M ESTIMATOR IN LINEAR MODEL FOR NEGATIVELY ASSOCIATED SAMPLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qunying WU

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the strong consistency of M estimator of regression parameter in linear model for negatively associated samples. As a result, the author extends Theorem 1 and Theorem 2 of Shanchao YANG (2002) to the NA errors without necessarily imposing any extra condition.

  9. Statistical methods for genetic association studies with response-selective sampling designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balliu, Brunilda

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation describes new statistical methods designed to improve the power of genetic association studies. Of particular interest are studies with a response-selective sampling design, i.e. case-control studies of unrelated individuals and case-control studies of family members. The

  10. Associations among School Characteristics and Foodservice Practices in a Nationally Representative Sample of United States Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Martin, Corby K.; LeBlanc, Monique M.; Onufrak, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Determine school characteristics associated with healthy/unhealthy food service offerings or healthy food preparation practices. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting: Nationally representative sample of public and private elementary, middle, and high schools. Participants: Data from the 2006 School Health Policies…

  11. No association of candidate genes with cannabis use in a large sample of Australian twin families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Zietsch, B.P.; Liu, J.Z.; Medland, S.E.; Lynskey, M.T.; Madden, P.A.F.; Agrawal, A.; Montgomery, G.W.; Heath, A.C.; Martin, N.G.

    2012-01-01

    While there is solid evidence that cannabis use is heritable, attempts to identify genetic influences at the molecular level have yielded mixed results. Here, a large twin family sample (n = 7452) was used to test for association between 10 previously reported candidate genes and lifetime frequency

  12. Psychological Abuse between Parents: Associations with Child Maltreatment from a Population-Based Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jen Jen; Theodore, Adrea D.; Martin, Sandra L.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between partner psychological abuse and child maltreatment perpetration. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined a population-based sample of mothers with children aged 0-17 years in North and South Carolina (n = 1,149). Mothers were asked about the occurrence of potentially neglectful or abusive…

  13. Impact of repeated measures and sample selection on genome-wide association studies of fasting glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Alonso, Alvaro; Li, Man; Kao, Wen; Köttgen, Anna; Yan, Yuer; Couper, David; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bielinski, Suzette J.; Pankow, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Although GWAS have been performed in longitudinal studies, most used only a single trait measure. GWAS of fasting glucose have generally included only normoglycemic individuals. We examined the impact of both repeated measures and sample selection on GWAS in ARIC, a study which obtained four longitudinal measures of fasting glucose and included both individuals with and without prevalent diabetes. The sample included Caucasians and the Affymetrix 6.0 chip was used for genotyping. Sample sizes for GWAS analyses ranged from 8372 (first study visit) to 5782 (average fasting glucose). Candidate SNP analyses with SNPs identified through fasting glucose or diabetes GWAS were conducted in 9133 individuals, including 761 with prevalent diabetes. For a constant sample size, smaller p-values were obtained for the average measure of fasting glucose compared to values at any single visit, and two additional significant GWAS signals were detected. For four candidate SNPs (rs780094, rs10830963, rs7903146, and rs4607517), the strength of association between genotype and glucose was significantly (p-interaction fasting glucose candidate SNPs (rs780094, rs10830963, rs560887, rs4607517, rs13266634) the association with measured fasting glucose was more significant in the smaller sample without prevalent diabetes than in the larger combined sample of those with and without diabetes. This analysis demonstrates the potential utility of averaging trait values in GWAS studies and explores the advantage of using only individuals without prevalent diabetes in GWAS of fasting glucose. PMID:20839289

  14. Sample size requirements for indirect association studies of gene-environment interactions (G x E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Rebecca; Beckmann, Lars; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2008-04-01

    Association studies accounting for gene-environment interactions (G x E) may be useful for detecting genetic effects. Although current technology enables very dense marker spacing in genetic association studies, the true disease variants may not be genotyped. Thus, causal genes are searched for by indirect association using genetic markers in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the true disease variants. Sample sizes needed to detect G x E effects in indirect case-control association studies depend on the true genetic main effects, disease allele frequencies, whether marker and disease allele frequencies match, LD between loci, main effects and prevalence of environmental exposures, and the magnitude of interactions. We explored variables influencing sample sizes needed to detect G x E, compared these sample sizes with those required to detect genetic marginal effects, and provide an algorithm for power and sample size estimations. Required sample sizes may be heavily inflated if LD between marker and disease loci decreases. More than 10,000 case-control pairs may be required to detect G x E. However, given weak true genetic main effects, moderate prevalence of environmental exposures, as well as strong interactions, G x E effects may be detected with smaller sample sizes than those needed for the detection of genetic marginal effects. Moreover, in this scenario, rare disease variants may only be detectable when G x E is included in the analyses. Thus, the analysis of G x E appears to be an attractive option for the detection of weak genetic main effects of rare variants that may not be detectable in the analysis of genetic marginal effects only.

  15. Association study between the Taq1A (rs1800497 polymorphism and schizophrenia in a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirino Cordeiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a severe psychotic disorder with recurrent relapse and functional impairment. It results from a poorly understood gene-environment interaction. The Taq1A polymorphism (located in the gene cluster NTAD is a likely candidate for schizophrenia. Its rs1800497 polymorphism was shown to be associated with DRD2 gene expression. Therefore the present work aims to investigate a possible association between schizophrenia and such polymorphism. The compared distribution of the alleles and genotypes of the studied polymorphism was investigated in a Brazilian sample of 235 patients and 834 controls. Genotypic frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was a trend of allelic association between the Taq1A polymorphism (rs1800497 with schizophrenia in the studied sample. However no statistically differences were found between cases and controls when analyzed by gender or schizophrenia subtypes.

  16. The association between candidate migraine susceptibility loci and severe migraine phenotype in a clinical sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esserlind, Ann-Louise; Christensen, Anne Francke; Steinberg, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of the study was to follow up and to test whether 12 previously identified migraine-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated as risk factors and/or modifying factors for severe migraine traits in a Danish clinic-based population. METHODS: Semi...... polymorphisms showed nominal association with many lifetime attacks and prolonged migraine attacks. CONCLUSION: Our study supports previously reported findings on the association of several single nucleotide polymorphisms with migraine. It also suggests that the migraine susceptibility loci may be risk factors......-structured migraine interviews, blood sampling and genotyping were performed on 1806 unrelated migraineurs recruited from the Danish Headache Center. Genotyping was also performed on a control group of 6415 people with no history of migraine. Association analyses were carried out using logistic regression and odds...

  17. TMPRSS9 and GRIN2B are associated with neuroticism: a genome-wide association study in a European sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragam, Nagesh; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Anderson, James L; Liu, Xuefeng

    2013-06-01

    Major depression disorder (MDD) is a complex and chronic disease that ranks fourth as cause of disability worldwide. About 14 million adults in the USA are believed to have MDD, and an estimated 75 % attempt suicide making MDD a major public health problem. Neuroticism has been recognized as an endophenotype of MDD; however, few genome-wide association (GWA) analyses of neuroticism as a quantitative trait have been reported to date. The aim of this study is to identify genome-wide genetic variants affecting neuroticism using a European sample. A linear regression model was used to analyze the association with neuroticism as a continuous trait in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety and Netherlands Twin Registry population-based sample of 2,748 individuals with Perlegen 600K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In addition, the neuroticism-associated genes/loci of the top 20 SNPs (p personality disorder (ASPD) in an Australian twin family study. Through GWA analysis, 32 neuroticism-associated SNPs (p neuroticism. Our findings provide a basis for replication in other populations to elucidate the potential role of these genetic variants in neuroticism and MDD along with a possible relationship between ASPD and neuroticism.

  18. Association of environmental toxic elements in biological samples of myocardial infarction patients at different stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Naveed; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Jamali, Mohammad Khan; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Shah, Faheem; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima

    2011-06-01

    The exposure of toxic elements may directly or indirectly associate with different pathogenesis of heart diseases. In the present study, the association of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni) in biological samples (whole blood and urine) and mortality from myocardial infarction (MI) patients at first, second, and third heart attacks was carried out. Both biological samples of 130 MI patients (77 male and 53 female), with ages ranging from 45 to 60 years, and 61 healthy persons (33 male and 28 female) of the same age group were collected. The elements in biological samples were assessed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity of methodology was checked by the biological certified reference materials. During this study, 78% of 32 patients aged above 50 years, registered after third MI attack, died. In these subjects, the levels of As, Cd, Co, Ni, and Pb in blood samples were higher in MI patients as compared with referents (p < 0.05), while increased by 11.7%, 12.2%, 5.55%, and 7.2%, respectively, in the blood samples of those patients who tolerated the third MI attack (p = 0.12). The high level of understudied toxic elements may play a role in the mortality of MI patients.

  19. Genome-wide association study of behavioral disinhibition in a selected adolescent sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derringer, Jaime; Corley, Robin P.; Haberstick, Brett C.; Young, Susan E.; Demmitt, Brittany; Howrigan, Daniel P.; Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt; Keller, Matthew; Brown, Sandra; Tapert, Susan; Hopfer, Christian J.; Stallings, Michael C.; Crowley, Thomas J.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Krauter, Ken; Hewitt, John K.; McQueen, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral disinhibition (BD) is a quantitative measure designed to capture the heritable variation encompassing risky and impulsive behaviors. As a result, BD represents an ideal target for discovering genetic loci that predispose individuals to a wide range of antisocial behaviors and substance misuse that together represent a large cost to society as a whole. Published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have examined specific phenotypes that fall under the umbrella of BD (e.g. alcohol dependence, conduct disorder); however no GWAS has specifically examined the overall BD construct. We conducted a GWAS of BD using a sample of 1,901 adolescents over-selected for characteristics that define high BD, such as substance and antisocial behavior problems, finding no individual locus that surpassed genome-wide significance. Although no single SNP was significantly associated with BD, restricted maximum likelihood analysis estimated that 49.3% of the variance in BD within the Caucasian sub-sample was accounted for by the genotyped SNPs (p=0.06). Gene-based tests identified seven genes associated with BD (p≤2.0×10−6). Although the current study was unable to identify specific SNPs or pathways with replicable effects on BD, the substantial sample variance that could be explained by all genotyped SNPs suggests that larger studies could successfully identify common variants associated with BD. PMID:25637581

  20. Validation of a Sampling Method to Collect Exposure Data for Central-Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Naïma; Mertens, Karl; Overholser, Rosanna; Goetghebeur, Els; Catry, Boudewijn; Lambert, Marie-Laurence

    2016-05-01

    Surveillance of central-line-associated bloodstream infections requires the labor-intensive counting of central-line days (CLDs). This workload could be reduced by sampling. Our objective was to evaluate the accuracy of various sampling strategies in the estimation of CLDs in intensive care units (ICUs) and to establish a set of rules to identify optimal sampling strategies depending on ICU characteristics. Analyses of existing data collected according to the European protocol for patient-based surveillance of ICU-acquired infections in Belgium between 2004 and 2012. CLD data were reported by 56 ICUs in 39 hospitals during 364 trimesters. We compared estimated CLD data obtained from weekly and monthly sampling schemes with the observed exhaustive CLD data over the trimester by assessing the CLD percentage error (ie, observed CLDs - estimated CLDs/observed CLDs). We identified predictors of improved accuracy using linear mixed models. When sampling once per week or 3 times per month, 80% of ICU trimesters had a CLD percentage error within 10%. When sampling twice per week, this was >90% of ICU trimesters. Sampling on Tuesdays provided the best estimations. In the linear mixed model, the observed CLD count was the best predictor for a smaller percentage error. The following sampling strategies provided an estimate within 10% of the actual CLD for 97% of the ICU trimesters with 90% confidence: 3 times per month in an ICU with >650 CLDs per trimester or each Tuesday in an ICU with >480 CLDs per trimester. Sampling of CLDs provides an acceptable alternative to daily collection of CLD data.

  1. Family-Based Association Testing of OCD-associated SNPs of SLC1A1 in an autism sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Camille W; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Hanna, Gregory L; Courchesne, Eric; Lord, Catherine; Leventhal, Bennett L; Cook, Edwin H

    2008-04-01

    Reports identified the neuronal glutamate transporter gene, SLC1A1 (OMIM 133550, chromosome 9p24), as a positional and functional candidate gene for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The presence of obsessions and compulsions similar to OCD in autism, the identification of this region in a genome-wide linkage analysis of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and the hypothesized role of glutamate in ASDs make SLC1A1 a candidate gene for ASD as well. To test for association between SLC1A1 and autism, we typed three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs301430, rs301979, rs301434) previously associated with OCD in 86 strictly defined trios with autism. Family-Based Association Tests (FBAT) with additive and recessive models were used to check for association. Additionally, an rs301430-rs301979 haplotype identified for OCD was investigated. FBAT revealed nominally significant association between autism and one SNP under a recessive model. The G allele of rs301979 was undertransmitted (equivalent to overtransmission of the C allele under a dominant model) to individuals with autism (Z=-2.47, P=0.01). The G allele was also undertransmitted in the T-G haplotype under the recessive model (Z=-2.41, P=0.02). Both findings were also observed in the male-only sample. However, they did not withstand correction for multiple comparisons.

  2. Software engineering the mixed model for genome-wide association studies on large samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwu; Buckler, Edward S; Casstevens, Terry M; Bradbury, Peter J

    2009-11-01

    Mixed models improve the ability to detect phenotype-genotype associations in the presence of population stratification and multiple levels of relatedness in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but for large data sets the resource consumption becomes impractical. At the same time, the sample size and number of markers used for GWAS is increasing dramatically, resulting in greater statistical power to detect those associations. The use of mixed models with increasingly large data sets depends on the availability of software for analyzing those models. While multiple software packages implement the mixed model method, no single package provides the best combination of fast computation, ability to handle large samples, flexible modeling and ease of use. Key elements of association analysis with mixed models are reviewed, including modeling phenotype-genotype associations using mixed models, population stratification, kinship and its estimation, variance component estimation, use of best linear unbiased predictors or residuals in place of raw phenotype, improving efficiency and software-user interaction. The available software packages are evaluated, and suggestions made for future software development.

  3. Association of Fluid Intelligence and Psychiatric Disorders in a Population-Representative Sample of US Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M; Platt, Jonathan; Kaufman, Alan S; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2017-02-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the association of psychiatric disorders with intelligence, few population-based studies of psychiatric disorders have assessed intelligence. To investigate the association of fluid intelligence with past-year and lifetime psychiatric disorders, disorder age at onset, and disorder severity in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. National sample of adolescents ascertained from schools and households from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement, collected 2001 through 2004. Face-to-face household interviews with adolescents and questionnaires from parents were obtained. The data were analyzed from February to December 2016. DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and included a broad range of fear, distress, behavior, substance use, and other disorders. Disorder severity was measured with the Sheehan Disability Scale. Fluid IQ measured with the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, normed within the sample by 6-month age groups. The sample included 10 073 adolescents (mean [SD] age, 15.2 [1.50] years; 49.0% female) with valid data on fluid intelligence. Lower mean (SE) IQ was observed among adolescents with past-year bipolar disorder (94.2 [1.69]; P = .004), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (96.3 [0.91]; P = .002), oppositional defiant disorder (97.3 [0.66]; P = .007), conduct disorder (97.1 [0.82]; P = .02), substance use disorders (alcohol abuse, 96.5 [0.67]; P Intelligence was not associated with posttraumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, and anxiety disorders other than specific phobia, and was positively associated with past-year major depression (mean [SE], 100 [0.5]; P = .01). Associations of fluid intelligence with lifetime disorders that had remitted were attenuated compared with past-year disorders, with the exception of separation anxiety disorder. Multiple past

  4. Factors Associated with Suicidality Among a National Sample of Transgender Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Simpson, Tracy L; Shipherd, Jillian C

    2016-10-01

    Correlates of past-year suicidal ideation and lifetime suicide risk among a national sample of transgender veterans were examined. An online, convenience sample of 212 U.S. transgender veterans participated in a cross-sectional survey in February-May 2014. We evaluated associations between sociodemographic characteristics, stigma, mental health, and psychosocial resources with past-year suicidal ideation and lifetime suicide plans and attempts. Participants reported high rates of past-year suicidal ideation (57%) as well as history of suicide plan or attempt (66%). Transgender-related felt stigma during military service and current posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms were associated with suicide outcomes as were economic and demographic factors.

  5. Clinical illnesses associated with isolation of dysgonic fermenter 3 from stool samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, R N; Berry, C D; Phillips, M G; Hamilos, D L; Koneman, E W

    1992-01-01

    The clinical significance of the fastidious organism DF-3 isolated from stool cultures is unclear. We sought to improve our understanding of this organism and to further define its association with human disease. Stool cultures for DF-3 were obtained from three sources: an ongoing study of enteric pathogens in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, a screening procedure in which all stool samples submitted for Clostridium difficile toxin assay were cultured for DF-3, and sto...

  6. Determination of metals in air samples using X-Ray fluorescence associated the APDC preconcentration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardes, Raysa C.; Santos, Ramon S.; Sanches, Francis A.C.R.A.; Gama Filho, Hamilton S.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: rc.nardes@gmail.com, E-mail: ramonziosp@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: francissanches@gmail.com, E-mail: hamiltongamafilho@hotmail.com, E-mail: davi.oliveira@uerj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Aplicada e Termodinamica

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution has become one of the leading quality degradation factors of life for people in large urban centers. Studies indicate that the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere is directly associated with risks to public health, in addition, it can cause damage to fauna, flora and public / cultural patrimonies. The inhalable particulate materials can cause the emergence and / or worsening of chronic diseases related to respiratory system and other diseases, such as reduced physical strength. In this study, we propose a new method to measure the concentration of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the air using an impinger as an air cleaning apparatus, preconcentration with APDC and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (TXRF) to analyze the heavy metals present in the air. The samples were collected from five random points in the city of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. Analyses of TXRF were performed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). The technique proved viable because it was able to detect five important metallic elements to environmental studies: Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. This technique presented substantial efficiency in determining the elementary concentration of air pollutants, in addition to low cost. It can be concluded that the metals analysis technique in air samples using an impinger as sample collection instrument associated with a complexing agent (APDC) was viable because it is a low-cost technique, moreover, it was possible the detection of five important metal elements in environmental studies associated with industrial emissions and urban traffic. (author)

  7. RNA cell typing and DNA profiling of mixed samples: can cell types and donors be associated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteveld, Joyce; Lindenbergh, Alexander; Sijen, Titia

    2013-09-01

    Forensic samples regularly involve mixtures, which are readily recognised in forensic analyses. Combined DNA and mRNA profiling is an upcoming forensic practice to examine donors and cell types from the exact same sample. From DNA profiles individual genotypes may be deconvoluted, but to date no studies have established whether the cell types identified in corresponding RNA profiles can be associated with individual donors. Although RNA expression levels hold many variables from which an association may not be expected, proof of concept is important to forensic experts who may be cross examined about this possible correlation in court settings. Clearly, the gender-specificity of certain body fluids (semen, vaginal mucosa, menstrual secretion) can be instructive. However, when donors of the same gender or gender-neutral cell types are involved, alternatives are needed. Here we analyse basic two-component mixtures (two cell types provided by different donors) composed of six different cell types, and assess whether the heights of DNA and RNA peaks may guide association of donor and cell type. Divergent results were obtained; for some mixtures RNA peak heights followed the DNA results, but for others the major DNA component did not present higher RNA peaks. Also, variation in mixture ratios was observed for RNA profiling replicates and when different donor couples gave the same two body fluids. As sample degradation may affect the two nucleic acids and/or distinct cell types differently (and thus influence donor and cell type association), mixtures were subjected to elevated temperature or UV-light. Variation in DNA and RNA stability was observed both between and within cell types and depended on the method inducing degradation. Taken together, we discourage to associate cell types and donors from peak heights when performing RNA and DNA profiling.

  8. Genetic Association Analysis under Complex Survey Sampling: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dan-Yu; Tao, Ran; Kalsbeek, William D.; Zeng, Donglin; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Fernández-Rhodes, Lindsay; Graff, Mariaelisa; Koch, Gary G.; North, Kari E.; Heiss, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The cohort design allows investigators to explore the genetic basis of a variety of diseases and traits in a single study while avoiding major weaknesses of the case-control design. Most cohort studies employ multistage cluster sampling with unequal probabilities to conveniently select participants with desired characteristics, and participants from different clusters might be genetically related. Analysis that ignores the complex sampling design can yield biased estimation of the genetic association and inflation of the type I error. Herein, we develop weighted estimators that reflect unequal selection probabilities and differential nonresponse rates, and we derive variance estimators that properly account for the sampling design and the potential relatedness of participants in different sampling units. We compare, both analytically and numerically, the performance of the proposed weighted estimators with unweighted estimators that disregard the sampling design. We demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed methods through analysis of MetaboChip data in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, which is the largest health study of the Hispanic/Latino population in the United States aimed at identifying risk factors for various diseases and determining the role of genes and environment in the occurrence of diseases. We provide guidelines on the use of weighted and unweighted estimators, as well as the relevant software. PMID:25480034

  9. Association of a Nonsynonymous Variant of DAOA with Visuospatial Ability in a Bipolar Family Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soronen, Pia; Silander, Kaisa; Antila, Mervi; Palo, Outi M.; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Kieseppä, Tuula; Ellonen, Pekka; Wedenoja, Juho; Turunen, Joni A.; Pietiläinen, Olli P.H.; Hennah, William; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Peltonen, Leena; Partonen, Timo; Paunio, Tiina

    2008-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are hypothesized to share some genetic background. Methods In a two-phase study, we evaluated the effect of five promising candidate genes for psychotic disorders, DAOA, COMT, DTNBP1, NRG1, and AKT1, on bipolar spectrum disorder, psychotic disorder, and related cognitive endophenotypes in a Finnish family-based sample ascertained for bipolar disorder. Results In initial screening of 362 individuals from 63 families, we found only marginal evidence for association with the diagnosis-based dichotomous classification. Those associations did not strengthen when we genotyped the complete sample of 723 individuals from 180 families. We observed a significant association of DAOA variants rs3916966 and rs2391191 with visuospatial ability (Quantitative Transmission Disequilibrium Test [QTDT]; p = 4 × 10−6 and 5 × 10−6, respectively) (n = 159) with the two variants in almost complete linkage disequilibrium. The COMT variant rs165599 also associated with visuospatial ability, and in our dataset, we saw an additive effect of DAOA and COMT variants on this neuropsychological trait. Conclusions The ancestral allele (Arg) of the nonsynonymous common DAOA variant rs2391191 (Arg30Lys) was found to predispose to impaired performance. The DAOA gene may play a role in predisposing individuals to a mixed phenotype of psychosis and mania and to impairments in related neuropsychological traits. PMID:18466879

  10. The Cognitive Attentional Syndrome is Associated With Sleep Difficulties in a Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Thomas A; Scullin, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    We examined whether a process common to anxiety, labeled the cognitive attentional syndrome (CAS), is also associated with sleep disturbances. The CAS represents the sustained use of self-regulating strategies, such as rumination and worry, and beliefs individuals hold about such strategies. Using a sample of community adults located in the United States (N = 226), we found that the CAS was positively associated with sleep difficulties. The association remained intact after controlling for demographic variables, physical health, and negative affect. We further found that self-regulating strategies may be the component of the CAS that is most important to sleep disturbances. Future experimental studies are needed to elucidate whether there exists a causal, and potentially bidirectional, link between the CAS and sleep difficulties.

  11. A genome-wide association study of neuroticism in a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calboli, Federico C F; Tozzi, Federica; Galwey, Nicholas W; Antoniades, Athos; Mooser, Vincent; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waterworth, Dawn; Waeber, Gerard; Johnson, Michael R; Muglia, Pierandrea; Balding, David J

    2010-07-09

    Neuroticism is a moderately heritable personality trait considered to be a risk factor for developing major depression, anxiety disorders and dementia. We performed a genome-wide association study in 2,235 participants drawn from a population-based study of neuroticism, making this the largest association study for neuroticism to date. Neuroticism was measured by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. After Quality Control, we analysed 430,000 autosomal SNPs together with an additional 1.2 million SNPs imputed with high quality from the Hap Map CEU samples. We found a very small effect of population stratification, corrected using one principal component, and some cryptic kinship that required no correction. NKAIN2 showed suggestive evidence of association with neuroticism as a main effect (p neuroticism. Our study was powered to detect almost all SNPs explaining at least 2% of heritability, and so our results effectively exclude the existence of loci having a major effect on neuroticism.

  12. The association between Internet addiction and personality disorders in a general population-based sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadra, Sina; Bischof, Gallus; Besser, Bettina; Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Data on Internet addiction (IA) and its association with personality disorder are rare. Previous studies are largely restricted to clinical samples and insufficient measurement of IA. Methods Cross-sectional analysis data are based on a German sub-sample (n = 168; 86 males; 71 meeting criteria for IA) with increased levels of excessive Internet use derived from a general population sample (n = 15,023). IA was assessed with a comprehensive standardized interview using the structure of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the criteria of Internet Gaming Disorder as suggested in DSM-5. Impulsivity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and self-esteem were assessed with the widely used questionnaires. Results Participants with IA showed higher frequencies of personality disorders (29.6%) compared to those without IA (9.3%; p disorders were more prevalent than among non-addicted males. Compared to participants who had IA only, lower rates of remission of IA were found among participants with IA and additional cluster B personality disorder. Personality disorders were significantly associated with IA in multivariate analysis. Discussion and conclusion: Comorbidity of IA and personality disorders must be considered in prevention and treatment. PMID:28005417

  13. Power analysis for case–control association studies of samples with known family histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao; Han, Younghun; Amos, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide case–control studies have been widely used to identify genetic variants that predispose to human diseases. Such studies are powerful in detecting common genetic variants with moderate effects, but quickly lose power as allele frequency and genotype relative risk decrease. Because patients with one or more affected relatives are more likely to inherit disease-predisposing alleles of a genetic disease than patients without family histories of the disease, sampling patients with affected relatives almost always increases the frequency of disease predisposing alleles in cases and improves the power of case–control association studies. This paper evaluates the power of case–control studies that select cases and/or controls according to their family histories of disease. Our results showed that this study design can dramatically increase the power of a case–control association study for a wide range of disease types. Because each additional affected relative of a patient reduces the required sample size roughly by a pair of case and control, inclusion of cases with affected relatives can dramatically decrease the required sample size and thus the cost of such studies. PMID:20383776

  14. Association between essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair samples of smokers rheumatoid arthritis subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland); National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan); Brabazon, Dermot, E-mail: dermot.brabazon@dcu.ie [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland); Naher, Sumsun, E-mail: sumsun.naher@dcu.ie [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland)

    2011-12-15

    The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been increased among people who possess habit of tobacco smoking. In the present study, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were determined in scalp hair samples of smokers and nonsmokers RA patients, residents of Dublin, Ireland. For comparison purposes scalp hair samples of age and sex matched healthy smokers and nonsmokers were also analyzed. The concentrations of understudied elements were measured by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of methodology was checked using certified reference material (NCS ZC 81002b) and by the conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference material and on real samples. The mean hair Zn, Cu and Mn contents were significantly lower in smokers and nonsmokers RA patients as compared to healthy individuals (p = 0.01-0.001). Whereas the concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of RA patients of both group (p < 0.001). The referent smokers have high level of Cd and Pb in their scalp hair samples as compared to those had not smoking tobacco (p < 0.01). The ratio of Cd and Pb to Zn, Cu and Mn in scalp hair samples was also calculated. The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in smoker RA patients with related to nonsmoker RA and referents. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between toxic elements, cigarette smoking, deficiency of essential trace elements and risk of arthritis.

  15. Association of aggression and non-suicidal self injury: a school-based sample of adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI in adolescent has drawn increasing attention because it is associated with subsequent depression, drug abuse, anxiety disorders, and suicide. In the present study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI in a school-based sample of Chinese adolescents and to explore the association between aggression and NSSI. METHODS: This study was part of a nationwide study on aggression among adolescents in urban areas of China. A sample of 2907 school students including 1436 boys and 1471 girls were randomly selected in Guangdong Province, with their age ranging from 10 to 18 years old. NSSI, aggression, emotional management and other factors were measured by self-administrated questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the association between aggression and NSSI, after adjustment for participants' emotional management, and other potential confounding variables. RESULTS: The one year self-reported prevalence of NSSI was 33.6%. Of them, 21.7% engaged in 'minor NSSI', 11.9% in 'moderate/severe NSSI'. 96.9% of self-injuries engaged in one to five different types of NSSI in the past year. Hostility, verbal and indirect aggression was significantly associated with self-reported NSSI after adjusting for other potential factors both in 'minor NSSI' and 'moderate/severe NSSI'. Hostility, verbal and indirect aggression was significantly associated with greater risk of 'minor NSSI' and 'moderate/severe NSSI' in those who had poor emotional management ability. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight a high prevalence of NSSI and indicate the importance of hostility, verbal and indirect aggression as potentially risk factor for NSSI among Chinese adolescents.

  16. Demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Susan E; Orlosky, Paula M; Sinkkanen, Kimberly A; Stevens, Heather R

    2010-01-01

    Examinations of demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS are limited by the frequent use of homogeneous, college student samples and limited examination of interrelationships among variables. The present study examined community attitudes toward homosexuality and fear of HIV/AIDS as a function of age, education, race/ethnicity, religious affiliation, political party affiliation, and personal contact with homosexual individuals and persons living with HIV/AIDS. A community sample of 463 adults completed standardized measures of homophobia and fear of AIDS as well as demographic and social background items. When examined separately, each demographic and social factor assessed, with the exception of race/ethnicity, was associated with homophobia and all but race/ethnicity and political party affiliation were associated with fear of AIDS. However, when entered into multiple regression analyses, 24% of the variance in homophobia was predicted by a single variable, including only personal contact with homosexual individuals, while 18% of the variance in fear of AIDS was accounted for by five variables, including personal contact with homosexual individuals, religious affiliation, political affiliation, education, and personal contact with someone living with HIV/AIDS. Findings suggest that it is important to consider intercorrelations among social and demographic factors, particularly when considering homophobia.

  17. Prevalence of nail biting and its association with mental health in a community sample of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanizadeh Ahmad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluates onychophagia or nail biting (NB prevalence and association with mental health of a community sample of children from Shiraz, Iran. Findings The parents of 743 primary school children, selected by random sampling, reported NB behavior of their children and themselves. Children's mental health problem was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. 22.3% (95% CI: 19.3 to 25.3 of children had NB behavior in the last three months (girls: 20.1% (95% CI: 15.9 to 24.2. The rate in boys was 24.4% (95% CI: 20.1 to 28.7. 36.8% of the children with NB had at least one family member with nail biting. Older age was associated with a higher prevalence of NB while a higher score on the prosocial score was associated with a lower prevalence of NB. Conclusions NB is a very common behavior in both genders in children and their family members. Children with NB have less prosocial ability than those without it.

  18. Masturbation among women: associated factors and sexual response in a Portuguese community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheira, Ana; Leal, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Masturbation is a common sexual practice with significant variations in reported incidence between men and women. The goal of this study was to explore (a) the age at initiation and frequency of masturbation, (b) the associations of masturbation with diverse variables, (c) the reported reasons for masturbating and associated emotions, and (d) the relation between frequency of masturbation and different sexual behavioral factors. Participants were 3,687 women who completed a web-based survey of previously pilot-tested items. The results reveal a high reported incidence of masturbation practices among this convenience sample of women. Among the women in this sample, 91% indicated that they had masturbated at some point in their lives, and 29.3% reported having masturbated within the past month. Masturbation behavior appears to be related to a greater sexual repertoire, more sexual fantasies, and greater reported ease in reaching sexual arousal and orgasm. Women reported many reasons for masturbation and a variety of direct and indirect techniques. A minority of women reported feeling shame and guilt associated with masturbation. Early masturbation experience might be beneficial to sexual arousal and orgasm in adulthood. Further, this study demonstrates that masturbation is a positive component in the structuring of female sexuality.

  19. Association of telomere length and mitochondrial DNA copy number in a community sample of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrka, Audrey R; Carpenter, Linda L; Kao, Hung-Teh; Porton, Barbara; Philip, Noah S; Ridout, Samuel J; Ridout, Kathryn K; Price, Lawrence H

    2015-06-01

    Cellular aging plays a role in longevity and senescence, and has been implicated in medical and psychiatric conditions, including heart disease, cancer, major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Telomere shortening and mitochondrial dysfunction are thought to be central to the cellular aging process. The present study examined the association between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and telomere length in a sample of medically healthy adults. Participants (total n=392) were divided into 4 groups based on the presence or absence of early life adversity and lifetime psychopathology: No Adversity/No Disorder, n=136; Adversity/No Disorder, n=91; No Adversity/Disorder, n=46; Adversity/Disorder, n=119. Telomere length and mtDNA copy number were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. There was a positive correlation between mtDNA and telomere length in the entire sample (r=0.120, ptelomere length in a large group of women and men both with and without early adversity and psychopathology, suggesting co-regulation of telomeres and mitochondrial function. The mechanisms underlying this association may be important in the pathophysiology of age-related medical conditions, such as heart disease and cancer, as well as for stress-associated psychiatric disorders.

  20. No association of endocannabinoid genes with bipolar disorder or lithium response in a Sardinian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, Claudia; Congiu, Donatella; Costa, Marta; Sestu, Massimiliano; Chillotti, Caterina; Ardau, Raffaella; Deiana, Valeria; Manchia, Mirko; Squassina, Alessio; Del Zompo, Maria

    2013-12-30

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic and severe psychiatric condition with an underlying component of genetic susceptibility. Mounting evidence suggests a potential role of the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system in the pathogenesis of BD. Here we investigated the role of genes encoding for key eCB elements on the risk of developing BD in a sample of 357BD patients and 422 healthy controls of Sardinian ancestry. Using the HapMap CEU population SNP database, we selected 25 tag Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (tSNPs) in N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes. No significant association was reported for FAAH or CNR1. SNPs rs11487077 and rs6465903 in NAPE-PLD showed nominal association (p=0.033 and p=0.026, respectively) with BD, not significant after permutation testing. These SNPs were also tested for association with lithium response in 204 BD patients characterized for response to long-term lithium treatment, reporting no significant findings. As a whole, our results do not support a clear role of FAAH, CNR1 and NAPE-PLD in BD and lithium response. Additional studies on independent, larger samples are warranted to further explore the involvement of the eCB system in BD. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Association of human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis with intraepithelial alterations in cervix samples

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    Denise Wohlmeister

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different infectious agents and their association with human papillomavirus (HPV in cervical carcinogenesis have not been completely elucidated. This study describes the association between cytological changes in cervical epithelium and the detection of the most relevant aetiological agents of sexually transmitted diseases. Samples collected from 169 patients were evaluated by conventional cytology followed by molecular analysis to detect HPV DNA, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2,Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, andTreponema pallidum, besides genotyping for most common high-risk HPV. An association between cytological lesions and different behavioural habits such as smoking and sedentariness was observed. Intraepithelial lesions were also associated with HPV and C. trachomatis detection. An association was also found between both simple and multiple genotype infection and cytological changes. The investigation of HPV and C. trachomatisproved its importance and may be considered in the future for including in screening programs, since these factors are linked to the early diagnosis of patients with precursor lesions of cervical cancer.

  2. Association between socioeconomic factors and sleep quality in an urban population-based sample in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Markus P; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Blettner, Maria; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    Good sleep quality is essential for recovery. The risk factors of sleep disorders have been extensively investigated, but there is sparse information on the association of socioeconomic factors with a person's sleep quality. The aim of the present analysis is to investigate this association, taking particularly the effect of health confounders into consideration. The data were extracted from the cross-sectional QUEBEB Study. In total, the study sample consisted of 3281 participants (1817 women and 1464 men, aged 16-72 years). Here socioeconomic status (SES) was collected from the baseline survey taken in 2004. Sleep quality for the same participants was measured with in-depth personal interviews in 2006 using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, together with other relevant characteristics (e.g. anxiety, depression and health status). Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. People living in an urban environment with a high or medium SES have a greater probability of good sleep quality (odds ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.14; odds ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.69) than persons with a low SES. Anxiety and depression, but also health status, are also associated with sleep quality and can influence in part the socioeconomic levels seen in sleep quality. SES and sleep quality are associated. However, there are important additional determinants that influence the level of association between SES and sleep quality. Several factors, such as anxiety, depression and health status, are associated with poorer sleep quality, but at the same time, these factors occur more often within lower social classes. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. Co-assortment in integron-associated gene cassette assemblages in environmental DNA samples

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    Michael Carolyn A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that integron-associated gene cassettes exist largely in tandem arrays of variable size, ranging from antibiotic resistance arrays of three to five cassettes up to arrays of more than 100 cassettes associated with the vibrios. Further, the ecology of the integron/gene cassette system has been investigated by showing that very many different cassettes are present in even small environmental samples. In this study, we seek to extend the ecological perspective on the integron/gene cassette system by investigating the way in which this diverse cassette metagenome is apportioned amongst prokaryote lineages in a natural environment. Results We used a combination of PCR-based techniques applied to environmental DNA samples and ecological analytical techniques to establish co-assortment within cassette populations, then establishing the relationship between this co-assortment and genomic structures. We then assessed the distribution of gene cassettes within the environment and found that the majority of gene cassettes existed in large co-assorting groups. Conclusions Our results suggested that the gene cassette diversity of a relatively pristine sampling environment was structured into co-assorting groups, predominantly containing large numbers of cassettes per group. These co-assorting groups consisted of different gene cassettes in stoichiometric relationship. Conservatively, we then attributed co-assorting cassettes to the gene cassette complements of single prokaryote lineages and by implication, to large integron-associated arrays. The prevalence of large arrays in the environment raises new questions about the assembly, maintenance and utility of large cassette arrays in prokaryote populations.

  4. Associations between psychedelic use, abuse, and dependence and lifetime panic attack history in a representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Bernstein, Amit; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the associations between lifetime psychedelic use, abuse, and dependence and panic attacks. The study consisted of a representative epidemiological sample from a state wide survey of the Colorado general adult population (n=4745; 52% female). Consistent with prediction, after controlling for theoretically relevant variables, psychedelic abuse and dependence, but not use, were significantly related to an increased lifetime risk of panic attacks. The results are discussed in terms of better understanding the role of psychedelic use in relation to the occurrence of panic attacks.

  5. Association between intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in a representative student sample in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2015-04-01

    The study examined the prevalence of the co-occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM) to determine whether IPV is a factor associated with the latter. A total of 5,841 students from a representative sample of schools in Hong Kong were surveyed. The results show that the lifetime and preceding-year co-occurrence rates of IPV and CM were 12.3% and 3.6%, respectively. IPV and parents' use of psychological aggression and corporal punishment led to increased odds of physical violence. This study suggests a need for the comprehensive assessment of IPV and CM.

  6. [Associations between body dysmorphic symptoms, body image and self-consciousness in a representative population sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daig, Isolde; Burkert, Silke; Albani, Cornelia; Martin, Alexandra; Brähler, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the association between body image and body dysmorphic symptoms in the population by taking different kinds of self-consciousness into account. Body dysmorphic symptoms are characterized by a distressing and impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance. A representative sample of 1621 persons in Germany was examined with screening instruments for body image, body dysmorphic symptoms and self-consciousness. Women reported more body dysmorphic symptoms and higher self-consciousness than men. People with body dysmorphic symptoms reported a more negative body image and higher self-consciousness. Different aspects of self-consciousness moderated the association between body dysmorphic symptoms and negative body image. Results were discussed towards hypotheses of affect modulation and depression tendency of patients with body dysmorphic symptoms.

  7. Associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, R R; Heath, G W; Dowda, M; Trost, S G

    1996-11-01

    This study examined the associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. In the 1990 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 11631 high school students provided information on physical activity; diet; substance use; and other negative health behaviors. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a subset of 2652 high-active and 1641 low-active students. Low activity was associated with cigarette smoking, marijuana use, lower fruit and vegetable consumption, greater television watching, failure to wear a seat belt, and low perception of academic performance. For consumption of fruit, television watching, and alcohol consumption, significant interactions were found with race/ethnicity or sex, suggesting that sociocultural factors may affect the relationships between physical activity and some health behaviors. Low physical activity was associated with several other negative health behaviors in teenagers. Future studies should examine whether interventions for increasing physical activity in youth can be effective in reducing negative health behaviors.

  8. A genome-wide association study of neuroticism in a population-based sample.

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    Federico C F Calboli

    Full Text Available Neuroticism is a moderately heritable personality trait considered to be a risk factor for developing major depression, anxiety disorders and dementia. We performed a genome-wide association study in 2,235 participants drawn from a population-based study of neuroticism, making this the largest association study for neuroticism to date. Neuroticism was measured by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. After Quality Control, we analysed 430,000 autosomal SNPs together with an additional 1.2 million SNPs imputed with high quality from the Hap Map CEU samples. We found a very small effect of population stratification, corrected using one principal component, and some cryptic kinship that required no correction. NKAIN2 showed suggestive evidence of association with neuroticism as a main effect (p < 10(-6 and GPC6 showed suggestive evidence for interaction with age (p approximately = 10(-7. We found support for one previously-reported association (PDE4D, but failed to replicate other recent reports. These results suggest common SNP variation does not strongly influence neuroticism. Our study was powered to detect almost all SNPs explaining at least 2% of heritability, and so our results effectively exclude the existence of loci having a major effect on neuroticism.

  9. Comprehensive genotyping in two homogeneous Graves' disease samples reveals major and novel HLA association alleles.

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    Pei-Lung Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Graves' disease (GD is the leading cause of hyperthyroidism and thyroid eye disease inherited as a complex trait. Although geoepidemiology studies showed relatively higher prevalence of GD in Asians than in Caucasians, previous genetic studies were contradictory concerning whether and/or which human leukocyte antigen (HLA alleles are associated with GD in Asians. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a case-control association study (499 unrelated GD cases and 504 controls and a replication in an independent family sample (419 GD individuals and their 282 relatives in 165 families. To minimize genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, we included only ethnic Chinese Han population in Taiwan and excluded subjects with hypothyroidism. We performed direct and comprehensive genotyping of six classical HLA loci (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DPB1, -DQB1 and -DRB1 to 4-digit resolution. Combining the data of two sample populations, we found that B*46:01 (odds ratio under dominant model [OR]  = 1.33, Bonferroni corrected combined P [P(Bc]  = 1.17 x 10⁻², DPB1*05:01 (OR  = 2.34, P(Bc = 2.58 x 10⁻¹⁰, DQB1*03:02 (OR  = 0.62, P(Bc  = 1.97 x 10⁻², DRB1*15:01 (OR  = 1.68, P(Bc = 1.22 x 10⁻² and DRB1*16:02 (OR  = 2.63, P(Bc  = 1.46 x 10⁻⁵ were associated with GD. HLA-DPB1*05:01 is the major gene of GD in our population and singly accounts for 48.4% of population-attributable risk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These GD-associated alleles we identified in ethnic Chinese Hans, and those identified in other Asian studies, are totally distinct from the known associated alleles in Caucasians. Identification of population-specific association alleles is the critical first step for individualized medicine. Furthermore, comparison between different susceptibility/protective alleles across populations could facilitate generation of novel hypothesis about GD pathophysiology and indicate a new direction for future

  10. Association between neighborhood-level deprivation and disability in a community sample of people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Norbert; Nitka, Danit; Gariepy, Genevieve; Malla, Ashok; Wang, JianLi; Boyer, Richard; Messier, Lyne; Strychar, Irene; Lesage, Alain

    2009-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the association between neighborhood deprivation and self-reported disability in a community sample of people with type 2 diabetes. Random digit dialing was used to select a sample of adults with self-reported diabetes aged 18-80 years in Quebec, Canada. Health status was assessed by the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II. Material and social deprivation was measured using the Pampalon index, which is based on the Canadian Census. Potential risk factors for disability included sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, social support, lifestyle-related factors (smoking, physical activity, and BMI), health care-related problems, duration of diabetes, insulin use, and diabetes-specific complications. There was a strong association between disability and material and social deprivation in our sample (n = 1,439): participants living in advantaged neighborhoods had lower levels of disability than participants living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The means +/- SD disability scores for men were 7.8 +/- 11.8, 12.0 +/- 11.8, and 18.1 +/- 19.4 for low, medium, and high deprivation areas, respectively (P disability scores for women were 13.4 +/- 12.4, 14.8 +/- 15.9, and 18.9 +/- 16.2 for low, medium, and high deprivation areas, respectively (P disability even after controlling for education, household income, sociodemographic characteristics, race, lifestyle-related behaviors, social support, diabetes-related variables, and health care access problems. The inclusion of neighborhood characteristics might be an important step in the identification and interpretation of risk factors for disability in diabetes.

  11. Situational vs. dispositional measurement of catastrophizing: Associations with pain responses in multiple samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Claudia M.; Kronfli, Tarek; Buenaver, Luis F.; Smith, Michael T.; Berna, Chantal; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Edwards, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Catastrophizing is widely recognized as an important risk factor for adverse pain-related outcomes. However, questions remain surrounding the details of its assessment. In particular, recent laboratory studies suggest that evaluation of “situational” catastrophizing (i.e., catastrophizing measured during or directly after the administration of noxious stimulation) may provide information distinct from that obtained by standard, or “dispositional” measures which assess individuals’ recall of catastrophizing in daily life. However, comparatively little research has systematically investigated the inter-relationships and properties of these two different forms of pain-related catastrophizing. The current study evaluated both situational and dispositional catastrophizing measures within multiple samples: healthy individuals (N=84), patients with painful temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD; N=48), and patients with painful arthritis (N=43). All participants first completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS)49, and then underwent psychophysical pain testing, which included heat, cold, and pressure pain. Participants then completed a situational catastrophizing measure with reference to the laboratory pain he/she had just undergone. Situational catastrophizing scores were not significantly correlated with dispositional PCS scores in the healthy participants and arthritis patients, though they were associated in TMD patients. Situational catastrophizing was more strongly associated with experimental pain responses than dispositional PCS scores for the healthy subjects and arthritis patients. In general, higher levels of situational catastrophizing were associated with lower pain thresholds and higher pain ratings across all 3 samples. The findings highlight the importance of multi-dimensional assessment of pain-related catastrophizing, and suggests a role for measuring catastrophizing related to specific, definable events. PMID:20439057

  12. Factors associated with disability in a sample of adults with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Schoffman, Danielle E; Becofsky, Katie

    2013-10-01

    Arthritis is the most common cause of disability among US adults. Few studies have comprehensively examined factors associated with disability in this population. To investigate the relationship between a number of disease and non-disease related factors and disability in sample of adults with self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis. Participants (n = 396) taking part in a randomized controlled trial of arthritis self-management completed a comprehensive survey assessing a number of demographic, arthritis-specific, health-related, behavioral, and psychological variables at baseline. Disability, as measured by the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), was also measured. Hierarchical regression models examined the independent associations between blocks of variables and disability. Demographic variables (R(2) = 0.13), arthritis-specific demographics (i.e., type, medication use; ΔR(2) = 0.16), physical health-related variables (ΔR(2) = 0.06), arthritis-specific symptoms (ΔR(2) = 0.12), health behaviors (ΔR(2) = 0.00), and psychological variables (ΔR(2) = 0.03) explained 50% of the variance in disability score (R(2) = 0.50). With the exception of health behaviors, the addition of each block of variables significantly improved the model, explaining additional variance in HAQ scores (p high school education, rheumatoid arthritis, greater arthritis duration, taking steroids, taking narcotics, greater pain, greater stiffness, greater depressive symptoms, and lower arthritis self-efficacy were associated with greater disability whereas male gender, fibromyalgia, and excellent/very good health were associated with less disability. A number of disease and non-disease related variables were associated with disability. These findings suggest that disability in adults with arthritis may be a complicated phenomenon; such complexity may make decreasing disability in this population challenging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Genomic Observatories Metadatabase (GeOMe): A new repository for field and sampling event metadata associated with genetic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, John; Gaither, Michelle R; Ewing, Rodney; Bird, Christopher E; Davies, Neil; Meyer, Christopher; Riginos, Cynthia; Toonen, Robert J; Crandall, Eric D

    2017-08-01

    The Genomic Observatories Metadatabase (GeOMe, http://www.geome-db.org/) is an open access repository for geographic and ecological metadata associated with biosamples and genetic data. Whereas public databases have served as vital repositories for nucleotide sequences, they do not accession all the metadata required for ecological or evolutionary analyses. GeOMe fills this need, providing a user-friendly, web-based interface for both data contributors and data recipients. The interface allows data contributors to create a customized yet standard-compliant spreadsheet that captures the temporal and geospatial context of each biosample. These metadata are then validated and permanently linked to archived genetic data stored in the National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI's) Sequence Read Archive (SRA) via unique persistent identifiers. By linking ecologically and evolutionarily relevant metadata with publicly archived sequence data in a structured manner, GeOMe sets a gold standard for data management in biodiversity science.

  14. Associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents in two samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Hellström, Charlotta; Nilsson, Kent W

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. Data from adolescents in the SALVe cohort, including adolescents in Västmanland who were born in 1997 and 1999 (N=1868; 1034 girls), and data from consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients in Västmanland (N=242; 169 girls) were analyzed. Adolescents self-rated on the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Adolescent version (ASRS-A), Depression Self-Rating Scale Adolescent version (DSRS-A), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and adjusted for sex, age, study population, school bullying, family maltreatment, and interactions by sex, with two-way interactions between psychiatric measurements. Boys had higher self-rated problematic gaming in both samples, whereas girls self-rated higher in all psychiatric domains. Boys had more than eight times the probability, odds ratio (OR), of having problematic gaming. Symptoms of ADHD, depression and anxiety were associated with ORs of 2.43 (95% CI 1.44-4.11), 2.47 (95% CI 1.44-4.25), and 2.06 (95% CI 1.27-3.33), respectively, in relation to coexisting problematic gaming. Problematic gaming was associated with psychiatric symptoms in adolescents; when problematic gaming is considered, the probability of coexisting psychiatric symptoms should also be considered, and vice versa.

  15. Common variants in the type 2 diabetes KCNQ1 gene are associated with impairments in insulin secretion during hyperglycaemic glucose clamp.

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    Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies in Japanese populations recently identified common variants in the KCNQ1 gene to be associated with type 2 diabetes. We examined the association of these variants within KCNQ1 with type 2 diabetes in a Dutch population, investigated their effects on insulin secretion and metabolic traits and on the risk of developing complications in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODOLOGY: The KCNQ1 variants rs151290, rs2237892, and rs2237895 were genotyped in a total of 4620 type 2 diabetes patients and 5285 healthy controls from the Netherlands. Data on macrovascular complications, nephropathy and retinopathy were available in a subset of diabetic patients. Association between genotype and insulin secretion/action was assessed in the additional sample of 335 individuals who underwent a hyperglycaemic clamp. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that all the genotyped KCNQ1 variants were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in our Dutch population, and the association of rs151290 was the strongest (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.35, p = 0.002. The risk C-allele of rs151290 was nominally associated with reduced first-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, while the non-risk T-allele of rs2237892 was significantly correlated with increased second-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (p = 0.025 and 0.0016, respectively. In addition, the risk C-allele of rs2237892 was associated with higher LDL and total cholesterol levels (p = 0.015 and 0.003, respectively. We found no evidence for an association of KCNQ1 with diabetic complications. CONCLUSIONS: Common variants in the KCNQ1 gene are associated with type 2 diabetes in a Dutch population, which can be explained at least in part by an effect on insulin secretion. Furthermore, our data suggest that KCNQ1 is also associated with lipid metabolism.

  16. Associations between individual lower urinary tract symptoms and bacteriuria in random urine samples in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Felice; Cartwright, Rufus; Digesu, G Alessandro; Tolton, Louise; Franklin, Larissa; Singh, Anand; Greco, Pantaleo; Khullar, Vik

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have noted an association between a diagnosis of overactive bladder and bacteriuria, but little is understood about the relationship of bacteriuria to specific LUTS. We hypothesized that bacteriuria in women would be associated with increased self-reported symptom scores for a wide range of LUTS. Women were recruited from general gynecology and urogynecology outpatient clinics in a secondary care setting. Women completed the 12-item International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire for Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and provided a clean-catch mid-stream specimen of urine for microscopy and culture. Women with acute urinary tract infection were excluded. Three statistical approaches (Mann-Whitney U-test, multivariable logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves) were used to assess differences in symptom scores between women with and without bacteriuria. Two hundred forty-seven women were recruited, aged 22-82. Sixteen of 247 urine samples (6.5%) demonstrated significant bacteriuria, growing a different range of organisms. Women with significant bacteriuria were more likely to have nocturia (OR 3.56, 95% CI 1.19-10.6, P = 0.02), urgency (OR 6.66, 95% CI 1.47-30.06, P = 0.01), bladder pain (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1-7.92, P = 0.049), urgency incontinence (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.02-8.36, P = 0.046), nocturnal enuresis (OR 4.21, 95% CI 1.32-13.41, P = 0.01). After adjustment for age, parity, symptomatic prolapse, menopausal status and history of mid-urethral sling urinary urgency, bladder pain, nocturia, and nocturnal enuresis remained significantly associated. Bacteriuria is associated with a range of LUTS including nocturia, urgency, and bladder pain supporting a role for bacterial colonization in the pathogenesis of OAB symptoms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Clinical illnesses associated with isolation of dysgonic fermenter 3 from stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, R N; Berry, C D; Phillips, M G; Hamilos, D L; Koneman, E W

    1992-02-01

    The clinical significance of the fastidious organism DF-3 isolated from stool cultures is unclear. We sought to improve our understanding of this organism and to further define its association with human disease. Stool cultures for DF-3 were obtained from three sources: an ongoing study of enteric pathogens in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, a screening procedure in which all stool samples submitted for Clostridium difficile toxin assay were cultured for DF-3, and stool samples submitted specifically for DF-3 culture. Retrospective clinical data were obtained from chart reviews of patients with positive cultures. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and cell wall fatty acid analysis were performed for each DF-3 isolated. Eight isolates of DF-3 were obtained over a period of 8 months. All patients either had severe underlying disease or were immunocompromised, including three patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and two patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The spectrum of clinical disease ranged from chronic diarrhea with a well-defined response to therapy for DF-3 to an asymptomatic carrier state. Cell wall fatty acid analysis of these isolates demonstrated a consistent pattern with a large peak of 12-methyltetradecanoate. DF-3, a fastidious gram-negative coccobacillus, can be recovered from stool cultures of immunocompromised patients by using selective media. The presence of 12-methyltetradecanoate in cell wall fatty acid analysis assists in identification. The increased use of a selective medium-(cefoperazone-vancomycin-amphotericin B) in the evaluation of diarrhea in immunocompromised hosts, including persons with inflammatory bowel disease, may better define the association of DF-3 with human gastrointestinal disease.

  18. Body fat distribution and its association with hypertension in a sample of Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Arellano, Luz Elena; Benito-Damián, Fabián; Salgado-Goytia, Lorenzo; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Guzmán-Guzmán, Iris Paola; Vences-Velázquez, Amalia; Castro-Alarcón, Natividad; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2011-10-01

    The association between elevated blood pressure and childhood overweight and obesity has been documented in several studies. However, the linkage of blood pressure with body fat distribution in children is not well established. We investigated the relationship between both central and subcutaneous adiposity with BP in the 95th percentile or higher in Mexican children. Our study, using a sample of children from the State of Guerrero, Mexico was comprised of 252 children, 124 girls and 128 boys, with an age range of 6 to 13 years. Resting blood pressure was measured in duplicate with an aneroid sphygmomanometer. Hypertension was classified as systolic or diastolic BP in the 95th percentile or higher. Additional measures included weight, height, body mass index, body circumferences, and skinfold thickness. The prevalence of obesity (26.5%) was higher than overweight (15.8%), but the prevalence of hypertension was moderate (4.7%). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures correlated strongly with age, weight, height, and all measurements of central and subcutaneous adiposity. Interestingly, after being adjusted by age, sex, and body mass index, the BP in the 95th percentile or higher was associated with suprailiac skinfold, third tertile (OR = 11.83, P = 0.023); triceps skinfold, third tertile (OR = 6.02; P = 0.034); and biceps skinfold, third tertile (OR = 4.71; P = 0.038). Our data indicate that the prevalence of hypertension in children is moderate. In addition, the skinfold thickness was a better predictor of hypertension than central adiposity in the sample of children studied.

  19. Polytraumatization in an adult national sample and its association with psychological distress and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Doris; Dahlstöm, Örjan; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported experiences of potential childhood traumas and polytraumatization, and to find cut-off values for different kinds of potential traumatic events in a national representative sample of adults in Sweden. In addition, to analyse the association between polytraumatization and both psychological distress and global self-esteem. A web-based survey - containing SCL-25 and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Linköping Difficult Life Events Scale - Adult - was sent out to a nationally reprative sample and 5062 people chose to participate in the study. Results showed that almost everyone (97%) has experienced at least one potential traumatic event and that polytraumatization (the 10% of the participants with most reported traumas) was significantly (Z = 12.57, P self-esteem. Gender differences were significant (Z = 8.44, P self-esteem were largest for women with experience of polytraumatization in the age group 18-25 (r = 0.48). There was almost linear increase in psychological distress and linear decrease in self-esteem with increasing number of traumatic events experienced. Experience of polytrauma can be considered an important factor to take into account in psychiatric settings as well.

  20. NOTCH2 in breast cancer: association of SNP rs11249433 with gene expression in ER-positive breast tumors without TP53 mutations

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    Ambs Stefan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS has identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs11249433 in the 1p11.2 region as a novel genetic risk factor for breast cancer, and this association was stronger in patients with estrogen receptor (ER+ versus ER- cancer. Results We found association between SNP rs11249433 and expression of the NOTCH2 gene located in the 1p11.2 region. Examined in 180 breast tumors, the expression of NOTCH2 was found to be lowest in tumors with TP53 mutations and highest in TP53 wild-type/ER+ tumors (p = 0.0059. In the latter group, the NOTCH2 expression was particularly increased in carriers of the risk genotypes (AG/GG of rs11249433 when compared to the non-risk AA genotype (p = 0.0062. Similar association between NOTCH2 expression and rs11249433 was observed in 60 samples of purified monocytes from healthy controls (p = 0.015, but not in total blood samples from 302 breast cancer patients and 76 normal breast tissue samples. We also identified the first possible dominant-negative form of NOTCH2, a truncated version of NOTCH2 consisting of only the extracellular domain. Conclusion This is the first study to show that the expression of NOTCH2 differs in subgroups of breast tumors and by genotypes of the breast cancer-associated SNP rs11249433. The NOTCH pathway has key functions in stem cell differentiation of ER+ luminal cells in the breast. Therefore, increased expression of NOTCH2 in carriers of rs11249433 may promote development of ER+ luminal tumors. Further studies are needed to investigate possible mechanisms of regulation of NOTCH2 expression by rs11249433 and the role of NOTCH2 splicing forms in breast cancer development.

  1. Parenting, relational aggression, and borderline personality features: associations over time in a Russian longitudinal sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David A; Coyne, Sarah M; Swanson, Savannah M; Hart, Craig H; Olsen, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    Crick, Murray-Close, and Woods (2005) encouraged the study of relational aggression as a developmental precursor to borderline personality features in children and adolescents. A longitudinal study is needed to more fully explore this association, to contrast potential associations with physical aggression, and to assess generalizability across various cultural contexts. In addition, parenting is of particular interest in the prediction of aggression or borderline personality disorder. Early aggression and parenting experiences may differ in their long-term prediction of aggression or borderline features, which may have important implications for early intervention. The currrent study incorporated a longitudinal sample of preschool children (84 boys, 84 girls) living in intact, two-parent biological households in Voronezh, Russia. Teachers provided ratings of children's relational and physical aggression in preschool. Mothers and fathers also self-reported their engagement in authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and psychological controlling forms of parenting with their preschooler. A decade later, 70.8% of the original child participants consented to a follow-up study in which they completed self-reports of relational and physical aggression and borderline personality features. The multivariate results of this study showed that preschool relational aggression in girls predicted adolescent relational aggression. Preschool aversive parenting (i.e., authoritarian, permissive, and psychologically controlling forms) significantly predicted aggression and borderline features in adolescent females. For adolescent males, preschool authoritative parenting served as a protective factor against aggression and borderline features, whereas authoritarian parenting was a risk factor for later aggression.

  2. Univariate/multivariate genome-wide association scans using data from families and unrelated samples.

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    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available As genome-wide association studies (GWAS are becoming more popular, two approaches, among others, could be considered in order to improve statistical power for identifying genes contributing subtle to moderate effects to human diseases. The first approach is to increase sample size, which could be achieved by combining both unrelated and familial subjects together. The second approach is to jointly analyze multiple correlated traits. In this study, by extending generalized estimating equations (GEEs, we propose a simple approach for performing univariate or multivariate association tests for the combined data of unrelated subjects and nuclear families. In particular, we correct for population stratification by integrating principal component analysis and transmission disequilibrium test strategies. The proposed method allows for multiple siblings as well as missing parental information. Simulation studies show that the proposed test has improved power compared to two popular methods, EIGENSTRAT and FBAT, by analyzing the combined data, while correcting for population stratification. In addition, joint analysis of bivariate traits has improved power over univariate analysis when pleiotropic effects are present. Application to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 (GAW16 data sets attests to the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method.

  3. Dementia caregiver burden in a Brazilian sample: Association to neuropsychiatric symptoms

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    Patrícia Paes Araujo Fialho

    Full Text Available Abstract Taking care of elderly demented individuals, especially when they present behavioral changes, can be very exhaustive for both family and caregivers. Generally, this leads to changes in the family lifestyle, and the caregiver must deal with a range of problems. Information on this topic in Latin America, including Brazil, remains scarce. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and the level of caregiver burden in a group of Brazilian elderly with dementia. Methods: The Brazilian versions of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview (ZBI and of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI were administered to a total of 83 family-caregivers of patients with dementia followed at a university-affiliated outpatient clinic. Pearson's correlations were calculated to measure the level of association between the scores on both instruments. Results: Among the caregivers, 83.1% were women, and had a mean age of 55.6±12.8 years. The ZBI scores ranged from 3 to 79 (mean=31.4. Patients' NPI scores ranged from 0 to 102 (mean=26.9, consistent with a significant degree of behavioral manifestations in most patients. A significant positive correlation was found between ZBI and NPI scores (r=0.402; p=0.000. Conclusion: The presence and severity of behavioral manifestations assessed by the NPI were associated with a high level of caregiver burden in this sample of Brazilian elderly with dementia.

  4. Diet Soft Drink Consumption is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome: A Two Sample Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Elias, Merrrill

    2015-05-13

    Comparative analyses of soft drink intakes in samples from the United States and Europe, and assessed intakes in relation to prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components are currently lacking. We used data collected on cardiovascular health and dietary intakes in participants from two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA in 2001-2006 (n = 803), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX), conducted in 2007-2009 (n = 1323). Odds ratios for MetS were estimated according to type and quantity of soft drink consumption, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors, in both studies. In both studies, individuals who consumed at least one soft drink per day had a higher prevalence of MetS, than non-consumers. This was most evident for consumers of diet soft drinks, consistent across both studies. Diet soft drink intakes were also positively associated with waist circumference and fasting plasma glucose in both studies. Despite quite different consumption patterns of diet versus regular soft drinks in the two studies, findings from both support the notion that diet soft drinks are associated with a higher prevalence of MetS.

  5. Diet Soft Drink Consumption is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome: A Two Sample Comparison

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    Georgina Crichton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analyses of soft drink intakes in samples from the United States and Europe, and assessed intakes in relation to prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its individual components are currently lacking. We used data collected on cardiovascular health and dietary intakes in participants from two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS, conducted in Central New York, USA in 2001–2006 (n = 803, and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX, conducted in 2007–2009 (n = 1323. Odds ratios for MetS were estimated according to type and quantity of soft drink consumption, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors, in both studies. In both studies, individuals who consumed at least one soft drink per day had a higher prevalence of MetS, than non-consumers. This was most evident for consumers of diet soft drinks, consistent across both studies. Diet soft drink intakes were also positively associated with waist circumference and fasting plasma glucose in both studies. Despite quite different consumption patterns of diet versus regular soft drinks in the two studies, findings from both support the notion that diet soft drinks are associated with a higher prevalence of MetS.

  6. The Association Between Internet and Television Access and Disordered Eating in a Chinese Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Christine M.; Von Holle, Ann; Watson, Hunna; Huang, Lu; Thornton, Laura M.; Zhang, Bing; Du, Shufa; Kleiman, Susan C.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective China has historically reported a low prevalence of eating disorders. However, the rapid social and economic development of this country as well as Western ideals widely disseminated by television and the Internet have led to distinct patterns of behavioral choices that could affect eating disorder risk. Thus, the current study explored the relation between disordered eating and media use. Method Participants were females from the 2009 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (N = 1,053). Descriptive statistics were obtained and logistic regression models, stratified by age (adolescents ages 12-17 and adults ages 18-35), were used to evaluate the association of media use with disordered eating. Results In adolescents, 46.8% had access to the Internet and those with access averaged one hour per day each of Internet and television use. In adults, 41.4% had access to the Internet, and those with access averaged one hour per day of Internet use and two hours per day of television use. Internet access was significantly associated with a subjective belief of fatness (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.6, 4.9) and worry over losing control over eating (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.3, 9.8) only in adults. Discussion These findings help characterize the overall pattern of media use and report of eating disorder symptoms in a large sample of female Chinese adolescents and adults. That Internet access in adults was significantly associated with disordered eating cognitions might suggest that media access negatively influences these domains;however,more granular investigations are warranted. PMID:25346164

  7. Cost of bariatric surgery and factors associated with increased cost: an analysis of national inpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorgami, Zhamak; Aminian, Ali; Shoar, Saeed; Andalib, Amin; Saber, Alan A; Schauer, Philip R; Brethauer, Stacy A; Sclabas, Guido M

    2017-08-01

    In the current healthcare environment, bariatric surgery centers need to be cost-effective while maintaining quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate national cost of bariatric surgery to identify the factors associated with a higher cost. A retrospective analysis of 2012-2013 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project - Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS). We included all patients with a diagnosis of morbid obesity (ICD9 278.01) and a Diagnosis Related Group code related to procedures for obesity, who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), or adjustable gastric banding (AGB) as their primary procedure. We converted "hospital charges" to "cost," using hospital specific cost-to-charge ratio. Inflation was adjusted using the annual consumer price index. Increased cost was defined as the top 20th percentile of the expenditure and its associated factors were analyzed using the logistic regression multivariate analysis. A total of 45,219 patients (20,966 RYGBs, 22,380 SGs, and 1,873 AGBs) were included. The median (interquartile range) calculated costs for RYGB, SG, and AGB were $12,543 ($9,970-$15,857), $10,531 ($8,248-$13,527), and $9,219 ($7,545-$12,106), respectively (P<.001). Robotic-assisted procedures had the highest impact on the cost (odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 3.2-4). Hospital cost of RYGB and SG increased linearly with the length of hospital stay and almost doubled after 7 days. Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that certain co-morbidities and concurrent procedures were associated with an increased cost. Factors contributing to the cost variation of bariatric procedures include co-morbidities, robotic platform, complexity of surgery, and hospital length of stay. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Depression symptoms associated with cannabis dependence in an adolescent American Indian community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilder, David A; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2012-01-01

    Depression and substance use disorders, including cannabis dependence, arise during adolescence, are frequently comorbid, and represent major health burdens in the general US population. Yet little is known about the association of depression symptoms with cannabis and other substance use and use disorders in Native American adolescents. To investigate the comorbidity of cannabis use and depression symptoms in Native American adolescents. This study used the Children's Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (Adolescent Version) to obtain lifetime DSM-III-R diagnoses from a community sample of 202 (98 boys, 104 girls) American Indian adolescents living on contiguous reservations. Thirteen percent of boys and 38% of girls had a lifetime DSM-III-R major depression disorder (MDD) independent of substance use. Fifteen percent of boys and 41% of girls had a major depression episode (MDE) either coincident with or independent of cannabis use. MDE and several individual depression symptoms were significantly associated with cannabis dependence in boys but not in girls. The median ages of onset of MDE were the same in the boys and girls who had experienced both depression and cannabis use. These findings suggest that the association of depression with cannabis dependence is more significant in boys than girls in this population of adolescents. Understanding comorbidity between depression and cannabis use is important in order to disentangle the etiological relationship between the two and also for designing more effective treatment and prevention strategies, particularly in Native Americans who are at high risk for both disorders. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  9. Headache complaints associated with psychiatric comorbidity in a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benseñor, I M; Tófoli, L F; Andrade, L

    2003-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency at which people complain of any type of headache, and its relationship with sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity in S o Paulo, Brazil. A three-step cluster sampling method was used to select 1,464 subjects aged 18 years or older. They were mainly from families of middle and upper socioeconomic levels living in the catchment area of Instituto de Psiquiatria. However, this area also contains some slums and shantytowns. The subjects were interviewed using the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 1.1. (CIDI 1.1) by a lay trained interviewer. Answers to CIDI 1.1 questions allowed us to classify people according to their psychiatric condition and their headaches based on their own ideas about the nature of their illness. The lifetime prevalence of "a lot of problems with" headache was 37.4% (76.2% of which were attributed to use of medicines, drugs/alcohol, physical illness or trauma, and 23.8% attributed to nervousness, tension or mental illness). The odds ratio (OR) for headache among participants with "nervousness, tension or mental illness" was elevated for depressive episodes (OR, 2.1; 95%CI, 1.4-3.4), dysthymia (OR, 3.4; 95%CI, 1.6-7.4) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR, 4.3; 95%CI, 2.1-8.6), when compared with patients without headache. For "a lot of problems with" headaches attributed to medicines, drugs/alcohol, physical illness or trauma, the risk was also increased for dysthymia but not for generalized anxiety disorder. These data show a high association between headache and chronic psychiatric disorders in this Brazilian population sample.

  10. Headache complaints associated with psychiatric comorbidity in a population-based sample

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    Benseñor I.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency at which people complain of any type of headache, and its relationship with sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity in São Paulo, Brazil. A three-step cluster sampling method was used to select 1,464 subjects aged 18 years or older. They were mainly from families of middle and upper socioeconomic levels living in the catchment area of Instituto de Psiquiatria. However, this area also contains some slums and shantytowns. The subjects were interviewed using the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 1.1. (CIDI 1.1 by a lay trained interviewer. Answers to CIDI 1.1 questions allowed us to classify people according to their psychiatric condition and their headaches based on their own ideas about the nature of their illness. The lifetime prevalence of "a lot of problems with" headache was 37.4% (76.2% of which were attributed to use of medicines, drugs/alcohol, physical illness or trauma, and 23.8% attributed to nervousness, tension or mental illness. The odds ratio (OR for headache among participants with "nervousness, tension or mental illness" was elevated for depressive episodes (OR, 2.1; 95%CI, 1.4-3.4, dysthymia (OR, 3.4; 95%CI, 1.6-7.4 and generalized anxiety disorder (OR, 4.3; 95%CI, 2.1-8.6, when compared with patients without headache. For "a lot of problems with" headaches attributed to medicines, drugs/alcohol, physical illness or trauma, the risk was also increased for dysthymia but not for generalized anxiety disorder. These data show a high association between headache and chronic psychiatric disorders in this Brazilian population sample.

  11. Generating samples for association studies based on HapMap data

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    Chen Yixuan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the completion of the HapMap project, a variety of computational algorithms and tools have been proposed for haplotype inference, tag SNP selection and genome-wide association studies. Simulated data are commonly used in evaluating these new developed approaches. In addition to simulations based on population models, empirical data generated by perturbing real data, has also been used because it may inherit specific properties from real data. However, there is no tool that is publicly available to generate large scale simulated variation data by taking into account knowledge from the HapMap project. Results A computer program (gs was developed to quickly generate a large number of samples based on real data that are useful for a variety of purposes, including evaluating methods for haplotype inference, tag SNP selection and association studies. Two approaches have been implemented to generate dense SNP haplotype/genotype data that share similar local linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns as those in human populations. The first approach takes haplotype pairs from samples as inputs, and the second approach takes patterns of haplotype block structures as inputs. Both quantitative and qualitative traits have been incorporated in the program. Phenotypes are generated based on a disease model, or based on the effect of a quantitative trait nucleotide, both of which can be specified by users. In addition to single-locus disease models, two-locus disease models have also been implemented that can incorporate any degree of epistasis. Users are allowed to specify all nine parameters in a 3 × 3 penetrance table. For several commonly used two-locus disease models, the program can automatically calculate penetrances based on the population prevalence and marginal effects of a disease that users can conveniently specify. Conclusion The program gs can effectively generate large scale genetic and phenotypic variation data that can be

  12. Principal component regression and linear mixed model in association analysis of structured samples: competitors or complements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiwei; Pan, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been established as a major tool to identify genetic variants associated with complex traits, such as common diseases. However, GWAS may suffer from false positives and false negatives due to confounding population structures, including known or unknown relatedness. Another important issue is unmeasured environmental risk factors. Among many methods for adjusting for population structures, two approaches stand out: one is principal component regression (PCR) based on principal component analysis, which is perhaps the most popular due to its early appearance, simplicity, and general effectiveness; the other is based on a linear mixed model (LMM) that has emerged recently as perhaps the most flexible and effective, especially for samples with complex structures as in model organisms. As shown previously, the PCR approach can be regarded as an approximation to an LMM; such an approximation depends on the number of the top principal components (PCs) used, the choice of which is often difficult in practice. Hence, in the presence of population structure, the LMM appears to outperform the PCR method. However, due to the different treatments of fixed vs. random effects in the two approaches, we show an advantage of PCR over LMM: in the presence of an unknown but spatially confined environmental confounder (e.g., environmental pollution or lifestyle), the PCs may be able to implicitly and effectively adjust for the confounder whereas the LMM cannot. Accordingly, to adjust for both population structures and nongenetic confounders, we propose a hybrid method combining the use and, thus, strengths of PCR and LMM. We use real genotype data and simulated phenotypes to confirm the above points, and establish the superior performance of the hybrid method across all scenarios.

  13. Triclosan/triclocarban levels in maternal and umbilical blood samples and their association with fetal malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ling; Qiao, Pengyun; Shi, Ying; Ruan, Yan; Yin, Jie; Wu, Qingqing; Shao, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are widely used as antimicrobial compounds in consumer products. TCS and TCC are frequently found in waste water and sewage. In this study, we investigate the potential impact of exposure to triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) on fetal abnormalities. We measured TCS and TCC levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood samples from 39 pregnant women diagnosed with fetal or post-birth abnormalities at Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital. 52 pregnant women who gave birth to healthy neonates during the same period of time were included as controls. Applying ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, TCS and TCC concentrations were measured in maternal and fetal sera. Significantly increased levels of TCS were detected in maternal sera from mothers with abnormal births. Similar levels of TCS or TCC were found in maternal and cord sera in control group. The concentrations of TCS or TCC in maternal sera correlated with those in umbilical cord sera (r=0.649, P<0.01). These observations suggest that maternal blood test could be a useful assay for detecting fetal exposure to TCS and TCC, and high exposure to TCS may be potentially associated with increased risk for fetal malformations.

  14. Autistic Features in Girls from a Psychiatric Sample Are Strongly Associated with a Low 2D:4D Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruin, Esther I.; De Nijs, Pieter F. A.; Verheij, Fop; Verhagen, Debora H.; Ferdinand, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Autistic features such as deficits in social interactions and communication have been associated with a low 2D:4D ratio in normal children.This study assessed this association in a large sample of children with a variety of psychiatric disorders (n = 35 girls and n = 147 boys). Autistic features were assessed with a highly valid and reliable…

  15. Mitochondrial DNA Marker EST00083 Is Not Associated with High vs. Average IQ in a German Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moises, Hans W.; Yang, Liu; Kohnke, Michael; Vetter, Peter; Neppert, Jurgen; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Tested the association of a mitochondrial DNA marker (EST00083) with high IQ in a sample of 47 German adults with high IQ scores and 77 adults with IQs estimated at lower than 110. Results do not support the hypothesis that high IQ is associated with this marker. (SLD)

  16. Association between the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism and the metabolic syndrome in a non-Caucasian multi-ethnic sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Attar, Salam A; Pollex, Rebecca L; Ban, Matthew R

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rs9939609 T>A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the FTO gene has previously been found to be associated with obesity in European Caucasian samples. The objective of this study is to examine whether this association extends to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and applies in non...

  17. Association between Caregiving, Meaning in Life, and Life Satisfaction beyond 50 in an Asian Sample: Age as a Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P.; O, Jiaqing

    2012-01-01

    The association between caregiving, meaning in life, and life satisfaction was examined in sample of 519 older Asian adults beyond 50 years of age. Two hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine age as moderator of the associations between caregiving, meaning in life, and life satisfaction. Age moderated the association…

  18. Association analysis of ANK3 gene variants in nordic bipolar disorder and schizophrenia case-control samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesli, Martin; Koefoed, Pernille; Athanasiu, Lavinia

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variants in ankyrin 3 (ANK3) have recently been shown to be associated with bipolar disorder (BD). We genotyped three ANK3 SNPs previously found to be associated with BD (rs10994336, rs1938526, and rs9804190) in a Scandinavian BD case–control sample (N¿=¿854/2,614). Due to evidence...

  19. The Association of Attitude to Reading and Reading Achievement among a Representative Sample of Nine Year Olds in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fives, Allyn

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the association between reading self-belief and reading achievement among a representative sample of nine year old children in the Republic of Ireland. Results from analysis of variance and simple effects analysis showed a positive linear association between reading achievement and "attitude to reading." The…

  20. Association of cardiometabolic risk factors and dental caries in a population-based sample of youths

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    Kelishadi Roya

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors begin from early life and track onto adulthood. Oral and dental diseases share some risk factors with CVD, therefore by finding a clear relation between dental diseases and cardiometabolic risk factors; we can then predict the potential risk of one based on the presence of the other. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of dental caries between two groups of age-matched adolescents with and without CVD risk factors. Methods In this case-control study, the decayed, missing and filled surfaces (DMFS, based on the criteria of the World Health Organization, were compared in two groups of equal number (n = 61 in each group of population-based sample of adolescents with and without CVD risk factors who were matched for sex and age group. Results The study participants had a median age 13 y 5 mo, age range 11 y 7 mo to 16 y 1 mo, with male-to-female proportion of 49/51. We found significant difference between the mean values of DMFS, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, as well as serum lipid profile in the case and control groups. Significant correlations were documented for DMFS with TC (r = 0.54, p = 0.02, LDL-C (r = 0.55, p = 0.01 and TG (r = 0.52, p = 0.04 in the case group; with LDL-C (r = 0.47, p = 0.03 in the whole study participants and with TC in control s(r = 0.45, p = 0.04. Conclusions Given the significant associations between dental caries and CVD risk factors among adolescents, more attention should be paid to oral health, as one of the topics to be taken into account in primordial/primary prevention of cardiometabolic disorders.

  1. Nutrition and health - the association between eating behavior and various health parameters: a matched sample study.

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    Nathalie T Burkert

    Full Text Available Population-based studies have consistently shown that our diet has an influence on health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze differences between different dietary habit groups in terms of health-related variables. The sample used for this cross-sectional study was taken from the Austrian Health Interview Survey AT-HIS 2006/07. In a first step, subjects were matched according to their age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES. After matching, the total number of subjects included in the analysis was 1320 (N = 330 for each form of diet - vegetarian, carnivorous diet rich in fruits and vegetables, carnivorous diet less rich in meat, and carnivorous diet rich in meat. Analyses of variance were conducted controlling for lifestyle factors in the following domains: health (self-assessed health, impairment, number of chronic conditions, vascular risk, health care (medical treatment, vaccinations, preventive check-ups, and quality of life. In addition, differences concerning the presence of 18 chronic conditions were analyzed by means of Chi-square tests. Overall, 76.4% of all subjects were female. 40.0% of the individuals were younger than 30 years, 35.4% between 30 and 49 years, and 24.0% older than 50 years. 30.3% of the subjects had a low SES, 48.8% a middle one, and 20.9% had a high SES. Our results revealed that a vegetarian diet is related to a lower BMI and less frequent alcohol consumption. Moreover, our results showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with poorer health (higher incidences of cancer, allergies, and mental health disorders, a higher need for health care, and poorer quality of life. Therefore, public health programs are needed in order to reduce the health risk due to nutritional factors.

  2. Body sensations associated with emotions in Rarámuri Indians, rural Javanese, and three student samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breugelmans, Seger M; Poortinga, Ype H; Ambadar, Zara; Setiadi, Bernadette; Vaca, Jesús B; Widiyanto, Priyo; Philippot, Pierre

    2005-06-01

    Cultural variations in the associations of 12 body sensations with 7 emotions were studied in 2 rural samples from northern Mexico (n = 61) and Java, Indonesia (n = 99), with low exposure to Western influences and in 3 university student samples from Belgium (n = 75), Indonesia (n = 85), and Mexico (n = 123). Both parametric and nonparametric analyses suggest that findings from previous studies with only student samples (K. R. Scherer & H. G. Wallbott, 1994) were generalizable to the 2 rural samples. Some notable cultural deviations from common profiles were also identified. Implications of the findings for explanations of body sensations experienced with emotions and the cross-cultural study of emotions are discussed.

  3. Parental internalizing problems in a community sample : association with child psychosocial problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, Willem; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Offspring of depressed, anxious and stressed parents are at increased risk of developing mental disorders. However, most studies investigating this association concentrate on clinical symptoms. The objective of this study is to examine the association between parental internalizing probl

  4. STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF PARTICULATE MATTER AND THE ERROR ASSOCIATED WITH SAMPLING FREQUENCY. (R828678C010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution of particulate matter (PM) concentrations has an impact on human health effects and the setting of PM regulations. Since PM is commonly sampled on less than daily schedules, the magnitude of sampling errors needs to be determined. Daily PM data from Spokane, W...

  5. Factors associated with hospital service satisfaction in a sample of Arab subjects with schizophrenia

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    Al-Zayed Adel A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of patients' satisfaction with health care services could help to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the system and provide guidance for further development. The study's objectives were to: (i assess the pattern of satisfaction with hospital care for a sample of people with schizophrenia in Kuwait, using the Verona Service Satisfaction Scale (VSSS-EU; ii compare the pattern of satisfaction with those of similar studies; and iii assess the association of VSSS seven domains with a number of variables representing met and unmet needs for care, family caregiver burden, severity of psychopathology, level of psychosocial functioning, socio-demographic characteristics, psychological well-being and objective quality of life. Methods Consecutive outpatients in stable condition and their family caregivers were interviewed with the VSSS-EU and measures of needs for care, caregiver burden, quality of life and psychopathology. Results There were 130 patients (66.1%m, mean age 36.8. While over two-thirds expressed satisfaction with the domains of "overall satisfaction", "professionals' skills", "access", "efficacy", and "relatives' involvement", only about one-third were satisfied with the domains of "information" and "types of intervention". The later two domains were the areas in which European patients had better satisfaction than our patients, while our patients expressed better satisfaction than the Europeans in the domain of "relatives' involvement". In multiple regression analyses, self-esteem, positive and negative affect were the most important correlates of the domains of service satisfaction, while clinical severity, caregiver burden and health unmet needs for care played relatively minor roles. Conclusion The noted differences and similarities with the international data, as well as the predictive power of self-esteem and affective state, support the impression that patients' attitudes towards psychiatric care

  6. Further Evaluation of Associations Between Reactive and Proactive Aggression and Suicidal Behavior in a Treatment Seeking Sample of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J; Poquiz, Jonathan; Frazer, Andrew L; Reiter, Nicholas

    2017-02-10

    This study examined associations between reactive and proactive functions of aggression and suicidal behavior in a sample of outpatient treatment seeking youth (n = 111, 60.5% male) ranging from 6 to 17 years of age (Mean age = 10.57 years). Additionally, hope was evaluated as a moderator of these associations. Child reports of measures were used to evaluate associations. When also considering the variance associated with child depressive symptoms and hope, reactive, but not proactive, aggression was uniquely associated with suicidal behavior. Moreover, hope moderated this association, such that reactive aggression was only positively associated with suicidal behavior when levels of hope were low. Findings and their implications for targeting hope with aggressive youth for the prevention of suicidal behavior are discussed.

  7. Standardised Resting Time Prior to Blood Sampling and Diurnal Variation Associated with Risk of Patient Misclassification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh Andersen, Ida; Brasen, Claus L.; Christensen, Henry;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to current recommendations, blood samples should be taken in the morning after 15 minutes' resting time. Some components exhibit diurnal variation and in response to pressures to expand opening hours and reduce waiting time, the aims of this study were to investigate...... the impact of resting time prior to blood sampling and diurnal variation on biochemical components, including albumin, thyrotropin (TSH), total calcium and sodium in plasma. METHODS: All patients referred to an outpatient clinic for blood sampling were included in the period Nov 2011 until June 2014 (opening...... hours: 7am-3pm). Each patient's arrival time and time of blood sampling were registered. The impact of resting time and the time of day for all components was analysed using simple linear regression. The "maximum allowable bias" was used as quality indicator for the change in reference interval. RESULTS...

  8. Presence of Clostridium difficile in pig faecal samples and wild animal species associated with pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Lasheras, S; Bolea, R; Mainar-Jaime, R C; Kuijper, E; Sevilla, E; Martín-Burriel, I; Chirino-Trejo, M

    2017-02-01

    To determine the presence of Clostridium difficile on fattening pig farms in north-eastern Spain. Twenty-seven farms were sampled. Pools of pig faecal samples (n = 210), samples of intestinal content from common farm pest species (n = 95) and environment-related samples (n = 93) were collected. Isolates were tested for toxin genes of C. difficile, and typed by PCR-ribotyping and toxinotyping. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of six antimicrobial agents were determined using Etest. Thirty-four isolates were obtained from 12 farms, and 30 (88·2%) had toxin genes. Seven ribotypes were identified. Ribotype 078 and its variant 126 were predominant (52·9%). The same ribotypes were isolated from different animal species on the same farm. None of the isolates were resistant to metronidazole or vancomycin. Clostridium difficile was common within the pig farm environment. Most of the positive samples came from pest species or were pest-related environmental samples. Pest species were colonized with toxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant C. difficile strains of the same ribotypes that are found in humans and pigs. Rodents and pigeons may transmit toxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant C. difficile strains that are of the same ribotypes as those occuring in humans. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Association between virtues and posttraumatic growth: preliminary evidence from a Chinese community sample after earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Duan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Relationship, vitality, and conscientiousness are three fundamental virtues that have been recently identified as important individual differences to health, well being, and positive development. This cross-sectional study attempted to explore the relationship between the three constructs and post-traumatic growth (PTG in three directions, including indirect trauma samples without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, direct trauma samples without PTSD, and direct trauma samples with PTSD.Methods. A total of 340 community participants from Sichuan Province, Mainland China involved in the study, most of which experienced Wenchuan and Lushan Earthquake. Participants were required to complete the self-reported questionnaire packages at one time point for obtaining their scores on virtues (Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, PTSD (PTSD Checklist-Specific, and PTG (Post-traumatic Growth Inventory-Chinese.Results. Significant and positive correlations between the three virtues and PTG were identified (r = .39–.56; p < .01. Further regression analysis by stepwise method reveled that: in the indirect trauma samples, vitality explained 32% variance of PTG. In reference to the direct trauma sample without PTSD, both relationship and conscientiousness explained 32% variance of PTG, whereas in the direct trauma sample with PTSD, only conscientiousness accounted for 31% the variance in PTG.Conclusion.This cross-sectional investigation partly revealed the roles of different virtues in trauma context. Findings suggest important implications for strengths-based treatment.

  10. Temperament factors and dimensional, latent bifactor models of child psychopathology: Transdiagnostic and specific associations in two youth samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Snyder, Hannah; Young, Jami F; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A

    2017-06-01

    Common emotional and behavioral symptoms co-occur and are associated with core temperament factors. This study investigated links between temperament and dimensional, latent psychopathology factors, including a general common psychopathology factor (p factor) and specific latent internalizing and externalizing liabilities, as captured by a bifactor model, in two independent samples of youth. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that temperament factors of negative affectivity (NA), positive affectivity (PA), and effortful control (EC) could serve as both transdiagnostic and specific risks in relation to recent bifactor models of child psychopathology. Sample 1 included 571 youth (average age 13.6, SD =2.37, range 9.3-17.5) with both youth and parent report. Sample 2 included 554 preadolescent children (average age 7.7, SD =1.35, range =5-11 years) with parent report. Structural equation modeling showed that the latent bifactor models fit in both samples. Replicated in both samples, the p factor was associated with lower EC and higher NA (transdiagnostic risks). Several specific risks replicated in both samples after controlling for co-occurring symptoms via the p factor: internalizing was associated with higher NA and lower PA, lower EC related to externalizing problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals in Pakistan. All the cake samples were confirmed to be from early maturing cotton varieties (maturing prior to or during Monsoon). A survey of the resource persons indicated that the feeding problems with cottonseed cake appeared after 4–5 months of post-production...

  12. Heterogenic Solid Biofuel Sampling Methodology and Uncertainty Associated with Prompt Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Pazó

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate determination of the properties of biomass is of particular interest in studies on biomass combustion or cofiring. The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for prompt analysis of heterogeneous solid fuels with an acceptable degree of accuracy. Special care must be taken with the sampling procedure to achieve an acceptable degree of error and low statistical uncertainty. A sampling and error determination methodology for prompt analysis is presented and validated. Two approaches for the propagation of errors are also given and some comparisons are made in order to determine which may be better in this context. Results show in general low, acceptable levels of uncertainty, demonstrating that the samples obtained in the process are representative of the overall fuel composition.

  13. Individual, Interpersonal, and Structural Power: Associations With Condom Use in a Sample of Young Adult Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Lynissa R; Harvey, S Marie; Warren, Jocelyn T

    2016-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 480 sexually active Latino young adults from four rural counties in Oregon. We examined relationships between three levels of power (individual, interpersonal, and structural) and consistent condom use. Condom use self-efficacy and sexual decision-making, examples of individual and interpersonal measures of power, respectively, were associated with increased odds of consistent condom use among both men and women. Among men only, increasing relationship control, an interpersonal measure of power, was associated with lower odds of consistent condom use. Among women only, increasing medical mistrust, a structural measure of power, was associated with increased odds of consistent condom use.

  14. No association between 12 dopaminergic genes and schizophrenia in a large Dutch sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, Mechteld L C; Bakker, Steven C; Schnack, Hugo G; Selten, Jean-Paul C; Otten, Henny G; Verduijn, Willem; van der Heijden, Frank M M A; Pearson, Peter L; Kahn, René S; Sinke, Richard J

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that genes involved in dopamine neurotransmission contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, reported associations of the disorder with genetic markers in dopaminergic genes have yielded inconsistent results. Possible explanations are differences in phenotyping,

  15. Trauma Symptom Inventory: Psychometrics and Association with Childhood and Adult Victimization in Clinical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, John; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines psychometric characteristics of the 100-item Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) in a sample of 370 psychiatric inpatients and psychotherapy outpatients. Post hoc multiple regression analyses indicated that client age, sex, inpatient versus outpatient status, childhood sexual and physical abuse, and adult sexual assault were unique predictors…

  16. Associations Between Academic and Motor Performance in a Heterogeneous Sample of Children With Learning Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuijk, Pieter Jelle; Hartman, Esther; Mombarg, Remo; Scherder, Erik; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    A heterogeneous sample of 137 school-aged children with learning disabilities (IQ > 80) attending special needs schools was examined on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). The results show that compared to the available norm scores, 52.6% of the children tested performed below the 1

  17. Screening disrupted molecular functions and pathways associated with clear cell renal cell carcinoma using Gibbs sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Ning; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yu; Zhai, Xu; Yang, Chuan-Ce; Cao, Bin; Chong, Tie

    2017-10-01

    To explore the disturbed molecular functions and pathways in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) using Gibbs sampling. Gene expression data of ccRCC samples and adjacent non-tumor renal tissues were recruited from public available database. Then, molecular functions of expression changed genes in ccRCC were classed to Gene Ontology (GO) project, and these molecular functions were converted into Markov chains. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm was implemented to perform posterior inference and identify probability distributions of molecular functions in Gibbs sampling. Differentially expressed molecular functions were selected under posterior value more than 0.95, and genes with the appeared times in differentially expressed molecular functions ≥5 were defined as pivotal genes. Functional analysis was employed to explore the pathways of pivotal genes and their strongly co-regulated genes. In this work, we obtained 396 molecular functions, and 13 of them were differentially expressed. Oxidoreductase activity showed the highest posterior value. Gene composition analysis identified 79 pivotal genes, and survival analysis indicated that these pivotal genes could be used as a strong independent predictor of poor prognosis in patients with ccRCC. Pathway analysis identified one pivotal pathway - oxidative phosphorylation. We identified the differentially expressed molecular functions and pivotal pathway in ccRCC using Gibbs sampling. The results could be considered as potential signatures for early detection and therapy of ccRCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Is Accuracy of Weight Perception Associated with Health Risk Behaviors in a Diverse Sample of Obese Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Daly, Brian P.; Eichen, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Current evidence is equivocal as to whether adolescent's perception of weight status is linked to both healthy and risky behaviors. This study examined the association between accurate and inaccurate perception of weight and self-reported health and risk behaviors among a diverse sample of obese, urban adolescents. Data were analyzed from 1,180…

  19. Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy: Associations with Alcohol Consumption in a Sample of Adolescents in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T.; Sumnall, Harry R.; Cole, Jon C.; Percy, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have reported equivocal findings regarding the association between self-esteem, self-efficacy and adolescent alcohol use. Data were collected from a sample of 11-16-year olds in Northern Ireland (n = 4088) over two consecutive academic years measuring global self-esteem, academic, social and emotional…

  20. Chronic family stress moderates the association between a TOMM40 variant and triglyceride levels in two independent Caucasian samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Rong; Brummett, Beverly H; Hauser, Elizabeth R

    2013-01-01

    independent Caucasian samples (242 U.S. women and men; 466 Danish men) testing the hypothesis that chronic family stress also moderates the association between rs157580 and triglyceride levels. The interaction of rs157580 and family stress in predicting triglyceride levels was statistically significant...

  1. Dendritic Cells in Kidney Transplant Biopsy Samples Are Associated with T Cell Infiltration and Poor Allograft Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batal, Ibrahim; De Serres, Sacha A; Safa, Kassem; Bijol, Vanesa; Ueno, Takuya; Onozato, Maristela L; Iafrate, A John; Herter, Jan M; Lichtman, Andrew H; Mayadas, Tanya N; Guleria, Indira; Rennke, Helmut G; Najafian, Nader; Chandraker, Anil

    2015-12-01

    Progress in long-term renal allograft survival continues to lag behind the progress in short-term transplant outcomes. Dendritic cells are the most efficient antigen-presenting cells, but surprisingly little attention has been paid to their presence in transplanted kidneys. We used dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin as a marker of dendritic cells in 105 allograft biopsy samples from 105 kidney transplant recipients. High dendritic cell density was associated with poor allograft survival independent of clinical variables. Moreover, high dendritic cell density correlated with greater T cell proliferation and poor outcomes in patients with high total inflammation scores, including inflammation in areas of tubular atrophy. We then explored the association between dendritic cells and histologic variables associated with poor prognosis. Multivariate analysis revealed an independent association between the densities of dendritic cells and T cells. In biopsy samples with high dendritic cell density, electron microscopy showed direct physical contact between infiltrating lymphocytes and cells that have the ultrastructural morphologic characteristics of dendritic cells. The origin of graft dendritic cells was sought in nine sex-mismatched recipients using XY fluorescence in situ hybridization. Whereas donor dendritic cells predominated initially, the majority of dendritic cells in late allograft biopsy samples were of recipient origin. Our data highlight the prognostic value of dendritic cell density in allograft biopsy samples, suggest a new role for these cells in shaping graft inflammation, and provide a rationale for targeting dendritic cell recruitment to promote long-term allograft survival.

  2. Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy: Associations with Alcohol Consumption in a Sample of Adolescents in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T.; Sumnall, Harry R.; Cole, Jon C.; Percy, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have reported equivocal findings regarding the association between self-esteem, self-efficacy and adolescent alcohol use. Data were collected from a sample of 11-16-year olds in Northern Ireland (n = 4088) over two consecutive academic years measuring global self-esteem, academic, social and emotional…

  3. The Association between Cannabis Use and Motivation and Intentions to Quit Tobacco within a Sample of Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Laura; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J.; Bryant, Jamie; Oldmeadow, C.; Palazzi, K.; Guillaumier, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) describe concurrent and simultaneous tobacco and cannabis use and (ii) investigate the association between cannabis use and motivation and intentions to quit tobacco in a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 and 2014 with current tobacco smokers receiving aid from…

  4. Associations between labial and whole salivary flow rates, systemic diseases and medications in a sample of older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smidt, Dorte; Torpet, Lis Andersen; Nauntofte, Birgitte;

    2010-01-01

    Smidt D, Torpet LA, Nauntofte B, Heegaard KM, Pedersen AML. Associations between labial and whole salivary flow rates, systemic diseases and medications in a sample of older people. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2010; 38: 422-435. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract - Objective: To investigate ...

  5. A Regulatory Polymorphism at Position -309 in PTPRCAP Is Associated with Susceptibility to Diffuse-type Gastric Cancer and Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoungseok Ju

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available PTPRCAP (CD45-AP is a positive regulator of protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRC (CD45, which activates Src family kinases implicated in tumorigenesis. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs869736 located at position -309 of the PTPRCAP promoter was associated with susceptibility to diffuse-type gastric cancer in the current case-control study. The minor-allele homozygote was significantly associated with a 2.5-fold increased susceptibility to diffuse-type gastric cancer (P = .0021, n = 252, but not to intestinal-type (P = .30, n = 178, versus the major-allele homozygote, when comparing unrelated Korean patients with healthy controls (n = 406. Nine other SNPs were in nearly perfect linkage disequilibrium (r2 ≥ 0.97 with this SNP, exhibiting the same association, and spread out for 26 kb on chromosome 11q13.1 covering RPS6KB2, PTPRCAP, CORO1B, and GPR152. Among the four genes, however, only PTPRCAP expression was affected by haplotypes of the 10 SNPs. Endogenous transcript levels of PTPRCAP were linearly correlated with copy numbers (0, 1, and 2 of the risk-haplotype (P = .0060 in 12 lymphoblastoid cells derived from blood samples, but those of the other three genes were not. Furthermore, the cancer-risk, minor-allele T of rs869736 increased both promoter activity and specific nuclear protein-binding affinity than the nonrisk, major-allele G in luciferase reporter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, respectively. Accordingly, the minor allele of rs869736 in the PTPRCAP promoter is associated with increased susceptibility to diffuse-type gastric cancer by increasing PTPRCAP expression, possibly leading to activation of the oncogenic Src family kinases.

  6. Association between aflatoxin M1 excreted in human urine samples with the consumption of milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Redzwan, Sabran; Rosita, Jamaluddin; Mohd Sokhini, Abdul Mutalib; Nurul Aqilah, Abdul Rahman

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to find the association between urinary aflatoxin M(1) level and milk and dairy products consumption. Of 160 morning urine samples collected, aflatoxin M(1) was detected in 61.3 % samples (n = 98) [mean ± SD = 0.0234 ± 0.0177 ng/mL; range = 0-0.0747 ng/mL]. Of these positive samples, 67.3 % (n = 66) had levels above the limit of detection. Respondents with intake of milk and dairy products above median (67.79 g/day) had significantly high level of AFM(1) compared to those with low intake. A significant and positive association (φ = 0.286) was found between milk and dairy products consumption and urinary aflatoxin M(1) level.

  7. Human herpes virus-8 DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Dodt, K K; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    1997-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent AIDS-associated neoplasm, and often disseminates to visceral organs, including the lungs. An ante-mortem diagnosis of pulmonary KS is difficult. Recently, DNA sequences resembling a new human herpes virus (HHV-8), have been identified in various forms...... of KS. We hypothesized that these sequences are present in samples obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with pulmonary KS. Utilizing a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 7/12 BAL cell samples from HIV-infected patients with endobronchial KS were positive for HHV-8 DNA. In contrast......, only 2/39 samples from HIV-infected patients without evidence of KS were positive (p = 0.007). Detection of HHV-8 in BAL cells of patients with pulmonary KS was highly specific (95%), with a sensitivity of 58% and a positive predictive value of 78%. In conclusion, HHV-8 is associated with pulmonary KS...

  8. Associations between body weight and personality disorders in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Amber A; Cox, Brian J; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2008-11-01

    To determine whether, in the general population, individuals in numerous abnormal body weight categories had higher odds of having personality disorders (PDs) than normal-weight individuals. Although personality functioning is hypothesized to be associated with body weight, there is a dearth of empirical evaluation of this topic. The association of body weight (five categories: underweight [body mass index [BMI] or=40]) with personality disorders was investigated using data from the nationally representative National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) (n = 43,093). Lifetime paranoid, schizoid, antisocial, histrionic, avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive PDs were examined, as assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV version (AUDADIS-IV). After adjusting for sociodemographics, Axis I disorders, schizophrenia, physical health conditions, and comorbid PDs, extreme obesity was associated with antisocial or avoidant PDs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) range = 1.66-1.73), whereas underweight was associated with increased odds of schizoid PD (AOR = 1.89). The pattern of associations differed when stratified by gender. Overweight men had lower odds of paranoid PD (AOR = 0.73). Women with higher-than-normal body weights had higher odds of paranoid, antisocial, and avoidant PDs (AOR range = 1.33-2.50), whereas underweight women more often met the criteria for schizoid PD (AOR = 1.95). Higher-than-normal body weight is associated with paranoid, antisocial, and avoidant PDs for women, whereas overweight men have lower rates of paranoid PD and underweight women have higher odds of schizoid PD. Possible clinical implications of this research are discussed.

  9. The association between parental images and satisfaction in intimate relationships in a Northern Finland sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Annukka Auni Inkeri; Wasz-Höckert, Ole; Seitamo, Leila Kaarina; Joskitt, Leena Orvokki; Heikkinen, Hanna Pauliina; Moilanen, Irma Kaarina; Ebeling, Hanna Elina

    2011-04-01

    Experiences in one's family of origin, especially the relationship to one's parents, supposedly form the basis of relationships in adulthood. The connection between traumatic childhood events and later life has been studied intensively, whereas average childhood growth experiences have been given less attention. The aim of this study was to find out the association between images of the mother and father and the psychosocial well-being of young adults from the perspective of satisfaction in intimate relationships. Cross-sectional study. The research is a part of the Oulu University Hospital Mother-Child Follow-up Study 1971-1972. The follow-up data were collected from the young adults (n=337) in 2000 by way of mailed questionnaires, which included 17 questions about the participants' images of their parents and 18 questions about their intimate relationship satisfaction. In this study we used attachment theory as a theoretical frame of reference. Mental images of dominating parents were associated with quarrelsome intimate relationships, and the image of a dominating father, with repressive/submissive and less balanced relationships. Mental images of diligent and sociable parents were associated with a loving and balanced relationship, and the image of supportive parents, with a balanced relationship. Parental diligence was associated with a less quarrelsome relationship. The young adults' mental images of their parents were associated with their intimate relationship satisfaction. Positive mental images of the father, in particular, seemed to protect young adults from a quarrelsome and repressive/submissive intimate relationship.

  10. Associations between supportive leadership and employees self-rated health in an occupational sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Burkhard; Loerbroks, Adrian; Herr, Raphael M; Wilson, Mark G; Jarczok, Marc N; Litaker, David; Mauss, Daniel; Bosch, Jos A; Fischer, Joachim E

    2014-01-01

    Protecting the health of the work force has become an important issue in public health research. This study aims to explore potential associations between supportive leadership style (SLS), an aspect of leadership behavior, and self-rated health (SRH) among employees. We drew on cross-sectional data from a cohort of industrial workers (n = 3,331), collected in 2009. We assessed employees' ratings of supportive, employee-oriented leadership behavior at their job, their SRH, and work stress as measured by the effort-reward model and scales measuring demands, control, and social support. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between the perception of poor SLS and poor SRH controlling for work-related stress and other confounders. Sensitivity analyses stratified models by sex, age, and managerial position to test the robustness of associations. Perception of poor SLS was associated with poor SRH [OR 2.39 (95 % CI 1.95-2.92)]. Although attenuated following adjustment for measures of work-related stress and other confounders [OR 1.60 (95 % CI 1.26-2.04)], the magnitude, direction, and significance of this association remained robust in stratified models in most subgroups. SLS appears to be relevant to health in the workplace. Leadership behavior may represent a promising area for future research with potential for promoting better health in a large segment of the adult population.

  11. Associations Between Religiosity, Perceived Social Support, and Stimulant Use in an Untreated Rural Sample in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciare, Michael A; Han, Xiaotong; Curran, Geoffrey M; Booth, Brenda M

    2016-06-06

    Religiosity and perceived social support (SS) may serve as protective factors for more severe substance use in adults. This study sought to examine whether aspects of religiosity and SS are associated with longitudinal reductions in stimulant use over three years in an untreated sample of rural drug users. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit stimulant users (N = 710) from Arkansas, Kentucky, and Ohio. Follow-up interviews were conducted at 6-month intervals for 36 months. Our bivariate findings indicate that higher religiosity was associated with lower odds and fewer days of methamphetamine and cocaine use. After controlling for covariates, higher religiosity was associated with fewer days of crack cocaine use, but more days of methamphetamine use among a small sample of users in the two final interviews. Higher SS from drug-users was also associated with higher odds and days of methamphetamine and powder cocaine use, while higher SS from nondrug users was associated with fewer days of methamphetamine use. Our bivariate findings suggest that higher levels of religiosity may be helpful for some rural individuals in reducing their drug use over time. However, our multivariate findings suggest a need for further exploration of the potential effects of religiosity on longer-term drug use, especially among those who continue to use methamphetamine and/or remain untreated. Our findings also highlight the potential deleterious effect of SS from drug users on the likelihood and frequency of methamphetamine and powder cocaine use over time among untreated rural drug users.

  12. Psychopathological factors associated with problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use in a sample of adolescents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartberg, Lutz; Brunner, Romuald; Kriston, Levente; Durkee, Tony; Parzer, Peter; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Danuta; Thomasius, Rainer; Kaess, Michael

    2016-06-30

    In Germany, high prevalence rates for problematic alcohol use and problematic Internet use in adolescents were reported. The objective of the present study was to identify psychopathological factors associated with these two behavior patterns. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation assessing psychopathological factors for both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use in the same sample of adolescents. We surveyed a sample of 1444 adolescents in Germany regarding problematic alcohol use, problematic Internet use, psychopathology and psychological well-being. We conducted binary logistic regression analyses. 5.6% of the sample showed problematic alcohol use, 4.8% problematic Internet use, and 0.8% both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use. Problematic alcohol use was higher in adolescents with problematic Internet use compared to those without problematic Internet use. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms were statistically significant associated with both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use. Prosocial behavior was related to problematic Internet use. Male gender and less peer problems were associated with problematic alcohol use. For the first time associations between adolescent problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use due to common psychopathological factors were identified. However, in addition to shared factors, we found also specific psychopathological correlates associated with these two behavior patterns.

  13. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Attention Function in a Population-Based Sample of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, Silvia; Vilor-Tejedor, Natàlia; Bustamante, Mariona; Pujol, Jesús; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Fenoll, Raquel; Alvárez-Pedrerol, Mar; Forns, Joan; Júlvez, Jordi; Suades-González, Elisabet; Llop, Sabrina; Rebagliato, Marisa; Sunyer, Jordi

    Attention function filters and selects behaviorally relevant information. This capacity is impaired in some psychiatric disorders and has been proposed as an endophenotype for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; however, its genetic basis remains largely unknown. This study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) associated with attention function. The discovery sample included 1655 children (7-12 years) and the replication sample included 546 children (5-8 years). Five attention outcomes were assessed using the computerized Attentional Network Test (ANT): alerting, orienting, executive attention, Hit Reaction time (HRT) and the standard error of HRT (HRTSE). A Genome-wide Association Study was conducted for each outcome. Gene set enrichment analyses were performed to detect biological pathways associated with attention outcomes. Additional neuroimaging analyses were conducted to test neural effects of detected SNPs of interest. Thirteen loci showed suggestive evidence of association with attention function (PPID1 gene, was nominally significant in the replication sample although it did not survive multiple testing correction. Neuroimaging analysis revealed a significant association between this SNP and brain structure and function involving the frontal-basal ganglia circuits. The mTOR signaling and Alzheimer disease-amyloid secretase pathways were significantly enriched for alerting, orienting and HRT respectively (FDRPID1 gene, mTOR signaling and Alzheimer disease-amyloid secretase pathways, in attention function during childhood. These genes and pathways have been proposed to play a role in neuronal plasticity, memory and neurodegenerative disease.

  14. The COMT Val158 allele is associated with impaired delayed-match-to-sample performance in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Natasha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explored the association between three measures of working memory ability and genetic variation in a range of catecholamine genes in a sample of children with ADHD. Methods One hundred and eighteen children with ADHD performed three working memory measures taken from the CANTAB battery (Spatial Span, Delayed-match-to-sample, and Spatial Working Memory. Associations between performance on working memory measures and allelic variation in catecholamine genes (including those for the noradrenaline transporter [NET1], the dopamine D4 and D2 receptor genes [DRD4; DRD2], the gene encoding dopamine beta hydroxylase [DBH] and catechol-O-methyl transferase [COMT] were investigated using regression models that controlled for age, IQ, gender and medication status on the day of test. Results Significant associations were found between performance on the delayed-match-to-sample task and COMT genotype. More specifically, val/val homozygotes produced significantly more errors than did children who carried a least one met allele. There were no further associations between allelic variants and performance across the other working memory tasks. Conclusions The working memory measures employed in the present study differed in the degree to which accurate task performance depended upon either the dynamic updating and/or manipulation of items in working memory, as in the spatial span and spatial working memory tasks, or upon the stable maintenance of representations, as in the delay-match–to-sample task. The results are interpreted as evidence of a relationship between tonic dopamine levels associated with the met COMT allele and the maintenance of stable working memory representations required to perform the delayed-match-to-sample-task.

  15. Built environment and social environment: associations with overweight and obesity in a sample of Brazilian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Velásquez-Meléndez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess associations between the built environment and social environment and excess weight in an urban population. Participants were selected from the Surveillance System for Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases (VIGITEL. The study used data from the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 3,425 interviews from the years 2008 and 2009 were used. Georeferenced data on parks, squares, and locations for physical exercise, population density, and food stores were used to assess the built environment. Description of the social environment used income and homicide rate for the neighborhood. Environmental variables associated independently with excess weight were population density, presence of parks, squares, and locations for physical exercise, and self-reported presence of locations for physical exercise. The findings show that residential neighborhood characteristics are associated with excess weight in urban adults.

  16. Cannabis and Opium Abuse Patterns and Their Associated Complications in a Sample of Young Iranians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attari, Mohammad Ali; Asgary, Sedigheh; Shahrokhi, Shahnaz; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Shariatirad, Schwann

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of drug abuse has been reported to be up to 17.0% in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of two frequently abused substances--cannabis and opium--in samples of the young population in Isfahan, Iran. In a survey done from January 2005 to December 2006, 537 individuals aged 13-20 years were recruited using a…

  17. Cannabis and Opium Abuse Patterns and Their Associated Complications in a Sample of Young Iranians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attari, Mohammad Ali; Asgary, Sedigheh; Shahrokhi, Shahnaz; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Shariatirad, Schwann

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of drug abuse has been reported to be up to 17.0% in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of two frequently abused substances--cannabis and opium--in samples of the young population in Isfahan, Iran. In a survey done from January 2005 to December 2006, 537 individuals aged 13-20 years were recruited using a…

  18. Enhancement of declarative memory associated with emotional content in a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have documented that emotional arousal may enhance long-term memory. This is an adaptation of a paradigm previously used in North American and European samples in investigations of the influence of emotion on long-term retention. A sample of 46 healthy adults of high and low educational levels watched a slide presentation of stories. A randomly assigned group watched a story with an arousing content and another group watched a neutral story. The stories were matched for structure and comprehensibility and the set and order of the 11 slides were the same in both conditions. Immediately after viewing the slide presentation, the participants were asked to rate the emotionality of the narrative. The arousing narrative was rated as being more emotional than the neutral narrative (t (44 = -3.6, P<0.001. Ten days later subjects were asked to remember the story and answer a multiple-choice questionnaire about it. The subjects who watched the arousing story had higher scores in the free recall measure (t (44 = -2.59, P<0.01. There were no differences between groups in the multiple-choice test of recognition memory (t (44 = 0.26. These findings confirm that an emotional arousing content enhances long-term declarative memory and indicate the possibility of applying this instrument to clinical samples of various cultural backgrounds.

  19. Field sampling of soil pore water to evaluate trace element mobility and associated environmental risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.moreno@uam.es [Departamento de Quimica Agricola, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Beesley, Luke [James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Lepp, Nicholas W. [35, Victoria Road, Formby, Liverpool L37 7DH (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M. [Department of Ecology, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, PO Box 84 (New Zealand); Hartley, William [School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Cockcroft Building, Salford, M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Clemente, Rafael [Dep. of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, PO Box 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Monitoring soil pollution is a key aspect in sustainable management of contaminated land but there is often debate over what should be monitored to assess ecological risk. Soil pore water, containing the most labile pollutant fraction in soils, can be easily collected in situ offering a routine way to monitor this risk. We present a compilation of data on concentration of trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in soil pore water collected in field conditions from a range of polluted and non-polluted soils in Spain and the UK during single and repeated monitoring, and propose a simple eco-toxicity test using this media. Sufficient pore water could be extracted for analysis both under semi-arid and temperate conditions, and eco-toxicity comparisons could be effectively made between polluted and non-polluted soils. We propose that in-situ pore water extraction could enhance the realism of risk assessment at some contaminated sites. - Highlights: > In situ pore water sampling successfully evaluates trace elements mobility in soils. > Field sampling proved robust for different soils, sites and climatic regimes. > Measurements may be directly related to ecotoxicological assays. > Both short and long-term monitoring of polluted lands may be achieved. > This method complements other widely used assays for environmental risk assessment. - In situ pore water sampling from a wide variety of soils proves to be a beneficial application to monitor the stability of pollutants in soils and subsequent risk through mobility.

  20. Populations of fungi and bacteria associated with samples of stored rice in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Yeon; Jee, Sam Nyu; Nam, Youngwoo; Lee, Hojoung; Ryoo, Mun Il; Kim, Ki Deok

    2007-03-01

    Stored rice was collected from rice processing complexes of National Agricultural Cooperative Federation of 11 regions in Korea to evaluate the occurrence of fungi and bacteria and to identify the predominant fungi and bacteria to the genus levels. Most rice samples generally produced the higher levels of fungi and bacteria than white rice. The occurrence of fungi and bacteria varied in various locations of Korea. Among fungi observed, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were dominant in the samples and Aspergillus spp. were observed more frequently than Penicillium spp. Predominant bacteria from rice and white rice samples tentatively belonged to the Genus Bacillus, Pectobacterium, Pantoea, and Microbacterium according to BIOLOG and FAME analyses. The results of this study showed that rice in Korea was contaminated in a relatively high level by two dominant storage fungi such as Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. In addition, occurrence of mycotoxins in rice by the fungi could be possible and thus it is necessary to control the storage fungi.

  1. Association between the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism and the metabolic syndrome in a non-Caucasian multi-ethnic sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanley Anthony JG

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rs9939609 T>A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the FTO gene has previously been found to be associated with obesity in European Caucasian samples. The objective of this study is to examine whether this association extends to metabolic syndrome (MetS and applies in non-Caucasian samples. Methods The FTO rs9939609 SNP was genotyped in 2121 subjects from four different non-Caucasian geographical ancestries. Subjects were classified for the presence or absence of MetS according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP III definitions. Results Carriers of ≥ 1 copy of the rs9939609 A allele were significantly more likely to have IDF-defined MetS (35.8% than non-carriers (31.2%, corresponding to a carrier odds ratio (OR of 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 1.50, with a similar trend for the NCEP ATP III-defined MetS. Subgroup analysis showed that the association was particularly strong in men. The association was related to a higher proportion of rs9939609 A allele carriers meeting the waist circumference criterion; a higher proportion also met the HDL cholesterol criterion compared with wild-type homozygotes. Conclusion Thus, the FTO rs9939609 SNP was associated with an increased risk for MetS in this multi-ethnic sample, confirming that the association extends to non-Caucasian population samples.

  2. The Association of Divorce and Extramarital Sex in a Representative U.S. Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth S.; Atkins, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies provide specific rates of marital divorce or separation in association with a history of infidelity. Research based primarily from clinical or help-seeking populations suggests that most couples who have experienced infidelity do not divorce within the time frames assessed. Using self-reported history of extramarital sex (EMS),…

  3. Racial discrimination associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in a sample of American Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Zaneta M; Blair, Irene V; Buchwald, Dedra S; Manson, Spero M

    2017-05-01

    Hypertension prevalence is high among American Indians (AIs). AIs experience a substantial burden of interpersonal racial discrimination, which in other populations has been associated with higher blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to understand whether racial discrimination experiences are associated with higher blood pressure in AIs. We used the Everyday Discrimination Scale to evaluate the relationship between discrimination and measured blood pressure among 77 AIs from two reservation communities in the Northern Plains. We used multivariate linear regression to evaluate the association of racial discrimination with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Racial discrimination, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were analyzed as continuous variables. All analyses adjusted for sex, waist circumference, age, posttraumatic stress disorder status, and education. We found that 61% of participants experienced discrimination that they attributed to their race or ancestry. Racial discrimination was associated with significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.22, SE = 0.09, p = .02), and with a similar non-significant trend toward higher systolic blood pressure (β = 0.25, SE = 0.15, p = .09). The results of this analysis suggest that racial discrimination may contribute to higher diastolic blood pressure within Native communities. These findings highlight one pathway through which the social environment can shape patterns of biology and health in AI and other socially and politically marginalized groups. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Association of Violence against Partner and Former Victim Experiences: A Sample of Clients Voluntarily Attending Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askeland, Ingunn Rangul; Evang, Are; Heir, Trond

    2011-01-01

    The authors addressed the associations between childhood and adolescence victimization and partner violence in adulthood. Data were collected on 480 men voluntarily attending therapy with a semistructured interview that assessed (a) violent behavior, categorized as physical violence, physical controlling behavior, property violence,…

  5. Association of Violence against Partner and Former Victim Experiences: A Sample of Clients Voluntarily Attending Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askeland, Ingunn Rangul; Evang, Are; Heir, Trond

    2011-01-01

    The authors addressed the associations between childhood and adolescence victimization and partner violence in adulthood. Data were collected on 480 men voluntarily attending therapy with a semistructured interview that assessed (a) violent behavior, categorized as physical violence, physical controlling behavior, property violence,…

  6. Associations between supportive leadership and employees self-rated health in an occupational sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, B.; Loerbroks, A.; Herr, R.M.; Wilson, M.G.; Jarczok, M.N.; Litaker, D.; Mauss, D.; Bosch, J.A.; Fischer, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Protecting the health of the work force has become an important issue in public health research. Purpose: This study aims to explore potential associations between supportive leadership style (SLS), an aspect of leadership behavior, and self-rated health (SRH) among employees. Method: We

  7. Associations between Relational Aggression, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation in a Child Psychiatric Inpatient Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Preddy, Teresa M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined relations between relational aggression, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation in a child clinical population. Participants included 276 children (M age = 9.55 years; 69% Male) who were admitted to a child psychiatric inpatient facility. Findings suggested that relational aggression was associated with depressive…

  8. Factors Associated With Emotional Satisfaction During First Anal Intercourse in a Sample of YMSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Matson, Pamela; Novak, David S; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2016-07-01

    We sought to determine, in a sample of 2,813 HIV seronegative young men who had sex with other men age 18-24, whether physical satisfaction would explain emotional satisfaction during first anal intercourse and whether emotional satisfaction would impact having sex with a partner a second time. Emotional satisfaction was explained mostly by physical satisfaction during the event, but partner type also had direct impact on emotional satisfaction. Our findings suggest that first anal intercourse experiences in young men are both emotionally and physically satisfying and may impact subsequent sexual behavior and partner decision-making.

  9. Runaway and pregnant: risk factors associated with pregnancy in a national sample of runaway/homeless female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sanna J; Bender, Kimberly A; Lewis, Carol M; Watkins, Rita

    2008-08-01

    Homeless youth are at particularly high risk for teen pregnancy; research indicates as many as 20% of homeless young women become pregnant. These pregnant and homeless teens lack financial resources and adequate health care, resulting in increased risk for low-birth-weight babies and high infant mortality. This study investigated individual and family-level predictors of teen pregnancy among a national sample of runaway/homeless youth in order to better understand the needs of this vulnerable population. Data from the Runaway/Homeless Youth Management Information System (RHY MIS) provided a national sample of youth seeking services at crisis shelters. A sub-sample of pregnant females and a random sub-sample (matched by age) of nonpregnant females comprised the study sample (N = 951). Chi-square and t tests identified differences between pregnant and nonpregnant runaway females; maximum likelihood logistic regression identified individual and family-level predictors of teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy was associated with being an ethnic minority, dropping out of school, being away from home for longer periods of time, having a sexually transmitted disease, and feeling abandoned by one's family. Family factors, such as living in a single parent household and experiencing emotional abuse by one's mother, increased the odds of a teen being pregnant. The complex problems associated with pregnant runaway/homeless teens create challenges for short-term shelter services. Suggestions are made for extending shelter services to include referrals and coordination with teen parenting programs and other systems of care.

  10. Associations Among Religiousness and Community Volunteerism in National Random Samples of American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Megan C; Kang, Linda L; Rowatt, Wade C; Shen, Megan Johnson

    2015-01-01

    The connection between religiousness and volunteering for the community can be explained through two distinct features of religion. First, religious organizations are social groups that encourage members to help others through planned opportunities. Second, helping others is regarded as an important value for members in religious organizations to uphold. We examined the relationship between religiousness and self-reported community volunteering in two independent national random surveys of American adults (i.e., the 2005 and 2007 waves of the Baylor Religion Survey). In both waves, frequency of religious service attendance was associated with an increase in likelihood that individuals would volunteer, whether through their religious organization or not, whereas frequency of reading sacred texts outside of religious services was associated with an increase in likelihood of volunteering only for or through their religious organization. The role of religion in community volunteering is discussed in light of these findings.

  11. Social and psychological resources associated with health status in a representative sample of adults affected by the 2004 Florida hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Amstadter, Ananda B; Acierno, Ron; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Overall health status after a disaster may be associated with long-term physical morbidity and mortality. Little is known about factors associated with overall health status in the aftermath of disasters. We examined self-rated health in relation to disaster characteristics, social resources, and post-disaster outcomes in a sample of adults who experienced the 2004 Florida hurricanes. We interviewed a representative sample of 1,452 adults aged 18 years and older residing in the 33 Florida counties that were in the direct path of at least one of the 2004 hurricanes (Charley, Frances, Ivan, Jeanne). Overall health status was assessed using a self-rating format known to be predictive of mortality. Poor self-rated health was endorsed by 14.6% of the sample. Final multivariable models showed that poor self-rated health was associated with older age (p hurricane (p = 0.03), low social support (p = 0.03), and depression (p = 0.003) since the hurricane. Self-rated health following the Florida hurricanes was strongly associated with two variables (social support and depression) that potentially can be mitigated through targeted interventions after disasters. Future work should evaluate secondary prevention strategies that can address general health-related concerns in the wake of a disaster.

  12. Delay in blood sampling for routine newborn screening is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2015-01-01

    admission, and parental education and income, the estimates were slightly different. Thus, blood collection at 0-4days was associated with an IRR of 1.27 (95% CI 0.94-1.71), 6-9days 1.31 (95% CI 0.94-1.84) and 10+days 3.52 (95% CI 1.50 to 8.24). DISCUSSION: After adjusting risk estimates for well-known risk...

  13. Multiple type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes following genome-wide association scan in UK samples

    OpenAIRE

    Zeggini, Eleftheria; Michael N. Weedon; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Frayling, Timothy M; Elliott, Katherine S.; Lango, Hana; Nicholas J Timpson; Perry, John R B; Nigel W Rayner; Freathy, Rachel M; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Shields, Beverley; Andrew P Morris; Ellard, Sian; Groves, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in the development of type 2 diabetes are poorly understood. Starting from genome-wide genotype data for 1,924 diabetic cases and 2,938 population controls generated by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, we set out to detect replicated diabetes association signals through analysis of 3,757 additional cases and 5,346 controls, and by integration of our findings with equivalent data from other international consortia. We detected diabetes susceptibilit...

  14. Psychological Resources Are Independently Associated with Markers of Inflammation in a Middle-Aged Community Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Marteinsdottir, Ina; Ernerudh, Jan; Jonasson, Lena; Kristenson, Margareta; Garvin, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate possible independent associations of psychological resources with inflammatory markers, all linked with coronary heart disease (CHD). Method In a middle-aged general population (n = 944), psychological resources (coping, self-esteem, and sense of coherence (SOC)), a global measure of quality of life (Cantrils self-anchoring ladder, also called "ladder of life"), and psychological risk factors (hopelessness, vital exhaustion, and depressive symptoms) were used in linear re...

  15. Obesity and associated lifestyle in a large sample of multi-morbid German primary care attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Weyerer, Siegfried; König, Hans-Helmut; Maier, Wolfgang; Schön, Gerhard; Petersen, Juliana J; Gensichen, Jochen; Fuchs, Angela; Bickel, Horst; Wiese, Birgitt; Hansen, Heike; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Scherer, Martin; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and the accompanying increased morbidity and mortality risk is highly prevalent among older adults. As obese elderly might benefit from intentional weight reduction, it is necessary to determine associated and potentially modifiable factors on senior obesity. This cross-sectional study focuses on multi-morbid patients which make up the majority in primary care. It reports on the prevalence of senior obesity and its associations with lifestyle behaviors. A total of 3,189 non-demented, multi-morbid participants aged 65-85 years were recruited in primary care within the German MultiCare-study. Physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and quantity and quality of nutritional intake were classified as relevant lifestyle factors. Body Mass Index (BMI, general obesity) and waist circumference (WC, abdominal obesity) were used as outcome measures and regression analyses were conducted. About one third of all patients were classified as obese according to BMI. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 73.5%. Adjusted for socio-demographic variables and objective and subjective disease burden, participants with low physical activity had a 1.6 kg/m2 higher BMI as well as a higher WC (4.9 cm, plifestyle factors was observed. Only for WC, not current but former smoking was associated with a higher probability for elevated WC. Dietary intake in quantity and quality was not associated with BMI or WC in either model. Further research is needed to clarify if the huge prevalence discrepancy between BMI and WC also reflects a difference in obesity-related morbidity and mortality. Yet, age-specific thresholds for the BMI are needed likewise. Encouraging and promoting physical activity in older adults might a starting point for weight reduction efforts.

  16. HIV-Associated Oral Mucosal Melanin Hyperpigmentation: A Clinical Study in a South African Population Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-associated oral mucosal melanin hyperpigmentation (HIV-OMH in a specific population of HIV-seropositive South Africans and to analyse the associations between HIV-OMH clinical features and the demographic and immunological characteristics of the study cohort. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 200 HIV-seropositive Black subjects. The collected data comprised age, gender, CD4+ T cell count, viral load, systemic disease, medications, oral site affected by HIV-OMH, extent (localized or generalized, intensity of the pigmentation (dark or light, and smoking and snuff use. Results. Overall, 18.5% of the study cohort had HIV-OMH. Twenty-two and a half percent had OMH that could not with confidence be attributed to HIV infection, and 59% did not have any OMH. There was a significant but weak association between smoking and the presence of HIV-OMH. Conclusions. The prevalence of HIV-OMH in the study population was 18.5%, the gingiva being the most commonly affected site. It appears that the CD4+ T cell count does not play any role in the biopathology of HIV-OMH.

  17. Associations among perceptual anomalies, social anxiety, and paranoia in a college student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tone, Erin B; Goulding, Sandra M; Compton, Michael T

    2011-07-30

    Recent evidence suggests that normal-range paranoid ideation may be particularly likely to develop in individuals disposed to both social anxiety and perceptual anomalies. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that among college students in an unselected sample, social anxiety and experience of perceptual anomalies would not only each independently predict the experience of self-reported paranoid ideation, but would also interact to predict paranoid patterns of thought. A diverse sample of 644 students completed a large battery of self-report measures, as well as the five-factor Paranoia/Suspiciousness Questionnaire (PSQ). We conducted hierarchical multiple regression analyses predicting scores on each PSQ factor from responses on measures of social anxiety, perceptual aberration, and the interaction between the two constructs. Current general negative affect was covaried in all analyses. We found that both social anxiety and perceptual aberrations, along with negative affect, predicted multiple dimensions of paranoia as measured by the PSQ; the two constructs did not, however, interact significantly to predict any dimensions. Our findings suggest that perceptual aberration and anxiety may contribute to normal-range paranoid ideation in an additive rather than an interactive manner.

  18. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Attention Function in a Population-Based Sample of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilor-Tejedor, Natàlia; Bustamante, Mariona; Pujol, Jesús; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Fenoll, Raquel; Alvárez-Pedrerol, Mar; Forns, Joan; Júlvez, Jordi; Suades-González, Elisabet; Llop, Sabrina; Rebagliato, Marisa; Sunyer, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention function filters and selects behaviorally relevant information. This capacity is impaired in some psychiatric disorders and has been proposed as an endophenotype for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; however, its genetic basis remains largely unknown. This study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) associated with attention function. Materials and Methods The discovery sample included 1655 children (7–12 years) and the replication sample included 546 children (5–8 years). Five attention outcomes were assessed using the computerized Attentional Network Test (ANT): alerting, orienting, executive attention, Hit Reaction time (HRT) and the standard error of HRT (HRTSE). A Genome-wide Association Study was conducted for each outcome. Gene set enrichment analyses were performed to detect biological pathways associated with attention outcomes. Additional neuroimaging analyses were conducted to test neural effects of detected SNPs of interest. Results Thirteen loci showed suggestive evidence of association with attention function (P<10−5) in the discovery sample. One of them, the rs4321351 located in the PID1 gene, was nominally significant in the replication sample although it did not survive multiple testing correction. Neuroimaging analysis revealed a significant association between this SNP and brain structure and function involving the frontal-basal ganglia circuits. The mTOR signaling and Alzheimer disease-amyloid secretase pathways were significantly enriched for alerting, orienting and HRT respectively (FDR<5%). Conclusion These results suggest for the first time the involvement of the PID1 gene, mTOR signaling and Alzheimer disease-amyloid secretase pathways, in attention function during childhood. These genes and pathways have been proposed to play a role in neuronal plasticity, memory and neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27656889

  19. Improved nonparametric estimation of the optimal diagnostic cut-off point associated with the Youden index under different sampling schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jingjing; Samawi, Hani; Linder, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    A diagnostic cut-off point of a biomarker measurement is needed for classifying a random subject to be either diseased or healthy. However, the cut-off point is usually unknown and needs to be estimated by some optimization criteria. One important criterion is the Youden index, which has been widely adopted in practice. The Youden index, which is defined as the maximum of (sensitivity + specificity -1), directly measures the largest total diagnostic accuracy a biomarker can achieve. Therefore, it is desirable to estimate the optimal cut-off point associated with the Youden index. Sometimes, taking the actual measurements of a biomarker is very difficult and expensive, while ranking them without the actual measurement can be relatively easy. In such cases, ranked set sampling can give more precise estimation than simple random sampling, as ranked set samples are more likely to span the full range of the population. In this study, kernel density estimation is utilized to numerically solve for an estimate of the optimal cut-off point. The asymptotic distributions of the kernel estimators based on two sampling schemes are derived analytically and we prove that the estimators based on ranked set sampling are relatively more efficient than that of simple random sampling and both estimators are asymptotically unbiased. Furthermore, the asymptotic confidence intervals are derived. Intensive simulations are carried out to compare the proposed method using ranked set sampling with simple random sampling, with the proposed method outperforming simple random sampling in all cases. A real data set is analyzed for illustrating the proposed method.

  20. A novel sampling design to explore gene-longevity associations: the ECHA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rango, Francesco; Dato, Serena; Bellizzi, Dina; Rose, Giuseppina; Marzi, Erika; Cavallone, Luca; Franceschi, Claudio; Skytthe, Axel; Jeune, Bernard; Cournil, Amandine; Robine, Jean Marie; Gampe, Jutta; Vaupel, James W; Mari, Vincenzo; Feraco, Emidio; Passarino, Giuseppe; Novelletto, Andrea; De Benedictis, Giovanna

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the genetic contribution to familial similarity in longevity, we set up a novel experimental design where cousin-pairs born from siblings who were concordant or discordant for the longevity trait were analyzed. To check this design, two chromosomal regions already known to encompass longevity-related genes were examined: 6p21.3 (genes TNFalpha, TNFbeta, HSP70.1) and 11p15.5 (genes SIRT3, HRAS1, IGF2, INS, TH). Population pools of 1.6, 2.3 and 2.0 million inhabitants were screened, respectively, in Denmark, France and Italy to identify families matching the design requirements. A total of 234 trios composed by one centenarian, his/her child and a child of his/her concordant or discordant sib were collected. By using population-specific allele frequencies, we reconstructed haplotype phase and estimated the likelihood of Identical By Descent (IBD) haplotype sharing in cousin-pairs born from concordant and discordant siblings. In addition, we analyzed haplotype transmission from centenarians to offspring, and a statistically significant Transmission Ratio Distortion (TRD) was observed for both chromosomal regions in the discordant families (P=0.007 for 6p21.3 and P=0.015 for 11p15.5). In concordant families, a marginally significant TRD was observed at 6p21.3 only (P=0.06). Although no significant difference emerged between the two groups of cousin-pairs, our study gave new insights on the hindrances to recruiting a suitable sample to obtain significant IBD data on longevity-related chromosomal regions. This will allow to dimension future sampling campaigns to study-genetic basis of human longevity.

  1. Effects of established BMI-associated loci on obesity-related traits in a French representative population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumidi, Louisa; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Amouyel, Philippe; Meirhaeghe, Aline

    2014-05-23

    Genome-wide association studies have identified variants associated with obesity-related traits, such as the body mass index (BMI). We sought to determine how the combination of 31 validated, BMI-associated loci contributes to obesity- and diabetes-related traits in a French population sample. The MONA LISA Lille study (1578 participants, aged 35-74) constitutes a representative sample of the population living in Lille (northern France). Genetic variants were considered both individually and combined into a genetic predisposition score (GPS). Individually, 25 of 31 SNPs showed directionally consistent effects on BMI. Four loci (FTO, FANCL, MTIF3 and NUDT3) reached nominal significance (p ≤ 0.05) for their association with anthropometric traits. When considering the combined effect of the 31 SNPs, each additional risk allele of the GPS was significantly associated with an increment in the mean [95% CI] BMI of 0.13 [0.07-0.20] kg/m2 (p = 6.3x10-5) and a 3% increase in the risk of obesity (p = 0.047). The GPS explained 1% of the variance in the BMI. Furthermore, the GPS was associated with higher fasting glycaemia (p = 0.04), insulinaemia (p = 0.008), HbA1c levels (p = 0.01) and HOMA-IR scores (p = 0.0003) and a greater risk of type 2 diabetes (OR [95% CI] = 1.06 [1.00-1.11], p = 0.03). However, these associations were no longer statistically significant after adjustment for BMI. Our results show that the GPS was associated with a higher BMI and an insulin-resistant state (mediated by BMI) in a population in northern France.

  2. The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia implicates glucose metabolism: association study in three independent samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Hansen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Klaus D.

    2008-01-01

    not feasible task. We undertook these challenges by using an established clinical paradigm, the estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia, as the criterion to select candidates among the numerous genes experimentally implicated in schizophrenia. Bioinformatic tools were used to build and priorities the signaling...... networks implicated by the candidate genes resulting from the estrogen selection. We identified ten candidate genes using this approach that are all active in glucose metabolism and particularly in the glycolysis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that variants of the glycolytic genes are associated...

  3. Association analysis of PALB2 and BRCA2 in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in a scandinavian case-control sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesli, Martin; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Mattingsdal, Morten

    2010-01-01

    A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) found significant association between the PALB2 SNP rs420259 and bipolar disorder (BD). The intracellular functions of the expressed proteins from the breast cancer risk genes PALB2 and BRCA2 are closely related. Therefore, we investigated the relatio...... in our Scandinavian sample (n¿=¿781/2,839). Our findings support PALB2 and BRCA2 as risk genes specifically for BD, and suggest that altered DNA repair related to neurogenesis may be involved in BD pathophysiology. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  4. Associations among parent acculturation, child BMI, and child fruit and vegetable consumption in a Hispanic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Monica I; Madanat, Hala; Crespo, Noe C; Lemus, Hector; Elder, John

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of parent acculturation with child fruit and vegetable consumption and obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI). Participants included 250 Mexican-American and other Hispanic families living within San Diego County. Height and weight measurements were collected to calculate the age- and sex-specific BMI for each child and parent, and parents completed self-administered surveys. Child BMI z-score was significantly related to parent BMI after controlling for parent acculturation and parent birth place (β = 0.05, p fruit consumption was significantly associated with parent acculturation (β = -0.02, p = 0.01) and parent BMI (β = 0.02, p = 0.04) after adjusting for the other variables in the model. Child vegetable consumption was not significantly related to parent acculturation. Findings suggest that parental weight status may be more predictive of child obesity than acculturation, and highlight the need to examine culturally relevant behavioral and psychosocial factors related to childhood obesity and dietary behaviors.

  5. Bacterial Communities Associated with Houseflies (Musca domestica L.) Sampled within and between Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Nadieh; Skovgård, Henrik; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    2017-01-01

    The housefly feeds and reproduces in animal manure and decaying organic substances and thus lives in intimate association with various microorganisms including human pathogens. In order to understand the variation and association between bacteria and the housefly, we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to describe bacterial communities of 90 individual houseflies collected within and between ten dairy farms in Denmark. Analysis of gene sequences showed that the most abundant classes of bacteria found across all sites included Bacilli, Clostridia, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria, and all classes of Proteobacteria and at the genus level the most abundant genera included Corynebacterium, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella, Lactococcus, and Aerococcus. Comparison of the microbiota of houseflies revealed a highly diverse microbiota compared to other insect species and with most variation in species richness and diversity found between individuals, but not locations. Our study is the first in-depth amplicon sequencing study of the housefly microbiota, and collectively shows that the microbiota of single houseflies is highly diverse and differs between individuals likely to reflect the lifestyle of the housefly. We suggest that these results should be taken into account when addressing the transmission of pathogens by the housefly and assessing the vector competence variation under natural conditions. PMID:28081167

  6. Active learning not associated with student learning in a random sample of college biology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, T M; Leonard, M J; Colgrove, C A; Kalinowski, S T

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that adding active learning to traditional college science lectures substantially improves student learning. However, this research predominantly studied courses taught by science education researchers, who are likely to have exceptional teaching expertise. The present study investigated introductory biology courses randomly selected from a list of prominent colleges and universities to include instructors representing a broader population. We examined the relationship between active learning and student learning in the subject area of natural selection. We found no association between student learning gains and the use of active-learning instruction. Although active learning has the potential to substantially improve student learning, this research suggests that active learning, as used by typical college biology instructors, is not associated with greater learning gains. We contend that most instructors lack the rich and nuanced understanding of teaching and learning that science education researchers have developed. Therefore, active learning as designed and implemented by typical college biology instructors may superficially resemble active learning used by education researchers, but lacks the constructivist elements necessary for improving learning.

  7. Dangerous driving in a Chinese sample: associations with morningness-eveningness preference and personality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Qu

    Full Text Available Individual differences in morningness-eveningness preference may influence susceptibility and response to sleepiness. These differences could influence driving performance, but the influence of morningness-eveningness preference on driving behavior and accident risk has not been comprehensively studied. As morningness-eveningness preference is associated with personality characteristics, we also investigated how the interaction between morningness-eveningness preference and personality may be related to dangerous driving behaviors. Two hundred and ninety five drivers completed the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index, and personality scales for agreeableness, conscientiousness and neuroticism, and reported demographic information (gender, age, level of education, driving years and annual average driving mileage and self-reported traffic violations (accidents, penalty points and fines. The results showed that more Risky Driving, Aggressive Driving, Negative Cognitive/Emotional Driving and Drunk Driving, as measured by the Dula Dangerous Driving Index, were all significantly correlated with more eveningness, corresponding to lower scores on the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Moreover, eveningness was correlated with self-reported traffic accidents, penalty points and fines. Furthermore, a moderation effect was found: eveningness was more strongly associated with risky driving and negative emotional driving in those who scored high for trait agreeableness.

  8. Dangerous driving in a Chinese sample: associations with morningness-eveningness preference and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Weina; Ge, Yan; Xiong, Yuexin; Carciofo, Richard; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in morningness-eveningness preference may influence susceptibility and response to sleepiness. These differences could influence driving performance, but the influence of morningness-eveningness preference on driving behavior and accident risk has not been comprehensively studied. As morningness-eveningness preference is associated with personality characteristics, we also investigated how the interaction between morningness-eveningness preference and personality may be related to dangerous driving behaviors. Two hundred and ninety five drivers completed the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index, and personality scales for agreeableness, conscientiousness and neuroticism, and reported demographic information (gender, age, level of education, driving years and annual average driving mileage) and self-reported traffic violations (accidents, penalty points and fines). The results showed that more Risky Driving, Aggressive Driving, Negative Cognitive/Emotional Driving and Drunk Driving, as measured by the Dula Dangerous Driving Index, were all significantly correlated with more eveningness, corresponding to lower scores on the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Moreover, eveningness was correlated with self-reported traffic accidents, penalty points and fines. Furthermore, a moderation effect was found: eveningness was more strongly associated with risky driving and negative emotional driving in those who scored high for trait agreeableness.

  9. Nocturnal enuresis in sickle cell disease and thalassemia major: associated factors in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Ozalp; Celik, Tanju; Ünal, Şule; Oktay, Gonul; Toros, Fevziye; Ozer, Cahit

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of nocturnal enuresis in sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassemia major (TM) patients in a single center from Turkey. One hundred and six patients, 51 (48.1 %) with TM and 55 (51.9 %) with SCD, and 80 age-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the caregivers of pediatric and adult patients. The interview included questions on nocturnal enuresis and psychosocial variables. Patients' hospital files were reviewed to search for disease-related factors. Twenty-eight of the patients (26.4 %) and three (3.7 %) of the controls had nocturnal enuresis. Younger age, TM diagnosis, family history of nocturnal enuresis and family problems were found to be more frequent in patients with nocturnal enuresis. Among the patients with SCD, frequencies of hospitalization and painful crises were found to be higher in those with enuresis. According to the binary logistic regression analysis, diagnosis of TM (p = 0.031, OR = 0.262) and younger age (p = 0.005, OR = 0.869) were found to be independent risk factors for nocturnal enuresis in the patient group. Nocturnal enuresis is a common problem in children and young adults with TM and SCD. Associated factors in both conditions will be clarified with future studies.

  10. Recurrent pain is associated with decreased selective attention in a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijsen, C P; Dijkstra, J B; van Boxtel, M P J

    2011-01-01

    Studies which have examined the impact of pain on cognitive functioning in the general population are scarce. In the present study we assessed the predictive value of recurrent pain on cognitive functioning in a population-based study (N=1400). Furthermore, we investigated the effect of pain on cognitive functioning in individuals with specific pain complaints (i.e. back pain, gastric pain, muscle pain and headache). Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Stroop Color-Word Interference test (Stroop interference), the Letter-Digit-Substitution test (LDST) and the Visual Verbal learning Task (VVLT). Pain was measured with the COOP/WONCA pain scale (Dartmouth Primary Care Cooperative Information Project/World Organization of National Colleges, Academies, and Academic Associations of General Practice /Family Physicians). We controlled for the effects of age, sex, level of education and depressive symptoms. It was demonstrated that pain had a negative impact on the performance on the Stroop interference but not on the VVLT and the LDST. This indicates that subjects who reported extreme pain had more problems with selective attention and were more easily distracted. Effects were in general larger in the specific pain groups when compared to the associations found in the total group. Implications of these findings are discussed. The experience of recurrent pain has a negative influence on selective attention in a healthy population.

  11. Optimizing the Power of Genome-Wide Association Studies by Using Publicly Available Reference Samples to Expand the Control Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Joanna J; Zondervan, Krina; Nyberg, Fredrik; Harbron, Chris; Jawaid, Ansar; Cardon, Lon R; Barratt, Bryan J; Morris, Andrew P

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have proved extremely successful in identifying novel genetic loci contributing effects to complex human diseases. In doing so, they have highlighted the fact that many potential loci of modest effect remain undetected, partly due to the need for samples consisting of many thousands of individuals. Large-scale international initiatives, such as the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, the Genetic Association Information Network, and the database of genetic and phenotypic information, aim to facilitate discovery of modest-effect genes by making genome-wide data publicly available, allowing information to be combined for the purpose of pooled analysis. In principle, disease or control samples from these studies could be used to increase the power of any GWA study via judicious use as “genetically matched controls” for other traits. Here, we present the biological motivation for the problem and the theoretical potential for expanding the control group with publicly available disease or reference samples. We demonstrate that a naïve application of this strategy can greatly inflate the false-positive error rate in the presence of population structure. As a remedy, we make use of genome-wide data and model selection techniques to identify “axes” of genetic variation which are associated with disease. These axes are then included as covariates in association analysis to correct for population structure, which can result in increases in power over standard analysis of genetic information from the samples in the original GWA study. Genet. Epidemiol. 34: 319–326, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20088020

  12. Psychological processes underlying the association between childhood trauma and psychosis in daily life:an experience sampling study

    OpenAIRE

    Reininghaus, Ulrich; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte Emily Juliette; Valmaggia, Lucia Rita; Kempton, Matthew; Calem, Maria De Almeida Ribeiro; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Hubbard, Kathryn Mary Frances; Dazzan, Paola; Beards, Stephanie Frances Richmond; Fisher, Helen; Mills, John Gregory; McGuire, Philip; Craig, Tom K.J; Garety, Philippa Anne; Van Os, Johannas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence has accumulated that implicates childhood trauma in the aetiology of psychosis, but our understanding of the putative psychological processes and mechanisms through which childhood trauma impacts on individuals and contributes to the development of psychosis remains limited. We aimed to investigate whether stress sensitivity and threat anticipation underlie the association between childhood abuse and psychosis. Method: We used the Experience Sampling Method to measure str...

  13. Diversity of Microbial Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes (CAZYmes) Associated with Freshwater and Soil Samples from Caatinga Biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana Camila; Fróes, Adriana; Lopes, Fabyano Álvares Cardoso; Thompson, Fabiano L; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Bruce, Thiago

    2017-07-01

    Semi-arid and arid areas occupy about 33% of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little information is available about microbial diversity in the semi-arid Caatinga, which represents a unique biome that extends to about 11% of the Brazilian territory and is home to extraordinary diversity and high endemism level of species. In this study, we characterized the diversity of microbial genes associated with biomass conversion (carbohydrate-active enzymes, or so-called CAZYmes) in soil and freshwater of the Caatinga. Our results showed distinct CAZYme profiles in the soil and freshwater samples. Glycoside hydrolases and glycosyltransferases were the most abundant CAZYme families, with glycoside hydrolases more dominant in soil (∼44%) and glycosyltransferases more abundant in freshwater (∼50%). The abundances of individual glycoside hydrolase, glycosyltransferase, and carbohydrate-binding module subfamilies varied widely between soil and water samples. A predominance of glycoside hydrolases was observed in soil, and a higher contribution of enzymes involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis was observed in freshwater. The main taxa associated with the CAZYme sequences were Planctomycetia (relative abundance in soil, 29%) and Alphaproteobacteria (relative abundance in freshwater, 27%). Approximately 5-7% of CAZYme sequences showed low similarity with sequences deposited in non-redundant databases, suggesting putative homologues. Our findings represent a first attempt to describe specific microbial CAZYme profiles for environmental samples. Characterizing these enzyme groups associated with the conversion of carbohydrates in nature will improve our understanding of the significant roles of enzymes in the carbon cycle. We identified a CAZYme signature that can be used to discriminate between soil and freshwater samples, and this signature may be related to the microbial species adapted to the habitat. The data show the potential ecological roles of the CAZYme repertoire and

  14. Intervenable factors associated with suicide risk in transgender persons: a respondent driven sampling study in Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Greta R Bauer; Scheim, Ayden I; Pyne, Jake; Travers, Robb; Hammond, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background Across Europe, Canada, and the United States, 22–43 % of transgender (trans) people report a history of suicide attempts. We aimed to identify intervenable factors (related to social inclusion, transphobia, or sex/gender transition) associated with reduced risk of past-year suicide ideation or attempt, and to quantify the potential population health impact. Methods The Trans PULSE respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey collected data from trans people age 16+ in Ontario, Canada, i...

  15. Association between socioeconomic factors and sleep quality in an urban population-based sample in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anders, Markus P; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Blettner, Maria

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good sleep quality is essential for recovery. The risk factors of sleep disorders have been extensively investigated, but there is sparse information on the association of socioeconomic factors with a person's sleep quality. The aim of the present analysis is to investigate...... from the baseline survey taken in 2004. Sleep quality for the same participants was measured with in-depth personal interviews in 2006 using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, together with other relevant characteristics (e.g. anxiety, depression and health status). Multiple logistic regression...... analyses were performed. RESULTS: People living in an urban environment with a high or medium SES have a greater probability of good sleep quality (odds ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.14; odds ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.69) than persons with a low SES. Anxiety and depression...

  16. Fasting time and lipid parameters: association with hepatic steatosis — data from a random population sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Current guidelines recommend measuring plasma lipids in fasting patients. Recent studies, however, suggest that variation in plasma lipid concentrations secondary to fasting time may be minimal. Objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of fasting time on plasma lipid concentrations (total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides). A second objective was to determine the effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease exerted on the above-mentioned lipid levels. Method Subjects participating in a population-based cross-sectional study (2,445 subjects; 51.7% females) were questioned at time of phlebotomy regarding duration of pre-phlebotomy fasting. Total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined and correlated with length of fasting. An upper abdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed and body-mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Subjects were divided into three groups based on their reported fasting periods of 1–4 h, 4–8 h and > 8 h. After application of the exclusion criteria, a total of 1,195 subjects (52.4% females) were included in the study collective. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for continuous variables and the chi-square test for categorical variables. The effects of age, BMI, WHR, alcohol consumption, fasting time and hepatic steatosis on the respective lipid variables were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results At multivariate analysis, fasting time was associated with elevated triglycerides (p = 0.0047 for 1–4 h and p = 0.0147 for 4–8 h among females; p fasting period. LDL cholesterol and triglycerides exhibit highly significant variability; the greatest impact is seen with the triglycerides. Fasting time represents an independent factor for reduced LDL cholesterol and elevated triglyceride concentrations. There is a close association between elevated lipids and hepatic steatosis. PMID:24447492

  17. Prevalence of Non-Volitional Sex Types and Associated Factors: A National Sample of Young People.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole H T M Dukers-Muijrers

    Full Text Available Non-volitional sex (NVS in young people continues to be a major public health problem with long-term negative health outcomes. For the first time, the prevalence of different types of NVS and associated factors are compared between young people with same-sex sexual activities and those who have not.We obtained data from 10,401 young women and men (aged 12 to 25 years who participated in a population study on sexual health, the Netherlands. We calculated and compared the prevalence of six types of NVS between women who had sex with men (yWSM or women (yWSW, and men who had sex with women (yMSW or men (yMSM. In sexually experienced participants (n = 5986 logistic regression analyses were applied to assess associations with NVS by assault or penetration. Analyses were weighted to represent the Dutch population.The prevalence of NVS ranged from 1% to 61%, depending on type. Prevalence was higher for young women (any: 40.6% than men (any: 20.4%, and highest for yMSM and yWSW. Prevalence of NVS by assault or penetration was related to a range of socio-demographic, behavioral and social factors, which were largely similar regardless of sex or same-sex-experiences. The NVS perpetrators were in over 70% of cases known to the victim; 1 in 4 cases of NVS by penetration were accompanied by violence.A substantial proportion of young people in the Netherlands have experienced NVS. Medical professionals, educators and caregivers should integrate services to continue to address NVS by targeting young people's multifaceted risk profiles and evidenced based interventions for doing so are needed.

  18. Definitions of Sarcopenia: Associations with Previous Falls and Fracture in a Population Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynes, M A; Edwards, M H; Buehring, B; Dennison, E M; Binkley, N; Cooper, C

    2015-11-01

    Sarcopenia is common in later life and may be associated with adverse health outcomes such as disability, falls and fracture. There is no consensus definition for its diagnosis although diagnostic algorithms have been proposed by the European Working Group for Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), the International Working Group on Sarcopenia (IWGS) and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project (FNIH). More recently, Binkley and colleagues devised a score-based system for the diagnosis of "dysmobility syndrome" in an attempt to combine adverse musculoskeletal phenotypes, including sarcopenia and osteoporosis, in order to identify older individuals at particular risk. We applied these criteria to participants from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study to define their prevalence in an unselected cohort of UK community-dwelling older adults and assess their relationships with previous falls and fracture. Body composition and areal bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, gait speed was determined by a 3-m walk test and grip strength was assessed with a Jamar hand-held dynamometer. Researcher-administered questionnaires were completed detailing falls and fracture history. The prevalence of sarcopenia in this cohort was 3.3, 8.3 and 2.0% using the EWGSOP, IWGS and related definition of FNIH, respectively; 24.8% of individuals had dysmobility syndrome. Individuals with dysmobility reported significantly higher number of falls (last year and since the age of 45 years) (p sarcopenia as defined by the IWGS reported significantly higher falls in the last year and prevalent fractures (falls in the last year: OR 2.51; CI 1.09-5.81; p = 0.03; fractures OR 2.50; CI 1.05-5.92; p = 0.04) but these significant associations were not seen when the EWGSOP definition was applied. The IWGS definition of sarcopenia appears to be an effective means of identifying individuals at risk of prevalent adverse musculoskeletal events.

  19. Natural radioactivity in soil samples of Yelagiri Hills, Tamil Nadu, India and the associated radiation hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravisankar, R.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Vijayagopal, P.; Venkatraman, B.; Senthilkumar, G.; Eswaran, P.; Rajalakshmi, A.

    2012-12-01

    The natural radioactivity of soils at Yelagiri hills has been studied in this paper. The radioactivities of 25 samples have been measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K ranged from ≤2.17 to 53.23, 13.54 to 89.89 and from 625.09 to 2207.3 Bq kg-1, respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with world average activity of soil. The average activity concentration of 232Th in the present study is 1.19 times higher than world median value while the activity of 238U and 40K is found to be lower. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity Raeq, the absorbed dose rate DR, the annual effective dose rate and the external hazard index (Hex) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. The study provides background radioactivity concentrations in Yelagiri hills.

  20. Is psychotic disorder associated with increased levels of craving for cannabis? An Experience Sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuepper, R; Oorschot, M; Myin-Germeys, I; Smits, M; van Os, J; Henquet, C

    2013-12-01

    Although cannabis use among individuals with psychotic disorder is considerable, little is known about patterns of use and factors contributing to continuation of use. Therefore, we investigated craving in relation to cannabis use in patients with psychotic disorder and healthy controls. The study included 58 patients with non-affective psychotic disorder and 63 healthy controls; all were frequent cannabis users. Craving was assessed with the Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale (OCDUS) for cannabis, as well as in daily life using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). Patients scored higher on the OCDUS (B = 1.18, P = 0.022), but did not differ from controls in ESM indices of craving (all P > 0.05). In daily life, ESM craving predicted cannabis use and this was stronger in controls (χ(2) = 4.5, P = 0.033; Bcontrols = 0.08, P craving was predicted by negative affect, paranoia, and hallucinations (Bnegativeaffect = 0.12, P = 0.009; Bparanoia = 0.13, P = 0.013; Bhallucinations = 0.13, P = 0.028), and followed by an increase in negative affect at non-cannabis-using moments (B = 0.03, P = 0.002). The temporal dynamics of craving as well as craving intensity in daily life appear to be similar in patients and controls. Further research is needed to elucidate the inconsistencies between cross-sectional and daily-life measures of craving in psychosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Systematic detection and association of Entamoeba species in stool samples from selected sites in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, J; Banyal, N; Gautam, D S; Ghosh, S K; Singha, B; Paul, J

    2015-01-01

    This study developed a fast and high throughput dot-blot technique to evaluate the presence of Entamoeba in stool samples (n = 643) followed by a PCR-based method to validate and differentiate the two species E. histolytica and E. dispar. The prevalence rate of the parasite has been detected in a cross-sectional study carried out in the population of the Eastern and Northern parts of India. Of the various demographic features, prevalence was highest in the monsoon season (P = 0·017), in the <15 years age group (P = 0·015). In HIV-positive individuals, the prevalence rate was significantly high (P = 0·008) in patients with a CD4 cell count <200 as well as in patients without antiretroviral therapy (ART) (P = 0·011). Our analysis further confirmed that risk factors such as toilet facilities, living conditions, hygienic practices, drinking water source, occupation and level of education are important predictors as they were found to contribute significantly in the prevalence of the parasite.

  2. Emotion regulation mediates the association between ADHD and depressive symptoms in a community sample of youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Karen E; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Iwamoto, Derek K; Kurdziel, Gretchen; Macpherson, Laura

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, emotion regulation (ER) ability, and depressive symptoms within a diverse community sample of 277 youth, ages 9-12 (56 % male). Participants were drawn from a larger study examining adolescent risk behaviors, and completed annual assessments over 3 years. Youth ADHD symptoms were assessed at Time 1 (T1) using the parent-reported Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale, ER was assessed with the parent-reported Emotion Regulation Checklist at Time 2 (T2), and youth depressive symptoms were assessed using the self-reported Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales at Time 3 (T3). Analyses examined T2 ER as a mediator between T1 ADHD symptoms (including the unique contributions of inattentive [IA] versus hyperactive/impulsive [HI] symptoms) and T3 depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated the path model specified provided an excellent fit to the data. Tests of indirect effects suggested that T2 ER appears to be a significant mechanism that underlies the relationship between T1 ADHD and T3 depression, even when accounting for T1 oppositional defiant and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, while both T1 IA and HI symptoms had significant indirect effects on T3 depression through the mechanism T2 ER, HI proved a more robust predictor of T2 ER than IA. Results of this prospective study support cross-sectional findings pointing to ER as a potential mechanism linking ADHD and depressive symptoms in youth. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.

  3. On the validity of within-nuclear-family genetic association analysis in samples of extended families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Alexandre; Duchesne, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Splitting extended families into their component nuclear families to apply a genetic association method designed for nuclear families is a widespread practice in familial genetic studies. Dependence among genotypes and phenotypes of nuclear families from the same extended family arises because of genetic linkage of the tested marker with a risk variant or because of familial specificity of genetic effects due to gene-environment interaction. This raises concerns about the validity of inference conducted under the assumption of independence of the nuclear families. We indeed prove theoretically that, in a conditional logistic regression analysis applicable to disease cases and their genotyped parents, the naive model-based estimator of the variance of the coefficient estimates underestimates the true variance. However, simulations with realistic effect sizes of risk variants and variation of this effect from family to family reveal that the underestimation is negligible. The simulations also show the greater efficiency of the model-based variance estimator compared to a robust empirical estimator. Our recommendation is therefore, to use the model-based estimator of variance for inference on effects of genetic variants.

  4. Coefficient of Variation of Coarsely Sampled Heart Rate is Associated With Early Vasopressor Independence in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Samuel M; Tate, M Quinn; Jones, Jason P; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Lanspa, Michael J; Rondina, Matthew T; Grissom, Colin K; Mathews, V J

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether variability of coarsely sampled heart rate and blood pressure early in the course of severe sepsis and septic shock predicts successful resuscitation, defined as vasopressor independence at 24 hours after admission. In an observational study of patients admitted with severe sepsis or septic shock from 2009 to 2011 to either of 2 intensive care units (ICUs) at a tertiary-care hospital, in whom blood pressure was measured via an arterial catheter, we sampled heart rate and blood pressure every 30 seconds over the first 6 hours of ICU admission and calculated the coefficient of variability of those measurements. Primary outcome was vasopressor independence at 24 hours; and secondary outcome was 28-day mortality. We studied 165 patients, of which 97 (59%) achieved vasopressor independence at 24 hours. Overall, 28-day mortality was 15%. Significant predictors of vasopressor independence at 24 hours included the coefficient of variation of heart rate, age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, the number of increases in vasopressor dose, mean vasopressin dose, mean blood pressure, and time-pressure integral of mean blood pressure less than 60 mm Hg. Lower sampling frequencies (up to once every 5 minutes) did not affect the findings. Increased variability of coarsely sampled heart rate was associated with vasopressor independence at 24 hours after controlling for possible confounders. Sampling frequencies of once in 5 minutes may be similar to once in 30 seconds. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. [Analysis of Electroencephalogram Sample Entropy Measurement in Frontal Association Cortex Based on Heroin-induced Conditioned Place Preference in Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Pan, Qunwan; Zhu, Zaiman; Li, Jing; Gao, Chunfang; Li, Tian; Xu, Xiaoyan

    2015-04-01

    To explore the relationship between the drug-seeking behavior, motivation of conditioned place preference (CPP) rats and the frontal association cortex (FrA) electroencephalogram (EEG) sample entropy, we in this paper present our studies on the FrA EEG sample entropy of control group rats and CPP group rats, respectively. We invested different behavior in four situations of the rat activities, i. e. rats were staying in black chamber of videoed boxes, those staying in white chamber of videoed boxes, those shuttling between black-white chambers and those shuttling between white-black chambers. The experimental results showed that, compared with the control group rats, the FrA EEG sample entropy of CPP rats staying in black chamber of video box and shuttling between white-black chambers had no significant difference. However, sample entropy is significantly smaller (P heroin-induced group rats stayed in white chamber of video box and shuttled between black-white chambers. Consequently, the drug-seeking behavior and motivation of CPP rats correlated closely with the EEG sample entropy changes.

  6. Comparing measures of racial/ethnic discrimination, coping, and associations with health-related outcomes in a diverse sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamins, Maureen R

    2013-10-01

    Discrimination is detrimental to health behaviors and outcomes, but little is known about which measures of discrimination are most strongly related to health, if relationships with health outcomes vary by race/ethnicity, and if coping responses moderate these associations. To explore these issues, the current study assessed race/ethnic differences in five measures of race/ethnic discrimination, as well as emotional and behavioral coping responses, within a population-based sample of Whites, African Americans, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans (n = 1,699). Stratified adjusted logistic regression models were run to examine associations between the discrimination measures and mental, physical, and health behavior outcomes and to test the role of coping. Overall, 86 % of the sample reported discrimination. Puerto Ricans were more likely than Mexicans and Whites to report most types of discrimination but less likely than Blacks. Discrimination was most strongly related to depression and was less consistently (or not) associated with physical health and health behaviors. Differences by measure of discrimination and respondent race/ethnicity were apparent. No support was found to suggest that coping responses moderate the association between discrimination and health. More work is needed to understand the health effects of this widespread social problem. In addition, interventions attempting to reduce health disparities need to take into account the influence of discrimination.

  7. Association of Global DNA Methylation and Global DNA Hydroxymethylation with Metals and Other Exposures in Human Blood DNA Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wan-yee; Shang, Yan; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Ledesma, Marta; Leon, Montserrat; Laclaustra, Martin; Pollak, Jonathan; Guallar, Eliseo; Cole, Shelley A.; Fallin, M. Dani; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background: The association between human blood DNA global methylation and global hydroxymethylation has not been evaluated in population-based studies. No studies have evaluated environmental determinants of global DNA hydroxymethylation, including exposure to metals. Objective: We evaluated the association between global DNA methylation and global DNA hydroxymethylation in 48 Strong Heart Study participants for which selected metals had been measured in urine at baseline and DNA was available from 1989–1991 (visit 1) and 1998–1999 (visit 3). Methods: We measured the percentage of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) in samples using capture and detection antibodies followed by colorimetric quantification. We explored the association of participant characteristics (i.e., age, adiposity, smoking, and metal exposure) with both global DNA methylation and global DNA hydroxymethylation. Results: The Spearman’s correlation coefficient for 5-mC and 5-hmC levels was 0.32 (p = 0.03) at visit 1 and 0.54 (p Ledesma M, Leon M, Laclaustra M, Pollak J, Guallar E, Cole SA, Fallin MD, Navas-Acien A. 2014. Association of global DNA methylation and global DNA hydroxymethylation with metals and other exposures in human blood DNA samples. Environ Health Perspect 122:946–954; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306674 PMID:24769358

  8. Prospective associations between unforgiveness and physical health and positive mediating mechanisms in a nationally representative sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Asani H; Toussaint, Loren L; Cheadle, Alyssa C D

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prospective association between unforgiveness and self-reported physical health and potential positive psychological mediators of this association. Participants were a national sample of 1024 USA's adults of ages 66 years and older. Data were collected at two time points separated by three years. Measures of trait unforgiveness, self-rated physical health, socio-demographics, health behaviours and positive psychological traits (e.g. life satisfaction, self-esteem) were included in a comprehensive survey known as the 'Religion, Aging, and Health Survey.' The results indicated that unforgiveness was prospectively associated with declines in self-reported physical health three years later, and poor initial self-reported health status did not predict increases in unforgiveness across time. Furthermore, the prospective association of unforgiveness with self-reported health was mediated by a latent positive psychological traits variable. These results confirm cross-sectional findings suggesting that unforgiveness is related to health. The present study also suggests that unforgiveness has a prospective, but not reciprocal, association with self-reported physical health. Unforgiveness may have its association with self-reported physical health through its interruption of other positive traits that typically confer health benefits.

  9. Comorbidity and associated severity of borderline personality disorder and physical health conditions in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gabalawy, Renée; Katz, Laurence Y; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the comorbidity and severity of borderline personality disorder and physical health conditions in a nationally representative sample. Despite the recent trend of examining the relationship between physical and mental health, there has been limited research examining the association of physical health conditions and personality disorders, in particular, borderline personality disorder. The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) Wave 2 (n = 34,653; cumulative response rate, 70.2%; age, ≥20 years) was used in the current study. The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition was used to assess mental disorders, and self-reports were used to assess physical health conditions. Multiple logistic regression models examined the comorbidity of physical health conditions with borderline personality disorder and associated suicide attempts. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, common Axis I mental disorders, and Axis II personality disorders, the presence of borderline personality disorder was significantly associated with arteriosclerosis or hypertension, hepatic disease, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease, arthritis, venereal disease, and "any assessed medical condition" (adjusted odds ratios, range 1.46-2.80). In the most stringent adjusted model, diabetes, stroke, and obesity were not associated with borderline personality disorder. Furthermore, a greater likelihood of suicide attempts was associated with cardiovascular disease, venereal disease, and "any assessed medical condition" with comorbid borderline personality disorder than borderline personality disorder alone. Careful screening and treatment of physical health conditions among people with borderline personality disorder are warranted.

  10. Power and sample size calculations in the presence of phenotype errors for case/control genetic association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finch Stephen J

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotype error causes reduction in power to detect genetic association. We present a quantification of phenotype error, also known as diagnostic error, on power and sample size calculations for case-control genetic association studies between a marker locus and a disease phenotype. We consider the classic Pearson chi-square test for independence as our test of genetic association. To determine asymptotic power analytically, we compute the distribution's non-centrality parameter, which is a function of the case and control sample sizes, genotype frequencies, disease prevalence, and phenotype misclassification probabilities. We derive the non-centrality parameter in the presence of phenotype errors and equivalent formulas for misclassification cost (the percentage increase in minimum sample size needed to maintain constant asymptotic power at a fixed significance level for each percentage increase in a given misclassification parameter. We use a linear Taylor Series approximation for the cost of phenotype misclassification to determine lower bounds for the relative costs of misclassifying a true affected (respectively, unaffected as a control (respectively, case. Power is verified by computer simulation. Results Our major findings are that: (i the median absolute difference between analytic power with our method and simulation power was 0.001 and the absolute difference was no larger than 0.011; (ii as the disease prevalence approaches 0, the cost of misclassifying a unaffected as a case becomes infinitely large while the cost of misclassifying an affected as a control approaches 0. Conclusion Our work enables researchers to specifically quantify power loss and minimum sample size requirements in the presence of phenotype errors, thereby allowing for more realistic study design. For most diseases of current interest, verifying that cases are correctly classified is of paramount importance.

  11. Impulsivity and compulsive buying are associated in a non-clinical sample: an evidence for the compulsivity-impulsivity continuum?

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    Jonas J. de Paula

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Compulsive buying is controversial in clinical psychiatry. Although it is defined as an obsessive-compulsive disorder, other personality aspects besides compulsivity are related to compulsive buying. Recent studies suggest that compulsivity and impulsivity might represent a continuum, with several psychiatric disorders lying between these two extremes. In this sense, and following the perspective of dimensional psychiatry, symptoms of impulsivity and compulsivity should correlate even in a non-clinical sample. The present study aims to investigate whether these two traits are associated in a healthy adult sample.Methods:We evaluated 100 adults, with no self-reported psychiatric disorders, using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and two scales of compulsive buying.Results:Using multiple linear regressions, we found that impulsivity accounted for about 15% of variance in the compulsive-buying measure.Conclusions:Our results suggest that an association between impulsivity and compulsive buying occurs even in non-clinical samples, evidence that compulsivity and impulsivity might form a continuum and that compulsive buying might be an intermediate condition between these two personality traits.

  12. Genotypic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii Strains Associated with Human Toxoplasmosis in Spain: Direct Analysis from Clinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Isabel; Rubio, Jose M.; Ramírez, Carmen; Alvar, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    Genetic analysis of the SAG2 locus was performed to determine the prevalence of the different genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii (strain types I, II, and III) associated with human toxoplasmosis in Spain. This determination was made directly from primary clinical samples, obviating the previous process of isolation in mice or cell culture. A total of 34 isolates of T. gondii, collected from immunocompromised patients and congenital infection cases, were analyzed. Restriction fragment length polymorphism in PCR-amplified SAG2 products was used to group strains into one of the three genotypes of T. gondii. Complete characterization of the SAG2 gene was successful in 76.5% of the cases, demonstrating the feasibility of direct genotype analysis from clinical samples of different origins. Strains of T. gondii type II were the most prevalent in immunocompromised patients, with 52% of cases, while strains of type I were present in 75% of the congenital infection cases. These data differ from previous reports that show type II strains to be mostly associated with all kinds of human toxoplasmosis. These differences might be an effect of selection in the process of culture and isolation of the samples performed by other researchers prior to strain characterization. PMID:11283088

  13. Impulsivity and compulsive buying are associated in a non-clinical sample: an evidence for the compulsivity-impulsivity continuum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Jonas J de; Costa, Danielle de S; Oliveira, Flavianne; Alves, Joana O; Passos, Lídia R; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F

    2015-01-01

    Compulsive buying is controversial in clinical psychiatry. Although it is defined as an obsessive-compulsive disorder, other personality aspects besides compulsivity are related to compulsive buying. Recent studies suggest that compulsivity and impulsivity might represent a continuum, with several psychiatric disorders lying between these two extremes. In this sense, and following the perspective of dimensional psychiatry, symptoms of impulsivity and compulsivity should correlate even in a non-clinical sample. The present study aims to investigate whether these two traits are associated in a healthy adult sample. We evaluated 100 adults, with no self-reported psychiatric disorders, using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and two scales of compulsive buying. Using multiple linear regressions, we found that impulsivity accounted for about 15% of variance in the compulsive-buying measure. Our results suggest that an association between impulsivity and compulsive buying occurs even in non-clinical samples, evidence that compulsivity and impulsivity might form a continuum and that compulsive buying might be an intermediate condition between these two personality traits.

  14. A comprehensive evaluation of potential lung function associated genes in the SpiroMeta general population sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma'en Obeidat

    Full Text Available Lung function measures are heritable traits that predict population morbidity and mortality and are essential for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Variations in many genes have been reported to affect these traits, but attempts at replication have provided conflicting results. Recently, we undertook a meta-analysis of Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS results for lung function measures in 20,288 individuals from the general population (the SpiroMeta consortium.To comprehensively analyse previously reported genetic associations with lung function measures, and to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in these genomic regions are associated with lung function in a large population sample.We analysed association for SNPs tagging 130 genes and 48 intergenic regions (+/-10 kb, after conducting a systematic review of the literature in the PubMed database for genetic association studies reporting lung function associations.The analysis included 16,936 genotyped and imputed SNPs. No loci showed overall significant association for FEV(1 or FEV(1/FVC traits using a carefully defined significance threshold of 1.3×10(-5. The most significant loci associated with FEV(1 include SNPs tagging MACROD2 (P = 6.81×10(-5, CNTN5 (P = 4.37×10(-4, and TRPV4 (P = 1.58×10(-3. Among ever-smokers, SERPINA1 showed the most significant association with FEV(1 (P = 8.41×10(-5, followed by PDE4D (P = 1.22×10(-4. The strongest association with FEV(1/FVC ratio was observed with ABCC1 (P = 4.38×10(-4, and ESR1 (P = 5.42×10(-4 among ever-smokers.Polymorphisms spanning previously associated lung function genes did not show strong evidence for association with lung function measures in the SpiroMeta consortium population. Common SERPINA1 polymorphisms may affect FEV(1 among smokers in the general population.

  15. Are Sex Drive and Hypersexuality Associated with Pedophilic Interest and Child Sexual Abuse in a Male Community Sample?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Verena; Schmidt, Alexander F; Turner, Daniel; Briken, Peer

    2015-01-01

    Although much is currently known about hypersexuality (in the form of excessive sexual behavior) among sexual offenders, the degree to which hypersexual behavior is linked to paraphilic and especially pedophilic interests in non-forensic populations has not been established.The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the associations between total sexual outlets(TSO) and other sex drive indicators, antisocial behavior, pedophilic interests, and sexual offending behavior in a large population-based community sample of males. The sample included 8,718 German men who participated in an online study. Hypersexual behavior as measured by self-reported TSO, self-reported sex drive, criminal history, and pedophilic interests were assessed. In moderated hierarchical logistic regression analyses self-reported contact sexual offending against children was linked to sexual fantasizing about children and anti sociality.There was no association between aggregated sex drive, and sexual abusive behaviour in the multivariate analyses. In contrast, self-reported child pornography consumption was associated with sex drive, sexual fantasies involving children, and anti sociality. Nevertheless, in convicted sexual offenders anti sociality, sexual preoccupation (like hypersexuality), and pedophilic interest are important predictors of sexual reoffending against prepubescent children.Therefore, in clinical practice an assessment of criminal history and pedophilic interests in hypersexual individuals and vice versa hypersexuality in antisocial or pedophilic men should be considered [corrected].

  16. Are Sex Drive and Hypersexuality Associated with Pedophilic Interest and Child Sexual Abuse in a Male Community Sample?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Klein

    Full Text Available Although much is currently known about hypersexuality (in the form of excessive sexual behavior among sexual offenders, the degree to which hypersexual behavior is linked to paraphilic and especially pedophilic interests in non-forensic populations has not been established.The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the associations between total sexual outlets(TSO and other sex drive indicators, antisocial behavior, pedophilic interests, and sexual offending behavior in a large population-based community sample of males. The sample included 8,718 German men who participated in an online study. Hypersexual behavior as measured by self-reported TSO, self-reported sex drive, criminal history, and pedophilic interests were assessed. In moderated hierarchical logistic regression analyses self-reported contact sexual offending against children was linked to sexual fantasizing about children and anti sociality.There was no association between aggregated sex drive, and sexual abusive behaviour in the multivariate analyses. In contrast, self-reported child pornography consumption was associated with sex drive, sexual fantasies involving children, and anti sociality. Nevertheless, in convicted sexual offenders anti sociality, sexual preoccupation (like hypersexuality, and pedophilic interest are important predictors of sexual reoffending against prepubescent children.Therefore, in clinical practice an assessment of criminal history and pedophilic interests in hypersexual individuals and vice versa hypersexuality in antisocial or pedophilic men should be considered [corrected].

  17. Prevalence of comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders: associated factors in a population sample of young adults in southern Brazil

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    Mariane Ricardo Acosta Lopez Molina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate factors associated with the presence of comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders in young adults aged 18 to 24 years, from Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study with a probabilistic sample by conglomerates. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI was used to assess mood and anxiety disorders. The prevalence of mental disorders in the sample (n = 1,561 was of 26.8% of which 9.7% had comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders. The prevalence of comorbidities on mood and anxiety disorders is almost three times higher among women than men (p < 0.001. Lower education levels, socioeconomic status (p < 0.001 and a history of divorced parents (p < 0.050 was associated with comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders. The main conclusion is that social factors are highly associated with comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders. Prevention strategies on mental health should focus particularly on women in vulnerable social conditions.

  18. Is moderate substance use associated with altered executive functioning in a population-based sample of young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechatzek, Michaela; Indlekofer, Friedrich; Daamen, Marcel; Glasmacher, Christoph; Lieb, Roselind; Pfister, Hildegard; Tucha, Oliver; Lange, Klaus W; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Schütz, Christian G

    2009-12-01

    Substance use (SU) has been linked with impaired cognitive functioning. Evidence comes mainly from clinical studies or studies examining heavy users. Though, the majority of users are not involved in heavy use. This study investigates the association between moderate use and cognition in a population-based sample. A total of 284 young adults with ecstasy, cannabis or alcohol use and a control group were sampled from the EDSP database for participation in the Munich Assessment of Young Adults (MAYA) study. Subjects completed a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests (executive functions, working memory and impulsivity). Multiple linear regression models were conducted to examine the relationship between use and cognitive performance. Increased ecstasy consumption was associated with increased error-proneness (Stroop task, CANTAB ID/ED-shift, spatial working memory). More frequent cannabis use and more extensive alcohol consumption were associated with a higher degree of impulsiveness. Based on mild to moderate SU, little indication of differences in executive functioning was found. For ecstasy use, an increased error-proneness was revealed. The subtle differences in relatively young individuals warrant further investigation in prospective long-term studies to identify subjects at risk, and to examine effects of prolonged patterns of use on executive functioning. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Intermittent explosive disorder: associations with PTSD and other Axis I disorders in a US military veteran sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Annemarie F; Hein, Christina L; Wolf, Erika J; Prince, Lauren B; Ryabchenko, Karen; Miller, Mark W

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of intermittent explosive disorder (IED) and its associations with trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other psychiatric diagnoses in a sample of trauma-exposed veterans (n=232) with a high prevalence of PTSD. Structural associations between IED and latent dimensions of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were also modeled to examine the location of IED within this influential structure. Twenty-four percent of the sample met criteria for a lifetime IED diagnosis and those with the diagnosis were more likely to meet criteria for lifetime PTSD than those without (30.3% vs. 14.3% respectively). Furthermore, regression analyses revealed lifetime PTSD severity to be a significant predictor of IED severity after controlling for combat, trauma exposure, and age. Finally, confirmatory factor analysis revealed significant cross-loadings of IED on both the externalizing and distress dimensions of psychopathology, suggesting that the association between IED and other psychiatric disorders may reflect underlying tendencies toward impulsivity and aggression and generalized distress and negative emotionality, respectively.

  20. Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part II: association of adulterated samples to S. divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

    2012-01-01

    Salvia divinorum is a plant material that is of forensic interest due to the hallucinogenic nature of the active ingredient, salvinorin A. In this study, S. divinorum was extracted and spiked onto four different plant materials (S. divinorum, Salvia officinalis, Cannabis sativa, and Nicotiana tabacum) to simulate an adulterated sample that might be encountered in a forensic laboratory. The adulterated samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the resulting total ion chromatograms were subjected to a series of pretreatment procedures that were used to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. The data were then analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) to investigate association of the adulterated extracts to unadulterated S. divinorum. While association was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot, additional procedures including Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores to provide a statistical evaluation of the association observed. The advantages and limitations of each statistical procedure in a forensic context were compared and are presented herein.

  1. Association study between the rs165599 catechol-O-methyltransferase genetic polymorphism and schizophrenia in a Brazilian sample

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    Quirino Cordeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder with frequent recurrent psychotic relapses and progressive functional impairment. It results from a poorly understood gene-environment interaction. The gene encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is a likely candidate for schizophrenia. Its rs165599 (A/G polymorphism has been shown to be associated with alteration of COMT gene expression. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate a possible association between schizophrenia and this polymorphism. The distribution of the alleles and genotypes of this polymorphism was investigated in a Brazilian sample of 245 patients and 834 controls. The genotypic frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and no statistically significant differences were found between cases and controls when analyzed according to gender or schizophrenia subtypes. There was also no difference in homozygosis between cases and controls. Thus, in the sample studied, there was no evidence of any association between schizophrenia and rs165599 (A/G polymorphism in the non-coding region 3' of the COMT gene.

  2. Associations of Neuroticism and Impulsivity with Binge Eating in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Winn, Angela E; Townsend, Lisa; Reinblatt, Shauna P; Mendelson, Tamar

    2016-02-01

    Binge eating behavior is a public health concern with serious physical and mental health consequences. Certain personality traits have been found to contribute to the development of eating disorders in clinical samples of youth, but little is known about associations between personality traits and binge eating in the general adolescent population. We examined the associations of neuroticism and impulsivity-both independently and in combination-with lifetime prevalence of binge eating, using nationally representative, cross-sectional data from the National Comorbidity Survey: Adolescent Supplement (n=437). Neuroticism and impulsivity were each significantly associated with lifetime prevalence of binge eating (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]=1.11, confidence interval [CI]=1.07, 1.15, p<0.001; aPR=1.06, CI=1.04, 1.09, p<0.001, respectively). The combination of high neuroticism and high impulsivity was associated with higher lifetime binge eating than the combination of low neuroticism and low impulsivity (aPR=3.72, CI=2.45, 5.65, p<0.001), and this association was stronger for female than male adolescents (females: aPR=5.37, CI=3.24, 8.91, p<0.001 vs. males: aPR=2.45, CI=1.43, 4.22, p=0.002). Our findings have implications for informing theories of etiology and interventions to target binge eating behaviors.

  3. Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in plasma and milk samples for early pregnancy diagnosis in Lacaune dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amiri, B; Sousa, N M; Alvarez Oxiley, A; Hadarbach, D; Beckers, J F

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, four RIA systems (RIA-1 to -4) based on two antisera raised against ovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (ovPAGs), combined with an ovine or a bovine PAG tracer were used to measure PAG concentrations in plasma and milk samples of dairy ewes. Blood and milk samples were collected on different days of gestation: 0, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 32, 42, and 49. From day 20 onward, the PAG in plasma could be detected in all pregnant ewes using the four RIA systems. By using milk, except for RIA-1, the other systems showed a sensitivity of 100% from day 28 of gestation onward. In plasma, PAG concentrations were higher in multiple than in single pregnancies, while no clear relationship was observed in milk. In conclusion, milk is a good alternative to plasma for early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep from day 28 to day 42.

  4. Association between waist circumference and gray matter volume in 2344 individuals from two adult community-based samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz, Deborah; Wittfeld, Katharina; Terock, Jan; Freyberger, Harald Jürgen; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Habes, Mohamad; Hosten, Norbert; Friedrich, Nele; Nauck, Matthias; Domanska, Grazyna; Grabe, Hans Jörgen

    2015-11-15

    We analyzed the putative association between abdominal obesity (measured in waist circumference) and gray matter volume (Study of Health in Pomerania: SHIP-2, N=758) adjusted for age and gender by applying volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with VBM8 to brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We sought replication in a second, independent population sample (SHIP-TREND, N=1586). In a combined analysis (SHIP-2 and SHIP-TREND) we investigated the impact of hypertension, type II diabetes and blood lipids on the association between waist circumference and gray matter. Volumetric analysis revealed a significant inverse association between waist circumference and gray matter volume. VBM in SHIP-2 indicated distinct inverse associations in the following structures for both hemispheres: frontal lobe, temporal lobes, pre- and postcentral gyrus, supplementary motor area, supramarginal gyrus, insula, cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, olfactory sulcus, para-/hippocampus, gyrus rectus, amygdala, globus pallidus, putamen, cerebellum, fusiform and lingual gyrus, (pre-) cuneus and thalamus. These areas were replicated in SHIP-TREND. More than 76% of the voxels with significant gray matter volume reduction in SHIP-2 were also distinct in TREND. These brain areas are involved in cognition, attention to interoceptive signals as satiety or reward and control food intake. Due to our cross-sectional design we cannot clarify the causal direction of the association. However, previous studies described an association between subjects with higher waist circumference and future cognitive decline suggesting a progressive brain alteration in obese subjects. Pathomechanisms may involve chronic inflammation, increased oxidative stress or cellular autophagy associated with obesity.

  5. Increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in gulls sampled in Southcentral Alaska is associated with urban environments

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    Clara Atterby

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria pose challenges to healthcare delivery systems globally; however, limited information is available regarding the prevalence and spread of such bacteria in the environment. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in large-bodied gulls (Larus spp. at urban and remote locations in Southcentral Alaska to gain inference into the association between antibiotic resistance in wildlife and anthropogenically influenced habitats. Methods: Escherichia coli was cultured (n=115 isolates from fecal samples of gulls (n=160 collected from a remote location, Middleton Island, and a more urban setting on the Kenai Peninsula. Results: Screening of E. coli from fecal samples collected from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens at Middleton Island revealed 8% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 2% of the isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In contrast, 55% of E. coli isolates derived from fecal samples collected from large-bodied gulls (i.e. glaucous, herring [Larus argentatus], and potentially hybrid gulls on the Kenai Peninsula were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 22% were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In addition, total of 16% of the gull samples from locations on the Kenai Peninsula harbored extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli isolates (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases [ESBL] and plasmid-encoded AmpC [pAmpC], in contrast to Middleton Island where no ESBL- or pAmpC-producing isolates were detected. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance is associated with urban environments in Southcentral Alaska and presumably influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Further investigation is warranted to assess how migratory birds may maintain and spread antimicrobial-resistant bacteria of relevance to human and animal health.

  6. Increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in gulls sampled in southcentral Alaska is associated with urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atterby, Clara; Ramey, Andrew M.; Gustafsson Hall, Gabriel; Jarhult, Josef; Borjesson, Stefan; Bonnedahl, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAntibiotic-resistant bacteria pose challenges to healthcare delivery systems globally; however, limited information is available regarding the prevalence and spread of such bacteria in the environment. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in large-bodied gulls (Larus spp.) at urban and remote locations in Southcentral Alaska to gain inference into the association between antibiotic resistance in wildlife and anthropogenically influenced habitats.MethodsEscherichia coli was cultured (n=115 isolates) from fecal samples of gulls (n=160) collected from a remote location, Middleton Island, and a more urban setting on the Kenai Peninsula.ResultsScreening of E. coli from fecal samples collected from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) at Middleton Island revealed 8% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 2% of the isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In contrast, 55% of E. coli isolates derived from fecal samples collected from large-bodied gulls (i.e. glaucous, herring [Larus argentatus], and potentially hybrid gulls) on the Kenai Peninsula were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 22% were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In addition, total of 16% of the gull samples from locations on the Kenai Peninsula harbored extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli isolates (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases [ESBL] and plasmid-encoded AmpC [pAmpC]), in contrast to Middleton Island where no ESBL- or pAmpC-producing isolates were detected.ConclusionOur findings indicate that increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance is associated with urban environments in Southcentral Alaska and presumably influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Further investigation is warranted to assess how migratory birds may maintain and spread antimicrobial-resistant bacteria of relevance to human and animal health.

  7. The Association between Mental Health and Violence among a Nationally Representative Sample of College Students from the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A Schwartz

    Full Text Available Recent violent attacks on college campuses in the United States have sparked discussions regarding the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the perpetration of violence among college students. While previous studies have examined the potential association between mental health problems and violent behavior, the overall pattern of findings flowing from this literature remain mixed and no previous studies have examined such associations among college students.The current study makes use of a nationally representative sample of 3,929 college students from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC to examine the prevalence of seven violent behaviors and 19 psychiatric disorder diagnoses tapping mood, anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders. Associations between individual and composite psychiatric disorder diagnoses and violent behaviors were also examined. Additional analyses were adjusted for the comorbidity of multiple psychiatric diagnoses.The results revealed that college students were less likely to have engaged in violent behavior relative to the non-student sample, but a substantial portion of college students had engaged in violent behavior. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates indicated that more than 21% of college students reported at least one violent act. In addition, more than 36% of college students had at least one diagnosable psychiatric disorder. Finally, the prevalence of one or more psychiatric disorders significantly increased the odds of violent behavior within the college student sample.These findings indicate that violence and psychiatric disorders are prevalent on college campuses in the United States, though perhaps less so than in the general population. In addition, college students who have diagnosable psychiatric disorders are significantly more likely to engage in various forms of violent behavior.

  8. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Patrício Macedo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizure of cannabis plant material: Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794, Thyanta perditor (Fabricius, 1794 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, and Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. These insect species restricted the geographic origin of the drug to the Neotropical region, and their distribution patterns showed an overlap of the State of Mato Grosso (Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Based on this information, two of the three major C. sativa growing areas in South America were excluded: (1 the Colombian territory and (2 northeastern Brazil.

  9. No clear genetic influences on the association between dyslexia and anxiety in a population-based sample of female twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Spector, Tim D; Cherkas, Lynn F

    2009-11-01

    Individuals with dyslexia are at an increased risk for anxiety disorders (e.g. generalized anxiety disorder, stress disorders, panic disorder). The extent to which this association is mediated by genetic and/or environmental influences is unclear. The current study explored the relationship between these two phenotypes using a large population-based twin sample. In total, 940 monozygotic and 903 dizygotic female twin pairs were included in the analyses. The presence of dyslexia and anxiety was determined by self-report of diagnosis by a health professional. Tetrachoric correlations confirmed an association between the two phenotypes, but suggested that there was no evidence for shared genetic risks. Bivariate twin modelling corroborated this finding and indicated the relationship between dyslexia and anxiety is mediated by shared environmental factors. Future research should seek to identifying the environmental factors that increase the vulnerability of individuals with dyslexia to emotional problems should be a priority for future research.

  10. Clinically significant fatigue: prevalence and associated factors in an international sample of adults with multiple sclerosis recruited via the internet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey J Weiland

    Full Text Available Fatigue contributes a significant burden of disease for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS. Modifiable lifestyle factors have been recognized as having a role in a range of morbidity outcomes in PwMS. There is significant potential to prevent and treat fatigue in PwMS by addressing modifiable risk factors.To explore the associations between clinically significant fatigue and demographic factors, clinical factors (health-related quality of life, disability and relapse rate and modifiable lifestyle, disease-modifying drugs (DMD and supplement use in a large international sample of PwMS.PwMS were recruited to the study via Web 2.0 platforms and completed a comprehensive survey measuring demographic, lifestyle and clinical characteristics, including health-related quality of life, disability, and relapse rate.Of 2469 participants with confirmed MS, 2138 (86.6% completed a validated measure of clinically significant fatigue, the Fatigue Severity Scale. Participants were predominantly female from English speaking countries, with relatively high levels of education, and due to recruitment methods may have been highly pro-active about engaging in lifestyle management and self-help. Approximately two thirds of our sample (1402/2138; 65.6% (95% CI 63.7-67.7 screened positive for clinically significant fatigue. Bivariate associations were present between clinically significant fatigue and several demographic, clinical, lifestyle, and medication variables. After controlling for level of disability and a range of stable socio-demographic variables, we found increased odds of fatigue associated with obesity, DMD use, poor diet, and reduced odds of fatigue with exercise, fish consumption, moderate alcohol use, and supplementation with vitamin D and flaxseed oil.This study supports strong and significant associations between clinically significant fatigue and modifiable lifestyle factors. Longitudinal follow-up of this sample may help clarify the contribution

  11. Associations between work family conflict, emotional exhaustion, musculoskeletal pain, and gastrointestinal problems in a sample of business travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Maria Therese; Rundmo, Torbjørn

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the associations among work-family conflict (WFC), emotional exhaustion, musculoskeletal (MS) pain, and gastrointestinal problems on a sample of business travelers (n = 2,093). An additional aim was to examine differences in the mentioned relationships among three traveler groups: commuters, national travelers, and international travelers. The study was conducted in a large Norwegian oil and gas company, and the company's business travel database was utilized to examine business travel. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed significant relations between WFC and emotional exhaustion and between emotional exhaustion and health problems. Contrary to the expectations, no direct association was found between WFC and health problems. However, we found that emotional exhaustion mediated the relation between WFC and health outcomes. The results from multi-group analysis revealed that associations among WFC, emotional exhaustion, and health-outcomes showed a similar pattern for commuters, national travelers, and international travelers. However, the association between emotional exhaustion and MS pain proved to be significantly stronger for the commuter group compared to the national and international travel groups. Practical implications and the consequences of these findings for future research are discussed.

  12. Association of CYBA rs7195830 polymorphism with estimated glomerular filtration rate in an adult Han sample from Jiangsu province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Kuan-lu; ZHANG Hai-feng; ZHU Zhen-yan; YAO Wen-ming; SHEN Jie; LIANG Ning-xia; GONG Lei

    2013-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species are thought to contribute to the development of renal damage.The P22phox subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAPDH) oxidase,encoded by the cytochrome b245α polypeptide gene,CYBA,plays a key role in superoxide anion production.We investigated the association of CYBA rs7195830 polymorphism with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the role it plays in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a Han Chinese sample.Methods The Gaoyou study enrolled 4473 participants.Serum levels of creatinine were measured and eGFR was estimated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations.The CYBA polymorphisms were genotyped.Then we investigated the association between eGFR and the rs7195830 polymorphism in the recessive model.Results The AA genotype of rs7195830 was associated with significantly lower values of eGFR compared with the GG and AG genotypes ((102.76±17.07) ml·min-1·1.73 m2 vs.(105.08±16.30) ml·min-1·1.73 m-2).The association remained significant in the recessive model after adjusting for age,gender,body mass index,smoking,hypertension,diabetes mellitus,uric acid,triglyceride,low density lipoprotein cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (β=1.666,P=0.031).The rs7195832 AA genotype was an independent risk factor for CKD:eGFR <60 ml·min-1·1.73 m2 (odds ratio=3.32; 95% C/=1.21-9.13).Conclusion The AA genotype of rs7195830 is independently associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and is significantly associated with CKD.

  13. Genetic associations with intimate partner violence in a sample of hazardous drinking men in batterer intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Gregory L; McGeary, John E; Shorey, Ryan C; Knopik, Valerie S; Beaucage, Kayla; Temple, Jeff R

    2014-04-01

    The etiology of intimate partner violence (IPV) is multifactorial. However, etiological theories of IPV have rarely included potential genetic factors. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether a cumulative genetic score (CGS) containing the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and the human serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) was associated with IPV perpetration after accounting for the effects of alcohol problems, drug problems, age, and length of relationship. We obtained DNA from 97 men in batterer intervention programs in the state of Rhode Island. In the full sample, the CGS was significantly associated with physical and psychological aggression and injuries caused to one's partner, even after controlling for the effects of alcohol problems, drug problems, age, and length of relationship. Two of the men in the sample likely had Klinefelter's syndrome, and analyses were repeated excluding these two individuals, leading to similar results. The implications of the genetic findings for the etiology and treatment of IPV among men in batterer intervention programs are briefly discussed.

  14. Average Properties of a Large Sample of z_abs ~ z_em associated Mg II Absorption Line Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Berk, D Vanden; York, D G; Richards, G T; Lundgren, B; Alsayyad, Y; Kulkarni, V P; Subba-Rao, M; Schneider, D P; Heckman, T; Anderson, S; Crotts, A P S; Frieman, J; Stoughton, C; Lauroesch, J T; Hall, P B; Meiksin, A; Steffing, M; Vanlandingham, J

    2008-01-01

    We have studied a sample of 415 associated (z_ab z_em; relative velocity with respect to QSO 3000km/s), so as to understand their origin. From the analysis of the composite spectra, as well as from the comparison of measured equivalent widths in individual spectra, we conclude that the associated Mg II absorbers have higher apparent ionization, measured by the strength of the C IV absorption lines compared to the Mg II absorption lines, than the intervening absorbers. The ionization so measured appears to be related to apparent ejection velocity, being lower as the apparent ejection velocity is more and more positive. There is clear evidence, from the composite spectra, for SMC like dust attenuation in these systems; the 2175AA absorption feature is not present. The extinction is almost twice that observed in the similarly selected sample of intervening systems. We reconfirm that QSOs with non-zero FIRST radio flux are intrinsically redder than the QSOs with no detection in the FIRST survey. The incidence of ...

  15. Lack of association between digit ratio (2D:4D) and assertiveness: replication in a large sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Findings regarding within-sex associations of digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative pointer to long-lasting effects of prenatal androgen action, and sexually differentiated personality traits have generally been inconsistent or unreplicable, suggesting that effects in this domain, if any, are likely small. In contrast to evidence from Wilson's important 1983 study, a forerunner of modern 2D:4D research, two recent studies in 2005 and 2008 by Freeman, et al. and Hampson, et al. showed assertiveness, a presumably male-typed personality trait, was not associated with 2D:4D; however, these studies were clearly statistically underpowered. Hence this study examined this question anew, based on a large sample of 491 men and 627 women. Assertiveness was only modestly sexually differentiated, favoring men, and a positive correlate of age and education and a negative correlate of weight and Body Mass Index among women, but not men. Replicating the two prior studies, 2D:4D was throughout unrelated to assertiveness scores. This null finding was preserved with controls for correlates of assertiveness, also in nonparametric analysis and with tests for curvilinear relations. Discussed are implications of this specific null finding, now replicated in a large sample, for studies of 2D:4D and personality in general and novel research approaches to proceed in this field.

  16. Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Agha W; Sulyok, Michael; Böhm, Josef

    2015-06-12

    Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals in Pakistan. All the cake samples were confirmed to be from early maturing cotton varieties (maturing prior to or during Monsoon). A survey of the resource persons indicated that the feeding problems with cottonseed cake appeared after 4-5 months of post-production storage. All the cake samples had heavy bacterial counts, and contaminated with over a dozen different fungal genera. Screening for toxins revealed co-contamination with toxic levels of nearly a dozen mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 + B2 (556 to 5574 ppb), ochratoxin A + B (47 to 2335 ppb), cyclopiazonic acid (1090 to 6706 ppb), equisetin (2226 to 12672 ppb), rubrofusarin (81 to 1125), tenuazonic acid (549 to 9882 ppb), 3-nitropropionic acid (111 to 1032 ppb), and citrinin (29 to 359 ppb). Two buffalo calves in a diagnostic feed trial also showed signs of complex toxicity. These results indicate that inappropriate processing and storage of the cake, in the typical conditions of the subcontinent, could be the main contributory factors regarding the low quality of cottonseed cake.

  17. Prevalence and psychosocial risk factors associated with internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min-Pei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students and to identify any associated psychosocial risk factors. The present study was constructed using a cross-sectional design with 3,616 participants. Participants were surveyed during the middle of the spring and fall semesters and recruited from colleges around Taiwan using stratified and cluster random sampling methods. Associations between Internet addiction and psychosocial risk factors were examined using stepwise logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of Internet addiction was found to be 15.3 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 14.1 percent to 16.5 percent). More depressive symptoms, higher positive outcome expectancy of Internet use, higher Internet usage time, lower refusal self-efficacy of Internet use, higher impulsivity, lower satisfaction with academic performance, being male, and insecure attachment style were positively correlated with Internet addiction. The prevalence of Internet addiction among college students in Taiwan was high, and the variables mentioned were independently predictive in the logistic regression analysis. This study can be used as a reference for policy making regarding the design of Internet addiction prevention programs and can also aid in the development of strategies designed to help Internet-addicted college students.

  18. The prevalence of compulsive hoarding and its association with compulsive buying in a German population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mitchell, James E; Crosby, Ross D; Glaesmer, Heide; de Zwaan, Martina

    2009-08-01

    The aims of the study were to estimate the prevalence rate of compulsive hoarding, and to determine the association between compulsive hoarding and compulsive buying in a nationally representative sample of the German population (N = 2307). Compulsive hoarding was assessed with the German version of the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R; Frost, R.O., Steketee, G., & Grisham, J. (2004). Measurement of compulsive hoarding: saving inventory-revised. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 1163-1182.). The point prevalence of compulsive hoarding was estimated to be 4.6%. Individuals with compulsive hoarding did not differ significantly from those without compulsive hoarding regarding age, gender, and other sociodemographic characteristics. Significant correlations were found between the compulsive hoarding and the compulsive buying measures. Participants with compulsive hoarding reported a higher propensity to compulsive buying than respondents without hoarding. About two thirds of participants classified as having compulsive hoarding were also defined as suffering from compulsive buying. In summary, these results suggest that compulsive hoarding may be relatively prevalent in Germany and they confirm the close association between compulsive hoarding and compulsive buying through the investigation of a large scale representative sample.

  19. Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agha W. Yunus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals in Pakistan. All the cake samples were confirmed to be from early maturing cotton varieties (maturing prior to or during Monsoon. A survey of the resource persons indicated that the feeding problems with cottonseed cake appeared after 4–5 months of post-production storage. All the cake samples had heavy bacterial counts, and contaminated with over a dozen different fungal genera. Screening for toxins revealed co-contamination with toxic levels of nearly a dozen mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 + B2 (556 to 5574 ppb, ochratoxin A + B (47 to 2335 ppb, cyclopiazonic acid (1090 to 6706 ppb, equisetin (2226 to 12672 ppb, rubrofusarin (81 to 1125, tenuazonic acid (549 to 9882 ppb, 3-nitropropionic acid (111 to 1032 ppb, and citrinin (29 to 359 ppb. Two buffalo calves in a diagnostic feed trial also showed signs of complex toxicity. These results indicate that inappropriate processing and storage of the cake, in the typical conditions of the subcontinent, could be the main contributory factors regarding the low quality of cottonseed cake.

  20. Primary source of income is associated with differences in HIV risk behaviors in street-recruited samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien, E James; Ross, Michael W; Williams, Mark L; Meshack, Angela F; Fernández-Esquer, Maria E; Peters, Ronald J; Ogungbade, GO

    2004-06-17

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between primary source of income and HIV risk behaviors and the racial/ethnic differences in risk behavior profiles among disadvantaged populations have not been fully explored. This is unusual given that the phenomenon of higher risk in more disadvantaged populations is well-known but the mechanisms remain unclear. We examined the relationship between primary source of income and differences in HIV risk behaviors among four racial/ethnic groups in the southern United States. METHODS: Self-reported data on primary source of income and HIV risk behaviors were collected from 1494 African American, Hispanic, Asian, and White men and women in places of public congregation in Houston, Texas. Data were analyzed using calculation of percentages and by chi-square tests with Yates correction for discontinuity where appropriate. RESULTS: Data revealed that a higher proportion of whites were involved in sex for money exchanges compared to the other racial groups in this sample. The data suggest that similar street sampling approaches are likely to recruit different proportions of people by primary income source and by ethnicity. It may be that the study locations sampled are likely to preferentially attract those involved in illegal activities, specifically the white population involved in sex for drug or money exchanges. Research evidence has shown that people construct highly evolved sexual marketplaces that are localized and most unlikely to cross racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic or geographical boundaries. Thus, the areas that we sampled may have straddled a white sexual marketplace more than that of the other groups, leading to an over-representation of sex exchange in this group. Drug use was highest among those with illegal primary sources of income (sex exchange and drug dealing and theft), and they were also those most likely to have injected drugs rather than administered them by any other route (p primary source of income category. The

  1. A sampling and analytical approach to develop spatial distribution models for sagebrush-associated species: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Matthias; Hanser, Steven E.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Nielsen, Scott E.; Cade, Brian S.; Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Leu, Matthias; Knick, Steven T.; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding multi-scale floral and faunal responses to human land use is crucial for informing natural resource management and conservation planning. However, our knowledge on how land use influences sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems is limited primarily to site-specific studies. To fill this void, studies across large regions are needed that address how species are distributed relative to type, extent, and intensity of land use. We present a study design for the Wyoming Basin Ecoregional Assessment (WBEA) to sample sagebrush-associated flora and fauna along a land cover-human land use gradient. To minimize field costs, we sampled various taxonomic groups simultaneously on transects (ungulates and lagomorphs), point counts (song birds), and area-searches of 7.29-ha survey blocks (pellet counts, burrow counts, reptile surveys, medium-sized mammals, ant mounds, rodent trapping, and vegetation sampling of native and exotic plants). We then present an exploratory approach to develop species occurrence and abundance models when a priori model building is not an option. Our study design has broad applications for large-scale evaluations of arid ecosystems.

  2. Fumonisin contamination of a corn sample associated with the induction of hepatocarcinogenesis in rats-role of dietary deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderblom, W C A; Rheeder, J P; Leggott, N; Stockenstrom, S; Humphreys, J; Shephard, G S; Marasas, W F O

    2004-03-01

    A corn sample associated with a field outbreak of equine leukoencephalomalacia in Pennsylvania, USA, during 1983/1984 and induced hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic effects when fed to male Fischer rats was analyzed mycologically and chemically for the presence of fumonisins (FB), hydrolysed FB derivatives and aflatoxins (AFB). Fusarium verticillioides was found to be the predominant fungal contaminant in the corn sample but Aspergillus flavus was also present. Trace amounts (0.1 microg/kg) of AFB(1) and AFB(2) and a total FB level of 33.5 mg/kg (FB(1):FB(2):FB(3) ratio of 9:2.3:1) were found. No hydrolysed FB derivatives or AFG(1) and AFG(2) were detected. Based on the chemical stability of the fumonisins in different corn cultures of F. verticillioides kept at 4 degrees C over a period of 13-20 years, a level of approximately 55 mg/kg of total FB is estimated in the original corn sample. A possible role of certain dietary constituents such as the high protein content and deficiencies in certain micronutrients is evaluated to address differences in the organ-specific toxicity of FB(1) in rats using commercial, semi-purified, purified and corn-only diets.

  3. Examining the associations between DSM-5 section III antisocial personality disorder traits and psychopathy in community and university samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jaime L; Sellbom, Martin; Wygant, Dustin B; Salekin, Randall T; Krueger, Robert F

    2014-10-01

    The current investigation examined the associations between personality traits representing DSM-5 Section III Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD), its psychopathy specifier, and contemporary models of psychopathic personality disorder. We used two samples consisting of university students (n = 463) and community-dwelling participants (n = 148) recruited for subclinical psychopathic proclivities. Both samples were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (Krueger et al., 2012), Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (Patrick, 2010), and versions of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). University students also completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders-Personality Questionnaire (First, Gibbon, Spitzer, Williams, & Benjamin, 1997). Across both samples, the Section III ASPD traits were moderately strongly correlated with psychopathy measures, except the fearless-dominance/boldness domain. However, as would be expected, traits representing the Section III psychopathy specifier accounted for a substantial amount of variance within this domain. Furthermore, additional DSM-5 Section III personality traits augmented the characterization of psychopathy from the PPI and Triarchic perspectives.

  4. Global distribution of polymorphisms associated with delayed Plasmodium falciparum parasite clearance following artemisinin treatment: genotyping of archive blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Kenji; Culleton, Richard; Hisaoka, Teruhiko; Endo, Hiroyoshi; Mita, Toshihiro

    2015-06-01

    The recent emergence and spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum isolates is a growing concern for global malaria-control efforts. A recent genome-wide analysis study identified two SNPs at genomic positions MAL10-688956 and MAL13-1718319, which are linked to delayed clearance of parasites following artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). It is expected that continuous artemisinin pressure will affect the distribution of these SNPs. Here, we investigate the worldwide distribution of these SNPs using a large number of archived samples in order to generate baseline data from the period before the emergence of ACT resistance. The presence of SNPs in MAL10-688956 and MAL13-1718319 was assessed by nested PCR RFLP and direct DNA sequencing using 653 global P. falciparum samples obtained before the reported emergence of ACT resistance. SNPs at MAL10-688956 and MAL13-1718319 associated with delayed parasite clearance following ACT administration were observed in 8% and 3% of parasites, respectively, mostly in Cambodia and Thailand. Parasites harbouring both SNPs were found in only eight (1%) isolates, all of which were from Cambodia and Thailand. Linkage disequilibrium was detected between MAL10-688956 and MAL13-1718319, suggesting that this SNP combination may have been selected by ACT drug pressure. Neither of the SNPs associated with delayed parasite clearance were observed in samples from Africa or South America. Baseline information of the geographical difference of MAL10-688956 and MAL13-1718319 SNPs provides a solid basis for assessing whether these SNPs are selected by artemisinin-based combination therapies.

  5. Dissociative Experiences are Associated with Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in a Non-clinical Sample: A Latent Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOYSAN, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There has been a burgeoning literature considering the significant associations between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dissociative experiences. In this study, the relationsips between dissociative symtomotology and dimensions of obsessive-compulsive symptoms were examined in homogeneous sub-groups obtained with latent class algorithm in an undergraduate Turkish sample. Method Latent profile analysis, a recently developed classification method based on latent class analysis, was applied to the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) item-response data from 2976 undergraduates. Differences in severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, anxiety and depression across groups were evaluated by running multinomial logistic regression analyses. Associations between latent class probabilities and psychological variables in terms of obsessive-compulsive sub-types, anxiety, and depression were assessed by computing Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficients. Results The findings of the latent profile analysis supported further evidence for discontinuity model of dissociative experiences. The analysis empirically justified the distinction among three sub-groups based on the DES items. A marked proportion of the sample (42%) was assigned to the high dissociative class. In the further analyses, all sub-types of obsessive-compulsive symptoms significantly differed across latent classes. Regarding the relationships between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dissociative symptomatology, low dissociation appeared to be a buffering factor dealing with obsessive-compulsive symptoms; whereas high dissociation appeared to be significantly associated with high levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Conclusion It is concluded that the concept of dissociation can be best understood in a typological approach that dissociative symptomatology not only exacerbates obsessive-compulsive symptoms but also serves as an adaptive coping mechanism. PMID:28360635

  6. Impact of allergy treatment on the association between allergies and mood and anxiety in a population sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Renee D; Galea, Sandro; Perzanowski, Matthew; Jacobi, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested an association between allergy and mood and anxiety disorders. Yet, extant work suffers from methodologic limitations. Objective To investigate the association between physician diagnosed allergy and DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders in the general population, and to examine the role of allergy treatment in this relationship. Methods Data were drawn from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey, a population-based, representative sample of 4,181 adults aged 18-65 in Germany. Allergy was diagnosed by physicians during medical examination and mental disorders were diagnosed using the CIDI. Results Allergy was associated with an increased prevalence of any anxiety disorder (OR=1.3 (1.1, 1.6)), panic attacks (OR=1.6 (1.1, 2.1)), panic disorder (OR=1.6 (1.01, 2.3)), GAD (OR=1.8 (1.1, 3.0)), any mood disorder (OR= 1.4 (1.1, 1.7)), depression (OR=1.4 (1.1, 1.7)), and bipolar disorder (OR=2.0, (1.0, 3.8)). After adjusting for desensitization treatment status, these relationships were no longer significant. Those treated for allergy were significantly less likely to have any mood or anxiety disorder (OR=0.65 (0.4, 0.96)), compared to those untreated. All relationships were adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic status (SES). Conclusions & Clinical Relevance These findings provide the first evidence of a link between physician diagnosed allergy and DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders in a representative sample. Treatment for allergy may mitigate much of this relationship. PMID:23181792

  7. Moderators of the association between discrimination and alcohol consumption: findings from a representative sample of Brazilian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Isabela Zeni; Bastos, João Luiz; Celeste, Roger Keller

    2015-01-01

    Few studies about discrimination and patterns of alcohol consumption among youth populations have been conducted outside the United States addressing different types of discriminatory experiences, in addition to racially motivated events. This study investigated moderators of the association between discrimination attributed to single and multiple reasons and patterns of alcohol consumption. This cross-sectional study enrolled a representative sample (n = 1,264) of undergraduate students from Florianópolis, southern Brazil, in 2013. Analyses included adjustment of associations for covariates in ordinal logistic regression models and the examination of effect modification by common mental disorders, year of study and age. Discrimination was reported by 65.8% of the students, and alcohol consumption, by 80.0%. Over half of the students reported being discriminated against for two or more reasons. The odds of alcohol-related problems were higher among lastyear students that reported discrimination (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.0-3.4) or multiple reasons for being discriminated against (OR = 2.3, 95%CI 1.3- 4.3), when compared to first-year students that did not report discrimination. For the whole sample, there were no associations between discrimination, discrimination attributed to multiple reasons and patterns of alcohol consumption (OR = 1.0, 95%CI 0.8-1.4; and OR = 0.9, 95%CI 0.5-1.6). The effects of discrimination on the patterns of alcohol consumption are seen at a critical period in university life, specifically during the completion of undergraduate studies.

  8. Drinking locations and alcohol-related harm: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations in a sample of young Swiss men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Deline, Stéphane; N'Goran, Alexandra A; Henchoz, Yves; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol consumption--in particular drinking volume (DV) and risky single occasion drinking (RSOD)--has been related to a wide range of negative consequences and health problems. Previous studies also suggested that drinking in certain locations may be more strongly associated with the occurrence of alcohol-related harm than drinking in others. However, they were conducted in countries culturally and legally different from European countries and were limited to cross-sectional designs. This study investigates the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of alcohol-related harm with DVs in different locations in a sample of young Swiss men. A representative sample of 4536 young Swiss male drinkers completed baseline and 15-month follow-up questionnaires. These assessed DVs in 11 locations, alcohol-related harm (i.e. number of alcohol-related consequences and alcohol use disorder criteria) and frequency of RSOD. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of alcohol-related harm with DVs in each location were tested using regression models, with and without adjustment for frequency of RSOD. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses showed significant positive associations between alcohol-related harm and DVs at friends' homes, in discos/nightclubs and in outdoor public places, when controlling for frequency of RSOD. In contrast, the contribution of DVs at one's own home and in restaurants was consistently not significant when adjusted for frequency of RSOD. When controlling for RSOD, associations between alcohol-related harm and DVs in bars/pubs, when playing sports, during other leisure activities, at cinemas/theatres, during sporting events, and during special events were not consistent between cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Results suggest that prevention interventions should not only target reducing the overall volume of alcohol consumed and the frequency of RSOD in general, but they should additionally focus on limiting alcohol consumption

  9. Lack of association between alcohol-dependence and D3 dopamine receptor gene in three independent samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorwood, P.; Feingold, J. [Universite Paris VII (France); Ades, J. [Paris Hospital Louis Mourier (France)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    Numerous studies on the involvement of dopamine receptors in the genetics of alcoholism focused on associations between a polymorphism of the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene and alcohol dependence. However, the results of these studies are conflicting. Another receptor, the D3 dopamine receptor (DRD3), may be of additional interest since it is specifically located in the limbic area, and in particular in the nucleus accumbens which plays a significant role in the reward process of addiction behavior. We thus tested the association in three independent samples of alcoholic patients, with different origins and various inclusion criteria. No difference in the DRD3 gene polymorphism emerged between controls and alcoholic patients, regardless of their origin, inclusion criteria, or presence or absence of the DRD2 TaqI A1-allele. Despite the fact that more information could have been considered and that association studies provide limited information, there is good evidence that this DRD3 polymorphism does not play a major role in the genetic component of alcoholism. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. National sample survey organization survey report: An estimation of prevalence of mental illness and its association with age in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Ram; Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T

    2015-01-01

    The Indian population suffers with significant burden of mental illness. The prevalence rate and its association with age and other demographic indicators are needed for planning purpose. This study attempted to calculate age-wise prevalence of mental illness for rural and urban settings, and its association with age. Data published in National Sample Survey Organization (2002) report on disability is used for the analysis. Spearman correlation for strength of association, z-test for difference in prevalence, and regression statistics for predicting the prevalence rate of mental illness are used. Overall population have 14.9/1000 prevalence of mental illness. It is higher in rural setting 17.1/1000 than urban 12.7/1000 (P < 0.001). There is a strong correlation found with age in rural (ϱ = 0.910, P = 0.001) and urban (ϱ = 0.940, P = 0.001). Results of this study confirm other epidemiological research in India. Large-population epidemiological studies are recommended.

  11. Are children like werewolves? Full moon and its association with sleep and activity behaviors in an international sample of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe eChaput

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify if the full moon is associated with sleep and activity behaviors, we used a 12-country study providing 33710 24-hour accelerometer recordings of sleep and activity. The present observational, cross-sectional study included 5812 children ages 9-11 years from study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of human development (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, United Kingdom and United States. Three moon phases were used in this analysis: full moon (±4 days; reference, half moon (±5-9 days and new moon (±10-14 days from nearest full moon. Nocturnal sleep duration, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, light-intensity physical activity (LPA and total sedentary time (SED were monitored over 7 consecutive days using a waist-worn accelerometer worn 24 hours a day. Only sleep duration was found to significantly differ between moon phases (~5 min per night shorter during full moon compared to new moon. Differences in MVPA, LPA and SED between moon phases were negligible and non-significant (<2 min per day difference. There was no difference in the associations between study sites. In conclusion, sleep duration was 1% shorter at full moon compared to new moon while activity behaviors were not significantly associated with the lunar cycle in this global sample of children. Whether this seemingly minimal difference is clinically meaningful is questionable.

  12. Temporal trends in percutaneous coronary intervention--associated acute cerebrovascular accident (from the 1998 to 2008 Nationwide Inpatient Sample Database).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaraju, Anupama; Yu, Changhong; Kattan, Michael W; Xie, Hui; Shroff, Adhir R; Vidovich, Mladen I

    2014-07-15

    Acute cerebrovascular accident (CVA) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome and coronary artery disease is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1998 to 2008 was used to identify 1,552,602 PCIs performed for acute coronary syndrome and coronary artery disease. We assessed temporal trends in the incidence, predictors, and prognostic impact of CVA in a broad range of patients undergoing PCI. The overall incidence of CVA was 0.56% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55 to 0.57). The incidence of CVA remained unchanged over the study period (adjusted p for trend=0.2271). The overall mortality rate in the CVA group was 10.76% (95% CI 10.1 to 11.4). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of CVA for in-hospital mortality was 7.74 (95% CI 7.00 to 8.57, pCVA included older age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.03, pCVA achieved a concordance index of 0.73 and was well calibrated. In conclusion, the incidence of CVA associated with PCI has remained unchanged from 1998 to 2008 in face of improved equipment, techniques, and adjunctive pharmacology. The risk of CVA-associated in-hospital mortality is high; however, this risk has decreased over the study period. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Temporal Trends in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Associated Acute Cerebrovascular Accident (From the 1998–2008 Nationwide Inpatient Sample [NIS] Database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaraju, Anupama; Yu, Changhong; Kattan, Michael W.; Xie, Hui; Shroff, Adhir R.; Vidovich, Mladen I.

    2014-01-01

    Acute cerebrovascular accident (CVA) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1998 to 2008 was utilized to identify 1,552,602 PCIs performed for ACS and CAD. We assessed temporal trends in the incidence, predictors and prognostic impact of CVA in a broad range of patients undergoing PCI. The overall incidence of CVA was 0.56% (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.55%–0.57%). The incidence of CVA remained unchanged over the study period (adjusted p for trend = 0.2271). The overall mortality in the CVA group was 10.76% (95% CI, 10.1%–11.4%). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of CVA for in-hospital mortality was 7.74 (95% CI, 7.00–8.57; pCVA included older age (OR, 1.03, 95% CI, 1.02–1.03; pCVA achieved a concordance index of 0.73 and was well calibrated. In conclusion, the incidence of CVA associated with PCI has remained unchanged from 1998–2008 in face of improved equipment, techniques and adjunctive pharmacology. The risk of CVA associated in-hospital mortality is high; however, this risk has declined over the study period. PMID:24952927

  14. A study on associations of Korean sample group for colors applied to the nuclear power plant control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, In Seok; Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea); Lee, Dhong Ha [Suwon University, Whasung (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    Colors are widely used to warn risk levels and to attract attention of the public. Korea Standard Nuclear Reactor Control Room (KSNRCR) also uses several colors to differentiate warnings, priorities, status, borders, and messages based on the HF010 guideline. However the previous studies showed that the general public not engaged in a specific job domain had different associations of colors as regulated in the standards or the guidelines. It is also expected that the general public not engaged in nuclear power plant industry will have different color association system from the color coding system applied to the KSNRCR. So, this study was performed to show whether there is any difference between color association of a sample Korean group and the color meanings specified in the HF010 guideline. The general public not engaged in the nuclear power plant industry have no idea of the color usage in the nuclear control room. So we converted the specific color usage situation into similar but general situations. In questionnaire, we gave subjects the general situation where color coding is appled and alternative colors which were applied to the HF010 guidelines. And we asked the subjects to choose the colors proper to the situation and to rank the colors according to the degree of suitability. A hundred college students participated in the experiment. 10 refs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  15. Genetic association study with metabolic syndrome and metabolic-related traits in a cross-sectional sample and a 10-year longitudinal sample of chinese elderly population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghui Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS has been known as partly heritable, while the number of genetic studies on MetS and metabolic-related traits among Chinese elderly was limited. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed among 2 014 aged participants from September 2009 to June 2010 in Beijing, China. An additional longitudinal study was carried out among the same study population from 2001 to 2010. Biochemical profile and anthropometric parameters of all the participants were measured. The associations of 23 SNPs located within 17 candidate genes (MTHFR, PPARγ, LPL, INSIG, TCF7L2, FTO, KCNJ11, JAZF1, CDKN2A/B, ADIPOQ, WFS1, CDKAL1, IGF2BP2, KCNQ1, MTNR1B, IRS1, ACE with overweight and obesity, diabetes, metabolic phenotypes, and MetS were examined in both studies. RESULTS: In this Chinese elderly population, prevalence of overweight, central obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and MetS were 48.3%, 71.0%, 32.4%, 75.7%, 68.3% and 54.5%, respectively. In the cross-sectional analyses, no SNP was found to be associated with MetS. Genotype TT of SNP rs4402960 within the gene IGF2BP2 was associated with overweight (odds ratio (OR  = 0.479, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.316-0.724, p = 0.001 and genotype CA of SNP rs1801131 within the gene MTHFR was associated with hypertension (OR = 1.560, 95% CI: 1.194-2.240, p = 0.001. However, these associations were not observed in the longitudinal analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The associations of SNP rs4402960 with overweight as well as the association of SNP rs1801131 with hypertension were found to be statistically significant. No SNP was identified to be associated with MetS in our study with statistical significance.

  16. Associations between parenting behavior and anxiety in a rodent model and a clinical sample: relationship to peripheral BDNF levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Molle, R; Portella, A K; Goldani, M Z; Kapczinski, F P; Leistner-Segal, S; Leistner-Segala, S; Salum, G A; Manfro, G G; Silveira, P P

    2012-01-01

    Adverse early-life environment is associated with anxiety-like behaviors and disorders. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is sensitive to this environment and could be a marker of underlying brain changes. We aimed at evaluating the development of anxiety-like behaviors in a rat model of early adversity, as well as the possible association with BDNF levels. Similar associations were investigated in a sample of adolescent humans. For the rat study, Wistar rat litters were divided into: early-life stress (ELS, limited access to nesting material) and control groups. Maternal behavior was observed from days 1 to 9 of life and, as adults, rats were subjected to behavioral testing and BDNF measurements in plasma, hippocampus, amygdala and periaqueductal gray. For the human study, 129 adolescents were evaluated for anxiety symptoms and perceived parental care. Serum BDNF levels and the Val66Met polymorphism of the BDNF gene were investigated. We found that ELS dams showed more pure contact, that is, contact with low care and high control, toward pups, and their adult offspring demonstrated higher anxiety-like behaviors and plasma BDNF. Also the pure contact correlated positively with adult peripheral BDNF. Similarly in humans, there was a positive correlation between maternal overprotection and serum BDNF only in Met carriers. We also found negative correlations between maternal warmth and separation anxiety, social phobia and school phobia. Finally, our translational approach revealed that ELS, mediated through variations in maternal care, is associated with anxiety in both rats and humans and increased peripheral BDNF may be marking these phenomena.

  17. Non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) in a random sampling community population and the association of NCCLs with occlusive wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Cai, D; Wang, F; He, D; Ma, L; Jin, Y; Que, K

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, risk factors and association of occlusive wear with non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) in the general Chinese population. A total of 1320 subjects were recruited, and multistage and random sampling methods of survey spots were performed. All age groups comprised similar numbers of participants and equal numbers of males and females. Each subject completed a structured interview, and all teeth of each subject were examined by a practitioner to determine NCCLs and occlusive wear. Binary logistic regression was conducted by analysing the association of risk factors with the occurrence of NCCLs. Bivariate correlation analysis was performed by determining the association of NCCLs dimension or depth with the range of occlusive wear facets. Clinical assessment showed that the overall prevalence of subjects diagnosed with NCCLs was 63%. The proportion of subjects or teeth with NCCLs significantly increased with age. Pre-molars were the most commonly affected teeth. Single variables and interactive effects of variables associated with the occurrence of NCCLs include the following: age group, intensity of toothbrushing, frequency of fresh fruit consumption and interactive effect between intensity of toothbrushing and frequency of fresh fruit consumption. A weak positive correlation of the grading index was found between NCCLs dimension, size or depth and range of occlusive wear facets. This study reported the higher prevalence of NCCLs in the general Chinese population. Implementation of a combined strategy to reduce risk factors of NCCLs could be more effective than individual techniques; meanwhile, the occurrence of NCCL could be related to the wear degree of occlusive defects in the population studied. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Associations of carotid intima-media thickness, tobacco smoking and overweight with hearing disorder in a general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, U; Baumeister, S E; Kessler, C; Völzke, H

    2007-11-01

    It has been argued that smoking or overweight might contribute to hearing disorder by atherogenic narrowing of the nutrient arteries to the cochlea. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a surrogate marker for generalized atherosclerosis. We analyzed a subgroup (n=2619) from a general population sample in north-eastern Germany aged 45-81 years (Study of Health in Pomerania, SHIP). Assessments included self-statements about hearing disorder and medical examinations of CIMT. Using ordinal logistic regression for data analysis and after adjustment for cigarettes per day, waist circumference, diabetes, exposure to noise, age and sex, we found CIMT remained a predictor of hearing disorder (odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.0-3.2). Cigarettes per day and waist circumference were related to CIMT but not to hearing disorder. The findings suggest a positive association between CIMT and hearing disorder.

  19. Associations of Social Support and Self-Efficacy with Quality of Life in a Sample of Older Adults with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Pamela G.; Clay, Olivio J.; Lee, Loretta T.; Vice, Jason; Ovalle, Fernando; Crowe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Older adults are disproportionately affected by diabetes, which is associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, decreased quality of life (QOL), and increased healthcare costs. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between social support, self-efficacy, and QOL in a sample of 187 older African Americans (AA) and Caucasians with diabetes. Greater satisfaction with social support related to diabetes, but not the amount of support received, was significantly correlated with QOL. In addition, persons with higher self-efficacy in managing diabetes had better QOL. In a covariate-adjusted regression model, self-efficacy remained a significant predictor of QOL. Findings suggest the potential importance of incorporating the self-efficacy concept within diabetes management and treatment in order to empower older adults living with diabetes to adhere to care. Further research is needed to determine whether improving self-efficacy among vulnerable older adult populations may positively influence QOL. PMID:26468654

  20. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal and Environmental Samples Associated with Small-Scale Poultry Farming in Northwestern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braykov, Nikolay P; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Grossman, Marissa; Zhang, Lixin; Vasco, Karla; Cevallos, William; Muñoz, Diana; Acevedo, Andrés; Moser, Kara A; Marrs, Carl F; Foxman, Betsy; Trostle, James; Trueba, Gabriel; Levy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The effects of animal agriculture on the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) are cross-cutting and thus require a multidisciplinary perspective. Here we use ecological, epidemiological, and ethnographic methods to examine populations of Escherichia coli circulating in the production poultry farming environment versus the domestic environment in rural Ecuador, where small-scale poultry production employing nontherapeutic antibiotics is increasingly common. We sampled 262 "production birds" (commercially raised broiler chickens and laying hens) and 455 "household birds" (raised for domestic use) and household and coop environmental samples from 17 villages between 2010 and 2013. We analyzed data on zones of inhibition from Kirby-Bauer tests, rather than established clinical breakpoints for AR, to distinguish between populations of organisms. We saw significantly higher levels of AR in bacteria from production versus household birds; resistance to either amoxicillin-clavulanate, cephalothin, cefotaxime, and gentamicin was found in 52.8% of production bird isolates and 16% of household ones. A strain jointly resistant to the 4 drugs was exclusive to a subset of isolates from production birds (7.6%) and coop surfaces (6.5%) and was associated with a particular purchase site. The prevalence of AR in production birds declined with bird age (P Ecuador, where such backyard poultry operations have become established over the past decade. Our previous research in the region suggests that introduction of AR bacteria through travel and commerce may be an important source of AR in villages of this region. This report extends the prior analysis by examining small-scale production chicken farming as a potential source of resistant strains. Our results suggest that AR strains associated with poultry production likely originate from sources outside the study area and that these outside sources might be a better place to target control efforts than local management practices.

  1. Using implicit association tests in age-heterogeneous samples: The importance of cognitive abilities and quad model processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Egloff, Boris; Riediger, Michaela

    2017-08-01

    Implicit association tests (IATs) are increasingly used to indirectly assess people's traits, attitudes, or other characteristics. In addition to measuring traits or attitudes, IAT scores also reflect differences in cognitive abilities because scores are based on reaction times (RTs) and errors. As cognitive abilities change with age, questions arise concerning the usage and interpretation of IATs for people of different age. To address these questions, the current study examined how cognitive abilities and cognitive processes (i.e., quad model parameters) contribute to IAT results in a large age-heterogeneous sample. Participants (N = 549; 51% female) in an age-stratified sample (range = 12-88 years) completed different IATs and 2 tasks to assess cognitive processing speed and verbal ability. From the IAT data, D2-scores were computed based on RTs, and quad process parameters (activation of associations, overcoming bias, detection, guessing) were estimated from individual error rates. Substantial IAT scores and quad processes except guessing varied with age. Quad processes AC and D predicted D2-scores of the content-specific IAT. Importantly, the effects of cognitive abilities and quad processes on IAT scores were not significantly moderated by participants' age. These findings suggest that IATs seem suitable for age-heterogeneous studies from adolescence to old age when IATs are constructed and analyzed appropriately, for example with D-scores and process parameters. We offer further insight into how D-scoring controls for method effects in IATs and what IAT scores capture in addition to implicit representations of characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Yoga and Pilates: Associations with body image and disordered eating behaviors in a population-based sample of young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Wall, Melanie; Loth, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between participating in mind-body activities (yoga/Pilates) and body dissatisfaction and disordered eating (unhealthy and extreme weight control practices and binge eating) in a population-based sample of young adults. Method The sample included 1030 young men and 1257 young women (mean age: 25.3 years, SD=1.7) who participated in Project EAT-III (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Results Among women, disordered eating was prevalent in yoga/Pilates participants and non-participants, with no differences between the groups. Men participating in yoga/Pilates were more likely to use extreme weight control behaviors (18.6% vs. 6.8%, p=.006) and binge eating (11.6% vs. 4.2%, p=.023), and marginally more likely to use unhealthy weight control behaviors (49.1% vs. 34.5%; p=.053), than non-participants after adjusting for sociodemographics, weight status, and overall physical activity. Discussion Findings suggest the importance of helping yoga/Pilates instructors recognize that their students may be at risk for disordered eating. PMID:20862694

  3. Screening of different sample types associated with sheep and cattle for the presence of nematophagous fungi in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kui-Zheng; Liu, Jun-Lin; Liu, Wei; Wang, Bo-Bo; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Long-Jie; Chen, Ming-Yue; Zhao, Ming-Wang; Wu, Jia-Yan; Li, Xiao-Shan; Yang, Jing; Wei, Shuan; Chen, Chun-Rong; Ma, Zhong-Ren; Xu, Chun-Lan; Wang, Feng; Hu, Qian-Lin; Fang, Wen-Xiu; Zheng, Tian-Hui; Wang, Yue-Ying; Zhu, Wen-Long; Li, Dan; Li, Qing; Zhang, Chao; Cai, Bing; Wang, Fan; Yang, Zai-Yun; Liu, Yan-Qiu

    2016-03-01

    A total of 1502 samples, including feces of sheep (793) and cattle (348), pasture soil (118), dung compost (147) and barn soil (96), were examined between October 2012 and August 2014 to discover potential strains of nematophagous fungi for the biological control of livestock-parasitic nematodes. These samples were collected from 87 sites located in 48 counties of 20 provinces (autonomous regions/municipalities) of China. Fungi were identified down to a species level. Four hundred and seventy-seven isolates, which were distributed in 8 genera and 28 taxa, were identified as nematophagous fungi. Nematode-trapping fungi included 17 species and one unidentified species of Arthrobotrys, two of Dactylella, Drechslerella dactyloides, and Duddingtonia flagrans. Five identified species and two unidentified species of endoparasitic fungi were isolated. The predominant species from all regions were Arthrobotrys oligospora, followed by Arthrobotrys musiformis, Arthrobotrys (Monacrosporium) thaumasiun, and Arthrobotrys (Monacrosporium) microscaphoides. Species with adhesive networks were the most frequently isolated. Among the endoparasitic fungi, Podocrella harposporifera (Harposporium anguillulae) was the most common species, followed by Harposporium lilliputanum and Harposporium arcuatum. Based on Shannon diversity index, the diversity levels of nematophagous fungi were relatively higher in samples associated with cattle, barn soil, and subtropical monsoon climate zone. Three species isolated from this study, namely, Duddingtonia flagrans, Arthrobotrys salina (Monacrosporium salinum), and Arthrobotrys oligospora var. sarmatica, are newly recorded in China, and 20 species (including one unidentified species) are newly recorded in sheep and cattle barn soils worldwide. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Personality Traits of Suicidality Are Associated with Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder in a Suicidal Women Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Ducasse

    Full Text Available Both Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD might increase the risk of suicidal behavior. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between personality dimensions specifically involved in suicidal vulnerability and PMS/PMDD.We collected data from 232 women consecutively hospitalized after a suicide attempt. We examined the relationship between impulsivity, aggressiveness/hostility, hopelessness, trait anger, affect intensity, emotional lability, and PMS/PMDD. Notably, we created an algorithm from the shortened Premenstrual Assessment form in order to assess PMDD status.The proportions of PMS and PMDD among female suicide attempters were 50% and 23% respectively. Women with PMS or PMDD were more likely to endorse most of these personality traits to than those without even after controlling for potential confounders. We found an impulsive-aggressive pattern of personality in women with PMS or PMDD, independently from the time of the menstrual cycle. Interestingly, trait anger remained associated with both PMS and PMDD independently of every other personality traits. The higher the anger level, the higher the risk was to suffer from both PMS and PMDD.This study demonstrates a strong, independent association between PMS/PMDD and trait anger among a representative sample of female suicide attempters. It is of major interest for clinicians in view of addressing a substantial public health problem among women of reproductive age.

  5. Associations Between Specific Negative Emotions and DSM-5 PTSD Among a National Sample of Interpersonal Trauma Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badour, Christal L; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2015-06-18

    The diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has undergone several significant changes corresponding with the recent implementation of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Many of these changes reflect a growing recognition that PTSD is characterized by a wide range of negative affective experiences that were underrepresented in prior conceptualizations of the disorder. The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of a new Criterion D symptom (D4-Negative Affect), which is aimed at assessing subjective problems with persistent negative emotion states (e.g., fear, anger, shame, guilt, horror) among a sample of 1,522 U.S. adults with a history of interpersonal trauma recruited from a national online panel. The prevalence of D4-Negative Affect was very high among individuals with assault-related PTSD (AR-PTSD) and in particular, was significantly higher than among PTSD negative individuals. Moreover, specific problems with anger, shame, and fear were significantly and uniquely associated with AR-PTSD. Important differences also emerged as a function of gender and interpersonal trauma history. These findings provide initial empirical support for the expanded emphasis on assessing a wide range of negative affective experiences that may be associated with PTSD in DSM-5.

  6. Streptococcus parauberis associated with modified atmosphere packaged broiler meat products and air samples from a poultry meat processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koort, Joanna; Coenye, Tom; Vandamme, Peter; Björkroth, Johanna

    2006-02-15

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from marinated or non-marinated, modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) broiler leg products and air samples of a large-scale broiler meat processing plant were identified and analyzed for their phenotypic properties. Previously, these strains had been found to be coccal LAB. However, the use of a 16 and 23S rRNA gene RFLP database had not resulted in species identification because none of the typically meat-associated LAB type strains had clustered together with these strains in the numerical analysis of the RFLP patterns. To establish the taxonomic position of these isolates, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, numerical analysis of ribopatterns, and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments were done. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of three isolates possessed the highest similarities (over 99%) with the sequence of S. parauberis type strain. However, in the numerical analysis of HindIII ribopatterns, the type strain did not cluster together with these isolates. Reassociation values between S. parauberis type or reference strain and the strains studied varied from 82 to 97%, confirming that these strains belong to S. parauberis. Unexpectedly, most of the broiler meat-originating strains studied for their phenotypical properties did not utilize lactose at all and the same strains fermented also galactose very weakly, properties considered atypical for S. parauberis. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of lactose negative S. parauberis strains and also the first report associating S. parauberis with broiler slaughter and meat products.

  7. Associations Between Specific Negative Emotions and DSM-5 PTSD Among a National Sample of Interpersonal Trauma Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badour, Christal L.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has undergone several significant changes corresponding with the recent implementation of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Many of these changes reflect a growing recognition that PTSD is characterized by a wide range of negative affective experiences that were underrepresented in prior conceptualizations of the disorder. The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of a new Criterion D symptom (D4-Negative Affect), which is aimed at assessing subjective problems with persistent negative emotion states (e.g., fear, anger, shame, guilt, horror) among a sample of 1,522 U.S. adults with a history of interpersonal trauma recruited from a national online panel. The prevalence of D4-Negative Affect was very high among individuals with assault-related PTSD (AR-PTSD) and in particular, was significantly higher than among PTSD negative individuals. Moreover, specific problems with anger, shame, and fear were significantly and uniquely associated with AR-PTSD. Important differences also emerged as a function of gender and interpersonal trauma history. These findings provide initial empirical support for the expanded emphasis on assessing a wide range of negative affective experiences that may be associated with PTSD in DSM-5. PMID:26088902

  8. Depression, Stress and Body Fat are Associated with Binge Eating in a Community Sample of African American and Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Wilson, Penny L.; O’Connor, Daniel P.; Rhode, Paula C.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among depressive symptoms, stress and severity of binge eating symptoms in a community sample of African American and Hispanic or Latina women. Method Women (African American n=127, Hispanic or Latina n=44) completed measures of body composition, stress, depression, and binge eating. Results Scores on a depressive symptom scale indicated that 24.0% of participants exhibited clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms. Mean binge eating scores were below the threshold for clinically diagnosed binge eating (12.99±7.90). Mean stressful event scores were 25.86±14.26 and the average stress impact score was 78.36±55.43. Linear regression models found that body composition, stress impact score, and being classified as having clinically significant levels of depression, were associated with severity of binge eating symptoms. Conclusion Higher levels of percent body fat, a CES-D score ≥16 and higher WSI-Impact scores were associated with greater severity of binge eating symptoms. PMID:23760851

  9. Are Children Like Werewolves? Full Moon and Its Association with Sleep and Activity Behaviors in an International Sample of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Weippert, Madyson; LeBlanc, Allana G; Hjorth, Mads F; Michaelsen, Kim F; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Tremblay, Mark S; Barreira, Tiago V; Broyles, Stephanie T; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Sjödin, Anders M

    2016-01-01

    In order to verify if the full moon is associated with sleep and activity behaviors, we used a 12-country study providing 33,710 24-h accelerometer recordings of sleep and activity. The present observational, cross-sectional study included 5812 children ages 9-11 years from study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of human development (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, United Kingdom, and United States). Three moon phases were used in this analysis: full moon (±4 days; reference), half moon (±5-9 days), and new moon (±10-14 days) from nearest full moon. Nocturnal sleep duration, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and total sedentary time (SED) were monitored over seven consecutive days using a waist-worn accelerometer worn 24 h a day. Only sleep duration was found to significantly differ between moon phases (~5 min/night shorter during full moon compared to new moon). Differences in MVPA, LPA, and SED between moon phases were negligible and non-significant (full moon compared to new moon, while activity behaviors were not significantly associated with the lunar cycle in this global sample of children. Whether this seemingly minimal difference is clinically meaningful is questionable.

  10. Lack of association between SNPs in the NEUROD2 gene and alcohol dependence in a German patient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Peter; Preuss, Ulrich W; Koller, Gabrielle; Bondy, Brigitta; Soyka, Michael

    2011-05-15

    Results of a human post mortem study performed by our own group have suggested that the transcription factor NEUROD2, which plays a role in neuronal development, as well as in the development of anxiety and risk behavior in mice, might be a susceptibility factor for addictive disorders. Therefore the aim of the present study was to analyze a possible relation between genetic variants in the NEUROD2 gene and alcohol dependence in a sample of the Munich Gene Bank of Alcoholism (MGBA). We performed single SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) and haplotype studies in 430 alcohol-dependent patients and 365 healthy controls with four SNPs covering the gene region of NEUROD2. Neither single SNP nor haplotype analysis could detect significant associations with alcohol dependence. Additionally we could not detect any relation of the analyzed genetic variants to Cloninger's Type 1/2 or Babor's Type A/B classification, to the age of onset or to the amount of alcohol intake. Our results do not provide evidence for an involvement of NEUROD2 polymorphisms in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence. Further association studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  11. Are Children Like Werewolves? Full Moon and Its Association with Sleep and Activity Behaviors in an International Sample of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Weippert, Madyson; LeBlanc, Allana G.; Hjorth, Mads F.; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Sjödin, Anders M.

    2016-01-01

    In order to verify if the full moon is associated with sleep and activity behaviors, we used a 12-country study providing 33,710 24-h accelerometer recordings of sleep and activity. The present observational, cross-sectional study included 5812 children ages 9–11 years from study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of human development (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, United Kingdom, and United States). Three moon phases were used in this analysis: full moon (±4 days; reference), half moon (±5–9 days), and new moon (±10–14 days) from nearest full moon. Nocturnal sleep duration, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and total sedentary time (SED) were monitored over seven consecutive days using a waist-worn accelerometer worn 24 h a day. Only sleep duration was found to significantly differ between moon phases (~5 min/night shorter during full moon compared to new moon). Differences in MVPA, LPA, and SED between moon phases were negligible and non-significant (<2 min/day difference). There was no difference in the associations between study sites. In conclusion, sleep duration was 1% shorter at full moon compared to new moon, while activity behaviors were not significantly associated with the lunar cycle in this global sample of children. Whether this seemingly minimal difference is clinically meaningful is questionable. PMID:27047907

  12. Association between Childhood Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome: Evidence from a Large Sample of Chinese Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Shan, Xiaoyi; Cheng, Hong; Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Tianyou; Zhao, Di

    2012-01-01

    Data about metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children is limited in China. We aimed to assess the prevalence of MetS related components, and their association with obesity. Data were collected as part of a representative study on MetS among 19593 children, aged 6–18 years old in Beijing. General obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI) and central obesity by waist circumference. Finger capillary blood tests were used to assess triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Vein blood samples were collected from a subsample of 3814 children aged 10–18 years to classify MetS. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation 2007 definition. The associations between MetS related components and the degree and type of obesity were tested using logistic regression models. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, high blood pressure, elevated TG, TC and IFG were13.6%, 5.8%, 8.5%, 8.8%, 1.2% and 2.5%, respectively. Compared with normal weight children, overweight and obese children were more likely to have other MetS related components. In the subsample of 3814 children aged 10–18 years, the prevalence of MetS was much higher in obese subjects than in their normal weight counterparts (27.6% vs. 0.2%). Children with both general and central obesity had the highest prevalence of MetS. Compared with normal weight children, overweight and obese children were more likely to have MetS (overweight: OR = 67.33, 95%CI = 21.32–212.61; obesity: OR = 249.99, 95% CI = 79.51–785.98). Prevalence of MetS related components has reached high level among Beijing children who were overweight or obese. The association between metabolic disorders and obesity was strong. PMID:23082159

  13. The association between temporomandibular disorders and suicide ideation in a representative sample of the South Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Don-Hun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate in a representative sample of South Koreans (1) the prevalence of and associations between general pain, temporomandibular disorders (TMD), and suicide ideation (SI), and (2) whether the associations between general pain, TMD, and SI differ according to cancer history. Data were from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV; N = 16,658). KNHANES IV participants provided reports regarding their cancer history, EQ-5D (a measure of health status from the EuroQoL Group), and TMD symptoms including clicking of one or both temporomandibular joints, pain, and mouth-opening limitation (MOL). Participants were assessed for any SI over the last 12 months, as a dependent variable. The independent variables were pain/discomfort (EQ-PD) reported by the subjects on the EQ-5D, severe TMD (tenderness or reduced jaw mobility once or more per week), and total TMD (occurrence of clicking, tenderness on palpation, or reduced jaw mobility [opening history were evaluated as covariates. The association of TMD with SI was assessed by the prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence intervals. In fully adjusted models, elevated PRs for SI were observed for each pain condition (PR = 1.26 for total TMD, PR = 1.35 for severe TMD, and PR = 1.75 for EQ-PD). In the subgroup analyses by cancer history, the PRs were higher in the cancer history (+) group; the order of magnitude was severe TMD (PR = 2.20), EQ-PD (PR = 2.16), and total TMD (PR = 2.02). Pain conditions, including TMD pain, might aggravate SI among those with a cancer history. These findings add to a growing body of evidence indicating that TMD warrants further attention in relation to suicide.

  14. Results of analyses of fur samples from the San Joaquin Kit Fox and associated soil and water samples from the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Tupman, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E.; Beauchamp, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kato, T.T. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether analysis of the elemental content of fur from San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and of water and soil from kit fox habitats could be used to make inferences concerning the cause of an observed decline in the kit fox population on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Fur samples that had been collected previously from NPR-1, another oil field (NPR-2), and two sites with no oil development were subjected to neutron activation analysis. In addition, soil samples were collected from the home ranges of individual foxes from undisturbed portions of major soil types on NPR-1 and from wastewater samples were collected from tanks and sumps and subjected to neutron activation analysis. Most elemental concentrations in fur were highest at Camp Roberts and lowest on the undeveloped portions of NPR-I. Fur concentrations were intermediate on the developed oil fields but were correlated with percent disturbance and with number of wells on NPR-1 and NPR-2. The fact that most elements covaried across the range of sites suggests that some pervasive source such as soil was responsible. However, fur concentrations were not correlated with soft concentrations. The kit foxes on the developed portion of NPR-1 did not have concentrations of elements in fur relative to other sites that would account for the population decline in the early 1980s. The oil-related elements As, Ba, and V were elevated in fox fur from oil fields, but only As was sufficiently elevated to suggest a risk of toxicity in individual foxes. However, arsenic concentrations suggestive of sublethal toxicity were found in only 0.56% of foxes from developed oil fields, too few to account for a population decline.

  15. Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, David; Ross, Shane; Lin, Binbin

    2014-05-01

    Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. Members of this genus are important pathogens and mycotoxin producers. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. Spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2,200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. Some of the species of Fusarium identified from our collections have not been previously reported in the state of Virginia. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season. This work extends previous studies showing an association between atmospheric transport barriers (Lagrangian coherent structures or LCSs) and the movement of Fusarium in the lower atmosphere. An increased understanding of the aerobiology of Fusarium may contribute to new and improved control strategies for diseases causes by fusaria in the future.

  16. Admission rates and costs associated with emergency presentation of urolithiasis: analysis of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Samuel H; Cashy, John; Pearl, Jeffrey A; Stein, Daniel M; Perry, Kent; Nadler, Robert B

    2013-12-01

    We sought to examine a large nationwide (United States) sample of emergency department (ED) visits to determine data related to utilization and costs of care for urolithiasis in this setting. Nationwide Emergency Department Sample was analyzed from 2006 to 2009. All patients presenting to the ED with a diagnosis of upper tract urolithiasis were analyzed. Admission rates and total cost were compared by region, hospital type, and payer type. Numbers are weighted estimates that are designed to approximate the total national rate. An average of 1.2 million patients per year were identified with the diagnosis of urolithiasis out of 120 million visits to the ED annually. Overall average rate of admission was 19.21%. Admission rates were highest in the Northeast (24.88%), among teaching hospitals (22.27%), and among Medicare patients (42.04%). The lowest admission rates were noted for self-pay patients (9.76%) and nonmetropolitan hospitals (13.49%). The smallest increases in costs over time were noted in the Northeast. Total costs were least in nonmetropolitan hospitals; however, more patients were transferred to other hospitals. When assessing hospital ownership status, private for-profit hospitals had similar admission rates compared with private not-for-profit hospitals (16.6% vs 15.9%); however, costs were 64% and 48% higher for ED and inpatient admission costs, respectively. Presentation of urolithiasis to the ED is common, and is associated with significant costs to the medical system, which are increasing over time. Costs and rates of admission differ by region, payer type, and hospital type, which may allow us to identify the causes for cost discrepancies and areas to improve efficiency of care delivery.

  17. Association of Dietary Behaviors with Physical Activity in a Nationally Representative Sample of Children and Adolescents: the CASPIAN- IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Safiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional health and adequate physical activity (PA, especially in childhood and grow periods, have a substantial role in health. This study assessed the association of dietary behaviors (main courses and snacks intake with PA in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: Using multistage random cluster sampling method, a representative sample of 14,880 school students were selected from urban and rural areas of 30 provinces of Iran. Through a validated questionnaire, daily consumption of main course ( breakfast, lunch, and dinner as well as daily consumption of different snacks and health foods ( fast foods, milk, vegetables, dry fruits, fresh fruits, sweetened beverages, salty snacks and sweets were recorded for every participants. Information of past week weekly frequency of leisure time PA was collected. Results: Overall, 13,486 out of 14,880 students (response rate: 90.6% participated in this survey. Participants consisted of 6,640 (49.2% girls and 75.6% urban residents; their mean and standard deviation (SD age was 12.47 (3.36 years. Daily consumption of fresh fruits (odds ratio [OR]: 1.35, 95%confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-1.52, dried fruits (OR: 1.21; 95%CI: 1.06-1.40, vegetable (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.24-1.56, and milk (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.21-1.52 increased the odds of high PA compare to low PA in adjusted model.  Skipping the breakfast, lunch and dinner decreased the odds of moderate and high PA compare to low PA (P

  18. Association between suicidal symptoms and repeat suicidal behaviour within a sample of hospital-treated suicide attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Borkulo, Claudia D.; O’Connor, Rory C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Suicidal behaviour is the end result of the complex relation between many factors which are biological, psychological and environmental in nature. Network analysis is a novel method that may help us better understand the complex association between different factors. Aims To examine the relationship between suicidal symptoms as assessed by the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation and future suicidal behaviour in patients admitted to hospital following a suicide attempt, using network analysis. Method Secondary analysis was conducted on previously collected data from a sample of 366 patients who were admitted to a Scottish hospital following a suicide attempt. Network models were estimated to visualise and test the association between baseline symptom network structure and suicidal behaviour at 15-month follow-up. Results Network analysis showed that the desire for an active attempt was found to be the most central, strongly related suicide symptom. Of the 19 suicide symptoms that were assessed at baseline, 10 symptoms were directly related to repeat suicidal behaviour. When comparing baseline network structure of repeaters (n=94) with the network of non-repeaters (n=272), no significant differences were found. Conclusions Network analysis can help us better understand suicidal behaviour by visualising the complex relation between relevant symptoms and by indicating which symptoms are most central within the network. These insights have theoretical implications as well as informing the assessment and treatment of suicidal behaviour. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:28507771

  19. Associations between parent and child pain and functioning in a pediatric chronic pain sample: A mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Subhadra; Meldrum, Marcia; Tsao, Jennie Ci; Fraynt, Rebecca; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2010-11-01

    This study employed a mixed-method design to test sex-specific parent-child pain associations. Subjects were 179 chronic pain patients aged 11-19 years (mean = 14.34; 72% female) presenting for treatment at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic. Mothers and children completed questionnaires prior to their clinic visit, including measures of children's pain, functioning and psychological characteristics. Mothers also reported on their own pain and psychological functioning. Interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of 34 mothers and children prior to the clinic visit and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. The quantitative data suggest stronger mother-daughter than mother-son pain relationships. The qualitative data suggest that girls' pain and pain-related disability is related to an overly enmeshed mother-daughter relationship and the presence of maternal models of pain, while boys' pain and disability is linked to male pain models and criticism and to maternal worry and solicitousness. Boys and girls appear to have developmentally incongruous levels of autonomy and conformity to maternal expectations. The mixed-method data suggest distinct trajectories through which mother and father involvement may be linked to chronic pain in adolescent boys and girls.

  20. Replication of the association between CHRNA4 rs1044396 and harm avoidance in a large population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bey, Katharina; Lennertz, Leonhard; Markett, Sebastian; Petrovsky, Nadine; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gründer, Gerhard; Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Wienker, Thomas F; Mobascher, Arian; Dahmen, Norbert; Thuerauf, Norbert; Kornhuber, Johannes; Kiefer, Falk; Toliat, Mohammad R; Nürnberg, Peter; Winterer, Georg; Wagner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Harm avoidance is a personality trait characterized by excessive worrying and fear of uncertainty, which has repeatedly been related to anxiety disorders. Converging lines of research in rodents and humans point towards an involvement of the nicotinic cholinergic system in the modulation of anxiety. Most notably, the rs1044396 polymorphism in the CHRNA4 gene, which codes for the α4 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, has been linked to negative emotionality traits including harm avoidance in a recent study. Against this background, we investigated the association between harm avoidance and the rs1044396 polymorphism using data from N=1673 healthy subjects, which were collected in the context of the German multi-centre study ׳Genetics of Nicotine Dependence and Neurobiological Phenotypes׳. Homozygous carriers of the C-allele showed significantly higher levels of harm avoidance than homozygous T-allele carriers, with heterozygous subjects exhibiting intermediate scores. The effect was neither modulated by age or gender nor by smoking status. By replicating previous findings in a large population-based sample for the first time, the present study adds to the growing evidence suggesting an involvement of nicotinic cholinergic mechanism in anxiety and negative emotionality, which may pose an effective target for medical treatment.

  1. Examining gray matter structures associated with individual differences in global life satisfaction in a large sample of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Ding, Ke; Yang, Zetian; Dang, Xiaobin; Hu, Siyuan; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia

    2015-07-01

    Although much attention has been directed towards life satisfaction that refers to an individual's general cognitive evaluations of his or her life as a whole, little is known about the neural basis underlying global life satisfaction. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the structural neural correlates of life satisfaction in a large sample of young healthy adults (n = 299). We showed that individuals' life satisfaction was positively correlated with the regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and negatively correlated with the rGMV in the left precuneus and left ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pattern of results remained significant even after controlling for the effect of general positive and negative affect, suggesting a unique structural correlates of life satisfaction. Furthermore, we found that self-esteem partially mediated the association between the PHG volume and life satisfaction as well as that between the precuneus volume and global life satisfaction. Taken together, we provide the first evidence for the structural neural basis of life satisfaction, and highlight that self-esteem might play a crucial role in cultivating an individual's life satisfaction. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Diet- and Body Size-Related Attitudes and Behaviors Associated with Vitamin Supplement Use in a Representative Sample of Fourth-Grade Students in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Goldy C.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Kelder, Steven H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine diet- and body size-related attitudes and behaviors associated with supplement use in a representative sample of fourth-grade students in Texas. Design: Cross-sectional data from the School Physical Activity and Nutrition study, a probability-based sample of schoolchildren. Children completed a questionnaire that assessed…

  3. Systematic analysis of circadian genes in a population-based sample reveals association of TIMELESS with depression and sleep disturbance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddheshwar J Utge

    Full Text Available Disturbances in the circadian pacemaker system are commonly found in individuals with depression and sleep-related problems. We hypothesized that some of the canonical circadian clock genes would be associated with depression accompanied by signs of disturbed sleep, early morning awakening, or daytime fatigue. We tested this hypothesis in a population-based sample of the Health 2000 dataset from Finland, including 384 depressed individuals and 1270 controls, all with detailed information on sleep and daytime vigilance, and analyzed this set of individuals with regard to 113 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of 18 genes of the circadian system. We found significant association between TIMELESS variants and depression with fatigue (D+FAT+ (rs7486220: pointwise P = 0.000099, OR = 1.66; corrected empirical P for the model of D+FAT+ = 0.0056; haplotype 'C-A-A-C' of rs2291739-rs2291738-rs7486220-rs1082214: P = 0.0000075, OR = 1.72 in females, and association to depression with early morning awakening (D+EMA+ (rs1082214: pointwise P = 0.0009, OR = 2.70; corrected empirical P = 0.0374 for the model D+EMA+; haplotype 'G-T' of rs7486220 and rs1082214: P = 0.0001, OR = 3.01 in males. There was significant interaction of gender and TIMELESS (for example with rs1082214, P = 0.000023 to D+EMA+ and P = 0.005 to D+FAT+. We obtained supported evidence for involvement of TIMELESS in sleeping problems in an independent set of control individuals with seasonal changes in mood, sleep duration, energy level and social activity in females (P = 0.036, = 0.123 for rs1082214 and with early morning awakening or fatigue in males (P = 0.038 and P = 0.0016, respectively, for rs1082214. There was also some evidence of interaction between TIMELESS and PER1 in females to D+FAT+ as well as between TIMELESS and ARNTL, RORA or NR1D1 in males to D+EMA+. These findings support a connection between circadian genes and gender-dependent depression and defective sleep regulation.

  4. Evaluation of middlebrook 7H11 associated with human or sheep blood for the detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum samples

    OpenAIRE

    Agapito, Juan; Escuela de Tecnología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. microbiólogo.; Cuadros, Luis; Escuela de Tecnología Médica, facultad de Medicina, universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Tecnólogo médico.; Tarrillo, Sergio; Escuela de Tecnología Médica, facultad de Medicina, universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Tecnólogo médico.; Soto, Alonso; Asociación Latinoamericana de Biotecnología. Lima, Perú. Hospital Nacional Hipólito unanue. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, universidad Ricardo Palma. Lima, Perú. Médico Internista.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the diagnostic yield of the media Middlebrook 7H11 combined with human or ovine blood in comparison with the Ogawa solid media for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Material and methods. We evaluated sputum samples of patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis. The samples were seeded in Middlebrook 7H11 agar associated with human or ovine blood and in Ogawa media. Results. A total of 130 samples were collected. The positivity for M.tuberculos...

  5. Genome wide signatures of positive selection: The comparison of independent samples and the identification of regions associated to traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Merle B

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of genome wide analyses of polymorphisms is to achieve a better understanding of the link between genotype and phenotype. Part of that goal is to understand the selective forces that have operated on a population. Results In this study we compared the signals of selection, identified through population divergence in the Bovine HapMap project, to those found in an independent sample of cattle from Australia. Evidence for population differentiation across the genome, as measured by FST, was highly correlated in the two data sets. Nevertheless, 40% of the variance in FST between the two studies was attributed to the differences in breed composition. Seventy six percent of the variance in FST was attributed to differences in SNP composition and density when the same breeds were compared. The difference between FST of adjacent loci increased rapidly with the increase in distance between SNP, reaching an asymptote after 20 kb. Using 129 SNP that have highly divergent FST values in both data sets, we identified 12 regions that had additive effects on the traits residual feed intake, beef yield or intramuscular fatness measured in the Australian sample. Four of these regions had effects on more than one trait. One of these regions includes the R3HDM1 gene, which is under selection in European humans. Conclusion Firstly, many different populations will be necessary for a full description of selective signatures across the genome, not just a small set of highly divergent populations. Secondly, it is necessary to use the same SNP when comparing the signatures of selection from one study to another. Thirdly, useful signatures of selection can be obtained where many of the groups have only minor genetic differences and may not be clearly separated in a principal component analysis. Fourthly, combining analyses of genome wide selection signatures and genome wide associations to traits helps to define the trait under selection or

  6. Association studies of novel obesity-related gene variants with quantitative metabolic phenotypes in a population-based sample of 6,039 Danish individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, K S; Gjesing, A P; Grarup, N

    2012-01-01

    in an epidemiological setting. METHODS: By applying an additive genetic model, 14 WHR-associated gene variants and 18 BMI-associated variants were investigated for their relationships with glucose-related metabolic traits in treatment-naive individuals from the population-based Inter99 study sample (n¿=¿6,039). RESULTS...

  7. Mitochondrial DNA A10398G Mutation is not Associated with Breast Cancer Risk in a Sample of Iraqi Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawaa A. Zahid

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a relationship between mtDNA polymorphism (A10398G and breast cancer in a sample of 59 Iraqi women. Breast cancer is the second most common diagnosed cause of cancer death in the developed countries and accounts for 23% of the total cancers. Different studies reported that breast cancer accounts for 14% of all cancer deaths in females. It is well documented that the different factors such as genetics and environment factors are involved in tumorigenesis. Mutations in the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region and somatic mutations are emerging as early genetic markers of cancer. Identification of such markers for breast cancer would prevent late detection and increase the chance of recovery and survival rate. In breast cancer different mtDNA alterations were reported. The A10398G mutation in NADH Dehyrogenase (ND3 a subunit of complex I of the Oxidative Phosphorylation process (OXPHOS is perhaps one of the most studied mutations with conflicting reports of its association with breast cancer. Genomic DNA was extracted from 21 unrelated women with malignant tumors, 22 women with benign tumors and 16 healthy women blood donors. Subsequently, PCR amplification was performed using specific primers, PCR products were subjected to a suitable restriction enzyme. No genetic variants were identified in mtDNA among malignant tumoral group and controls while 9% of benign tumor cases exhibited the variant. Our finding indicated that A10398G polymorphism cannot be used as a biomarker for breast cancer detection in Iraqi women.

  8. Lower urinary tract symptoms associated with neurological conditions: Observations on a clinical sample of outpatients neurorehabilitation service

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    Fabrizio Torelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The overall aims of this study were to investigate the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS associated with neurological conditions and their prevalence and impact on a clinical sample of outpatients of a neurorehabilitation service. Materials and methods: We reviewed the files of 132 patients treated in our neurorehabilitation service from December 2012 to December 2013. Patients were divided into several subgroups based on the neurological diagnosis: Multiple Sclerosis (MS, other demyelinating diseases, Peripheral Neuropathy, neurovascular disorders (ND, neoplastic disease, traumatic brain injury (TBI, Parkinson and Parkinsonism, spinal cord injuries (SCI. Urinary status was based on medical evaluations of history of LUTS, type, degree, onset and duration of symptoms. We tried to analyze prevalence, kind of disorder, timing of presentation (if before or after the neurological onset and eventual persistence of urological disorders (in the main group and in all subgroups. Results: At the time of admission to our rehabilitation service, LUTS were observed in 14 out of 132 cases (11%. A high proportion of these outpatients (64.2% presented bothersome urinary symptoms such as incontinence, frequency and urgency (storage LUTS. The most frequent symptom was urinary urge incontinence (42.8%. This symptom was found to be prevalent in the multiple sclerosis and neurovascular disorders. In 93% the urinary symptoms arose as a result of neurologic conditions and 78.5% did not present a complete recovery of urological symptoms in spite of improved selfreported functional activity limitations. None of these patients performed urological rehabilitation. Conclusions: Neurological disorders are a significant issue in rehabilitation services and it can lead to lower tract dysfunction, which causes LUTS. Storage symptoms are more common, especially urge incontinence. Current literature reports that a further optimization of the rehabilitation potential

  9. Game species monitoring using road-based distance sampling in association with thermal imagers: a covariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morelle, K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of game species populations is necessary to adequately assess culling by hunters in areas where natural large predators are absent. However, game managers have to control several species and they often lack of an efficient and convenient survey design method. Monitoring several species at that same time over large areas could thus be cost– and time–effective. We tested the influence of several factors during monitoring of three common game species, (wild boar, roe deer and red fox, using road–based distance sampling in association with thermal imagers. This pilot survey based on 20 night counts in five contrasting sites studied the effect of several covariates (species, thermal imaging, observer, group size, and habitat type on the detection probabilities (= dp. No differences were observed between thermal imagers (dpJENOPTIK: 0.186, dpFLIR: 0.193 and group sizes (dp1ind.: 0.243, dp2ind.: 0.259, dp> 2ind.: 0.223, but we found differences between observers (dpobs1: 0.207, dpobs2: 0.274, dpobs3: 0.159. Expected differences were also observed between species (dpwild boar: 0.22, dproe deer: 0.35, dpred fox: 0.32 and between habitat type (dpforest: 0.27, dpedge: 0.74, dpopen: 0.35. Our results show that the detectability of low cost thermal imaging equipment is similar to that of more expensive methods, highlighting new possibilities for the use of thermal imagery by game managers. Although adjustments should be made to the study design our findings suggest that large–scale multi–species monitoring could be an efficient method for common game species.

  10. [Search association between cannabis abuse and bipolar disorder: A study on a sample of patients hospitalized for bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazour, F; Awaida, C; Souaiby, L; Richa, S

    2016-10-10

    . Compared to non-users, cannabis users were found to be younger (33.6 vs. 43.0 years old), more commonly male (77.8 % vs. 49.3 %), and were symptomatic at a younger age (24.6 vs. 30.8 years old). Cannabis users had more hospital admissions in total (6.0 vs. 3.7), and per year (0.73 vs. 0.44) as well as higher socio-economical state. There was a linear relationship between the monthly income per household and cannabis consumption with an OR increasing with the monthly income. Consumers presented more often in a manic state (59.3 %) than in a depressed state (11.1 %). The respective scores of consumers and non-consumers were: YMRS (30.3 vs. 32.1), MADRS (38 vs. 39.5), SAPS (22.7 vs. 23.2). Among cannabis users, 55.6 % and 33.3 % represent the respective percentages of cannabis abuse and dependence. The mean CAST score in these patients was 13.4. Compared to the results in the literature, cannabis use in bipolar disorder was found to be lower in our sample. Cannabis use was also associated with an earlier onset of the bipolar disorder as well as a higher number of hospitalizations per year. The age at the diagnosis of the bipolar disorder was 6.2 years lower among cannabis users. Cannabis users had scores of depression, mania and psychotic symptoms statistically similar to those of the non-consumers. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. An association study of DRD2 and COMT polymorphisms with novelty seeking and harm avoidance scores, in two independent samples of depressed patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frampton Christopher MA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was recently reported that an interaction of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT influences the behavioural approach system – as measured using Carver and White's Behavioural Inhibition and Behavioural Approach System (BIS/BAS scales – in a sample of healthy German subjects. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, in particular the novelty seeking (NS and harm avoidance (HA scales, correlates moderately with the BIS/BAS measure. This study aimed to examine support for an association of DRD2 and COMT with behavioural activation, using the TCI within two independent samples of depressed outpatients (for both samples n = 146. Methods Two clinical samples of depressed patients were ascertained to assess the efficacy of two different pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy treatments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyse NS and HA scale and subscale scores with respect to gene loci within each clinical sample. Analysis of covariance were undertaken to examine the association of age and gender with NS and HA scores. An association of age group or gender with gene loci were explored using chi-squared tests, in each sample. Results No significant effect of DRD2 or COMT, either independently or as an interaction, on NS or HA scores was observed, within either sample. Whilst age was significantly negatively associated with NS scores, including age in the two- and three-way interactions did not affect the significance of the association of personality with gene loci. Conclusion This study suggests that the COMT-DRD2 Equilibrium Model of Positive Emotionality recently proposed by Reuter and his colleagues is not applicable amongst currently depressed individuals, whose behavioural approach and inhibition tendencies have been assessed using the TCI.

  12. Investigating the Association between Autistic-Like and Internalizing Traits in a Community-Based Twin Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Victoria; Ronald, Angelica; Happe, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The phenotypic and etiologic relation between internalizing and autistic-like traits is studied using a community-based twin sample. Internalizing and autistic-like traits showed moderate phenotypic overlap but have specific genetic influences.

  13. Association between plasma leptin and blood pressure in two population-based samples of children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kynde, Iben

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examined the association between leptin and blood pressure in a population-based study of Danish and Norwegian children and adolescents. Because of the putative bidirectional relationship between leptin and adiposity we formally tested (i) the mediating effect of body mass index...... in the association between leptin and blood pressure, and (ii) the mediating effect of leptin in the association between body mass index and blood pressure....

  14. Evidence of association between Val66Met polymorphism at BDNF gene and anxiety disorders in a community sample of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocchetto, Andréa; Salum, Giovanni A; Blaya, Carolina; Teche, Stefania; Isolan, Luciano; Bortoluzzi, Andressa; Rebelo E Silva, Rafael; Becker, Juliana A; Bianchin, Marino M; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Manfro, Gisele G

    2011-09-20

    Different lines of evidence support BDNF as a candidate gene in mood and anxiety modulation. More recently, the Met allele of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has been implicated in anxiety in animal models and anxiety-traits in humans. The aim of this study is to evaluate the a priori hypothesis that the association between anxiety disorders and Val66Met polymorphism at the BDNF gene would be replicated in a community sample of children and adolescents. 240 subjects from a total sample of 2457 children and adolescents aged 10-17 years from the public schools in the catchment area of the primary care unit of a university hospital participated in this case-control study and were assessed for psychopathology using the K-SADS-PL. A sample of saliva was collected for DNA analysis of Val66Met polymorphism. BDNF was the single gene evaluated in this sample. We found a significant association between carrying one copy of the Met allele and higher chance of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. The association remained positive even after the adjustment for potential confounders (228 subjects; OR=3.53 (CI95% 1.77-7.06; p<0.001)). Our results support the a priori hypothesis of an association between anxiety and the polymorphism Val66Met. To our knowledge, this is the first study documenting a potential role of this polymorphism in a community sample of anxious children and adolescents.

  15. Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…

  16. Assessment of a Cross-Vane Trap as a Tool for Sampling the Invasive Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Soybean with Associated Evaluations of Female Reproductive Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbins, Francesca L; Greene, Jeremy K; Toews, Michael D; Reay-Jones, Francis P F

    2016-10-01

    Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) is an established pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, in the southeastern United States. Populations of this pest in soybean are typically estimated using sweep nets, a time-consuming procedure. Cross-vane traps may provide an alternative to using sweep nets. The relationship between trap and sweep-net sampling, and the effect of distance from field edges on M. cribraria densities were studied in 2013 and 2014. Adults were detected in the traps up to 3 wk before they were present in the sweep-net samples. Adults and nymphs collected from trap and sweep-net sampling decreased from the field edge toward the field interior. Across all dates and distances, there was a strong positive association between the two sampling methods (r = 0.60), but only 36% of location analyses by week showed significant association. Females collected using both sampling methods were dissected and rated based on egg development. Female populations of all reproductive maturities dispersed into soybean, but proportions varied with sampling method. Results provide a foundation for work into understanding dispersal cues, with implications for management in soybean. Cross-vane traps may serve as an early-season tool to monitor populations, but more studies are needed before robust sampling recommendations can be defined.

  17. Negative thoughts and health: associations among rumination, immunity, and health care utilization in a young and elderly sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Hokland, Marianne;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the present study, it was tested whether rumination-negative, recurrent thoughts-would be associated with immune parameters and health care utilization. Because rumination has been associated with sadness and subjective sleep quality, it was tested whether these factors mediated...... displayed a positive association with total leukocyte count, total lymphocyte count, and number of B cells among the elderly, and this was not mediated by sadness or subjective sleep quality. Rumination was also positively associated with number of telephone consultations during the follow......-up for the elderly, and this was partly mediated by sadness and subjective sleep quality. Although total leukocyte counts correlated with number of telephone consultations at the follow-up, none of the immune parameters mediated the association between rumination and health care utilization. No significant...

  18. Cross-sectional association between soda consumption and body mass index in a community-based sample of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eney, Anna E; Tsang, Siny; Delaney, Joseph A; Turkheimer, Eric; Duncan, Glen E

    2017-08-22

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, such as soda, have been shown to play an important role in weight gain. Although soda consumption has been associated with body mass index (BMI) in many studies, it has been difficult to ascertain a true causal relationship between soda consumption and BMI for two reasons. First, findings have been based largely on observational and cross-sectional studies, with much less evidence from randomized controlled trials. Second, the reported relationships may be confounded by genetic and shared environmental factors that affect both soda consumption and BMI. In the present study, we used the twin design to better understand the relationship between soda consumption and BMI by accounting for measured and unmeasured confounds in non-experimental data. Associations from genetically informed tests in twins are considered "quasi-causal," suggesting that our confidence in the causal underpinning of the association between soda consumption and BMI has been strengthened. We hypothesized that the association between soda consumption and BMI would be significant both between and within twins. This was a cross sectional study of 5787 same sex adult twin pairs (18-97 years, 66% female) from the community based Washington State Twin Registry. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to investigate associations between soda consumption and BMI in the population (the phenotypic association between exposure and outcome among all twins treated as individuals) and within pairs of identical and fraternal twins (the quasi-causal association controlling for between pair genetic and environmental confounds). Among all twins, there was a significant phenotypic association between soda consumption and BMI that held when controlling for age, sex, race, annual household income, and education level (P consumption on BMI was greatly reduced and no longer significant, with a large genetic confound in both men and women (P consumption was associated

  19. Systematic Uncertainties Associated with the Cosmological Analysis of the First Pan-STARRS1 Type Ia Supernova Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Scolnic, D; Riess, A; Huber, M E; Foley, R J; Brout, D; Chornock, R; Narayan, G; Tonry, J L; Berger, E; Soderberg, A M; Stubbs, C W; Kirshner, R P; Rodney, S; Smartt, S J; Schlafly, E; Botticella, M T; Challis, P; Czekal, I; Drout, M; Hudson, M J; Kotak, R; Leibler, C; Lunnan, R; Marion, G H; McCrum, M; Milisavljevic, D; Pastorello, A; Sanders, N E; Smith, K; Stafford, E; Thilker, D; Valenti, S; Wood-Vasey, W M; Zheng, Z; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K C; Denneau, L; Draper, P W; Flewelling, H; Hodapp, K W; Kaiser, N; Kudritzki, R P; Magnier, E A; Metcalfe, N; Price, P A; Sweeney, W; Wainscoat, R; Waters, C

    2013-01-01

    We probe the systematic uncertainties from 112 Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) in the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) sample along with 201 SN Ia from a combination of low-redshift surveys. The companion paper by Rest et al. (2013) describes the photometric measurements and cosmological inferences from the PS1 sample. The largest systematic uncertainty stems from the photometric calibration of the PS1 and low-z samples. We increase the sample of observed Calspec standards from 7 to 10 used to define the PS1 calibration system. The PS1 and SDSS-II calibration systems are compared and discrepancies up to ~0.02 mag are recovered. We find uncertainties in the proper way to treat intrinsic colors and reddening produce differences in the recovered value of w up to 3%. We estimate masses of host galaxies of PS1 supernovae and detect an insignificant difference in distance residuals of the full sample of 0.040\\pm0.031 mag for host galaxies with high and low masses. Assuming flatness in our analysis of only SNe measurements, we find w = ...

  20. Genome-wide association study of type 2 diabetes in a sample from Mexico City and a meta-analysis of a Mexican-American sample from Starr County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, E J; Below, J E; Krithika, S; Valladares, A; Barta, J L; Cox, N J; Hanis, C L; Wacher, N; Garcia-Mena, J; Hu, P; Shriver, M D; Kumate, J; McKeigue, P M; Escobedo, J; Cruz, M

    2011-08-01

    We report a genome-wide association study of type 2 diabetes in an admixed sample from Mexico City and describe the results of a meta-analysis of this study and another genome-wide scan in a Mexican-American sample from Starr County, TX, USA. The top signals observed in this meta-analysis were followed up in the Diabetes Genetics Replication and Meta-analysis Consortium (DIAGRAM) and DIAGRAM+ datasets. We analysed 967 cases and 343 normoglycaemic controls. The samples were genotyped with the Affymetrix Genome-wide Human SNP array 5.0. Associations of genotyped and imputed markers with type 2 diabetes were tested using a missing data likelihood score test. A fixed-effects meta-analysis including 1,804 cases and 780 normoglycaemic controls was carried out by weighting the effect estimates by their inverse variances. In the meta-analysis of the two Hispanic studies, markers showing suggestive associations (p < 10(-5)) were identified in two known diabetes genes, HNF1A and KCNQ1, as well as in several additional regions. Meta-analysis of the two Hispanic studies and the recent DIAGRAM+ dataset identified genome-wide significant signals (p < 5 × 10(-8)) within or near the genes HNF1A and CDKN2A/CDKN2B, as well as suggestive associations in three additional regions, IGF2BP2, KCNQ1 and the previously unreported C14orf70. We observed numerous regions with suggestive associations with type 2 diabetes. Some of these signals correspond to regions described in previous studies. However, many of these regions could not be replicated in the DIAGRAM datasets. It is critical to carry out additional studies in Hispanic and American Indian populations, which have a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes.

  1. BANA-Positive Plaque Samples Are Associated with Oral Hygiene Practices and Not CD4+ T Cell Counts in HIV-Positive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Nisha John

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The “red complex” microorganisms, namely, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia are considered as potential pathogens causing HIV-associated periodontal diseases. Moreover, it has been recognized that an association exists between CD4+ T cell counts and periodontal disease progression. Objective. To establish whether CD4+ T cell counts or oral hygiene plays a greater role in producing BANA-positive results in HIV-associated periodontal disease. Materials and Methods. One hundred and twenty HIV-positive patients participated in the study, and their CD4+ T cell counts were obtained from their medical records. The six Ramfjord teeth were used for evaluating periodontal clinical indices and subgingival plaque sampling. BANA test was used for the detection and prevalence of the “red complex” bacteria in plaque samples. Results. A majority of 69.17% HIV-positive patients were BANA-positive. No significant associations were found between BANA and CD4+ T cell counts. A highly significant association was found between BANA with probing depth and clinical attachment level (P≤0.0001 and between BANA and the use of interdental aids (P=0.0168. Conclusion. HIV-associated periodontal diseases are strongly related to oral hygiene practices rather than the effect of CD4+ T cell counts, and the use of interdental aids was marked as a significant predictor of BANA-negative plaque samples.

  2. Association of AKAP6 and MIR2113 with cognitive performance in a population-based sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, S J; Das, D; Anstey, K J; Easteal, S

    2017-04-01

    Genetic factors make a substantial contribution to inter-individual variability in cognitive function. A recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identified two loci, AKAP6 and MIR2113, that are associated with general cognitive function. Here, we extend this previous research by investigating the association of MIR2113 and AKAP6 with baseline and longitudinal non-linear change across a broad spectrum of cognitive domains in a community-based cohort of older adults without dementia. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), MIR211-rs10457441 and AKAP6-rs17522122 were genotyped in 1570 non-demented older Australians of European ancestry, who were examined up to 4 times over 12 years. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine the association between AKAP6 and MIR2113 with cognitive performance in episodic memory, working memory, vocabulary, perceptual speed and reaction time at baseline and with linear and quadratic rates of change. AKAP6-rs17522122*T was associated with worse baseline performance in episodic memory, working memory, vocabulary and perceptual speed, but it was not associated with cognitive change in any domain. MIR2113-rs10457441*T was associated with accelerated decline in episodic memory. No other associations with baseline cognitive performance or with linear or quadratic rate or cognitive changes were observed for this SNP. These results confirm the previous finding that AKAP6 is associated with performance across multiple cognitive domains at baseline but not with cognitive decline, while MIR2113 primarily affects the rate at which memory declines over time.

  3. A functional neuropeptide Y Leu7Pro polymorphism associated with alcohol dependence in a large population sample from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Jaakko; Kranzler, Henry R; Malison, Robert; Price, Lawrence H; Van Dyck, Christopher; Rosenheck, Robert A; Cramer, Joyce; Southwick, Steven; Charney, Dennis; Krystal, John; Gelernter, Joel

    2002-09-01

    Quantitative trait locus studies, and observations in animals manipulated for the neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene suggest that variation within this gene may contribute to alcoholism. A recent population study suggested that the Pro7 allele of a functional NPY polymorphism (Leu7Pro) may be associated with increased alcohol consumption. We tested whether the Pro7 allele is associated with alcohol dependence in European Americans (EA). The design was a population study comparing the Leu7Pro allele frequencies in alcohol-dependent subjects and controls. Population stratification potential and diagnostic specificity was studied by genotyping individuals from additional populations and psychiatric diagnostic classes. We studied 2 independently collected samples of EA alcohol-dependent subjects (sample 1, n = 307; sample 2, n = 160) and a sample of psychiatrically screened EA controls (n = 202); 8 population samples, including African Americans and European Americans (total n = 551); and 4 samples of individuals with Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depression (total n = 502). The main outcome measure was the difference in Leu7Pro allele frequencies between alcohol-dependent subjects and controls. The frequency of the Pro7 allele was higher in the alcohol-dependent subjects (sample 1, 5.5%; sample 2, 5.0%) compared with the screened EA controls (2.0%) (sample 1 vs controls, P=.006; sample 2 vs controls, P=.03). The attributable fraction (excess morbidity) in similarly affected populations, owing to the Pro7 allele, was estimated to be 7.3%. The frequency of the Pro7 allele was equal or lower in the population samples, as compared with the screened EA controls (0%-2.2%), with 1 exception (Bedouins). We found no significant evidence that the association of the Pro7 allele with alcohol dependence was due to an association with a comorbid psychiatric disorder. These results suggest that the NPY Pro7 allele is a risk factor for alcohol

  4. Association of Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulation with Nutrition and Exercise Behaviors in a Community Sample of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Carol; Weaver, Michael T; Hanna, Kathleen M; Newsome, Kathleen; Mogos, Mulubrhan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association of self-efficacy and self-regulation with nutrition and exercise behaviors. The study used a cross-sectional design and included 108 participants (54 men, 54 women). Nutrition behaviors (fruit/vegetable consumption, dinner cooking, and restaurant eating) and exercise were measured using total days in last week a behavior was reported. Instruments measuring self-efficacy and self-regulation demonstrated excellent Cronbach's alphas (.93-.95). Path analysis indicated only fruit/vegetable consumption and exercise were associated with self-efficacy and self-regulation. Self-regulation showed direct association with fruit/vegetable consumption and exercise, but self-efficacy had direct association only with exercise. Self-efficacy and self-regulation should be strategically used to promote health behaviors.

  5. Factors Associated With Use of ASAM Criteria and Service Provision in a National Sample of Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Friedmann, Peter D; Lee, I-Heng

    2009-09-01

    Standardized patient placement criteria such as those developed by the American Society of Addiction Medicine are increasingly common in substance abuse treatment, but it is unclear what factors are associated with their use or with treatment units' provision of related services. This study examined these issues in the context of a national survey of outpatient substance abuse treatment units. Regressions using 2005 data revealed that both public and private managed care were associated with a greater likelihood of using American Society of Addiction Medicine criteria to develop client treatment plans. However, only public managed care was associated with a greater likelihood of offering more resource-intensive services. Associations between client population severity and resource-intensive service provision were sparse but positive.

  6. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting.

  7. Parent Drug-Use Problems and Adult Intimate Relations: Associations among Community Samples of Young Adult Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Rickards, Shannae

    1995-01-01

    Used community samples to determine the effects of childhood family support or dysfunction and the extent of parent drug-use problems on adult intimacy issues, such as sexual satisfaction. Results showed that parent drug-use predicted poor family support; family support correlated strongly with good adult intimate relations. (RJM)

  8. A possible association between schizophrenia and GRIK3 polymorphisms in a multicenter sample of Scandinavian origin (SCOPE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K D; Hansen, T; Djurovic, S

    2009-01-01

    Map-selected tagging SNPs across GRIK3 in three independent samples of Scandinavian origin from the Scandinavian Collaboration of Psychiatric Etiology (SCOPE), including a total of 839 cases with schizophrenia spectrum and 1473 healthy controls. Four markers (rs6671364, rs17461259, rs472188, and rs535620) attained...

  9. The Temporal Focus Scale: Factor Structure and Association with Alcohol Use in a Sample of Northern Irish School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T.; Percy, Andrew; Goudie, Andrew J.; Sumnall, Harry R.; Cole, Jon C.

    2012-01-01

    The Temporal Focus Scale (TFS) is a 12-item self-report measure of cognitive engagement with the temporal domains of past, present and future. Developed in college student samples, a three-factor structure with adequate reliability and validity was documented in a series of independent studies. We tested the factor structure of the scale in a…

  10. Using ancestry matching to combine family-based and unrelated samples for genome-wide association studies‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossett, Andrew; Kent, Brian P.; Klei, Lambertus; Ringquist, Steven; Trucco, Massimo; Roeder, Kathryn; Devlin, Bernie

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to analyze family-based samples together with unrelated cases and controls. The method builds on the idea of matched case–control analysis using conditional logistic regression (CLR). For each trio within the family, a case (the proband) and matched pseudo-controls are constructed, based upon the transmitted and untransmitted alleles. Unrelated controls, matched by genetic ancestry, supplement the sample of pseudo-controls; likewise unrelated cases are also paired with genetically matched controls. Within each matched stratum, the case genotype is contrasted with control pseudo-control genotypes via CLR, using a method we call matched-CLR (mCLR). Eigenanalysis of numerous SNP genotypes provides a tool for mapping genetic ancestry. The result of such an analysis can be thought of as a multidimensional map, or eigenmap, in which the relative genetic similarities and differences amongst individuals is encoded in the map. Once constructed, new individuals can be projected onto the ancestry map based on their genotypes. Successful differentiation of individuals of distinct ancestry depends on having a diverse, yet representative sample from which to construct the ancestry map. Once samples are well-matched, mCLR yields comparable power to competing methods while ensuring excellent control over Type I error. PMID:20862653

  11. Using ancestry matching to combine family-based and unrelated samples for genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossett, Andrew; Kent, Brian P; Klei, Lambertus; Ringquist, Steven; Trucco, Massimo; Roeder, Kathryn; Devlin, Bernie

    2010-12-10

    We propose a method to analyze family-based samples together with unrelated cases and controls. The method builds on the idea of matched case-control analysis using conditional logistic regression (CLR). For each trio within the family, a case (the proband) and matched pseudo-controls are constructed, based upon the transmitted and untransmitted alleles. Unrelated controls, matched by genetic ancestry, supplement the sample of pseudo-controls; likewise unrelated cases are also paired with genetically matched controls. Within each matched stratum, the case genotype is contrasted with control/pseudo-control genotypes via CLR, using a method we call matched-CLR (mCLR). Eigenanalysis of numerous SNP genotypes provides a tool for mapping genetic ancestry. The result of such an analysis can be thought of as a multidimensional map, or eigenmap, in which the relative genetic similarities and differences amongst individuals is encoded in the map. Once constructed, new individuals can be projected onto the ancestry map based on their genotypes. Successful differentiation of individuals of distinct ancestry depends on having a diverse, yet representative sample from which to construct the ancestry map. Once samples are well-matched, mCLR yields comparable power to competing methods while ensuring excellent control over Type I error.

  12. Potential bacterial core species associated with digital dermatitis in cattle herds identified by molecular profiling of interdigital skin samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Isbrand, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Although treponemes are consistently identified in tissue from bovine digital dermatitis (DD) lesions, the definitive etiology of this debilitating polymicrobial disease is still unresolved. To study the microbiomes of 27 DD-infected and 10 healthy interdigital skin samples, we used a combination...

  13. Diet- and Body Size-related Attitudes and Behaviors Associated with Vitamin Supplement Use in a Representative Sample of Fourth-grade Students in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to examine diet- and body size-related attitudes and behaviors associated with supplement use in a representative sample of fourth-grade students in Texas. The research design consisted of cross-sectional data from the School Physical Activity and Nutrition study, ...

  14. Lack of Association between a 3'UTR VNTR Polymorphism of Dopamine Transporter Gene (SLC6A3) and ADHD in a Brazilian Sample of Adult Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aperecida da Silva, Maria; Cordeiro, Quirino; Louza, Mario; Vallada, Homero

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a possible association between a 3'UTR VNTR polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) and ADHD in a Brazilian sample of adult patients. Method: Study Case-control with 102 ADHD adult outpatients ("DSM-IV" criteria) and 479 healthy controls. The primers' sequence used were: 3'UTR-Forward: 5' TGT GGT…

  15. Lack of Association between a 3'UTR VNTR Polymorphism of Dopamine Transporter Gene (SLC6A3) and ADHD in a Brazilian Sample of Adult Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aperecida da Silva, Maria; Cordeiro, Quirino; Louza, Mario; Vallada, Homero

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a possible association between a 3'UTR VNTR polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) and ADHD in a Brazilian sample of adult patients. Method: Study Case-control with 102 ADHD adult outpatients ("DSM-IV" criteria) and 479 healthy controls. The primers' sequence used were: 3'UTR-Forward: 5' TGT GGT GAT GGG…

  16. Systematic uncertainties associated with the cosmological analysis of the first Pan-STARRS1 type Ia supernova sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scolnic, D.; Riess, A.; Brout, D.; Rodney, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Huber, M. E.; Tonry, J. L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Stubbs, C. W.; Kirshner, R. P.; Challis, P.; Czekala, I.; Drout, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Narayan, G. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Smartt, S. J.; Botticella, M. T. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Schlafly, E. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2014-11-01

    We probe the systematic uncertainties from the 113 Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) in the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) sample along with 197 SN Ia from a combination of low-redshift surveys. The companion paper by Rest et al. describes the photometric measurements and cosmological inferences from the PS1 sample. The largest systematic uncertainty stems from the photometric calibration of the PS1 and low-z samples. We increase the sample of observed Calspec standards from 7 to 10 used to define the PS1 calibration system. The PS1 and SDSS-II calibration systems are compared and discrepancies up to ∼0.02 mag are recovered. We find uncertainties in the proper way to treat intrinsic colors and reddening produce differences in the recovered value of w up to 3%. We estimate masses of host galaxies of PS1 supernovae and detect an insignificant difference in distance residuals of the full sample of 0.037 ± 0.031 mag for host galaxies with high and low masses. Assuming flatness and including systematic uncertainties in our analysis of only SNe measurements, we find w =−1.120{sub −0.206}{sup +0.360}(Stat){sub −0.291}{sup +0.269}(Sys). With additional constraints from Baryon acoustic oscillation, cosmic microwave background (CMB) (Planck) and H {sub 0} measurements, we find w=−1.166{sub −0.069}{sup +0.072} and Ω{sub m}=0.280{sub −0.012}{sup +0.013} (statistical and systematic errors added in quadrature). The significance of the inconsistency with w = –1 depends on whether we use Planck or Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe measurements of the CMB: w{sub BAO+H0+SN+WMAP}=−1.124{sub −0.065}{sup +0.083}.

  17. Associations of fatigue to work-related stress, mental and physical health in an employed community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, D M; Seidler, A; Nübling, M; Latza, U; Brähler, E; Klein, E M; Wiltink, J; Michal, M; Nickels, S; Wild, P S; König, J; Claus, M; Letzel, S; Beutel, M E

    2017-05-05

    While work-related fatigue has become an issue of concern among European employees, the relationship between fatigue, depression and work-related stressors is far from clear. The purposes of this study were (1) to determine the associations of fatigue with work-related stressors, severe medical disease, health behavior and depression in the working population and (2) to determine the unique impact of work-related stressors on fatigue. We used cross-sectional data of N = 7,930 working participants enrolled in the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) from 2007 to 2012 filled out the Personal Burnout Scale (PBS) of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), the PHQ-9, and a list of work-related stressors. A total of 27.5% reported increased fatigue, esp. women, younger persons with a lower social status and income, smokers, severely medically ill, previously and currently depressed participants. Fatigue was consistently associated with severe medical disease, health behavior and depression, which need to be taken into account as potential confounders when analyzing its relationship to work-related strains. Depression was consistently associated with work-related stressors. However, after statistically partialling out depression, fatigue was still significantly associated with work-related stress. Fatigue as an indicator of allostatic load is consistently associated with work-related stressors such as work overload after controlling for depression. The brief Personal Burn-out Scale is suitable for assessing work-related fatigue in the general population.

  18. The gene encoding the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 is associated with schizophrenia in a Danish case-control sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demontis, Ditte; Nyegaard, Mette; Christensen, Jane H;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The MCHR1 gene encoding the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 is located on chromosome 22q13.2 and has previously been associated with schizophrenia in a study of cases and controls from the Faroe Islands and Scotland. Herein we report an association between variations in the MCHR......1 gene and schizophrenia, based on analyses of a larger sample and an increased number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) than used in the previous study. METHODS: Eighteen SNPs in the MCHR1 gene region were genotyped in a Caucasian case-control sample from Denmark consisting of 390......, predominantly seen in men where one SNP (rs133073) remained significant (P=0.003) after correction for multiple testing. When combining the P values in the proximal region of MCHR1, the region-wise P value was low (P=0.009) supporting that variations in this part of the gene is associated with schizophrenia...

  19. Money boys, HIV risks, and the associations between norms and safer sex: a respondent-driven sampling study in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Liu, Hui; Cai, Yumao; Rhodes, Anne G; Hong, Fuchang

    2009-08-01

    Money boys (MBs) are male sex workers who sell sex to men who have sex with men (MSM). This study estimates the proportion of MBs in the Chinese MSM, compares HIV risks between MBs and non-MB MSM, and examines the associations between practicing safer sex and peer norms of condom use. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to sample 351 MSM in the city of Shenzhen in 2007. The RDS-adjusted proportion of MBs among MSM was 9%. Compared to non-MB MSM, more MBs reported having had multiple male and female sexual partners. Half of MBs and non-MB MSM had consistently used condoms. Both descriptive and subjective norms were positively associated with condom use. The MB proportion of 9% in MSM implies a relatively large population of MBs in China. The association between peer norms and consistent condom use can assist with the development of culturally competent HIV interventions that promote safer sex.

  20. Development of standardized methodology for identifying toxins in clinical samples and fish species associated with tetrodotoxin-borne poisoning incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Yuan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is a naturally occurring toxin in food, especially in puffer fish. TTX poisoning is observed frequently in South East Asian regions. In TTX-derived food poisoning outbreaks, the amount of TTX recovered from suspicious fish samples or leftovers, and residual levels from biological fluids of victims are typically trace. However, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry methods have been demonstrated to qualitatively and quantitatively determine TTX in clinical samples from victims. Identification and validation of the TTX-originating seafood species responsible for a food poisoning incident is needed. A polymerase chain reaction-based method on mitochondrial DNA analysis is useful for identification of fish species. This review aims to collect pertinent information available on TTX-borne food poisoning incidents with a special emphasis on the analytical methods employed for TTX detection in clinical laboratories as well as for the identification of TTX-bearing species.

  1. The assessment of natural radioactivity and its associated radiological hazards and dose parameters in granite samples from South Sinai, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A.E. Darwish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma ray spectra of natural radioactivity from 238U- and 232Th series and from 40K of eight (representing 40 collected samples granite samples collected from Saint Katherine region, South Sinai, Egypt, had been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometer with an HPGe detector. The results reported in the present article include: Specific activities (A of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K radionuclides, Radium equivalent activities (Raeq, external and internal hazard indices (Hext, Hint, external and internal level indices (Iγ, Iα, activity utilization index (I, exposure rate (ER and other important parameters to the subject. The results have been presented in table graphs with the permissible maximum limits.

  2. The association between hypertension and depression and anxiety disorders: results from a nationally-representative sample of South African adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grimsrud

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Growing evidence suggests high levels of comorbidity between hypertension and mental illness but there are few data from low- and middle-income countries. We examined the association between hypertension and depression and anxiety in South Africa. METHODS: Data come from a nationally-representative survey of adults (n = 4351. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to measure DSM-IV mental disorders during the previous 12-months. The relationships between self-reported hypertension and anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and comorbid anxiety-depression were assessed after adjustment for participant characteristics including experience of trauma and other chronic physical conditions. RESULTS: Overall 16.7% reported a previous medical diagnosis of hypertension, and 8.1% and 4.9% were found to have a 12-month anxiety or depressive disorder, respectively. In adjusted analyses, hypertension diagnosis was associated with 12-month anxiety disorders [Odds ratio (OR = 1.55, 95% Confidence interval (CI = 1.10-2.18] but not 12-month depressive disorders or 12-month comorbid anxiety-depression. Hypertension in the absence of other chronic physical conditions was not associated with any of the 12-month mental health outcomes (p-values all <0.05, while being diagnosed with both hypertension and another chronic physical condition were associated with 12-month anxiety disorders (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.46-3.45, but not 12-month depressive disorders or comorbid anxiety-depression. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first population-based estimates to demonstrate an association between hypertension and mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. Further investigation is needed into role of traumatic life events in the aetiology of hypertension as well as the temporality of the association between hypertension and mental disorders.

  3. Appraisal of radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in sand samples of four rivers of Punjab province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Khalid; Khalid, Muhammad Rizwan; Jabbar, Abdul; Akhter, Perveen

    2012-06-01

    Natural and anthropogenic radioactivity of sand and water samples collected from the four big rivers of Punjab province, Pakistan, was measured using a high-purity germanium detector coupled with a high resolution multichannel analyser. The average concentration of the naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in all the sand samples from the rivers Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Indus was found to be 22±0.6, 36±1 and 287±10 Bq kg (-1), respectively, while the concentration of the anthropogenic radionuclide (137)Cs was found to be below the minimum detectable activity, i.e. ~1.2 Bq kg (-1). All the sand samples have Ra(eq) concentrations lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg (-1). Indoor (H (in)) and outdoor (H (out)) radiation hazard indices were calculated for the samples to assess the radiation hazards arising due to the use of this sand in construction, and were found to be less than unity in the study area. Calculated values of the absorbed dose rate were less than the typical world average value of 59 nGy h (-1), and the annual effective dose rate was also less than the typical world value of 70 μSv, except in the Indus river, in which it is slightly higher then the world average. Results show that the measured values are comparable with other global radioactivity measurements. None of the studied riverbeds was considered a radiological hazard, and their sand can be safely used in construction.

  4. Association between depressive symptoms in adolescence and birth outcomes in early adulthood using a population-based sample

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Nkansah-Amankra; Grace Tettey

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescent female depressive symptomatology is an unrecognized mood disorder that impairs health in adolescence or adulthood. However, the long-term effects of pre-pregnancy depressive symptoms on birth outcomes in adulthood have not been given adequate empirical assessments. Method: In this study, we assessed the relationship between the life time duration of depressive symptoms over a 14-year period and birth outcomes (LBW and PTB) among a sample of 6023 female respondents wh...

  5. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal and Environmental Samples Associated with Small-Scale Poultry Farming in Northwestern Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Braykov, Nikolay P.; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.; Grossman, Marissa; Lixin, Zhang; Vasco, Karla; CEVALLOS, WILLIAM; Muñoz, Diana; Acevedo,Andrés; Moser, Kara A.; Marrs, Carl F.; Foxman, Betsy; Trostle, James; Trueba, GAbriel; Levy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of animal agriculture on the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) are cross-cutting and thus require a multidisciplinary perspective. Here we use ecological, epidemiological, and ethnographic methods to examine populations of Escherichia coli circulating in the production poultry farming environment versus the domestic environment in rural Ecuador, where small-scale poultry production employing nontherapeutic antibiotics is increasingly common. We sampled 262 “production ...

  6. Identification of selected organic contaminants in streams associated with agricultural activities and comparison between autosampling and silicone rubber passive sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelogu, Emmanuel S; Pollard, Pat; Robinson, Craig D; Webster, Lynda; McKenzie, Craig; Napier, Fiona; Steven, Lucy; Moffat, Colin F

    2013-02-15

    This study evaluates the potential of silicone rubber passive sampling devices (SR-PSDs) as a suitable alternative to automatic water samplers (autosamplers) for the preliminary identification of a wide range of organic contaminants in freshwater systems. The field performance of SR-PSDs deployed at three sites on two streams of an agricultural catchment area in North East (NE) Scotland, United Kingdom (UK) was assessed concurrently with composite water samples collected from two of the sites using autosamplers. The analytical suite consisted of selected plant protection products (PPPs; commonly referred to collectively as 'pesticides'), including 47 pesticides and a separate sub-category of 22 acid/urea herbicides. Of these, a total of 54 substances, comprising 46 pesticides and 8 urea herbicides were detected in at least one of the SR samplers. All but 6 of these SR-PSD detected substances were quantifiable. By comparison, a total of 25 substances comprising 3 pesticides and 22 acid/urea herbicides were detected in the composite water samples, of which only 8 acid/urea herbicides were quantifiable. The larger number and chemical classes of compounds detected and quantified via passive sampling reflect the lower limits of detection achieved by this device when compared to autosamplers. The determination of dissolved concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) added to the information on contaminant pressures at each site, allowing assessment of the reliability of SR-PSDs in freshwater systems and the identification of possible contaminant sources. The study demonstrated the utility of SR-PSDs for detecting and semi-quantifying low concentrations of analytes, including those which hitherto have not been measured in the catchment area and also some pesticides that are no longer approved for agricultural use in the UK and EU. The SR-PSD approach can thus provide a better understanding and clearer picture of the use

  7. A design of multi-source samples as a shared control for association studies in genetically stratified populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yungang He; Shuhua Xu; Chuan Jia; Li Jin

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear Editors, More and more genetic variants which contribute to human complex traits were identified recently in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), an approach that shows more efficiency than any other genetic ap-proaches ever before [1].It holds the promise to disclose genetic mechanism underlying the mystery of human diseases, since the most, if not all, of the genetic variants in the human genome could be investigated for their pos-sible association with diseases by comparing the frequen-cies of alleles in the cases (patients) and controls (healthy subjects).

  8. Financial management skills are associated with food insecurity in a sample of households with children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Craig G; Garasky, Steven B

    2012-10-01

    Food insecurity is one of the leading public health challenges facing children in the United States today. Reducing food insecurity and its attendant consequences requires an understanding of the determinants of food insecurity. Although previous work has greatly advanced our understanding of these determinants, the role of one of the oft-speculated important determinants of food insecurity, household financial management skills, has not been considered. To address this research lacuna, we use a recently conducted survey, the Survey of Household Finances and Childhood Obesity, that has information on specific financial management practices, impressions of financial management skills, and households' food insecurity. The sample included 904 households with children. Within this sample, 19.3% were food insecure and, for our central financial management skill variable, the mean value was 3.55 on a 5-point scale. Probit regression models estimated the probability of a household being food insecure as conditional on financial management skills and other covariates. We found a large and significant inverse relationship between a respondent's use of specific financial management practices and food insecurity and between a respondent's confidence in his or her financial management skills and food insecurity. That is, households with greater financial management abilities are less likely to be food insecure. This finding also holds when the sample is restricted to households with incomes poverty line. These results suggest that improving households' financial management skills has the potential to reduce food insecurity in the United States.

  9. Factors Associated with Self-Injurious Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Findings from Two Large National Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soke, G. N.; Rosenberg, S. A.; Hamman, R. F.; Fingerlin, T.; Rosenberg, C. R.; Carpenter, L.; Lee, L. C.; Giarelli, E.; Wiggins, L. D.; Durkin, M. S.; Reynolds, A.; DiGuiseppi, C.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we explored potential associations among self-injurious behaviors (SIB) and a diverse group of protective and risk factors in children with autism spectrum disorder from two databases: Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network and the Autism Speaks-Autism Treatment Network (AS-ATN). The presence of SIB was…

  10. No direct association among respiratory function, disease control and family functioning in a sample of Mexican children with intermittent asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain Raimundo; Núñez-Tapia, Rosa María; Ramírez-Silva, Armando; Gómez-Alonso, Carlos

    2013-05-15

    Asthma has been linked to family disfunctioning and poor control of the disease.This study was conducted to analyze the interactions between the level of intermittent asthma control, family functioning and respiratory function and between quality of life of asthmatic patients and their caregivers.7 to 15 years old children with intermittent asthma were included. Asthma Control Test Questionnaire, Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) test, and flowmetry were applied to children and Pediatric Asthma Caregiver´s Quatily of Life Questionnaire (PAQCLQ) and the Family Functioning Perception Test (FF-SIL) were applied to their parents.The most affected areas of family functioning in dysfunctional families were adaptability and permeability. A medium to high strength of association was founded between the emotional function of parents and the emotional function of children, R2=0.552. The most remarkable associations were among parents' limitation of activities and parents' emotional function (r=0.837), parents' limitation of activities and child's emotional function (r=0.722), parents' emotional role and limitation of activities (r=0.837), parents' emotional role and emotional functioning of children with asthma (r=0.743) and the limitation of activities of children with asthma and the emotional function of children with asthma (r=0.870).No direct associations were founded among respiratory function, disease control and family functioning in Mexican children with intermittent asthma and emotional function of parents and children were associated in both groups.

  11. Association study of PDE4B gene variants in Scandinavian schizophrenia and bipolar disorder multicenter case-control samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kähler, Anna K; Otnaess, Mona K; Wirgenes, Katrine V;

    2010-01-01

    The phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B), which is involved in cognitive function in animal models, is a candidate susceptibility gene for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP). Variations in PDE4B have previously been associated with SZ, with a suggested gender-specific effect. We have genotyped...

  12. Is moderate substance use associated with altered executive functioning in a population-based sample of young adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piechatzek, Michaela; Indlekofer, Friedrich; Daamen, Marcel; Glasmacher, Christoph; Lieb, Roselind; Pfister, Hildegard; Tucha, Oliver; Lange, Klaus W.; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Schutz, Christian G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Substance use (SU) has been linked with impaired cognitive functioning. Evidence comes mainly from clinical studies or studies examining heavy users. Though, the majority of users are not involved in heavy use. This study investigates the association between moderate use and cognition in

  13. Hydration layer dynamics and association mechanisms of food and antifreeze proteins : A Molecular Dynamics and Transition Path Sampling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brotzakis, Z.F.

    2017-01-01

    By the time the reader reads this line, billions of protein association events just occurred in our body, such as the ones regulating cell communication, signaling pathways, or in initiating a self-assembly processes, such as tissue fabrication, etc. The timescale of such transitions is slow, compar

  14. Associations between delusion proneness and personality structure in non-clinical participants: Comparison between young and elderly samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laroi, F.; Van der Linden, M.; DeFruyt, F.; Van Os, J.; Aleman, A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Few studies have explored the prevalence of delusions in the non-clinical, elderly population. In addition, the association between personality structure and delusions remains poorly investigated. The aims of the present study were, first, to explore the relation between age and the prev

  15. Associations between delusion proneness and personality structure in non-clinical participants : Comparison between young and elderly samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laroi, Frank; Van der Linden, Martial; DeFruyt, Filip; van Os, Jim; Aleman, Andre

    2006-01-01

    Background: Few studies have explored the prevalence of delusions in the non-clinical, elderly population. In addition, the association between personality structure and delusions remains poorly investigated. The aims of the present study were, first, to explore the relation between age and the prev

  16. No Clear Genetic Influences on the Association between Dyslexia and Anxiety in a Population-Based Sample of Female Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Spector, Tim D.; Cherkas, Lynn F.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with dyslexia are at an increased risk for anxiety disorders (e.g. generalized anxiety disorder, stress disorders, panic disorder). The extent to which this association is mediated by genetic and/or environmental influences is unclear. The current study explored the relationship between these two phenotypes using a large…

  17. Human herpes virus-8 DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Dodt, K K; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    1997-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent AIDS-associated neoplasm, and often disseminates to visceral organs, including the lungs. An ante-mortem diagnosis of pulmonary KS is difficult. Recently, DNA sequences resembling a new human herpes virus (HHV-8), have been identified in various forms...

  18. Hydration layer dynamics and association mechanisms of food and antifreeze proteins : A Molecular Dynamics and Transition Path Sampling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brotzakis, Z.F.

    2017-01-01

    By the time the reader reads this line, billions of protein association events just occurred in our body, such as the ones regulating cell communication, signaling pathways, or in initiating a self-assembly processes, such as tissue fabrication, etc. The timescale of such transitions is slow, compar

  19. Meal planning is associated with food variety, diet quality and body weight status in a large sample of French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Pauline; Méjean, Caroline; Aroumougame, Vani; Ibanez, Gladys; Allès, Benjamin; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2017-02-02

    Meal planning could be a potential tool to offset time scarcity and therefore encourage home meal preparation, which has been linked with an improved diet quality. However, to date, meal planning has received little attention in the scientific literature. The aim of our cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between meal planning and diet quality, including adherence to nutritional guidelines and food variety, as well as weight status. Meal planning, i.e. planning ahead the foods that will be eaten for the next few days, was assessed in 40,554 participants of the web-based observational NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary measurements included intakes of energy, nutrients, food groups, and adherence to the French nutritional guidelines (mPNNS-GS) estimated through repeated 24-h dietary records. A food variety score was also calculated using Food Frequency Questionnaire. Weight and height were self-reported. Association between meal planning and dietary intakes were assessed using ANCOVAs, while associations with quartiles of mPNNS-GS scores, quartiles of food variety score and weight status categories (overweight, obesity) were evaluated using logistic regression models. A total of 57% of the participants declared to plan meals at least occasionally. Meal planners were more likely to have a higher mPNNS-GS (OR quartile 4 vs. 1 = 1.13, 95% CI: [1.07-1.20]), higher overall food variety (OR quartile 4 vs. 1 = 1.25, 95% CI: [1.18-1.32]). In women, meal planning was associated with lower odds of being overweight (OR = 0.92 [0.87-0.98]) and obese (OR = 0.79 [0.73-0.86]). In men, the association was significant for obesity only (OR = 0.81 [0.69-0.94]). Meal planning was associated with a healthier diet and less obesity. Although no causality can be inferred from the reported associations, these data suggest that meal planning could potentially be relevant for obesity prevention.

  20. Multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with in-store sampling of an aged raw-milk Gouda cheese, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, J T; Williams, N J; Beam, S W; Cosgrove, S; Ettestad, P J; Ghosh, T S; Kimura, A C; Nguyen, L; Stroika, S G; Vogt, R L; Watkins, A K; Weiss, J R; Williams, I T; Cronquist, A B

    2012-10-01

    In 2010, 41 patients ill with Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates determined to be indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were identified among residents of five Southwestern U.S. states. A majority of patients reported consuming complimentary samples of aged raw-milk Gouda cheese at national warehouse chain store locations; sampling Gouda cheese was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio, 9.0; 95 % confidence interval, 1.7 to 47). Several Gouda samples yielded the O157:H7 outbreak strain, confirming the food vehicle and source of infections. Implicated retail food-sampling operations were inconsistently regulated among affected states, and sanitation deficiencies were common among sampling venues. Inspection of the cheese manufacturer indicated deficient sanitation practices and insufficient cheese curing times. Policymakers should continue to reexamine the adequacy and enforcement of existing rules intended to ensure the safety of raw-milk cheeses and retail food sampling. Additional research is necessary to clarify the food safety hazards posed to patrons who consume free food samples while shopping.

  1. The associations of meals and snacks on family meals among a sample of grade 7 students from Southwestern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Campbell, Katherine; Campbell, Ty; Cole, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Research has shown the positive associations of family meals and diet quality. However, little is known about how other meals/snacks may be associated with family meals. The purpose was to determine the associations among the frequency and calorie consumption of meals/snacks and family dinners. Cross-sectional. Data were collected using Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q), including a 24-h diet recall for breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner, and evening snack. Measured height and weight were used to determine body weight status (BMI). Participants included 1068 grade 7 students (52% males) from 26 schools in Windsor Essex County, Ontario, Canada. Meal, snack, and total daily caloric intake; meal and snack frequency; with whom dinner was consumed, and weekly family dinner frequency. Exploratory one-way ANOVAs and chi-square tests; nominal and ordinal logistic regression. Ninety-three percent of participants consumed dinner with family members on the night prior to the survey and 77% reported usually consuming dinner/supper with at least one parent on six to seven nights/week. Those who had dinner with family members consumed 4.88 (SD 1.1) meals/snacks per day compared with 4.40 (SD 1.3) and 4.40 (SD 1.3) times/day for consuming dinner alone or with friends, respectively (p=0.006). On the day prior to the survey, participants were less likely to consume a family meal if they consumed a lower number of meals and snacks per day (OR=0.69 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.87), pfamily meals if they consumed a lower number of meals and snacks per day (OR=0.84 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.96), p=0.009). While specific meals and snacks were not associated with family dinner, overall eating frequency was positively associated with family meals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary behaviors as associated factors for overweight and obesity in a sample of adolescents from Aquitaine, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, Caroline; Langevin, Coralie; Lamireau, Thierry; Maurice, Sylvie; Thibault, Hélène

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to identify dietary behaviors that might be considered as associated factors for overweight or obesity among French adolescents. Forty-nine of the 536 middle and high schools in Aquitaine (southwest of France) were invited to take part in the study. For each school, participating adolescents were selected using stratification by grade. A self-report questionnaire, including information about sex, age, dietary behaviors, physical and sedentary activities, and parental socioeconomic status (SES), was filled in by adolescents during class. Overweight and obesity were defined according to the age- and sex-specific body mass index cutoff points of the International Obesity Task Force. Multivariate analysis (logistic regression) was used to identify independent dietary factors associated with overweight including obesity and obesity alone (adjustment on sex, age, parental SES, and weight status and adolescents' sedentary activity). In addition to parental SES and weight status and adolescents' sedentary activity, some dietary behaviors are also independently and significantly associated with a higher prevalence of overweight including obesity: absence (OR 1.43, 0.91-2.23) or rare (OR 1.57, 1.23-2.01) breakfast intake (p < 0.01) and absence (OR 5.03, 3.19-7.92) or rare (OR 1.90, 1.46-2.47) light afternoon meal intake (p < 0.001). All variables were also significantly and independently associated with obesity alone. This study shows that socioeconomic factors and individual behaviors are associated with overweight or obesity. These results confirm the importance to carry out multifaceted educational actions among adolescents, by promoting physical activity and healthy food choices in order to prevent overweight and promote healthy lifestyle behaviors.

  3. Association of healthy foods intake with anthropometric measures and blood pressure in a national sample of Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN- IV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payab, Moloud; Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Esmaeil Motlagh, Mohammad; Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Ejtahed, Hanieh S; Ardalan, Gelayol; Arefirad, Tahereh; Asayesh, Hamid; Heshmat, Ramin

    2016-02-19

    This study aims to evaluate the association of consuming healthy foods with anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP) in a national sample of Iranian children and adolescents. This nationwide study was conducted in 2011-2012 among 13,486 students, aged 6-18 years, selected by multistage cluster sampling from 30 provinces. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), wais to height ratio (WHtR), waist to hip ratio (WHR), as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP) were measured. Healthy foods were considered as four categories including fresh fruits, dried fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. The frequency consumption of each of these foods was recorded as daily, weekly, and seldom. The intake of fruits was significantly associated with anthropometric indices. Moreover, a significant association was found between vegetables consumption, DBP levels, and anthropometric indices (except for WHtR and WHR). Milk consumption was significantly associated with anthropometric indices (except for WHtR and WHR). The odds of general obesity among participants who seldom consumed dried fruits was less than those who consumed daily (OR: 0.84, 95%CI: 0.74-0.96). We did not find any significant association for the frequency of fresh fruits and vegetables consumption with obesity, abdominal obesity, DBP and SBP. Consumption of dried fruits was associated with general obesity in children and adolescents. These results highlight the effect of dietary quality and food choices on weight control in children and adolescents.

  4. Prospective associations between cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress and change in physical disability in a large community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anna C; Der, Geoff; Shipton, Deborah; Benzeval, Michaela

    2011-09-01

    Exaggerated haemodynamic reactions to acute psychological stress have been implicated in cardiovascular disease outcomes, while lower reactions have been considered benign. This study examined, in a large cohort, the prospective associations between stress reactivity and physical disability. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured at rest and in response to a stress task. Physical disability was assessed using the OPCS survey of disability at baseline and five years later. Heart rate reactivity was negatively associated with change in physical disability over time, such that those with lower heart rate reactivity were more likely to deteriorate over the following five years. These effects remained significant following adjustment for a number of confounding variables. These data give further support to the recent argument that for some health outcomes, lower or blunted cardiovascular stress reactivity is not necessarily protective. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of sample attrition in a longitudinal study of the association between alcohol intake and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau C; Johansen, Christoffer; Keiding, Niels

    2008-01-01

    intake and other life-style factors during 28 years of follow-up, were linked with nation-wide registers on socio-economic covariates, mortality and disease incidence. Logistic regression was used to describe life-style and socio-economic determinants of attrition, and Poisson regression was used...... to evaluate how attrition affected the association between alcohol intake and mortality. The statistical methods used for dealing with missing values were complete case analysis, carry last observation forward, simple imputations, multiple imputation and weighting. FINDINGS: Abstinence and high alcohol intake......, current smoking, physical inactivity and high body mass index increased the odds of dropping out, whereas being married, more years of education, skilled occupation, high income and large residential area decreased the odds. Attrition was associated with increased mortality and incidence rates of heart...

  6. The association among difficulties in emotion regulation, hostility, and empathy in a sample of young Italian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Contardi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the role of empathy in mediating the association between difficulties in emotion regulation and hostility. 360 young Italian adults (220 women and 140 men were enrolled in the study. Psychopathological assessments included the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI and the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI. Perspective taking (PT and Personal distress (PD are significantly associated with both DERS total score and BDHI total score. A mediational model analyzing the direct and indirect effects of DERS on BDHI through the mediating role of PT and PD showed that the relation between DERS and BDHI was partially mediated by PT total score (b = 0.16; se = 0.01; p = 0.02. Taken together our findings support the possibility that perspective taking skills could play a crucial role in inhibiting hostility behaviors.

  7. No direct association among respiratory function, disease control and family functioning in a sample of Mexican children with intermittent asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Raimundo Rodriguez-Orozco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma has been linked to family disfunctioning and poor control of the disease.This study was conducted to analyze the interactions between the level of intermittent asthma control, family functioning and respiratory function and between quality of life of asthmatic patients and their caregivers.7 to 15 years old children with intermittent asthma were included. Asthma Control Test Questionnaire,  Pediatric  Asthma  Quality  of  Life  Questionnaire   (PAQLQ   test,  and flowmetry were applied  to  children  and  Pediatric  Asthma  Caregiver´s Quatily of  Life Questionnaire  (PAQCLQ  and  the  Family Functioning  Perception  Test  (FF-SIL were applied to their parents.The most affected areas of family functioning in dysfunctional families were adaptability and permeability. A medium  to  high strength  of  association was founded  between  the emotional function of parents and the emotional function of children, R2=0.552. The most remarkable associations were among parents’ limitation of activities and parents' emotional function (r=0.837, parents’ limitation of activities and child's emotional function (r=0.722, parents' emotional role and limitation of activities (r=0.837, parents’ emotional role and emotional functioning of children with asthma (r=0.743 and the limitation of activities of children with asthma and the emotional function of children with asthma (r=0.870.No  direct associations were founded  among respiratory function, disease control  and family functioning in Mexican children with intermittent asthma and emotional function of parents and children were associated in both groups.

  8. Clinically Significant Fatigue: Prevalence and Associated Factors in an International Sample of Adults with Multiple Sclerosis Recruited via the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Weiland, Tracey J.; Jelinek, George A.; Claudia H. Marck; Emily J Hadgkiss; van der Meer, Dania M.; Pereira, Naresh G.; Taylor, Keryn L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Fatigue contributes a significant burden of disease for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Modifiable lifestyle factors have been recognized as having a role in a range of morbidity outcomes in PwMS. There is significant potential to prevent and treat fatigue in PwMS by addressing modifiable risk factors. Objectives To explore the associations between clinically significant fatigue and demographic factors, clinical factors (health-related quality of life, disability and relapse...

  9. Brief Report: Associations Between Self-Reported Paternal Relationships, Anger, Alcohol, and Intimate Partner Violence in a Prison Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Jessica; Day, Andrew; Bowen, Erica

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the association between family relationships, anger, alcohol use, and self-reported intimate partner violence (IPV). Participants were 55 male prisoners who completed a survey about their family relationships, anger, alcohol use, and aggression. Exposure to parental IPV predicted rates of self-reported perpetration of IPV, suggesting the importance of understanding more about the developmental pathways to IPV if effective prevention, intervention, and assessment strategies are to be developed for use with this high-risk population.

  10. Association of serum inorganic phosphate with sex steroid hormones and vitamin D in a nationally representative sample of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulaningsih, W; Van Hemelrijck, M; Michaelsson, K; Kanarek, N; Nelson, W G; Ix, J H; Platz, E A; Rohrmann, S

    2014-11-01

    Defects in bone regulatory pathways have been linked to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. In men, a link between bone metabolism and gonadal hormones has been suggested. However, to date, there is lack of evidence on the association between serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) and sex steroid hormones. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between Pi, sex steroid hormones and a known Pi metabolic regulator, vitamin D, in men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III). From NHANES III, we selected 1412 men aged 20+ who participated in the morning session of Phase I (1988-1991) with serum measurements of Pi, sex hormones, and vitamin D. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate crude and geometric mean Pi by total and estimated free testosterone and estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, androstanediol glucuronide (AAG), and vitamin D. Similar analyses were performed while stratifying by race/ethnicity and vitamin D levels. We found a lack of statistically significant difference in geometric means of Pi across quintiles of concentrations of sex hormones, indicating a tight regulation of Pi. However, Pi levels were inversely associated with calculated free testosterone in non-Hispanic black men, with geometric mean levels of Pi of 1.16 and 1.02 ng/mL for those in the lowest and highest quintiles of free testosterone, respectively (p-trend sex hormones, vitamin D, and Pi in men. The observed effects of race/ethnicity and vitamin D indicate a complex association involving various regulators of Pi homeostasis.

  11. Associations between parental deployment, relocation, and risky sexual behaviors among a clinic-based sample of military-dependent youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Belinda F; Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Burr, Jean; Roberts, Timothy; Tortolero, Susan

    2015-10-01

    Although sexual behaviors have been extensively studied among youth in general, they have been relatively understudied among military-dependent youth (MDY). Furthermore, the impact of unique military stressors, such as parental deployment and multiple relocations, on the sexual behaviors of MDY has not been assessed. In this pilot study, we estimated the prevalence of sexual behaviors among MDY, and examined the association between these behaviors and parental deployment and multiple relocations. Between June and September 2011, we recruited youth (N = 208; aged 15-19 years) who attended a military treatment facility in the southern United States, to complete a short, paper-based survey. We computed prevalence estimates and conducted Chi-square analyses, as well as logistic regression analyses, while adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. More than half (53.7 %) of the youth reported being sexually experienced, and many of these youth reported engaging in risky sexual behaviors. Parental deployment and multiple relocations were significantly associated only with having had sex in the past 3 months. Although with most sexual behaviors there was no significant association between parental deployment and multiple relocations, many MDY are sexually experienced and engage in risky sexual behaviors. MDY should thus be exposed to evidence-based strategies for sexually transmitted infection and pregnancy prevention, as well as provided with teen-friendly health care services and comprehensive sexual/reproductive health counseling.

  12. Parental feeding practices and socioeconomic status are associated with child adiposity in a multi-ethnic sample of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardel, Michelle; Willig, Amanda L; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Casazza, Krista; Beasley, T Mark; Fernández, José R

    2012-02-01

    Parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, but results have been inconsistent across populations. Research is needed to elucidate the relationship between parental feeding practices and adiposity in diverse populations. The present study tested if: (1) parental feeding practices differed by race/ethnicity, (2) parental pressure to eat and parental restriction were associated with adiposity levels, and (3) to investigate the relationship between parental feeding practices and/or child adiposity with socioeconomic status (SES). Structural equations modeling was conducted to test the model in 267 children aged 7-12 years self-identified as African American (AA), European American (EA), or Hispanic American (HA) from economically diverse backgrounds. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography scanning were used to determine body composition and abdominal fat distribution, respectively. Parental restriction was a significant predictor of child adiposity while parental pressure to eat had an inverse relationship with child adiposity. HA parents reported significantly higher levels of restriction and pressure to eat, whereas EA parents reported the lowest. SES was positively associated with child adiposity and inversely related to parental restriction and pressure to eat. Thus, parental feeding practices differ across racial/ethnic groups and SES and may contribute to population differences in child adiposity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heritability and Genome-Wide Association Studies for Hair Color in a Dutch Twin Family Based Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochao Danae Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hair color is one of the most visible and heritable traits in humans. Here, we estimated heritability by structural equation modeling (N = 20,142, and performed a genome wide association (GWA analysis (N = 7091 and a GCTA study (N = 3340 on hair color within a large cohort of twins, their parents and siblings from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR. Self-reported hair color was analyzed as five binary phenotypes, namely “blond versus non-blond”, “red versus non-red”, “brown versus non-brown”, “black versus non-black”, and “light versus dark”. The broad-sense heritability of hair color was estimated between 73% and 99% and the genetic component included non-additive genetic variance. Assortative mating for hair color was significant, except for red and black hair color. From GCTA analyses, at most 24.6% of the additive genetic variance in hair color was explained by 1000G well-imputed SNPs. Genome-wide association analysis for each hair color showed that SNPs in the MC1R region were significantly associated with red, brown and black hair, and also with light versus dark hair color. Five other known genes (HERC2, TPCN2, SLC24A4, IRF4, and KITLG gave genome-wide significant hits for blond, brown and light versus dark hair color. We did not find and replicate any new loci for hair color.

  14. Heritability and Genome-Wide Association Studies for Hair Color in a Dutch Twin Family Based Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bochao Danae; Mbarek, Hamdi; Willemsen, Gonneke; Dolan, Conor V.; Fedko, Iryna O.; Abdellaoui, Abdel; de Geus, Eco J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Hair color is one of the most visible and heritable traits in humans. Here, we estimated heritability by structural equation modeling (N = 20,142), and performed a genome wide association (GWA) analysis (N = 7091) and a GCTA study (N = 3340) on hair color within a large cohort of twins, their parents and siblings from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Self-reported hair color was analyzed as five binary phenotypes, namely “blond versus non-blond”, “red versus non-red”, “brown versus non-brown”, “black versus non-black”, and “light versus dark”. The broad-sense heritability of hair color was estimated between 73% and 99% and the genetic component included non-additive genetic variance. Assortative mating for hair color was significant, except for red and black hair color. From GCTA analyses, at most 24.6% of the additive genetic variance in hair color was explained by 1000G well-imputed SNPs. Genome-wide association analysis for each hair color showed that SNPs in the MC1R region were significantly associated with red, brown and black hair, and also with light versus dark hair color. Five other known genes (HERC2, TPCN2, SLC24A4, IRF4, and KITLG) gave genome-wide significant hits for blond, brown and light versus dark hair color. We did not find and replicate any new loci for hair color. PMID:26184321

  15. Fungi associated with chimney and sulfide samples from a South Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal site: Distribution, diversity and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Guo, Shuangshuang; Pang, Ka-Lai; Luo, Zhu-Hua

    2017-05-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems are known to support remarkably diverse microbial communities, ranging from chemoautotrophic prokaryotes to heterotrophic prokaryotes and microeukaryotes. While fungi have generally been identified as an important component of various microbial communities in the environment, little is known about the species richness and abundance of such microorganisms in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. In this study, a combined culture-dependent and culture-independent sequence-based approach was used to investigate fungal distribution and diversity at a deep-sea hydrothermal vent site located at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge of the South Atlantic Ocean. Sequence analyses showed that the fungal community was dominated by members of the Ascomycota and the Basidiomycota. Several new phylotypes (28 of 65 total fungal OTUs and 2 of 19 culturable fungal phylotypes) were identified, contributing to the literally unknown diversity of fungi in this understudied habitat. The fungal community structures in the chimney samples were distinct from those in three sulfide samples. The qPCR results revealed that fungal LSU rRNA gene copy numbers ranged from 5.88×105 to 6.77×106 copies/gram rock (wet weight), and the Ascomycota was significantly more abundant 2-3 orders) than the Basidiomycota. Our findings provide new insights into the diversity and abundance of fungi in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems, which increases our knowledge and understanding of the fungal diversity in deep-sea environments.

  16. Candida colonization in urine samples of ICU patients: determination of etiology, antifungal susceptibility testing and evaluation of associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Nidhi; Gulati, Neelam; Kaistha, Neelam; Chander, Jagdish

    2012-08-01

    The presence of Candida in urine presents a therapeutic challenge for the physician as it is often asymptomatic, and management guidelines have not been clearly laid down on this issue. The presence of Candida in urine may represent contamination of clinical sample, actual colonization of the lower urinary tract or may be a true indicator of invasive infection of lower and/or upper urinary tract. In a clinical setting like the ICU, multiple risk factors for Candida colonization may be present in the same patient, thereby increasing the chances of candiduria, manifold. In the present study on 80 patients in ICU, high rate of Candida colonization (57.5%) was found in urine samples of ICU patients with C. tropicalis (57.3%) being the predominant species. We also isolated 8 strains of Trichosporon species, all of these presented as a mixed infection along with Candida species. Among the various risk factors studied, urinary catheterization and previous antibiotic therapy were identified as statistically significant (P value albicans, C. glabrata and Trichosporon species, respectively.

  17. Joint Association of Screen Time and Physical Activity with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a National Sample of Iranian Adolescents: The CASPIANIII Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ramin Heshmat; Mostafa Qorbani; Amir Eslami Shahr Babaki; Shirin Djalalinia; Asal Ataei-Jafari; Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh; Gelayol Ardalan; Tahereh Arefirad; Fatemeh Rezaei; Hamid Asayesh; Roya Kelishadi

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its contributing factors are considered important health problems in the pediatric age group. This study was designed to assess the joint association of ST and PA with cardiometabolic risk factors among Iranian adolescents. A representative sample of 5625 (50.2% boys) school students with a mean age of 14.73 (SD: 2.41) were selected through multistage random cluster sampling method from urban and rural areas of 27 provinces in Iran. ST and PA were assessed by sel...

  18. Association and linkage studies of the TAQI A1 allele at the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor gene in samples of female and male alcoholics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiswanger, K.; Hill, S.Y.; Kaplan, B.B. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-14

    To address the controversy surrounding DRD2 and alcoholism, we performed linkage and association studies utilizing alcoholic men from high density families largely uncontaminated by other psychopathology and female alcoholics for whom secondary drug dependence (averaging 10 years later onset) was a prominent feature. The males and females were combined for a total of 52 alcoholics, and compared to 30 controls screened for the absence of alcoholism and other psychopathology, revealing a significant association between the frequency of the TaqI allele and alcoholism. However, linkage and family-based association study, placed in the context of the literature, suggest that minimizing psychopathology in control groups is probably a more important explanation for divergent results than either sampling error or population stratification. When combined with the complete lack of within-family evidence, we conclude that the association, while not specific to the alcoholism phenotype, per se. 37 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Lifetime cigarette smoking is associated with abdominal obesity in a community-based sample of Japanese men: The Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (SESSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Fujiyoshi

    2016-12-01

    We analyzed 513 men (median age, 58.2 years; current smokers, 40.1%. Two-thirds showed body mass index (BMI < 25 kg/m2 (median, 23.5 kg/m2. Overall, greater lifetime smoking group was associated with greater WHR and VSR. On average, one higher smoking group was associated with 0.005 higher WHR (95% CI, 0.001–0.008; P = 0.005 and 0.041 greater VSR (95% CI, 0.009–0.073; P = 0.012 after adjustment for potential confounders, including BMI. In this sample of relatively lean Japanese men, greater lifetime smoking was associated with a metabolically more adverse fat distribution. Although smoking is commonly associated with lower BMI, minimizing the amount of lifetime smoking should be advocated.

  20. Par Pond phytoplankton in association with refilling of the pond: Final Report for sampling from February 1995 -- September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.; Johnson, M.A.; Cody, W.C.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the results of phytoplankton analyses from Par Pond samples collected between February 1995 and September 1996. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of refilling of Par Pond following repair of the dam on the phytoplankton community. Algal blooms are often responsible for fish kills and other detrimental effects in ponds and lakes, and it was postulated that decaying vegetation from formerly exposed sediments might trigger algal blooms that could result in fish kills in Par Pond following the refill. Sporadic algal blooms involving blue-green algae were detected, especially during the summer of 1996. However, the data derived from the study demonstrates that overall, the refilling effort caused no significant negative impact to the pond attributable to phytoplankton dynamics.

  1. Nutritional status, glycemic control and its associated risk factors among a sample of type 2 diabetic individuals, a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Firouzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Malaysia, with most patients poorly controlled. Hence, this study aimed to determine nutritional and metabolic status as well as blood pressure of Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify associated risk factors for poor glycemic control. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited and completed a questionnaire covering socio-demographic status, 3-day diet records, and physical activity. Anthropometry and glycemic control parameters, lipid profile and blood pressure were also measured. Results: Subjects were on average 56.7±9.9 years old with a mean duration of diabetes of 6.5 ± 5.0 years. The mean hemoglobin A1c of the subjects was 7.6% ± 1.4%, with only 20.2% achieving the target goal of <6.5% with no significant differences between genders. The mean body mass index was 26.9 ± 4.7 kg/m 2 , with 86.5% either were overweight or obese. Only 10.6% of the subjects exercised daily. The proportions of macronutrients relative to total energy intake were consistent with the recommendations of most diabetes associations. The adjusted odds of having poor glycemic control were 3.235 (1.043-10.397 (P < 0.05 higher among those who had high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels below the normal range. Those taking one or two types of oral anti-diabetic drugs had 19.9 (2.959-87.391 (P < 0.01 and 14.3 (2.647-77.500 (P < 0.01 higher odds of poor glycemic control respectively compared to those who were being treated by diet alone. Conclusion: Poor glycemic control was prevalent among Malaysian diabetic patients, and this could be associated with low levels of HDL and being treated with oral anti-diabetes agents.

  2. Acculturation is associated with left ventricular mass in a multiethnic sample: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effoe, Valery S; Chen, Haiying; Moran, Andrew; Bertoni, Alain G; Bluemke, David A; Seeman, Teresa; Darwin, Christine; Watson, Karol E; Rodriguez, Carlos J

    2015-12-03

    Acculturation involves stress-related processes and health behavioral changes, which may have an effect on left ventricular (LV) mass, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined the relationship between acculturation and LV mass in a multiethnic cohort of White, African-American, Hispanic and Chinese subjects. Cardiac magnetic resonance assessment was available for 5004 men and women, free of clinical CVD at baseline. Left ventricular mass index was evaluated as LV mass indexed by body surface area. Acculturation was characterized based on language spoken at home, place of birth and length of stay in the United States (U.S.), and a summary acculturation score ranging from 0 = least acculturated to 5 = most acculturated. Mean LV mass index adjusted for traditional CVD risk factors was compared across acculturation levels. Unadjusted mean LV mass index was 78.0 ± 16.3 g/m(2). In adjusted analyses, speaking exclusively English at home compared to non-English language was associated with higher LV mass index (81.3 ± 0.4 g/m(2) vs 79.9 ± 0.5 g/m(2), p = 0.02). Among foreign-born participants, having lived in the U.S. for ≥ 20 years compared to acculturation score, those with the highest score had greater LV mass index (78.9 ± 1.1 g/m(2) vs 81.1 ± 0.4 g/m(2), p = 0.002). There was heterogeneity in which measure of acculturation was associated with LV mass index across ethnic groups. Greater acculturation is associated with increased LV mass index in this multiethnic cohort. Acculturation may involve stress-related processes as well as behavioral changes with a negative effect on cardiovascular health.

  3. Understanding bioavailability and toxicity of sediment-associated contaminants by combining passive sampling with in vitro bioassays in an urban river catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan-Ying; Tang, Janet Yat Man; Jin, Ling; Escher, Beate I

    2013-12-01

    Bioavailable and bioaccessible fractions of sediment-associated contaminants are considered as better dose metrics for sediment-quality assessment than total concentrations. The authors applied exhaustive solvent extraction and nondepletive equilibrium sampling techniques to sediment samples collected along the Brisbane River in South East Queensland, Australia, which range from pristine environments to urban and industry-impacted areas. The wide range of chemicals expected prevents comprehensive chemical analysis, but a battery of cell-based bioassays sheds light on mixture effects of chemicals in relation to various modes of toxic action. Toxic effects were expressed as bioanalytical equivalent concentrations (BEQs) normalized to the organic carbon content of each sediment sample. Bioanalytical equivalent concentrations from exhaustive extraction agreed fairly well with values estimated from polydimethylsiloxane passive sampling extracts via the constant organic carbon to polydimethylsiloxane partition coefficient. Agreement was best for bioassays indicative of photosynthesis inhibition and oxidative stress response and discrepancy within a factor of 3 for the induction of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. For nonspecific cytotoxicity, BEQ from exhaustive extraction were 1 order of magnitude higher than values from equilibrium sampling, possibly because of coextraction of bioactive natural organic matter that led to an overestimation of toxicity in the exhaustive extracts, which suggests that passive sampling is better suited in combination with bioanalytical assessment than exhaustive extraction.

  4. Association of the solute carrier family 11 member 1 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to leprosy in a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Franco Brochado

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1/solute carrier family 11 member 1 gene (Nramp1/Slc11a1 is a gene that controls the susceptibility of inbred mice to intracellular pathogens. Polymorphisms in the human Slc11a1/Nramp1 gene have been associated with host susceptibility to leprosy. This study has evaluated nine polymorphisms of the Slc11a1/Nramp1 gene [(GTn, 274C/T, 469+14G/C, 577-18G/A, 823C/T, 1029 C/T, 1465-85G/A, 1703G/A, and 1729+55del4] in 86 leprosy patients (67 and 19 patients had the multibacillary and the paucibacillary clinical forms of the disease, respectively, and 239 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and ethnicity. The frequency of allele 2 of the (GTn polymorphism was higher in leprosy patients [p = 0.04, odds ratio (OR = 1.49], whereas the frequency of allele 3 was higher in the control group (p = 0.03; OR = 0.66. Patients carrying the 274T allele (p = 0.04; OR = 1.49 and TT homozygosis (p = 0.02; OR = 2.46, such as the 469+14C allele (p = 0.03; OR = 1.53 of the 274C/T and 469+14G/C polymorphisms, respectively, were more frequent in the leprosy group. The leprosy and control groups had similar frequency of the 577-18G/A, 823C/T, 1029C/T, 1465-85G/A, 1703G/A, and 1729+55del4 polymorphisms. The 274C/T polymorphism in exon 3 and the 469+14G/C polymorphism in intron 4 were associated with susceptibility to leprosy, while the allele 2 and 3 of the (GTn polymorphism in the promoter region were associated with susceptibility and protection to leprosy, respectively.

  5. Association of the solute carrier family 11 member 1 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to leprosy in a Brazilian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochado, Maria José Franco; Gatti, Maria Fernanda Chociay; Zago, Marco Antônio; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2016-02-01

    Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1/solute carrier family 11 member 1 gene (Nramp1/Slc11a1) is a gene that controls the susceptibility of inbred mice to intracellular pathogens. Polymorphisms in the human Slc11a1/Nramp1 gene have been associated with host susceptibility to leprosy. This study has evaluated nine polymorphisms of the Slc11a1/Nramp1 gene [(GT)n, 274C/T, 469+14G/C, 577-18G/A, 823C/T, 1029 C/T, 1465-85G/A, 1703G/A, and 1729+55del4] in 86 leprosy patients (67 and 19 patients had the multibacillary and the paucibacillary clinical forms of the disease, respectively), and 239 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and ethnicity. The frequency of allele 2 of the (GT)n polymorphism was higher in leprosy patients [p = 0.04, odds ratio (OR) = 1.49], whereas the frequency of allele 3 was higher in the control group (p = 0.03; OR = 0.66). Patients carrying the 274T allele (p = 0.04; OR = 1.49) and TT homozygosis (p = 0.02; OR = 2.46), such as the 469+14C allele (p = 0.03; OR = 1.53) of the 274C/T and 469+14G/C polymorphisms, respectively, were more frequent in the leprosy group. The leprosy and control groups had similar frequency of the 577-18G/A, 823C/T, 1029C/T, 1465-85G/A, 1703G/A, and 1729+55del4 polymorphisms. The 274C/T polymorphism in exon 3 and the 469+14G/C polymorphism in intron 4 were associated with susceptibility to leprosy, while the allele 2 and 3 of the (GT)n polymorphism in the promoter region were associated with susceptibility and protection to leprosy, respectively.

  6. Rutaceae sampled from Germany, Malta, and Mallorca (Spain) are associated with AMF clustering with Glomus hoi Berch & Trappe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, M; Weber, H Chr; Imhof, S

    2008-07-01

    Six Rutaceae species collected from natural habitats (Malta, Mallorca (Spain), and Tenerife (Spain)) and the Botanical Garden in Marburg were examined with respect to mycorrhizal structures and fungal identity. All species have the same gross colonization pattern of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) with distinct intracellular and intercellular phases but show remarkable differences in details, especially in terms of the extent of the intracellular phase. The associated AM fungi, identified using molecular methods, cluster together with Glomus hoi Berch & Trappe, although the plants were collected from very distant locations.

  7. Association Between Socioeconomic Position Discrimination and Psychological Distress: Findings From a Community-Based Sample of Gay and Bisexual Men in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Reisner, Sari L.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between discrimination and mental health distress, focusing specifically on the relative importance of discrimination because of particular demographic domains (i.e., race/ethnicity, socioeconomic position [SEP]). Methods. The research team surveyed a sample of gay and bisexual men (n = 294) at a community event in New York City. Participants completed a survey on demographics, discrimination experiences in the past 12 months, attributed domains of discrimination, and mental health distress. Results. In adjusted models, discrimination was associated with higher depressive (B = 0.31; P discrimination-squared; P discrimination were most robustly associated with poorer mental health. Discrimination because of SEP was associated with higher discrimination scores and was predictive of higher depressive (B = 0.22; P discrimination domains and distress. Conclusions. In this sample, SEP emerged as the most important domain of discrimination in its association with mental health distress. Future research should consider intersecting domains of discrimination to better understand social disparities in mental health. PMID:22994188

  8. Association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality: a study in a sample of undergraduate students in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniczak, Isabella; Cáceres-DelAguila, José Alonso; Palma-Ardiles, Gabriela; Arroyo, Karen J; Solís-Visscher, Rodrigo; Paredes-Yauri, Stephania; Mego-Aquije, Karina; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Internet can accelerate information exchange. Social networks are the most accessed especially Facebook. This kind of networks might create dependency with several negative consequences in people's life. The aim of this study was to assess potential association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality. A cross sectional study was performed enrolling undergraduate students of the Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru. The Internet Addiction Questionnaire, adapted to the Facebook case, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, were used. A global score of 6 or greater was defined as the cutoff to determine poor sleep quality. Generalized linear model were used to determine prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A total of 418 students were analyzed; of them, 322 (77.0%) were women, with a mean age of 20.1 (SD: 2.5) years. Facebook dependence was found in 8.6% (95% CI: 5.9%-11.3%), whereas poor sleep quality was present in 55.0% (95% CI: 50.2%-59.8%). A significant association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality mainly explained by daytime dysfunction was found (PR = 1.31; IC95%: 1.04-1.67) after adjusting for age, sex and years in the faculty. There is a relationship between Facebook dependence and poor quality of sleep. More than half of students reported poor sleep quality. Strategies to moderate the use of this social network and to improve sleep quality in this population are needed.

  9. Association between eating patterns and body mass index in a sample of children and adolescents in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Helena Alves dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between eating patterns and body mass index (BMI in children and adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study of 1,247 male and female students, aged between 6 and 12, from public elementary schools in São Francisco do Conde, Bahia State, Brasil. BMI was used to analyze the children’s nutritional status. Food consumption frequencies, in addition to demographic and socioeconomic information, were collected for each participant. Dietary patterns were identified through a factor analysis. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 17.3% (10.2% overweight and 7.1% obese. Two eating patterns, “obesogenic” and “prudent”, were identified. The former is characterized by sweets and sugars, typical Brazilian dishes, pastries, fast food, oils, milk, cereals, cakes, and sauces, and was positively associated with increased BMI (ßi = 0.244; p = 0.018. An “obesogenic” dietary pattern was associated with increased BMI.

  10. Associations between Male Anogenital Human Papillomavirus Infection and Circumcision by Anatomic Site Sampled and Lifetime Number of Female Sex Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Carrie M.; Schiaffino, Melody K.; Dunne, Eileen F.; Salemi, Jason L.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Male circumcision may lower men’s risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and reduce transmission to sex partners. Reported associations between circumcision and HPV infection in men have been inconsistent. Methods Four hundred sixty-three men in 2 US cities were tested at 6 anogenital sites and in semen for 37 types of HPV. Men were eligible if they reported sex with a woman within the past year, no history of genital warts or penile or anal cancer, and no current diagnosis of a sexually transmitted infection. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Circumcision status was assessed by the study clinician. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between circumcision and HPV detection at each site and in semen, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Seventy-four men (16.0%) were uncircumcised. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for any HPV genotype and circumcision were 0.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28–0.99) for any anatomic site/specimen, 0.17 (95% CI, 0.05–0.56) for the urethra, 0.44 (95% CI, 0.23–0.82) for the glans/corona, and 0.53 (95% CI, 0.28–0.99) for the penile shaft. AORs were Circumcision may be protective against HPV infection of the urethra, glans/corona, and penile shaft. PMID:19086813

  11. Meta-analysis of data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium and additional samples supports association of CACNA1C with risk for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Sakae; Glatt, Stephen J; Uchiyama, Makoto; Faraone, Stephen V; Tsuang, Ming T

    2015-10-01

    Recently, numerous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified numerous risk loci for schizophrenia, but follow-up studies are still essential to confirm those results. Therefore, we followed up on top GWAS hits by genotyping implicated loci in additional schizophrenia family samples from our own collection. Five-hundred thirty-six Asian families (comprising 1633 members including 698 schizophrenics) were genotyped in this study. We analyzed 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in strongly implicated candidate genes revealed by GWASs and their follow-up studies. We then used meta-analysis to combine our results with those of the Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC). In our newly genotyped samples, there were no significant associations of any of the 12 candidate SNPs with schizophrenia; however, all genome-wide significant results from the schizophrenia PGC analysis were maintained after combination with our new data by meta-analysis. One SNP (rs4765905 in CACNA1C) showed a stronger effect and decreased p-value (5.14e-17) after meta-analysis relative to the original PGC results, with no significant between-study heterogeneity. The findings of this study support the significant results in the PGC, especially for CACNA1C. The sample size in our study was considerably smaller than that in the PGC-SCZ study; thus, the weights carried by our samples in the meta-analysis were small. Therefore, our data could not vastly reduce PGC association signals. However, we considered that the well replicated results from the PGC hold up in our new samples, and may suggest that the top hits from the PGC are generalizable, even to other ancestral groups.

  12. A 95 GHz CLASS I METHANOL MASER SURVEY TOWARD A SAMPLE OF GLIMPSE POINT SOURCES ASSOCIATED WITH BGPS CLUMPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xi; Gan Conggui; Shen Zhiqiang; An Tao [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ellingsen, Simon P. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); He Jinhua [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Xu Ye; Sun Yan; Ju Binggang, E-mail: chenxi@shao.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2012-05-01

    We report a survey with the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m radio telescope for class I methanol masers from the 95 GHz (8{sub 0}-7{sub 1} A{sup +}) transition. Two hundred and fourteen target sources were selected by combining information from both the Spitzer GLIMPSE and 1.1 mm Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) catalogs. The observed sources satisfy the GLIMPSE mid-IR criteria of [3.6]-[4.5] > 1.3, [3.6]-[5.8] > 2.5, [3.6]-[8.0] > 2.5 and 8.0 {mu}m mag less than 10; they also have an associated 1.1 mm BGPS source. Class I methanol maser emission was detected in 63 sources, corresponding to a detection rate of 29% for this survey. For the majority of detections (43), this is the first identification of class I methanol masers associated with these sources. We show that the intensity of the class I methanol maser emission is not closely related to mid-IR intensity or the colors of the GLIMPSE point sources; however, it is closely correlated with properties (mass and beam-averaged column density) of the BGPS sources. Comparison of measures of star formation activity for the BGPS sources with and without class I methanol masers indicates that the sources with class I methanol masers usually have higher column density and larger flux density than those without them. Our results predict that the criteria log (S{sub int}) {<=} -38.0 + 1.72log (N{sup beam}{sub H{sub 2}}) and log (N{sub H{sub 2}{sup beam}}){>=}22.1, which utilizes both the integrated flux density (S{sub int}) and beam-averaged column density (N{sub H{sub 2}{sup beam}}) of the BGPS sources, are very efficient for selecting sources likely to have an associated class I methanol maser. Our expectation is that searches using these criteria will detect 90% of the predicted number of class I methanol masers from the full BGPS catalog ({approx}1000), and that they will do so with a high detection efficiency ({approx}75%).

  13. Unique and Interactive Associations Between Maltreatment and Complex Emotion Recognition Deficits and Psychopathic Traits in an Undergraduate Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; McCabe, Hannah K; Dotterer, Hailey L; Neumann, Craig S; Hyde, Luke W

    2017-09-13

    Psychopathy is defined by affective and interpersonal deficits, deviant lifestyle, and antisocial behaviors. Poor recognition of emotions and childhood maltreatment are two risk factors implicated in psychopathy. The current study examined whether childhood maltreatment and complex emotion recognition deficits showed unique and interactive associations with psychopathic traits among 261 undergraduate students. Results indicate that maltreatment was related to higher general psychopathy scores within a bifactor model comprising a general psychopathy factor and four specific factors tapping underlying dimensions of psychopathy (i.e., affective, interpersonal, lifestyle, and antisocial). A significant interaction emerged whereby maltreatment was related to higher antisocial factor scores among individuals showing poor recognition of positive emotions. In an intriguing interaction, more maltreatment was related to lower interpersonal factor scores among individuals with low/mean levels of neutral emotion recognition. The interaction of positive emotion recognition deficits and maltreatment highlights a potential intervention target among antisocial individuals who have experienced maltreatment.

  14. Association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality: a study in a sample of undergraduate students in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Wolniczak

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Internet can accelerate information exchange. Social networks are the most accessed especially Facebook. This kind of networks might create dependency with several negative consequences in people's life. The aim of this study was to assess potential association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional study was performed enrolling undergraduate students of the Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru. The Internet Addiction Questionnaire, adapted to the Facebook case, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, were used. A global score of 6 or greater was defined as the cutoff to determine poor sleep quality. Generalized linear model were used to determine prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. A total of 418 students were analyzed; of them, 322 (77.0% were women, with a mean age of 20.1 (SD: 2.5 years. Facebook dependence was found in 8.6% (95% CI: 5.9%-11.3%, whereas poor sleep quality was present in 55.0% (95% CI: 50.2%-59.8%. A significant association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality mainly explained by daytime dysfunction was found (PR = 1.31; IC95%: 1.04-1.67 after adjusting for age, sex and years in the faculty. CONCLUSIONS: There is a relationship between Facebook dependence and poor quality of sleep. More than half of students reported poor sleep quality. Strategies to moderate the use of this social network and to improve sleep quality in this population are needed.

  15. Chandra Discovery of 10 New X-Ray Jets Associated With FR II Radio Core-Selected AGNs in the MOJAVE Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Hogan, Brandon; Kharb, Preeti; Marshall, Herman; Cooper, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray observatory has proven to be a vital tool for studying high-energy emission processes in jets associated with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN).We have compiled a sample of 27 AGN selected from the radio flux-limited MOJAVE (Monitoring of Jets in AGN with VLBA Experiments) sample of highly relativistically beamed jets to look for correlations between X-ray and radio emission on kiloparsec scales. The sample consists of all MOJAVE quasars which have over 100 mJy of extended radio emission at 1.4 GHz and a radio structure of at least 3" in size. Previous Chandra observations have revealed X-ray jets in 11 of 14 members of the sample, and we have carried out new observations of the remaining 13 sources. Of the latter, 10 have Xray jets, bringing the overall detection rate to ~ 78%. Our selection criteria, which is based on highly compact, relativistically beamed jet emission and large extended radio flux, thus provides an effective method of discovering new X-ray jets associated with AGN. The detect...

  16. Factors associated with HIV infection among a respondent-driven sample of men who have sex with men in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignol, Sandra; Kerr, Ligia; Amorim, Leila Denise; Dourado, Inês

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to disproportionately affect men who have sex with men (MSM); therefore, we investigated the sociodemographic, biological, and sexual behavioral risk factors associated with HIV infection in the city of Salvador, Bahia. This study is part of the national survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among men who have sex with men in 10 Brazilian Cities, which is a cross-sectional survey whose participants were selected by means of the respondent-driven sampling. Exact logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association of potential risk factors with HIV infection due to an HIV prevalence lower than 10% and a small sample size (383). The prevalence of HIV was 6.3% (95%CI 3.9-8.8) and the risk factors associated with HIV infection in our adjusted final model included having never been tested for syphilis (OR = 3.1; 95%CI 1.3 - 7.3) and having more than eight sexual partners (OR = 3.3; 95%CI 1.4 - 8.1). This study highlights the high prevalence of HIV among MSM in the sample compared with the general population and confirms the importance of testing for syphilis in the context of the HIV epidemic as early detection may provide opportunities to prevent sexually transmitted diseases.

  17. Assessment and Control of Organic and Other Contaminants Associated with the Stardust Sample Return from Comet 81P/Wild 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, S.; Bajt, S; Clemett, S; Cody, G; Cooper, G; Degregorio, B; DeVera, V; Dworkin, J; Elsila, J; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous potential sources of organic contaminants could have greatly complicated the interpretation of the organic portions of the samples returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust spacecraft. Measures were taken to control and assess potential organic (and other) contaminants during the design, construction, and flight of the spacecraft, and during and after recovery of the sample return capsule. Studies of controls and the returned samples suggest that many of these potential sources did not contribute any significant material to the collectors. In particular, contamination from soils at the recovery site and materials associated with the ablation of the heatshield do not appear to be significant problems. The largest source of concern is associated with the C present in the original aerogel. The relative abundance of this carbon can vary between aerogel tiles and even within individual tiles. This C was fortunately not distributed among a complex mixture of organics, but was instead largely present in a few simple forms (mostly as Si-CH{sub 3} groups). In most cases, the signature of returned cometary organics can be readily distinguished from contaminants through their different compositions, nonterrestrial isotopic ratios, and/or association with other cometary materials. However, some conversion of the carbon indigenous to the flight aerogel appears to have happened during particle impact, and some open issues remain regarding how this C may be processed into new forms during the hypervelocity impact collection of the comet dust.

  18. Assessment and Control of Organic and other Contaminants Associated with the Stardust Sample Return from Comet 81P/Wild 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandford, S.; Bajt, S; Clemett, S; Cody, G; Cooper, G; Degregorio, B; de Vera, V; Dworkin, J; Flynn, G; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous potential sources of organic contaminants could have greatly complicated the interpretation of the organic portions of the samples returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust spacecraft. Measures were taken to control and assess potential organic (and other) contaminants during the design, construction, and flight of the spacecraft, and during and after recovery of the sample return capsule. Studies of controls and the returned samples suggest that many of these potential sources did not contribute any significant material to the collectors. In particular, contamination from soils at the recovery site and materials associated with the ablation of the heatshield do not appear to be significant problems. The largest source of concern is associated with the C present in the original aerogel. The relative abundance of this carbon can vary between aerogel tiles and even within individual tiles. This C was fortunately not distributed among a complex mixture of organics, but was instead largely present in a few simple forms (mostly as Si-CH{sub 3} groups). In most cases, the signature of returned cometary organics can be readily distinguished from contaminants through their different compositions, nonterrestrial isotopic ratios, and/or association with other cometary materials. However, some conversion of the carbon indigenous to the flight aerogel appears to have happened during particle impact, and some open issues remain regarding how this C may be processed into new forms during the hypervelocity impact collection of the comet dust.

  19. Rates, Associations, and Predictors of Psychopathology in a Convenience Sample of School-Aged Latino Youth: Identifying Areas for Mental Health Outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Lauren M; Kapke, Theresa L; Gerdes, Alyson C

    2016-07-01

    The Latino youth population is rapidly growing and expected to comprise nearly 40% of the total youth population by 2060. Unfortunate disparities exist in the United States (U.S.), such that young Latinos are less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to receive and benefit from mental health services. In order to identify and prioritize specific areas of mental health outreach, the current study examined preliminary rates, associations, and predictors of child psychopathology in a convenience sample of Latino youth. 123 Spanish and English speaking Latino parents of school-aged children completed a series of questionnaires regarding child and family functioning. Latino youth in the current sample demonstrated comparable rates of psychopathology to non-referred, normative samples. Parental acculturation (particularly Separated parental acculturation status: high orientation to Latino culture and low orientation to U.S. mainstream culture) was associated with an increased prevalence of clinically significant psychopathology across several domains, and socioeconomic status was associated with an increased prevalence of thought problems. Additionally, Separated parental acculturation status significantly predicted the prevalence of clinically significant anxious/depressed problems, such that youth of parents displaying Separated acculturation status were significantly more represented in the clinically-elevated groups than the functional groups. These preliminary results suggest that prioritizing outreach to Latino youth of parents maintaining orientation to Latino culture but not U.S. mainstream culture may be necessary in order to begin addressing existing mental health disparities in the U.S.

  20. Type D personality is not associated with coronary heart disease risk in a North American sample of retirement-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Noel C; Barger, Steven D; Sydeman, Sumner J

    2013-06-01

    Type D personality is associated with recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD) risk but there is limited and inconsistent evidence regarding incident risk among persons free of clinical CHD. We examined the association between Type D personality and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in apparently healthy adults. We also explored the association of these traits with waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and inhibited physician consultation behavior. Cross-sectional study of North American retirement-aged residents (N = 303). The primary outcome variable was a modified 10-year absolute CHD risk score from the Framingham Heart Study. Secondary outcomes included adiposity and a 5-item measure of patient/provider interaction inhibition. We regressed CHD risk on negative affect (NA), social inhibition (SI), and the NAxSI interaction (i.e., the Type D personality) and repeated these analyses for adiposity and for patient/provider interaction inhibition. We also contrasted CHD risk across Type D and non-Type D categories. None of the personality variables were associated with CHD risk for the whole sample (regression coefficients from −0.11 to .10, Ps > 0.29) or in gender-specific analyses. For adiposity, NA was positively associated and SI was negatively associated with BMI in women (Ps personality associations. Patient/provider interaction inhibition was associated with SI (P interaction (P = 0.42). The contrast between Type D and non-Type D personality revealed no differences in CHD risk (P = 0.93). Neither Type D nor its constituent NA and SI traits were associated with absolute incident CHD risk in retirement-aged adults free of reported CHD. Optimal analytic practices and attention to patient/provider interaction behavior will improve our understanding of the association between Type D personality traits and health.

  1. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Is Positively Associated with Baseline Triglyceride Concentrations, and Changes in Intake Are Inversely Associated with Changes in HDL Cholesterol over 12 Months in a Multi-Ethnic Sample of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompay, Maria I; McKeown, Nicola M; Goodman, Elizabeth; Eliasziw, Misha; Chomitz, Virginia R; Gordon, Catherine M; Economos, Christina D; Sacheck, Jennifer M

    2015-10-01

    Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is linked to greater cardiometabolic risk in adults. Although longitudinal evidence is sparse among children, SSB intake reduction is targeted to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors in this group. We investigated characteristics associated with consumption of SSBs in a multi-ethnic sample of children/adolescents and measured cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between SSB intake and plasma HDL cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) over 12 mo. In a diverse cohort of children aged 8-15 y, cross-sectional associations (n = 613) between baseline SSB intake and blood lipid concentrations and longitudinal associations (n = 380) between mean SSB intake, changes in SSB intake, and lipid changes over 12 mo were assessed with multivariable linear regression. Greater SSB intake was associated with lower socioeconomic status, higher total energy intake, lower fruit/vegetable intake, and more sedentary time. In cross-sectional analysis, greater SSB intake was associated with higher plasma TG concentrations among consumers (62.4, 65.3, and 71.6 mg/dL in children who consumed >0 but children who decreased their intake by ≥1 serving/wk (4.6 ± 0.8 mg/dL) compared with children whose intake stayed the same (2.0 ± 0.8 mg/dL) or increased (1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P = 0.02). In a multi-ethnic sample of children, intake of SSBs was positively associated with TG concentrations among consumers, and changes in SSB intake were inversely associated with HDL cholesterol concentration changes over 12 mo. Further research in large diverse samples of children is needed to study the public health implications of reducing SSB intake among children of different racial/ethnic groups. The Daily D Health Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01537809. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. A neuropeptide Y variant (rs16139 associated with major depressive disorder in replicate samples from Chinese Han population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of neuropeptide Y (NPY and major depressive disorder (MDD in Chinese Han population. DESIGN: Prospective and randomized studies were carried out. PATIENTS: A total of 700 patients (324 male and 376 female; mean age = 40±14.9 years with depression who met the diagnostic criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV and 673 healthy controls (313 male and 360 female; mean age = 41.9±17.2 years were used to investigate the relationship between SNPs of NPY and the pathogenesis of MDD. A total of 417 patients (195 male and 202 female; mean age = 36±14.2 years diagnosed with MDD and 314 healthy controls (153 male and 161 female; mean age = 37.9±14.2 years from Chinese Han population were used to verify the relationship between SNPs of NPY and the pathogenesis of MDD. INTERVENTION AND OUTCOME: Ligase detection reactions were performed to detect the SNP sites of NPY. A series of statistical methods was carried out to investigate the correlation between the NPY gene SNP and MDD. RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the SNP sites rs16139 in NPY and the morbidity of depression. Patients with MDD have a lower frequency of A-allele in rs16139 in replicate samples from Chinese Han population. However, the frequency varied between male and female patients. CONCLUSION: The gene polymorphism loci rs16139 was closely related to MDD in Chinese Han population.

  3. Research on preferences for participation in search and rescue activities: “Akut” search and rescue association sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Gürer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Current study aimed to identify why AKUT Search and Rescue (SAR Association Members participate in SAR, specify expectations and examine activities in terms of various demographics. 126 AKUT members (103 male, 23 female participated in the study. Data with .84 reliability coefficient was collected with a survey. Data analysis included frequencies, percentage distribution, t-test and ANOVA. Level of statistical significance was .05. Although results didn’t pinpoint distinctive reasons for participating in SAR, prominent elements affecting members were identified as “Existence of trainers in immediate vicinity” (19% and “Impact of friends/peer groups” (17.5%. Results showed that impact of family (73% was not important but age was. It was also found that single individuals inclined towards SAR to a higher extent. Reasons for continuing activities were “Caring for SAR” (50% and “Awareness of positive contributions” (48.4%. Contributing to financial income was found to have no relationship with SAR (90.5%. No relationship was detected between reasons participating in SAR and demographic characteristics. Expectations from SAR were mostly related to “being a trainer” (53.2%. Expectations and age were found to be related. Younger and single members had higher expectations for being trainers in future. Results showed that volunteerism had important implications in current study.

  4. Associations between birth health, maternal employment, and child care arrangement among a community sample of mothers with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Chyu, Laura; Ksobiech, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Although a large body of literature exists on how different types of child care arrangements affect a child's subsequent health and sociocognitive development, little is known about the relationship between birth health and subsequent decisions regarding type of nonparental child care as well as how this relationship might be influenced by maternal employment. This study used data from the Los Angeles Families and Neighborhoods Survey (L.A.FANS). Mothers of 864 children (ages 0-5) provided information regarding birth weight, maternal evaluation of a child's birth health, child's current health, maternal employment, type of child care arrangement chosen, and a variety of socioeconomic variables. Child care options included parental care, relative care, nonrelative care, and daycare center. Multivariate analyses found that birth weight and subjective rating of birth health had similar effects on child care arrangement. After controlling for a child's age and current health condition, multinomial logit analyses found that mothers with children with poorer birth health are more likely to use nonrelative and daycare centers than parental care when compared to mothers with children with better birth health. The magnitude of these relationships diminished when adjusting for maternal employment. Working mothers were significantly more likely to use nonparental child care than nonemployed mothers. Results suggest that a child's health early in life is significantly but indirectly related to subsequent decisions regarding child care arrangements, and this association is influenced by maternal employment. Development of social policy aimed at improving child care service should take maternal and family backgrounds into consideration.

  5. Associations between a history of traumatic brain injuries and conduct disorder during youth in a population sample of Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Gabriela; Wickens, Christine M; Vingilis, Evelyn R; Mann, Robert E; Hamilton, Hayley; Toplak, Maggie; Adlaf, Edward M; Kolla, Nathan; Ialomiteanu, Anca R; van der Mass, Mark; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D

    2017-08-12

    This study describes the association between history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and childhood symptoms of conduct disorder (CD). Data were based on telephone interviews with 6048 respondents derived from the 2011-2013 cycles of a representative cross-sectional survey of adults aged 18+ years in Ontario, Canada. TBI was defined as loss of consciousness for at least 5min or overnight hospitalization due to injury symptoms. Symptoms of CD before 15 years of age were assessed using five items based on the DSM-IV. Adults who reported a history of TBI reported odds 3 times higher for possible CD before 15 years of age. Odds remained significant even when age, sex, marital status, income, and education were statistically controlled. The nature of this data precludes determining if TBI occurred before or following CD symptoms. Nonetheless, the co-occurrence of a history of TBI with symptoms of CD supports the recommendation that practitioners be vigilant in assessing the history of both CD and TBI when diagnosing and treating one of these conditions. These findings do not exclude the possibility that TBI during childhood or youth may be interfering with brain development and could co-occur with conduct behaviors in both the short and long term. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Association of Birth Parameters with Refractive Status in a Sample of Caucasian Children Aged 4–17 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Akova-Budak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the association of birth parameters with refractive status in different age groups of Caucasian children. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 564 eyes of 282 children aged 4 to 17 years. All children underwent complete ophthalmologic examination. The children were divided into three groups according to their refractive status (emmetropia,myopia, and hyperopia, ages (4–7, 8-9, 10–12, and 13–17, and appropriateness for gestational age, respectively. Results. The mean age of the children was 9.2±2.8 (age range 4–17 years. The mean spheric equivalent was +0.3±1.7 (range: (−10.0–(+10.0 diopters. The mean birth weight and gestational age were 2681.1±930.8 grams (750–5000 grams and 37.2±3.7 weeks (25–42 weeks. According to multinominal logistic regression analysis, children with myopia were more likely to have higher birth weights than emmetropic children (OR: 1.0, 95% CI: 1.000–1.001, and P=0.028. The hypermetropes were found to be significantly small for gestational age between 13 and 17 years of age. Conclusion. Birth weight and appropriateness for gestational age as birth parameters may have an impact on development of all types of refractive errors. The hypermetropic children tended to be small for gestational age.

  7. Food Insecurity is Associated with Hypoglycemia and Poor Diabetes Self-Management in a Low-Income Sample with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Hilary K.; Davis, Terry C.; Schillinger, Dean; Wolf, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    More than 14% of the American population is food insecure, or at risk of going hungry because of an inability to afford food. Food-insecure (FI) adults often reduce food intake or substitute inexpensive, energy-dense carbohydrates for healthier foods. We hypothesized these behaviors would predispose FI adults with diabetes to impaired diabetes self-management and hypoglycemia. We therefore assessed whether food insecurity was associated with multiple indicators of diabetes self-management (self-efficacy, medication- and glucose-monitoring adherence, hypoglycemia, or glycemic control) among 40 low-income adults with diabetes. Mean self-efficacy score was lower among FI than food-secure (FS) participants (34.4 vs. 41.2, p=.02). Food-insecure participants reported poorer adherence to blood glucose monitoring (RR=3.5, p=.008) and more hypoglycemia-related emergency department visits (RR=2.2, p=.007). Mean hemoglobin A1c was 9.2% among FI and 7.7% among FS participants (p=.08). Food insecurity is a barrier to diabetes self-management and a risk factor for clinically significant hypoglycemia. PMID:21099074

  8. A landslide susceptibility prediction on a sample slope in Kathmandu Nepal associated with the 2015's Gorkha Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Tetsuya; Prasad Paudel, Prem

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, some landslides induced by heavy rainfalls occurred in southern part of Kathmandu, Nepal which is located southern suburb of Kathmandu, the capital. These landslide slopes hit by the strong Gorkha Earthquake in April 2015 and seemed to destabilize again. Hereby, to clarify their susceptibility of landslide in the earthquake, one of these landslide slopes was analyzed its slope stability by CSSDP (Critical Slip Surface analysis by Dynamic Programming based on limit equilibrium method, especially Janbu method) against slope failure with various seismic acceleration observed around Kathmandu in the Gorkha Earthquake. The CSSDP can detect the landslide slip surface which has minimum Fs (factor of safety) automatically using dynamic programming theory. The geology in this area mainly consists of fragile schist and it is prone to landslide occurrence. Field survey was conducted to obtain topological data such as ground surface and slip surface cross section. Soil parameters obtained by geotechnical tests with field sampling were applied. Consequently, the slope has distinctive characteristics followings in terms of slope stability: (1) With heavy rainfall, it collapsed and had a factor of safety Fs <1.0 (0.654 or more). (2) With seismic acceleration of 0.15G (147gal) observed around Kathmandu, it has Fs=1.34. (3) With possible local seismic acceleration of 0.35G (343gal) estimated at Kathmandu, it has Fs=0.989. If it were very shallow landslide and covered with cedars, it could have Fs =1.055 due to root reinforcement effect to the soil strength. (4) Without seismic acceleration and with no rainfall condition, it has Fs=1.75. These results can explain the real landslide occurrence in this area with the maximum seismic acceleration estimated as 0.15G in the vicinity of Kathmandu by the Gorkha Earthquake. Therefore, these results indicate landslide susceptibility of the slopes in this area with strong earthquake. In this situation, it is possible to predict

  9. Characteristics of Beverage Consumption Habits among a Large Sample of French Adults: Associations with Total Water and Energy Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Szabo de Edelenyi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate hydration is a key factor for correct functioning of both cognitive and physical processes. In France, public health recommendations about adequate total water intake (TWI only state that fluid intake should be sufficient, with particular attention paid to hydration for seniors, especially during heatwave periods. The objective of this study was to calculate the total amount of water coming from food and beverages and to analyse characteristics of consumption in participants from a large French national cohort. Methods: TWI, as well as contribution of food and beverages to TWI was assessed among 94,939 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort (78% women, mean age 42.9 (SE 0.04 using three 24-h dietary records at baseline. Statistical differences in water intakes across age groups, seasons and day of the week were assessed. Results: The mean TWI was 2.3 L (Standard Error SE 4.7 for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4 for women. A majority of the sample did comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA adequate intake recommendation, especially women. Mean total energy intake (EI was 1884 kcal/day (SE 1.5 (2250 kcal/day (SE 3.6 for men and 1783 kcal/day (SE 1.5 for women. The contribution to the total EI from beverages was 8.3%. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by hot beverages. The variety score, defined as the number of different categories of beverages consumed during the three 24-h records out of a maximum of 8, was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.4; and with EI (r = 0.2, suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. We found differences in beverage consumptions and water intakes according to age and seasonality. Conclusions: The present study gives an overview of the water intake characteristics in a large population of French adults. TWI was found to be globally in line with public health recommendations.

  10. Associations among correlates of schedule adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART): a path analysis of a sample of crack cocaine using sexually active African-Americans with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, J S; Schönnesson, L Nilsson; Williams, M L; Timpson, S C

    2008-02-01

    Adherence to HIV medication regimens is a function of multiple dimensions including psychological functioning, social support, adherence self-efficacy and optimism regarding treatment. Active substance use can also negatively affect adherence. An understanding of the nature of the associations among the correlates of adherence can better inform the design of interventions to improve adherence. This study developed an exploratory path model of schedule adherence using data from a sample 130 African-American HIV-positive crack cocaine users on highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART). This model was based on the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping developed by Lazarus and Folkman. Following the theory, the effects of psychological distress on schedule adherence were mediated by patients' relationship with their doctor and optimism towards antiretroviral treatment. Adherence was also associated with patients' self-efficacy regarding their medical regimen which, in turn, was associated with their social support.

  11. Abnormal metabolic brain network associated with Parkinson's disease: replication on a new European sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomse, Petra; Jensterle, Luka; Grmek, Marko; Zaletel, Katja [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pirtosek, Zvezdan; Trost, Maja [University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Department of Neurology, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dhawan, Vijay; Peng, Shichun; Eidelberg, David; Ma, Yilong [The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Center for Neurosciences, Manhasset, NY (United States)

    2017-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify the specific metabolic brain pattern characteristic for Parkinson's disease (PD): Parkinson's disease-related pattern (PDRP), using network analysis of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) brain images in a cohort of Slovenian PD patients. Twenty PD patients (age 70.1 ± 7.8 years, Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Motor Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS-III) 38.3 ± 12.2; disease duration 4.3 ± 4.1 years) and 20 age-matched normal controls (NCs) underwent FDG-PET brain imaging. An automatic voxel-based scaled subprofile model/principal component analysis (SSM/PCA) was applied to these scans for PDRP-Slovenia identification. The pattern was characterized by relative hypermetabolism in pallidum, putamen, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum associated with hypometabolism in sensorimotor cortex, posterior parietal, occipital, and frontal cortices. The expression of PDRP-Slovenia discriminated PD patients from NCs (p < 0.0001) and correlated positively with patients' clinical score (MDS-UPDRS-III, p = 0.03). Additionally, its topography agrees well with the original PDRP (p < 0.001) identified in American cohort of PD patients. We validated the PDRP-Slovenia expression on additional FDG-PET scans of 20 PD patients, 20 NCs, and 25 patients with atypical parkinsonism (AP). We confirmed that the expression of PDRP-Slovenia manifests good diagnostic accuracy with specificity and sensitivity of 85-90% at optimal pattern expression cutoff for discrimination of PD patients and NCs and is not expressed in AP. PDRP-Slovenia proves to be a robust and reproducible functional imaging biomarker independent of patient population. It accurately differentiates PD patients from NCs and AP and correlates well with the clinical measure of PD progression. (orig.)

  12. Variables associated with health-related quality of life in a Brazilian sample of patients from a tertiary outpatient clinic for depression and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Schwab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL assessment tools have been broadly used in the medical context. These tools are used to measure the subjective impact of the disease on patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variables associated with HRQOL in a Brazilian sample of patients followed up in a tertiary outpatient clinic for depression and anxiety disorders. Method: Cross-sectional study. Independent variables were those included in a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS scores. Dependent variables were those included in the short version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF and the scores for its subdomains (overall quality of life and general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to find the variables independently associated with each outcome. Results: Seventy-five adult patients were evaluated. After multiple linear regression analysis, the HADS scores were associated with all outcomes, except social relationships (p = 0.08. Female gender was associated with poor total scores, as well as psychological health and environment. Unemployment was associated with poor physical health. Conclusion: Identifying the factors associated with HRQOL and recognizing that depression and anxiety are major factors are essential to improve the care of patients.

  13. Associations of major and trace components in time-series settling particle samples from Cuenca Alfonso, SW Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Castañeda, A. P.; Shumilin, E.; Silverberg, N.; Morton-Bermea, O.; Hernandez-Alvarez, E.; Aguirre-Bahena, F.

    2007-12-01

    Cuenca Alfonso is a natural sedimentation basin in Bahía de La Paz, southern Baja California Peninsula, an arid subtropical region characterized by limited land runoff with a productive surface layer overlying a well-developed Oxygen Minimum Zone. A time-series sediment trap program was initiated in 2002 to help understand the processes controlling variations in the biogeochemistry of this environment. INAA, ICP-MS and ICP-OES analyses, as well as flame AAS were made for major and trace elements in 105 subsamples of material collected at 350 m depth during 2002-2005. Principal component analysis, including data for organic and inorganic carbon, biogenic silica and the lithogenic fraction, yielded four factors. Factor 1 (25% of the total variance) showed high eigenvalues for the classical terrigenous aluminosilicate elements: Al, Fe, Mn Sc. High loadings also occurred for the group of light to medium REEs (except for Eu). The latter are frequently associated with acid source rocks, such the granites and rhyolitic volcanics exposed on the margin of the bay. Factor 2 (18%) grouped mainly REEs, with high loading on the heavier members of the series that are more typical of basic rocks (thick sequences of andesitic volcanics occur to the NW), as well as Ni and Rb. Factor 3 (12%) appears to represent carbonate organism production, with high loadings for Cinorg, Ca and moderate levels for Corg and Cu, while %litho is moderately negative, as is biogenic silica. The fourth factor (9%) is characterized by high negative loadings for Cd, Co, Se and moderately negative values for Corg. Moderate positive loadings occur only for Sr and, at lower levels, for U, Sb and %lithogenic. This suggests that this grouping is related to particles that have been partially transformed within the Oxygen Minimum Zone. The results will be examined for distinctive periods within the time-series, such as the hurricane-influenced months of August-September 2003, the generally very low fluxes

  14. Dental anomalies: prevalence and associations between them in a large sample of non-orthodontic subjects, a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganà, G; Venza, N; Borzabadi-Farahani, A; Fabi, F; Danesi, C; Cozza, P

    2017-03-11

    To analyze the prevalence and associations between dental anomalies detectable on panoramic radiographs in a sample of non-orthodontic growing subjects. For this cross-sectional study, digital panoramic radiographs of 5005 subjects were initially screened from a single radiographic center in Rome. Inclusion criteria were: subjects who were aged 8-12 years, Caucasian, and had good diagnostic quality radiographs. Syndromic subjects, those with craniofacial malformation, or orthodontic patients were excluded and this led to a sample of 4706 subjects [mean (SD) age = 9.6 (1.2) years, 2366 males and 2340 females]. Sample was subsequently divided into four subgroups (8, 9, 10, and 11-12 year-old groups). Two operators examined panoramic radiographs to observe the presence of common dental anomalies. The prevalence and associations between dental anomalies were also investigated. The overall prevalence of dental anomalies was 20.9%. Approximately, 17.9% showed only one anomaly, 2.7% two anomalies, while only 0.3% had more than two anomalies. The most frequent anomalies were the displacement of maxillary canine (7.5%), hypodontia (7.1%), impacted teeth (3.9%), tooth ankylosis (2.8%), and tooth transposition (1.4%). The lower right second premolar was the most frequent missing teeth; 3.7% had only one tooth agenesis, and 0.08% had six or more missing tooth (Oligodontia). Mesiodens was the most common type of supernumerary tooth (0.66%). Two subjects had taurodontic tooth (0.04%). Tooth transpositions and displacement of maxillary canine were seen in 1.4 and 7.5%, retrospectively (approximately 69 and 58% were in the 8 and 9 year-old groups, retrospectively). Significant associations were detected between the different dental anomalies (P < .05). The results of our study revealed significant associations among different dental anomalies and provide further evidences to support common etiological factors.

  15. The Association of Domestic Violence and Social Resources With Functioning in an Adult Trauma-Affected Sample Living in Kurdistan, Northern Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jeremy C; Hall, Brian J; Bolton, Paul; Murray, Laura K; Mohammed Amin Ahmed, Ahmed; Bass, Judith K

    2016-03-27

    Domestic violence (DV) and other experienced trauma types increase the risk for impaired functioning. Access to social resources may provide a buffer to existing risks and allow individuals to continue and build functioning. This cross-sectional study investigated the direct effects of DV and access to social resources (perceived social support, social integration, and frequency of social contact), as well as their potential interactive effects, on daily functioning among 894 male and female trauma survivors who attended primary care clinics in Kurdistan, Iraq in 2009 and 2010. Experiencing DV was not associated with functioning for males (p=.15) or females (p=.60), suggesting that in the context of a trauma-affected sample, the experience of DV may not significantly increase the risk for functional impairment. Greater amounts of social integration were associated with less functional impairment among males (p<.01) and females (p<.05); social integration was associated with less functional impairment among males only (p<.01); and frequency of social contact was associated with less functional impairment among females only (p<.05), indicating that the association between social resource type and functioning differed by gender. Social resources had a stronger effect on functioning among men compared to women. Among males who experienced DV, social integration was the only social resource associated with less functional impairment (p<.01); among male trauma survivors who did not experience DV, social support was the only resource associated with less functional impairment (p<.01). Further investigation into these associations is warranted to inform intervention strategies for survivors of DV and other traumas in post-conflict settings.

  16. Summary of contributions to GAW Group 15: family-based samples are useful in identifying common polymorphisms associated with complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Stacey; Uh, Hae-Won; Martinez, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, family-based samples have been used for genetic analyses of single-gene traits caused by rare but highly penetrant risk variants. The utility of family-based genetic data for analyzing common complex traits is unclear and contains numerous challenges. To assess the utility as well as to address these challenges, members of Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 Group 15 analyzed Framingham Heart Study data using family-based designs ranging from parent--offspring trios to large pedigrees. We investigated different methods including traditional linkage tests, family-based association tests, and population-based tests that correct for relatedness between subjects, and tests to detect parent-of-origin effects. The analyses presented an assortment of positive findings. One contribution found increased power to detect epistatic effects through linkage using ascertainment of sibships based on extreme quantitative values or presence of disease associated with the quantitative value. Another contribution found four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing a maternal effect, two SNPs with an imprinting effect, and one SNP having both effects on a binary high blood pressure trait. Finally, three contributions illustrated the advantage of using population-based methods to detect association to complex binary or quantitative traits. Our findings highlight the contribution of family-based samples to the genetic dissection of complex traits. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Associations between DSM-5 section III personality traits and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scales in a psychiatric patient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jaime L; Sellbom, Martin; Ayearst, Lindsay; Quilty, Lena C; Chmielewski, Michael; Bagby, R Michael

    2015-09-01

    Our aim in the current study was to evaluate the convergence between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) Section III dimensional personality traits, as operationalized via the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scale scores in a psychiatric patient sample. We used a sample of 346 (171 men, 175 women) patients who were recruited through a university-affiliated psychiatric facility in Toronto, Canada. We estimated zero-order correlations between the PID-5 and MMPI-2-RF substantive scale scores, as well as a series of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) analyses to examine how these scales converged in multivariate latent space. Results generally showed empirical convergence between the scales of these two measures that were thematically meaningful and in accordance with conceptual expectations. Correlation analyses showed significant associations between conceptually expected scales, and the highest associations tended to be between scales that were theoretically related. ESEM analyses generated evidence for distinct internalizing, externalizing, and psychoticism factors across all analyses. These findings indicate convergence between these two measures and help further elucidate the associations between dysfunctional personality traits and general psychopathology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Types and Number of Traumas Associated With Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts in PTSD: Findings From a U.S. Nationally Representative Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBouthillier, Daniel M; McMillan, Katherine A; Thibodeau, Michel A; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt; however, research has largely focused on specific samples and a limited range of traumas. We examined suicidal ideation and suicide attempt relating to 27 traumas within a nationally representative U.S. sample of individuals with PTSD. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 34,653). Participants were assessed for lifetime PTSD and trauma history, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt. We calculated the proportion of individuals reporting suicidal ideation or suicide attempt for each trauma and for the number of unique traumas experienced. Most traumas were associated with greater suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in individuals with PTSD compared to individuals with no lifetime trauma or with lifetime trauma but no PTSD. Childhood maltreatment, assaultive violence, and peacekeeping traumas had the highest rates of suicidal ideation (49.1% to 51.9%) and suicide attempt (22.8% to 36.9%). There was substantial variation in rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt for war and terrorism-related traumas. Multiple traumas increased suicidality, such that each additional trauma was associated with an increase of 20.1% in rate of suicidal ideation and 38.9% in rate of suicide attempts. Rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts varied markedly by trauma type and number of traumas, and these factors may be important in assessing and managing suicidality in individuals with PTSD.

  19. Greater Food Reward Sensitivity Is Associated with More Frequent Intake of Discretionary Foods in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansel, Tonja R.; Lipsky, Leah M.; Eisenberg, Miriam H.; Haynie, Denise L.; Liu, Danping; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Food reward sensitivity may influence individual susceptibility to an environment replete with highly palatable foods of minimal nutritional value. These foods contain combinations of added sugar, fat, and/or salt that may enhance their motivational salience. This study examined associations of food reward sensitivity with eating behaviors in the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative sample of U.S. young adults. Participants (n = 2202) completed self-report measures including the Power of Food Scale, assessing food reward sensitivity, and intake frequency of 14 food groups. Multiple linear regressions estimated associations of food reward sensitivity with each of the eating behaviors adjusting for covariates. Higher food reward sensitivity was associated with more frequent intake of fast food (b ± linearized SE = 0.24 ± 0.05, p juice, green or orange vegetables, beans, whole grains, nuts/seeds, or dairy products. Food reward sensitivity was associated with greater intake of discretionary foods but was not associated with intake of most health-promoting foods, suggesting food reward sensitivity may lead to preferential intake of unhealthful foods. PMID:27588287

  20. Impact of psychological stress on the associations between apolipoprotein E variants and metabolic traits: findings in an American sample of caregivers and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, Sofia I Iqbal; Brummett, Beverly H; Barefoot, John; Garrett, Melanie E; Ashley-Koch, Allison E; Boyle, Stephen H; Siegler, Ilene C; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Williams, Redford B

    2010-06-01

    To examine the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene variants and waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and serum triglycerides, all metabolic traits known as cardiovascular disease (CVD) endophenotypes, in a population of stressed individuals and controls. Abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, elevated serum lipid concentration, and APOE polymorphisms have been associated with CVD risk. Current evidence supports the hypothesis that gene-environment interactions modulate serum lipid concentrations. The association between rs769450, rs405509, rs439401, and metabolic traits were analyzed in a U.S. sample of 126 white caregivers of a relative with Alzheimer';s disease or other major dementia and 122 white controls. The associations were analyzed, using multivariate analysis of variance adjusted for age, sex, and medications. Significant multivariate interactions were found, using both additive (p = .009) and dominant (p = .047) models between rs439401 (C/T) and caregiver stress in relation to a profile of metabolic variables. Univariate analyses found the TT genotype to be associated with more adverse levels of waist circumference (interaction, p = .026), triglycerides (interaction, p = .001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (interaction, p = .001) among caregivers but with a more favorable profile of these endophenotypes among controls. There were no significant associations or interactions involving the other two single nucleotide polymorphisms. The APOE rs439401 TT genotype is associated with an adverse metabolic profile among chronically stressed individuals compared with individuals not similarly stressed in whom a more favorable profile is expressed. Confirmation of these results in further research would indicate that the TT genotype can be used to identify persons at high risk for CVD when subjected to chronic stress.

  1. An exploratory study of the heterogeneity of the jealousy phenomenon and its associations with affective temperaments and psychopathological dimensions in a large Brazilian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Amanda B; Köhler, Cristiano A; Stubbs, Brendon; Quevedo, João; Hyphantis, Thomas N; Koyanagi, Ai; Marazziti, Donatella; Soares, Jair C; Vieta, Eduard; Carvalho, André F

    2017-04-01

    Jealousy is a heterogenous emotion on a spectrum from normality to psychopathology. The relationship between different jealousy subtypes/dimensions and affective temperaments remain unknown. In addition, few large surveys have investigated the associations between jealousy subtypes and psychopathological dimensions. A Brazilian Portuguese version of the "Questionario della Gelosia" (QUEGE) was developed. We obtained data from an anonymous web-based research platform. Socio-demographic data was obtained and participants answered the QUEGE, the TEMPS-Rio de Janeiro, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). 2042 participants (29% men, 71% female, mean age+SD: 28.9±8.8 years), took part in this survey. Confirmatory factor analysis provided a five-factor model for the QUEGE with self-esteem, paranoia, interpersonal sensitivity, fear of being abandoned, and obsessive dimensions. The anxious, irritable, cyclothymic, and depressive temperaments were independently associated with jealousy dimensions, whereas the hyperthymic temperament was associated with lower scores on the self-esteem jealousy dimension (N=2042, P<0.001). Jealousy subtypes were dissimilarly associated with SCL-90R psychopathological dimensions, whereas the 'obsessive' jealousy dimension was not significantly associated with SCL-90R dimension scores. We found no independent influence of gender across any jealousy dimension. A convenience web-based sample was employed. Cross-sectional design precludes the establishment of causal inferences. Our data indicate that a five-factor solution may provide the best-fit model for the QUEGE. Different jealousy subtypes were independently associated with affective temperaments and psychopathological dimensions. These associations reported herein should be confirmed in prospective studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations of four circulating chemokines with multiple atherosclerosis phenotypes in a large population-based sample: results from the dallas heart study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Leticia; Rohatgi, Anand; Ayers, Colby R; Owens, Andrew W; Das, Sandeep R; Khera, Amit; McGuire, Darren K; de Lemos, James A

    2010-05-01

    Specific chemokines contribute to vascular inflammation and may be useful biomarkers to detect atherosclerosis. The chemokines CXCL1 and CCL11 have previously been studied in animal or human models of atherosclerosis, while CXCL2 and CCL23 have not. Among 2,454 subjects enrolled in the Dallas Heart Study, a multi-ethnic population-based sample, we measured plasma CCL11, CCL23, CXCL1, and CXCL2, and associated levels with coronary artery calcium (CAC) by computed tomography, and aortic wall thickness, plaque burden, and compliance by magnetic resonance imaging. Elevated chemokine levels were defined as greater than or equal to the median for CCL11 and CCL23 and greater than or equal to the upper detection limit for CXCL1 and CXCL2. Elevated CCL23 (P < 0.01) and CXCL1 (P = 0.01), but not CCL11 and CXCL2, associated with CAC in univariable analyses. After adjustment for traditional risk factors, elevated CCL23 remained associated with CAC (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7; P = 0.02), while the association with CXCL1 was modestly attenuated (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-2.1; P = 0.06). CCL23 also associated with aortic wall thickness, plaque, and compliance in univariable analyses (P < 0.05 for each), but these associations were attenuated after multivariable adjustment. The novel chemotactic protein, CCL23, which has not been previously studied in atherosclerosis, is independently associated with coronary atherosclerosis, suggesting that this chemokine merits further study in animal and human models.

  3. MICA Gene Deletion in 3411 DNA Samples from Five Distinct Populations in Mainland China and Lack of Association with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) in a Southern Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, WenYi; Tian, Wei; Zhu, FaMing; Li, LiXin; Cai, JinHong; Wang, Fan; Liu, KangLong; Jin, HeKun; Wang, JunLong

    2016-11-01

    Deletion of major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related genes A (MICA*Del) was investigated in 3,411 DNA samples from two southern Chinese Han populations (Hunan Han, HNH; Guangdong Han, GDH), two northern Chinese populations (Inner Mongolia Han, IMH; Inner Mongolia Mongol, IMM) and one southeastern Chinese Han population (Fujian Han, FJH) using an in-house polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific priming (PCR-SSP) assay, which enables direct discrimination between heterozygote and homozygote for MICA*Del. MICA*Del showed a frequency ranging from 0.8% in FJH to 5.7% in IMM (Pcorrected populations. In contrast to the association reported recently in a Taiwan Chinese population and a Malaysian Chinese cohort, MICA*Del distribution did not differ between 1,120 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and 1,483 normal controls in the HNH population (1.03% in NPC cases vs 1.18% in the controls, OR (95% CI) = 0.87 (0.51-1.47), p = 0.69). Further gender-stratified analysis also failed to disclose any male-specific association reported in a Taiwan Chinese population. Multi-locus typing of the 94 samples carrying MICA*Del revealed two new haplotypes, HLA-A*11:01-B*13:01-MICA*Del-MICB*009N-DRB1*04:06 and HLA-B*35:01-MICA*Del-MICB*009N-DRB1*15:01, in addition to HLA-B*48-MICA*Del. Unexpectedly, two samples with MICA*Del in the HNH population were each consistently found to have two distinct MICA alleles, indicating the existence of two MICA gene copies on certain HLA haplotypes. Based on the results from a sizeable case-control study, our data suggest that there is no association between MICA*Del and NPC in the southern Chinese Han population.

  4. Examining the genetic and environmental associations among spelling, reading fluency, reading comprehension and a high stakes reading test in a combined sample of third and fourth grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Callie W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is an examination of the genetic and environmental effects on the associations among reading fluency, spelling and earlier reading comprehension on a later reading comprehension outcome (FCAT) in a combined sample of 3rd and 4th grade students using data from the 2011-2012 school year of the Florida Twin project on Reading (Taylor et al., 2013). A genetically sensitive model was applied to the data with results indicating a common genetic component among all four measures, along with shared and non-shared environmental influences common between reading fluency, spelling and FCAT. PMID:26770052

  5. Factors Associated with Alcohol Use Before or During Sex Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in a Large Internet Sample from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cui; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Lim, Sin How; Koe, Stuart; Wei, Chongyi

    2016-04-01

    We explored factors associated with alcohol use before or during sex among a sample of 10,861 men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asia who were recruited online for the study. Multinomial logistic regression analysis indicated that having sex under the influence of alcohol was associated with having multiple male partners, seeking partners primarily through gay bar/gym/dance party/friends, selling sex and using multiple drugs during the past 6 months, and unprotected anal sex. More efforts are needed to better assess alcohol use and misuse among MSM in Asia and understand contextual influences on alcohol use and HIV-related behaviors in order to implement culturally-specific interventions.

  6. Evidence for schizophrenia susceptibility alleles in the Indian population: An association of neurodevelopmental genes in case-control and familial samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajodia, Ajay; Kaur, Harpreet; Kumari, Kalpana; Gupta, Meenal; Baghel, Ruchi; Srivastava, Ankit; Sood, Mamta; Chadda, Rakesh Kumar; Jain, Sanjeev; Kukreti, Ritushree

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder with lifetime prevalence of ~1% worldwide. A genotyping study was conducted using a custom panel of Illumina 1536 SNPs in 840 schizophrenia cases and 876 controls (351 patients and 385 controls from North India; and 436 patients, 401 controls and 143 familial samples with 53 probands containing 37 complete and 16 incomplete trios from South India). Meta-analysis of this population of Indo-European and Dravidian ancestry identified three strongly associated variants with schizophrenia: STT3A (rs548181, p=1.47×10(-5)), NRG1 (rs17603876, p=8.66×10(-5)) and GRM7 (rs3864075, p=4.06×10(-3)). Finally, a meta-analysis was conducted comparing our data with data from the Schizophrenia Psychiatric Genome-Wide Association Study Consortium (PGC-SCZ) that supported rs548181 (p=1.39×10(-7)). In addition, combined analysis of sporadic case-control association and a transmission disequilibrium test in familial samples from South Indian population identified three associations: rs1062613 (p=3.12×10(-3)), a functional promoter variant of HTR3A; rs6710782 (p=3.50×10(-3)), an intronic variant of ERBB4; and rs891903 (p=1.05×10(-2)), an intronic variant of EBF1. The results support the risk variants observed in the earlier published work and suggest a potential role of neurodevelopmental genes in the schizophrenia pathogenesis.

  7. A longitudinal study of alterations of hippocampal volumes and serum BDNF levels in association to atypical antipsychotics in a sample of first-episode patients with schizophrenia.

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    Emmanouil Rizos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with structural and functional abnormalities of the hippocampus, which have been suggested to play an important role in the formation and emergence of schizophrenia syndrome. Patients with schizophrenia exhibit significant bilateral hippocampal volume reduction and progressive hippocampal volume decrease in first-episode patients with schizophrenia has been shown in many neuroimaging studies. Dysfunction of the neurotrophic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The initiation of antipsychotic medication alters the levels of serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF levels. However it is unclear whether treatment with antipsychotics is associated with alterations of hippocampal volume and BDNF levels. METHODS: In the present longitudinal study we investigated the association between serum BDNF levels and hippocampal volumes in a sample of fourteen first-episode drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia (FEP. MRI scans, BDNF and clinical measurements were performed twice: at baseline before the initiation of antipsychotic treatment and 8 months later, while the patients were receiving monotherapy with second generation antipsychotics (SGAs. RESULTS: We found that left hippocampal volume was decreased (corrected left HV [t = 2.977, df = 13, p = .011] at follow-up; We also found that the higher the BDNF levels change the higher were the differences of corrected left hippocampus after 8 months of treatment with atypical antipsychotics (Pearson r = 0.597, p = 0.024. CONCLUSIONS: The association of BDNF with hippocampal volume alterations in schizophrenia merits further investigation and replication in larger longitudinal studies.

  8. Greater Food Reward Sensitivity is Associated with More Frequent Intake of Discretionary Foods in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults

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    Tonja R. Nansel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Food reward sensitivity may influence individual susceptibility to an environment replete with highly palatable foods of minimal nutritional value. These foods contain combinations of added sugar, fat, and/or salt that may enhance their motivational salience. This study examined associations of food reward sensitivity with eating behaviors in the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative sample of US young adults. Participants (n=2202 completed self-report measures including the Power of Food Scale, assessing food reward sensitivity, and intake frequency of 14 food groups. Multiple linear regressions estimated associations of food reward sensitivity with each of the eating behaviors adjusting for covariates. Higher food reward sensitivity was associated with more frequent intake of fast food (b±linearized SE=0.24±0.05,p<.001, sweet and salty snacks (0.21±0.05,p<0.001, foods made with cheese (0.14±0.06,p=0.03, soda (0.12±0.04,p=0.009, processed meats (0.12±0.05,p=0.045, and fish (0.08±0.03 p=0.03, but was not associated with intake frequency of fruit or juice, green or orange vegetables, beans, whole grains, nuts/seeds, or dairy products. Food reward sensitivity was associated with greater intake of discretionary foods, but was not associated with intake of most health-promoting foods, suggesting food reward sensitivity may lead to preferential intake of unhealthful foods.

  9. Prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure is associated with decreased gestational length but not birth weight: archived samples from the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort

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    Kezios Katrina L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, known endocrine disruptors, were banned in 1979 but persist in the environment. Previous studies are inconsistent regarding prenatal exposure to PCBs and pregnancy outcomes. We investigated associations between prenatal exposure to PCBs and gestational length and birth weight. Methods In a sample of 600 infants (born between 1960 and 1963 randomly selected from Child Health and Development Studies participants followed through adolescence we measured 11 PCB congeners in maternal post partum sera (within three days of delivery. Length of gestation was computed from the reported first day of the last menstrual period (LMP and delivery date. Linear regression was used to estimate associations between PCB exposure and gestational age and birth weight, adjusting for potential confounders. PCBs were grouped according to hypothesized biological action (1b (sum of weak phenobarbital inducers, 2b (sum of limited dioxin activity, and 3 (sum of CYP1A and CYP2b inducers or degree of ortho- substitution (mono, di, tri. Secondary analyses examined associations between total PCB exposure and exposure to individual congeners. Results Each unit increase in mono-ortho substituted PCBs was associated with a 0.30 week decrease (95% confidence interval (CI -0.59, -0.016, corresponding to a 2.1 (95% CI −4.13, -0.11 day decrease in length of gestation. Similar associations were estimated for di-ortho substituted PCBs, (1.4 day decrease; (95% CI −2.9, 0.1 and group 3 PCBs (0.84 day decrease; (95% CI −1.8, 0.11. We found similar associations in congener specific analyses and for the sum of congeners. Conclusions Our study provides new evidence that PCB exposure shortens length of gestation in humans. This may have public health implications for population exposures.

  10. Fast-food consumption, diet quality and body weight: cross-sectional and prospective associations in a community sample of working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Timothy L; French, Simone A; Mitchell, Nathan R; Wolfson, Julian

    2016-04-01

    To examine the association between fast-food consumption, diet quality and body weight in a community sample of working adults. Cross-sectional and prospective analysis of anthropometric, survey and dietary data from adults recruited to participate in a worksite nutrition intervention. Participants self-reported frequency of fast-food consumption per week. Nutrient intakes and diet quality, using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), were computed from dietary recalls collected at baseline and 6 months. Metropolitan medical complex, Minneapolis, MN, USA. Two hundred adults, aged 18-60 years. Cross-sectionally, fast-food consumption was significantly associated with higher daily total energy intake (β=72·5, P=0·005), empty calories (β=0·40, P=0·006) and BMI (β=0·73, P=0·011), and lower HEI-2010 score (β=-1·23, P=0·012), total vegetables (β=-0·14, P=0·004), whole grains (β=-0·39, P=0·005), fibre (β=-0·83, P=0·002), Mg (β=-6·99, P=0·019) and K (β=-57·5, P=0·016). Over 6 months, change in fast-food consumption was not significantly associated with changes in energy intake or BMI, but was significantly inversely associated with total intake of vegetables (β=-0·14, P=0·034). Frequency of fast-food consumption was significantly associated with higher energy intake and poorer diet quality cross-sectionally. Six-month change in fast-food intake was small, and not significantly associated with overall diet quality or BMI.

  11. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes in the neuropeptide Y gene: no evidence for association with alcoholism in a German population sample.

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    Zill, Peter; Preuss, Ulrich W; Koller, Gabrielle; Bondy, Brigitta; Soyka, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Several lines of evidence from animal and electrophysiological studies indicate that the neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene is involved in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence. Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between a Leu7Pro polymorphism, as well as 2 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NPY gene (G-602T, T-399C) and alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to analyze these variants in a large sample of the Munich Gene Bank of Alcoholism. We performed single SNP and haplotype studies in 465 alcohol dependent patients and 448 healthy controls with 3 SNPs in the promoter region (-883ins/del, G-602T, T-399C) and the Leu7Pro polymorphism in exon 2 of the NPY gene. Neither single SNP-, nor haplotype analysis could detect significant associations with alcohol dependence. Additionally we could not detect any relation to Cloninger's Type 1/2 or Babor's Type A/B classification, to withdrawal symptoms, to the age of onset or to the amount of alcohol intake. In conclusion, our results suggest that the analyzed SNPs, as well as the corresponding haplotypes of the NPY gene are unlikely to play a major role in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence in the investigated sample from the German population. Further analyses are needed to confirm the present results.

  12. The Association of DRD2 Gene TaqI Polymorphism with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder a Population Sample of Iranian Azeri-children

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    Leila Mehdizadeh Fanid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a multi-factorial disorder that has defined by hyperactivity, impulsivity and attention deficits. Various neurotransmitters such as dopamine can play a role in its pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to examine the association of two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in DRD2 gene, Taq I A (T/C and Taq I B (G/A, with ADHA risk among Iranian-Azeri population. Materials and Methods A study of case–control association was performed with 89 samples with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 96 healthy subjects. Peripheral blood samples were used for Genomic DNA extraction by salting-out method. SNP genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP technique. The collected data were analyzed through javastant online statistics software, using Chi-square, with a significance level of 0.05. Results There was not a significant difference in the allele and genotype frequencies between ADHD and Taq1B polymorphism in cases and controls (P>0.05. In the Taq IA of DRD2 gene, TT homozygous dominants and CC homozygous recessives were more frequent in case group than in control group but significant difference was not observed (P>0.05. Also, T/C heterozygotes were more frequent among the control group than the case group, and difference was significant (P

  13. No Association of BDNF, COMT, MAOA, SLC6A3, and SLC6A4 Genes and Depressive Symptoms in a Sample of Healthy Colombian Subjects

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    Yeimy González-Giraldo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD is the second cause of years lived with disability around the world. A large number of studies have been carried out to identify genetic risk factors for MDD and related endophenotypes, mainly in populations of European and Asian descent, with conflicting results. The main aim of the current study was to analyze the possible association of five candidate genes and depressive symptoms in a Colombian sample of healthy subjects. Methods and Materials. The Spanish adaptation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was applied to one hundred eighty-eight healthy Colombian subjects. Five functional polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-based assays: BDNF-Val66Met (rs6265, COMT-Val158Met (rs4680, SLC6A4-HTTLPR (rs4795541, MAOA-uVNTR, and SLC6A3-VNTR (rs28363170. Result. We did not find significant associations with scores of depressive symptoms, derived from the HADS, for any of the five candidate genes (nominal p values >0.05. In addition, we did not find evidence of significant gene-gene interactions. Conclusion. This work is one of the first studies of candidate genes for depressive symptoms in a Latin American sample. Study of additional genetic and epigenetic variants, taking into account other pathophysiological theories, will help to identify novel candidates for MDD in populations around the world.

  14. Accounting for the Association Between BPD Features and Chronic Pain Complaints in a Pain Patient Sample: The Role of Emotion Dysregulation Factors.

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    Reynolds, Caleb J; Carpenter, Ryan W; Tragesser, Sarah L

    2017-02-16

    Although borderline personality disorder (BPD) features consistently show strong relations with chronic pain, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. BPD is characterized by dysregulated emotion. Given previously observed relationships between emotion dysregulation and pain, we hypothesized that components of this dysregulation-elevated and labile negative affect and emotion sensitivity-would account for the relationship between BPD features and various pain complaints in a chronic pain patient sample. Specifically, we hypothesized that negative affect would indirectly predict pain through higher emotion sensitivity to pain, operationalized as pain anxiety sensitivity. To test these hypotheses, we administered a series of self-report measures to 147 patients at a chronic pain treatment facility. As expected, BPD features predicted pain severity (β = .19, p = .029), activity interference from pain (β = .22, p = .015), and affective interference from pain (β = .41, p pain severity and interference were accounted for by serial indirect pathways through affective lability then pain anxiety and, to a lesser extent, through trait anxiety then pain anxiety. This is the first study to demonstrate roles for affective lability and pain anxiety sensitivity in the association between BPD features and chronic pain complaints in a chronic pain sample. We discuss implications for the relationship between dysregulated emotion and pain as well as for psychologically-focused treatment interventions for pain. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Associations between a History of Traumatic Brain Injuries and Current Cigarette Smoking, Substance Use, and Elevated Psychological Distress in a Population Sample of Canadian Adults.

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    Ilie, Gabriela; Adlaf, Edward M; Mann, Robert E; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Hamilton, Hayley; Rehm, Jürgen; Asbridge, Mark; Cusimano, Michael D

    2015-07-15

    This study describes the prevalence of reported history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its association with reports of current substance use, cigarette smoking, and psychological distress among Canadian adults in a population sample. A cross-sectional sample of 1999 Ontario adults 18-93 years of age were surveyed by telephone in 2011 as part of the Center for Addiction and Mental Health's ongoing representative survey of adult mental health and substance use in Ontario, Canada. Loss of consciousness for at least 5 min or at least one overnight hospitalization resulting from symptoms associated with the TBI injury represented minimum criteria for TBI. An estimated 16.8% (95% confidence interval, 14.8, 19.0) of adults reported a TBI in their lifetime. Men had higher prevalence of TBI than women. Adults who reported a history of TBI had higher odds of reported past-year daily smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.15), using cannabis (AOR = 2.80) and nonmedical opioids (AOR = 2.90), as well as screened significantly for recent elevated psychological distress (AOR = 1.97) in the past few weeks, compared to adults without a history of TBI. Co-occurrence of a history of TBI with current elevated psychological distress and substance use warrants vigilance among medical practitioners to assess the possibility of a history of TBI during reviews of the history leading to the occurrence of these conditions.

  16. IDRD2 TaqIA polymorphism is associated with urinary homovanillic acid levels in a sample of Spanish male alcoholic patients.

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    Ponce, G; Hoenicka, J; Rodríguez-Jiménez, R; Gozalo, A; Jimenéz, M; Monasor, R; Aragüés, M; Rubio, G; Jiménez-Arriero, M A; Ramos, J A; Palomo, T

    2004-01-01

    The TaqIA1 allele of the dopamine receptor gene D2 (DRD2) has been associated with alcoholism, as well as with other addictive behaviours. The exact nature of how the presence of this allele can be a vulnerability factor in the development of alcoholism remains unclear. In this study we found that the presence in the DRD2 genotype of the TaqIA1 allele in Spanish alcoholics is associated with higher levels of urine homovanillic acid (HVA) when compared to patients homozygous for the TaqIA2 allele. A sample of 142 Spanish male alcoholic patients was split into 2 groups on the basis of the presence or absence of the A1 allele in their genotype. The urine sample was analyzed by high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC), and the concentration of homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and vanilylmandelic acid (VMA) was determined. We found a statistical difference in the concentration of HVA between the groups, that suggests this polymorphism could be related to the variance of urine HVA levels.

  17. Guardianship primavera: a first look at factors associated with having a legal guardian using a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling adults.

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    Reynolds, S L

    2002-05-01

    Although guardianship is an intrusive intervention that usually removes an adult's basic civil rights, studies of factors that place adults at risk for guardianship have largely been based on small studies of court files. While important and informative, these studies do not allow us to draw anything but tentative conclusions on risk factors for guardianship. The purpose of this article is to examine risk factors for having a legal guardian using a nationally representative sample for the first time. Logistic regression was conducted on the probability of having a legal guardian, using the Andersen model of health care utilization adapted for factors implied by the guardianship literature. The National Health Interview Supplement on Disability (1995) sample consisted of 65,013 adults aged 19 and older, and a sub-sample aged 60 and older (n = 13,784). Results indicate, first, that the prevalence of guardianship in community-dwelling adults is 0.3 percent, or over 750,000 people. Second, particularly for older adults, increasing age, having physical or emotional limitations, a small family network, and not living with a spouse are associated with having a guardian. Decreasing size of family networks and increasing marital disruption in future cohorts of older adults may suggest increasing need for legal guardianship. Further study should be conducted to replicate these findings in other large data sets and in extensive community studies.

  18. Aerobic fitness is associated with low cardiovascular disease risk: the impact of lifestyle on early risk factors for atherosclerosis in young healthy Swedish individuals - the Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study.

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    Fernström, Maria; Fernberg, Ulrika; Eliason, Gabriella; Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita

    2017-01-01

    The progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis is slow and develops over decades. In the cross-sectional Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study, 834 young, self-reported healthy adults aged 18.0-25.9 years have been studied to identify early risk factors for atherosclerosis. The aims of this study were to 1) assess selected cardiometabolic biomarkers, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and lifestyle-related indicators (food habits, handgrip strength, and oxygen uptake, VO2 max); 2) analyze the associations between cIMT and lifestyle factors; and 3) identify subjects at risk of CVD using a risk score and to compare the characteristics of subjects with and without risk of CVD. Blood samples were taken in a fasting state, and food habits were reported through a questionnaire. cIMT was measured by ultrasound, and VO2 max was measured by ergometer bike test. The risk score was calculated according to Wildman. cIMT (mean ± standard deviation) was 0.50±0.06 mm, and VO2 max values were 37.8±8.5 and 42.9±9.9 mL/kg/min, in women and men, respectively. No correlation was found between aerobic fitness expressed as VO2 max (mL/kg/min) and cIMT. Using Wildman's definition, 12% of the subjects were classified as being at risk of CVD, and 15% had homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A total of 35% of women and 25% of men had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than recommended. Food habits did not differ between those at risk and those not at risk. However, aerobic fitness measured as VO2 max (mL/kg/min) differed; 47% of the subjects at risk had low aerobic fitness compared to 23% of the nonrisk subjects (Pfitness is associated with low CVD risk in Swedish young adults. The high prevalence of young adults observed with unfavorable levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance raises concerns about future CVD risk.

  19. Prevalence of psychological trauma and association with current health and functioning in a sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Tanzanian adults.

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    Brian W Pence

    Full Text Available In high income nations, traumatic life experiences such as childhood sexual abuse are much more common in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA than the general population, and trauma is associated with worse current health and functioning. Virtually no data exist on the prevalence or consequences of trauma for PLWHA in low income nations.We recruited four cohorts of Tanzanian patients in established medical care for HIV infection (n = 228, individuals newly testing positive for HIV (n = 267, individuals testing negative for HIV at the same sites (n = 182, and a random sample of community-dwelling adults (n = 249. We assessed lifetime prevalence of traumatic experiences, recent stressful life events, and current mental health and health-related physical functioning. Those with established HIV infection reported a greater number of childhood and lifetime traumatic experiences (2.1 and 3.0 respectively than the community cohort (1.8 and 2.3. Those with established HIV infection reported greater post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptomatology and worse current health-related physical functioning. Each additional lifetime traumatic experience was associated with increased PTSD symptomatology and worse functioning.This study is the first to our knowledge in an HIV population from a low income nation to report the prevalence of a range of potentially traumatic life experiences compared to a matched community sample and to show that trauma history is associated with poorer health-related physical functioning. Our findings underscore the importance of considering psychosocial characteristics when planning to meet the health needs of PLWHA in low income countries.

  20. Association between junk food consumption and mental health in a national sample of Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study.

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    Zahedi, Hoda; Kelishadi, Roya; Heshmat, Ramin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ranjbar, Shirin Hasani; Ardalan, Gelayol; Payab, Moloud; Chinian, Mohammad; Asayesh, Hamid; Larijani, Bagher; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of high energy and low nutritional content foods, which are known as junk foods, has increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between junk food intake and mental health in a national sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Data were obtained from a surveillance system entitled CASPIAN-IV (Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non communicable Disease) study of school students, ages 6 to 18 y in Iran. The students and their parents completed two sets of reliable questionnaires obtained from Global School Health Survey translated to Persian. The student questionnaire comprised several questions such as psychiatric distress (worry, depression, confusion, insomnia, anxiety, aggression, and worthless) and violent behaviors (physical fighting, being a victim, and bullying). The junk foods consisted of sweets, sweetened beverages, fast foods, and salty snacks. In the sample of 13 486 children and adolescents, the frequency of junk food consumption was significantly associated with psychiatric distress (P junk foods (P 0.05). Additionally, the results of logistic regression showed that daily consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks significantly increased the odds of self-reported psychiatric distress. Also, daily consumption of salty snacks was significantly associated with violent behavior, including physical fighting (odds ratio [OR], 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.60), being a victim (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.04-1.37), and bullying (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.32-1.82). Junk food consumption may increase the risk for psychiatric distress and violent behaviors in children and adolescents. Improvement of eating habits toward healthier diets may be an effective approach for improving mental health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of the type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility gene, TCF7L2, with schizophrenia in an Arab-Israeli family sample.

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    Alkelai, Anna; Greenbaum, Lior; Lupoli, Sara; Kohn, Yoav; Sarner-Kanyas, Kyra; Ben-Asher, Edna; Lancet, Doron; Macciardi, Fabio; Lerer, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Many reports in different populations have demonstrated linkage of the 10q24-q26 region to schizophrenia, thus encouraging further analysis of this locus for detection of specific schizophrenia genes. Our group previously reported linkage of the 10q24-q26 region to schizophrenia in a unique, homogeneous sample of Arab-Israeli families with multiple schizophrenia-affected individuals, under a dominant model of inheritance. To further explore this candidate region and identify specific susceptibility variants within it, we performed re-analysis of the 10q24-26 genotype data, taken from our previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) (Alkelai et al, 2011). We analyzed 2089 SNPs in an extended sample of 57 Arab Israeli families (189 genotyped individuals), under the dominant model of inheritance, which best fits this locus according to previously performed MOD score analysis. We found significant association with schizophrenia of the TCF7L2 gene intronic SNP, rs12573128, (p = 7.01×10⁻⁶) and of the nearby intergenic SNP, rs1033772, (p = 6.59×10⁻⁶) which is positioned between TCF7L2 and HABP2. TCF7L2 is one of the best confirmed susceptibility genes for type 2 diabetes (T2D) among different ethnic groups, has a role in pancreatic beta cell function and may contribute to the comorbidity of schizophrenia and T2D. These preliminary results independently support previous findings regarding a possible role of TCF7L2 in susceptibility to schizophrenia, and strengthen the importance of integrating linkage analysis models of inheritance while performing association analyses in regions of interest. Further validation studies in additional populations are required.

  2. Association of the type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility gene, TCF7L2, with schizophrenia in an Arab-Israeli family sample.

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    Anna Alkelai

    Full Text Available Many reports in different populations have demonstrated linkage of the 10q24-q26 region to schizophrenia, thus encouraging further analysis of this locus for detection of specific schizophrenia genes. Our group previously reported linkage of the 10q24-q26 region to schizophrenia in a unique, homogeneous sample of Arab-Israeli families with multiple schizophrenia-affected individuals, under a dominant model of inheritance. To further explore this candidate region and identify specific susceptibility variants within it, we performed re-analysis of the 10q24-26 genotype data, taken from our previous genome-wide association study (GWAS (Alkelai et al, 2011. We analyzed 2089 SNPs in an extended sample of 57 Arab Israeli families (189 genotyped individuals, under the dominant model of inheritance, which best fits this locus according to previously performed MOD score analysis. We found significant association with schizophrenia of the TCF7L2 gene intronic SNP, rs12573128, (p = 7.01×10⁻⁶ and of the nearby intergenic SNP, rs1033772, (p = 6.59×10⁻⁶ which is positioned between TCF7L2 and HABP2. TCF7L2 is one of the best confirmed susceptibility genes for type 2 diabetes (T2D among different ethnic groups, has a role in pancreatic beta cell function and may contribute to the comorbidity of schizophrenia and T2D. These preliminary results independently support previous findings regarding a possible role of TCF7L2 in susceptibility to schizophrenia, and strengthen the importance of integrating linkage analysis models of inheritance while performing association analyses in regions of interest. Further validation studies in additional populations are required.

  3. A Western dietary pattern is associated with overweight and obesity in a national sample of Lebanese adolescents (13-19 years): a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, Farah; Hwalla, Nahla; Itani, Leila; Karam, Sabine; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Nasreddine, Lara

    2015-12-14

    Adolescent obesity is associated with both immediate and longer-term health implications. This study aims to identify dietary patterns among a nationally representative sample of Lebanese adolescents aged between 13 and 19 years (n 446) and to assess the association of these patterns with overweight and obesity. Through face-to-face interviews, socio-demographic, lifestyle and anthropometric variables were collected. Dietary intake was assessed using a sixty-one-item FFQ. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. The following two dietary patterns were identified: Western and traditional Lebanese. The Western pattern was characterised by high consumption of red meat, eggs and fast-food sandwiches. The traditional Lebanese pattern reflected high intakes of fruits and vegetables, legumes and fish. Female sex and a higher maternal education level were associated with a greater adherence to the traditional Lebanese pattern. As for the Western pattern, the scores were negatively associated with crowding index, physical activity and frequency of breakfast consumption. After adjustment, subjects belonging to the 3rd tertile of the Western pattern scores had significantly higher odds of overweight compared with those belonging to the 1st tertile (OR 2·3; 95% CI 1·12, 4·73). In conclusion, two distinct dietary patterns were identified among adolescents in Lebanon: the traditional Lebanese and the Western, with the latter pattern being associated with an increased risk of overweight. The findings of this study may be used to guide the development of evidence-based preventive nutrition interventions to curb the obesity epidemic in this age group.

  4. Delayed application of condoms with safer and unsafe sex: factors associated with HIV risk in a community sample of gay and bisexual men.

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    Allman, Dan; Xu, Kunyong; Myers, Ted; Aguinaldo, Jeffrey; Calzavara, Liviana; Maxwell, John; Burchell, Ann; Remis, Robert S

    2009-06-01

    While condom use remains one of the most effective measures to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV, decreasing attention appears to be given to its importance and techniques of effective use relative to potential biomedical technologies. This paper focuses on delayed condom application (DCA), one practice which has been implicated in HIV transmission among gay and bisexual men. It examines the prevalence of the practice within a gay community and explores factors associated with condom use among those who practice only safer sex and those who report at least some unprotected anal sex. Data were taken from an anonymous, cross-sectional study of a self-identified sample of gay and bisexual men (N=5080). Among 2614 men who responded to relevant questions, multivariate polytomous logistic regressions were used to identify variables associated with DCA. Nearly, half of the men reported delayed condom application for insertive anal intercourse in the previous 12 months. While the majority of this group also reported episodes of unprotected anal sex, more than 25% of those who reported delayed application only reported safer sexual practices. Most socio-demographic variables found to be associated with unsafe sex in other studies were not associated with DCA. Negative condom use experiences such as tearing, splitting and slippage were associated with delayed application among the two groups. DCA, which may be considered by men as an effective harm reduction strategy requires attention. Interventions to address this behavior need to consider the physical issues of condom use along with the complex array of social, structural, psychological, and interpersonal issues.

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the REG-CTNNA2 region of chromosome 2 and NEIL3 associated with impulsivity in a Native American sample.

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    Ehlers, C L; Gizer, I R; Bizon, C; Slutske, W; Peng, Q; Schork, N J; Wilhelmsen, K C

    2016-07-01

    Impulsivity is a multi-faceted construct that, while characterized by a set of correlated dimensions, is centered around a core definition that involves acting suddenly in an unplanned manner without consideration for the consequences of such behavior. Several psychiatric disorders include impulsivity as a criterion, and thus it has been suggested that it may link a number of different behavioral disorders, including substance abuse. Native Americans (NA) experience some of the highest rates of substance abuse of all the US ethnic groups. The described analyses used data from a low-coverage whole genome sequence scan to conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of an impulsivity phenotype in an American Indian community sample (n = 658). Demographic and clinical information were obtained using a semi-structured interview. Impulsivity was assessed using a scale derived from the Maudsley personality inventory that combines both novelty seeking and lack of planning items. The impulsivity score was tested for association with each variant adjusted for demographic variables, and corrected for ancestry and kinship, using emmax. Simulations were conducted to calculate empirical P-values. Genome-wide significant findings were observed for a variant 50-kb upstream from catenin cadherin-associated protein, alpha 2 (CTNNA2), a neuronal-specific catenin, in the REG gene cluster. A meta-analysis of GWAS had previously identified common variants in CTNNA2 as being associated with excitement seeking. A second locus upstream of nei endonuclease VIII-like 3 (NEIL3) on chromosome 4 also achieved genome-wide significance. The association between sequence variants in these regions suggests their potential roles in the genetic regulation of this phenotype in this population.

  6. Association of ADH and ALDH Genes With Alcohol Dependence in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence (IASPSAD) Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Kalsi, Gursharan; Prescott, Carol A.; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Goldman, David; van den Oord, Edwin J.; Alexander, Jeffry; Jiang, Cizhong; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Patterson, Diana G.; Walsh, Dermot; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Riley, Brien P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The genes coding for ethanol metabolism enzymes [alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)] have been widely studied for their influence on the risk to develop alcohol dependence (AD). However, the relation between polymorphisms of these metabolism genes and AD in Caucasian subjects has not been clearly established. The present study examined evidence for the association of alcohol metabolism genes with AD in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of alcohol dependence. Methods: We conducted a case–control association study with 575 independent subjects who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, AD diagnosis and 530 controls. A total of 77 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the seven ADH (ADH1-7) and two ALDH genes (ALDH1A1 and ALDH2) were genotyped using the Illumina GoldenGate protocols. Several statistical procedures were implemented to control for false discoveries. Results: All markers with minor allele frequency greater than 0.01 were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Numerous SNPs in ADH genes showed association with AD, including one marker in the coding region of ADH1C (rs1693482 in exon6, Ile271Gln). Haplotypic association was observed in the ADH5 and ADH1C genes, and in a long haplotype block formed by the ADH1A and ADH1B loci. We detected two significant interactions between pairs of markers in intron 6 of ADH6 and intron 12 of ALDH2 (p = 5 × 10−5), and 5′ of both ADH4 and ADH1A (p = 2 × 10−4). Conclusion: We found evidence for the association of several ADH genes with AD in a sample of Western European origin. The significant interaction effects between markers in ADH and ALDH genes suggest possible epistatic roles between alcohol metabolic enzymes in the risk for AD. PMID:18331377

  7. Genome-wide association study of lifetime cannabis use based on a large meta-analytic sample of 32 330 subjects from the International Cannabis Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, S; Minică, C C; Verweij, K J H; Mbarek, H; Bernard, M; Derringer, J; van Eijk, K R; Isen, J D; Loukola, A; Maciejewski, D F; Mihailov, E; van der Most, P J; Sánchez-Mora, C; Roos, L; Sherva, R; Walters, R; Ware, J J; Abdellaoui, A; Bigdeli, T B; Branje, S J T; Brown, S A; Bruinenberg, M; Casas, M; Esko, T; Garcia-Martinez, I; Gordon, S D; Harris, J M; Hartman, C A; Henders, A K; Heath, A C; Hickie, I B; Hickman, M; Hopfer, C J; Hottenga, J J; Huizink, A C; Irons, D E; Kahn, R S; Korhonen, T; Kranzler, H R; Krauter, K; van Lier, P A C; Lubke, G H; Madden, P A F; Mägi, R; McGue, M K; Medland, S E; Meeus, W H J; Miller, M B; Montgomery, G W; Nivard, M G; Nolte, I M; Oldehinkel, A J; Pausova, Z; Qaiser, B; Quaye, L; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Richarte, V; Rose, R J; Shin, J; Stallings, M C; Stiby, A I; Wall, T L; Wright, M J; Koot, H M; Paus, T; Hewitt, J K; Ribasés, M; Kaprio, J; Boks, M P; Snieder, H; Spector, T; Munafò, M R; Metspalu, A; Gelernter, J; Boomsma, D I; Iacono, W G; Martin, N G; Gillespie, N A; Derks, E M; Vink, J M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely produced and consumed illicit psychoactive substance worldwide. Occasional cannabis use can progress to frequent use, abuse and dependence with all known adverse physical, psychological and social consequences. Individual differences in cannabis initiation are heritable (40–48%). The International Cannabis Consortium was established with the aim to identify genetic risk variants of cannabis use. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data of 13 cohorts (N=32 330) and four replication samples (N=5627). In addition, we performed a gene-based test of association, estimated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability and explored the genetic correlation between lifetime cannabis use and cigarette use using LD score regression. No individual SNPs reached genome-wide significance. Nonetheless, gene-based tests identified four genes significantly associated with lifetime cannabis use: NCAM1, CADM2, SCOC and KCNT2. Previous studies reported associations of NCAM1 with cigarette smoking and other substance use, and those of CADM2 with body mass index, processing speed and autism disorders, which are phenotypes previously reported to be associated with cannabis use. Furthermore, we showed that, combined across the genome, all common SNPs explained 13–20% (P<0.001) of the liability of lifetime cannabis use. Finally, there was a strong genetic correlation (rg=0.83; P=1.85 × 10−8) between lifetime cannabis use and lifetime cigarette smoking implying that the SNP effect sizes of the two traits are highly correlated. This is the largest meta-analysis of cannabis GWA studies to date, revealing important new insights into the genetic pathways of lifetime cannabis use. Future functional studies should explore the impact of the identified genes on the biological mechanisms of cannabis use. PMID:27023175

  8. Antisocial behavior reduces the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use in a large population-based sample of adolescents.

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    Lövenhag, Sara; Larm, Peter; Åslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of antisocial behavior on reducing the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) and alcohol use. Boys and girls were analyzed separately using a population-based Swedish adolescent sample. A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was performed in secondary and upper secondary schools in Västmanland County during 2010. Participants were a population of 2,439 15-16 year-olds and 1,425 17-18 year-olds (1,947 girls and 1,917 boys). Psychosocial adversity, antisocial behaviors, symptoms of ADHD and alcohol use were assessed by questionnaires. Except for girls' inattention, subdimensions of ADHD symptoms were not associated with alcohol use when variance due to antisocial behavior was accounted for. Among boys, instead of an indirect effect of antisocial behavior on the association between impulsivity and alcohol use, a moderating effect was found. Among girls, the inattention component of ADHD was independently associated with alcohol use even when adjusted for antisocial behavior. The reduced associations between symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and alcohol use for boys and girls after adjusting for antisocial behavior suggest a considerable overlap between hyperactivity, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior. The direct pathway between inattention and alcohol use among girls suggests that girls with inattention symptoms are at risk of alcohol use regardless of antisocial behavior. Special attention should be given to these girls. Accounting for antisocial behavior reduced the relation between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviors should therefore be screened for when symptoms of ADHD are present.

  9. Investigation of variants identified in caucasian genome-wide association studies for plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels in Mexican dyslipidemic study samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Riba, Laura; Huertas-Vazquez, Adriana; Ordoñez-Sánchez, Maria L; Rodriguez-Guillen, Rosario; Cantor, Rita M; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; Pajukanta, Päivi

    2010-02-01

    Although epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased predisposition to low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high triglyceride levels in the Mexican population, Mexicans have not been included in any of the previously reported genome-wide association studies for lipids. We investigated 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with triglycerides, 7 with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and 1 with both triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in recent Caucasian genome-wide association studies in Mexican familial combined hyperlipidemia families and hypertriglyceridemia case-control study samples. These variants were within or near the genes ABCA1, ANGPTL3, APOA5, APOB, CETP, GALNT2, GCKR, LCAT, LIPC, LPL (2), MMAB-MVK, TRIB1, and XKR6-AMAC1L2. We performed a combined analysis of the family-based and case-control studies (n=2298) using the Z method to combine statistics. Ten of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms were nominally significant and 5 were significant after Bonferroni correction (P=2.20 x 10(-3) to 2.6 x 10(-11)) for the number of tests performed (APOA5, CETP, GCKR, and GALNT2). Interestingly, our strongest signal was obtained for triglycerides with the minor allele of rs964184 (P=2.6 x 10(-11)) in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster region that is significantly more common in Mexicans (27%) than in whites (12%). It is important to confirm whether known loci have a consistent effect across ethnic groups. We show replication of 5 Caucasian genome-wide association studies lipid associations in Mexicans. The remaining loci will require a comprehensive investigation to exclude or verify their significance in Mexicans. We also demonstrate that rs964184 has a large effect (odds ratio, 1.74) and is more frequent in the Mexican population, and thus it may contribute to the high predisposition to dyslipidemias in Mexicans.

  10. CERAMIC: Case-Control Association Testing in Samples with Related Individuals, Based on Retrospective Mixed Model Analysis with Adjustment for Covariates.

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    Sheng Zhong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of genetic association testing of a binary trait in a sample that contains related individuals, where we adjust for relevant covariates and allow for missing data. We propose CERAMIC, an estimating equation approach that can be viewed as a hybrid of logistic regression and linear mixed-effects model (LMM approaches. CERAMIC extends the recently proposed CARAT method to allow samples with related individuals and to incorporate partially missing data. In simulations, we show that CERAMIC outperforms existing LMM and generalized LMM approaches, maintaining high power and correct type 1 error across a wider range of scenarios. CERAMIC results in a particularly large power increase over existing methods when the sample includes related individuals with some missing data (e.g., when some individuals with phenotype and covariate information have missing genotype, because CERAMIC is able to make use of the relationship information to incorporate partially missing data in the analysis while correcting for dependence. Because CERAMIC is based on a retrospective analysis, it is robust to misspecification of the phenotype model, resulting in better control of type 1 error and higher power than that of prospective methods, such as GMMAT, when the phenotype model is misspecified. CERAMIC is computationally efficient for genomewide analysis in samples of related individuals of almost any configuration, including small families, unrelated individuals and even large, complex pedigrees. We apply CERAMIC to data on type 2 diabetes (T2D from the Framingham Heart Study. In a genome scan, 9 of the 10 smallest CERAMIC p-values occur in or near either known T2D susceptibility loci or plausible candidates, verifying that CERAMIC is able to home in on the important loci in a genome scan.

  11. Chronic kidney disease in the type 2 diabetic patients: prevalence and associated variables in a random sample of 2642 patients of a Mediterranean area

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    Coll-de-Tuero Gabriel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney disease is associated with an increased total mortality and cardiovascular morbimortality in the general population and in patients with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of kidney disease and different types of renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM. Methods Cross-sectional study in a random sample of 2,642 T2DM patients cared for in primary care during 2007. Studied variables: demographic and clinical characteristics, pharmacological treatments and T2DM complications (diabetic foot, retinopathy, coronary heart disease and stroke. Variables of renal function were defined as follows: 1 Microalbuminuria: albumin excretion rate & 30 mg/g or 3.5 mg/mmol, 2 Macroalbuminuria: albumin excretion rate & 300 mg/g or 35 mg/mmol, 3 Kidney disease (KD: glomerular filtration rate according to Modification of Diet in Renal Disease 2 and/or the presence of albuminuria, 4 Renal impairment (RI: glomerular filtration rate 2, 5 Nonalbuminuric RI: glomerular filtration rate 2 without albuminuria and, 5 Diabetic nephropathy (DN: macroalbuminuria or microalbuminuria plus diabetic retinopathy. Results The prevalence of different types of renal disease in patients was: 34.1% KD, 22.9% RI, 19.5% albuminuria and 16.4% diabetic nephropathy (DN. The prevalence of albuminuria without RI (13.5% and nonalbuminuric RI (14.7% was similar. After adjusting per age, BMI, cholesterol, blood pressure and macrovascular disease, RI was significantly associated with the female gender (OR 2.20; CI 95% 1.86–2.59, microvascular disease (OR 2.14; CI 95% 1.8–2.54 and insulin treatment (OR 1.82; CI 95% 1.39–2.38, and inversely associated with HbA1c (OR 0.85 for every 1% increase; CI 95% 0.80–0.91. Albuminuria without RI was inversely associated with the female gender (OR 0.27; CI 95% 0.21–0.35, duration of diabetes (OR 0.94 per year; CI 95% 0.91–0.97 and directly associated with HbA1c (OR 1.19 for every

  12. Post-traumatic stress symptoms and childhood abuse categories in a national representative sample for a specific age group: associations to body mass index

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    Sidsel H. Karsberg

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of specific groups such as military veterans have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is linked to adverse health outcomes including unhealthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PTSD symptoms, experiences of childhood trauma and weight in a community sample. Methods: A stratified random probability survey was conducted in Denmark by the Danish National Centre for Social Research between 2008 and 2009 with 2,981 participants born in 1984, achieving a response rate of 67%. The participants were interviewed with a structured interview with questions pertaining PTSD symptomatology, exposure to childhood abuse, exposure to potentially traumatizing events, height, and weight. Underweight was defined by a body mass index (BMI <18.5, overweight was defined by a BMI ≥25 and <30 and obesity was defined by a BMI ≥30. Results: PTSD symptomatology and childhood abuse were significantly associated with both underweight and overweight/obesity. Childhood emotional abuse was especially associated with underweight, whereas sexual abuse and overall abuse were particularly associated with overweight/obesity. Conclusion: These findings indicate that health care professionals may benefit from assessing PTSD and childhood abuse in the treatment of both overweight and underweight individuals.

  13. p.Q192R SNP of PON1 seems not to be Associated with Carotid Atherosclerosis Risk Factors in an Asymptomatic and Normolipidemic Brazilian Population Sample

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    Daniel Zanetti Scherrer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Evidences suggest that paraoxonase 1 (PON1 confers important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties when associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL.Objective:To investigate the relationships between p.Q192R SNP of PON1, biochemical parameters and carotid atherosclerosis in an asymptomatic, normolipidemic Brazilian population sample.Methods:We studied 584 volunteers (females n = 326, males n = 258; 19-75 years of age. Total genomic DNA was extracted and SNP was detected in the TaqMan® SNP OpenArray® genotyping platform (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA. Plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins were determined and PON1 activity was measured using paraoxon as a substrate. High-resolution β-mode ultrasonography was used to measure cIMT and the presence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques in a subgroup of individuals (n = 317.Results:The presence of p.192Q was associated with a significant increase in PON1 activity (RR = 12.30 (11.38; RQ = 46.96 (22.35; QQ = 85.35 (24.83 μmol/min; p Conclusion:In low-risk individuals, the presence of the p.192Q variant of PON1 is associated with a beneficial plasma lipid profile but not with carotid atherosclerosis.

  14. Body image flexibility moderates the association between disordered eating cognition and disordered eating behavior in a non-clinical sample of women: a cross-sectional investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Makeda; Masuda, Akihiko; Hill, Mary L; Goodnight, Bradley L

    2014-12-01

    Body image flexibility, a regulation process of openly and freely experiencing disordered eating thoughts and body dissatisfaction, has been found to be a buffering factor against disordered eating symptomatology. The present cross-sectional study investigates whether body image flexibility accounts for disordered eating behavior above and beyond disordered eating cognition, mindfulness, and psychological inflexibility in a sample of nonclinical women, and whether body image flexibility moderates the associations between these correlates and disordered eating behavior. Participants were 421 women, age 21±5.3 years old on average, who completed a web-based survey that included the self-report measures of interest. Results demonstrate the incremental effects of body image flexibility on disordered eating behavior above and beyond disordered eating cognition, mindfulness, and psychological inflexibility. Women with greater body image flexibility endorse disordered eating behavior less so than those with lower body image flexibility. Body image flexibility moderates the association between disordered eating cognition and disordered eating behavior; for women with greater body image flexibility, disordered eating cognition is not positively associated with disordered eating behavior.

  15. Prevalence of and risk factors associated with cesarean section in Lebanon - A retrospective study based on a sample of 29,270 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgheib, Sandy M; Kacim, Mohammad; Kostev, Karel

    2017-05-23

    During the last decades, there has been an alarming and dramatic increase in the number of cesarean births in both developed and undeveloped countries. This increase has not been clinically justified but, nevertheless, has raised an important number of issues. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with the high cesarean section rates in Lebanon. This study is based on a sample of 29,270 Lebanese women who were pregnant between 2000 and 2015. Among these, 14,327 gave birth by cesarean section and 14,943 gave birth vaginally. To identify the risk factors of cesarean section, logistic regression was applied as a statistical method using the SPSS statistical package. Of the 29,270 pregnant women included in the study, 49% had cesarean sections while 51% gave birth vaginally. Repeat cesarean section accounted for 23% while vaginal birth after cesarean accounted for only 0.2% of deliveries. In addition, weekdays were associated with a preference of providers to carry out more cesarean sections. According to an analysis of our data using logistic regression, the risk factors associated with the increase in cesarean section rates were advanced maternal age, elective cesarean section, malpresentation of fetus, multiple birth, prolonged pregnancy, prolonged labor, and fetal distress. Based on these results, it is recommended that a new health policy be implemented to reduce the number of unnecessary cesarean deliveries in Lebanon. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In-situ formation of ion-association nanoparticles induced enhancements of resonance Rayleigh scattering intensities for quantitative analysis of trace Hg2 + ions in environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingling; Liu, Jian; Li, Banglin; Hu, Xiaoli; Liu, Shaopu; Chen, Gangcai

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, Hg2 + ions are demonstrated to form anionic [HgI4]2 - complexes after interacting with massive amount of I- ions. Subsequently, the addition of tetradecyl pyridyl bromide (TPB) can make [HgI4]2 - anionic complexes react with univalent tetradecyl pyridyl cationic ions (TP+), forming dispersed ion-association complexes (TP)2(HgI4). Due to the extrusion action of water and Van der Waals force, the hydrophobic ion-association complexes aggregate together, forming dispersed nanoparticles with an average size of about 8.5 nm. Meanwhile, resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) intensity is apparently enhanced due to the formation of (TP)2(HgI4) ion-association nanoparticles, contributing to a novel technique for Hg2 + detection. The wavelength of 365 nm is chosen as a detection wavelength and several conditions affecting the RRS responses of Hg2 + are optimized. Under the optimum condition, the developed method is used for the determination of Hg2 + in aqueous solution and the detection limit is estimated to be 0.8 ng mL- 1. Finally, the practical application of the developed method can be confirmed through the detections of Hg2 + in waste and river water samples with satisfactory results.

  17. Plasma retinol and association with socio-demographic and dietary characteristics of free-living older persons: the Bordeaux sample of the three-city study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féart, Catherine; Siewe, Aisha; Samieri, Cécilia; Peuchant, Evelyne; Helmer, Catherine; Alfos, Serge; Pallet, Véronique; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to describe retinol plasma concentration and its association with socio-demographic characteristics and dietary habits in French older persons. The study population consisted of 1664 subjects aged 65 + from Bordeaux (France), included in the Three-City cohort. Retinol plasma concentration was determined in fasting blood samples. Dietary assessment was performed by a food frequency questionnaire allowing estimation of weekly intake of dietary sources of vitamin A or provitamin A. The weekly number of glasses of alcohol was also recorded. Age, sex, marital status, educational and income levels, body-mass index (BMI), and smoking were registered. Cross-sectional analysis of the association between plasma retinol and socio-demographic characteristics and dietary habits was performed by multilinear regression. Mean plasma retinol was close to the homeostatically regulated concentration of 2.0 micromol/L but ranged from 0.35 to 6.77 micromol/L. It was higher in women and divorced or separated individuals, and increased with income but not with age or educational level. Plasma retinol was positively and independently associated with the frequency of offal consumption and to the number of glasses of alcohol consumed per week. These results allow targeting older individuals who are at risk of either excessive or deficient vitamin A status and who should benefit from dietary counseling.

  18. Impulsiveness and insula activation during reward anticipation are associated with genetic variants in GABRA2 in a family sample enriched for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte, S; Heitzeg, M M; Foley, S; Yau, W-Y Wendy; Majczenko, K; Zubieta, J-K; Zucker, R A; Burmeister, M

    2012-05-01

    Genetic factors, externalizing personality traits such as impulsivity, and brain processing of salient stimuli all can affect individual risk for alcoholism. One of very few confirmed genetic association findings differentiating alcoholics from non-alcoholics is with variants in the inhibitory γ-amino butyric acid α2 receptor subunit (GABRA2) gene. Here we report the association of two of these GABRA2 variants with measures of alcohol symptoms, impulsivity and with insula cortex activation during anticipation of reward or loss using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a sample of 173 families (449 subjects), 129 of whom had at least one member diagnosed with alcohol dependence or abuse, carriers for the G allele in two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes were more likely to have alcohol dependence symptoms (rs279858, P=0.01; rs279826, P=0.05; haplotype, P=0.02) and higher NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) Impulsiveness scores (rs279858, P=0.016; rs279826, P=0.012; haplotype, P=0.032) with a stronger effect in women (rs279858, P=0.011; rs279826, P=0.002; haplotype, P=0.006), all P-values are corrected for family history and age. A subset of offspring from these families (n=44, 20 females), genotyped for GABRA2, participated in an fMRI study using a monetary incentive delay task. Increased insula activation during reward (r(2)=0.4; P=0.026) and loss (r(2)=0.38; P=0.039) anticipation was correlated with NEO-PI-R Impulsiveness and further associated with the GG genotype for both SNPs (P's<0.04). Our results suggest that GABRA2 genetic variation is associated with Impulsiveness through variation of insula activity responses, here evidenced during anticipatory responses.

  19. Association of Urinary Activity of MMP-2 with Microalbuminuria in an Isolated Sample of Subjects Living in High Altitude Rural Locations in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Magda Elena; Morales-Romero, Jaime; Sampieri, Clara Luz; Luna Lozano, Diego Jesús; Valencia Lezama, Isidra Del Carmen; Muñoz Contreras, Mónica Janett; Rodríguez Hernández, Arturo

    2017-09-01

    Hernández-Hernández, Magda Elena, Jaime Morales-Romero, Clara Luz Sampieri, Diego Jesús Luna Lozano, Isidra del Carmen Valencia Lezama, Mónica Janett Muñoz Contreras, and Arturo Rodríguez Hernández. Association of urinary activity of MMP-2 with microalbuminuria in an isolated sample of subjects living in high altitude rural locations in México. High Alt Med Biol. 18:209-218, 2017.-Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are implicated in remodeling of the renal extracellular matrix. In a cross-sectional study we evaluated renal impairment in general population of high-altitude rural locations in México. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify the association between MMP-2 and MMP-9 and microalbuminuria. Twenty-eight (20.9%) subjects with renal impairment (WRI) and 106 (79.1%) without renal impairment were included. No differences were found relating to sex, location, marital status, current habits, weight, height, body mass index, waist size in males, creatinine in males, and uric acid. In contrast, differences were found among age, level of education, waist size in general and in females, creatinine in general and in females, urinary albumin, urea, glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Proportions of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, central abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia were greater in the group WRI. Presence of urinary MMP-2 or of both urinary gelatinases and arbitrary unit (AU) values ≥P90 were associated with microalbuminuria. We conclude that AU values ≥P90 of urinary MMP-2 (OR = 20.1, p = 0.002) is associated with microalbuminuria.

  20. The association between motor vehicle injuries and health-related quality of life: a longitudinal study of a population-based sample in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghnam, Suliman; Palta, Mari; L Remington, Patrick; Mullahy, John; S Durkin, Maureen

    2014-02-01

    As many as 3 million US residents are injured in traffic-related incidents every year leaving many victims with disabling conditions. To date, limited numbers of studies have examined the effects of traffic-related injuries on self-reported health. This study aims to examine the association between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and traffic-related injuries longitudinally in a nationally representative sample of US adult population. This is a longitudinal study of adult participants (age ≥18) from seven panels (2000-2007) of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. The dependent variables included the physical and mental components of the SF-12, a measure of self-reported health. The outcome was assessed twice during the follow-up period: round 2 (~4-5 months into the study) and round 4 (~18 months into the study) for 62,298 individuals. Two methods estimate the association between traffic-related injuries and HRQOL: a within person change using paired tests and a between person change using multivariable regression adjusting for age, sex, income and educational level. Nine hundred and ninety-three participants reported traffic-related injuries during the follow-up period. Compared to their pre-crash HRQOL, these participants lost 2.7 of the physical component score while their mental component did not change. Adjusted results showed significant deficits in the physical component (-2.84, p value = injuries were significantly associated with the physical component of HRQOL. These findings highlight the individual and societal burden associated with motor vehicle crash-related disability in the United States.

  1. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus microRNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in clinical samples can affect microRNA processing, level of expression, and silencing activity.

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    Han, Soo-Jin; Marshall, Vickie; Barsov, Eugene; Quiñones, Octavio; Ray, Alex; Labo, Nazzarena; Trivett, Matthew; Ott, David; Renne, Rolf; Whitby, Denise

    2013-11-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes 12 pre-microRNAs that can produce 25 KSHV mature microRNAs. We previously reported single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in KSHV-encoded pre-microRNA and mature microRNA sequences from clinical samples (V. Marshall et al., J. Infect. Dis., 195:645-659, 2007). To determine whether microRNA SNPs affect pre-microRNA processing and, ultimately, mature microRNA expression levels, we performed a detailed comparative analysis of (i) mature microRNA expression levels, (ii) in vitro Drosha/Dicer processing, and (iii) RNA-induced silencing complex-dependent targeting of wild-type (wt) and variant microRNA genes. Expression of pairs of wt and variant pre-microRNAs from retroviral vectors and measurement of KSHV mature microRNA expression by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) revealed differential expression levels that correlated with the presence of specific sequence polymorphisms. Measurement of KSHV mature microRNA expression in a panel of primary effusion lymphoma cell lines by real-time RT-PCR recapitulated some observed expression differences but suggested a more complex relationship between sequence differences and expression of mature microRNA. Furthermore, in vitro maturation assays demonstrated significant SNP-associated changes in Drosha/DGCR8 and/or Dicer processing. These data demonstrate that SNPs within KSHV-encoded pre-microRNAs are associated with differential microRNA expression levels. Given the multiple reports on the involvement of microRNAs in cancer, the biological significance of these phenotypic and genotypic variants merits further studies in patients with KSHV-associated malignancies.

  2. Joint Association of Screen Time and Physical Activity with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a National Sample of Iranian Adolescents: The CASPIANIII Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Heshmat

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS and its contributing factors are considered important health problems in the pediatric age group. This study was designed to assess the joint association of ST and PA with cardiometabolic risk factors among Iranian adolescents. A representative sample of 5625 (50.2% boys school students with a mean age of 14.73 (SD: 2.41 were selected through multistage random cluster sampling method from urban and rural areas of 27 provinces in Iran. ST and PA were assessed by self-administered validated questionnaires. Anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference (WC and MetS components (abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure (BP, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, elevated triglycerides (TG and high fasting blood sugar (FBG were measured according to standardized protocols. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for the pediatric age group. Moreover, elevated total cholesterol (TC, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and generalized obesity were considered as other cardiometabolic risk factors. Students with high ST levels had significantly higher body mass index z-score (BMI z-score, WC, TG, LDL-C, and BP as well as lower HDL-C level; whereas those with high PA levels had significantly higher HDL-C levels as well as lower BMI z-score, TC, and BP. Adolescents with low PA/ high ST levels had significantly higher BMI, WC, LDL-C levels, as well as higher SBP and DBP compared to their other counterparts. In Multivariate model, joint effect of low PA/ high ST (compared to the high PA/low ST group increased the odds of overweight, abdominal obesity and low HDL-C and decreased the odds of elevated TC. The findings of this study showed that joint association of high ST and low PA have direct association with abdominal obesity, overweight and low HDL-C and indirect association with elevated TC.

  3. Psychometric properties of the multidimensional perfectionism scale of Hewitt in a dutch-speaking sample: associations with the big five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cuyper, Kathleen; Claes, Laurence; Hermans, Dirk; Pieters, Guido; Smits, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    We administered the Dutch Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale of Hewitt and Flett (1991, 2004) in a large student sample (N = 959) and performed a confirmatory factor analysis to test the factorial structure proposed by the original authors. The existence of a method factor referring to the negatively keyed items in the questionnaire was investigated by including it in the tested models. Next, we investigated how the 3 perfectionism dimensions are associated with the Five-factor model (FFM) of personality. The 3-factor structure originally observed by the authors was confirmed, at least when a method factor that refers to the negatively keyed items was included in the model. Self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism were both distinguished by low extraversion and low emotional stability. Self-oriented perfectionism's positive relationship with both conscientiousness and openness to experience differentiated the 2 perfectionism dimensions from each other. Other-oriented perfectionism was not well-characterized by the Big Five personality traits.

  4. Brief report: the association between non-suicidal self-injury, self-concept and acquaintance with self-injurious peers in a sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Houben, Adinda; Vandereycken, Walter; Bijttebier, Patricia; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer

    2010-10-01

    The current study investigated the association between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), self-concept and acquaintance with NSSI peers in a sample of 150 high school students (60% female) with a mean age of 15.56 (SD=2.00) years. Analyses showed that students with NSSI rated themselves lower on academic intelligence, physical attractiveness, social skills and emotional stability than their non-NSSI peers. The self-injurers also had more friends who engaged in NSSI, and having more NSSI acquaintances was negatively related to self-esteem. It could be that adolescents with lower self-esteem are more attracted to self-injuring peers, or that adolescents with low self-esteem are more vulnerable to copy NSSI to deal with their problems or to gain a certain identity in their peer group. Future studies must test these possible NSSI pathways.

  5. Prevalence of Comorbidities, Overweight and Obesity in an International Sample of People with Multiple Sclerosis and Associations with Modifiable Lifestyle Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Helena Marck

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic neurological disorder, often affecting young people. Comorbid disorders such as depression, anxiety and hypertension are common and can affect disease course, treatment, and quality of life (QOL of people with MS (PwMS. The associations between comorbidities, body mass index (BMI and health outcomes are not well studied in MS, although research shows most PwMS are overweight. Most data on the prevalence of comorbidities and obesity in PwMS comes from North American populations. This study describes the prevalence of comorbidities, overweight and obesity and associations with modifiable factors in an international sample of PwMS recruited online through social media, MS societies and websites. The online survey consisted of validated and researcher-devised instruments to assess self-reported health outcomes and lifestyle behaviors. Of the 2399 respondents, 22.5% were overweight, 19.4% were obese and 67.2% reported at least one comorbidity, with back pain (36.2%, depression (31.7%, anxiety (29.1% and arthritis (13.7% most prevalent and most limiting in daily activities. Obesity and most comorbid disorders were significantly more prevalent in North America. Obese participants were more likely to have comorbidities, especially diabetes (OR 4.8 and high blood pressure (OR 4.5 but also depression (OR 2.2. Being overweight, obese, or a former, or current smoker was associated with an increase in the number of comorbidities; while healthy diet, physical activity (borderline significant and moderate alcohol consumption were associated with decreased number of comorbidities. Increasing number of comorbidities was related to worse QOL, increased odds of disability and prior relapse. Obese PwMS had higher odds of disability and lower QOL. The associations between BMI, comorbidities and health outcomes are likely to be bi-directional and associated with lifestyle behaviors. Preventing and treating comorbid disorders and

  6. Prevalence of Comorbidities, Overweight and Obesity in an International Sample of People with Multiple Sclerosis and Associations with Modifiable Lifestyle Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marck, Claudia Helena; Neate, Sandra Leanne; Taylor, Keryn Louise; Weiland, Tracey Joy; Jelinek, George Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disorder, often affecting young people. Comorbid disorders such as depression, anxiety and hypertension are common and can affect disease course, treatment, and quality of life (QOL) of people with MS (PwMS). The associations between comorbidities, body mass index (BMI) and health outcomes are not well studied in MS, although research shows most PwMS are overweight. Most data on the prevalence of comorbidities and obesity in PwMS comes from North American populations. This study describes the prevalence of comorbidities, overweight and obesity and associations with modifiable factors in an international sample of PwMS recruited online through social media, MS societies and websites. The online survey consisted of validated and researcher-devised instruments to assess self-reported health outcomes and lifestyle behaviors. Of the 2399 respondents, 22.5% were overweight, 19.4% were obese and 67.2% reported at least one comorbidity, with back pain (36.2%), depression (31.7%), anxiety (29.1%) and arthritis (13.7%) most prevalent and most limiting in daily activities. Obesity and most comorbid disorders were significantly more prevalent in North America. Obese participants were more likely to have comorbidities, especially diabetes (OR 4.8) and high blood pressure (OR 4.5) but also depression (OR 2.2). Being overweight, obese, or a former, or current smoker was associated with an increase in the number of comorbidities; while healthy diet, physical activity (borderline significant) and moderate alcohol consumption were associated with decreased number of comorbidities. Increasing number of comorbidities was related to worse QOL, increased odds of disability and prior relapse. Obese PwMS had higher odds of disability and lower QOL. The associations between BMI, comorbidities and health outcomes are likely to be bi-directional and associated with lifestyle behaviors. Preventing and treating comorbid disorders and obesity in

  7. Study of the association between the interleukin-1 β c.3954C>T polymorphism and periodontitis in a population sample from Bahia, Brazil

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    Samir A Mendonça

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by the loss of connective tissue and alveolar bone. Different factors are associated with the onset and prognosis of this disease, both environmental and genetic. The latter particularly relate to molecules secreted as a function of the host immune response, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines. Studies indicate that the polymorphism c. 3954C > T in the interleukin-1 β encoding gene (IL1B can be considered as an aggravating factor in the periodontitis condition. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate whether there is an association between the IL1B c. 3954C > T gene polymorphism and the prevalence of periodontitis in the population from Vitσria da Conquista-Bahia, Brazil. Materials and Methods: A total of 347 subjects (134 cases and 213 controls who provided epithelial tissue of the oral cavity and saliva samples for DNA extraction and quantification of IL1B, respectively, were selected. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism followed by electrophoresis in agarose gel. The evaluation of the cytokine concentration was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical Analysis: Statistical calculations involved in this work include Chi-square test, Fisher Exact test, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: Our findings revealed that: (i No statistically significant relationship between periodontitis and the polymorphism studied was observed; (ii no significant difference between the concentrations of IL1B in saliva between the case and control subjects and between the genotypes of these individuals and the concentrations of this cytokine. Conclusions: We conclude that, in the sample evaluated, the IL1B c. 3954C > T polymorphism did not present as an etiological factor for periodontitis.

  8. Association of socioeconomic status with psychiatric problems and violent behaviours in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmat, Ramin; Qorbani, Mostafa; Ghoreshi, Behnaz; Djalalinia, Shirin; Tabatabaie, Omid Reza; Safiri, Saeid; Noroozi, Mehdi; Motlagh, Mohammad-Esmaeil; Ahadi, Zeinab; Asayesh, Hamid; Kelishadi, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and psychiatric problems and violent behaviours in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents, based on nationwide surveillance programme data, 2011–2012. Methods Overall, 14 880 students, aged 6–18 years, were selected using a multistage cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces in Iran. SES was estimated based on a main summarised component, extracted from principle component analysis of family assets and parents' jobs and education. For statistical analysis, SES was classified as ‘low’, ‘middle’ and ‘high’. The WHO-Global School Based Student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS) questionnaire was used to assess psychiatric problems and violent behaviours. Results In total, 13 486 students (participation rate 90.6%) completed the study: 50.8% were boys and 75.6% were urban residents, with a mean age of 12.47±3.36 years. In the multivariate model, the ORs of depression, anxiety, feeling worthless, anger, insomnia, confusion and physical fights were lower in students with high SES compared with those with low SES (pbullying and being victimised. Conclusions Children and adolescents with low SES were at higher risk for psychiatric problems and violent behaviours. Mental health policies and public interventional strategies should be considered at the public level, notably for low SES families. PMID:27531729

  9. Untargeted metabolomic analysis of human serum samples associated with exposure levels of Persistent organic pollutants indicate important perturbations in Sphingolipids and Glycerophospholipids levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo, Daniel; Chevallier, Olivier P; Woodside, Jayne V; Brennan, Sarah F; Cantwell, Marie M; Cuskelly, Geraldine; Elliott, Christopher T

    2017-02-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are distributed globally and are associated with adverse health effects in humans. A study combining gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTof-MS) and chemometrics for the analysis of adult human serum samples was undertaken. Levels of serum POPs found were in the low range of what has been reported in similar populations across Europe (median 33.84 p, p'-DDE, 3.02 HCB, 83.55 β-HCH, 246.62 PCBs ng/g lipids). Results indicated that compounds concentrations were significantly different between the two groups of POPs exposure (high vs low) and classes (DDE, β-HCH, HCB, PCBs). Using orthogonal partial last-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), multivariate models were created for both modes of acquisition and POPs classes, explaining the maximum amount of variation between sample groups (positive mode R2 = 98-90%; Q2 = 94-75%; root mean squared error of validation (RMSEV) = 12-20%: negative mode R2 = 98-91%; Q2 = 94-81%; root mean squared error of validation (RMSEV) = 10-19%. In the serum samples analyzed, a total 3076 and 3121 ions of interest were detected in positive and negative mode respectively. Of these, 40 were found to be significantly different (p < 0.05) between exposure levels. Sphingolipids and Glycerophospholipids lipids families were identified and found significantly (p < 0.05) different between high and low POPs exposure levels. This study has shown that the elucidation of metabolomic fingerprints may have the potential to be classified as biomarkers of POPs exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The essentials of risk management the definitive guide for the non-risk professional

    CERN Document Server

    Crouhy, Michel; Mark, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Learn what risk management is and how you can effectively implement it in your organisation Essentials of Risk Management eliminates the complex mathematics and minutiae surrounding corporate risk management. It describes key risk concepts and controls in language that you can understand. Topics include organisational issues and regulatory aspects, along with detailed descriptions of tools for controlling key types of market, credit, and operational risk.

  11. The creation of a healthy eating motivation score and its association with food choice and physical activity in a cross sectional sample of Irish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Paul; McCarthy, Sinéad N; McCarthy, Mary B

    2015-06-06

    This study aimed to develop a healthy eating motivation score and to determine if dietary, lifestyle and activity behaviours vary across levels of motivation to eat a healthy diet with a view to informing health promotion interventions. A cross-sectional survey of food intake, physical activity, lifestyles and food choice attitudes was conducted in a nationally representative sample of 1262 adults in the Republic of Ireland aged 18 years and over. Increasing score for health motivation was significantly and positively related to healthy eating and exercise. Women, increasing age, normal BMI, regular exercise and increasing intakes of fruit and vegetables were associated with a higher odds ratio (OR) for having a high healthy eating motivation score. However, despite a high motivation score only 31% of consumers in the strong motivation group achieved the recommendations for daily fruit and vegetable consumption, while 57% achieved the fat recommendation. A higher intake of calorie dense foods from the top shelf of the food pyramid and increased time spent watching T.V. was associated with a decreased OR for positive motivation towards healthy eating. Healthy eating promotions directed at women and older adults should focus on supporting people's motivations to attain a healthy diet by addressing issues such as dietary self-control and self-regulation. For men and younger adults, healthy eating promotions will need to address the issues underlying their weak attitudes towards healthy eating.

  12. Interaction matters: quantifying conduct problem × depressive symptoms interaction and its association with adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John E

    2013-11-01

    Substance use is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among American adolescents. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms have each been found to be associated with adolescent substance use. Although they are highly comorbid, the role of the interaction of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in substance use is not clear. In national samples of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students from the Monitoring the Future study, latent moderated structural equation modeling was used to estimate the association of conduct problems, depressive symptoms, and their interaction to the use of alcohol (including binge drinking), cigarettes, and marijuana. Moderation by age and sex was tested. The interaction of conduct problems with depressive symptoms was a strong predictor of substance use, particularly among younger adolescents. With few exceptions, adolescents with high levels of both conduct problems and depressive symptoms used substances most frequently. Conduct problems were a strong positive predictor of substance use, and depressive symptoms were a weak positive predictor. Whereas conduct problems are often thought to be a primary predictor of substance use, this study revealed that depressive symptoms potentiate the relation of conduct problems to substance use. Therefore, substance use prevention efforts should target both depressive symptoms and conduct problems.

  13. Features associated with cognitive impairment and dementia in a community-based sample of illiterate elderly aged 75+ years: The Pietà study

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    Henrique Cerqueira Guimarães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A higher level of educational attainment constitutes a protective factor against cognitive decline in the elderly. Nevertheless, the elements underpinning this association are yet not fully understood. Objective: The primary aim of this study was to compare cognitively impaired illiterate elderly subjects with cognitively preserved counterparts, according to demographics, comorbidities, lifetime habits and APOE genotype. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of the illiterate subset of participants (n=174 from the Pietà study, a community-based survey of successful brain aging conducted in Caeté (MG, Brazil. Subjects were categorized into three diagnostic groups: cognitively normal (CN, cognitive impairment no-dementia (CIND and dementia. The groups were then compared according to selected variables. Results: Subjects with dementia were older and had an increased prevalence of reported stroke or transient ischemic attack. The three groups did not differ in relation to demographics, prevalence of comorbidities, socioeconomic level, previous occupation profile and APOE-e4 allele frequency. Qualitatively evaluated lifetime habits, such as alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity engagement were also similar across groups. Conclusion: No associations were found between cognitive impairment/dementia and the variables evaluated in this community-based sample of illiterate elderly.

  14. Prevalence of Suicide Ideation, Attempts and the Associated Factors among a Sample of Iranian Population in South Part of the Country: A Population Based Study

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    Soodabeh Navadeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  Objective: "n "n "nSuicide represented 1.8% of the total global burden of disease in1998 and it will increase to 2.4% in 2020. We performed a cross sectional study to assess the prevalence of suicide ideation, attempt and its associated factors. "nMethod: We designed a cross sectional study in Mahan and Bardsir cities, Kerman province, Iran. Based on the multistage cluster sampling, 860 subjects aged 15 and older were selected as the non-attempter group and 58 hospital cases admitted due to suicide attempts were selected as the attempter group. General Health Questionnaire, Suicide Ideation Scale and demographic form were filled for each participant. "nResults: This study showed that the prevalence of suicide ideation was 10% in total: 48.3% in the suicide attempters and 7.33% in the non-attempters. Being female, young, single, more educated and less religious, living in urban areas, opium use and having somatic complaints and other psychiatric problems were associated with suicide attempts. "nConclusion: Suicide ideation and attempt aren't uncommon in Iran and should be recognized as important problems existing in these two cities of Kerman province .

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and its predominately inattentive type: evidence for an association with COMT but not MAOA in a Chinese sample

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    Wang Yu-Feng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are three childhood disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD, and conduct disorder (CD. The most common comorbid disorder in ADHD is ODD. DSM-IV describes three ADHD subtypes: predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-IA, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-HI, and combined type (ADHD-C. Prior work suggests that specific candidate genes are associated with specific subtypes of ADHD in China. Our previous association studies between ADHD and functional polymorphisms of COMT and MAOA, consistently showed the low transcriptional activity alleles were preferentially transmitted to ADHD-IA boys. Thus, the goal of the present study is to test the hypothesis that COMT Val158Met and MAOA-uVNTR jointly contribute to the ODD phenotype among Chinese ADHD boys. Methods 171 Chinese boys between 6 and 17.5 years old (mean = 10.3, SD = 2.6 with complete COMT val158met and MAOA-uVNTR genotyping information were studied. We used logistic regression with genotypes as independent variables and the binary phenotype as the dependent variable. We used p Results Our results highlight the potential etiologic role of COMT in the ADHD with comorbid ODD and its predominately inattentive type in male Chinese subjects. ADHD with comorbid ODD was associated with homozygosity of the high-activity Val allele, while the predominantly inattentive ADHD subtype was associated with the low-activity Met allele. We found no evidence of association between the MAOA-uVNTR variant and ADHD with comorbid ODD or the ADHD-IA subtype. Conclusion Our study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and its predominately inattentive type highlights the potential etiologic role of COMT for ADHD children in China. But we failed to observe an interaction between COMT and MAOA, which suggests that epistasis between COMT and MAOA genes does not

  16. Clustering of risk-related modifiable behaviours and their association with overweight and obesity among a large sample of youth in the COMPASS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxer, Rachel E; Brownson, Ross C; Dubin, Joel A; Cooke, Martin; Chaurasia, Ashok; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-01-21

    Canadian youth exhibit a number of risky behaviours, some of which are associated with overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of 15 modifiable risk behaviours in a large sample of Canadian youth, to identify underlying subgroups based on patterns of health behaviours, and to examine the association between identified subgroups and overweight/obesity. Data from 18,587 grades 9-12 students in Year 1 (2012-13) of the COMPASS study and latent class analysis were used to identify patterns and clustering among 15 health behaviours (e.g., physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour, unhealthy eating, substance use). A logistic regression model examined the associations between these clusters and overweight/obesity status. Four distinct classes were identified: traditional school athletes, inactive screenagers, health conscious, and moderately active substance users. Each behavioural cluster demonstrated a distinct pattern of behaviours, some with a greater number of risk factors than others. Traditional school athletes (odds ratio (OR) 1.15, 95% CI 1.03-1.29), inactive screenagers (OR 1.33; 1.19-1.48), and moderately active substance users (OR 1.27; 1.14-1.43) were all significantly more likely to be overweight/obese compared to the health conscious group. Four distinct subpopulations of youth were identified based on their patterns of health and risk behaviours. The three clusters demonstrating poorer health behaviour were all at an increased risk of being overweight/obese compared to their somewhat healthier peers. Obesity-related public health interventions and health promotion efforts might be more effective if consideration is given to population segments with certain behavioural patterns, targeting subgroups at greatest risk of overweight or obesity.

  17. Association of leisure time physical activity and sports competition activities with high blood pressure levels: study carried out in a sample of Portuguese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaya, A R; Silva, P; Martins, C; Gaya, A; Ribeiro, J C; Mota, J

    2011-05-01

    A better understanding of the different domains and characteristics of children's and adolescent's physical activity (PA) could be a strategy to clarify the association of this behaviour with the early development of cardiovascular risk factors. To examine the relationship between leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and sports competition activities (SCA) with high blood pressure (HBP) levels in a sample of children and adolescents from Porto, Portugal. This is a cross-sectional study, which comprised 503 boys and 572 girls, aged 8-17 years old. LTPA and SCA were assed by self-reported. Students were assigned as active and non-active in SCA or LTPA according to their self-reported participation. Participants were classified as HBP when they are above of the last quartile for systolic and/or diastolic BP adjusted for gender and age. Do not be engaged in LTPA (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.12; 1.93) and SCA (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.02; 1.81) was significantly associated with the likelihood of being HBP. However, when cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.91; 1.67) and body mass index (BMI) (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 0.98; 1.75) were included on SCA model, the association between SCA with HBP did not showed significant results. Children and adolescents who are not engaged in SCA or LTPA are more likely to be classified as having HBP; however, the relationship between SCA and HBP was dependent of CRF and BMI. Further, PA strategies should take these differences on the relationship between HBP, SCA and LTPA. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Association of Socioeconomic Status with Anthropometric Measures and Blood Pressure in a Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adoles-cents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin HESHMAT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of Socioeconomic Status (SES with anthropometric measures and BP in Iranian children and adolescents.Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2011-2012 among 14,880 students, aged 6-18 years, selected by multistage, cluster-sampling method from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces of Iran. Anthropometric indexes and BP were measured by standard protocols and with calibrated instruments. SES was estimated based on family assets and parents’ job and education using principle component analysis method. SES was considered as “low”, “intermediate” and “high” in the statistical analysis.Results: Overall, 13486 children and adolescents out of 14,880 invited students (response rate 90.6% participated in this study. They consisted of 50.8% boys, 75.6% urban residents, with a mean age of 12.47 ±3.36 years. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity and also mean of all anthropometric measures increased linearly with increasing SES. Inversely, underweight decreased linearly with increasing SES. Association of BP measures with SES was not statistically significant. After adjustment for potential confounders, association of anthropometric measures and BP with SES did not change significantly.Conclusion: We found that obesity, overweight and abdominal obesity was prevalent in high SES group and underweight in low SES group. Our findings serve as confirmatory evidence that contrary to developed countries, in developing countries childhood obesity is more prevalent in families with higher SES. Keywords: Anthropometric measures, Blood pressure, Socio-economic status, Children and adolescents, Iran

  19. Aerobic fitness is associated with low cardiovascular disease risk: the impact of lifestyle on early risk factors for atherosclerosis in young healthy Swedish individuals – the Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study

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    Fernström M

    2017-03-01

    subjects at risk had low aerobic fitness compared to 23% of the nonrisk subjects (P<0.001.Conclusion: High aerobic fitness is associated with low CVD risk in Swedish young adults. The high prevalence of young adults observed with unfavorable levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance raises concerns about future CVD risk. Keywords: cIMT, cholesterol, insulin resistance, body fat, diet, aerobic fitness

  20. Multiple syndemic psychosocial factors are associated with reduced engagement in HIV care among a multinational, online sample of HIV-infected MSM in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biello, Katie B; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Safren, Steven A; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Novak, David S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Latin America has some of the highest levels of antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage of any developing region in the world. Early initiation and optimal adherence to ART are necessary for improved health outcomes and reduction in onward transmission. Previous work has demonstrated the role of psychosocial problems as barriers to uptake and adherence to ART, and recently, a syndemic framework has been applied to the role of multiple psychosocial syndemic factors and adherence to ART, in the USA. However, to our knowledge, these associations have not been investigated outside of the USA, nor in a multi-country context. To address these gaps, we assessed the association between multiple co-occurring psychosocial factors and engagement in HIV-related medical care and adherence to ART among a large, multinational sample of sexually-active HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Latin America. Among the 2020 respondents, 80.7% reported currently receiving HIV-related medical care, 72.3% reported currently receiving ART; among those, 62.5% reported 100% adherence. Compared with experiencing no psychosocial health problems, experiencing five or more psychosocial health problems is associated with 42% lower odds of currently receiving HIV-related medical care (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.36, 0.95) and of currently receiving ART (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.38, 0.91). The number of psychosocial health problems experienced was associated with self-reported ART adherence in a dose-response relationship; compared to those with none of the factors, individuals with one syndemic factor had 23% lower odds (aOR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.60, 0.97) and individuals with five or more syndemic factors had 72% lower odds (aOR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.14, 0.55) of reporting being 100% adherent to ART. Addressing co-occurring psychosocial problems as potential barriers to uptake and adherence of ART in Latin America may improve the effectiveness of secondary prevention interventions.

  1. Patient and operative factors associated with complications following adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery: an analysis of 36,335 patients from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Garza Ramos, Rafael; Goodwin, C Rory; Abu-Bonsrah, Nancy; Jain, Amit; Miller, Emily K; Huang, Nicole; Kebaish, Khaled M; Sponseller, Paul D; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of and factors associated with complications following idiopathic scoliosis surgery in adolescents. METHODS The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to identify patients 10-18 years of age who had undergone spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) from 2002 to 2011. Twenty-three unique in-hospital postoperative complications, including death, were examined. A series of logistic regressions was used to determine if any demographic, comorbid, or surgical parameter was associated with complication development. Results of multiple logistic regression analyses were reported as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses were performed after the application of discharge weights to produce national estimates. RESULTS A total of 36,335 patients met the study inclusion criteria, 7.6% of whom (95% CI 6.3%-8.9%) developed at least one in-hospital complication. The 3 most common complications were respiratory failure (3.47%), reintubation (1.27%), and implant related (1.14%). Major complications such as death, pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, visual loss, spinal cord injury, cardiac arrest, sepsis, nerve root injury, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, shock, malignant hyperthermia, myocardial infarction, and iatrogenic stroke each had an incidence ≤ 0.2%. On multiple logistic regression analysis, an increasing age (OR 0.80) was associated with significantly lower odds of complication development; patients who were male (OR 1.80) or who had anemia (OR 2.10), hypertension (OR 2.51), or hypothyroidism (OR 2.27) or underwent revision procedures (OR 5.55) were at a significantly increased risk for complication development. The rates of postoperative complications for posterior, anterior, and combined approaches were 6.7%, 10.0%, and 19.8%, respectively (p < 0.001). Length of fusion (< 8 vs ≥ 8 levels) was not associated with complication development

  2. Sampling algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Tillé, Yves

    2006-01-01

    Important progresses in the methods of sampling have been achieved. This book draws up an inventory of methods that can be useful for selecting samples. Forty-six sampling methods are described in the framework of general theory. This book is suitable for experienced statisticians who are familiar with the theory of survey sampling.

  3. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  4. Sample Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kenneth N.

    1987-01-01

    This article considers various kinds of probability and non-probability samples in both experimental and survey studies. Throughout, how a sample is chosen is stressed. Size alone is not the determining consideration in sample selection. Good samples do not occur by accident; they are the result of a careful design. (Author/JAZ)

  5. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  6. Slice Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Neal, R M

    2000-01-01

    Markov chain sampling methods that automatically adapt to characteristics of the distribution being sampled can be constructed by exploiting the principle that one can sample from a distribution by sampling uniformly from the region under the plot of its density function. A Markov chain that converges to this uniform distribution can be constructed by alternating uniform sampling in the vertical direction with uniform sampling from the horizontal `slice' defined by the current vertical position, or more generally, with some update that leaves the uniform distribution over this slice invariant. Variations on such `slice sampling' methods are easily implemented for univariate distributions, and can be used to sample from a multivariate distribution by updating each variable in turn. This approach is often easier to implement than Gibbs sampling, and more efficient than simple Metropolis updates, due to the ability of slice sampling to adaptively choose the magnitude of changes made. It is therefore attractive f...

  7. Association of Common Polymorphisms in the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Alpha4 Subunit Gene with an Electrophysiological Endophenotype in a Large Population-Based Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mobascher

    Full Text Available Variation in genes coding for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR subunits affect cognitive processes and may contribute to the genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric disorders. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the CHRNA4 gene that codes for the alpha4 subunit of alpha4/beta2-containing receptors have previously been implicated in aspects of (mostly visual attention and smoking-related behavioral measures. Here we investigated the effects of six synonymous but functional CHRNA4 exon 5 SNPs on the N100 event-related potential (ERP, an electrophysiological endophenotype elicited by a standard auditory oddball. A total of N = 1,705 subjects randomly selected from the general population were studied with electroencephalography (EEG as part of the German Multicenter Study on nicotine addiction. Two of the six variants, rs1044396 and neighboring rs1044397, were significantly associated with N100 amplitude. This effect was pronounced in females where we also observed an effect on reaction time. Sequencing of the complete exon 5 region in the population sample excluded the existence of additional/functional variants that may be responsible for the observed effects. This is the first large-scale population-based study investigation the effects of CHRNA4 SNPs on brain activity measures related to stimulus processing and attention. Our results provide further evidence that common synonymous CHRNA4 exon 5 SNPs affect cognitive processes and suggest that they also play a role in the auditory system. As N100 amplitude reduction is considered a schizophrenia-related endophenotype the SNPs studied here may also be associated with schizophrenia outcome measures.

  8. Latent Class Analysis of Gambling Activities in a Sample of Young Swiss Men: Association with Gambling Problems, Substance Use Outcomes, Personality Traits and Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Simon, Olivier; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed to identify different patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) and to investigate how PGAs differed in gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. A representative sample of 4989 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing seven distinct gambling activities, gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. PGAs were identified using latent class analysis (LCA). Differences between PGAs in gambling and substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies were tested. LCA identified six different PGAs. With regard to gambling and substance use outcomes, the three most problematic PGAs were extensive gamblers, followed by private gamblers, and electronic lottery and casino gamblers, respectively. By contrast, the three least detrimental PGAs were rare or non-gamblers, lottery only gamblers and casino gamblers. With regard to personality traits, compared with rare or non-gamblers, private and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sensation seeking. Electronic lottery and casino gamblers, private gamblers and extensive gamblers had higher levels of aggression-hostility. Extensive and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sociability, whereas casino gamblers reported lower levels of anxiety-neuroticism. Extensive gamblers used more maladaptive and less adaptive coping strategies than other groups. Results suggest that gambling is not a homogeneous activity since different types of gamblers exist according to the PGA they are engaged in. Extensive gamblers, electronic and casino gamblers and private gamblers may have the most problematic PGAs. Personality traits and coping skills may predispose individuals to PGAs associated with more or less negative outcomes.

  9. The association of thyroid function with carotid artery plaque burden and strokes in a population-based sample from a previously iodine-deficient area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr, Marcus; Empen, Klaus; Robinson, Daniel M; Wallaschofski, Henri; Felix, Stephan B; Völzke, Henry

    2008-08-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is associated with detrimental cardiovascular effects. We analyzed whether thyroid status is related to carotid artery plaques and prevalent strokes. Data from 2128 subjects (1157 men and 971 women) aged > or =45 years without thyroid diseases participating in the Study of Health in Pomerania were analyzed. The presence of carotid plaques was assessed by B-mode ultrasound and prevalent stroke was assessed by interview. The sample was divided according to the reference range of serum TSH levels into decreased (2.12 mIU/l). Logistic regression models were adjusted for common confounders including age, sex, BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, school education, plasma fibrinogen and serum cholesterol levels, and statins. The prevalence of carotid plaques at any site was higher in subjects with decreased serum TSH levels (81.7%) compared with normal serum TSH levels (70.2%) and elevated serum TSH levels (65.6%; PPeriodical screening and early treatment of atherosclerotic risk factors should be performed in subjects with decreased serum TSH levels.

  10. How unusual are the contents of paraphilias? Paraphilia-associated sexual arousal patterns in a community-based sample of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Christoph Joseph; Schaefer, Gerard Alfons; Mundt, Ingrid Annette; Roll, Stephanie; Englert, Heike; Willich, Stefan N; Beier, Klaus Michael

    2011-05-01

    This is a report of a cross-sectional study on paraphilia-associated sexual arousal patterns (PASAP) among men in a metropolitan city in Germany, EU. To determine the prevalence of PASAP during sexual fantasies, fantasies accompanying masturbation, and real-life sociosexual behavior. In a cross-sectional study, self-reported sexual history data were collected by questionnaire from 367 volunteers recruited from a community sample of 1,915 men aged 40-79 years. The Derogatis Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LSQ; German original, Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit, [FLZ]) were administered to obtain a general subjective health measure and a measure of general as well as sex life satisfaction. The Questionnaire on Sexual Experiences and Behaviour was administered to comprehensively assess all relevant sexo-medical data. Results.  The percent of men that reported at least one PASAP was 62.4%. In 1.7% of cases, PASAP were reported to have caused distress. The presence of PASAP was associated with a higher likelihood of being single (odds ratio [OR] 2.6; 95%; confidence interval [CI] 1.047-6.640), masturbating at least once per week (OR 4.4; 95%; CI 1.773-10.914), or having a low general subjective health score (OR 11.9; 95%; CI 2.601-54.553). Pedophilic PASAP in sexual fantasies and in real-life sociosexual behavior was reported by 9.5% and 3.8% of participants, respectively. The findings suggest that paraphilia-related experience can not be regarded as unusual from a normative perspective. At the same time, many men experience PASAP without accompanying problem awareness or distress, even when PASAP contents are associated with potentially causing harm to others. In view of the relevance for sex life and relationship satisfaction, presence of PASAP should be assessed in all sexual medicine consultations. Future research should focus on conditions in which PASAP reach clinical significance in the sense of mental disorders.

  11. Capillary sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... several times a day using capillary blood sampling. Disadvantages to capillary blood sampling include: Only a limited ... do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 1997-2017, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication ...

  12. Association of smoking, alcohol and NSAIDs use with expression of cag A and cag T genes of Helicobacter pylori in salivary samples of asymptomatic subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinaki Ghosh; Subhash Laxmanrao Bodhankar

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the association of smoking, alcohol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) use with presence and virulence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in a representative sample of a random adult population of asymptomatic subjects. Methods:Non virulent 16S rRNA and virulent cag A and T genes from salivary samples of 854 asymptomatic subjects were determined using polymerase chain reaction. The presence and absence of virulent and non virulent infection was statistically compared with consumption of smoking, alcohol and NSAIDs. Results:The prevalence of infection in male and female subjects was found to be 69.25%and 66.90%, respectively. The prevalence of infection in the population of asymptomatic subjects with respect to consumption of alcohol was as follows:current (31.22%), former (52.20%) and never (43.58%). The prevalence of infection in the population of asymptomatic subjects with respect to smoking of cigarettes was as follows:current (88.80%), former (57.14%) and never (33.33%). The prevalence of infection in the subject population consuming NSAIDs and not consuming NSAIDs frequently was found to be 82.75%and 21.16%, respectively. Virulence in male and female subjects was found to be 60.00%and 50.00%, respectively. The presence of virulent infection in the population of asymptomatic subjects with respect to consumption of alcohol was as follows:current (28.57%), former (40.15%) and never (50.00%). The prevalence of virulent infection in the population of asymptomatic subjects with respect to smoking of cigarettes was as follows:current (79.32%), former (75.00%) and never (50.00%). The prevalence of virulent infection in the subject population consuming NSAIDs and not consuming NSAIDs frequently was found to be 88.23%and 66.66%, respectively. Conclusions:It can be concluded that smoking and NSAIDs consumption are aggravating factors for virulence of H. pylori and alcohol can inhibit H. pylori infection in asymptomatic

  13. The Clock-in-the-Box, a brief cognitive screen, is associated with failure to return home in an elderly hospitalized sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson CE

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Colleen E Jackson,1–3 Laura J Grande,1–3 Kelly Doherty,1 Elizabeth Archambault,1 Brittany Kelly,1 Jane A Driver,1,4 William P Milberg,1,2,5 Regina McGlinchey,1,2,5 James L Rudolph6,7 1Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Department of Veterans Affairs (VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, 2Translational Research Center for TBI and Stress Disorders, Department of Veterans Affairs (VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, 3Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 4Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 5Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 6Center of Innovation in Long Term Services and Supports, Department of Veterans Affairs (VA Providence Medical Center, Providence, RI, 7Department of Medicine, Warren Alpert School of Medicine of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Purpose: Cognitive screening upon hospital admission can provide important information about the patient’s ability to process information during the inpatient stay. The Clock-in-the-Box (CIB is a rapidly administered cognitive screening measure which has been previously validated with cognitive screening and neuropsychological assessments. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the predictive validity of the CIB for discharge location among a sample of older medical inpatients. Patients and methods: Hospitalized Veterans (N=218, aged 55 years and older, were recruited on the day after admission after they gave their consent. These participants completed the CIB, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and self-report measures of daily functioning. Using logistic regression models, the bivariable and multivariable impact of the cognitive screening and functional assessments were examined for their ability to predict whether the participants did not return home after hospitalization (eg, admission to subacute rehabilitation facilities or nursing facilities. Results: The

  14. Type D personality is associated with increased metabolic syndrome prevalence and an unhealthy lifestyle in a cross-sectional Dutch community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denollet Johan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with Type D-Distressed-personality have a general tendency towards increased negative affectivity (NA, while at the same time inhibiting these emotions in social situations (SI. Type D personality is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Whether Type D personality is a cardiovascular risk factor in healthy populations remains to be investigated. In the present study, the relations between Type D personality and classical cardiovascular risk factors, i.e. metabolic syndrome and lifestyle were investigated in a Dutch community sample. Methods In a cross-sectional study 1592 participants were included, aged 20-80 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined by self-report, following the International Diabetes Federation-IDF-guidelines including an increased waist circumference, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. In addition lifestyle factors smoking, alcohol use, exercise and dietary habits were examined. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was stratified by Type D personality (a high score on both NA and SI, lifestyle and confounders age, gender, having a partner, higher education level, cardiac history, family history of cardiovascular disease. Results Metabolic syndrome was more prevalent in persons with a Type D personality (13% vs. 6%. Persons with Type D personality made poorer lifestyle choices, adhered less to the physical activity norm (OR = 1.5, 95%CI = 1.1-2.0, p = .02, had a less varied diet (OR = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.40-0.70, p p = .01. Type D personality was related to a twofold increased risk of metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.2, 95%CI = 1.2-4.0, p = .011, independent of lifestyle factors and confounders. Conclusions Type D personality is related to an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and unhealthy lifestyle, which suggests both behavioral and biological vulnerability for development of cardiovascular disorders and diabetes.

  15. Increased risk for invasive breast cancer associated with hormonal therapy: a nation-wide random sample of 65,723 women followed from 1997 to 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Nien Lai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hormonal therapy (HT either estrogen alone (E-alone or estrogen plus progesterone (E+P appears to increase the risk for breast cancer in Western countries. However, limited information is available on the association between HT and breast cancer in Asian women characterized mainly by dietary phytoestrogens intake and low prevalence of contraceptive pills prescription. METHODOLOGY: A total of 65,723 women (20-79 years of age without cancer or the use of Chinese herbal products were recruited from a nation-wide one-million representative sample of the National Health Insurance of Taiwan and followed from 1997 to 2008. Seven hundred and eighty incidents of invasive breast cancer were diagnosed. Using a reference group that comprised 40,052 women who had never received a hormone prescription, Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to determine the hazard ratios for receiving different types of HT and the occurrence of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: 5,156 (20% women ever used E+P, 2,798 (10.8% ever used E-alone, and 17,717 (69% ever used other preparation types. The Cox model revealed adjusted hazard ratios (HRs of 2.05 (95% CI 1.37-3.07 for current users of E-alone and 8.65 (95% CI 5.45-13.70 for current users of E+P. Using women who had ceased to take hormonal medication for 6 years or more as the reference group, the adjusted HRs were significantly elevated and greater than current users and women who had discontinued hormonal medication for less than 6 years. Current users of either E-alone or E+P have an increased risk for invasive breast cancer in Taiwan, and precautions should be taken when such agents are prescribed.

  16. Substance use among women receiving post-rape medical care, associated post-assault concerns and current substance abuse: Results from a national telephone household probability sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Walsh, Kate; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine post-rape substance use, associated post rape medical and social concern variables, and past year substance abuse among women reporting having received medical care following a most recent or only lifetime incident of rape. Method Using a subsample of women who received post-rape medical care following a most recent or only rape incident (n=104) drawn from a national household probability sample of U.S. women, the current study described the extent of peritraumatic substance use, past year substance misuse behaviors, post-rape HIV and pregnancy concerns, and lifetime mental health service utilization as a function of substance use at time of incident. Results One-third (33%) of women seeking post-rape medical attention reported consuming alcohol or drugs at the time of their rape incident. Nearly one in four (24.7%) and one in seven (15%) women seeking medical attention following their most recent rape incident endorsed drug (marijuana, illicit, non-medical use of prescription drugs, or club drug) use or met substance abuse criteria, respectively, in the past year. One in twelve (8.4%) women reported at least monthly binge drinking in the past year. Approximately two-thirds of women reported seeking services for mental health needs in their lifetime. Post-rape concerns among women reporting peritraumatic substance use were not significantly different from those of women not reporting such use. Conclusions Substance use was reported by approximately one-third of women and past year substance abuse was common among those seeking post-rape medical care. Implications for service delivery, intervention implementation, and future research are discussed. PMID:23380490

  17. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our ...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research.......This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...

  18. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  19. The Association between Mental Health and Acute Infectious Illness among a National Sample of 18- To 24-Year-Old College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Troy B.; Wharton, Christopher M.; Quilter, Lyndsay; Hirsch, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Poor mental health is associated with physical illness, but this association is poorly characterized among college students. Objective and Participants: Using American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment data, the authors characterized poor mental health (depression, anxiety, negative affect) and examined the relationship…

  20. Sampling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  1. High tobacco consumption is causally associated with increased all-cause mortality in a general population sample of 55 568 individuals, but not with short telomeres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Bojesen, Stig E; Weischer, Maren

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High cumulative tobacco consumption is associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. METHODS: We studied 55,568 individu......BACKGROUND: High cumulative tobacco consumption is associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. METHODS: We studied 55...... short telomeres explained only +0.4% (-3.5%, +4.3%) of the association between high tobacco consumption and increased all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: High tobacco consumption is causally associated with increased all-cause mortality. High cumulative tobacco consumption is associated with short...

  2. Association Between a Functional Variant Downstream of TNFAIP3 and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrianto, Indra; Wen, Feng; Templeton, Amanda; Wiley, Graham; King, Jarrod B.; Lessard, Christopher J.; Bates, Jared S.; Hu, Yanqing; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Guthridge, Joel M.; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Bang, So-Young; Boackle, Susan A.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Petri, Michelle A.; Gallant, Caroline; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Reveille, John D.; Vila, Luis M.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Edberg, Jeffrey C.; Freedman, Barry I.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Jacob, Chaim O.; James, Judith A.; Kamen, Diane L.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Martin, Javier; Merrill, Joan T.; Niewold, Timothy B.; Park, So-Yeon; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Scofield, R. Hal; Stevens, Anne M.; Tsao, Betty P.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Harley, John B.; Moser, Kathy L.; Webb, Carol F.; Humphrey, Mary Beth; Montgomery, Courtney Gray; Gaffney, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE, OMIM 152700) is an autoimmune disease characterized by self-reactive antibodies resulting in systemic inflammation and organ failure. TNFAIP3, encoding the ubiquitin-modifying enzyme A20, is an established susceptibility locus for SLE. By fine mapping and genomic resequencing in ethnically diverse populations we fully characterized the TNFAIP3 risk haplotype and isolated a novel TT>A polymorphic dinucleotide associated with SLE in subjects of European (P = 1.58 × 10−8; odds ratio (OR) = 1.70) and Korean (P = 8.33 × 10−10; OR = 2.54) ancestry. This variant, located in a region of high conservation and regulatory potential, bound a nuclear protein complex comprised of NF-κB subunits with reduced avidity. Furthermore, compared with the non-risk haplotype, the haplotype carrying this variant resulted in reduced TNFAIP3 mRNA and A20 protein expression. These results establish this TT>A variant as the most likely functional polymorphism responsible for the association between TNFAIP3 and SLE. PMID:21336280

  3. A genome-wide association study of social and non-social autistic-like traits in the general population using pooled DNA, 500 K SNP microarrays and both community and diagnosed autism replication samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, Angelica; Butcher, Lee M; Docherty, Sophia; Davis, Oliver S P; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Craig, Ian W; Plomin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Two separate genome-wide association studies were conducted to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with social and nonsocial autistic-like traits. We predicted that we would find SNPs associated with social and non-social autistic-like traits and that different SNPs would be associated with social and nonsocial. In Stage 1, each study screened for allele frequency differences in approximately 430,000 autosomal SNPs using pooled DNA on microarrays in high-scoring versus low-scoring boys from a general population sample (N = approximately 400/group). In Stage 2, 22 and 20 SNPs in the social and non-social studies, respectively, were tested for QTL association by individually genotyping an independent community sample of 1,400 boys. One SNP (rs11894053) was nominally associated (P < .05, uncorrected for multiple testing) with social autistic-like traits. When the sample was increased by adding females, 2 additional SNPs were nominally significant (P < .05). These 3 SNPs, however, showed no significant association in transmission disequilibrium analyses of diagnosed ASD families.

  4. Detection of Residual Levels and Associated Health Risk of Seven Pesticides in Fresh Eggplant and Tomato Samples from Narayanganj District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nur Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual levels of seven frequently used pesticides were investigated in 140 samples of two common vegetables, eggplants and tomatoes, from agricultural fields in the Narayanganj district of Bangladesh. The analysis of pesticide residues was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. A large percentage of the eggplants (50% and tomatoes (60% from the Narayanganj district were contaminated with pesticides, and all of the levels were above the maximum residual limit (MRL proposed by the EC regulation. Diazinon was the most common (35% pesticide detected in the vegetable samples at a concentration of 45–450 times higher than the MRL. The health risk index for diazinon was highest for both eggplant and tomato samples, which may be due to its physiochemical properties. Fenitrothion and linuron are the two second most common types of pesticides detected in the vegetable samples. Regular monitoring of the use of common pesticides on vegetables should be conducted.

  5. Association between the -455T>C promoter polymorphism of the APOC3 gene and the metabolic syndrome in a multi-ethnic sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pollex, Rebecca L; Ban, Matthew R; Young, T Kue

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Common polymorphisms in the promoter of the APOC3 gene have been associated with hypertriglyceridemia and may impact on phenotypic expression of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The rs7566605 marker, located near the INSIG2 gene, has been found to be associated with obesity, making...... the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol criteria, but also the blood pressure criteria compared with wild-type homozygotes. Plasma apo C-III concentrations were not associated with APOC3 -455T>C genotype. The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism was not associated with MetS or measures of obesity...

  6. Information sampling behavior with explicit sampling costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, Mordechai Z.; Gureckis, Todd M.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2015-01-01

    The decision to gather information should take into account both the value of information and its accrual costs in time, energy and money. Here we explore how people balance the monetary costs and benefits of gathering additional information in a perceptual-motor estimation task. Participants were rewarded for touching a hidden circular target on a touch-screen display. The target’s center coincided with the mean of a circular Gaussian distribution from which participants could sample repeatedly. Each “cue” — sampled one at a time — was plotted as a dot on the display. Participants had to repeatedly decide, after sampling each cue, whether to stop sampling and attempt to touch the hidden target or continue sampling. Each additional cue increased the participants’ probability of successfully touching the hidden target but reduced their potential reward. Two experimental conditions differed in the initial reward associated with touching the hidden target and the fixed cost per cue. For each condition we computed the optimal number of cues that participants should sample, before taking action, to maximize expected gain. Contrary to recent claims that people gather less information than they objectively should before taking action, we found that participants over-sampled in one experimental condition, and did not significantly under- or over-sample in the other. Additionally, while the ideal observer model ignores the current sample dispersion, we found that participants used it to decide whether to stop sampling and take action or continue sampling, a possible consequence of imperfect learning of the underlying population dispersion across trials. PMID:27429991

  7. Knowledge deficit, attitude and behavior scales association to objective measures of sun exposure and sunburn in a Danish population based sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Brian; Søndergaard, Jens; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop new scales measuring knowledge and attitude about UVR and sun related behavior, and to examine their association to sun related behavior objectively measured by personal dosimetry. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV......-dosimeter for one week that measured their UVR exposure. Afterwards, they answered a questionnaire on sun-related items. We applied descriptive analysis, linear and logistic regression analysis to evaluate the associations between the questionnaire scales and objective UVR measures. Perceiving protection as routine...... 12 and 15' were both associated with increased risk of sunburn. Attitude towards tan was associated to both outdoor time and exposure as well as use of protection, but not to sunburn. The results regarding Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma associated to UVR exposure and Perceived barrier...

  8. Does Traffic-related Air Pollution Explain Associations of Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise Exposure on Children's Health and Cognition? A Secondary Analysis of the United Kingdom Sample From the RANCH Project

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; Kempen, Elise van; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001–2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 chi...

  9. Low birthweight and premature birth are both associated with type 2 diabetes in a random sample of middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilgaard, K; Færch, K; Carstensen, B

    2010-01-01

    We studied the associations of size at birth and prematurity with type 2 diabetes, insulin sensitivity and beta cell function in the Danish population-based Inter99 study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00289237)....

  10. [A case-control study of factors associated with repeat teen pregnancy based on a sample from a university maternity hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andréa de Albuquerque Arruda; Coutinho, Isabela C; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland

    2013-03-01

    Repeat teen pregnancy is a frequent issue and is considered an aggravating factor for increased maternal and fetal morbidity and social problems. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with repeat teen pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted in 90 postpartum adolescents with more