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Sample records for nonresilient counterparts chronic

  1. Classroom Learning Environment Differences between Resilient, Average, and Nonresilient Middle School Students in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón, Yolanda N.; Waxman, Hersh C.; Lee, Yuan-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    The lack of achievement of students from high-risk and high-poverty environments necessitates changes in today's middle school environments to create a caring, supportive environment where all middle school students can succeed. This study investigated the classroom learning environments of resilient, average, and nonresilient minority students in…

  2. Individual, Family, and Neighborhood Factors Distinguish Resilient from Non-Resilient Maltreated Children: A Cumulative Stressors Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Polo-Tomas, Monica; Taylor, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Children who are physically maltreated are at risk of a range of adverse outcomes in childhood and adulthood, but some children who are maltreated manage to function well despite their history of adversity. Which individual, family, and neighborhood characteristics distinguish resilient from non-resilient maltreated children? Do…

  3. Discordant Temporal Turnovers of Sediment Bacterial and Eukaryotic Communities in Response to Dredging: Nonresilience and Functional Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Xiao, Xian; Pei, Meng; Liu, Xiang; Liang, Yuting

    2017-01-01

    To study the stability and succession of sediment microbial and macrobenthic communities in response to anthropogenic disturbance, a time-series sampling was conducted before, during, and 1 year after dredging in the Guan River in Changzhou, China, which was performed with cutter suction dredgers from 10 April to 20 May 2014. The microbial communities were analyzed by sequencing bacterial 16S rRNA and eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene amplicons with Illumina MiSeq, and the macrobenthic community was identified using a morphological approach simultaneously. The results indicated that dredging disturbance significantly altered the composition and structures of sediment communities. The succession rates of communities were estimated by comparing the slopes of time-decay relationships. The temporal turnover of microeukaryotes (w = 0.3251, P species turnover) across log(time)]) was the highest, followed by that of bacteria (w = 0.2450, P turnovers and nonresilience of sediment communities under dredging resulted in functional changes, which are important for predicting sediment ecosystem functions under anthropogenic disturbances.

  4. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and abnormal sensations. CIDP is closely related to Guillain-Barre syndrome and it is considered the chronic counterpart ... and abnormal sensations. CIDP is closely related to Guillain-Barre syndrome and it is considered the chronic counterpart ...

  5. Electromagnetic Counterparts to Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    During the final moments of a binary black hole (BH) merger, the gravitational wave (GW) luminosity of the system is greater than the combined electromagnetic (EM) output of the entire observable universe. However, the extremely weak coupling between GWs and ordinary matter makes these waves very difficult to detect directly. Fortunately, the inspirating BH system will interact strongly-on a purely Newtonian level-with any surrounding material in the host galaxy, and this matter can in turn produce unique EM signals detectable at Earth. By identifying EM counterparts to GW sources, we will be able to study the host environments of the merging BHs, in turn greatly expanding the scientific yield of a mission like LISA. Here we present a comprehensive review of the recent literature on the subject of EM counterparts, as well as a discussion of the theoretical and observational advances required to fully realize the scientific potential of the field.

  6. Supersymmetric plasma systems and their nonsupersymmetric counterparts

    CERN Document Server

    Czajka, Alina

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis a systematic comparison of supersymmetric plasma systems and their nonsupersymmetric counterparts is presented. The work is motivated by the AdS/CFT correspondence and the main aim is to check how much the plasma governed by the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory resembles the quark-gluon plasma studied experimentally in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The analysis is done in a weak coupling regime where perturbative methods are applicable. Since the Keldysh-Schwinger approach is used, not only equilibrium but also nonequilibrium plasmas, which are assumed to be ultrarelativistic, are under consideration. First, using the functional techniques we introduce Faddeev-Popov ghosts into the Keldysh-Schwinger formalism of nonAbelian gauge theories. Next the collective excitations of the N=1 SUSY QED plasma are considered and compared to those of the usual QED system. The analysis is repeated to confront with each other the plasmas governed by the N=4 super Yang-Mills and QCD theories. Finally, transport ...

  7. Variability of Optical Counterparts in the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Britt, Christopher T; Johnson, C B; Baldwin, A; Jonker, P G; Nelemans, G; Torres, M A P; Maccarone, T; Steeghs, D; Greiss, S; Heinke, C; Bassa, C G; Collazzi, A; Villar, A; Gabb, M; Gossen, L

    2014-01-01

    We present optical lightcurves of variable stars consistent with the positions of X-ray sources identified with the Chandra X-ray Observatory for the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey. Using data from the Mosaic-II instrument on the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO, we gathered time-resolved photometric data on timescales from $\\sim2$ hr to 8 days over the $\\frac{3}{4}$ of the X-ray survey containing sources from the initial GBS catalog. Among the lightcurve morphologies we identify are flickering in interacting binaries, eclipsing sources, dwarf nova outbursts, ellipsoidal variations, long period variables, spotted stars, and flare stars. $87\\%$ of X-ray sources have at least one potential optical counterpart. $24\\%$ of these candidate counterparts are detectably variable; a much greater fraction than expected for randomly selected field stars, which suggests that most of these variables are real counterparts. We discuss individual sources of interest, provide variability information on candidate counterparts, and di...

  8. Spectroscopy of candidate electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave sources

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, Iain A; Piascik, Andrzej S

    2016-01-01

    A programme of worldwide, multi-wavelength electromagnetic follow-up of sources detected by gravitational wave detectors is in place. Following the discovery of GW150914 and GW151226, wide field imaging of their sky localisations identified a number of candidate optical counterparts which were then spectrally classified. The majority of candidates were found to be supernovae at redshift ranges similar to the GW events and were thereby ruled out as a genuine counterpart. Other candidates ruled out include AGN and solar system objects. Given the GW sources were black hole binary mergers, the lack of an identified electromagnetic counterpart is not surprising. However the observations show that is it is possible to organise and execute a campaign that can eliminate the majority of potential counterparts. Finally we note the existence of a "classification gap" with a significant fraction of candidates going unclassified.

  9. Keck/MOSFIRE spectroscopy of five ULX counterparts

    CERN Document Server

    Heida, M; Torres, M A P; Roberts, T P; Walton, D J; Moon, D -S; Stern, D; Harrison, F A

    2016-01-01

    We present H-band spectra of the candidate counterparts of five ULXs (two in NGC 925, two in NGC 4136, and Holmberg II X-1) obtained with Keck/MOSFIRE. The candidate counterparts of two ULXs (J022721+333500 in NGC 925 and J120922+295559 in NGC 4136) have spectra consistent with (M-type) red supergiants (RSGs). We obtained two epochs of spectroscopy of the candidate counterpart to J022721+333500, separated by 10 months, but discovered no radial velocity variations with a 2-$\\sigma$ upper limit of 40 km/s. If the RSG is the donor star of the ULX, the most likely options are that either the system is seen at low inclination (< 40$^\\circ$), or the black hole mass is less than 100 M$_\\odot$, unless the orbital period is longer than 6 years, in which case the obtained limit is not constraining. The spectrum of the counterpart to J120922+295559 shows emission lines on top of its stellar spectrum, and the remaining three counterparts do not show absorption lines that can be associated with the atmosphere of a star...

  10. Continual Lie algebras and noncommutative counterparts of exactly solvable models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuevsky, A.

    2004-01-01

    Noncommutative counterparts of exactly solvable models are introduced on the basis of a generalization of Saveliev-Vershik continual Lie algebras. Examples of noncommutative Liouville and sin/h-Gordon equations are given. The simplest soliton solution to the noncommutative sine-Gordon equation is found.

  11. The optical counterpart to XMMU J004855.5-734946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, M. J.; McBride, V.; Haberl, F.; Bird, A.; Udalski, A.

    2016-06-01

    The source, XMMU J004855.5-734946, reported to be currently exhibiting an X-ray outburst in ATel #9197, has an optical counterpart in the OGLE IV database, SMC720.11 13342, proposed by McBride et al (2016, in prep).

  12. On the PSR B1133+16 optical counterpart

    CERN Document Server

    Zharikov, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is confirming the optical identification of PSR B1133+16, whose candidate optical counterpart was detected in Very Large Telescope (VLT) images obtained back in 2003. We used new deep optical images of the PSR B1133+16 field obtained with both the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and the VLT in the g' and B bands, respectively, to confirm the detection of its candidate optical counterpart and its coincidence with the most recent pulsar's radio coordinates. We did not detect any object at the position of the pulsar candidate counterpart (B~28), measured in our 2003 VLT images. However, we tentatively detected an object of comparable brightness in both the 2012 GTC and VLT images, whose position is offset by ~3.03" from that of the pulsar's candidate counterpart in the 2003 VLT images and lies along the pulsar's proper motion direction. Accounting for the time span of ~9 years between the 2012 quasi-contemporary GTC and VLT images and the 2003 VLT one, this offset is consistent with th...

  13. VARIABILITY OF OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS IN THE CHANDRA GALACTIC BULGE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, C. T.; Hynes, R. I.; Johnson, C. B.; Baldwin, A.; Collazzi, A.; Gossen, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Jonker, P. G.; Torres, M. A. P. [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Nelemans, G. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Maccarone, T. [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Box 41051, Science Building, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Steeghs, D.; Greiss, S. [Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Heinke, C. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Bassa, C. G. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Villar, A. [Department of Physics, Massachussettes Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Gabb, M. [Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We present optical light curves of variable stars consistent with the positions of X-ray sources identified with the Chandra X-ray Observatory for the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS). Using data from the Mosaic-II instrument on the Blanco 4 m Telescope at CTIO, we gathered time-resolved photometric data on timescales from ∼2 hr to 8 days over the 3/4 of the X-ray survey containing sources from the initial GBS catalog. Among the light curve morphologies we identify are flickering in interacting binaries, eclipsing sources, dwarf nova outbursts, ellipsoidal variations, long period variables, spotted stars, and flare stars. Eighty-seven percent of X-ray sources have at least one potential optical counterpart. Twenty-seven percent of these candidate counterparts are detectably variable; a much greater fraction than expected for randomly selected field stars, which suggests that most of these variables are real counterparts. We discuss individual sources of interest, provide variability information on candidate counterparts, and discuss the characteristics of the variable population.

  14. Optical Counterparts of Ultra Luminous X-ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Gutíerrez, C M

    2006-01-01

    We present optical identification and characterization of counterparts of four objects previously catalogued as ultra-luminous X-ray sources. The objects were selected from the Colbert & Ptak (2002) catalogue. The optical counterparts are identified as point-like objects with magnitudes in the range \\~17-19. The optical spectra of three of the sources (IXO 32, 37 and 40) show the presence of emission lines typical of quasars. The position of these lines allows a precise estimation of their redshifts (2.769, 0.567 and 0.789 for IXO 32, 37 and 40 respectively). The fourth X-ray source, IXO35, is associated with a red object that has a spectrum typical of an M star in our Galaxy. These identifications are useful for building clean samples of ULX sources, selecting suitable targets for future observations and performing statistical studies on the different populations of X-ray sources.

  15. The Optical Counterpart of M101 ULX-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Gruendi, Robert A.; Chu, You-Hua; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Still, Martin; Mukai, Koji; Musuotzky, Richard F.

    2004-01-01

    We have identified the optical counterpart of the Ultra-Luminous X-ray source Ml0l ULX-1 (CX- OKM101 J140332.74+542102), by comparing HST ACS images with Chandra ACIS-S images. The optical counterpart has V= 23.75 and colours consistent with those for a mid-B supergiant. Archival WFPC2 observations show that the source brightness is constant to within approximately 0.1 mag. The physical association of this source with the ULX is confirmed by Gemini GMOS spectroscopic observations which show spatially unresolved He II lambda4686 and He I lambda5876 emission. These results suggest that M10l ULX-1 is a HMXB but deep spectroscopic monitoring observations are needed to determine the detailed properties of this system.

  16. A STAFF DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME FOR BRITISH COUNCIL ELT PROJECT COUNTERPARTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; Hall

    1997-01-01

    In British Council-managed ELT projects in Chinese universities,Chinese project counterparts areselected from among the English-language teaching staff of the University.They work alongside aBritish Council-recruited lecturer(BCL)in developing whatever it is the project has been set up tocreate:a syllabus,teaching materials,a course,etc.During the lifetime of the project eachcounterpart is sent for a year’s postgraduate training(typically an MA in applied Linguistics)at aBritish university,the rationale being that the combination of training on the job and in the UK willequip them to take over the running of the project and ensure its long-term sustainability.This paperlooks at the staff development of the counterparts prior to their UK training.

  17. X(3872) and its bottomonium counterpart at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00218332; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present the measurement of the differential cross-section of the X(3872) state through its decays to $J/\\psi \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ final state . The cross-section was extracted for both prompt and non-prompt production. The existence of the X(3872) suggests the presence of its bottomonium counterpart $X_b$. Search for $X_b$ with the ATLAS experiment in several final states, including $\\Upsilon \\pi^+ \\pi^-$, is presented.

  18. No-broadcasting theorem and its classical counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalev, Amir; Hen, Itay

    2008-05-30

    Although it is widely accepted that "no-broadcasting"-the nonclonability of quantum information-is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics, an impossibility theorem for the broadcasting of general density matrices has not yet been formulated. In this Letter, we present a general proof for the no-broadcasting theorem, which applies to arbitrary density matrices. The proof relies on entropic considerations, and as such can also be directly linked to its classical counterpart, which applies to probabilistic distributions of statistical ensembles.

  19. X-ray Counterparts of Millisecond Pulsars in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, W; Prinz, T

    2010-01-01

    We have systematically studied the X-ray emission properties of globular cluster millisecond pulsars in order to evaluate their spectral properties and luminosities in a uniform way. Cross-correlating the radio timing positions of the cluster pulsars with the high resolution Chandra images revealed 31 X-ray counterparts identified in nine different globular cluster systems, including those in 47 Tuc. Timing analysis has been performed for all sources corresponding to the temporal resolution available in the archival Chandra data. Making use of unpublished data on M28, M4 and NGC 6752 allowed us to obtain further constraints for the millisecond pulsar counterparts located in these clusters. Counting rate and energy flux upper limits were computed for those 36 pulsars for which no X-ray counterparts could be detected. Comparing the X-ray and radio pulse profiles of PSR J1821-2452 in M28 and the 47 Tuc pulsars PSR J0024-7204D,O,R indicated some correspondence between both wavebands. The X-ray efficiency of the g...

  20. $\\gamma$-Ray Burster Counterparts HST Blue and Ultraviolet Data

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, B E; Hurley, K; Laros, J G; Schaefer, Bradley E.; Cline, Thomas; Hurley, Kevin; Laros, John

    1997-01-01

    The surest solution of the Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) mystery is to find an unambiguous low-energy quiescent counterpart. However, to date no reasonable candidates have been identified in the x-ray, optical, infrared, or radio ranges. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has now allowed for the first deep ultraviolet searches for quiescent counterparts. This paper reports on multiepoch ultraviolet searches of five GRB positions with HST. We found no sources with significant ultraviolet excesses, variability, parallax, or proper motion in any of the burst error regions. In particular, we see no sources similar to that proposed as a counterpart to the GRB970228. While this negative result is disappointing, it still has good utility for its strict limits on the no-host-galaxy problem in cosmological models of GRBs. For most cosmological models (with peak luminosity 6X10^50 erg/s), the absolute B magnitude of any possible host galaxy must be fainter than -15.5 to -17.4. These smallest boxes for some of the brightest burst...

  1. The HIPASS Catalogue: III - Optical Counterparts & Isolated Dark Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Doyle, M T; Rohde, D J; Pimbblet, K A; Read, M; Meyer, M J; Zwaan, M A; Ryan-Weber, E; Stevens, J; Koribalski, B S; Webster, R L; Staveley-Smith, L; Barnes, D G; Howlett, M; Kilborn, V A; Waugh, M; Pierce, M J; Bhathal, R; De Blok, W J G; Disney, M J; Ekers, R D; Freeman, K C; García, D A; Gibson, B K; Harnett, J I; Henning, P A; Jerjen, H; Kesteven, M J; Knezek, P M; Mader, S; Marquarding, M; Minchin, R F; O'Brien, J; Oosterloo, T; Price, R M; Putman, M E; Ryder, S D; Sadler, E M; Stewart, I M; Stootman, F; Wright, A E; Doyle, Marianne T.

    2005-01-01

    We present the largest catalogue to date of optical counterparts for HI radio-selected galaxies, Hopcat. Of the 4315 HI radio-detected sources from the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (Hipass) catalogue, we find optical counterparts for 3618 (84%) galaxies. Of these, 1798 (42%) have confirmed optical velocities and 848 (20%) are single matches without confirmed velocities. Some galaxy matches are members of galaxy groups. From these multiple galaxy matches, 714 (16%) have confirmed optical velocities and a further 258 (6%) galaxies are without confirmed velocities. For 481 (11%), multiple galaxies are present but no single optical counterpart can be chosen and 216 (5%) have no obvious optical galaxy present. Most of these 'blank fields' are in crowded fields along the Galactic plane or have high extinctions. Isolated 'Dark galaxy' candidates are investigated using an extinction cut of ABj < 1 mag and the blank fields category. Of the 3692 galaxies with an ABj extinction < 1 mag, only 13 are also blank fields. ...

  2. Possible optical counterpart of PSR J1357--6429

    CERN Document Server

    Danilenko, A; Mennickent, R E; Pavlov, G; Shibanov, Yu; Zharikov, S; Zyuzin, D

    2012-01-01

    PSR J1357--6429 is a Vela-like radio pulsar that has been recently detected in X-rays and gamma-rays. It powers a compact tail-like X-ray pulsar wind nebula and X-ray-radio plerion associated with an extended TeV source HESS J1356--645. We have performed deep optical observations with the VLT to search for an optical counterpart of the pulsar and its nebula. A point-like source has been detected in V, R, and I bands whose centre position is within the 1-sigma error circle of the X-ray position of the pulsar, and whose colours are distinct from those of ordinary stars. We consider it as a candidate optical counterpart of the pulsar. If it is indeed the counterpart, its 5-sigma offset from the radio pulsar position, measured about 9 yr earlier, implies the transverse velocity of the pulsar in the range of 1600--2000 km s^{-1} at the distance of 2--2.5 kpc, making it the fastest moving pulsar known. The direction of the estimated proper motion coincides with the extension of the pulsar's X-ray tail, suggesting t...

  3. Compact Optical Counterparts of Ultraluminous X-ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Lian; Grise, Fabien; Kaaret, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Using archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging data, we report the multiband photometric properties of 13 ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) that have a unique compact optical counterpart. Both magnitude and color variation are detected at time scales of days to years. The optical color, variability, and X-ray to optical flux ratio indicate that the optical emission of most ULXs is dominated by X-ray reprocessing on the disk, similar to that of low mass X-ray binaries. For most sources, the optical spectrum is a power-law, $F_{\

  4. Cat Mammary Tumors: Genetic Models for the Human Counterpart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Adega

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The records are not clear, but Man has been sheltering the cat inside his home for over 12,000 years. The close proximity of this companion animal, however, goes beyond sharing the same roof; it extends to the great similarity found at the cellular and molecular levels. Researchers have found a striking resemblance between subtypes of feline mammary tumors and their human counterparts that goes from the genes to the pathways involved in cancer initiation and progression. Spontaneous cat mammary pre-invasive intraepithelial lesions (hyperplasias and neoplasias and malignant lesions seem to share a wide repertoire of molecular features with their human counterparts. In the present review, we tried to compile all the genetics aspects published (i.e., chromosomal alterations, critical cancer genes and their expression regarding cat mammary tumors, which support the cat as a valuable alternative in vitro cell and animal model (i.e., cat mammary cell lines and the spontaneous tumors, respectively, but also to present a critical point of view of some of the issues that really need to be investigated in future research.

  5. Identification of a Likely Radio Counterpart of the Rapid Burster

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, C B; Fox, D W; Guerriero, R A; Lewin, W H G; Fender, R P; Van Paradijs, J

    1999-01-01

    We have identified a likely radio counterpart to the low-mass X-ray binary MXB 1730-335 (the Rapid Burster). The counterpart has shown 8.4 GHz radio on/off behavior correlated with the X-ray on/off behavior as observed by the RXTE/ASM during six VLA observations. The probability of an unrelated, randomly varying background source duplicating this behavior is 1--3% depending on the correlation time scale. The location of the radio source is RA 17h 33m 24.61s; Dec -33d 23' 19.8" (J2000), +/- 0.1". We do not detect 8.4 GHz radio emission coincident with type II (accretion-driven) X-ray bursts. The ratio of radio to X-ray emission during such bursts is constrained to be below the ratio observed during X-ray persistent emission at the 2.9-sigma level. Synchrotron bubble models of the radio emission can provide a reasonable fit to the full data set, collected over several outbursts, assuming that the radio evolution is the same from outburst to outburst, but given the physical constraints the emission is more likel...

  6. A Search for X-ray Counterparts of Radio Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Prinz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    We describe a systematic search for X-ray counterparts of radio pulsars. The search was accomplished by cross-correlating the radio timing positions of all radio pulsars from the ATNF pulsar database (version 1.54) with archival XMM-Newton and Chandra observations publicly released by August 1st 2015. In total, 171 of the archival XMM-Newton observations and 215 of the archival Chandra datasets where found to have a radio pulsar serendipitously in the field of view. From the 283 radio pulsars covered by these datasets we identified 19 previously undetected X-ray counterparts. For 6 of them the statistics was sufficient to model the energy spectrum with one- or two-component models. For the remaining new detections and for those pulsars for which we determined an upper limit to their counting rate we computed the energy flux by assuming a Crab-like spectrum. Additionally, we derived upper limits on the neutron stars' surface temperature and on the non-thermal X-ray efficiency for those pulsars for which the sp...

  7. Searching for Optical Counterparts to Ultra-compact High Velocity Clouds: Possible Detection of a Counterpart to AGC 198606

    CERN Document Server

    Janesh, William; Salzer, John J; Janowiecki, Steven; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Cannon, John M; Muñoz, Ricardo R

    2015-01-01

    We report on initial results from a campaign to obtain optical imaging of a sample of Ultra Compact High Velocity Clouds (UCHVCs) discovered by the ALFALFA neutral hydrogen (HI) survey. UCHVCs are sources with velocities and sizes consistent with their being low-mass dwarf galaxies in the Local Volume, but without optical counterparts in existing catalogs. We are using the WIYN 3.5-m telescope and pODI camera to image these objects and search for an associated stellar population. In this paper, we present our observational strategy and method for searching for resolved stellar counterparts to the UCHVCs. We combine careful photometric measurements, a color-magnitude filter, and spatial smoothing techniques to search for stellar overdensities in the g- and i-band images. We also run statistical tests to quantify the likelihood that whatever overdensities we find are real and not chance superpositions of sources. We demonstrate the method by applying it to two data sets: WIYN imaging of Leo P, a UCHVC discovere...

  8. Searching for electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave transients

    CERN Document Server

    Branchesi, M; Laas-Bourez, M

    2011-01-01

    A pioneering electromagnetic (EM) observation follow-up program of candidate gravitational wave (GW) triggers has been performed, Dec 17 2009 to Jan 8 2010 and Sep 4 to Oct 20 2010, during the recent LIGO/Virgo run. The follow-up program involved ground-based and space EM facilities observing the sky at optical, X-ray and radio wavelengths. The joint GW/EM observation study requires the development of specific image analysis procedures able to discriminate the possible EM counterpart of GW trigger from background events. The paper shows an overview of the EM follow-up program and the developing image analysis procedures as they are applied to data collected with TAROT and Zadko.

  9. Electromagnetic Counterparts of Gravitational Wave Sources : Mergers of Compact Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Kamble, Atish

    2016-01-01

    Mergers of compact objects are considered prime sources of gravitational waves (GW) and will soon be targets of GW observatories such as the Advanced-LIGO, VIRGO etc. Finding electromagnetic counterparts of these GW sources will be important to understand their nature. We discuss possible electromagnetic signatures of the mergers. We show that the BH-BH mergers could have luminosities which exceed Eddington luminosity from unity to several orders of magnitude depending on the masses of the merging BHs. As a result these mergers could be explosive, release up to $10^{51}$ erg of energy and shine as radio transients. At any given time we expect about a few such transients in the sky at GHz frequencies which could be detected out to about 300 Mpc. It has also been argued that these radio transients would look alike radio supernovae with comparable detection rates. Multi-band follow up could, however, distinguish between the mergers and supernovae.

  10. Fast radio bursts counterparts in the scenario of supergiant pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, S. B.; Pshirkov, M. S.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss identification of possible counterparts and persistent sources related to fast radio bursts (FRBs) in the framework of the model of supergiant pulses from young neutron stars with large spin-down luminosities. In particular, we demonstrate that at least some of the sources of FRBs can be observed as ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). At the moment no ULXs are known to be coincident with localization areas of FRBs. We searched for a correlation of FRB positions with galaxies in the 2MASS Redshift survey catalogue. Our analysis produced statistically insignificant overabundance (p-value ≈ 4 per cent) of galaxies in error boxes of FRBs. In the very near future with even modestly increased statistics of FRBs and with the help of dedicated X-ray observations and all-sky X-ray surveys it will be possible to decisively prove or falsify the supergiant pulses model.

  11. X-ray Counterparts of Infrared Faint Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartel, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Infrared Faint Radio Sources (IFRS) are radio sources with extremely faint or even absent infrared emission in deep Spitzer Surveys. Models of their spectral energy distributions, the ratios of radio to infrared flux densities and their steep radio spectra strongly suggest that IFRS are AGN at high redshifts (2IFRS, but if confirmed, the increased AGN numbers at these redshifts will account for the unresolved part of the X-ray background. The identification of X-ray counterparts of IFRS is considered to be the smoking gun for this hypothesis. We propose to observe 8 IFRS using 30ks pointed observations. X-ray detections of IFRS with different ratios of radio-to-infrared fluxes, will constrain the class-specific SED.

  12. Altitudinal dependence of meteor radio afterglows measured via optical counterparts

    CERN Document Server

    Obenberger, K S; Dowell, J D; Schinzel, F K; Stovall, K; Sutton, E K; Taylor, G B

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing the all-sky imaging capabilities of the LWA1 radio telescope along with a host of all-sky optical cameras, we have now observed 44 optical meteor counterparts to radio afterglows. Combining these observations we have determined the geographic positions of all 44 afterglows. Comparing the number of radio detections as a function of altitude above sea level to the number of expected bright meteors we find a strong altitudinal dependence characterized by a cutoff below $\\sim$ 90 km, below which no radio emission occurs, despite the fact that many of the observed optical meteors penetrated well below this altitude. This cutoff suggests that wave damping from electron collisions is an important factor for the evolution of radio afterglows, which agrees with the hypothesis that the emission is the result of electron plasma wave emission.

  13. Gravitational Coleman–Weinberg potential and its finite temperature counterpart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit [Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Discipline of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 382424 (India); Majumdar, Parthasarathi [Department of Physics, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananada University, Belur Math, Howrah 711202 (India)

    2014-08-15

    Coleman–Weinberg (CW) phenomena for the case of gravitons minimally coupled to massless scalar field is studied. The one-loop effect completely vanishes if there is no self-interaction term present in the matter sector. The one-loop effective potential is shown to develop an instability in the form of acquiring an imaginary part, which can be traced to the tachyonic pole in the graviton propagator. The finite temperature counterpart of this CW potential is computed to study the behaviour of the potential in the high and low temperature regimes with respect to the typical energy scale of the theory. Finite temperature contribution to the imaginary part of gravitational CW potential exhibits a damped oscillatory behaviour; all thermal effects are damped out as the temperature vanishes, consistent with the zero-temperature result.

  14. Electromagnetic Counterparts to Black Hole Mergers Detected by LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Mergers of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), such as GW150914 observed by LIGO, are not expected to have electromagnetic counterparts. However, the Fermi GBM detector identified of a gamma-ray transient 0.4 s after the gravitational wave (GW) signal GW150914 with consistent sky localization. I show that the two signals might be related if the BH binary detected by LIGO originated from two clumps in a dumbbell configuration that formed when the core of a rapidly rotating massive star collapsed. In that case, the BH binary merger was followed by a gamma-ray burst (GRB) from a jet that originated in the accretion flow around the remnant BH. A future detection of a GRB afterglow could be used to determine the redshift and precise localization of the source. A population of standard GW sirens with GRB redshifts would provide a new approach for precise measurements of cosmological distances as a function of redshift.

  15. How do older netcitizens compare with their younger counterparts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, A; Renold, C; Henke, M

    1999-01-01

    The Internet is modifying the lives of people around the world. Although many talk about the democratization of knowledge and information, differences remain among users as older netcitizens are under-represented and less involved. We use national and representative U.S. data, the Current Population Survey, to show age-based differences. We complement our analysis with web-based data, the Georgia Tech World Wide Web User Surveys, to show Internet characteristics and trends by age for netcitizens. Results show that older users compose a lower share of Internet users than that of the total U.S. population; however, once they join the ranks of avid Internet users, older netcitizens are similar to their younger counterparts.

  16. Chandra Counterparts of CANDELS GOODS-S Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Fontana, A.; Zamorani, G.; Amorin, R.; Castellano, M.; Merlin, E.; Santini, P.; Elbaz, D.; Schreiber, C.; Shu, X.; Wang, T.; Dunlop, J. S.; Bourne, N.; Bruce, V. A.; Buitrago, F.; Michałowski, Michał J.; Derriere, S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Faber, S. M.; Vito, F.

    2016-06-01

    Improving the capabilities of detecting faint X-ray sources is fundamental for increasing the statistics on faint high-z active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star-forming galaxies (SFGs). We performed a simultaneous maximum likelihood point-spread function fit in the [0.5-2] keV and [2-7] keV energy bands of the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) data at the position of the 34,930 CANDELS H-band selected galaxies. For each detected source we provide X-ray photometry and optical counterpart validation. We validated this technique by means of a ray-tracing simulation. We detected a total of 698 X-ray point sources with a likelihood { L }\\gt 4.98 (i.e., >2.7σ). We show that prior knowledge of a deep sample of optical-NIR galaxies leads to a significant increase in the detection of faint (i.e., ˜10-17 cgs in the [0.5-2] keV band) sources with respect to “blind” X-ray detections. By including previous X-ray catalogs, this work increases the total number of X-ray sources detected in the 4 Ms CDFS, CANDELS area to 793, which represents the largest sample of extremely faint X-ray sources assembled to date. Our results suggest that a large fraction of the optical counterparts of our X-ray sources determined by likelihood ratio actually coincides with the priors used for the source detection. Most of the new detected sources are likely SFGs or faint, absorbed AGNs. We identified a few sources with putative photometric redshift z > 4. Despite the low number statistics and the uncertainties on the photo z, this sample significantly increases the number of X-ray-selected candidate high-z AGNs.

  17. ELECTROMAGNETIC COUNTERPARTS TO BLACK HOLE MERGERS DETECTED BY LIGO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Mergers of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), such as GW150914 observed by Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), are not expected to have electromagnetic counterparts. However, the Fermi GBM detector identified a γ-ray transient 0.4 s after the gravitational wave (GW) signal GW150914 with consistent sky localization. I show that the two signals might be related if the BH binary detected by LIGO originated from two clumps in a dumbbell configuration that formed when the core of a rapidly rotating massive star collapsed. In that case, the BH binary merger was followed by a γ-ray burst (GRB) from a jet that originated in the accretion flow around the remnant BH. A future detection of a GRB afterglow could be used to determine the redshift and precise localization of the source. A population of standard GW sirens with GRB redshifts would provide a new approach for precise measurements of cosmological distances as a function of redshift.

  18. The Hunt for a Counterpart to GW150914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    On 14 September 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) in a pre-operative testing state at the time detected its first sign of gravitational-waves. The LIGO team sprang into action, performing data-quality checks on this unexpected signal. Within two days, they had sent a notification to 63 observing teams at observatories representing the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from radio to gamma-ray wavelengths.Illustration of a binary neutron star merger. The neutron stars 1) inspiral, 2) can produce a short gamma-ray burst, 3) can fling out hot, radioactive material in the form of a kilonova, and 4) form a massive neutron star or black hole with a possible remnant debris disk around it. [NASA/ESA/A. Feild (STScI)]Thus began the very first hunt for an electromagnetic counterpart to a detected gravitational wave signal.What were they looking for?As two compact objects in a binary system merge, the system is expected to emit energy in the form of gravitational waves. If both of the compact objects are black holes, were unlikely to see any electromagnetic radiation in the process, unless the merger is occurring in an (improbable) environment filled with gas and dust.But if one or both of the two compact objects is a neutron star, then there are a number of electromagnetic signatures that could occur due to energetic outflows. If a relativistic jet forms, we could see a short gamma-ray burst and X-ray, optical, and radio afterglows. Sub-relativistic outflows could produce optical and near-infrared signals, or a radio blast wave.Timeline of observations of GW150914, separated by wavelength band, and relative to the time of the gravitational-wave trigger. The top row shows LIGO information releases. The bottom four rows show high-energy, optical, near-infrared, and radio observations, respectively. Click for a closer look! [Abbott et al. 2016]Surprise SignalSince LIGO and Virgo (LIGOs European counterpart), wereprimarily expecting to detect

  19. SEARCH FOR THE OPTICAL COUNTERPART TO SGR 0418+5729

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, Martin; Kargaltsev, Oleg [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Pavlov, George G., E-mail: martin.durant@astro.ufl.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, PA 16802 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    We report broadband Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the field of soft {gamma}-ray repeater SGR 0418+5729 with Advanced Camera for Surveys/Wide Field Channel and Wide Field Camera 3/IR. Observing in two wide filters, F606W and F110W, we find no counterpart within the positional error circle derived from Chandra observations, to limiting magnitudes m{sub F606W} > 28.6 and m{sub F110W} > 27.4 (Vega system), equivalent to reddening-corrected luminosity limits L{sub F606W} < 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 28} and L{sub F110W} < 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 28} erg s{sup -1} for a distance d = 2 kpc, at 3{sigma} confidence. This, in turn, imposes lower limits on the contemporaneous X-ray/optical flux ratio of {approx_equal}1100 and the X-ray/near-infrared flux ratio of {approx_equal}1000. We derive an upper limit on the temperature and/or size of any fall-back disk around the magnetar. We also compare the detection limits with observations of other magnetars.

  20. Electromagnetic Counterparts to Black Hole Mergers Detected by LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Abraham

    2016-03-01

    Mergers of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), such as GW150914 observed by Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), are not expected to have electromagnetic counterparts. However, the Fermi GBM detector identified a γ-ray transient 0.4 s after the gravitational wave (GW) signal GW150914 with consistent sky localization. I show that the two signals might be related if the BH binary detected by LIGO originated from two clumps in a dumbbell configuration that formed when the core of a rapidly rotating massive star collapsed. In that case, the BH binary merger was followed by a γ-ray burst (GRB) from a jet that originated in the accretion flow around the remnant BH. A future detection of a GRB afterglow could be used to determine the redshift and precise localization of the source. A population of standard GW sirens with GRB redshifts would provide a new approach for precise measurements of cosmological distances as a function of redshift.

  1. Chandra counterparts of CANDELS GOODS-S sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cappelluti, N; Fontana, A; Zamorani, G; Amorin, R; Castellano, M; Merlin, E; Santini, P; Elbaz, D; Schreiber, C; Shu, X; Wang, T; Dunlop, J S; Bourne, N; Bruce, V A; Buitrago, F; Michałowski, Michał J; Derriere, S; Ferguson, H C; Faber, S M; Vito, F

    2015-01-01

    Improving the capabilities of detecting faint X-ray sources is fundamental to increase the statistics on faint high-z AGN and star-forming galaxies.We performed a simultaneous Maximum Likelihood PSF fit in the [0.5-2] keV and [2-7] keV energy bands of the 4 Ms {\\em Chandra} Deep Field South (CDFS) data at the position of the 34930 CANDELS H-band selected galaxies. For each detected source we provide X-ray photometry and optical counterpart validation. We validated this technique by means of a raytracing simulation. We detected a total of 698 X-ray point-sources with a likelihood $\\mathcal{L}$$>$4.98 (i.e. $>$2.7$\\sigma$). We show that the prior knowledge of a deep sample of Optical-NIR galaxies leads to a significant increase of the detection of faint (i.e. $\\sim$10$^{-17}$ cgs in the [0.5-2] keV band) sources with respect to "blind" X-ray detections. By including previous catalogs, this work increases the total number of X-ray sources detected in the 4 Ms CDFS, CANDELS area to 793, which represents the large...

  2. A search for VHE counterparts of galactic Fermi sources

    CERN Document Server

    Tam, P H Thomas; Tibolla, Omar; Chaves, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Very high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-rays have been detected from a wide range of astronomical objects, such as SNRs, pulsars and pulsar wind nebulae, AGN, gamma-ray binaries, molecular clouds, and possibly star-forming regions as well. At lower energies, sources detected using Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard Fermi provide a rich set of data which can be used to study the behavior of cosmic accelerators in the GeV to TeV energy bands. In particular, the improved angular resolution in both bands compared to previous instruments significantly reduces source confusion and facilitates the identification of associated counterparts at lower energies. In this talk, a comprehensive search for VHE gamma-ray sources which are spatially coincident with Galactic Fermi/LAT bright sources is performed, and the GeV to TeV spectra of selected coincident sources are shown. It is found that LAT bright GeV sources are correlated to TeV sources, in contrast with previous studies using EGRET data.

  3. Long distance runners present upregulated sweating responses than sedentary counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Beom Lee

    Full Text Available Relatively few studies have investigated peripheral sweating mechanisms of long-distance runners. The aim of this study was to compare peripheral sweating mechanisms in male long-distance runners, and sedentary counterparts. Thirty six subjects, including 20 sedentary controls and 16 long-distance runners (with 7-12 years of athletic training, average 9.2±2.1 years were observed. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing (QSART with iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min and 10% acetylcholine (ACh were performed to determine axon reflex-mediated and directly activated (DIR, muscarinic receptor sweating. Sweat onset time, sweat rate, number of activated sweat glands, sweat output per gland and skin temperature were measured at rest while maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max were measured during maximal cycling. Sweat rate, activated sweat glands, sweat output per gland, skin temperature and VO2max were significantly higher in the trained runners than in the sedentary controls. Sweat onset time was significantly shorter for the runners. In the group of long-distance runners, significant correlations were found between VO2max and sweat onset time (r2 = 0.543, P<0.01, n = 16, DIR sweat rate (r2 = 0.584, P<0.001, n = 16, sweat output per gland (r2 = 0.539, P<0.01, n = 16. There was no correlation between VO2max and activated sweat glands. These findings suggest that habitual long-distance running results in upregulation of the peripheral sweating mechanisms in humans. Additional research is needed to determine the molecular mechanism underlying these changes. These findings complement the existing sweating data in long-distance runners.

  4. Auroral counterpart of magnetic field dipolarizations in Saturn's tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, C. M.; Badman, S. V.; Achilleos, N.; Bunce, E. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Radioti, A.; Grodent, D.; Dougherty, M. K.; Pryor, W.

    2012-04-01

    Following magnetic reconnection in a planetary magnetotail, newly closed field lines can be rapidly accelerated back towards the planet, becoming "dipolarized" in the process. At Saturn, dipolarizations can be initially identified in magnetometer data by looking for a southward turning of the magnetic field, indicating the transition from a radially stretched configuration to a more dipolar field topology. The highly stretched geometry of the kronian magnetotail lobes gives rise to a tail current which flows eastward (dusk to dawn) in the near equatorial plane across the centre of the tail. During reconnection and associated dipolarization of the field, the inner edge of this tail current can be diverted through the ionosphere, in a situation analogous to the substorm current wedge picture at Earth. We present a picture of the current circuit arising from this tail reconfiguration, and outline the equations which govern the field-current relationship. We show an example of a dipolarization identified in the Cassini magnetometer data and use this formalism to constrain the ionospheric current density that would arise for this example and the implications for auroral electron acceleration in regions of upward directed field-aligned current. We then present a separate example of data from the Cassini UVIS instrument where we observe small 'spots' of auroral emission lying near the main oval; features thought to be associated with dipolarizations in the tail. In the example shown, such auroral spots are the precursor to more intense activity associated with recurrent energisation via particle injections from the tail following reconnection. We conclude that dipolarizations in Saturn's magnetotail have an observable auroral counterpart, opening up the possibility to search for further examples and to use this auroral property as a remote proxy for tail reconnection.

  5. Synthetic membranes and membrane processes with counterparts in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Stephen L.

    1996-02-01

    Conventional synthetic membranes, fashioned for the most part from rather unremarkable polymeric materials, are essentially passive structures that achieve various industrial and biomedical separations through simple and selective membrane permeation processes. Indeed, simplicity of membrane material, structure, and function has long been perceived as a virtue of membranes relative to other separation processes with which they compete. The passive membrane separation processes -- exemplified by micro- and ultrafiltration, dialysis, reverse osmosis, and gas permeation -- differ from one another primarily in terms of membrane morphology or structure (e.g., porous, gel-type, and nonporous) and the permeant transport mechanism and driving force (e.g., diffusion, convection, and 'solution/diffusion'). The passive membrane separation processes have in common the fact that interaction between permeant and membrane material is typically weak and physicochemical in nature; indeed, it is frequently an objective of membrane materials design to minimize interaction between permeant and membrane polymer, since such strategies can minimize membrane fouling. As a consequence, conventional membrane processes often provide only modest separation factors or permselectivities; that is, they are more useful in performing 'group separations' (i.e., the separation of different classes of material) than they are in fractionating species within a given class. It has long been recognized within the community of membrane technologists that biological membrane structures and their components are extraordinarily sophisticated and powerful as compared to their synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biomembranes and related biological systems have been 'designed' according to a very different paradigm -- one that frequently maximizes and capitalizes on extraordinarily strong and biochemically specific interactions between components of the membrane and species interacting with them. Thus, in recent

  6. A systematic search for near-infrared counterparts of nearby ultraluminous X-ray sources (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, K. M.; Heida, M.; Jonker, P. G.; Torres, M. A. P.; Roberts, T. P.; Walton, D. J.; Moon, D.-S.; Harrison, F. A.

    2017-07-01

    We present the results of our continued systematic search for near-infrared (NIR) candidate counterparts to ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) within 10 Mpc. We observed 42 ULXs in 24 nearby galaxies and detected NIR candidate counterparts to 15 ULXs. Fourteen of these ULXs appear to have a single candidate counterpart in our images and the remaining ULX has two candidate counterparts. Seven ULXs have candidate counterparts with absolute magnitudes in the range between -9.26 and -11.18 mag, consistent with them being red supergiants (RSGs). The other eight ULXs have candidate counterparts with absolute magnitudes too bright to be a single stellar source. Some of these NIR sources show extended morphology or colours expected for active galactic nuclei (AGNs), strongly suggesting that they are likely stellar clusters or background galaxies. The RSG candidate counterparts form a valuable sample for follow-up spectroscopic observations to confirm their nature, with the ultimate goal of directly measuring the mass of the compact accretor that powers the ULX using binary Doppler shifts.

  7. Infrared Counterparts to Chandra X-Ray Sources in the Antennae

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, D M; Brandl, B R; Wilson, J C; Carson, J C; Henderson, C P; Hayward, T L; Barry, D J; Ptak, A F; Colbert, E J M

    2006-01-01

    We use deep J and Ks images of the Antennae (NGC 4038/9) obtained with WIRC on the Palomar 200-inch telescope, together with the Chandra X-ray source list of Zezas et al. (2002a), to search for IR counterparts to X-ray point sources. We establish an X-ray/IR astrometric frame tie with 0.5" rms residuals over a \\~4.3' field. We find 13 ``strong'' IR counterparts brighter than Ks = 17.8 mag and < 1.0" from X-ray sources, and an additional 6 ``possible'' IR counterparts between 1.0" and 1.5" from X-ray sources. The surface density of IR sources near the X-ray sources suggests only ~2 of the ``strong'' counterparts and ~3 of the ``possible'' counterparts are chance superpositions of unrelated objects. Comparing both strong and possible IR counterparts to our photometric study of ~220 Antennae, IR clusters, we find the IR counterparts to X-ray sources are \\~1.2 mag more luminous in Ks than average non-X-ray clusters. We also note that the X-ray/IR matches are concentrated in the spiral arms and ``overlap'' regi...

  8. Maximizing the Probability of Detecting an Electromagnetic Counterpart of Gravitational-wave Events

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Compact binary coalescences are a promising source of gravitational waves for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors such as advanced LIGO and advanced Virgo. These are among the most promising sources for joint detection of electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational-wave (GW) emission. To maximize the science performed with these objects, it is essential to undertake a followup observing strategy that maximizes the likelihood of detecting the EM counterpart. We present a follow-up strategy that maximizes the counterpart detection probability, given a fixed investment of telescope time. We show how the prior assumption on the luminosity function of the electro-magnetic counterpart impacts the optimized followup strategy. Our results suggest that if the goal is to detect an EM counterpart from among a succession of GW triggers, the optimal strategy is to perform long integrations in the highest likelihood regions, with a time investment that is proportional to the $2/3$ power of the surface...

  9. X(3872) and the search for its bottomonium counterpart at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Toms, Konstantin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    X(3872) history and theoretical status overview. ATLAS study of the ψ(2S) and X(3872) production. Search for X(3872) bottomonium counterpart by ATLAS. Search for Xb at CMS. Determination of X(3872) quantum numbers at LHCb.

  10. A search for counterparts to massive X-ray binaries using photometric catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    Negueruela, I; Negueruela, Ignacio; Schurch, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    (abridged) INTEGRAL has discovered large numbers of new hard X-ray sources, many of which are believed to be high mass X-ray binaries. However, for a significant fraction, their counterparts remain unidentified. We explore the use of photometric catalogues to find optical counterparts to high mass X-ray binaries. Candidates were selected from 2MASS photometry by means of a reddening free Q parameter. Sufficiently bright candidates were spectroscopically observed. Many of the candidates selected turned out to be moderately reddened late A or early F stars, but our method is able to identify the counterpart to IGR J16207-5129, confirmed by a Chandra localisation. We classify this object as a B0 supergiant. In the field of AX J1820.5-1434, we find a mid or early B-type star, but we cannot confirm it as the counterpart. For AX J1700.2-4220, we do not find any suitable candidate within the ASCA error circle. We classify HD 153295, a marginal candidate to be the counterpart, as B0.5IVe, and find a distance compatib...

  11. Liverpool Telescope follow-up of candidate electromagnetic counterparts during the first run of Advanced LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Copperwheat, C M; Piascik, A S; Bersier, D; Bode, M F; Collins, C A; Darnley, M J; Galloway, D K; Gomboc, A; Kobayashi, S; Lamb, G P; Levan, A J; Mazzali, P A; Mundell, C G; Pian, E; Pollacco, D; Steeghs, D; Tanvir, N R; Ulaczyk, K; Wiersema, K

    2016-01-01

    The first direct detection of gravitational waves was made in late 2015 with the Advanced LIGO detectors. By prior arrangement, a worldwide collaboration of electromagnetic follow-up observers were notified of candidate gravitational wave events during the first science run, and many facilities were engaged in the search for counterparts. No counterparts were identified, which is in line with expectations given that the events were classified as black hole - black hole mergers. However these searches laid the foundation for similar follow-up campaigns in future gravitational wave detector science runs, in which the detection of neutron star merger events with observable electromagnetic counterparts is much more likely. Three alerts were issued to the electromagnetic collaboration over the course of the first science run, which lasted from September 2015 to January 2016. Two of these alerts were associated with the gravitational wave events since named GW150914 and GW151226. In this paper we provide an overvie...

  12. Radio Counterparts of Compact Binary Mergers detectable in Gravitational Waves: A Simulation for an Optimized Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Hotokezaka, Kenta; Hallinan, Gregg; Lazio, T Joseph W; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-01-01

    Mergers of binary neutron stars and black hole-neutron star binaries produce gravitational-wave (GW) emission and outflows with significant kinetic energies. These outflows result in radio emissions through synchrotron radiation of accelerated electrons in shocks formed with the circum-merger medium. We explore the detectability of these synchrotron generated radio signals by follow-up observations of GW merger events lacking a detection of electromagnetic counterparts in other wavelengths. We model radio light curves arising from (i) sub-relativistic merger ejecta and (ii) ultra-relativistic jets. The former produces radio remnants on timescales of a few years and the latter produces $\\gamma$-ray bursts in the direction of the jet and orphan radio afterglows extending over wider angles on timescales of a week to a month. The intensity and duration of these radio counterparts depend on the kinetic energies of the outflows and on circum-merger densities. We estimate the detectability of the radio counterparts ...

  13. New Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the counterparts to six ultraluminous X-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, T P; Goad, M R

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of new Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the positions of six ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Using images in three ACS filters we detect good candidate counterparts to four out of six ULXs, with one more possible detection, and observed magnitudes in the range m ~ 22 - 26 in the F606W filter. The extinction-corrected colours and absolute magnitudes vary from source to source, even after correcting for additional extinction in the host galaxy, and only one counterpart is readily explained as an OB star. Nevertheless, these counterparts are decent candidates for future follow-up in pursuit of dynamical mass constraints on the likely black holes powering these sources.

  14. Spectral Classification of Optical Counterparts to ROSAT All-Sky Survey X-ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Dragomir, D; Rutledge, R E; Dragomir, Diana; Roy, Philippe; Rutledge, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work statistically identified 5492 optical counterparts, with approximately 90% confidence, from among the approximately 18,000 X-ray sources appearing in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey Bright Source Catalog (RASS/BSC). Using low resolution spectra in the wavelength range 3700-7900 angstroms, we present spectroscopic classifications for 195 of these counterparts which have not previously been classified. Of these 195, we find 168 individual stars of F, G, K or M type, 6 individual stars of unknown type, 6 double stars, 6 AGN or galaxies and 7 unclassifiable objects; the spectra of the 2 remaining objects were saturated.

  15. Counterpart experimental study of ISP-42 PANDA tests on PUMA facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jun, E-mail: toyangjun@gmail.com [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1290 (United States); Choi, Sung-Won; Lim, Jaehyok; Lee, Doo-Yong; Rassame, Somboon; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1290 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Counterpart tests were performed on two large-scale BWR integral facilities. ► Similarity of post-LOCA system behaviors observed between two tests. ► Passive core and containment cooling systems work as design in both tests. -- Abstract: A counterpart test to the Passive Nachwärmeabfuhr und Druckabbau Test Anlage (Passive Decay Heat Removal and Depressurization Test Facility, PANDA) International Standard Problem (ISP)-42 test was conducted at the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) facility. Aimed to support code validation on a range of light water reactor (LWR) containment issues, the ISP-42 test consists of six sequential phases (Phases A–F) with separately defined initial and boundary conditions, addressing different stages of anticipated accident scenario and system responses. The counterpart test was performed from Phases A to D, which are within the scope of the normal integral tests performed on the PUMA facility. A scaling methodology was developed by using the PANDA facility as prototype and PUMA facility as test model, and an engineering scaling has been applied to the PUMA facility. The counterpart test results indicated that functions of passive safety systems, such as passive containment cooling system (PCCS) start-up, gravity-driven cooling system (GDCS) discharge, PCCS normal operation and overload function were confirmed in both the PANDA and PUMA facilities with qualitative similarities.

  16. The $X(3872)$ and the search for its bottomonium counterpart at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Toms, Konstantin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present results on $X(3872)$ particle studies at three LHC experiments: ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb. Production cross section measurements are reported, as well as determination of the $X(3872)$ quantum numbers. The search of the $X(3872)$ bottomonium counterpart is also described.

  17. Maximizing the probability of detecting an electromagnetic counterpart of gravitational-wave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Michael; Stubbs, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Compact binary coalescences are a promising source of gravitational waves for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors such as advanced LIGO and advanced Virgo. These are among the most promising sources for joint detection of electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational-wave (GW) emission. To maximize the science performed with these objects, it is essential to undertake a followup observing strategy that maximizes the likelihood of detecting the EM counterpart. We present a follow-up strategy that maximizes the counterpart detection probability, given a fixed investment of telescope time. We show how the prior assumption on the luminosity function of the electro-magnetic counterpart impacts the optimized followup strategy. Our results suggest that if the goal is to detect an EM counterpart from among a succession of GW triggers, the optimal strategy is to perform long integrations in the highest likelihood regions. For certain assumptions about source luminosity and mass distributions, we find that an optimal time investment that is proportional to the 2/3 power of the surface density of the GW location probability on the sky. In the future, this analysis framework will benefit significantly from the 3-dimensional localization probability.

  18. Liverpool Telescope follow-up of candidate electromagnetic counterparts during the first run of Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copperwheat, C. M.; Steele, I. A.; Piascik, A. S.; Bersier, D.; Bode, M. F.; Collins, C. A.; Darnley, M. J.; Galloway, D. K.; Gomboc, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Lamb, G. P.; Levan, A. J.; Mazzali, P. A.; Mundell, C. G.; Pian, E.; Pollacco, D.; Steeghs, D.; Tanvir, N. R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wiersema, K.

    2016-11-01

    The first direct detection of gravitational waves was made in 2015 September with the Advanced LIGO detectors. By prior arrangement, a worldwide collaboration of electromagnetic follow-up observers were notified of candidate gravitational wave events during the first science run, and many facilities were engaged in the search for counterparts. Three alerts were issued to the electromagnetic collaboration over the course of the first science run, which lasted from 2015 September to 2016 January. Two of these alerts were associated with the gravitational wave events since named GW150914 and GW151226. In this paper we provide an overview of the Liverpool Telescope contribution to the follow-up campaign over this period. Given the hundreds of square degree uncertainty in the sky position of any gravitational wave event, efficient searching for candidate counterparts required survey telescopes with large (˜degrees) fields of view. The role of the Liverpool Telescope was to provide follow-up classification spectroscopy of any candidates. We followed candidates associated with all three alerts, observing 1, 9 and 17 candidates respectively. We classify the majority of the transients we observed as supernovae. No counterparts were identified, which is in line with expectations given that the events were classified as black hole-black hole mergers. However these searches laid the foundation for similar follow-up campaigns in future gravitational wave detector science runs, in which the detection of neutron star merger events with observable electromagnetic counterparts is much more likely.

  19. The Optical Counterpart of the Isolated Neutron Star RX J1605.3+3249

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D. L.; Kulkarni, S. R.; van Kerkwijk, M. H.

    2003-05-01

    We have detected the optical counterpart to the nearby isolated neutron star RX J1605.3+3249 using observations from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrometer aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The counterpart, with m50CCD=26.84+/-0.07 mag and very blue colors, lies close to the ROSAT HRI error circle and within the Chandra error circle. The spectrum is consistent with a Rayleigh-Jeans tail whose emission is a factor of ~14 above the extrapolation of the X-ray blackbody, and the source has an unabsorbed X-ray-to-optical flux ratio of log(fX/fopt)=4.4, similar to that of other isolated neutron stars. This confirms the classification of RX J1605.3+3249 as a neutron star.

  20. Functional Counterpart of Lagrangian Theorem and Perturbative Density Functional Theory: a Forgotten Idea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周世琦

    2002-01-01

    In this Letter, we truncate the functional expansion of the non-uniform first-order direct correlation function (DCF) around the bulk density at the lowest order. But the truncation is performed formally and exactly by making use of functional counterpart of the Lagrangian theorem of differential calculus. Consequently the expansion coefficient, i.e. the uniform second-order DCF, is replaced by its non-uniform counterpart whose density argument is an appropriate mixture of calculated density distribution and the bulk density with a mixing parameter determined by a hard-wall sum rule. The non-uniform second-order DCF is then approximated by the uniform second-order DCF with an appropriate weighted density as its density argument. The present formally exact truncated functional expansion predicts the density distribution in good agreement with simulation data for hard sphere and Lennard-Jones fluid exerted by an external field.

  1. Electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves from black hole mergers and naked singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Malafarina, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    We consider the question here whether the proposed electromagnetic counterpart of the gravitational wave signals in binary black hole coalescence may be due to the appearance of a `short lived' naked singularity during the merger. We point out that the change in topology that the spacetime undergoes during the merger can cause the appearance of a naked singularity. In case some matter, in the form of a small accretion disk, is present in the surroundings of the black hole system then the emitted luminosity during the merger would allow to distinguish the scenario where the naked singularity forms from the scenario where the horizon exists at all times. In fact the emitted luminosity spectrum would be much higher in the case where a naked singularity forms as opposed to the `pure' black hole case. We suggest that the presence of such a transient naked singularity will explain the high luminosity of an electromagnetic counterpart during the merger much more easily.

  2. The Infrared Counterpart of the X-ray Burster KS 1731-260

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P; Mirabel, F; Mereghetti, S

    2002-01-01

    We present JK' infrared images of the X-ray transient KS 1731--260, obtained in 1997 and in 1998 with IRAC2b at the ESO/MPI 2.2-m telescope at La Silla. Using as a reference the recent Chandra position, we confirm the identification of the X-ray source with the previously proposed counterpart (Wijnands et al. 2001b), for which we measure J=17.32 +/- 0.2 and K' = 16.36 +/- 0.18. The source was entering a low X-ray state at the epoch of our observations, and the accretion disk was still dominating the infrared flux. Indeed, when compared with the only published magnitudes in the J-band (Orosz et al. 2001), obtained with the source in quiescence, our photometry confirms the fading of the counterpart during the decay of the RXTE/ASM lightcurve.

  3. Detailed atmospheric abundance analysis of the optical counterpart of the IR source IRAS 16559-2957

    CERN Document Server

    Molina, R E

    2013-01-01

    We have undertaken a detailed abundance analysis of the optical counterpart of the IR source IRAS16559-2957 with the aim of confirming its possible post-AGB nature. The star shows solar metallicity and our investigation of a large number of elements including CNO and 12C/13C suggests that this object has experienced the first dredge-up and it is likely still at RGB stage.

  4. The Optical Counterpart of the NGC 6624 X-Ray Burster

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ivan R.; Stanford, S. Adam

    1993-05-01

    On a pair of 30-min HST FOC images taken at 1400 Angstroms (F140W), we have identified the optical counterpart of the X-ray burster in the globular cluster NGC 6624; this object completely dominates these UV images. Its flux agrees with the UV flux seen by Rich et al. \\ (1993,ApJ,406,489) with the large aperture of IUE. In the blue (F430W) the object is at B =~ 18.6, while in the V band (F480LP) we can find no trace of it. The 1400-B color is consistent with a Rayleigh--Jeans spectrum. (For an interpretation of this radiation as X-ray energy reprocessed by the accretion disk around the LMXB and by the binary companion, see a separate paper by Arons and King at this meeting.) The X-ray source is now found to be only 0.3 arcsec from the cluster center, increasing the likelihood that the bizarre dot P of the binary is influenced by gravitational acceleration. The counterpart of the LMXB is surrounded by several brighter red giants, one only 80 mas away, so that it cannot be observed from the ground. Our new astrometry corrects the previously published positions of the cluster center and places the counterpart within 2 sigma of the X-ray position. The optical counterpart is very close to the radio position of Johnston and Kulkarni (1992,ApJL,393,L17), but that position is now recognized to refer to a coincidentally neighboring pulsar rather than to the LMXB. Further analysis of the UV light will be pursued with HST's High Speed Photometer.

  5. HST/ACS Imaging of Omega Centauri: Optical Counterparts of Chandra X-Ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cool, Adrienne M; Arias, Tersi; Brochmann, Michelle; Dorfman, Jason; Gafford, April; White, Vivian; Anderson, Jay

    2012-01-01

    We present results of a search for optical counterparts of X-ray sources in and toward the globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139) using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ACS data consist of a mosaic of Wide Field Channel (WFC) images obtained using F625W, F435W, and F658N filters; with 9 pointings we cover the central ~10'x10' of the cluster and encompass 109 known Chandra sources. We find promising optical counterparts for 59 of the sources, ~40 of which are likely to be associated with the cluster. These include 27 candidate cataclysmic variables (CVs), 24 of which are reported here for the first time. Fourteen of the CV candidates are very faint, with absolute magnitudes in the range M_625 = 10.4 - 12.6, making them comparable in brightness to field CVs near the period minimum discovered in the SDSS (Gansicke et al. 2009). Additional optical counterparts include three BY Dra candidates, a possible blue straggler, and a previously-reported quiescent low-mass X-ray ...

  6. Female recreational athletes demonstrate different knee biomechanics from male counterparts during jumping rope and turning activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, Hidenori; Matsumoto, Hideo; Harato, Kengo; Kiriyama, Yoshimori; Suda, Yasunori; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Nagura, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    A variety of athletic exercises are performed in sports training or rehabilitation after knee injuries. However, it remains unclear whether males and females exhibit similar joint loading during the various athletic motions. The purpose of this study was to identify gender differences in knee biomechanics during the athletic motions. Three-dimensional knee kinematics and kinetics were investigated in 20 recreational athletes (10 males and 10 females) while jumping rope, backward running, side running, side-to-side running, side-to-forward running, inside turning, and outside turning. The strengths of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles, the knee joint force, the knee joint angle, and the knee joint moment were compared between males and females using one-tailed t tests. Peak knee anterior force was greater in female recreational athletes than in their male counterparts during jumping rope, side-to-forward running, inside turning, and outside turning. Female subjects displayed greater peak knee abduction angles and greater peak knee flexion moments while jumping rope compared to their male counterparts. There were no significant differences between the sexes in knee kinematics and kinetics in the frontal and transverse planes during running and turning motions. Female recreational athletes exhibited significantly different knee biomechanics compared with male counterparts during jumping rope and turning motions.

  7. Discovery of the X-ray Counterpart to the Rotating Radio Transient J1819--1458

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, S P; Gaensler, B M; Rea, N; McLaughlin, M; Possenti, A; Israel, G; Burgay, M; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Krämer, M; Lyne, A; Stairs, I

    2006-01-01

    We present the discovery of the first X-ray counterpart to a Rotating RAdio Transient (RRAT) source. RRAT J1819--1458 is a relatively highly magnetized (B $\\sim 5\\times10^{13}$ G) member of a new class of unusual pulsar-like objects discovered by their bursting activity at radio wavelengths. The position of RRAT J1819--1458 was serendipitously observed by the {\\sl Chandra} ACIS-I camera in 2005 May. At that position we have discovered a pointlike source, CXOU J181934.1--145804, with a soft spectrum well fit by an absorbed blackbody with $N_H = 7^{+7}_{-4} \\times 10^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$ and temperature $kT=0.12 \\pm 0.04$ keV, having an unabsorbed flux of $\\sim2 \\times 10^{-12}$ ergs cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ between 0.5 and 8 keV. No optical or infrared (IR) counterparts are visible within $1''$ of our X-ray position. The positional coincidence, spectral properties, and lack of an optical/IR counterpart make it highly likely that CXOU J181934.1--145804 is a neutron star and is the same object as RRAT J1819--1458. The sour...

  8. The near-IR counterpart of IGR J17480-2446 in Terzan 5

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, V; D'Antona, F; Menna, M T; Ventura, P; Burderi, L; Riggio, A; Iaria, R; D'Ai', A; Papitto, A; Robba, N; 10.1051/0004-6361/201219904

    2012-01-01

    Some globular clusters in our Galaxy are noticeably rich in low-mass X-ray binaries. Terzan 5 has the richest population among globular clusters of X- and radio-pulsars and low-mass X-ray binaries. The detection and study of optical/IR counterparts of low-mass X-ray binaries is fundamental to characterizing both the low-mass donor in the binary system and investigating the mechanisms of the formation and evolution of this class of objects. We aim at identifying the near-IR counterpart of the 11 Hz pulsar IGRJ17480-2446 discovered in Terzan 5. Adaptive optics (AO) systems represent the only possibility for studying the very dense environment of GC cores from the ground. We carried out observations of the core of Terzan 5 in the near-IR bands with the ESO-VLT NAOS-CONICA instrument. We present the discovery of the likely counterpart in the Ks band and discuss its properties both in outburst and in quiescence. Archival HST observations are used to extend our discussion to the optical bands. The source is located...

  9. Comparison of historic Grübler dyes with modern counterparts using thin layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titford, M

    2007-08-01

    The aniline dye industry was created in 1856 when William Perkin prepared the dye, mauve, from coal tar. Following that discovery, several dye manufacturing businesses were formed in Western Europe, most successfully in Germany. It was to these companies that early investigators turned to obtain these new dyes for the developing field of biology. In 1880, Dr. Georg Grübler started a company in Germany to supply the needs of biologists. Grübler dyes developed a reputation for excellence. In the study reported here, 29 samples of 12 Grübler dyes were compared to modern counterparts using thin layer chromatography. The dyes studied were basic fuchsine, acid fuchsine, safranine, pyronine, aniline blue, ponceau, gentian violet, methylene blue, orange G, malachite green, and Sudan III and IV. I found that these early Grübler dyes closely resembled modern day counterparts; however, the use of synonyms was confusing and some of the fat stains were mislabeled by modern criteria. The chromatograms of some dyes exhibited smearing, probably representing multiple closely related dye species. The study of old dyes provides interesting comparisons with modern counterparts as the center of dye manufacturing is moving from Europe and the United States to Asia.

  10. Near-infrared counterparts of Chandra X-ray sources toward the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    DeWitt, Curtis; Eikenberry, Stephen S; Blum, Robert; Olsen, Knut; Sellgren, Kris; Sarajedini, Ata

    2010-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory has now discovered nearly 10,000 X-ray point sources in the 2 x 0.8 degree region around the Galactic Center (Muno 2009). The sources are likely to be a population of accreting binaries in the Galactic Center, but little else is known of their nature. We obtained JHKs imaging of the 17'x 17' region around Sgr A*, an area containing 4339 of these X-ray sources, with the ISPI camera on the CTIO 4-m telescope. We cross-correlate the Chandra and ISPI catalogs to find potential IR counterparts to the X-ray sources. The extreme IR source crowding in the field means that it is not possible to establish the authenticity of the matches with astrometry and photometry alone. We find 2137 IR/X-ray astrometrically matched sources: statistically we estimate that our catalog contains 289 +/- 13 true matches to soft X-ray sources and 154 +/- 39 matches to hard X-ray sources. However, the fraction of true counterparts to candidate counterparts for hard sources is just 11 %, compared to 60 % for s...

  11. A Comprehensive Archival Search for Counterparts to Ultra-Compact High Velocity Clouds: Five Local Volume Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sand, D J; Bennet, P; Willman, B; Hargis, J; Strader, J; Olszewski, E; Tollerud, E J; Simon, J D; Caldwell, N; Guhathakurta, P; James, B L; Koposov, S; McLeod, B; Morrell, N; Peacock, M; Salinas, R; Seth, A C; Stark, D P; Toloba, E

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of five Local Volume dwarf galaxies uncovered during a comprehensive archival search for optical counterparts to ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs). The UCHVC population of HI clouds are thought to be candidate gas-rich, low mass halos at the edge of the Local Group and beyond, but no comprehensive search for stellar counterparts to these systems has been presented. Careful visual inspection of all publicly available optical and ultraviolet imaging at the position of the UCHVCs revealed six blue, diffuse counterparts with a morphology consistent with a faint dwarf galaxy beyond the Local Group. Optical spectroscopy of all six candidate dwarf counterparts show that five have an H$\\alpha$-derived velocity consistent with the coincident HI cloud, confirming their association; the sixth diffuse counterpart is likely a background object. The size and luminosity of the UCHVC dwarfs is consistent with other known Local Volume dwarf irregular galaxies. The gas fraction ($M_{HI}/M_{sta...

  12. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia is grouped into phases: Chronic Accelerated Blast crisis The chronic phase can last for ...

  13. Energy metabolism in human pluripotent stem cells and their differentiated counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Varum

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cells have the ability to generate all cell types present in the adult organism, therefore harboring great potential for the in vitro study of differentiation and for the development of cell-based therapies. Nonetheless their use may prove challenging as incomplete differentiation of these cells might lead to tumoregenicity. Interestingly, many cancer types have been reported to display metabolic modifications with features that might be similar to stem cells. Understanding the metabolic properties of human pluripotent stem cells when compared to their differentiated counterparts can thus be of crucial importance. Furthermore recent data has stressed distinct features of different human pluripotent cells lines, namely when comparing embryo-derived human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs reprogrammed from somatic cells.We compared the energy metabolism of hESCs, IPSCs, and their somatic counterparts. Focusing on mitochondria, we tracked organelle localization and morphology. Furthermore we performed gene expression analysis of several pathways related to the glucose metabolism, including glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle. In addition we determined oxygen consumption rates (OCR using a metabolic extracellular flux analyzer, as well as total intracellular ATP levels by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Finally we explored the expression of key proteins involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism.Our results demonstrate that, although the metabolic signature of IPSCs is not identical to that of hESCs, nonetheless they cluster with hESCs rather than with their somatic counterparts. ATP levels, lactate production and OCR revealed that human pluripotent cells rely mostly on glycolysis to meet their energy demands. Furthermore, our work points to some of the strategies which human pluripotent stem cells may use to maintain high

  14. Radio Counterparts of Compact Binary Mergers Detectable in Gravitational Waves: A Simulation for an Optimized Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotokezaka, K.; Nissanke, S.; Hallinan, G.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Nakar, E.; Piran, T.

    2016-11-01

    Mergers of binary neutron stars and black hole-neutron star binaries produce gravitational-wave (GW) emission and outflows with significant kinetic energies. These outflows result in radio emissions through synchrotron radiation. We explore the detectability of these synchrotron-generated radio signals by follow-up observations of GW merger events lacking a detection of electromagnetic counterparts in other wavelengths. We model radio light curves arising from (i) sub-relativistic merger ejecta and (ii) ultra-relativistic jets. The former produce radio remnants on timescales of a few years and the latter produce γ-ray bursts in the direction of the jet and orphan-radio afterglows extending over wider angles on timescales of weeks. Based on the derived light curves, we suggest an optimized survey at 1.4 GHz with five epochs separated by a logarithmic time interval. We estimate the detectability of the radio counterparts of simulated GW-merger events to be detected by advanced LIGO and Virgo by current and future radio facilities. The detectable distances for these GW merger events could be as high as 1 Gpc. Around 20%-60% of the long-lasting radio remnants will be detectable in the case of the moderate kinetic energy of 3\\cdot {10}50 erg and a circum-merger density of 0.1 {{cm}}-3 or larger, while 5%-20% of the orphan-radio afterglows with kinetic energy of 1048 erg will be detectable. The detection likelihood increases if one focuses on the well-localizable GW events. We discuss the background noise due to radio fluxes of host galaxies and false positives arising from extragalactic radio transients and variable active galactic nuclei, and we show that the quiet radio transient sky is of great advantage when searching for the radio counterparts.

  15. The radio and optical counterpart of the new Fermi LAT flaring source J0109+6134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, J. M.; Martí, J.; Peracaula, M.

    2010-02-01

    Following the recent ATELs #2414, #2416 and #2420 concerning the Fermi-LAT, AGILE and Swift/XRT consistent detections of the new gamma-ray flaring source J0109+6134, we wish to remind that the proposed radio counterpart (VCS2 J0109+6133/GT 0106+613) was extensively observed nearly two decades ago by different authors in the context of the GT catalogue of Galactic Plane radio sources (Taylor and Gregory 1983, AJ, 88, 1784; Gregory and Taylor 1986, AJ 92, 371).

  16. Searches for Optical Counterparts to Fermi Unassociated Sources with the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellm, Eric Christopher; Prince, Thomas A.; Kaplan, David L. A.; Kupfer, Thomas; DeCesar, Megan E.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank J.; Shupe, David L.; Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) has accumulated an extensive optical variability dataset across the Northern Sky, including at low Galactic latitudes (|b| < 20 degrees). We are using this dataset to search for optical counterparts to unassociated Fermi gamma-ray sources, particular the companions of eclipsing binary millisecond pulsars. So-called redback binary millisecond pulsars are a key evolutionary stage in the recycling process that spins up millisecond pulsars. The Roche-distorted and irradiated pulsar companion produces a periodic signature at the orbital period that may be readily identified with iPTF. We report on the progress of this search and present interesting candidates found.

  17. X-ray sources and their optical counterparts in the globular cluster M 22

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, N A; Gendre, B; Barret, D; Lasota, J P; Rizzi, L

    2004-01-01

    Using XMM-Newton EPIC imaging data, we have detected 50 low-luminosity X-ray sources in the field of view of M 22, where 5 +/- 3 of these sources are likely to be related to the cluster. Using differential optical photometry, we have identified probable counterparts to those sources belonging to the cluster. Using X-ray spectroscopic and timing studies, supported by the optical colours, we propose that the most central X-ray sources in the cluster are cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, active binaries and a blue straggler. We also identify a cluster of galaxies behind this globular cluster.

  18. Understanding possible electromagnetic counterparts to loud gravitational wave events: Binary black hole effects on electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Yoshida, Shin

    2009-01-01

    In addition to producing loud gravitational waves (GW), the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic (EM) radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We here study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as an enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves.

  19. A binary counterpart for 2FGL J2039.6-5620

    OpenAIRE

    Romani, Roger W.

    2015-01-01

    We have identified an optical/X-ray binary with orbital period P_b=5.47h as the likely counterpart of the Fermi source 2FGL J2039.6-5620. GROND, SOAR and DES observations provide an accurate orbital period and allow us to compare with the light curve of an archival XMM exposure. Like many short-period optical X-ray binaries associated with LAT sources this may be a interacting (black widow/redback) millisecond pulsar binary. The X-ray light curve is consistent with the emission associated wit...

  20. HST/ACS IMAGING OF OMEGA CENTAURI: OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS OF CHANDRA X-RAY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, Adrienne M.; Arias, Tersi; Brochmann, Michelle; Dorfman, Jason; Gafford, April; White, Vivian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Haggard, Daryl [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Physics and Astronomy Department, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Anderson, Jay, E-mail: cool@sfsu.edu, E-mail: dhaggard@northwestern.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present results of a search for optical counterparts of X-ray sources in and toward the globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139) using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ACS data consist of a mosaic of Wide Field Channel images obtained using F625W, F435W, and F658N filters; with nine pointings we cover the central {approx}10' Multiplication-Sign 10' of the cluster and encompass 109 known Chandra sources. We find promising optical counterparts for 59 of the sources, {approx}40 of which are likely to be associated with the cluster. These include 27 candidate cataclysmic variables (CVs), 24 of which are reported here for the first time. Fourteen of the CV candidates are very faint, with absolute magnitudes in the range M {sub 625} =10.4-12.6, making them comparable in brightness to field CVs near the period minimum discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Additional optical counterparts include three BY Dra candidates, a possible blue straggler, and a previously reported quiescent low-mass X-ray binary. We also identify 3 foreground stars and 11 probable active galactic nuclei. Finally, we report the discovery of a group of seven stars whose X-ray properties are suggestive of magnetically active binaries, and whose optical counterparts lie on or very near the metal-rich anomalous giant and subgiant branches in {omega} Cen. If the apparent association between these seven stars and the RGB/SGB-a stars is real, then the frequency of X-ray sources in this metal-rich population is enhanced by a factor of at least five relative to the other giant and subgiant populations in the cluster. If these stars are not members of the metal-rich population, then they bring the total number of red stragglers (also known as sub-subgiants) that have been identified in {omega} to Cen 20, the largest number yet known in any globular cluster.

  1. Stability patterns for a size-structured population model and its stage-structured counterpart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lai; Pedersen, Michael; Lin, Zhigui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we compare a general size-structured population model, where a size-structured consumer feeds upon an unstructured resource, to its simplified stage-structured counterpart in terms of equilibrium stability. Stability of the size-structured model is understood in terms of an equivalent...... delayed system consisting of a renewal equation for the consumer population birth rate and a delayed differential equation for the resource. Results show that the size- and stage-structured models differ considerably with respect to equilibrium stability, although the two models have completely identical...

  2. Do Lower Calorie or Lower Fat Foods Have More Sodium Than Their Regular Counterparts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Katherine A.; Maalouf, Joyce; B. Barsness, Christina; Yuan, Keming; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle P.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the sodium content of a regular food and its lower calorie/fat counterpart. Four food categories, among the top 20 contributing the most sodium to the US diet, met the criteria of having the most matches between regular foods and their lower calorie/fat counterparts. A protocol was used to search websites to create a list of “matches”, a regular and comparable lower calorie/fat food(s) under each brand. Nutrient information was recorded and analyzed for matches. In total, 283 matches were identified across four food categories: savory snacks (N = 44), cheese (N = 105), salad dressings (N = 90), and soups (N = 44). As expected, foods modified from their regular versions had significantly reduced average fat (total fat and saturated fat) and caloric profiles. Mean sodium content among modified salad dressings and cheeses was on average 8%–12% higher, while sodium content did not change with modification of savory snacks. Modified soups had significantly lower mean sodium content than their regular versions (28%–38%). Consumers trying to maintain a healthy diet should consider that sodium content may vary in foods modified to be lower in calories/fat. PMID:27548218

  3. Multiwavelength search for counterparts of supersoft X-ray sources in M31

    CERN Document Server

    Chiosi, E; Bernardini, F; Henze, M; Jamialiahmadi, N

    2014-01-01

    We searched optical/UV/IR counterparts of seven supersoft X-ray sources (SSS) in M31 in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) "Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury" (PHAT) archival images and photometric catalog. Three of the SSS were transient, the other four are persistent sources. The PHAT offers the opportunity to identify SSS hosting very massive white dwarfs that may explode as type Ia supernovae in single degenerate binaries, with magnitudes and color indexes typical of symbiotic stars, high mass close binaries, or systems with optically luminous accretion disks. We find evidence that the transient SSS were classical or recurrent novae; two likely counterparts we identified are probably symbiotic binaries undergoing mass transfer at a very high rate. There is a candidate accreting white dwarf binary in the error circle of one of the persistent sources, r3-8. In the spatial error circle of the best studied SSS in M31, r2-12, no red giants or AGB stars are sufficiently luminous in the optical and UV bands t...

  4. Discovery of a transient gamma-ray counterpart to FRB 131104

    CERN Document Server

    DeLaunay, J J; Murase, K; Mészáros, P; Keivani, A; Messick, C; Mostafá, M A; Oikonomou, F; Tešić, G; Turley, C F

    2016-01-01

    We report our discovery in Swift satellite data of a transient gamma-ray counterpart (3.2$\\sigma$ confidence) to the fast radio burst FRB131104, the first such counterpart to any FRB. The transient has duration $T_{90} \\gtrsim 100$s and fluence $S_\\gamma\\approx 4\\times 10^{-6}$ erg cm$^{-2}$, increasing the energy budget for this event by more than a billion times; at the nominal $z\\approx 0.55$ redshift implied by its dispersion measure, the burst's gamma-ray energy output is $E_\\gamma \\approx 5\\times 10^{51}$ erg. The observed radio to gamma-ray fluence ratio for FRB131104 is consistent with a lower limit we derive from Swift observations of another FRB, which is not detected in gamma-rays, and with an upper limit previously derived for the brightest gamma-ray flare from SGR 1806-20, which was not detected in the radio. X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical observations beginning two days after the FRB do not reveal any associated afterglow, supernova, or transient; Swift observations exclude association with the...

  5. THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE X-RAY COUNTERPART TO PSR J2021+4026

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Elsner, Ronald F.; O' Dell, Stephen L.; Tennant, Allyn F. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Space Science Office, VP62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Romani, Roger W. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Razzano, Massimiliano [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Belfiore, Andrea; Saz Parkinson, Pablo; Ziegler, Marcus; Dormody, Michael [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ray, Paul S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kerr, Matthew [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Harding, Alice [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 663, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Swartz, Douglas A. [Universities Space Research Association, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Space Science Office, VP62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Carraminana, Alberto [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, Puebla 72840 (Mexico); Becker, Werner; Kanbach, Gottfried [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, 85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); De Luca, Andrea [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Thompson, David J. [Astroparticle Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    We report the probable identification of the X-ray counterpart to the {gamma}-ray pulsar PSR J2021+4026 using imaging with the Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer and timing analysis with the Fermi satellite. Given the statistical and systematic errors, the positions determined by both satellites are coincident. The X-ray source position is R.A. 20{sup h}21{sup m}30.{sup s}733, decl. +40 Degree-Sign 26'46.''04 (J2000) with an estimated uncertainty of 1.''3 combined statistical and systematic error. Moreover, both the X-ray to {gamma}-ray and the X-ray to optical flux ratios are sensible assuming a neutron star origin for the X-ray flux. The X-ray source has no cataloged infrared-to-visible counterpart and, through new observations, we set upper limits to its optical emission of i' > 23.0 mag and r' > 25.2 mag. The source exhibits an X-ray spectrum with most likely both a power law and a thermal component. We also report on the X-ray and visible light properties of the 43 other sources detected in our Chandra observation.

  6. Do Lower Calorie or Lower Fat Foods Have More Sodium Than Their Regular Counterparts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Katherine A; Maalouf, Joyce; B Barsness, Christina; Yuan, Keming; Cogswell, Mary E; Gunn, Janelle P

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the sodium content of a regular food and its lower calorie/fat counterpart. Four food categories, among the top 20 contributing the most sodium to the US diet, met the criteria of having the most matches between regular foods and their lower calorie/fat counterparts. A protocol was used to search websites to create a list of "matches", a regular and comparable lower calorie/fat food(s) under each brand. Nutrient information was recorded and analyzed for matches. In total, 283 matches were identified across four food categories: savory snacks (N = 44), cheese (N = 105), salad dressings (N = 90), and soups (N = 44). As expected, foods modified from their regular versions had significantly reduced average fat (total fat and saturated fat) and caloric profiles. Mean sodium content among modified salad dressings and cheeses was on average 8%-12% higher, while sodium content did not change with modification of savory snacks. Modified soups had significantly lower mean sodium content than their regular versions (28%-38%). Consumers trying to maintain a healthy diet should consider that sodium content may vary in foods modified to be lower in calories/fat.

  7. Heating signatures in the disk counterparts of solar spicules in IRIS observations

    CERN Document Server

    van der Voort, L Rouppe; Pereira, T M D; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V

    2014-01-01

    We use coordinated observations with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) to identify the disk counterpart of type II spicules in upper-chromospheric and transition region (TR) diagnostics. These disk counterparts were earlier identified through short-lived asymmetries in chromospheric spectral lines: rapid blue- or red-shifted excursions (RBEs or RREs). We find clear signatures of RBEs and RREs in Mg II h & k, often with excursions of the central h3 and k3 absorption features in concert with asymmetries in co-temporal and co-spatial H-alpha spectral profiles. We find spectral signatures for RBEs and RREs in C II 1335 and 1336 A and Si IV 1394 and 1403 A spectral lines and interpret this as a sign that type II spicules are heated to at least TR temperatures, supporting other recent work. These C II and Si IV spectral signals are weaker for a smaller network region than for more extended network regions in our data. A number of bright features around ex...

  8. An Investigation and Analysis of the“Huaxin Model”of Complementary Counterpart Assistance to Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Minghong; Xiang Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Tibet is located in the high Qinghai-Tibet plateau. Surrounded by tall mountains,it, thus,forms a relatively complete inland geograph-ical unit,and is largely sealed off from the rest of the country. The climate and infrastructure condi-tions of the high plateau impede communication be-tween the Tibetan market and the national market. The development of Tibet is facing difficulties. On the one hand,the“invisible hand”of the market cannot fully play its role in promoting Tibet’s de-velopment;and,on the other hand,the sole reli-ance on the“visible hand”of the state administra-tion for the socio-economic development of Tibet lacks strong market support. In 1994,the Central Government’s Third Tibet Work Forum established a formal system regarding assistance for Tibet’s de-velopment. It is ,“taking responsibility by divid-ing the region into zones, providing assistance through complementary counterpart relationships, which were periodically rotated”. This became a method for handling this difficulty. The purpose of providing assistance through complementary coun-terpart relationships to Tibet was to promote Tibet’s self - development capability, and develop a“hematopoietic”system for socio -economic de-velopment.

  9. VLT/FORS2 observations of the optical counterpart of the isolated neutron star RBS 1774

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P; Turolla, R; Haberl, F; Cropper, M; Motch, C; Treves, A; Zampieri, L

    2011-01-01

    X-ray observations performed with ROSAT led to the discovery of a group (seven to date) of X-ray dim and radio-silent middle-aged isolated neutron stars (a.k.a. XDINSs), which are characterised by pure blackbody spectra (kT~40-100 eV), long X-ray pulsations (P=3-12 s), and appear to be endowed with relatively high magnetic fields, (B~10d13-14 G). RBS 1774 is one of the few XDINSs with a candidate optical counterpart, which we discovered with the VLT. We performed deep observations of RBS 1774 in the R band with the VLT to disentangle a non-thermal power-law spectrum from a Rayleigh-Jeans, whose contributions are expected to be very much different in the red part of the spectrum. We did not detect the RBS 1774 candidate counterpart down to a 3 sigma limiting magnitude of R~27. The constraint on its colour, (B-R)<0.6, rules out that it is a background object, positionally coincident with the X-ray source. Our R-band upper limit is consistent with the extrapolation of the B-band flux (assuming a 3 sigma uncer...

  10. The Fermi Haze: A Gamma-Ray Counterpart to the Microwave Haze

    CERN Document Server

    Dobler, Gregory; Cholis, Ilias; Slatyer, Tracy R; Weiner, Neal

    2009-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope reveals a diffuse inverse Compton signal in the inner Galaxy with the same spatial morphology as the microwave haze observed by WMAP, confirming the synchrotron origin of the microwaves. Using spatial templates, we regress out pi0 gammas, as well as ICS and bremsstrahlung components associated with known soft-synchrotron counterparts. We find a significant gamma-ray excess towards the Galactic center with a spectrum that is significantly harder than other sky components and is most consistent with ICS from a hard population of electrons. The morphology and spectrum are consistent with it being the ICS counterpart to the electrons which generate the microwave haze seen at WMAP frequencies. In addition to confirming that the microwave haze is indeed synchrotron, the distinct spatial morphology and very hard spectrum of the ICS are evidence that the electrons responsible for the microwave and gamma-ray haze originate from a harder source than supernova shocks. We describe the ...

  11. Do Lower Calorie or Lower Fat Foods Have More Sodium Than Their Regular Counterparts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. John

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sodium content of a regular food and its lower calorie/fat counterpart. Four food categories, among the top 20 contributing the most sodium to the US diet, met the criteria of having the most matches between regular foods and their lower calorie/fat counterparts. A protocol was used to search websites to create a list of “matches”, a regular and comparable lower calorie/fat food(s under each brand. Nutrient information was recorded and analyzed for matches. In total, 283 matches were identified across four food categories: savory snacks (N = 44, cheese (N = 105, salad dressings (N = 90, and soups (N = 44. As expected, foods modified from their regular versions had significantly reduced average fat (total fat and saturated fat and caloric profiles. Mean sodium content among modified salad dressings and cheeses was on average 8%–12% higher, while sodium content did not change with modification of savory snacks. Modified soups had significantly lower mean sodium content than their regular versions (28%–38%. Consumers trying to maintain a healthy diet should consider that sodium content may vary in foods modified to be lower in calories/fat.

  12. Low-{\\Gamma} jets from Compact Binary Mergers as Candidate Electromagnetic Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Lamb, Gavin P

    2016-01-01

    Compact binary mergers, with neutron stars or neutron star and black-hole components, are thought to produce various electromagnetic counterparts: short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from ultra-relativistic jets followed by broadband afterglow; semi-isotropic kilonova from radioactive decay of r-process elements; and late time radio flares; etc. If the jets from such mergers follow a similar power-law distribution of Lorentz factors as other astrophysical jets then the population of merger jets will be dominated by low-{\\Gamma} values. The prompt gamma-rays associated with short GRBs would be suppressed for a low-{\\Gamma} jet and the jet energy will be released as X-ray/optical/radio transients when a shock forms in the ambient medium. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the properties of such transients as candidate electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave sources detectable by LIGO/Virgo. Approximately 78% of merger-jets result in failed GRB with optical peaks 14-22 magnitude and an all-sky rate of ...

  13. Clinical outcomes of Fränkel appliance therapy assessed with a counterpart analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia H S; Franco, Alexandre A; Scanavini, Marco A; Vigorito, Julio W; Enlow, Donald H; Proffit, William R

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate whether the Fränkel Regulator-II (FR-II) induced mandibular growth rotations relative to the nasomaxilla and the middle cranial fossae, cephalometric changes in 28 treated Brazilian children were compared with changes in 28 untreated Class II children and in 28 children with normal occlusion. According to Enlow's counterpart analysis, the 3 groups were not significantly different initially in ramus alignment or relative ramus vertical dimension. These jaw relationships were maintained in both untreated groups. In the treated group, all children had overjet reduction, with correction of the dental arch relationship in 26 of the 28, and there was a significant trend toward a more forward ramus alignment (P =.002) and increased ramus relative vertical dimension (P =.0002). These treatment-induced changes showed a negative correlation with ramus alignment; ie, greater improvement was more likely in children who had backward ramus alignment before treatment and whose Class II malocclusion had not already been intrinsically compensated. Changes in the treated children were similar to but greater than those in the normal children, and different from those in the untreated Class II group. The data suggest that studies of skeletal variations with counterpart analysis can show ramus remodeling compensations from treatment that are missed with conventional cephalometrics.

  14. An optical counterpart to the anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U0142+61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulleman, F; van Kerkwijk, M H; Kulkarni, S R

    2000-12-01

    The energy source of the anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) is not understood, hence their designation as anomalous. Unlike binary X-ray pulsars, no companions are seen, so the energy cannot be supplied by accretion of matter from a companion star. The loss of rotational energy, which powers radio pulsars, is insufficient to power AXPs. Two models are generally considered: accretion from a large disk left over from the birth process, or decay of a very strong magnetic field (10(15) G) associated with a 'magnetar'. The lack of counterparts at other wavelengths has hampered progress in our understanding of these objects. Here we report deep optical observations of the field around 4U0142+61, which is the brightest AXP in X-rays. The source has no associated supernova remnant, which, together with its spin-down timescale of approximately 10(5) yr (ref. 5), suggests that it may be relatively old. We find an object with peculiar optical colours at the position of the X-ray source, and argue that it is the optical counterpart. The optical emission is too faint to admit the presence of a large accretion disk, but may be consistent with magnetospheric emission from a magnetar.

  15. Low energy electron induced reactions in fluorinated acetamide - probing negative ions and neutral stable counterparts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopyra, Janina; König-Lehmann, Constanze; Illenberger, Eugen; Warneke, Jonas; Swiderek, Petra

    2016-06-01

    Electron impact to trifluoroacetamide (CF3CONH2, TFAA) in the energy range 0-12 eV leads to a variety of negative fragment ions which are formed via dissociative electron attachment (DEA). The underlying reactions range from single bond cleavages to remarkably complex reactions that lead to loss of the neutral units HF, H2O and HNCO as deduced from their directly observed ionic counterparts (M - H2O)-, (M - HF)- and (M - HNCO)-. Also formed are the pseudo-halogen ions CN- and OCN-. All these reactions proceed dominantly via a resonance located near 1 eV, i.e., electrons at subexcitation energies trigger reactions involving multiple bond cleavages. The electron induced generation of the neutral molecules HF, H2O and HNCO in condensed TFAA films is probed by temperature controlled thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS) which can be viewed as a complementary techniques to gas-phase experiments in DEA to directly probe the neutral counterparts. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  16. The Herschel-ATLAS Data Release 1 Paper II: Multi-wavelength counterparts to submillimetre sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bourne, N; Maddox, S J; Dye, S; Furlanetto, C; Hoyos, C; Smith, D J B; Eales, S; Smith, M W L; Valiante, E; Alpaslan, M; Andrae, E; Baldry, I K; Cluver, M E; Cooray, A; Driver, S P; Dunlop, J S; Grootes, M W; Ivison, R J; Jarrett, T H; Liske, J; Madore, B F; Popescu, C C; Robotham, A G; Rowlands, K; Seibert, M; Thompson, M A; Tuffs, R J; Viaene, S; Wright, A H

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the second in a pair of articles presenting data release 1 (DR1) of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS), the largest single open-time key project carried out with the Herschel Space Observatory. The H-ATLAS is a wide-area imaging survey carried out in five photometric bands at 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500$\\mu$m covering a total area of 600deg$^2$. In this paper we describe the identification of optical counterparts to submillimetre sources in DR1, comprising an area of 161 deg$^2$ over three equatorial fields of roughly 12$^\\circ$x4.5$^\\circ$ centred at 9$^h$, 12$^h$ and 14.5$^h$ respectively. Of all the H-ATLAS fields, the equatorial regions benefit from the greatest overlap with current multi-wavelength surveys spanning ultraviolet (UV) to mid-infrared regimes, as well as extensive spectroscopic coverage. We use a likelihood-ratio technique to identify SDSS counterparts at r<22.4 for 250-$\\mu$m-selected sources detected at $\\geq$ 4$\\sigma$ ($\\approx$28mJy). We fin...

  17. Probing extra dimension through gravitational wave observations of compact binaries and their electromagnetic counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Gu, Bao-Min; Huang, Fa Peng; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Meng, Xin-He; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2017-02-01

    The future gravitational wave (GW) observations of compact binaries and their possible electromagnetic counterparts may be used to probe the nature of the extra dimension. It is widely accepted that gravitons and photons are the only two completely confirmed objects that can travel along null geodesics in our four-dimensional space-time. However, if there exist extra dimensions and only GWs can propagate freely in the bulk, the causal propagations of GWs and electromagnetic waves (EMWs) are in general different. In this paper, we study null geodesics of GWs and EMWs in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-time in the presence of the curvature of the universe. We show that for general cases the horizon radius of GW is longer than EMW within equal time. Taking the GW150914 event detected by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and the X-ray event detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor as an example, we study how the curvature k and the constant curvature radius l affect the horizon radii of GW and EMW in the de Sitter and Einstein-de Sitter models of the universe. This provides an alternative method for probing extra dimension through future GW observations of compact binaries and their electromagnetic counterparts.

  18. Discovery of near-ultraviolet counterparts to millisecond pulsars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera-Sandoval, L E; Heinke, C O; Cohn, H N; Lugger, P M; Freire, P; Anderson, J; Serenelli, A M; Althaus, L G; Cool, A M; Grindlay, J E; Edmonds, P D; Wijnands, R; Ivanova, N

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of the likely white dwarf companions to radio millisecond pulsars 47 Tuc Q and 47 Tuc S in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. These blue stars were found in near-ultraviolet images from the Hubble Space Telescope for which we derived accurate absolute astrometry, and are located at positions consistent with the radio coordinates to within 0.016 arcsec (0.2sigma). We present near-ultraviolet and optical colours for the previously identified companion to millisecond pulsar 47 Tuc U, and we unambiguously confirm the tentative prior identifications of the optical counterparts to 47 Tuc T and 47 Tuc Y. For the latter, we present its radio-timing solution for the first time. We find that all five near-ultraviolet counterparts have U300-B390 colours that are consistent with He white dwarf cooling models for masses ~0.16-0.3 Msun and cooling ages within ~0.1-6 Gyr. The Ha-R625 colours of 47 Tuc U and 47 Tuc T indicate the presence of a strong Ha absorption line, as expected for white dwarfs with...

  19. The ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 1313 X-2 - Its optical counterpart and environment

    CERN Document Server

    Grisé, F; Soria, R; Motch, C; Smith, I A; Ryder, S D; Böttcher, M

    2008-01-01

    NGC 1313 X-2 is one of the brightest ultraluminous X-ray sources in the sky, at both X-ray and optical wavelengths; therefore, quite a few studies of available ESO VLT and HST data have appeared in the literature. Here, we present our analysis of VLT/FORS1 and HST/ACS photometric data, confirming the identification of the B ~ 23 mag blue optical counterpart. We show that the system is part of a poor cluster with an age of 20 Myr, leading to an upper mass limit of some 12 M_sun for the mass donor. We attribute the different results with respect to earlier studies to the use of isochrones in the F435W and F555W HST/ACS photometric system that appear to be incompatible with the corresponding Johnson B and V isochrones. The counterpart exhibits significant photometric variability of about 0.2 mag amplitude, both between the two HST observations and during the one month of monitoring with the VLT. This includes variability within one night and suggests that the light is dominated by the accretion disk in the syste...

  20. Flat-Spectrum Radio Sources as Likely Counterparts of Unidentified INTEGRAL Sources (Research Note)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, M.; Landi, R.; Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Stephen, J. B.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Gehrels, N.

    2012-01-01

    Many sources in the fourth INTEGRAL/IBIS catalogue are still unidentified since they lack an optical counterpart. An important tool that can help in identifying and classifying these sources is the cross-correlation with radio catalogues, which are very sensitive and positionally accurate. Moreover, the radio properties of a source, such as the spectrum or morphology, could provide further insight into its nature. In particular, flat-spectrum radio sources at high Galactic latitudes are likely to be AGN, possibly associated to a blazar or to the compact core of a radio galaxy. Here we present a small sample of 6 sources extracted from the fourth INTEGRAL/IBIS catalogue that are still unidentified or unclassified, but which are very likely associated with a bright, flat-spectrum radio object. To confirm the association and to study the source X-ray spectral parameters, we performed X-ray follow-up observations with Swift/XRT of all objects. We report in this note the overall results obtained from this search and discuss the nature of each individual INTEGRAL source. We find that 5 of the 6 radio associations are also detected in X-rays; furthermore, in 3 cases they are the only counterpart found. More specifically, IGR J06073-0024 is a flat-spectrum radio quasar at z = 1.08, IGR J14488-4008 is a newly discovered radio galaxy, while IGR J18129-0649 is an AGN of a still unknown type. The nature of two sources (IGR J07225-3810 and IGR J19386-4653) is less well defined, since in both cases we find another X-ray source in the INTEGRAL error circle; nevertheless, the flat-spectrum radio source, likely to be a radio loud AGN, remains a viable and, in fact, a more convincing association in both cases. Only for the last object (IGR J11544-7618) could we not find any convincing counterpart since the radio association is not an X-ray emitter, while the only X-ray source seen in the field is a G star and therefore unlikely to produce the persistent emission seen by INTEGRAL.

  1. CONSTRUCTIVISM AND REFLECTIVISM AS THE LOGICAL COUNTERPARTS IN TESOL: LEARNING THEORY VERSUS TEACHING METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah al Mahmud

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The gist of the entire constructivist learning theory is that learners are self-builders of their learning that occurs through a mental process in a social context or communication setting, and teachers as facilitators generate learning by creating the expected environment and/or utilizing the process. This article theoretically proves reflectivism as the logical counterpart of constructivism through establishing their complete interdependence andthen suggests certain strategies of reflection to be used in language teaching for ensuring the best possible constructivist learning of language learners. In doing so, the basic tenets of constructivism and reflective thoughts are elaborated, examining their mutual connection thoroughly in terms of constructivist recommendations. The research also focuses on three case studies to depict how the theory of constructivist learning principles comes into practice through judicious reviews or reflective process.

  2. Core-collapse supernovae as possible counterparts of IceCube neutrino multiplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strotjohann, Nora Linn; Kowalski, Marek; Franckowiak, Anna [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Voge, Markus [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Institut; Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    While an astrophysical neutrino flux has been detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory its sources remain so far unidentified. IceCube's Optical Follow-up Program is designed to search for the counterparts of neutrino multiplets using the full energy range of the IceCube detector down to 100 GeV. Two or more muon neutrinos arriving from the same direction within few seconds can trigger follow-up observations with optical and X-ray telescopes. Since 2010 the Palomar Transient Factory has followed up about 40 such neutrino alerts and detected several supernovae. Many of the detections are however likely random coincidences. In this talk I describe our search for supernovae and the prospects of identifying a supernova as a source of high-energy neutrinos.

  3. Strategic wholesale pricing for an incumbent supplier facing with a competitive counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianwu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a wholesale pricing strategy for an incumbent supplier facing with a competitive counterpart. We propose a profit function which considers both the present loss and future loss from a wholesale price and then study the optimal wholesale prices for different objectives about this profit function for the incumbent supplier. First, we achieve an optimal wholesale price for the incumbent supplier to maximize his expected profit. Then, to reduce the risk originating from the fluctuation in the competitive supplier's wholesale price, we integrate the conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) measure in financial risk management into this study and derive an optimal wholesale price to maximize CVaR about profit for the incumbent supplier. Besides, the properties of the two optimal wholesale prices are discussed. Finally, some management insights are suggested for the incumbent supplier in a competitive setting.

  4. Chitosan nanoparticles and their Tween 80 modified counterparts disrupt the developmental profile of zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhongyue; Li, Ying; Hu, Yulan; You, Jian; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Nagano, Kazuya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo; Gao, Jianqing

    2016-12-30

    Chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) and their Tween 80 modified counterparts (TmCS-NPs) are among the most commonly used brain-targeted vehicles. However, their potential developmental toxicity is poorly understood. In this study, zebrafish embryos are introduced as an in vivo platform. Both NPs showed a dose-dependent increase in developmental toxicity (decreased hatching rate, increased mortality and incidences of malformation). Neurobehavioral changes included decreased spontaneous movement in TmCS-NP treated embryos and hyperactive effect in CS-NP treated larvae. Both NPs remarkably inhibited axonal development of primary and secondary motor neurons, and affected the muscle structure. Overall, this study demonstrated that CS-NPs and TmCS-NPs could affect embryonic development, disrupt neurobehavior of zebrafish larvae and affect muscle and neuron development, suggesting more attention on biodegradable chitosan nanoparticles.

  5. A Likely Millisecond Pulsar Binary Counterpart for Fermi Source 2FGL J2039.6-5620

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Roger W.

    2015-10-01

    We have identified an optical/X-ray binary with an orbital period of Pb = 5.47 hr as the likely counterpart of the Fermi source 2FGL J2039.6-5620. GROND, SOAR, and DES observations provide an accurate orbital period and allow us to compare to the light curve of an archival XMM exposure. Like many short-period optical/X-ray binaries associated with Large Area Telescope sources, this may be an interacting (black widow/redback) millisecond pulsar binary. The X-ray light curve is consistent with the emission associated with an intrabinary shock. The optical light curve shows evidence of companion heating, but has a peculiar asymmetric double peak. The nature of this optical structure is not yet clear; additional optical studies and, in particular, detection of an orbital modulation in a γ-ray pulsar are needed to elucidate the nature of this peculiar source.

  6. A binary counterpart for 2FGL J2039.6-5620

    CERN Document Server

    Romani, Roger W

    2015-01-01

    We have identified an optical/X-ray binary with orbital period P_b=5.47h as the likely counterpart of the Fermi source 2FGL J2039.6-5620. GROND, SOAR and DES observations provide an accurate orbital period and allow us to compare with the light curve of an archival XMM exposure. Like many short-period optical X-ray binaries associated with LAT sources this may be a interacting (black widow/redback) millisecond pulsar binary. The X-ray light curve is consistent with the emission associated with an intrabinary shock. The optical light curve shows evidence of companion heating, but has a peculiar asymmetric double peak. The nature of this optical structure is not yet clear; additional optical studies and, especially, detection of an orbital modulation in a gamma-ray pulsar are needed to elucidate the nature of this peculiar source.

  7. Detections of 2 cm formaldehyde emissions towards Galactic star-forming regions with 6 cm counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Xiao-Qiong; Yang, Kai; Li, Juan; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Wu, Ya-Jun; Zhao, Rong-Bin; Wang, Jin-Qing; Dong, Jian; Jiang, Dong-Rong; Li, Bin

    2017-01-01

    We report the detections of H2CO emission at the 2 cm transition towards Galactic star-forming regions with known 6 cm counterpart using the Shanghai Tianma Radio Telescope (TMRT). One significant detection (in NGC7538) and two possible detections (in G23.01-0.41 and G29.96-0.02) were made. Comparing with previous observations, we found that there is a time lag of appearance of 2 cm and 6 cm emissions detected in NGC7538, contradicting with the prediction of radiative pumping via radio continuum radiation. Combinations of the variability of 6 cm masers in NGC7538 suggest that collisional pumping via high-velocity shocks could better explain the 6 cm H2CO maser emission. Under this scheme, excitation of the 2 cm maser may require a higher collision energy compared to the 6 cm transition.

  8. The "Rabbit" A Potential Radio Counterpart of GeV J1417-6100

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, M S E; Johnston, S; Green, A J; Roberts, Mallory S.E.; Romani, Roger W.; Johnston, Simon; Green, Anne J.

    1999-01-01

    We have mapped the radio emission in the error ellipse of GeV J1417-6100 (2EGS J1418-6049) at 13cm and 20cm using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We find a large shell with extended wings, at the edge of which is a non-thermal, polarized structure with a center filled morphology (the `Rabbit'), coincident with an extended, hard X-ray source. We discuss the various sources seen within the ellipse as potential counterparts of the gamma-ray source. We conclude that the most likely scenario is that the Rabbit is a wind nebula surrounding a radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar.

  9. When a negative weak value -1 plays the counterpart of a probability 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Kazuhiro; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2016-12-01

    When the weak value of a projector is 1, a quantum system behaves as in that eigenstate with probability 1. By definition, however, the weak value may take an anomalous value lying outside the range of probability like -1. From the viewpoint of a physical effect, we show that such a negative weak value of -1 can be regarded as the counterpart of the ordinary value of 1. Using photons, we experimentally verify it as the symmetrical shift in polarization depending on the weak value given by pre-postselection of the path state. Unlike observation of a weak value as an ensemble average via weak measurements, the effect of a weak value is definitely confirmed in Hong-Ou-Mandel effect: the symmetrical shift corresponding to the weak value can be directly observed as the rotation angle of a half wave plate.

  10. Long duration radio transients lacking optical counterparts are possibly Galactic Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ofek, E O; Gal-Yam, A; Frail, D; Kasliwal, M M; Kulkarni, S R; Waxman, E

    2009-01-01

    (abridged) Recently, a new class of radio transients in the 5-GHz band was detected by Bower et al. We present new deep near-Infrared (IR) observations of the field containing these transients, and find no counterparts down to a limiting magnitude of K=20.4 mag. We argue that the bright (>1 Jy) radio transients recently reported by Kida et al. are consistent with being additional examples of the Bower et al. transients. We refer to these groups of events as "long-duration radio transients". The main characteristics of this population are: time scales longer than 30 minute but shorter than several days; rate, ~10^3 deg^-2 yr^-1; progenitors sky surface density of >60 deg^-2 (95% C.L.) at Galactic latitude ~40 deg; 1.4-5 GHz spectral slopes, f_\

  11. The optical counterpart of the bright X-ray transient Swift J1745-26

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz-Darias, T; Russell, D M; Guziy, S; Gorosabel, J; Casares, J; Padilla, M Armas; Charles, P A; Fender, R P; Belloni, T M; Lewis, F; Motta, S; Castro-Tirado, A; Mundell, C G; Sánchez-Ramírez, R; Thöne, C C

    2013-01-01

    We present a 30-day monitoring campaign of the optical counterpart of the bright X-ray transient Swift J1745-26, starting only 19 minutes after the discovery of the source. We observe the system peaking at i' ~17.6 on day 6 (MJD 56192) to then decay at a rate of ~0.04 mag/day. We show that the optical peak occurs at least 3 days later than the hard X-ray (15-50 keV) flux peak. Our measurements result in an outburst amplitude greater than 4.3 magnitudes, which favours an orbital period 250 km/s. The breadth of the line and the observed optical and X-ray fluxes suggest that Swift J1745-26 is a new black hole candidate located closer than ~7 kpc.

  12. Optimization of Integer Order Integrators for Deriving Improved Models of Their Fractional Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesha Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Second and third order digital integrators (DIs have been optimized first using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO with minimized error fitness function obtained by registering mean, median, and standard deviation values in different random iterations. Later indirect discretization using Continued Fraction Expansion (CFE has been used to ascertain a better fitting of proposed integer order optimized DIs into their corresponding fractional counterparts by utilizing their refined properties, now restored in them due to PSO algorithm. Simulation results for the comparisons of the frequency responses of proposed 2nd and 3rd order optimized DIs and proposed discretized mathematical models of half integrators based on them, with their respective existing operators, have been presented. Proposed integer order PSO optimized integrators as well as fractional order integrators (FOIs have been observed to outperform the existing recently published operators in their respective domains reasonably well in complete range of Nyquist frequency.

  13. A search for optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye-Sook

    1995-03-09

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBS) are mysterious flashes of gamma rays lasting several tens to hundreds of seconds that occur approximately once per day. NASA launched the orbiting Compton Gamma Ray Observatory to study GRBs and other gamma ray phenomena. CGRO carries the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE) specifically to study GRBS. Although BATSE has collected data on over 600 GRBS, and confirmed that GRBs are localized, high intensity point sources of MeV gamma rays distributed isotropically in the sky, the nature and origin of GRBs remains a fundamental problem in astrophysics. BATSE`s 8 gamma ray sensors located on the comers of the box shaped CGRO can detect the onset of GRBs and record their intensity and energy spectra as a function of time. The position of the burst on the sky can be determined to < {plus_minus}10{degrees} from the BATSE data stream. This position resolution is not sufficient to point a large, optical telescope at the exact position of a GRB which would determine its origin by associating it with a star. Because of their brief duration it is not known if GRBs are accompanied by visible radiation. Their seemingly large energy output suggests thatthis should be. Simply scaling the ratio of visible to gamma ray intensities of the Crab Nebula to the GRB output suggests that GRBs ought to be accompanied by visible flashes of magnitude 10 or so. A few photographs of areas containing a burst location that were coincidentally taken during the burst yield lower limits on visible output of magnitude 4. The detection of visible light during the GRB would provide information on burst physics, provide improved pointing coordinates for precise examination of the field by large telescope and provide the justification for larger dedicated optical counterpart instruments. The purpose of this experiment is to detect or set lower limits on optical counterpart radiation simultaneously accompanying the gamma rays from

  14. A Search for an Optical Counterpart to the Gravitational-wave Event GW151226

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartt, S. J.; Chambers, K. C.; Smith, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Young, D. R.; Chen, T.-W.; Inserra, C.; Wright, D. E.; Coughlin, M.; Denneau, L.; Flewelling, H.; Heinze, A.; Jerkstrand, A.; Magnier, E. A.; Maguire, K.; Mueller, B.; Rest, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Stalder, B.; Schultz, A. S. B.; Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J.; Waters, C.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Della Valle, M.; Dennefeld, M.; Dimitriadis, G.; Firth, R. E.; Fraser, M.; Frohmaier, C.; Gal-Yam, A.; Harmanen, J.; Kankare, E.; Kotak, R.; Kromer, M.; Mandel, I.; Sollerman, J.; Gibson, B.; Primak, N.; Willman, M.

    2016-08-01

    We present a search for an electromagnetic counterpart of the gravitational-wave source GW151226. Using the Pan-STARRS1 telescope we mapped out 290 square degrees in the optical i P1 filter, starting 11.5 hr after the LIGO information release and lasting for an additional 28 days. The first observations started 49.5 hr after the time of the GW151226 detection. We typically reached sensitivity limits of i P1 = 20.3-20.8 and covered 26.5% of the LIGO probability skymap. We supplemented this with ATLAS survey data, reaching 31% of the probability region to shallower depths of m ≃ 19. We found 49 extragalactic transients (that are not obviously active galactic nuclei), including a faint transient in a galaxy at 7 Mpc (a luminous blue variable outburst) plus a rapidly decaying M-dwarf flare. Spectral classification of 20 other transient events showed them all to be supernovae. We found an unusual transient, PS15dpn, with an explosion date temporally coincident with GW151226, that evolved into a type Ibn supernova. The redshift of the transient is secure at z = 0.1747 ± 0.0001 and we find it unlikely to be linked, since the luminosity distance has a negligible probability of being consistent with that of GW151226. In the 290 square degrees surveyed we therefore do not find a likely counterpart. However we show that our survey strategy would be sensitive to NS-NS mergers producing kilonovae at D L ≲ 100 Mpc, which is promising for future LIGO/Virgo searches.

  15. Optical Counterparts of Undetermined Type -Ray Active Galactic Nuclei with Blazar-Like Spectral Energy Distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Giovanni La Mura; Graziano Chiaro; Stefano Ciroi; Piero Rafanelli; David Salvetti; Marco Berton; Valentina Cracco; Fermi-LAT collaboration

    2015-12-01

    During its first four years of scientific observations, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) detected 3033 -ray sources above a 4 significance level. Although most of the extra-galactic sources are active galactic nuclei (AGN) of the blazar class, other families of AGNs are observed too, while a still high fraction of detections (∼30%) remains with uncertain association or classification. According to the currently accepted interpretation, the AGN -ray emission arises from inverse Compton (IC) scattering of low energy photons by relativistic particles confined in a jet, which, in the case of blazars, is oriented very close to our line-of-sight. Taking advantage of data from radio and X-ray wavelengths, which we expect to be produced together with -rays, providing a much better source localization potential, we focused our attention on a sample of -ray Blazar Candidates of Undetermined type (BCUs), starting a campaign of optical spectroscopic observations. The main aims of our investigation include a census of the AGN families that contribute to -ray emission and a study of their redshift distribution, with the subsequent implications on the intrinsic source power. We furthermore analyze which -ray properties can better constrain the nature of the source, thus helping in the study of objects not yet associated with a reliable low frequency counterpart. Here we report on the instruments and techniques used to identify the optical counterparts of -ray sources, we give an overview on the status of our work, and we discuss the implications of a large scale study of -ray emitting AGNs.

  16. Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type ...

  17. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem you need to take care of. Chronic pain is different. The pain signals go on ... there is no clear cause. Problems that cause chronic pain include Headache Low back strain Cancer Arthritis ...

  18. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. × ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. ...

  19. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Brian; Schaeffer, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome [CP/CPPS]). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  20. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  1. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey: optical catalogue and point-source counterparts to X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wevers, T.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Jonker, P. G.; Bassa, C.; Nelemans, G.; van Grunsven, T.; Gonzalez-Solares, E. A.; Torres, M. A. P.; Heinke, C.; Steeghs, D.; Maccarone, T. J.; Britt, C.; Hynes, R. I.; Johnson, C.; Wu, Jianfeng

    2016-06-01

    As part of the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS), we present a catalogue of optical sources in the GBS footprint. This consists of two regions centred at Galactic latitude b = 1.5° above and below the Galactic Centre, spanning (l × b) = (6° × 1°). The catalogue consists of two or more epochs of observations for each line of sight in r', i' and H α filters. The catalogue is complete down to r' = 20.2 and i' = 19.2 mag; the mean 5σ depth is r' = 22.5 and i' = 21.1 mag. The mean root-mean-square residuals of the astrometric solutions is 0.04 arcsec. We cross-correlate this optical catalogue with the 1640 unique X-ray sources detected in Chandra observations of the GBS area, and find candidate optical counterparts to 1480 X-ray sources. We use a false alarm probability analysis to estimate the contamination by interlopers, and expect ˜10 per cent of optical counterparts to be chance alignments. To determine the most likely counterpart for each X-ray source, we compute the likelihood ratio for all optical sources within the 4σ X-ray error circle. This analysis yields 1480 potential counterparts (˜90 per cent of the sample). 584 counterparts have saturated photometry (r' ≤ 17, i' ≤ 16), indicating these objects are likely foreground sources and the real counterparts. 171 candidate counterparts are detected only in the i' band. These sources are good qLMXB and CV candidates as they are X-ray bright and likely located in the Bulge.

  2. The optical counterpart to the Be/X-ray binary SAX J2239.3+6116

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, P.; Blay, P.; Blinov, D.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Be/X-ray binaries represent the main group of high-mass X-ray binaries. The determination of the astrophysical parameters of the counterparts of these high-energy sources is important for the study of X-ray binary populations in our Galaxy. X-ray observations suggest that SAX J2239.3+6116 is a Be/X-ray binary. However, little is known about the astrophysical parameters of its massive companion. Aims: The main goal of this work is to perform a detailed study of the optical variability of the Be/X-ray binary SAX J2239.3+6116. Methods: We obtained multi-colour BVRI photometry and polarimetry and 4000-7000 Å spectroscopy. The 4000-5000 Å spectra allowed us to determine the spectral type and projected rotational velocity of the optical companion; the 6000-7000 Å spectra, together with the photometric magnitudes, were used to derive the colour excess E(B-V), estimate the distance, and to study the variability of the Hα line. Results: The optical counterpart to SAX J2239.3+6116 is a V = 14.8 B0Ve star located at a distance of 4.9 kpc. The interstellar reddening in the direction of the source is E(B-V) = 1.70 ± 0.03 mag. The monitoring of the Hα line reveals a slow long-term decline of its equivalent width since 2001. The line profile is characterized by a stable double-peak profile with no indication of large-scale distortions. We measured intrinsic optical polarization for the first time. Although somewhat higher than predicted by the models, the optical polarization is consistent with electron scattering in the circumstellar disk. Conclusions: We attribute the long-term decrease in the intensity of the Hα line to the dissipation of the circumstellar disk of the Be star. The longer variability timescales observed in SAX J2239.3+6116 compared to other Be/X-ray binaries may be explained by the wide orbit of the system.

  3. “The Scum of the Earth”? Foreign People Smugglers and Their Local Counterparts in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Missbach

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2008, the number of asylum seekers and refugees trying to reach Australia from Indonesia by boat has increased. With many of them hailing from conflict-ridden countries such as Afghanistan, Iraq and Sri Lanka, most entered Indonesia with short-term tourist visas or fraudulent papers or no documents at all. It is widely known that a significant number of these ‘irregular’ migrants pay various types of brokers (often labelled, accurately or otherwise, ‘human smugglers’ at least at one stage – either to enter the country or to escape it. As a non-signatory to the UN Refugee Convention, Indonesia does not permit local integration. While a substantial part of these migrants are detained in the 13 immigration detention centres scattered around the archipelago, many roam freely, looking for opportunities for onward migration. Due to the restrictive border protection arrangements between Australia and Indonesia and a number of bilateral intelligence measures for deterring ‘unwanted’ migrants, human smugglers have been gradually forced to adapt strategies, routes and prices. According to much of the available data, most human smugglers are not Indonesians but foreigners who have been lingering in Indonesia for many years. This article demonstrates, moreover, that these foreigners depend upon local contacts to successfully carry out their risky business. Most often, the Indonesian counterparts are solely facilitators or handymen, but in a number of cases Indonesian authorities have also been involved in this highly lucrative business.

  4. The variability of the Crab Nebula in radio: No radio counterpart to gamma-ray flares

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Michael F; Buehler, R; Lobanov, A P; Blandford, R

    2014-01-01

    We present new Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) radio images of the Crab Nebula at 5.5 GHz, taken at two epochs separated by 6 days about two months after a gamma-ray flare in 2012 July. We find no significant change in the Crab's radio emission localized to a region of <2 light-months in radius, either over the 6-day interval between our present observations or between the present observations and ones from 2001. Any radio counterpart to the flare has a radio luminosity of <~ $2 \\times 10^{-4}$ times that of the nebula. Comparing our images to one from 2001, we do however find changes in radio brightness, up to 10% in amplitude, which occur on decade timescales throughout the nebula. The morphology of the changes is complex suggesting both filamentary and knotty structures. The variability is stronger, and the timescales likely somewhat shorter, nearer the centre of the nebula. We further find that even with the excellent uv~coverage and signal-to-noise of the VLA, deconvolution errors are much larger tha...

  5. iPTF Search for an Optical Counterpart to Gravitational Wave Trigger GW150914

    CERN Document Server

    Kasliwal, M M; Singer, L P; Corsi, A; Cao, Y; Barlow, T; Bhalerao, V; Bellm, E; Cook, D; Duggan, G E; Ferretti, R; Frail, D A; Horesh, A; Kendrick, R; Kulkarni, S R; Lunnan, R; Palliyaguru, N; Laher, R; Masci, F; Manulis, I; Miller, A A; Nugent, P E; Perley, D; Prince, T A; Rana, J; Rebbapragada, U; Sesar, B; Singhal, A; Surace, J; Van Sistine, A

    2016-01-01

    The intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) autonomously responded to and promptly tiled the error region of the first gravitational wave event GW150914 to search for an optical counterpart. Only a small fraction of the total localized region was immediately visible in the Northern night sky, due both to sun-angle and elevation constraints. Here, we report on the transient candidates identified and rapid follow-up undertaken to determine the nature of each candidate. Even in the small area imaged of 135 sq. deg., after extensive filtering, 8 candidates were deemed worthy of additional follow-up. Within two hours, all 8 were spectroscopically classified by the Keck II telescope. Curiously, even though such events are rare, one of our candidates was a superluminous supernova. We obtained radio data with the Very Large Array and X-ray follow-up with the Swift satellite for this transient. None of our candidates appear to be associated with the gravitational wave trigger, which is unsurprising given that GW...

  6. Experiment data report for semiscale Mod-1 Test S-06-5. (LOFT counterpart test). [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-06-5 of the Semiscale Mod-1 LOFT counterpart test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-06-5 was conducted from initial conditions of 2272 psia and 536/sup 0/F to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the broken loop cold leg piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold legs of the intact and broken loops to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. The purpose of Test S-06-5 was to assess the influence of the break nozzle geometry on core thermal and system response and on the subcooled and low quality mass flow rates at the break locations.

  7. The optical counterpart to the Be/X-ray binary SAX J2239.3+6116

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, P; Blinov, D

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to perform a detailed study of the optical variability of the Be/X-ray binary SAX J2239.3+6116. We obtained multi-colour BVRI photometry and polarimetry and 4000-7000 A spectroscopy. The optical counterpart to SAX J2239.3+6116 is a V=14.8 B0Ve star located at a distance of ~4.9 kpc. The interstellar reddening in the direction of the source is E(B-V)=1.70 mag. The monitoring of the Halpha line reveals a slow long-term decline of its equivalent width since 2001. The line profile is characterized by a stable double-peak profile with no indication of large-scale distortions. Although somewhat higher than predicted by the models, the optical polarization is consistent with electron scattering in the circumstellar disk. We attribute the long-term decrease in the intensity of the Halpha line to the dissipation of the circumstellar disk of the Be star. The longer variability timescales observed in SAX J2239.3+6116 compared to other Be/X-ray binaries may be explained by the wide orbit of ...

  8. Isotropic Detectable X-ray Counterparts to Gravitational Waves from Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Kisaka, Shota; Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Neutron star binary mergers are strong sources of gravitational waves (GWs). Promising electromagnetic counterparts are short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) but the emission is highly collimated. We propose that the scattering of the long-lasting plateau emission in short GRBs by the merger ejecta produces nearly isotropic emission for $\\sim 10^4$ s with flux $10^{-10}-10^{-13}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ in X-ray. This is detectable by wide field X-ray detectors such as ISS-Lobster, eROSITA and WF-MAXI, which are desired by the infrared and optical follow-ups to localize and measure the distance to the host galaxy. The scattered X-rays obtain linear polarization, which correlates with the jet direction, X-ray luminosity and GW polarizations. The activity of plateau emission is also a natural energy source of a macronova (or kilonova) detected in short GRB 130603B without the $r$-process radioactivity.

  9. A DECam Search for an Optical Counterpart to the LIGO Gravitational Wave Event GW151226

    CERN Document Server

    Cowperthwaite, P S; Soares-Santos, M; Annis, J; Brout, D; Brown, D A; Buckley-Geer, E; Cenko, S B; Chen, H Y; Chornock, R; Diehl, H T; Doctor, Z; Drlica-Wagner, A; Drout, M R; Farr, B; Finley, D A; Foley, R J; Fong, W; Fox, D B; Frieman, J; Garcia-Bellido, J; Gill, M S S; Gruendl, R A; Herner, K; Holz, D E; Kasen, D; Kessler, R; Lin, H; Margutti, R; Marriner, J; Matheson, T; Metzger, B D; Neilsen, E H; Quataert, E; Rest, A; Sako, M; Scolnic, D; Smith, N; Sobreira, F; Strampelli, G M; Villar, V A; Walker, A R; Wester, W; Williams, P K G; Yanny, B; Abbott, T M C; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Armstrong, R; Bechtol, K; Benoit-Levy, A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Burke, D L; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Castander, F J; Cunha, C E; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; Desai, S; Dietrich, J P; Evrard, A E; Neto, A Fausti; Fosalba, P; Gerdes, D W; Giannantonio, T; Goldstein, D A; Gruen, D; Gutierrez, G; Honscheid, K; James, D J; Johnson, M W G; Johnson, M D; Krause, E; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lima, M; Maia, M A G; Marshall, J L; Menanteau, F; Miquel, R; Mohr, J J; Nichol, R C; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Reil, K; Romer, A K; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Suchyta, E; Tarle, G; Thomas, D; Thomas, R C; Tucker, D L; Weller, J

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of a Dark Energy Camera (DECam) optical follow-up of the gravitational wave (GW) event GW151226, discovered by the Advanced LIGO detectors. Our observations cover 28.8 deg$^2$ of the localization region in the $i$ and $z$ bands (containing 3% of the BAYESTAR localization probability), starting 10 hours after the event was announced and spanning four epochs at $2-24$ days after the GW detection. We achieve $5\\sigma$ point-source limiting magnitudes of $i\\approx21.7$ and $z\\approx21.5$, with a scatter of $0.4$ mag, in our difference images. Given the two day delay, we search this area for a rapidly declining optical counterpart with $\\gtrsim 3\\sigma$ significance steady decline between the first and final observations. We recover four sources that pass our selection criteria, of which three are cataloged AGN. The fourth source is offset by $5.8$ arcsec from the center of a galaxy at a distance of 187 Mpc, exhibits a rapid decline by $0.5$ mag over $4$ days, and has a red color of $i-z\\appr...

  10. Moderately differentiated colorectal adenocarcinoma as a lymph node metastatic phenotype: comparison with well differentiated counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamura Koichi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differences between the metastatic property of moderately (Mod and well (Wel differentiated colorectal adenocarcinoma remain unclear. Since Mod is unable to form complete acini, therefore an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT can occur in that structure. Herein, we hypothesized that Mod metastasizes more easily than the Wel counterparts. Methods The medical records of 283 consecutive patients with Mod (n = 71 or Wel (n = 212 who underwent surgery were reviewed between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2003, for actual 5-year overall survival. We examined the differences between the clinicopathological characteristics of the Mod and the Wel groups. Results The lymph node involvement (p p = 0.0291, Relative Risk of 1.991: 95% Confidence Interval: 1.073-3.697. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that Mod had a trend towards a poor survival (p = 0.0517. Conclusion Mod metastasizes to the lymph nodes more easily in comparison to Wel. Therefore, patients with Mod may be considered the existence of lymph node involvement.

  11. A search for an optical counterpart to the gravitational wave event GW151226

    CERN Document Server

    Smartt, S J; Smith, K W; Huber, M E; Young, D R; Chen, T -W; Inserra, C; Wright, D E; Coughlin, M; Denneau, L; Flewelling, H; Heinze, A; Jerkstrand, A; Magnier, E A; Maguire, K; Mueller, B; Rest, A; Sherstyuk, A; Stalder, B; Schultz, A S B; Stubbs, C W; Tonry, J; Waters, C; Wainscoat, R; Della Valle, M; Dennefeld, M; Dimitriadis, G; Firth, R E; Fraser, M; Frohmaier, C; Gal-Yam, A; Harmanen, J; Kankare, E; Kotak, R; Kromer, M; Mandel, I; Sollerman, J; Gibson, B; Primak, N; Willman, M

    2016-01-01

    We present a search for an electromagnetic counterpart of the gravitational wave source GW151226. Using the Pan-STARRS1 telescope we mapped out 290 square degrees in the optical i_ps filter over a period starting 11.45hr after the LIGO information release (49.48hr after the GW trigger) and lasting for a further 28 days. We typically reached sensitivity limits of i_ps=20.3-20.8 and covered 26.5% of the LIGO probability skymap. We supplemented this with ATLAS survey data, reaching 31% of the probability region to shallower depths of m~19. We found 49 extragalactic transients (that are not obviously AGN), including a faint transient in a galaxy at 7Mpc (a luminous blue variable outburst) plus a rapidly decaying M-dwarf flare. Spectral classification of 20 other transient events showed them all to be supernovae. We found an unusual transient, PS15dpn, with an explosion date temporally coincident with GW151226 which evolved into a type Ibn supernova. The redshift of the transient is secure at z=0.1747 +/- 0.0001 a...

  12. A Flaring X-ray Source with an Halpha-bright Counterpart toward the SMC

    CERN Document Server

    Laycock, Silas

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of a flaring X-ray source with an optical counterpart with Halpha emission and red-excess, in the direction of the SMC. A 100 ksec X-ray observation with Chandra detected a flare lasting 6 ksec in the source CXO J005428.9-723107. The X-ray spectrum during the flare was consistent with a thermal plasma of temperature kT=2.5 keV. In quiescence following the flare the spectrum was softer (kT= 0.4 keV). Timing analysis did not reveal any significant periodicities or QPOs. Optical images taken with the Magellan-Baade 6.5m telescope show a single star in the (0.9") error circle. This star has apparent magnitude V=19.17, exhibits enhanced Halpha emission (Halpha - r = -0.88), and has a large proper motion. Alternative explanations are explored, leading to identification as a relatively nearby (Galactic) coronally active star of the BY Draconis class.

  13. Discovery of a possible X-ray counterpart to HESS J1804-216

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, A; Hiraga, J S; Hughes, J P; Kohmura, T; Kokubun, M; Maeda, Y; Matsumoto, H; Senda, A; Takahashi, T; Tsuboi, Y; Yamauchi, S; Yuasa, T; Bamba, Aya; Koyama, Katsuji; Hiraga, Junko S.; Hughes, John P.; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Kokubun, Motohide; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Matsumoto, Hironori; Senda, Atsushi; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tsuboi, Yohko; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Yuasa, Takayuki

    2006-01-01

    Suzaku deep observations have discovered two highly significant nonthermal X-ray sources, Suzaku J1804$-$2142 (Src 1) and Suzaku J1804$-$2140 (Src 2), positionally coincident with the unidentified TeV $\\gamma$-ray source, HESS J1804$-$216. The X-ray sources are not time variable and show no counterpart in other wavebands, except for the TeV source. Src 1 is unresolved at Suzaku spatial resolution, whereas Src 2 is extended or composed of multiple sources. The X-ray spectra are highly absorbed, hard, and featureless, and are well fitted by absorbed power-law models with best-fit photon indices and absorption columns of $-0.3_{-0.5}^{+0.5}$ and $0.2_{-0.2}^{+2.0}\\times 10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$ for Src 1, and $1.7_{-1.0}^{+1.4}$ and $1.1_{-0.6}^{+1.0}\\times 10^{23}$ cm$^{-2}$ for Src 2. The measured X-ray absorption to the latter source is significantly larger than the total Galactic neutral hydrogen column in that direction. The unabsorbed 2--10 keV band luminosities are $7.5\\times 10^{32}(d/{\\rm 5 kpc})^2$ ergs s$^{...

  14. Mycoplasma haemocanis – the canine hemoplasma and its feline counterpart in the genomic era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Nascimento Naíla C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mycoplasma haemocanis is a hemotrophic mycoplasma (hemoplasma, blood pathogen that may cause acute disease in immunosuppressed or splenectomized dogs. The genome of the strain Illinois, isolated from blood of a naturally infected dog, has been entirely sequenced and annotated to gain a better understanding of the biology of M. haemocanis. Its single circular chromosome has 919 992 bp and a low G + C content (35%, representing a typical mycoplasmal genome. A gene-by-gene comparison against its feline counterpart, M. haemofelis, reveals a very similar composition and architecture with most of the genes having conserved synteny extending over their entire chromosomes and differing only by a small set of unique protein coding sequences. As in M. haemofelis, M. haemocanis metabolic pathways are reduced and apparently rely heavily on the nutrients afforded by its host environment. The presence of a major percentage of its genome dedicated to paralogous genes (63.7% suggests that this bacterium might use antigenic variation as a mechanism to evade the host’s immune system as also observed in M. haemofelis genome. Phylogenomic comparisons based on average nucleotide identity (ANI and tetranucleotide signature suggest that these two pathogens are different species of mycoplasmas, with M. haemocanis infecting dogs and M. haemofelis infecting cats.

  15. Offshore wind power development in Europe and its comparison with onshore counterpart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgili, Mehmet; Yasar, Abdulkadir; Simsek, Erdogan [Electrical and Energy Department, Adana Vocational High School, Cukurova University, 01160 Adana (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    Wind power, as a renewable source of energy, produces no emissions and is an excellent alternative in environmental terms to conventional electricity production based on fuels such as oil, coal or natural gas. At present, the vast majority of wind power is generated from onshore wind farms. However, their growth is limited by the lack of inexpensive land near major population centers and the visual pollution caused by large wind turbines. Comparing with onshore wind power, offshore winds tend to flow at higher speeds than onshore winds, thus it allows turbines to produce more electricity. Estimates predict a huge increase in wind energy development over the next 20 years. Much of this development will be offshore wind energy. This implies that great investment will be done in offshore wind farms over the next decades. For this reason, offshore wind farms promise to become an important source of energy in the near future. In this study, history, current status, investment cost, employment, industry and installation of offshore wind energy in Europe are investigated in detail, and also compared to its onshore counterpart. (author)

  16. Probing extra dimension through gravitational wave observations of compact binaries and their electromagnetic counterparts

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hao; Huang, Fa Peng; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Meng, Xin-He; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The gravitational wave (GW) observations of compact binaries and their possible electromagnetic counterparts may be used to probe the nature of the extra dimension. It is widely accepted that gravitons and photons are the only two completely confirmed objects that can travel along the null geodesics in our four-dimensional space-time. But when one considers that there exists the fifth dimension and only the GW can propagate freely in the bulk, the causal propagations of the GW and electromagnetic wave (EMW) are in general different. In this paper, we compute the null geodesics of the GW and EMW in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-time and our four-dimensional universe in the present of the curvature of universe $k$, respectively. We show that for general cases the horizon radius of the GW is longer than the EMW within the equal time. Taking the GW 150914 event detected by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the X-ray event detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Mo...

  17. Combining Gravitational Wave Events with their Electromagnetic Counterparts: A Realistic Joint False-Alarm Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackley, Kendall; Eikenberry, Stephen; Klimenko, Sergey; LIGO Team

    2017-01-01

    We present a false-alarm rate for a joint detection of gravitational wave (GW) events and associated electromagnetic (EM) counterparts for Advanced LIGO and Virgo (LV) observations during the first years of operation. Using simulated GW events and their recostructed probability skymaps, we tile over the error regions using sets of archival wide-field telescope survey images and recover the number of astrophysical transients to be expected during LV-EM followup. With the known GW event injection coordinates we inject artificial electromagnetic (EM) sources at that site based on theoretical and observational models on a one-to-one basis. We calculate the EM false-alarm probability using an unsupervised machine learning algorithm based on shapelet analysis which has shown to be a strong discriminator between astrophysical transients and image artifacts while reducing the set of transients to be manually vetted by five orders of magnitude. We also show the performance of our method in context with other machine-learned transient classification and reduction algorithms, showing comparability without the need for a large set of training data opening the possibility for next-generation telescopes to take advantage of this pipeline for LV-EM followup missions.

  18. A Mid-Infrared Counterpart to the Magnetar 1E 2259+586

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, David L; Wang, Zhongxiang; Wachter, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of a 4.5 um counterpart to the anomalous X-ray pulsar (magnetar) 1E 2259+586 with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The mid-infrared flux density is 6.3+/-1.0 uJy at 4.5 um and <20 uJy (at 95% confidence) at 8 um, or 0.02% of the 2-10 keV X-ray flux (corrected for extinction). Combining our Spitzer measurements with previously published near-infrared data, we show that the overall infrared emission from 1E 2259+586 is qualitatively similar to that from the magnetar 4U 0142+61. Therefore the passive X-ray-heated dust disk model originally developed for 4U 0142+61 might also apply to 1E 2259+586. However, the IR data from this source can also be fitted by a simple power-law spectrum as might be expected from magnetospheric emission.

  19. Candidate counterparts to the soft gamma-ray flare in the direction of LS I +61303

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz-Arjonilla, A J; Combi, J A; Luque-Escamilla, P; Sanchez-Sutil, J R; Zabalza, V; Paredes, J M

    2009-01-01

    Context. A short duration burst reminiscent of a soft gamma-ray repeater/anomalous X-ray pulsar behaviour was detected in the direction of LS I +61 303 by the Swift satellite. While the association with this well known gamma-ray binary is likely, a different origin cannot be excluded. Aims. We explore the error box of this unexpected flaring event and establish the radio, near-infrared and X-ray sources in our search for any peculiar alternative counterpart. Methods. We carried out a combined analysis of archive Very Large Array radio data of LS I +61 303 sensitive to both compact and extended emission. We also reanalysed previous near infrared observations with the 3.5 m telescope of the Centro Astronomico Hispano Aleman and X-ray observations with the Chandra satellite. Results. Our deep radio maps of the LS I +61 303 environment represent a significant advancement on previous work and 16 compact radio sources in the LS I +61 303 vicinity are detected. For some detections, we also identify near infrared and...

  20. X-ray Sources and their Optical Counterparts in the Globular Cluster M4

    CERN Document Server

    Bassa, C; Homer, L; Verbunt, F; Gaensler, B M; Lewin, W H G; Anderson, S F; Margon, B; Kaspi, V M; Van der Klis, M; Bassa, Cees; Pooley, David; Homer, Lee; Verbunt, Frank; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Anderson, Scott F.; Margon, Bruce; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Klis, Michiel van der

    2004-01-01

    We report on the Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS-S3 imaging observation of the Galactic globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121). We detect 12 X-ray sources inside the core and 19 more within the cluster half-mass radius. The limiting luminosity of this observation is Lx~10e29 erg/sec for sources associated with the cluster, the deepest X-ray observation of a globular cluster to date. We identify 6 X-ray sources with known objects and use ROSAT observations to show that the brightest X-ray source is variable. Archival data from the Hubble Space Telescope allow us to identify optical counterparts to 16 X-ray sources. Based on the X-ray and optical properties of the identifications and the information from the literature, we classify two (possibly three) sources as cataclysmic variables, one X-ray source as a millisecond pulsar and 12 sources as chromospherically active binaries. Comparison of M4 with 47 Tuc and NGC 6397 suggests a scaling of the number of active binaries in these clusters with the cluster (core) mass.

  1. First low-latency LIGO+Virgo search for binary inspirals and their electromagnetic counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S.; Barayoga, J. C. B.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Beck, D.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Belletoile, A.; Belopolski, I.; Benacquista, M.; Berliner, J. M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogan, C.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, W.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M.; Coulon, J.-P.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, R. M.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Del Pozzo, W.; del Prete, M.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Emilio, M. Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Endrőczi, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Flanigan, M.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P. J.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Geng, R.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, N.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Greverie, C.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gupta, R.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Ha, T.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hendry, M. A.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Herrera, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, Y. J.; Jaranowski, P.; Jesse, E.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.

    2012-05-01

    Aims: The detection and measurement of gravitational-waves from coalescing neutron-star binary systems is an important science goal for ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. In addition to emitting gravitational-waves at frequencies that span the most sensitive bands of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, these sources are also amongst the most likely to produce an electromagnetic counterpart to the gravitational-wave emission. A joint detection of the gravitational-wave and electromagnetic signals would provide a powerful new probe for astronomy. Methods: During the period between September 19 and October 20, 2010, the first low-latency search for gravitational-waves from binary inspirals in LIGO and Virgo data was conducted. The resulting triggers were sent to electromagnetic observatories for followup. We describe the generation and processing of the low-latency gravitational-wave triggers. The results of the electromagnetic image analysis will be described elsewhere. Results: Over the course of the science run, three gravitational-wave triggers passed all of the low-latency selection cuts. Of these, one was followed up by several of our observational partners. Analysis of the gravitational-wave data leads to an estimated false alarm rate of once every 6.4 days, falling far short of the requirement for a detection based solely on gravitational-wave data.

  2. Coronal type III radio bursts and their X-ray flare and interplanetary type III counterparts

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, Hamish A S

    2016-01-01

    Type III bursts and hard X-rays are both produced by flare energetic electron beams. The link between both emissions has been investigated in many previous studies, but no statistical studies have compared both coronal and interplanetary type III bursts with X-ray flares. Using coronal radio events above 100 MHz exclusively from type III bursts, we revisited long-standing questions: Do all coronal type III bursts have X-ray counterparts. What correlation, if any, occurs between radio and X-ray intensities. What X-ray and radio signatures above 100 MHz occur in connection with interplanetary type III bursts below 14 MHz. We analysed data from 2002 to 2011 starting with coronal type III bursts above 100 MHz. We used RHESSI X-ray data greater than 6 keV to make a list of 321 events that have associated type III bursts and X-ray flares, encompassing at least 28 percent of the initial sample of type III events. We examined the timings, intensities, associated GOES class, and any interplanetary radio signature. For...

  3. Intramuscular keratocyst as a soft tissue counterpart of keratocystic odontogenic tumor: differential diagnosis by immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abé, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Essa, Ahmed; Babkair, Hamzah; Mikami, Toshihiko; Shingaki, Susumu; Kobayashi, Tadaharu; Hayashi, Takafumi; Cheng, Jun; Saku, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), a developmental jaw cyst previously referred to as odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), typically arises in the jawbone. In this article, however, we report a case of KCOT located within the temporalis muscle. We compared its immunohistochemical profiles with those of authentic jaw KCOT, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, and epidermoid cyst in order to consider whether a soft tissue counterpart of KCOT could be a separate disease entity. The patient was a 46-year-old man with a well-defined cystic lesion within the left temporalis muscle. On computed tomographic images, the lesion was recognized as a cystic lesion, although KCOT was not included in the clinical differential diagnoses. The location of the lesion was not within bone but, rather, within the temporalis muscle that was attached to the jawbones. Our review of the literature has disclosed more than 20 peripheral KCOT cases of the oral mucosa and more than 10 cases of the skin, but only 1 case arising in muscle. Immunohistochemical investigation of the present intramuscular case reveals KCOT-characteristic profiles distinct from the other 3 types of cysts investigated. The results indicate that KCOT-like lesions can arise within soft tissues, although use of the term odontogenic might seem inappropriate in those cases.

  4. Are red-tailed hawks and great horned owls diurnal-nocturnal dietary counterparts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, C.D.; Kochert, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Great Homed Owls (Bubo virginianus)are common in North America where they occupy a wide range of habitats, often sympatrically. The two species are similar in size and have been portrayed as ecological counterparts, eating the same prey by day and night. We tested the trophic similarity of the two species by comparing published dietary data from across the United States. Both species ate primarily mammals and birds, and mean proportions of those two prey types did not differ significantly between diets of the two raptors. Red-tailed Hawks ate significantly more reptiles, and Great Homed Owls significantly more invertebrates. Dietary diversity was not significantly different at the level of prey taxonomic class, and diet overlap between the two species averaged 91%. At the prey species level, dietary overlap averaged only 50%, and at that level Red-tailed Hawk dietary diversity was significantly greater than that of Great Horned Owls. Mean prey mass of Red-tailed Hawks was significantly greater than that of Great Homed Owls. Populations of the two species in the western United States differed trophically more than did eastern populations. We conclude that, although the two species are generalist predators, they take largely different prey species in the same localities resulting in distinctive trophic characteristics.

  5. Superatom spectroscopy and the electronic state correlation between elements and isoelectronic molecular counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppernick, Samuel J; Gunaratne, K D Dasitha; Castleman, A W

    2010-01-19

    Detailed in the present investigation are results pertaining to the photoelectron spectroscopy of negatively charged atomic ions and their isoelectronic molecular counterparts. Experiments utilizing the photoelectron imaging technique are performed on the negative ions of the group 10 noble metal block (i.e. Ni-, Pd-, and Pt-) of the periodic table at a photon energy of 2.33 eV (532 nm). The accessible electronic transitions, term energies, and orbital angular momentum components of the bound electronic states in the atom are then compared with photoelectron images collected for isoelectronic early transition metal heterogeneous diatomic molecules, M-X- (M = Ti,Zr,W; X = O or C). A superposition principle connecting the spectroscopy between the atomic and molecular species is observed, wherein the electronic structure of the diatomic is observed to mimic that present in the isoelectronic atom. The molecular ions studied in this work, TiO-, ZrO-, and WC- can then be interpreted as possessing superatomic electronic structures reminiscent of the isoelectronic elements appearing on the periodic table, thereby quantifying the superatom concept.

  6. Reversal of functional disorders by aspiration, expiration, and cough reflexes and their voluntary counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Zoltan; Donic, Viliam; Benacka, Roman; Gresova, Sona; Peregrim, Igor; Kundrik, Martin; Pallayova, Maria; Jakus, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Agonal gasping provoked by asphyxia can save ~15% of mammals even from untreated ventricular fibrillation (VF), but it fails to revive infants with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Our systematic study of airway reflexes in cats and other animals indicated that in addition to cough, there are two distinct airway reflexes that may contribute to auto-resuscitation. Gasp- and sniff-like spasmodic inspirations (SIs) can be elicited by nasopharyngeal stimulation, strongly activating the brainstem generator for inspiration, which is also involved in the control of gasping. This “aspiration reflex” (AspR) is characterized by SI without subsequent active expiration and can be elicited during agonal gasping, caused by brainstem trans-sections in cats. Stimulation of the larynx can activate the generator for expiration to evoke the expiration reflex (ExpR), manifesting with prompt expiration without preceding inspiration. Stimulation of the oropharynx and lower airways provokes the cough reflex (CR) which results from activating of both generators. The powerful potential of the AspR resembling auto-resuscitation by gasping can influence the control mechanisms of vital functions, mediating reversal of various functional disorders. The AspR in cats interrupted hypoxic apnea, laryngo- and bronchospasm, apneusis and even transient asphyxic coma, and can normalize various hypo- and hyper-functional disorders. Introduction of a nasogastric catheter evoked similar SIs in premature infants and interrupted hiccough attacks in adults. Coughing on demand can prevent anaphylactic shock and resuscitate the pertinent subject. Sniff representing nasal inspiratory pressure and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP) are voluntary counterparts of airway reflexes, and are useful for diagnosis and therapy of various cardio-respiratory and neuromuscular disorders. PMID:23248602

  7. Is robotic mitral valve surgery more expensive than its conventional counterpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Leonardo Secchin; Colafranceschi, Alexandre Siciliano

    2015-06-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'Is robotic mitral valve surgery more expensive than its conventional counterpart?' Altogether 19 papers were found using the reported search, of which 5 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. There is a general impression in the surgical community that robotic operations might incur prohibitive additional costs. There is a paucity of data in the literature regarding cost analysis in cardiac robotic surgery. From the five studies, four were single institution experiences and one was a database inquiry study. These four studies showed that operational costs are higher for robotic cases but this was partially (one study) or completely (three studies) offset by lower postoperative costs. Overall hospital costs were similar between the two approaches in three studies and one study showed higher costs in the robotic group. Higher operating theatre (OT) costs were driven mainly by use of robotic instruments (approximately US$1500 per case) and longer OT times. Savings in postoperative care were driven by shorter length of hospital stay (on average 2 days fewer in robotic cases) and lower morbidity. If amortization cost, that is, the value of the initial capital investment on the robotic system divided by all operations performed, is included in this analysis, robotic approach becomes significantly more expensive by approximately US$3400 per case. The fifth study was a large national database inquiry in which robotic approach was found to be more expensive by US$600 per case excluding amortization cost and by US$3700 if amortization is included. We conclude that the total hospital cost of robotic mitral valve surgery is slightly higher than conventional sternotomy surgery. If

  8. Energetic particle counterparts for geomagnetic pulsations of Pc1 and IPDP types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Yahnina

    Full Text Available Using the low-altitude NOAA satellite particle data, we study two kinds of localised variations of energetic proton fluxes at low altitude within the anisotropic zone equatorward of the isotropy boundary. These flux variation types have a common feature, i.e. the presence of precipitating protons measured by the MEPED instrument at energies more than 30 keV, but they are distinguished by the fact of the presence or absence of the lower-energy component as measured by the TED detector on board the NOAA satellite. The localised proton precipitating without a low-energy component occurs mostly in the morning-day sector, during quiet geomagnetic conditions, without substorm injections at geosynchronous orbit, and without any signatures of plasmaspheric plasma expansion to the geosynchronous distance. This precipitation pattern closely correlates with ground-based observations of continuous narrow-band Pc1 pulsations in the frequency range 0.1–2 Hz (hereafter Pc1. The precipitation pattern containing the low energy component occurs mostly in the evening sector, under disturbed geomagnetic conditions, and in association with energetic proton injections and significant increases of cold plasma density at geosynchronous orbit. This precipitation pattern is associated with geomagnetic pulsations called Intervals of Pulsations with Diminishing Periods (IPDP, but some minor part of the events is also related to narrow-band Pc1. Both Pc1 and IPDP pulsations are believed to be the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves generated by the ion-cyclotron instability in the equatorial plane. These waves scatter energetic protons in pitch angles, so we conclude that the precipitation patterns studied here are the particle counterparts of the ion-cyclotron waves.

    Key words. Ionosphere (particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, precipitating – Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions

  9. Life-cycle Analysis of Bioproducts and Their Conventional Counterparts in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Adom, Felix [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sather, Norm [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, Seth [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); He, Chang [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Gong, Jian [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Yue, Dajun [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); You, Fengqi [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    To further expand upon the literature in this field and to develop a platform for bioproduct LCA, we developed LCA results for ten bioproducts produced either from algal glycerol or from corn stover-derived sugars. We used Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model as the platform for this study. The data and calculations reported herein are available to GREET users in a bioproducts module included in the fall 2015 GREET release. This report documents our approach to this analysis and the results. In Chapter 2, we review the process we underwent to select the bioproducts for analysis based on market and technology readiness criteria. In Chapter 3, we review key parameters for production of the two feedstocks we considered: corn stover and algae. Given the lack of publicly available information about the production of bioproducts, which is caused in large part by the emerging nature of the industry, we developed Aspen Plus® simulations of the processes that could be used to produce each bioproduct. From these simulations, we extracted the energy and material flows of these processes, which were important inputs to the GREET bioproducts module. Chapter 4 provides the details of these Aspen Plus simulations. It is important to compare the LCA results for bioproducts to those for their petroleum counterparts. We therefore also developed material and energy flow data for conventional products based mostly on the literature. These data are described in Chapter 5 and are also included in the GREET bioproducts module. In Chapter 6, we present results from this analysis and examine areas for refinement and future research.

  10. A DECam Search for an Optical Counterpart to the LIGO Gravitational-wave Event GW151226

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Berger, E.; Soares-Santos, M.; Annis, J.; Brout, D.; Brown, D. A.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Chen, H. Y.; Chornock, R.; Diehl, H. T.; Doctor, Z.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Drout, M. R.; Farr, B.; Finley, D. A.; Foley, R. J.; Fong, W.; Fox, D. B.; Frieman, J.; Garcia-Bellido, J.; Gill, M. S. S.; Gruendl, R. A.; Herner, K.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kessler, R.; Lin, H.; Margutti, R.; Marriner, J.; Matheson, T.; Metzger, B. D.; Neilsen, E. H., Jr.; Quataert, E.; Rest, A.; Sako, M.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, N.; Sobreira, F.; Strampelli, G. M.; Villar, V. A.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Williams, P. K. G.; Yanny, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Fosalba, P.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannantonio, T.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Johnson, M. W. G.; Johnson, M. D.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D. L.; Weller, J.; DES Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    We report the results of a Dark Energy Camera optical follow-up of the gravitational-wave (GW) event GW151226, discovered by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory detectors. Our observations cover 28.8 deg2 of the localization region in the i and z bands (containing 3% of the BAYESTAR localization probability), starting 10 hr after the event was announced and spanning four epochs at 2-24 days after the GW detection. We achieve 5σ point-source limiting magnitudes of i≈ 21.7 and z≈ 21.5, with a scatter of 0.4 mag, in our difference images. Given the two-day delay, we search this area for a rapidly declining optical counterpart with ≳ 3σ significance steady decline between the first and final observations. We recover four sources that pass our selection criteria, of which three are cataloged active galactic nuclei. The fourth source is offset by 5.8 arcsec from the center of a galaxy at a distance of 187 Mpc, exhibits a rapid decline by 0.5 mag over 4 days, and has a red color of i-z≈ 0.3 mag. These properties could satisfy a set of cuts designed to identify kilonovae. However, this source was detected several times, starting 94 days prior to GW151226, in the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (dubbed as PS15cdi) and is therefore unrelated to the GW event. Given its long-term behavior, PS15cdi is likely a Type IIP supernova that transitioned out of its plateau phase during our observations, mimicking a kilonova-like behavior. We comment on the implications of this detection for contamination in future optical follow-up observations.

  11. Reversal of functional disorders by aspiration, expiration and cough reflexes and their voluntary counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan eTomori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agonal gasping provoked by asphyxia can save ~15% of mammals even from untreated ventricular fibrillation, but it fails to revive infants with sudden infant death syndrome. Our systematic study of airway reflexes in cats and other animals indicated that in addition to cough, there are 2 distinct airway reflexes that may contribute to auto-resuscitation. Gasp- and sniff-like spasmodic inspirations can be elicited by nasopharyngeal stimulation, strongly activating the brainstem generator for inspiration, which is also involved in the control of gasping. This aspiration reflex (AspR is characterized by spasmodic inspiration without subsequent active expiration and can be elicited during agonal gasping, caused by brainstem trans-sections in cats. Stimulation of the larynx can activate the generator for expiration to evoke the expiration reflex, manifesting with prompt expiration without preceding inspiration. Stimulation of the oro-pharynx and lower airways provokes the cough reflex which results from activating of both generators. The powerful potential of the AspR resembling auto-resuscitation by gasping can influence the control mechanisms of vital functions, mediating reversal of various functional disorders.The AspR in cats interrupted hypoxic apnea, laryngo- and bronchospasm, apneusis and even transient asphyxic coma, and can normalize various hypo- and hyper-functional disorders. Introduction of a nasogastric catheter evoked similar spasmodic inspirations in premature infants and interrupted hiccough attacks in adults. Coughing on demand can prevent anaphylactic shock and resuscitate the pertinent subject. Sniff representing nasal inspiratory pressure and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures are voluntary counterparts of airway reflexes, and are useful for diagnosis and therapy of various cardio-respiratory and neuromuscular disorders.

  12. Independent introductions and admixtures have contributed to adaptation of European maize and its American counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Jean-Tristan; Mary-Huard, Tristan; Rigaill, Guillem; Corti, Hélène; Vitte, Clémentine; Charcosset, Alain; Tenaillon, Maud I.

    2017-01-01

    Through the local selection of landraces, humans have guided the adaptation of crops to a vast range of climatic and ecological conditions. This is particularly true of maize, which was domesticated in a restricted area of Mexico but now displays one of the broadest cultivated ranges worldwide. Here, we sequenced 67 genomes with an average sequencing depth of 18x to document routes of introduction, admixture and selective history of European maize and its American counterparts. To avoid the confounding effects of recent breeding, we targeted germplasm (lines) directly derived from landraces. Among our lines, we discovered 22,294,769 SNPs and between 0.9% to 4.1% residual heterozygosity. Using a segmentation method, we identified 6,978 segments of unexpectedly high rate of heterozygosity. These segments point to genes potentially involved in inbreeding depression, and to a lesser extent to the presence of structural variants. Genetic structuring and inferences of historical splits revealed 5 genetic groups and two independent European introductions, with modest bottleneck signatures. Our results further revealed admixtures between distinct sources that have contributed to the establishment of 3 groups at intermediate latitudes in North America and Europe. We combined differentiation- and diversity-based statistics to identify both genes and gene networks displaying strong signals of selection. These include genes/gene networks involved in flowering time, drought and cold tolerance, plant defense and starch properties. Overall, our results provide novel insights into the evolutionary history of European maize and highlight a major role of admixture in environmental adaptation, paralleling recent findings in humans. PMID:28301472

  13. [Chronicity, chronicization, systematization of delusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapet, P; Fernandez, C; Galtier, M C; Gisselmann, A

    1984-05-01

    Chronicity in psychopathology is indicative of a term, a decay. Chronicization only leads the way to this term. Here, chronicization is taken literally as an inscription in the time course of delusions. The mechanism of systematization seems to be a central mark in the approach to chronic delusions. It is not an alienation or an irreversible closing but an attempted accommodation with reality in the life of psychotic subjects, irrespective of the delusional structure. The role of therapy and drug treatment as a follow-up may in that case assume another meaning.

  14. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M.; Froeling, Fieke EM

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas owing to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects 3–9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  15. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M.; Kadaba, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas due to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects between 3 and 9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  16. Optical Counterparts of Ultra-Luminous X-ray Sources identified from Archival Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2

    CERN Document Server

    Ptak, A; Van der Marel, R; Roye, E; Heckman, T; Towne, B

    2006-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of archival HST WFPC2 ``Association'' data sets that correlate with the Chandra positions of a set of 44 ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) of nearby galaxies. We have improved the Chandra-HST relative astrometry whenever possible. Disparate numbers of potential ULX counterparts are found, and in some cases none are found. The lack of or low number of counterparts in some cases may be due to insufficient depth in the WFPC2 images. Particularly in late-type galaxies, the HST image in the ULX region was often complex or crowded. We therefore address various scenarios for the nature of the ULX since it is not known which, if any, of the sources found are true counterparts. The optical luminosities of the sources are typically in the range 10^4-6 L_sun. In several cases color information is available, with the colors roughly tending to be more red in early-type galaxies. This suggests that, in general, the (potential) counterparts found in early-type galaxies are likely to be old...

  17. Herschel-ATLAS: VISTA VIKING near-IR counterparts in the Phase 1 GAMA 9h data

    CERN Document Server

    Fleuren, S; Dunne, L; Smith, D J B; Maddox, S J; González-Nuevo, J; Findlay, J; Auld, R; Baes, M; Bond, N A; Bonfield, D G; Bourne, N; Cooray, A; Buttiglione, S; Cava, A; Dariush, A; De Zotti, G; Driver, S P; Dye, S; Eales, S; Fritz, J; Gunawardhana, M L P; Hopwood, R; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Jarvis, M J; Kelvin, L; Lapi, A; Liske, J; Michalowski, M J; Negrello, M; Pascale, E; Pohlen, M; Prescott, M; Rigby, E E; Robotham, A; Scott, D; Temi, P; Thompson, M A; Valiante, E; van der Werf, P

    2012-01-01

    We identify near-infrared Ks band counterparts to Herschel-ATLAS sub-mm sources, using a preliminary object catalogue from the VISTA VIKING survey. The sub-mm sources are selected from the H-ATLAS Phase 1 catalogue of the GAMA 9h field, which includes all objects detected at 250, 350 or 500 um with the SPIRE instrument. We apply and discuss a likelihood ratio (LR) method for VIKING candidates within a search radius of 10" of the 22,000 SPIRE sources with a 5 sigma detection at 250 um. We find that 11,294(51%) of the SPIRE sources have a best VIKING counterpart with a reliability $R\\ge 0.8$, and the false identification rate of these is estimated to be 4.2%. We expect to miss ~5% of true VIKING counterparts. There is evidence from Z-J and J-Ks colours that the reliable counterparts to SPIRE galaxies are marginally redder than the field population. We obtain photometric redshifts for ~68% of all (non-stellar) VIKING candidates with a median redshift of 0.405. Comparing to the results of the optical identificati...

  18. Optical counterparts of two ultraluminous X-ray sources NGC4559 X-10 and NGC4395 ULX-1

    CERN Document Server

    Vinokurov, A; Atapin, K

    2016-01-01

    We study the optical counterparts of ultraluminous X-ray sources NGC4559 X-10 and NGC4395 ULX-1. Their absolute magnitudes, after taking the reddening into account, are $M_V \\approx -5.3$ and $M_V \\approx -6.2$, respectively. The spectral energy distribution of the NGC4559 X-10 counterpart is well fitted by a spectrum of an F-type star, whereas NGC4395 ULX-1 has a blue power-law spectrum. Optical spectroscopy of NGC4395 ULX-1 has shown a broad and variable HeII~$\\lambda$4686 emission, which puts this object in line with all the other spectrally-studied ULXs. Using the Swift archival X-ray data for NGC4395 ULX-1, we have found a period of $62.8\\pm 2.3$ days. The X-ray phase curve of the source is very similar to the precession curve of SS433. The optical variation of the counterpart (between two accurate measurements) amounts to 0.10 mag. Analyzing the absolute magnitudes of 16 well-studied ULX counterparts one may suggest that as the original accretion rate decreases (but nevertheless remains supercritical), ...

  19. The Effect of Counterpart Material on the Sliding Wear of TiAlN Coatings Deposited by Reactive Cathodic Pulverization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michell Felipe Cano Ordoñez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the effect of the counterpart materials (100Cr6, Al2O3 and WC-Co on the tribological properties of TiAlN thin films deposited on AISI H13 steel substrate by reactive magnetron co-sputtering. The structural characterization of the TiAlN films, performed by X-ray diffraction, showed (220 textured fcc crystalline structure. The values of hardness and elastic modulus obtained by nanoindentation were 27 GPa and 420 GPa, respectively, which resulted in films with a relatively high resistance to plastic deformation. Ball-on-disk sliding tests were performed using normal loads of 1 N and 3 N, and 0.10 m/s of tangential velocity. The wear coefficient of the films was determined by measuring the worn area using profilometry every 1000 cycles. The mechanical properties and the chemical stability of the counterpart material, debris formation and the contact stress influences the friction and the wear behavior of the studied tribosystems. Increasing the hardness of the counterpart decreases the coefficient of friction (COF due to lower counterpart material transference and tribofilm formation, which is able to support the contact pressure. High shear stress concentration at the coating/substrate interface was reported for higher load promoting failure of the film-substrate system for all tribopairs

  20. ON THE TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF THE DISK COUNTERPART OF TYPE II SPICULES IN THE QUIET SUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekse, D. H.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); De Pontieu, B. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab, Org. A021S, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    The newly established type II spicule has been speculated to provide enough hot plasma to play an important role in the mass loading and heating of the solar corona. With the identification of rapid blueshifted excursions (RBEs) as the on-disk counterpart of type II spicules we have analyzed three different high-quality timeseries with the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) at the Swedish Solar Telescope on La Palma and subjected to an automated detection routine to detect a large number of RBEs for statistical purposes. Our observations are of a quiet-Sun region at disk center and we find lower Doppler velocities, 15-40 km s{sup -1}, and Doppler widths, 2-15 km s{sup -1}, of RBEs than in earlier coronal hole studies, 30-50 km s{sup -1} and 7-23 km s{sup -1}, respectively. In addition, we examine the spatial dependence of Doppler velocities and widths along the RBE axis and conclude that there is no clear trend to this over the field of view or in individual RBEs in the quiet Sun at disk center. These differences with previous coronal hole studies are attributed to the more varying magnetic field configuration in quiet-Sun conditions. Using an extremely high-cadence data set has allowed us to improve greatly on the determination of lifetimes of RBEs, which we find to range from 5 to 60 s with an average lifetime of 30 s, as well as the transverse motions in RBEs, with transverse velocities up to 55 km s{sup -1} and averaging 12 km s{sup -1}. Furthermore, our measurements of the recurrence rates of RBEs provide important new constraints on coronal heating by spicules. We also see many examples of a sinusoidal wave pattern in the transverse motion of RBEs with periods averaging 54 s and amplitudes from 21.5 to 129 km which agrees well with previous studies of wave motion in spicules at the limb. We interpret the appearance of RBEs over their full length within a few seconds as the result of a combination of three kinds of motions as is earlier reported for

  1. Post-test analysis of the ROSA/LSTF and PKL counterpart test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos, S., E-mail: scarlos@iqn.upv.es [Departament d’Enginyeria Química i Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera, 14, València Spain (Spain); Querol, A., E-mail: anquevi@iqn.upv.es [Departament d’Enginyeria Química i Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera, 14, València Spain (Spain); Instituto de Seguridad Industrial, Radiofísica y Medioambiental, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera, 14, València (Spain); Gallardo, S., E-mail: sergalbe@iqn.upv.es [Departament d’Enginyeria Química i Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera, 14, València Spain (Spain); Instituto de Seguridad Industrial, Radiofísica y Medioambiental, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera, 14, València (Spain); Sanchez-Saez, F., E-mail: frasansa@etsii.upv.es [Departament d’Enginyeria Química i Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera, 14, València Spain (Spain); and others

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • TRACE modelization for PKL and ROSA/LSTF installations. • Secondary-side depressurization as accident management action. • CET vs PCT relation. • Analysis of differences in the vessel models. - Abstract: Experimental facilities are scaled models of commercial nuclear power plants, and are of great importance to improve nuclear power plants safety. Thus, the results obtained in the experiments undertaken in such facilities are essential to develop and improve the models implemented in the thermal-hydraulic codes, which are used in safety analysis. The experiments and inter-comparisons of the simulated results are usually performed in the frame of international programmes in which different groups of several countries simulate the behaviour of the plant under the accidental conditions established, using different codes and models. The results obtained are compared and studied to improve the knowledge on codes performance and nuclear safety. Thus, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), in the nuclear safety work area, auspices several programmes which involve experiments in different experimental facilities. Among the experiments proposed in NEA programmes, one on them consisted of performing a counterpart test between ROSA/LSTF and PKL facilities, with the main objective of determining the effectiveness of late accident management actions in a small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA). This study was proposed as a result of the conclusion obtained by the NEA Working Group on the Analysis and Management of Accidents, which analyzed different installations and observed differences in the measurements of core exit temperature (CET) and maximum peak cladding temperature (PCT). In particular, the transient consists of a small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) in a hot leg with additional failure of safety systems but with accident management measures (AM), consisting of a fast secondary-side depressurization, activated by the CET. The paper

  2. UNVEILING THE NATURE OF THE UNIDENTIFIED GAMMA-RAY SOURCES. IV. THE SWIFT CATALOG OF POTENTIAL X-RAY COUNTERPARTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paggi, A.; D' Abrusco, R.; Smith, H. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Massaro, F.; Funk, S. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Masetti, N. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Giroletti, M. [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Tosti, G., E-mail: apaggi@cfa.harvard.edu [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    A significant fraction (∼30%) of the high-energy γ-ray sources listed in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) catalog are still of unknown origin, having not yet been associated with counterparts at lower energies. To investigate the nature of these enigmatic sources, we present an extensive search of X-ray sources lying in the positional uncertainty region of a selected sample of these unidentified gamma-ray sources (UGSs) that makes use of all available observations performed by the Swift X-ray Telescope before 2013 March 31, available for 205 UGSs. To detect the fainter sources, we merged all the observations covering the Fermi LAT positional uncertainty region at a 95% level of confidence of each UGS. This yields a catalog of 357 X-ray sources, finding candidate X-ray counterparts for ∼70% of the selected sample. In particular, 25% of the UGSs feature a single X-ray source within their positional uncertainty region, while 45% have multiple X-ray sources. For each X-ray source, we also looked in the corresponding Swift UVOT merged images for optical and ultraviolet counterparts, also performing source photometry. We found ultraviolet-optical correspondences for ∼70% of the X-ray sources. We searched several major radio, infrared, optical, and ultraviolet surveys for possible counterparts within the positional error of the sources in the X-ray catalog to obtain additional information on their nature. Applying the kernel density estimation technique to infrared colors of Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer counterparts of our X-ray sources we select six γ-ray blazar candidates. In addition, comparing our results with previous analyses, we select 11 additional γ-ray blazar candidates.

  3. Ear infection - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... up. When this happens, infection can occur. A chronic ear infection develops when fluid or an infection ...

  4. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Chronic Pelvic Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  5. Employees with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one in five Americans suffer from chronic pain (Sternberg, 2005). What is chronic pain? While acute pain ... nih.gov/disorders/chronic_pain/chronic_pain.htm Sternberg, S. (2005). Chronic pain: The enemy within. Retrieved December ...

  6. An optimal method for scheduling observations of large sky error regions for finding optical counterparts to transients

    CERN Document Server

    Rana, Javed; Gadre, Bhooshan; Bhalerao, Varun; Bose, Sukanta

    2016-01-01

    The discovery and subsequent study of optical counterparts to transient sources is crucial for their complete astrophysical understanding. Various gamma ray burst (GRB) detectors, and more notably the ground--based gravitational wave detectors, typically have large uncertainties in the sky positions of detected sources. Searching these large sky regions spanning hundreds of square degrees is a formidable challenge for most ground--based optical telescopes, which can usually image less than tens of square degrees of the sky in a single night. We present algorithms for optimal scheduling of such follow--up observations in order to maximize the probability of imaging the optical counterpart, based on the all--sky probability distribution of the source position. We incorporate realistic observing constraints like the diurnal cycle, telescope pointing limitations, available observing time, and the rising/setting of the target at the observatory location. We use simulations to demonstrate that our proposed algorith...

  7. Comparison of Physical Fitness Parameters with EUROFIT Test Battery of Male Adolescent Soccer Players and Sedentary Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür ERİKOĞLU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare physical fitness parameters of male adolescent soccer players and sedentary counterparts. A total of 26 male adolescents participated in this study voluntarily: Active soccer players (n: 3, age x : 13,00 ± 0,00 and sedentary counterparts (n: 13, age x :12,92 ± 0,75. The EUROFIT test battery was used to determine physical fitness. The test battery includes body height and weight measurements, touching the discs, flamingo balan ce, throwing health ball, vertical jumping, sit and reach, sit - up for 30 s, 20 meter sprint run, and 20 meter shuttle run tests. Data were analyzed by Mann Whitney U test. Significance was defined as p.05. In conclusion, children who do sports are more successful on most of the fitness parameters than sedentary children.

  8. Effect of counterpart metals in carbon-supported Pt-based catalysts prepared using radiation chemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Tomohisa; Seino, Satoshi; Matsuura, Yoshiyuki; Otake, Hiroaki; Kugai, Junichiro; Ohkubo, Yuji; Nitani, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takao A.

    2017-04-01

    The process of nanoparticle formation by radiation chemical synthesis in a heterogeneous system has been investigated. Carbon-supported Pt-based bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized using a high-energy electron beam. Rh, Cu, Ru, and Sn were used as counterpart metals. The nanoparticles were characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. PtRh formed a uniform random alloy nanoparticle, while Cu partially formed an alloy with Pt and the remaining Cu existed as CuO. PtRu formed an alloy structure with a composition distribution of a Pt-rich core and Ru-rich shell. No alloying was observed in PtSn, which had a Pt-SnO2 structure. The alloy and oxide formation mechanisms are discussed considering the redox potentials, the standard enthalpy of oxide formation, and the solid solubilities of Pt and the counterpart metals.

  9. Quest for COSMOS submillimeter galaxy counterparts using CARMA and VLA: Identifying three high-redshift starburst galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Smolcic, V; Aravena, M; Ilbert, O; Yun, M S; Sheth, K; Salvato, M; McCracken, H J; Diener, C; Aretxaga, I; Riechers, D A; Finoguenov, A; Bertoldi, F; Capak, P; Hughes, D; Karim, A; Schinnerer, E; Scoville, N Z; Wilson, G

    2012-01-01

    We report on interferometric observations at 1.3 mm at 2"-3" resolution using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). We identify multi-wavelength counterparts of three submillimeter galaxies (SMGs; F(1mm)>5.5 mJy) in the COSMOS field, initially detected with MAMBO and AzTEC bolometers at low, ~10"-30", resolution. All three sources -- AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3 and Cosbo-8 -- are identified to coincide with positions of 20 cm radio sources. Cosbo-3, however, is not associated with the most likely radio counterpart, closest to the MAMBO source position, but that further away from it. This illustrates the need for intermediate-resolution (~2") mm-observations to identify the correct counterparts of single-dish detected SMGs. All of our three sources become prominent only at NIR wavelengths, and their mm-to-radio flux based redshifts suggest that they lie at redshifts z>~2. As a proof of concept, we show that photometric redshifts can be well determined for SMGs, and we find photometric-red...

  10. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey: optical catalogue and point-source counterparts to X-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wevers, T; Jonker, P G; Bassa, C; Nelemans, G; van Grunsven, T; Gonzalez-Solares, E A; Torres, M A P; Heinke, C; Steeghs, D; Maccarone, T J; Britt, C; Hynes, R I; Johnson, C; Wu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS), we present a catalogue of optical sources in the GBS footprint. This consists of two regions centered at Galactic latitude b = 1.5 degrees above and below the Galactic Centre, spanning (l x b) = (6x1) degrees. The catalogue consists of 2 or more epochs of observations for each line of sight in r', i' and H{\\alpha} filters. It is complete down to r' = 20.2 and i' = 19.2 mag; the mean 5{\\sigma} depth is r' = 22.5 and i' = 21.1 mag. The mean root-mean-square residuals of the astrometric solutions is 0.04 arcsec. We cross-correlate this optical catalogue with the 1640 unique X-ray sources detected in Chandra observations of the GBS area, and find candidate optical counterparts to 1480 X-ray sources. We use a false alarm probability analysis to estimate the contamination by interlopers, and expect ~ 10 per cent of optical counterparts to be chance alignments. To determine the most likely counterpart for each X-ray source, we compute the likelihood ratio for all o...

  11. Search of MeV-GeV counterparts of TeV sources with AGILE in pointing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappoldi, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Pittori, C.; Longo, F.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Verrecchia, F.; Tavani, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Chen, A. W.; Colafrancesco, S.; Donnarumma, I.; Giuliani, A.; Morselli, A.; Sabatini, S.; Vercellone, S.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Known TeV sources detected by major Čerenkov telescopes are investigated to identify possible MeV-GeV γ-ray counterparts. Aims: A systematic study of the known sources in the web-based TeVCat catalog has been performed to search for possible γ-ray counterparts on the AGILE data collected during the first period of operations in observing pointing mode. Methods: For each TeV source, a search for a possible γ-ray counterpart that is based on a multi-source maximum likelihood algorithm is performed on the AGILE data taken with the GRID instrument from July 2007 to October 2009. Results: In the case of high-significance detection, the average γ-ray flux is estimated. For cases of low-significance detection the 95% confidence level (CL) flux upper limit is given. 52 TeV sources out of 152 (corresponding to ~34% of the analysed sample) show a significant excess in the AGILE data covering the pointing observation period. Conclusions: This analysis found 26 new AGILE sources with respect to the AGILE reference catalogs, 15 of which are galactic, 7 are extragalactic and 4 are unidentified. Detailed tables with all available information on the analysed sources are presented. An interactive online version of the considered source list including all the analysis results is also available at the website http://www.asdc.asi.it/agiletevcat/

  12. Discovery of the Optical/Ultraviolet/Gamma-ray Counterpart to the Eclipsing Millisecond Pulsar J1816+4510

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, D L; Ransom, S M; Roberts, M S E; Kotulla, R; Archibald, A M; Biwer, C M; Boyles, J; Dartez, L; Day, D F; Ford, A J; Garcia, A; Hessels, J W T; Jenet, F A; Karako, C; Kaspi, V M; Kondratiev, V I; Lorimer, D R; Lynch, R S; McLaughlin, M A; Rohr, M D W; Siemens, X; Stairs, I H; van Leeuwen, J

    2012-01-01

    The energetic, eclipsing millisecond pulsar J1816+4510 was recently discovered in a low-frequency radio survey with the Green Bank Telescope. With an orbital period of 8.7 hr and minimum companion mass of 0.16 Msun it appears to belong to an increasingly important class of pulsars that are ablating their low-mass companions. We report the discovery of the gamma-ray counterpart to this pulsar, and present a likely optical/ultraviolet counterpart as well. Using the radio ephemeris we detect pulsations in the unclassified gamma-ray source 2FGL J1816.5+4511, implying an efficiency of ~25% in converting the pulsar's spin-down luminosity into gamma-rays and adding PSR J1816+4510 to the large number of millisecond pulsars detected by Fermi. The likely optical/UV counterpart was identified through position coincidence (15,000 K it would be among the brightest and hottest of low-mass pulsar companions, and appears qualitatively different from other eclipsing pulsar systems. In particular, current data suggest that it ...

  13. Discovery of a red supergiant counterpart to RX~J004722.4-252051, a ULX in NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Heida, M; Jonker, P G; Servillat, M; Repetto, S; Roberts, T P; Walton, D J; Moon, D -S; Harrison, F A

    2015-01-01

    We present two epochs of near-infrared spectroscopy of the candidate red supergiant counterpart to RX~J004722.4-252051, a ULX in NGC 253. We measure radial velocities of the object and its approximate spectral type by cross-correlating our spectra with those of known red supergiants. Our VLT/X-shooter spectrum is best matched by that of early M-type supergiants, confirming the red supergiant nature of the candidate counterpart. The radial velocity of the spectrum, taken on 2014, August 23, is $417 \\pm 4$ km/s. This is consistent with the radial velocity measured in our spectrum taken with Magellan/MMIRS on 2013, June 28, of $410 \\pm 70$ km/s, although the large error on the latter implies that a radial velocity shift expected for a black hole of tens of $M_\\odot$ can easily be hidden. Using nebular emission lines we find that the radial velocity due to the rotation of NGC 253 is 351 $\\pm$ 4 km/s at the position of the ULX. Thus the radial velocity of the counterpart confirms that the source is located in NGC ...

  14. [Chronic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Barrios, R

    1995-01-01

    Medical literature about chronic hepatitis is reviewed. This unresolving disease caused by viruses, drugs or unknown factors may progress to in cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. A classification based on liver biopsy histology into chronic persistent and chronic active types has been largely abandoned and emphasis is placed on recognizing the etiology of the various types. One is associated with continuing hepatitis B virus infection; another is related to chronic hepatitis C virus infection and the third is termed autoinmune, because of the association with positive serum autoantibodies. A fourth type with similar clinical functional and morphologic features is found with some drug reactions. Long term corticoesteroid therapy is usually successful in autoinmune type. Associations between antibodies to liver-kidney microsomes and the hepatitis C virus can cause diagnostic difficulties. Antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C with interpheron alfa is employed, controlling symptoms and abnormal biochemistry and the progression to cirrhosis and liver cancer in 30 to 40% patients. Alternative therapies or combinations with interpheron are being evaluated waiting for final results.

  15. Chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-06-01

    Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understanding of the bizarre epidemiology and course of the disease. A life-long and aggressive inflammation in gastritis results in destruction (atrophic gastritis) of stomach mucosa with time (years and decades). The progressive worsening of atrophic gastritis results subsequently in dysfunctions of stomach mucosa. Atrophic gastritis will finally end up in a permanently acid-free stomach in the most extreme cases. Severe atrophic gastritis and acid-free stomach are the highest independent risk conditions for gastric cancer known so far. In addition to the risks of malignancy and peptic ulcer, acid-free stomach and severe forms of atrophic gastritis may associate with failures in absorption of essential vitamins, like vitamin B12, micronutrients (like iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc), diet and medicines.

  16. QUEST FOR COSMOS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY COUNTERPARTS USING CARMA AND VLA: IDENTIFYING THREE HIGH-REDSHIFT STARBURST GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolcic, V. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching b. Muenchen (Germany); Navarrete, F.; Bertoldi, F. [Argelander Institut for Astronomy, Auf dem Huegel 71, Bonn D-53121 (Germany); Aravena, M.; Sheth, K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ilbert, O. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Universite de Provence, CNRS, BP 8, Traverse du Siphon, F-13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Yun, M. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Salvato, M.; Finoguenov, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); McCracken, H. J. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universit Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Diener, C. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zrich, Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D.; Wilson, G. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Riechers, D. A.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N. Z. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Karim, A.; Schinnerer, E. [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg D-69117 (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    We report on interferometric observations at 1.3 mm at 2''-3'' resolution using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We identify multi-wavelength counterparts of three submillimeter galaxies (SMGs; F{sub 1m} > 5.5 mJy) in the COSMOS field, initially detected with MAMBO and AzTEC bolometers at low, {approx}10''-30'', resolution. All three sources-AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8-are identified to coincide with positions of 20 cm radio sources. Cosbo-3, however, is not associated with the most likely radio counterpart, closest to the MAMBO source position, but with that farther away from it. This illustrates the need for intermediate-resolution ({approx}2'') mm-observations to identify the correct counterparts of single-dish-detected SMGs. All of our three sources become prominent only at NIR wavelengths, and their mm-to-radio flux based redshifts suggest that they lie at redshifts z {approx}> 2. As a proof of concept, we show that photometric redshifts can be well determined for SMGs, and we find photometric redshifts of 5.6 {+-} 1.2, 1.9{sup +0.9}{sub -0.5}, and {approx}4 for AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8, respectively. Using these we infer that these galaxies have radio-based star formation rates of {approx}> 1000 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}and IR luminosities of {approx}10{sup 13} L{sub Sun} consistent with properties of high-redshift SMGs. In summary, our sources reflect a variety of SMG properties in terms of redshift and clustering, consistent with the framework that SMGs are progenitors of z {approx} 2 and today's passive galaxies.

  17. Approach for mechanism of BH3 domain counterpart BH3I-2′ inducing colorectal cancer cell apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Wan-yu; LIU Yang; ZHANG Zhi-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective To discuss mechanism of BH3 domain counterpart BH3I-2' inducing colorectal cancer cell apoptosis. Methods Detected inhibition ratio and apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells HCT-116, which were treated by BH3I-2', with microplate reader and flow cytometry. Results Inhibition ratio of colorectal cancer cells, which were treated by BH3I-2', could reach about 50 %. Ratio of viable apoptotic cell decreased and that of non-viable apoptotie cell increased as time went. Conclusions BH3I-2' can induce colorectal cancer cell apoptosis.

  18. The covalently bound dimer ion HC dbnd N sbnd C dbnd NH rad + and its neutral counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobst, Karl J.; Terlouw, Johan K.

    2010-09-01

    Model chemistry calculations (CBS-QB3 and CBS-APNO methods) and tandem mass spectrometry based experiments indicate that dissociative ionization of 2-methoxy-s-triazine (consecutive losses of CH2O and HCN) yields the elusive covalently bound [H,C,N] dimer ion HCdbnd Nsbnd Cdbnd NHrad+, a species of interest in astrochemistry. Neutralization-Reionization Mass Spectrometry (NRMS) experiments indicate that its neutral counterpart, HCdbnd Nsbnd Cdbnd NH, is a kinetically stable molecule in the rarefied gas-phase.

  19. SeeDNA: A Visualization Tool for K-string Content of Long DNA Sequences and Their Randomized Counterparts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junjie Shen; Shuyu Zhang; Hoong-Chien Lee; Bailin Hao

    2004-01-01

    An interactive tool to visualize the K-string composition of long DNA sequences including bacterial complete genomes is described. It is especially useful for exploring short palindromic structures in the sequences. The SeeDNA program runs on Red Hat Linux with GTK+ support. It displays two-dimensional (2D) or one-dimensional (1D) histograms of the K-string distribution of a given sequence and/or its randomized counterpart. It is also capable of showing the difference of K-string distributions between two sequences. The C source code using the GTK+package is freely available.

  20. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pelvic Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  1. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information > Children/Pediatric > Chronic Pancreatitis in Children test Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child ... pancreatitis will develop diabetes in adolescence. Who gets chronic pancreatitis? Those at risk for chronic pancreatitis are ...

  2. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Chronic Beryllium Disease Chronic Beryllium Disease Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... MD, MSPH, FCCP (February 01, 2016) What is chronic beryllium disease (CBD)? Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is ...

  3. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause ...

  4. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  5. Predictors of academic achievement in adolescents with dispositions to resilience and non-resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gaxiola Romero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are risk factors influencing academic achievement in high school adolescents that can be contextual and individual. Resilience is the ability of individuals to cope with challenging life experiences. The study aimed to prove an hypothetic model of structural equations in two groups of high school students, a dispositional resilience group and a non-dispositional resilience group, to assess the effects of contextual variables, goals and self-regulation on academic achievement. Results show differences in the variables that explain academic achievement in both groups.

  6. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis; Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis; Lymphadenoid goiter - Hashimoto; Hypothyroidism - Hashimoto; Type 2 polyglandular autoimmune ...

  7. A panchromatic study of BLAST counterparts: total star-formation rate, morphology, AGN fraction and stellar mass

    CERN Document Server

    Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Chapin, Edward L; Cortese, Luca; Devlin, Mark J; Dye, Simon; Eales, Stephen; Griffin, Matthew; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C; Marsden, Gaelen; Mauskopf, Philip; Netterfield, Calvin B; Pascale, Enzo; Scott, Douglas; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole; Viero, Marco; Wiebe, Donald

    2010-01-01

    We carry out a multi-wavelength study of individual galaxies detected by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) and identified at other wavelengths, using data spanning the radio to the ultraviolet (UV). We develop a Monte Carlo method to account for flux boosting, source blending, and correlations among bands, which we use to derive deboosted far-infrared (FIR) luminosities for our sample. We estimate total star-formation rates for BLAST counterparts with z 10^11 L_sun, z > 0.5, but the contribution from unobscured starlight cannot be neglected at L_FIR < 10^11 L_sun, z < 0.25. We assess that about 20% of the galaxies in our sample show indication of a type-1 active galactic nucleus (AGN), but their submillimeter emission is mainly due to star formation in the host galaxy. We compute stellar masses for a subset of 92 BLAST counterparts; these are relatively massive objects with a median mass of 10^11 M_sun. We argue that BLAST is bridging the mass gap at 0 < z < 2 betwe...

  8. Detection of an Optical Counterpart to the ALFALFA Ultra-compact High-velocity Cloud AGC 249525

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesh, William; Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Janowiecki, Steven; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Cannon, John M.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the detection at >98% confidence of an optical counterpart to AGC 249525, an ultra-compact high-velocity cloud (UCHVC) discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey blind neutral hydrogen survey. UCHVCs are compact, isolated H i clouds with properties consistent with their being nearby low-mass galaxies, but without identified counterparts in extant optical surveys. Analysis of the resolved stellar sources in deep g- and i-band imaging from the WIYN pODI camera reveals a clustering of possible red giant branch stars associated with AGC 249525 at a distance of 1.64 ± 0.45 Mpc. Matching our optical detection with the H i synthesis map of AGC 249525 from Adams et al. shows that the stellar overdensity is exactly coincident with the highest-density H i contour from that study. Combining our optical photometry and the H i properties of this object yields an absolute magnitude of -7.1≤slant {M}V≤slant -4.5, a stellar mass between 2.2+/- 0.6× {10}4 {M}⊙ and 3.6+/- 1.0× {10}5 {M}⊙ , and an H i to stellar mass ratio between 9 and 144. This object has stellar properties within the observed range of gas-poor ultra-faint dwarfs in the Local Group, but is gas-dominated.

  9. The Effect of the Negotiator's Social Power as a Function of the Counterpart's Emotional Reactions in a Computer Mediated Negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Hareli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A negotiator’s own power and their counterpart’s emotional reaction to the negotiation both influence the outcome of negotiations. The present research addressed the question of their relative importance. On one hand, social power should be potent regardless of the other’s emotions. On the other hand, the counterpart’s emotional reactions inform about the ongoing state of the negotiation, and as such are more diagnostic than the more distal power cue. In a simulated computer mediated negotiation, 248 participants assumed the role of a vendor of computerized avionics test equipment and their objective was to negotiate the price, the warranty period, and the number of software updates that the buyer will receive free of charge. Participants negotiated the sale after being primed with either high or low power or not primed at all (control condition. They received information that their counterpart was either happy or angry or emotionally neutral. The findings showed that even though power was an important factor at the start of negotiations, the informative value of emotion information took precedence over time. This implies that emotional information may erase any advantage that counterparts have in a negotiation thanks to their higher social power.

  10. An Enhanced Method for Scheduling Observations of Large Sky Error Regions for Finding Optical Counterparts to Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Javed; Singhal, Akshat; Gadre, Bhooshan; Bhalerao, Varun; Bose, Sukanta

    2017-04-01

    The discovery and subsequent study of optical counterparts to transient sources is crucial for their complete astrophysical understanding. Various gamma-ray burst (GRB) detectors, and more notably the ground-based gravitational wave detectors, typically have large uncertainties in the sky positions of detected sources. Searching these large sky regions spanning hundreds of square degrees is a formidable challenge for most ground-based optical telescopes, which can usually image less than tens of square degrees of the sky in a single night. We present algorithms for better scheduling of such follow-up observations in order to maximize the probability of imaging the optical counterpart, based on the all-sky probability distribution of the source position. We incorporate realistic observing constraints such as the diurnal cycle, telescope pointing limitations, available observing time, and the rising/setting of the target at the observatory’s location. We use simulations to demonstrate that our proposed algorithms outperform the default greedy observing schedule used by many observatories. Our algorithms are applicable for follow-up of other transient sources with large positional uncertainties, such as Fermi-detected GRBs, and can easily be adapted for scheduling radio or space-based X-ray follow-up.

  11. Geographical structuring of Trypanosoma cruzi populations from Chilean Triatoma infestans triatomines and their genetic relationship with other Latino American counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, J; Rojas, T; DÍaz, F; Miranda, S; Jercic, M I; González, C; Coñoepán, W; Pichuantes, S; RodrÍguez, J; Gajardo, M; Sánchez, G

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain more information about the population structure of Chilean Trypanosoma cruzi, and their genetic relationship with other Latino American counterparts, we performed the study of T. cruzi samples detected in the midgut content of Triatoma infestans insects from three endemic regions of Chile. The genetic characteristics of these samples were analysed using microsatellite markers and PCR conditions that allow the detection of predominant T. cruzi clones directly in triatomine midgut content. Population genetic analyses using the Fisher’s exact method, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and the determination of FST showed that the northern T. cruzi population sample was genetically differentiated from the two southern population counterparts. Further analysis showed that the cause of this genetic differentiation was the asymmetrical distribution of TcIII T. cruzi predominant clones. Considering all triatomines from the three regions, the most frequent predominant lineages were TcIII (38%), followed by TcI (34%) and hybrid (8%). No TcII lineage was observed along the predominant T. cruzi clones. The best phylogenetic reconstruction using the shared allelic genetic distance was concordant with the population genetic analysis and tree topology previously described studying foreign samples. The correlation studies showed that the lineage TcIII from the III region was genetically differentiated from the other two, and this differentiation was correlated with geographical distance including Chilean and mainly Brazilian samples. It will be interesting to investigate whether this geographical structure may be related with different clinical manifestation of Chagas disease. PMID:22325822

  12. Results from GROCSE, A Real-Time Search for the Optical Counterparts of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Carl; Lee, Brian; Barthelmy, Scott; Cline, Thomas; Gehrels, Neil; Ables, Elden; Bionta, Richard; Ott, Linda; Park, Hye-Sook; Fishman, Gerald; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Meegan, Charles; Ferguson, Donald

    1994-12-01

    Since January 12, 1994, an experiment called GROCSE (Gamma-Ray Optical Counterpart Search Experiment) has been monitoring the night sky for the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts. The basic detector consists of an 8.9 cm aperture electronic camera attached to a rapid slewing computer-controlled mount. This device is activated by the real-time telemetry data stream from the BATSE instrument onboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. The BATSE signals are filtered and broadcast via the BACODINE network to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using the UNIX socket communication protocol linked via Internet. The typical response time to obtain the first image is approximately 15 seconds following the initial burst detection. The field of view of the camera is restricted to 0.18 sterdians to match the online angular position errors associated with the BACODINE GRB coordinate estimates. Under dark skys, the limiting detection magnitude is 8.5. By October 1994, the GROCSE camera has been triggered by seven BATSE bursts. Data from these events are being analyzed to provide either a detection or an upper limit for GRB optical luminosity. Results will be presented for the ratio of optical to gamma-ray intensity. A second generation camera system is currently under development that is expected to push the limiting magnitude to approximately m_v = 13. The status of this effort will be briefly reported.

  13. Identification of the optical and quiescent counterparts to the bright X-ray transient in NGC 6440

    CERN Document Server

    in 't Zand, J J M; Pooley, D; Verbunt, F; Wijnands, R; Lewin, W H G

    2001-01-01

    After 3 years of quiescence, the globular cluster NGC 6440 exhibited a bright transient X-ray source turning on in August 2001, as noted with the RXTE All-Sky Monitor. We carried out a short target of opportunity observation with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and are able to associate the transient with the brightest of 24 X-ray sources detected during quiescence in July 2000 with Chandra. Furthermore, we securely identify the optical counterpart and determine that the 1998 X-ray outburst in NGC 6440 was from the same object. This is the first time that an optical counterpart to a transient in a globular cluster is securely identified. Since the transient is a type I X-ray burster, it is established that the compact accretor is a neutron star. Thus, this transient provides an ideal case to study the quiescent emission in the optical and X-ray of a transiently accreting neutron star while knowing the distance and reddening accurately. One model that fits the quiescent spectrum is an absorbed power law plus neu...

  14. Are both BL Lacs and pulsar wind nebulae the astrophysical counterparts of IceCube neutrino events?

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, P

    2014-01-01

    IceCube has recently reported the discovery of high-energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin. These are the highest energy particles produced in cosmic ray interactions ever detected, opening up the possibility of investigating the PeV (10^15 eV) sky. Because of their rather large positional uncertainties, these events have so far not been associated to any astrophysical source. We have found plausible counterparts in the GeV - TeV band by using joint spatial and energetic information. Namely, we looked for sources in the available high-energy gamma-ray catalogues (TeVCat, WHSP, 1FHL) within the median error circles of the IceCube events. We then built the spectral energy distribution of these sources and compared it with the energy and flux of the corresponding neutrino events. The likely counterparts include "classic" BL Lacs, such as MKN 421 and PG 1553+113, as well as Galactic pulsar wind nebulae, namely MGRO J1908+06 and HESS J1809-193. This might indicate the emerging of a mixed scenario of Galactic and...

  15. Corrosion Behavior of AlSi10Mg Alloy Produced by Additive Manufacturing (AM vs. Its Counterpart Gravity Cast Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Leon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The attractiveness of additive manufacturing (AM relates to the ability of this technology to rapidly produce very complex components at affordable costs. However, the properties and corrosion behavior, in particular, of products produced by AM technology should at least match the properties obtained by conventional technologies. The present study aims at evaluating the corrosion behavior and corrosion fatigue endurance of AlSi10Mg alloy produced by selective laser melting (SLM in comparison with its conventional counterpart, gravity cast alloy. The results obtained indicate that the corrosion resistance of the printed and cast alloys was relatively similar, with a minor advantage to the printed alloy. The corrosion fatigue endurance of the printed alloy was relatively improved compared to the cast alloy. This was mainly attributed to the significant differences between the microstructure and defect characteristics of those two alloys.

  16. Reciprocal functional pseudotyping of HIV-1 and HTLV-1 viral genomes by the heterologous counterpart envelope proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klase, Zachary; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2013-08-15

    HIV-1 and HTLV-1 can infect CD4+ T cells and can co-infect the same individual. In principle, it is possible that both viruses can infect the same CD4+ T cells in dually infected persons. Currently, how efficiently HTLV-1 and HIV-1 co-infects the same cell and the full extent of their biological interactions are not well-understood. Here, we report evidence confirming that both viruses can infect the same cells and that HTLV-1 envelope (Env) can pseudotype HIV-1 viral particles and HIV-1 envelope (Env) can pseudotype HTLV-1 virions to mediate subsequent infections of substrate cells. We also show that the construction of a chimeric HTLV-1 molecular clone carrying the HIV-1 Env in place of its HTLV-1 counterpart results in a replication competent moiety. These findings raise new implications of viral complementation and assortment between HIV-1 and HTLV-1 in dually infected persons.

  17. A LIKELY MILLISECOND PULSAR BINARY COUNTERPART FOR FERMI SOURCE 2FGL J2039.6–5620

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romani, Roger W., E-mail: rwr@astro.stanford.edu [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    We have identified an optical/X-ray binary with an orbital period of P{sub b} = 5.47 hr as the likely counterpart of the Fermi source 2FGL J2039.6−5620. GROND, SOAR, and DES observations provide an accurate orbital period and allow us to compare to the light curve of an archival XMM exposure. Like many short-period optical/X-ray binaries associated with Large Area Telescope sources, this may be an interacting (black widow/redback) millisecond pulsar binary. The X-ray light curve is consistent with the emission associated with an intrabinary shock. The optical light curve shows evidence of companion heating, but has a peculiar asymmetric double peak. The nature of this optical structure is not yet clear; additional optical studies and, in particular, detection of an orbital modulation in a γ-ray pulsar are needed to elucidate the nature of this peculiar source.

  18. [Development of the craniofacial structures and mandibular growth rotation: a longitudinal study with Enlow analysis (counterpart analysis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işeri, H

    1989-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the development of craniofacial structures in individuals with different actual mandibular growth rotation pattern. Enlow's counterpart analysis was used for this evaluation. The material was consisted 166 cephalometric films of 83 male and female subjects. A total of fourteen variables were employed and the data was analysed by various statistical methods. The vertical growth of middle cranial fossa and mandibular ramus as the equivalent of nasomaxillary complex was found to be the key sites in the determination of mandibular growth rotation pattern. Besides this, the sagittal location of maxilla and mandible related to the cranial base was different in backward and forward mandibular rotation patterns.

  19. Ectopically hTERT expressing adult human mesenchymal stem cells are less radiosensitive than their telomerase negative counterpart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Graakjaer, Jesper; Cairney, Claire J

    2007-01-01

    radiosensitivity to other mammalian cells so far tested. In this study, we investigated the genetic effects of ionizing radiation (2.5-15 Gy) on normal human mesenchymal stem cells and their telomerised counterpart hMSC-telo1. We evaluated overall genomic integrity, DNA damage/repair by applying a fluorescence...... in the two cell lines. The telomeres were extensively destroyed after irradiation in both cell types suggesting that telomere caps are especially sensitive to radiation. The TERT-immortalized hMSCs showed higher stability at telomeric regions than primary hMSCs indicating that cells with long telomeres...... and high telomerase activity have the advantage of re-establishing the telomeric caps. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Mar-10...

  20. Plasmonic Cu(x)In(y)S2 quantum dots make better photovoltaics than their nonplasmonic counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezgoda, J Scott; Yap, Eugene; Keene, Joseph D; McBride, James R; Rosenthal, Sandra J

    2014-06-11

    A synthetic approach has recently been developed which results in Cu(x)In(y)S2 quantum dots (QDs) possessing localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes in the near-infrared (NIR) frequencies.1 In this study, we investigate the potential benefits of near-field plasmonic effects centered upon light absorbing nanoparticles in a photovoltaic system by developing and verifying nonplasmonic counterparts as an experimental control. Simple QD-sensitized solar cells (QD-SSCs) were assembled which show an 11.5% relative increase in incident photon conversion efficiency (IPCE) achieved in the plasmon-enhanced devices. We attribute this increase in IPCE to augmented charge excitation stemming from near-field "antenna" effects in the plasmonic Cu(x)In(y)S2 QD-SSCs. This study represents the first of its kind; direct interrogation of the influence of plasmon-on-semiconductor architectures with respect to excitonic absorption in photovoltaic systems.

  1. Biological characteristics and clinical outcome of triple negative primary breast cancer in older women - comparison with their younger counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binafsha M Syed

    Full Text Available Triple negative (ER, PgR and HER2 negative breast cancers (TNBCs are often considered as a poor prognostic phenotype. There is dearth of evidence showing the prevalence and biological behaviour of TNBCs in older women. This study aimed to analyse their biological characteristics in comparison with a well characterised younger series from a single centre with long term clinical follow-up. Over 37 years (1973-2010, 1,758 older (≥70 years women with early operable (<5 cm primary breast cancer were managed in a dedicated clinic and have complete clinical information available. Of these 813 patients underwent primary surgery and 575 had good quality tumour samples available for tissue microarray analysis using indirect immunohistochemistry. A total of 127 patients (22.1% had TNBCs and full biological analysis of 15 biomarkers was performed. The results were compared with those of their younger (<70 years counterparts 342 (18.9% from a previously characterised, consecutive series of primary breast cancer treated in the same unit (1986-1998. The 127 older patients with TNBCs showed lower rates of Ki67 and CK 7/8 positivity and high rates of bcl2 and CK18 positivity when compared with their younger counterparts (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the long term clinical outcome between the two age groups, despite the fact that 47% of the younger patients had adjuvant chemotherapy, while none in the older cohort received such treatment. EGFR, axillary stage and pathological size showed prognostic significance in older women with TNBCs on univariate analysis. Despite not having received adjuvant chemotherapy, the older series had clinical outcome similar to the younger patients almost half of whom had chemotherapy. This appears to be related to other biomarkers (in addition to ER/PgR/HER2 eg Ki67, bcl2 and cytokeratins which have different expression patterns influencing prognosis.

  2. Optical Counterparts of Undetermined Type γ-Ray Active Galactic Nuclei with Blazar-Like Spectral Energy Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Mura, Giovanni; Chiaro, Graziano; Ciroi, Stefano; Rafanelli, Piero; Salvetti, David; Berton, Marco; Cracco, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    During its first four years of scientific observations, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) detected 3033 γ-ray sources above a 4 σ significance level. Although most of the extra-galactic sources are active galactic nuclei (AGN) of the blazar class, other families of AGNs are observed too, while a still high fraction of detections (˜30%) remains with uncertain association or classification. According to the currently accepted interpretation, the AGN γ-ray emission arises from inverse Compton (IC) scattering of low energy photons by relativistic particles confined in a jet, which, in the case of blazars, is oriented very close to our line-of-sight. Taking advantage of data from radio and X-ray wavelengths, which we expect to be produced together with γ-rays, providing a much better source localization potential, we focused our attention on a sample of γ-ray Blazar Candidates of Undetermined type (BCUs), starting a campaign of optical spectroscopic observations. The main aims of our investigation include a census of the AGN families that contribute to γ-ray emission and a study of their redshift distribution, with the subsequent implications on the intrinsic source power. We furthermore analyze which γ-ray properties can better constrain the nature of the source, thus helping in the study of objects not yet associated with a reliable low frequency counterpart. Here we report on the instruments and techniques used to identify the optical counterparts of γ-ray sources, we give an overview on the status of our work, and we discuss the implications of a large scale study of γ-ray emitting AGNs.

  3. Bimodal Long-lasting Components in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts: Promising Electromagnetic Counterparts to Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisaka, Shota; Ioka, Kunihito; Sakamoto, Takanori

    2017-09-01

    Long-lasting emission of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is crucial to reveal the physical origin of the central engine as well as to detect electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to gravitational waves (GWs) from neutron star binary mergers. We investigate 65 X-ray light curves of short GRBs, which is six times more than previous studies, by combining both Swift/BAT and XRT data. The light curves are found to consist of two distinct components at >5σ with bimodal distributions of luminosity and duration, i.e., extended (with a timescale of ≲103 s) and plateau emission (with a timescale of ≳103 s), which are likely the central engine activities, but not afterglows. The extended emission has an isotropic energy comparable to the prompt emission, while the plateau emission has ∼0.01–1 times this energy. Half (50%) of our sample has both components, while the other half is consistent with having both components. This leads us to conjecture that almost all short GRBs have both the extended and plateau emission. The long-lasting emission can be explained by the jets from black holes with fallback ejecta, and could power macronovae (or kilonovae) like GRB 130603B and GRB 160821B. Based on the observed properties, we quantify the detectability of EM counterparts to GWs, including the plateau emission scattered to the off-axis angle, with CALET/HXM, INTEGRAL/SPI-ACS, Fermi/GBM, MAXI/GSC, Swift/BAT, XRT, the future ISS-Lobster/WFI, Einstein Probe/WXT, and eROSITA.

  4. A new investigation of the possible X-ray counterparts of the magnetar candidate AX J1845-0258

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintore, Fabio; Mereghetti, Sandro

    2016-07-01

    AX J1845-0258 is a transient X-ray pulsar, with spin period of 6.97 s, discovered with the ASCA satellite in 1993. Its soft spectrum and the possible association with a supernova remnant suggest that AX J1845-0258 might be a magnetar, but this has not been confirmed yet. A possible counterpart one order of magnitude fainter, AX J184453-025640, has been found in later X-ray observations, but no pulsations have been detected. In addition, some other X-ray sources are compatible with the pulsar location, which is in a crowded region of the Galactic plane. We have carried out a new investigation of all the X-ray sources in the ASCA error region of AX J1845-0258, using archival data obtained with Chandra in 2007 and 2010, and with XMM-Newton in 2010. We set an upper limit of 6 per cent on the pulsed fraction of AX J184453-025640 and confirmed its rather hard spectrum (power-law photon index of 1.2 ± 0.3). In addition to the other two fainter sources already reported in the literature, we found other X-ray sources positionally consistent with AX J1845-0258. Although many of them are possibly foreground stars likely unrelated to the pulsar, at least another new source, CXOU J184457.5-025823, could be a plausible counterpart of AX J1845-0258. It has a flux of 6 × 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1 and a spectrum well fitted by a power law with photon index ˜1.3 and NH ˜ 1022 cm-2.

  5. Living with Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Chronic Bronchitis If you have chronic bronchitis, you can take steps to control your symptoms. ... and a pneumonia vaccine. If you have chronic bronchitis, you may benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). PR ...

  6. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy; Guillain-Barré - CIDP ... Health care providers also consider CIDP as the chronic form of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The specific triggers ...

  7. Dealing with chronic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000933.htm Dealing with chronic cancer To use the sharing features on this ... be controlled for a period of time. Controlling Chronic Cancer When you have a chronic cancer, the ...

  8. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, L; Thomsen, S F; Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls;

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals....

  9. Unveiling the nature of the unidentified gamma-ray sources III: gamma-ray blazar-like counterparts at low radio frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, F; Giroletti, M; Paggi, A; Masetti, N; Tosti, G; Nori, M; Funk, S

    2013-01-01

    About one third of the gamma-ray sources listed in the second Fermi LAT catalog (2FGL) have no firmly established counterpart at lower energies so being classified as unidentified gamma-ray sources (UGSs). Here we propose a new approach to find candidate counterparts for the UGSs based on the 325 MHz radio survey performed with Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) in the northern hemisphere. First we investigate the low-frequency radio properties of blazars, the largest known population of gamma-ray sources; then we search for sources with similar radio properties combining the information derived from the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS) with those of the NRAO VLA Sky survey (NVSS). We present a list of candidate counterparts for 32 UGSs with at least one counterpart in the WENSS. We also performed an extensive research in literature to look for infrared and optical counterparts of the gamma-ray blazar candidates selected with the low-frequency radio observations to confirm their nature. On the ...

  10. UNVEILING THE NATURE OF THE UNIDENTIFIED GAMMA-RAY SOURCES. III. GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR-LIKE COUNTERPARTS AT LOW RADIO FREQUENCIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F.; Funk, S. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); D' Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Giroletti, M. [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Masetti, N. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Nori, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    About one-third of the {gamma}-ray sources listed in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope catalog (2FGL) have no firmly established counterpart at lower energies and so are classified as unidentified gamma-ray sources (UGSs). Here, we propose a new approach to find candidate counterparts for the UGSs based on the 325 MHz radio survey performed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope in the northern hemisphere. First, we investigate the low-frequency radio properties of blazars, the largest known population of {gamma}-ray sources; then we search for sources with similar radio properties combining the information derived from the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS) with those of the NRAO Very Large Array Sky Survey. We present a list of candidate counterparts for 32 UGSs with at least one counterpart in the WENSS. We also performed an extensive research in the literature to look for infrared and optical counterparts of the {gamma}-ray blazar candidates selected using the low-frequency radio observations to confirm their nature. On the basis of our multifrequency research, we identify 23 new {gamma}-ray blazar candidates out of the 32 UGSs investigated. Comparison with previous results on the UGSs is also presented. Finally, we speculate on the advantages of using low-frequency radio observations to associate UGSs and to search for {gamma}-ray pulsar candidates.

  11. Discovery of the optical counterpart to the X-ray pulsar SAX J2103.5+4545

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, P; Fabregat, J; Chato, R; Blay, P; Mavromatakis, F

    2004-01-01

    We report optical and infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations that identify the counterpart to the 358.6-s X-ray transient pulsar SAX J2103.5+4545 with a moderately reddened V=14.2 B0Ve star. This identification makes SAX J2103.5+4545 the Be/X-ray binary with the shortest orbital period known, Porb= 12.7 days. The amount of absorption to the system has been estimated to be Av=4.2+-0.3, which for such an early-type star implies a distance of about 6.5 kpc. The optical spectra reveal major and rapid changes in the strength and shape of the Halpha line. The Halpha line was initially observed as a double peak profile with the ratio of the intensities of the blue over the red peak greater than one (V/R > 1). Two weeks later this ratio reversed (V/R< 1). Subsequently, in less than a month, the emission ceased and Halpha appeared in absorption. This fast spectral variability is interpreted within the viscous decretion disc model and demonstrates the significant role of the neutron star on the evolutio...

  12. Optical and infrared counterparts of the X-ray sources detected in the Chandra Cygnus OB2 Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Guarcello, M G; Wright, N J; Naylor, T; Flaccomio, E; Kashyap, V L; Garcia-Alvarez, D

    2015-01-01

    The young massive OB association Cygnus OB2, in the Cygnus X complex, is the closest (1400 pc) star forming region to the Sun hosting thousands of young low mass stars and up to 1000 OB stars, among which are some of the most massive stars known in our Galaxy. This region holds great importance for several fields of modern astrophysics, such as the study of the physical properties of massive and young low-mass stars and the feedback provided by massive stars on star and planet formation process. Cygnus OB2 has been recently observed with Chandra/ACIS-I as part of the 1.08Msec Chandra Cygnus OB2 Legacy Project. This survey detected 7924 X-ray sources in a square degree area centered on Cyg OB2. Since a proper classification and study of the observed X-ray sources also requires the analysis of their optical and infrared counterparts, we combined a large and deep set of optical and infrared catalogs available for this region with our new X-ray catalog. In this paper we describe the matching procedure and present...

  13. Peculiarities of the atmosphere and envelope of a post-AGB star, the optical counterpart of IRAS 23304+6347

    CERN Document Server

    Klochkova, V G; Tavolganskaya, N S

    2015-01-01

    Based on high-spectral resolution observations performed with the echelle spectrograph NES of the 6-meter telescope, we have studied the peculiarities of the spectrum and the velocity field in the atmosphere and envelope of the optical counterpart of the infrared source IRAS 23304+6347. We have concluded about the absence of significant variations in the radial velocity Vr inferred from atmospheric absorptions and about its coincidence with the systemic velocity deduced from radio data. The envelope expansion velocity Vexp=15.5 km/s has been determined from the positions of rotational band lines of the C$_2$ Swan (0; 0) band. A complex emission-absorption profile of the Swan (0; 1) 5635 \\AA{} has been recorded. Analysis of the multicomponent NaI~D doublet line profile has revealed interstellar components V(IS)=$-61.6$ and $-13.2$ km/s as well as a circumstellar component with V(CS)=$-41.0$ km/s whose position corresponds to the velocity inferred from C$_2$ features. The presence of the interstellar component ...

  14. Comparative Assessment of Dentists’ Psychological Health Status in Shiraz with their Physicians Counterparts Using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Hasanzade

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: This study was conducted to assess the psychological health status of dentists in Shiraz city.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, subjects consisted of 106 dentists and 94 general practitioners (comparison group from private and public clinics in Shiraz city. Subjects were requested to complete the standard general health questionnaire and a questionnaire on demographic variables. The data wereanalyzed by appropriate statistical tests. Chi-Square test and independent sample t-test were used to compare demographic and occupational variables of both groups. The questionnaires were scored and the overall score of each individual determined his/her psychological health status. Means of GHQ scores of both groups werecompared using statistical tests.Results: Both groups were similar in all demographic variables, except for age. The mean total score of GHQ-28 for both dentists (17.9 and physicians (16.34 groups were significantly lower than the cut-off point value of 23(P <0.01. The means of scores for somatic problems, depression, anxiety and insomnia as well as unusual social performance scales were significantly different between both groups (P<0.05. A significant positive association was found between GHQ total score and job tenure.Conclusion: Our findings revealed that psychological health status of dentists was poorer than that of physicians.Additionally, dentists’ scores were significantly different from those of their counterparts in all GHQ sub-scales.

  15. Female DUI offenders: a comparison to male counterparts and an examination of the effects of intervention on women's recidivism rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells-Parker, E; Pang, M G; Anderson, B J; McMillen, D L; Miller, D I

    1991-03-01

    Female DUI offenders who participated in a controlled, random assignment DUI intervention study, the Mississippi DUI Probation Follow-Up Project, were compared to their male counterparts on demographic, drinker status and recidivism variables. In comparison to men, women in the project were less likely to be married, more likely to be between 30 and 50 years of age, less likely to have less than a 9th grade education, less likely to be screened as a high-problem-risk drinker, less likely to have prior DUI and public drunkenness arrests and less likely to recidivate. The effects of short-term rehabilitation, 1 year's probation and administration of the Life Activities Inventory-Current Status Questionnaire (LAI-CSQ) on the long-term recidivism rates of women were examined. The analysis for screened low-problem-risk women was inconclusive due to lack of statistical power. However, the repeated administration of the LAI-CSQ was detrimental for screened high-problem-risk women and tended to be detrimental for women with fewer than 12 years of education. Implications for intervening with female DUIs are discussed.

  16. The aliphatic counterpart of PET, PPT and PBT aromatic polyesters: effect of the molecular structure on thermo-mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Albanese

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aliphatic counterparts of the most used aromatic polyesters (PET, PPT, and PBT have been synthesized by a two-stage polycondensation process, starting from dimethyl 1,4-cyclohexane dicarboxylate and different diols. The fully aliphatic polyesters are characterized by two cis/trans isomeric ratios (50 and 90 mol% of the 1,4-cycloaliphatic rings. According to the cis/trans content, the properties of the materials notably change. Indeed, polymers rich in trans isomer are semicrystalline, whereas polymers with low trans content are fully amorphous, due to the presence of kinks along the chain. Trans isomer is characterized by higher rigidity than the cis one and the corresponding polymers have high glass transition temperatures. Moreover, the length of the methylene sequences in the diol has a notable influence on the final thermal and mechanical properties. Therefore, tunable properties can be easily obtained. This characteristic, in association with good mechanical performances, potential sustainability of the monomers and biodegradability, makes these aliphatic polyesters an interesting class of polyesters for some specific applications.

  17. Sustained ERK Activation Underlies Reprogramming in Regeneration-Competent Salamander Cells and Distinguishes Them from Their Mammalian Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximina H. Yun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In regeneration-competent vertebrates, such as salamanders, regeneration depends on the ability of various differentiated adult cell types to undergo natural reprogramming. This ability is rarely observed in regeneration-incompetent species such as mammals, providing an explanation for their poor regenerative potential. To date, little is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating natural reprogramming during regeneration. Here, we have identified the extent of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK activation as a key component of such mechanisms. We show that sustained ERK activation following serum induction is required for re-entry into the cell cycle of postmitotic salamander muscle cells, partially by promoting the downregulation of p53 activity. Moreover, ERK activation induces epigenetic modifications and downregulation of muscle-specific genes such as Sox6. Remarkably, while long-term ERK activation is found in salamander myotubes, only transient activation is seen in their mammalian counterparts, suggesting that the extent of ERK activation could underlie differences in regenerative competence between species.

  18. Sustained ERK activation underlies reprogramming in regeneration-competent salamander cells and distinguishes them from their mammalian counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Maximina H; Gates, Phillip B; Brockes, Jeremy P

    2014-07-08

    In regeneration-competent vertebrates, such as salamanders, regeneration depends on the ability of various differentiated adult cell types to undergo natural reprogramming. This ability is rarely observed in regeneration-incompetent species such as mammals, providing an explanation for their poor regenerative potential. To date, little is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating natural reprogramming during regeneration. Here, we have identified the extent of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation as a key component of such mechanisms. We show that sustained ERK activation following serum induction is required for re-entry into the cell cycle of postmitotic salamander muscle cells, partially by promoting the downregulation of p53 activity. Moreover, ERK activation induces epigenetic modifications and downregulation of muscle-specific genes such as Sox6. Remarkably, while long-term ERK activation is found in salamander myotubes, only transient activation is seen in their mammalian counterparts, suggesting that the extent of ERK activation could underlie differences in regenerative competence between species.

  19. A Dark Energy Camera Search for an Optical Counterpart to the First Advanced LIGO Gravitational Wave Event GW150914

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares-Santos, M. [et al.

    2016-05-27

    We report initial results of a deep search for an optical counterpart to the gravitational wave event GW150914, the first trigger from the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors. We used the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to image a 102 deg$^2$ area, corresponding to 38% of the initial trigger high-probability sky region and to 11% of the revised high-probability region. We observed in i and z bands at 4-5, 7, and 24 days after the trigger. The median $5\\sigma$ point-source limiting magnitudes of our search images are i=22.5 and z=21.8 mag. We processed the images through a difference-imaging pipeline using templates from pre-existing Dark Energy Survey data and publicly available DECam data. Due to missing template observations and other losses, our effective search area subtends 40 deg$^{2}$, corresponding to 12% total probability in the initial map and 3% of the final map. In this area, we search for objects that decline significantly between days 4-5 and day 7, and are undetectable by day 24, finding none to typical magnitude limits of i= 21.5,21.1,20.1 for object colors (i-z)=1,0,-1, respectively. Our search demonstrates the feasibility of a dedicated search program with DECam and bodes well for future research in this emerging field.

  20. Generalized alopecic and cystic dermatosis in a cat: a counterpart to the hairless mouse phenotype or a unique congenital dermatosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuber, Ariane E; Van Den Broek, Adri H M; Rhind, Susan M; Hill, Peter B; Thoday, Keith L

    2006-02-01

    A 2-year-old, male neutered, domestic semi-long-haired cat was presented with a 1.5-year history of progressive, initially nonpruritic alopecia and malodorous greasy exudate affecting the distal extremities, trunk and neck but sparing the head and tail. The extensive alopecia and 'seborrhoea' were associated with severe thickening of the skin and fold formation on the dorsal head and distal extremities as well as the lateral thorax and abdomen. The hair was easily epilated, numerous milia were seen on the ventral abdomen and the caudal and lateral thighs, and mild paronychia was present. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed marked cystic dilation of hair follicles and sebaceous glands with follicular hypoplasia, infundibular hyperkeratosis and variable associated inflammation. Systemic glucocorticoid therapy in combination with topical washes with chlorhexidine and miconazole resulted in a marked improvement and some hair regrowth, but the cat was subsequently lost to follow-up. The dermatosis resembles a number of conditions in other species, but it is not clear whether it is a counterpart to the hairless mutant mouse or is a unique dermatosis.

  1. GW150914: First search for the electromagnetic counterpart of a gravitational-wave event by the TOROS collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, Mario C; Peñuela, Tania; Macri, Lucas M; Oelkers, Ryan J; Yuan, Wenlong; Lambas, Diego García; Cabral, Juan; Colazo, Carlos; Domínguez, Mariano; Sánchez, Bruno; Gurovich, Sebastián; Lares, Marcelo; Schneiter, Matías; Graña, Darío; Renzi, Victor; Rodriguez, Horacio; Starck, Manuel; Vrech, Rubén; Artola, Rodolfo; Ferreyra, Antonio Chiavassa; Girardini, Carla; Quiñones, Cecilia; Tapia, Luis; Tornatore, Marina; Marshall, Jennifer L; DePoy, Darren L; Branchesi, Marica; Brocato, Enzo; Padilla, Nelson; Pereyra, Nicolás A; Mukherjee, Soma; Benacquista, Matthew; Key, Joey

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the optical follow-up conducted by the TOROS collaboration of the first gravitational-wave event GW150914. We conducted unfiltered CCD observations (0.35-1 micron) with the 1.5-m telescope at Bosque Alegre starting ~2.5 days after the alarm. Given our limited field of view (~100 square arcmin), we targeted 14 nearby galaxies that were observable from the site and were located within the area of higher localization probability. We analyzed the observations using two independent implementations of difference-imaging algorithms, followed by a Random-Forest-based algorithm to discriminate between real and bogus transients. We did not find any bona fide transient event in the surveyed area down to a 5-sigma limiting magnitude of r=21.7 mag (AB). Our result is consistent with the LIGO detection of a binary black hole merger, for which no electromagnetic counterparts are expected, and with the expected rates of other astrophysical transients.

  2. 2-methoxyestradiol mediates apoptosis through caspase-dependent and independent mechanisms in ovarian cancer cells but not in normal counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Sumie; Sadarangani, Anil; Lange, Soledad; Delpiano, Ana M; Vargas, Macarena; Brañes, Jorge; Carvajal, Jorge; Lipkowitz, Stanley; Owen, Gareth I; Cuello, Mauricio A

    2008-11-01

    The estrogen metabolite 2-methoxyestradiol has shown antitumorigenic action in some epithelial tumors. In the present work we investigate its effects in ovarian cancer used alone or in combination with other apoptotic-inducing reagents such as tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. To assess the effect of 2-methoxyestradiol, dose response and time courses in ovarian cancer and normal cells were conducted. Apoptosis was confirmed through DNA laddering, by flow cytometry, and Western blotting of proteins involved in the apoptotic cascade. 2-Methoxyestradiol induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells but not in normal counterparts. 2-Methoxyestradiol activates both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. 2-Methoxyestradiol-mediated apoptosis involves reactive oxygen species generation and caspase-dependent and caspase-independent mechanisms. We also demonstrate that 2-methoxyestradiol selectively induces an additive/synergistic apoptotic response in ovarian cancer cells when used in combination with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. 2-Methoxyestradiol, alone or in combination with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, should be considered as a potential treatment for ovarian cancer.

  3. A Dark Energy Camera Search for an Optical Counterpart to the First Advanced LIGO Gravitational Wave Event GW150914

    CERN Document Server

    Soares-Santos, M; Berger, E; Annis, J; Brout, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Chen, H; Cowperthwaite, P S; Diehl, H T; Doctor, Z; Drlica-Wagner, A; Farr, B; Finley, D A; Flaugher, B; Foley, R; Frieman, J; Gruendl, R A; Herner, K; Holz, D; Lin, H; Marriner, J; Neilsen, E; Rest, A; Sako, M; Scolnic, D; Sobreira, F; Walker, A R; Wester, W; Yanny, B; Abbott, T M C; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Armstrong, R; Banerji, M; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernstein, R A; Bertin, E; Brown, D A; Burke, D L; Capozzi, D; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Castander, F J; Cenko, S B; Chornock, R; Crocce, M; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; Desai, S; Dietrich, J P; Drout, M R; Eifler, T F; Estrada, J; Evrard, A E; Fairhurst, S; Fernandez, E; Fischer, J; Fong, W; Fosalba, P; Fox, D B; Fryer, C L; Garcia-Bellido, J; Gaztanaga, E; Gerdes, D W; Goldstein, D A; Gruen, D; Gutierrez, G; Honscheid, K; James, D J; Karliner, I; Kasen, D; Kent, S; Kuropatkin, N; Kuehn, K; Lahav, O; Li, T S; Lima, M; Maia, M A G; Margutti, R; Martini, P; Matheson, T; McMahon, R G; Metzger, B D; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Mohr, J J; Nichol, R C; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Peoples, J; Plazas, A A; Quataert, E; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Rykoff, E S; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schindler, R; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Sheldon, E; Smith, M; Smith, N; Smith, R C; Stebbins, A; Sutton, P J; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Thomas, R C; Tucker, D L; Vikram, V; Wechsler, R H; Weller, J

    2016-01-01

    We report initial results of a deep search for an optical counterpart to the gravitational wave event GW150914, the first trigger from the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors. We used the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to image a 102 deg$^2$ area, corresponding to 38% of the initial trigger high-probability sky region and to 11% of the revised high-probability region. We observed in i and z bands at 4-5, 7, and 24 days after the trigger. The median $5\\sigma$ point-source limiting magnitudes of our search images are i=22.5 and z=21.8 mag. We processed the images through a difference-imaging pipeline using templates from pre-existing Dark Energy Survey data and publicly available DECam data. Due to missing template observations and other losses, our effective search area subtends 40 deg$^{2}$, corresponding to 12% total probability in the initial map and 3% of the final map. In this area, we search for objects that decline significantly between days 4-5 and day 7, and are undetectable by day 24, finding none...

  4. The optical counterpart of XTE J0929-314, the third transient millisecond X-ray pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, A B; Hill, K M; Sanders, E

    2005-01-01

    A blue and variable optical counterpart of the X-ray transient XTE J0929-314 was identified on 2002 May 1. We conducted frequent BVRI broadband photometry on this object using the Mt Canopus 1-m telescope during May and June until it had faded to below 21'st magnitude. Nearly continuous I band CCD photometry on 2002 May 2, 3 and 4 revealed a ~ 10 % sinusoidal modulation at the binary period lasting ~ 6 cycles during the latter half of May 2. The phase indicates that the modulation may be due to a combination of emission by a hot spot on the disc and X-ray heating of the secondary. The emission generally trended bluer with B-I decreasing by 0.6 magnitudes during the observations but there were anomalous changes in colour during the first few days after optical identification when the I band flux decreased slightly while fluxes in other bands increased. Spectral analysis of the BVRI broadband photometry show evidence of a variable excess in the R and I bands. We suggest that this may be due to synchrotron emiss...

  5. Thermodynamic Stability of Ice II and Its Hydrogen-Disordered Counterpart: Role of Zero-Point Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Masakazu; Yagasaki, Takuma; Tanaka, Hideki

    2016-03-03

    We investigate why no hydrogen-disordered form of ice II has been found in nature despite the fact that most of hydrogen-ordered ices have hydrogen-disordered counterparts. The thermodynamic stability of a set of hydrogen-ordered ice II variants relative to ice II is evaluated theoretically. It is found that ice II is more stable than the disordered variants so generated as to satisfy the simple ice rule due to the lower zero-point energy as well as the pair interaction energy. The residual entropy of the disordered ice II phase gradually compensates the unfavorable free energy with increasing temperature. The crossover, however, occurs at a high temperature well above the melting point of ice III. Consequently, the hydrogen-disordered phase does not exist in nature. The thermodynamic stability of partially hydrogen-disordered ices is also scrutinized by examining the free-energy components of several variants obtained by systematic inversion of OH directions in ice II. The potential energy of one variant is lower than that of the ice II structure, but its Gibbs free energy is slightly higher than that of ice II due to the zero-point energy. The slight difference in the thermodynamic stability leaves the possibility of the partial hydrogen-disorder in real ice II.

  6. A candidate optical counterpart to the middle-aged gamma-ray pulsar PSR J1741-2054

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P; Marelli, M; De Luca, A; Salvetti, D; Belfiore, A; Pierbattista, M; Razzano, M; Shearer, A; Moran, P

    2016-01-01

    We carried out deep optical observations of the middle-aged $\\gamma$-ray pulsar PSR J1741-2054 with the Very Large Telescope (VLT). We identified two objects, of magnitudes $m_v=23.10\\pm0.05$ and $m_v=25.32\\pm0.08$, at positions consistent with the very accurate Chandra coordinates of the pulsar, the faintest of which is more likely to be its counterpart. From the VLT images we also detected the known bow-shock nebula around PSR J1741-2054. The nebula is displaced by $\\sim 0\\farcs9$ (at the $3\\sigma$ confidence level) with respect to its position measured in archival data, showing that the shock propagates in the interstellar medium consistently with the pulsar proper motion. Finally, we could not find evidence of large-scale extended optical emission associated with the pulsar wind nebula detected by Chandra, down to a surface brightness limit of $\\sim 28.1$ magnitudes arcsec$^{-2}$. Future observations are needed to confirm the optical identification of PSR J1741-2054 and characterise the spectrum of its co...

  7. Lysine residue 185 of Rad1 is a topological but not a functional counterpart of lysine residue 164 of PCNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niek Wit

    Full Text Available Monoubiquitylation of the homotrimeric DNA sliding clamp PCNA at lysine residue 164 (PCNA(K164 is a highly conserved, DNA damage-inducible process that is mediated by the E2/E3 complex Rad6/Rad18. This ubiquitylation event recruits translesion synthesis (TLS polymerases capable of replicating across damaged DNA templates. Besides PCNA, the Rad6/Rad18 complex was recently shown in yeast to ubiquitylate also 9-1-1, a heterotrimeric DNA sliding clamp composed of Rad9, Rad1, and Hus1 in a DNA damage-inducible manner. Based on the highly similar crystal structures of PCNA and 9-1-1, K185 of Rad1 (Rad1(K185 was identified as the only topological equivalent of PCNA(K164. To investigate a potential role of posttranslational modifications of Rad1(K185 in DNA damage management, we here generated a mouse model with a conditional deletable Rad1(K185R allele. The Rad1(K185 residue was found to be dispensable for Chk1 activation, DNA damage survival, and class switch recombination of immunoglobulin genes as well as recruitment of TLS polymerases during somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes. Our data indicate that Rad1(K185 is not a functional counterpart of PCNA(K164.

  8. Near Infrared Counterpart of 2E 1613.5-5053, the Central Source in Supernova Remnant RCW 103

    CERN Document Server

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh P; Archibald, Robert F; Scholz, Paul

    2016-01-01

    On 2016 June 22, 2E 1613.5-5053, the puzzling central compact object in supernova remnant RCW 103, emitted a magnetar-like burst. Using Director's Discretionary Time, we observed 2E 1613.5-5053 with the Hubble Space Telescope (WFC3/IR) and we report here on the detection of a previously unseen infrared counterpart. In observations taken on 2016 July 4 and August 11, we detect a new source ($m_\\mathrm{F110W} = 26.3$ AB mag and $m_\\mathrm{F160W} = 24.2$ AB mag) at the Chandra position of 2E 1613.5-5053 which was not detected in HST/NICMOS images from 2002 August 15 and October 8 to a depth of 24.5 AB mag (F110W) and 25.5 AB mag (F160W). We show that these deep IR observations rule out the possibility of an accreting binary but mimic IR emission properties of magnetars and isolated neutron stars. The presence or absence of a low-mass fallback disk cannot be confirmed from our observations.

  9. A new investigation of the possible X-ray counterparts of the magnetar candidate AX J1845-0258

    CERN Document Server

    Pintore, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    AX J1845-0258 is a transient X-ray pulsar, with spin period of 6.97s, discovered with the ASCA satellite in 1993. Its soft spectrum and the possible association with a supernova remnant suggest that AX J1845-0258 might be a magnetar, but this has not been confirmed yet. A possible counterpart one order of magnitude fainter, AX J184453-025640, has been found in later X-ray observations, but no pulsations have been detected. In addition, some other X-ray sources are compatible with the pulsar location, which is in a crowded region of the Galactic plane. We have carried out a new investigation of all the X-ray sources in the ASCA error region of AX J1845-0258, using archival data obtained with Chandra in 2007 and 2010, and with XMM-Newton in 2010. We set an upper limit of 6% on the pulsed fraction of AX J184453-025640 and confirmed its rather hard spectrum (power law photon index of 1.2 +\\- 0.3). In addition to the other two fainter sources already reported in the literature, we found other X-ray sources positio...

  10. The gamma-ray source AGL J2241+4454 as the possible counterpart of MWC 656

    CERN Document Server

    Munar-Adrover, P; Piano, G; Tavani, M; Nguyen, L H; Lucarelli, F; Verrecchia, F; Pittori, C

    2016-01-01

    The AGILE satellite discovered the transient source AGL J2241+4454 in 2010 which triggered the study of the associated field allowing for the discovery of the first Be/black hole binary system: MWC 656. This binary was suggested to be the counterpart of AGL J2241+4454, but this is still not a firm association. In this work we explore the archival AGILE and Fermi/LAT data in order to find more transient events originating in the field of AGL J2241+4454 and address the possibility to link them to the accretion/ejection processes of MWC 656. We found a total of 9 other transient events with AGILE compatible with the position of AGL J2241+4454, besides the one from 2010. We folded this events with the period of the binary system and we did not find significant results that allow us to associate the gamma-ray activity to any particular orbital phase. By stacking the 10 transient events we obtained a spectrum that extends between 100 MeV and 1 GeV, and we fitted it with a power law with photon index {\\Gamma} = 2.3 ...

  11. Synthesis of high-mannose oligosaccharide analogues through click chemistry: true functional mimics of their natural counterparts against lectins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    François-Heude, Marc; Méndez-Ardoy, Alejandro; Cendret, Virginie; Lafite, Pierre; Daniellou, Richard; Ortiz Mellet, Carmen; García Fernández, José M; Moreau, Vincent; Djedaïni-Pilard, Florence

    2015-01-26

    Terminal "high-mannose oligosaccharides" are involved in a broad range of biological and pathological processes, from sperm-egg fusion to influenza and human immunodeficiency virus infections. In spite of many efforts, their synthesis continues to be very challenging and actually represents a major bottleneck in the field. Whereas multivalent presentation of mannopyranosyl motifs onto a variety of scaffolds has proven to be a successful way to interfere in recognition processes involving high-mannose oligosaccharides, such constructs fail at reproducing the subtle differences in affinity towards the variety of protein receptors (lectins) and antibodies susceptible to binding to the natural ligands. Here we report a family of functional high-mannose oligosaccharide mimics that reproduce not only the terminal mannopyranosyl display, but also the core structure and the branching pattern, by replacing some inner mannopyranosyl units with triazole rings. Such molecular design can be implemented by exploiting "click" ligation strategies, resulting in a substantial reduction of synthetic cost. The binding affinities of the new "click" high-mannose oligosaccharide mimics towards two mannose specific lectins, namely the plant lectin concanavalin A (ConA) and the human macrophage mannose receptor (rhMMR), have been studied by enzyme-linked lectin assays and found to follow identical trends to those observed for the natural oligosaccharide counterparts. Calorimetric determinations against ConA, and X-ray structural data support the conclusion that these compounds are not just another family of multivalent mannosides, but real "structural mimics" of the high-mannose oligosaccharides.

  12. The Pan-STARRS, Mauna Kea, and PESSTO search for optical counterparts to aLIGO gravitational wave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.; Pan-STARRS Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We have searched for an optical counterpart to the first gravitational wave source discovered by the Advanced LIGO experiment, GW150914, using the Pan-STARRS wide-field telescope and associated data processing to identify transient objects. Interesting candidates are then followed up using the UH88, Gemini, and PESSTO for the spectroscopic characterization. We mapped out 442 square degrees of the northern sky region of the initial LIGO map. We discovered 56 astrophysical transients over a period of 41 days from the discovery of the source. Of these, 19 were spectroscopically classied and a further 13 have host galaxy redshifts. All transients appear to be fairly normal supernovae and AGN variability and none are obviously linked with GW150914. We find one high energey type II supernova with an estimated explosion date consistent with that of GW150914, but no causal link can be inferred. We discuss our results as demonstration of the survey capability of Pan-STARRS, and the spectroscopic capabilities of PESSTO and Mauna Kea.

  13. A Second Decoupling Between Merging Binary Black Holes and the Inner Disc--Impact on the Electromagnetic Counterpart

    CERN Document Server

    Fontecilla, Camilo; Cuadra, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The coalescence of two supermassive black holes (SMBHs) produces powerful gravitational-wave (GW) radiation and, if gas is present in the vicinity, also an electromagnetic (EM) counterpart. In the standard picture, an EM outburst will be produced when the binary "decouples" from the circum-binary disc and starts "squeezing" the disc inside the secondary orbit, resulting in its quick accretion on to the primary black hole. Here we use analytical arguments and numerical simulations to show that the disc within about $20~R_S$ of a SMBH survives the merger without being depleted. The reason is a "second decoupling": the inner disc thickens due to tidal heating and inefficient cooling, effectively decoupling from the interaction of the binary. We show that this second decoupling quenches the heating sources in the disc ${\\cal O}(10^2)$ days before coalescence. This will render the peak UV/X-ray luminosity significantly weaker than previously thought. After the merger, the residual disc cools down and expands, merg...

  14. Pan-STARRS and PESSTO search for the optical counterpart to the LIGO gravitational wave source GW150914

    CERN Document Server

    Smartt, S J; Smith, K W; Huber, M E; Young, D R; Cappellaro, E; Wright, D E; Coughlin, M; Schultz, A S B; Denneau, L; Flewelling, H; Heinze, A; Magnier, E A; Primak, N; Rest, A; Sherstyuk, A; Stalder, B; Stubbs, C W; Tonry, J; Waters, C; Willman, M; Anderson, J P; Baltay, C; Botticella, M T; Campbell, H; Dennefeld, M; Chen, T -W; Della Valle, M; Elias-Rosa, N; Fraser, M; Inserra, C; Kankare, E; Kotak, R; Kupfer, T; Harmanen, J; Galbany, L; Gal-Yam, A; Guillou, L L; Lyman, J D; Maguire, K; Mitra, A; Nicholl, M; E, F Olivares; Rabinowitz, D; Razza, A; Sollerman, J; Smith, M; Terreran, G; Valenti, S

    2016-01-01

    We have searched for an optical counterpart to the first gravitational wave source discovered by the LIGO experiment, GW150914, using a combination of the Pan-STARRS1 wide-field telescope and the PESSTO spectroscopic follow-up programme. We mapped out 442 square degrees of the northern sky region of the initial map. We discovered 56 astrophysical transients over a period of 41 days from the discovery of the source. Of these, 19 were spectroscopically classified and a further 13 have host galaxy redshifts. All transients appear to be fairly normal supernovae and AGN variability and none is obviously linked with GW150914. We find one high energy type II supernova with an estimated explosion date consistent with that of GW150914, but no causal link can be inferred. We quantify the upper limits by defining parameterised lightcurves with timescales of 4, 20 and 40 days and use the sensitivity of the Pan-STARRS1 images to set limits on the luminosities of possible sources. The Pan-STARRS1 images reach limiting magn...

  15. On-disk counterparts of type II spicules in the Ca II 854.2 nm and Halpha lines

    CERN Document Server

    van der Voort, L Rouppe; De Pontieu, B; Carlsson, M; Vissers, G

    2009-01-01

    Recently a second type of spicules was discovered at the solar limb with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard the Japanese Hinode spacecraft. These previously unrecognized type II spicules are thin chromospheric jets that are shorter-lived (10-60 s) and that show much higher apparent upward velocities (of order 50-100 km/s) than the classical spicules. Since they have been implicated in providing hot plasma to coronal loops, their formation, evolution and properties are important ingredients for a better understanding of the mass and energy balance of the low solar atmosphere. Here we report on the discovery of the disk counterparts of type II spicules using spectral imaging data in the Ca II 854.2 nm and Halpha lines with the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) at the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) in La Palma. We find rapid blueward excursions in the line profiles of both chromospheric lines that correspond to thin, jet-like features that show apparent velocities of order 50 km/s. These blueward ex...

  16. X-ray Sources and Their Optical Counterparts in the Galactic Globular Cluster M12 (NGC 6218)

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Ting-Ni; Bassa, Cees; Verbunt, Frank; Lewin, Walter H G; Anderson, Scott F; Pooley, David

    2009-01-01

    We study a Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS-S observation of the Galactic globular cluster M12. With a 26 ks exposure time, we detect 6 X-ray sources inside the half-mass radius (2'.16) and two of them are inside the core radius (0'.72) of the cluster. If we assume these sources are all within the globular cluster M12, the luminosity Lx among these sources between 0.3-7.0 keV varies roughly from 10^30 to 10^32 ergs s^-1. For identification, we also analyzed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) data and identified the optical counterparts to five X-ray sources inside the HST field of view. According to the X-ray and optical features, we found 2-5 candidate active binaries (ABs) or cataclysmic variables (CVs) and 0-3 background galaxies within the HST ACS field of view. Based on the assumption that the number of X-ray sources scales with the encounter rate and the mass of the globular cluster, we expect 2 X-ray source inside M12, and the expectation is consistent with our observation...

  17. Cygnus X-3: Its Little Friend's Counterpart, the Distance to Cygnus X-3, and Outflows/Jets

    CERN Document Server

    McCollough, Michael; Dunham, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Chandra observations have revealed a feature,within 16" of Cygnus X-3 which varied in phase with Cygnus X-3. This feature was shown to be a Bok globule which is along the line of sight to Cygnus X-3. We report on observations made with Submillimeter Array (SMA) to search for molecular emission from this globule, also known as Cygnus X-3's "Little Friend" (LF). We have found a counterpart in both 12CO (2-1) and 13}CO (2-1) emission. From the velocity shift of the molecular lines, we are able to find two probable distances based on the Bayesian model of Milky Way kinematics of Reid et al. 2016. For the LF velocity of -47.5 km/s, we get a distance of 6.1 +/- 0.6 kpc (62% probability) and 7.8 +/- 0.6 ~kpc (38% probability). This yields a distance to Cyg X-3 of 7.4 +/- 1.1 kpc and 10.2 +/-1.2 ~kpc, respectively. Based on the probabilities entailed, we take 7.4 +/- 1.1 kpc as the preferred distance to Cyg X-3. We also report the discovery of bipolar molecular outflow, suggesting that there is active star formation ...

  18. Nucleotide sequence of the DNA polymerase gene of herpes simplex virus type 2 and comparison with the type 1 counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumi, T; Maeno, K; Nishiyama, Y

    1987-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the DNA polymerase gene of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 strain 186 has been determined. The gene included a 3720-bp major open reading frame capable of encoding 1240 amino acids. The predicted primary translation product had an Mr of 137,354, which was slightly larger than its HSV-1 counterpart. A comparison of the predicted functional amino acid sequences of the HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA polymerases revealed 95.5% overall amino acid homology, the value of which was the highest among those of the other known polypeptides encoded by HSV-1 and HSV-2. The functional amino acid changes were spread in the N-terminal one-third of the protein, whereas the C-terminal two-third was almost identical between the two types except a particular hydrophilic region. A highly conserved sequence of 6 aa, YGDTDS, which has been observed in DNA polymerases of HSV-1, Epstein-Barr virus, adenovirus, and vaccinia virus, was also present at positions 889 to 894 in the C-terminal region of HSV-2 DNA polymerase.

  19. Chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  20. The Gamma-Ray Source AGL J2241+4454 as the Possible Counterpart of MWC 656

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munar-Adrover, Pere; Sabatini, S.; Piano, Giovanni; Tavani, Marco; Nguyen, L. H.; Lucarelli, F.; Verrecchia, F.; Pittori, C.

    2016-10-01

    AGILE discovered the transient source AGL J2241+4454 in 2010, which triggered the study of the associated field allowing for the discovery of the first Be/black hole binary system: MWC 656. This binary was suggested to be the counterpart of AGL J2241+4454, but this association is still not robust. In this work we explore the archival AGILE and Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) data to find more transient events compatible with AGL J2241+4454 and address the possibility to link them to the accretion/ejection processes of MWC 656. We found a total of nine other transient events with AGILE compatible with the position of AGL J2241+4454, besides the 2010 one. We folded these events with the period of the binary system and we could not associate the gamma-ray activity with any particular orbital phase. By stacking the 10 transient events we obtained a spectrum that extends between 100 MeV and 1 GeV, and we fitted it with a power law with a photon index {{Γ }}=2.3+/- 0.2. We searched the Fermi/LAT data in order to complement the gamma-ray information provided by AGILE but no significant results arose. To investigate this apparent contradiction between these telescopes, we studied the exposure of the field of AGL J2241+4454 in both instruments, and found significant differences. In particular, AGILE exposed, for a longer time and at a lower off-axis angular distance, the field of AGL J2241+4454. This fact, together with the energy-dependent sensitivity of both instruments, and the soft spectrum found in the stacking analysis, might explain why AGILE observed the transient events not seen by Fermi/LAT.

  1. Paying for convenience: comparing the cost of takeaway meals with their healthier home-cooked counterparts in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Sally; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Xie, Pei; Lee, Amanda; Swinburn, Boyd

    2017-09-01

    Convenience and cost impact on people's meal decisions. Takeaway and pre-prepared foods save preparation time but may contribute to poorer-quality diets. Analysing the impact of time on relative cost differences between meals of varying convenience contributes to understanding the barrier of time to selecting healthy meals. Six popular New Zealand takeaway meals were identified from two large national surveys and compared with similar, but healthier, home-made and home-assembled meals that met nutrition targets consistent with New Zealand Eating and Activity Guidelines. The cost of each complete meal, cost per kilogram, and confidence intervals of the cost of each meal type were calculated. The time-inclusive cost was calculated by adding waiting or preparation time cost at the minimum wage. A large urban area in New Zealand. For five of six popular meals, the mean cost of the home-made and home-assembled meals was cheaper than the takeaway meals. When the cost of time was added, all home-assembled meal options were the cheapest and half of the home-made meals were at least as expensive as the takeaway meals. The home-prepared meals were designed to provide less saturated fat and Na and more vegetables than their takeaway counterparts; however, the home-assembled meals provided more Na than the home-made meals. Healthier home-made and home-assembled meals were, except one, cheaper options than takeaways. When the cost of time was added, either the home-made or the takeaway meal was the most expensive. This research questions whether takeaways are better value than home-prepared meals.

  2. Definition of the Cattle Killer Cell Ig–like Receptor Gene Family: Comparison with Aurochs and Human Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Nicholas D.; Norman, Paul J.; Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Ellis, Shirley A.; Williams, Christina; Breen, Matthew; Park, Steven D. E.; Magee, David A.; Babrzadeh, Farbod; Warry, Andrew; Watson, Mick; Bradley, Daniel G.; MacHugh, David E.; Parham, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Under selection pressure from pathogens, variable NK cell receptors that recognize polymorphic MHC class I evolved convergently in different species of placental mammal. Unexpectedly, diversified killer cell Ig–like receptors (KIRs) are shared by simian primates, including humans, and cattle, but not by other species. Whereas much is known of human KIR genetics and genomics, knowledge of cattle KIR is limited to nine cDNA sequences. To facilitate comparison of the cattle and human KIR gene families, we determined the genomic location, structure, and sequence of two cattle KIR haplotypes and defined KIR sequences of aurochs, the extinct wild ancestor of domestic cattle. Larger than its human counterpart, the cattle KIR locus evolved through successive duplications of a block containing ancestral KIR3DL and KIR3DX genes that existed before placental mammals. Comparison of two cattle KIR haplotypes and aurochs KIR show the KIR are polymorphic and the gene organization and content appear conserved. Of 18 genes, 8 are functional and 10 were inactivated by point mutation. Selective inactivation of KIR3DL and activating receptor genes leaves a functional cohort of one inhibitory KIR3DL, one activating KIR3DX, and six inhibitory KIR3DX. Functional KIR diversity evolved from KIR3DX in cattle and from KIR3DL in simian primates. Although independently evolved, cattle and human KIR gene families share important function-related properties, indicating that cattle KIR are NK cell receptors for cattle MHC class I. Combinations of KIR and MHC class I are the major genetic factors associated with human disease and merit investigation in cattle. PMID:25398326

  3. Acetylcholinesterase immobilization and characterization, and comparison of the activity of the porous silicon-immobilized enzyme with its free counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Rafiq, Muhammad; Seo, Sung-Yum; Lee, Ki Hwan

    2016-02-02

    A successful prescription is presented for acetylcholinesterase physically adsorbed on to a mesoporous silicon surface, with a promising hydrolytic response towards acetylthiocholine iodide. The catalytic behaviour of the immobilized enzyme was assessed by spectrophotometric bioassay using neostigmine methyl sulfate as a standard acetycholinesterase inhibitor. The surface modification was studied through field emission SEM, Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, cathode luminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, photoluminescence measurement and spectrophotometric bioassay. The porous silicon-immobilized enzyme not only yielded greater enzyme stability, but also significantly improved the native photoluminescence at room temperature of the bare porous silicon architecture. The results indicated the promising catalytic behaviour of immobilized enzyme compared with that of its free counterpart, with a greater stability, and that it aided reusability and easy separation from the reaction mixture. The porous silicon-immobilized enzyme was found to retain 50% of its activity, promising thermal stability up to 90°C, reusability for up to three cycles, pH stability over a broad pH of 4-9 and a shelf-life of 44 days, with an optimal hydrolytic response towards acetylthiocholine iodide at variable drug concentrations. On the basis of these findings, it was believed that the porous silicon-immobilized enzyme could be exploited as a reusable biocatalyst and for screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from crude plant extracts and synthesized organic compounds. Moreover, the immobilized enzyme could offer a great deal as a viable biocatalyst in bioprocessing for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, and bioremediation to enhance productivity and robustness.

  4. Definition of the cattle killer cell Ig-like receptor gene family: comparison with aurochs and human counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Nicholas D; Norman, Paul J; Guethlein, Lisbeth A; Ellis, Shirley A; Williams, Christina; Breen, Matthew; Park, Steven D E; Magee, David A; Babrzadeh, Farbod; Warry, Andrew; Watson, Mick; Bradley, Daniel G; MacHugh, David E; Parham, Peter; Hammond, John A

    2014-12-15

    Under selection pressure from pathogens, variable NK cell receptors that recognize polymorphic MHC class I evolved convergently in different species of placental mammal. Unexpectedly, diversified killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) are shared by simian primates, including humans, and cattle, but not by other species. Whereas much is known of human KIR genetics and genomics, knowledge of cattle KIR is limited to nine cDNA sequences. To facilitate comparison of the cattle and human KIR gene families, we determined the genomic location, structure, and sequence of two cattle KIR haplotypes and defined KIR sequences of aurochs, the extinct wild ancestor of domestic cattle. Larger than its human counterpart, the cattle KIR locus evolved through successive duplications of a block containing ancestral KIR3DL and KIR3DX genes that existed before placental mammals. Comparison of two cattle KIR haplotypes and aurochs KIR show the KIR are polymorphic and the gene organization and content appear conserved. Of 18 genes, 8 are functional and 10 were inactivated by point mutation. Selective inactivation of KIR3DL and activating receptor genes leaves a functional cohort of one inhibitory KIR3DL, one activating KIR3DX, and six inhibitory KIR3DX. Functional KIR diversity evolved from KIR3DX in cattle and from KIR3DL in simian primates. Although independently evolved, cattle and human KIR gene families share important function-related properties, indicating that cattle KIR are NK cell receptors for cattle MHC class I. Combinations of KIR and MHC class I are the major genetic factors associated with human disease and merit investigation in cattle. Copyright © 2014 The Authors.

  5. Pan-STARRS and PESSTO search for an optical counterpart to the LIGO gravitational-wave source GW150914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartt, S. J.; Chambers, K. C.; Smith, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Young, D. R.; Cappellaro, E.; Wright, D. E.; Coughlin, M.; Schultz, A. S. B.; Denneau, L.; Flewelling, H.; Heinze, A.; Magnier, E. A.; Primak, N.; Rest, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Stalder, B.; Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J.; Waters, C.; Willman, M.; Anderson, J. P.; Baltay, C.; Botticella, M. T.; Campbell, H.; Dennefeld, M.; Chen, T.-W.; Della Valle, M.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Fraser, M.; Inserra, C.; Kankare, E.; Kotak, R.; Kupfer, T.; Harmanen, J.; Galbany, L.; Gal-Yam, A.; Le Guillou, L.; Lyman, J. D.; Maguire, K.; Mitra, A.; Nicholl, M.; Olivares E, F.; Rabinowitz, D.; Razza, A.; Sollerman, J.; Smith, M.; Terreran, G.; Valenti, S.; Gibson, B.; Goggia, T.

    2016-11-01

    We searched for an optical counterpart to the first gravitational-wave source discovered by LIGO (GW150914), using a combination of the Pan-STARRS1 wide-field telescope and the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO) spectroscopic follow-up programme. As the final LIGO sky maps changed during analysis, the total probability of the source being spatially coincident with our fields was finally only 4.2 per cent. Therefore, we discuss our results primarily as a demonstration of the survey capability of Pan-STARRS and spectroscopic capability of PESSTO. We mapped out 442 deg2 of the northern sky region of the initial map. We discovered 56 astrophysical transients over a period of 41 d from the discovery of the source. Of these, 19 were spectroscopically classified and a further 13 have host galaxy redshifts. All transients appear to be fairly normal supernovae (SNe) and AGN variability and none is obviously linked with GW150914. We illustrate the sensitivity of our survey by defining parametrized light curves with time-scales of 4, 20 and 40 d and use the sensitivity of the Pan-STARRS1 images to set limits on the luminosities of possible sources. The Pan-STARRS1 images reach limiting magnitudes of iP1 = 19.2, 20.0 and 20.8, respectively, for the three time-scales. For long time-scale parametrized light curves (with full width half-maximum ≃40 d), we set upper limits of M_i ≤ -17.2^{-0.9}_{+1.4} if the distance to GW150914 is DL = 400 ± 200 Mpc. The number of Type Ia SN we find in the survey is similar to that expected from the cosmic SN rate, indicating a reasonably complete efficiency in recovering SN like transients out to DL = 400 ± 200 Mpc.

  6. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B.; Nikolajsen, L.; Kehlet, H.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  7. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B; Nikolajsen, L; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  8. The cost of blocking the mirror generalization process in reading: evidence for the role of inhibitory control in discriminating letters with lateral mirror-image counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Grégoire; Ahr, Emmanuel; Roell, Margot; Houdé, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Mirror generalization is detrimental for identifying letters with lateral mirror-image counterparts ('b/d'). In the present study, we investigated whether the discrimination of this type of letters in expert readers might be rooted in the ability to inhibit the mirror-generalization process. In our negative priming paradigm, participants judged whether two letters were identical on the prime and two animals (or buildings) were identical on the probe. In Experiment 1, participants required more time when determining that two animals (but not two buildings) were mirror images of each other when preceded by letters with mirror-image counterparts than without mirror-image counterparts ('a/h'). In Experiment 2, we replicated the results with different letters without mirror-image counterparts and with the type of probe stimuli (animal or building) manipulated as a within-subject factors. Our results suggest that expert readers never completely "unlearn" the mirror-generalization process and still need to inhibit this heuristic to overcome mirror errors.

  9. Comparison of Scores on the WAIS and Its Puerto Rican Counterpart, Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos, in an Institutionalized Latin American Psychiatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Todd McLin; Rodriguez, Vene L.

    1979-01-01

    Compared vocabulary and block design subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and its Puerto Rican counterpart, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA), in hospitalized Latins and Trans-Caribbean Blacks. EIWA scores were significantly higher than WAIS scores. Equivalence of EIWA and WAIS estimates is questioned.…

  10. Galaxy counterparts of metal-rich damped Lyα absorbers - I. The case of the z= 2.35 DLA towards Q 2222−0946

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fynbo, J.P.U.; Laursen, P.; Ledoux, C.; Møller, P.; Durgapal, A.K.; Goldoni, P.; Gullberg, B.; Kaper, L.; Maund, J.; Noterdaeme, P.; Östlin, G.; Strandet, M.L.; Toft, S.; Vreeswijk, P.M.; Zafar, T.

    2010-01-01

    We have initiated a survey using the newly commissioned X-shooter spectrograph to target candidate relatively metal-rich damped Lyα absorbers (DLAs). Our rationale is that high-metallicity DLAs due to the luminosity-metallicity relation likely will have the most luminous galaxy counterparts. In

  11. Galaxy counterparts of intervening high-z sub-DLAs/DLAs and MgII absorbers towards gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze, S; Milvang-Jensen, B; Rossi, A; Jakobsson, P; Ledoux, C; De Cia, A; Kruehler, T; Mehner, A; Bjoernsson, G; Chen, H -W; Vreeswijk, P M; Perley, D A; Hjorth, J; Levan, A J; Tanvir, N R; Ellison, S; Moller, P; Worseck, G; Chapman, R; Dall'Aglio, A; Letawe, G

    2012-01-01

    We present the first search for galaxy counterparts of intervening high-z (2counterparts of the absorbers we use deep optical and near-infrared imaging, and low-, mid- and high-resolution spectroscopy acquired with 6 to 10-m class telescopes, the Hubble and the Spitzer space telescopes. Furthermore, we use the spectroscopic information and spectral-energy-distribution fitting techniques to study them in detail. Our main result is the detection and spectroscopic confirmation of the galaxy counterpart of the intervening DLA at z=3.096 in the field of GRB 070721B (z_GRB=3.6298) as proposed by other authors. We also identify good candidates for the galaxy counterparts of the two strong MgII absorbers at z=0.6915 and 1.4288 towards GRB 050820A (z_GRB=2.615). The properties of the detected DLA galaxy are typical for Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at similar re...

  12. Comparison of Scores on the WAIS and Its Puerto Rican Counterpart, Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos, in an Institutionalized Latin American Psychiatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Todd McLin; Rodriguez, Vene L.

    1979-01-01

    Compared vocabulary and block design subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and its Puerto Rican counterpart, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA), in hospitalized Latins and Trans-Caribbean Blacks. EIWA scores were significantly higher than WAIS scores. Equivalence of EIWA and WAIS estimates is questioned.…

  13. Discovery of the Near-infrared Counterpart to the Luminous Neutron-star Low-mass X-Ray Binary GX 3+1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.; Homan, J.; Fridriksson, J.K.; Linares, M.

    2014-01-01

    Using the High Resolution Camera on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we have measured an accurate position for the bright persistent neutron star X-ray binary and atoll source GX 3+1. At a location that is consistent with this new position, we have discovered the near-infrared (NIR) counterpart

  14. From major merger to radio galaxy : low surface-brightness stellar counterpart to the giant HI ring around B2 0648+27

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emonts, B. H. C.; Morganti, R.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Brogt, E.; Tadhunter, C. N.

    2008-01-01

    We present the detection of a low surface-brightness stellar counterpart to an enormous (190 kpc) ring of neutral hydrogen (HI) gas that surrounds the nearby radio galaxy B2 0648+27. This system is currently in an evolutionary stage between major merger and (radio-loud) early-type galaxy. In a previ

  15. Overweight and obesity among Ghanaian residents in The Netherlands: how do they weigh against their urban and rural counterparts in Ghana?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Agyemang; E. Owusu-Dabo; A. de Jonge; D. Martins; G. Ogedegbe; K. Stronks

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in overweight and obesity between first-generation Dutch-Ghanaian migrants in The Netherlands and their rural and urban counterparts in Ghana. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: A total of 1471 Ghanaians (rural Ghanaians, n 532; urban Ghanaians, n 787; Dut

  16. Overweight and obesity among Ghanaian residents in the Netherlands: How do they weigh against their urban and rural counterparts in Ghana?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, C.; Owusu-Dabo, E.; Jonge, A.de; Martins, D.; Ogedegbe, G.; Stronks, K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate differences in overweight and obesity between first-generation Dutch-Ghanaian migrants in The Netherlands and their rural and urban counterparts in Ghana. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 1471 Ghanaians (rural Ghanaians, n 532; urban Ghanaians, n 787; Dut

  17. Personal capacities needed for transitional co-operation in energy webs between glasshouses and non-horticultural counterparts in The Netherlands - three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, T.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, P.C.M.; Weel, van P.A.; Poot, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Though technically and economically challenging, heat exchange between glasshouses and non-horticultural counterparts (here after called Energy Webs) has been shown to be viable based on two operational webs and a number of feasibility studies for different locations within The Netherlands. The orga

  18. [Chronic otitis mediaChronic Otitis Media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohles, N; Schulz, T; Eßer, D

    2015-11-01

    There are 2 different kinds of chronic otitis media: Otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and otitis media chronica epitympanalis (cholesteatoma). The incidence of chronic otitis media as reported in literature differs in a wide range. The incidence rates vary between 0.45 and 46%. Both, otitis media chronica mesotympanalis and cholesteatoma, lead to eardrum perforation due to lengthy and recurring inflammations. Furthermore, chronic otitis media is characterized by frequently recurring otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Decreased frequencies of circulating follicular helper T cell counterparts and plasmablasts in ankylosing spondylitis patients Naive for TNF blockers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Belén Bautista-Caro

    Full Text Available Follicular helper T cells (Tfh, localized in lymphoid organs, promote B cell differentiation and function. Circulating CD4 T cells expressing CXCR5, ICOS and/or PD-1 are counterparts of Tfh. Three subpopulations of circulating CD4+CXCR5+ cells have been described: CXCR3+CCR6- (Tfh-Th1, CXCR3-CCR6+ (Tfh-Th17, and CXCR3-CCR6- (Tfh-Th2. Only Tfh-Th17 and Tfh-Th2 function as B cell helpers. Our objective was to study the frequencies of circulating Tfh (cTfh, cTfh subsets and plasmablasts (CD19+CD20-CD27+CD38high cells, and the function of cTfh cells, in patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS. To this end, peripheral blood was drawn from healthy controls (HC (n = 50, AS patients naïve for TNF blockers (AS/nb (n = 25 and AS patients treated with TNF blockers (AS/b (n = 25. The frequencies of cTfh and plasmablasts were determined by flow cytometry. Cocultures of magnetically sorted CD4+CXCR5+ T cells with autologous CD19+CD27- naïve B cells were established from 3 AS/nb patients and 3 HC, and concentrations of IgG, A and M were measured in supernatants. We obseved that AS/nb but not AS/b patients, demonstrated decreased frequencies of circulating CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+PD-1+ cells and plasmablasts, together with a decreased (Tfh-Th17+Tfh-Th2/Tfh-Th1 ratio. The amounts of IgG and IgA produced in cocultures of CD4+CXCR5+ T cells with CD19+CD27- B cells of AS/nb patients were significantly lower than observed in cocultures established from HC. In summary, AS/nb but not AS/b patients, demonstrate a decreased frequency of cTfh and plasmablasts, and an underrepresentation of cTfh subsets bearing a B helper phenotype. In addition, peripheral blood CD4+CXCR5+ T cells of AS/nb patients showed a decreased capacity to help B cells ex vivo.

  20. ON bipolar cells in macaque retina: type-specific synaptic connectivity with special reference to OFF counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Tsukamoto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To date, 12 macaque bipolar cell types have been described. This list includes all morphology types first outlined by Polyak (1941 using the Golgi method in the primate retina and subsequently identified by other researchers using electron microscopy (EM combined with the Golgi method, serial section transmission EM (SSTEM, and immunohistochemical imaging. We used SSTEM for the rod-dense perifoveal area of macaque retina, reconfirmed ON (cone bipolar cells to be classified as invaginating midget bipolar (IMB, diffuse bipolar (DB4, DB5, DB6, giant bipolar (GB, and blue bipolar (BB types, and clarified their type-specific connectivity. DB4 cells made reciprocal synapses with a kind of ON-OFF lateral amacrine cell, similar to OFF DB2 cells. GB cells contacted rods and cones, similar to OFF DB3b cells. Retinal circuits formed by GB and DB3b cells are thought to substantiate the psychophysical finding of fast rod signals in mesopic vision. DB6 cell output synapses were directed to ON midget ganglion (MG cells at 70% of ribbon contacts, similar to OFF DB1 cells that directed 60% of ribbon contacts to OFF MG cells. IMB cells contacted medium- or long-wavelength sensitive (M/L- cones but not short-wavelength sensitive (S- cones, while BB cells contacted S-cones but not M/L-cones. However, IMB and BB dendrites had similar morphological architectures, and a BB cell contacting a single S-cone resembled an IMB cell. Thus, both IMB and BB may be the ON bipolar counterparts of the OFF flat midget bipolar (FMB type, likewise DB4 of DB2, DB5 of DB3a, DB6 of DB1, and GB of DB3b OFF bipolar type. The ON DB plus GB, and OFF DB cells predominantly contacted M/L-cones and their outputs were directed mainly to parasol ganglion (PG cells but also moderately to MG cells. BB cells directed S-cone-driven outputs almost exclusively to small bistratified ganglion (SBG cells. Some FMB cells predominantly contacted S-cones and their outputs were directed to OFF MG cells

  1. Manganese(III)-containing Wells-Dawson sandwich-type polyoxometalates: comparison with their manganese(II) counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrini, Mounim; Mbomekallé, Israël M; Dolbecq, Anne; Marrot, Jérôme; Berthet, Patrick; Ntienoue, Joseline; Sécheresse, Francis; Vigneron, Jacky; Etcheberry, Arnaud

    2011-07-18

    We present the synthesis and structural characterization, assessed by various techniques (FTIR, TGA, UV-vis, elemental analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction for three compounds, magnetic susceptibility, and electrochemistry) of five manganese-containing Wells-Dawson sandwich-type (WDST) complexes. The dimanganese(II)-containing complex, [Na(2)(H(2)O)(2)Mn(II)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](18-) (1), was obtained by reaction of MnCl(2) with 1 equiv of [As(2)W(15)O(56)](12-) in acetate medium (pH 4.7). Oxidation of 1 by Na(2)S(2)O(8) in aqueous solution led to the dimanganese(III) complex [Na(2)(H(2)O)(2)Mn(III)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](16-) (2), while its trimanganese(II) homologue, [Na(H(2)O)(2)Mn(II)(H(2)O)Mn(II)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](17-) (3), was obtained by addition of ca. 1 equiv of MnCl(2) to a solution of 1 in 1 M NaCl. The trimanganese(III) and tetramanganese(III) counterparts, [Mn(III)(H(2)O)Mn(III)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](15-) (4) and [Mn(III)(2)(H(2)O)(2)Mn(III)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](12-) (6), are, respectively, obtained by oxidation of aqueous solutions of 3 and [Mn(II)(2)(H(2)O)(2)Mn(II)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](16-) (5) by Na(2)S(2)O(8). Single-crystal X-ray analyses were carried out on 2, 3, and 4. BVS calculations and XPS confirmed that the oxidation state of Mn centers is +II for complexes 1, 3, and 5 and +III for 2, 4, and 6. A complete comparative electrochemical study was carried out on the six compounds cited above, and it was possible to observe the distinct redox steps Mn(IV/III) and Mn(III/II). Magnetization measurements, as a function of temperature, confirm the presence of antiferromagnetic interactions between the Mn ions in these compounds in all cases with the exception of compound 2.

  2. Exhaled nitric oxide levels in children with chronic adenotonsillar disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretta, S; Marchisio, P; Esposito, S; Garavello, W; Cappadona, M; Clemente, I A; Pignataro, L

    2011-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is a highly reactive biological mediator that has recently been associated with chronic tonsillar disease in adults, but there are no published data concerning eNO levels in their pediatric counterparts. The aim of this study is to measure mean eNO levels in children with chronic adenotonsillitis or adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and assess the effects of potential confounding factors. Children aged 3-17 years were divided into three groups (chronic adenotonsillitis, adenotonsillar hypertrophy and controls). Their eNO levels were measured in accordance with the international guidelines, and their other clinical and anamnestic characteristics were recorded. The mean eNO level in the children with chronic adenotonsillitis was slightly higher than that in the other groups, but there was no statistically significant between-group difference. Age (p=0.009), allergy (p=0.05) and body mass index (p=0.03), but not the mean grade of adenoidal or tonsil hypertrophy, were all statistically related to mean eNO levels. These preliminary results indicate the lack of an increase in mean eNO levels in children with chronic adenotonsillar disease, with no substantial difference between children with chronic adenotonsillitis and those with adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

  3. Herschel/PACS observations of young sources in Taurus: the far-infrared counterpart of optical jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podio, L.; Kamp, I.; Flower, D.; Howard, C.; Sandell, G.; Mora, A.; Aresu, G.; Brittain, S.; Dent, W. R. F.; Pinte, C.; White, G. J.

    2012-09-01

    Context. Observations of the atomic and molecular line emission associated with jets and outflows emitted by young stellar objects provide sensitive diagnostics of the excitation conditions, and can be used to trace the various evolutionary stages they pass through as they evolve to become main sequence stars. Aims: To understand the relevance of atomic and molecular cooling in shocks, and how accretion and ejection efficiency evolves with the evolutionary state of the sources, we will study the far-infrared counterparts of bright optical jets associated with Class I and II sources in Taurus (T Tau, DG Tau A, DG Tau B, FS Tau A+B, and RW Aur). Methods: We have analysed Herschel/PACS observations of a number of atomic ([O i]63 μm, 145 μm, [C ii]158 μm) and molecular (high-J CO, H2O, OH) lines, collected within the open time key project GASPS (PI: W. R. F. Dent). To constrain the origin of the detected lines we have compared the obtained FIR emission maps with the emission from optical-jets and millimetre-outflows, and the measured line fluxes and ratios with predictions from shock and disk models. Results: All of the targets are associated with extended emission in the atomic lines; in particular, the strong [O i] 63 μm emission is correlated with the direction of the optical jet/mm-outflow. The line ratios suggest that the atomic lines can be excited in fast dissociative J-shocks occurring along the jet. The molecular emission, on the contrary, originates from a compact region, that is spatially and spectrally unresolved, and lines from highly excited levels are detected (e.g., the o-H2O 818-707 line, and the CO J = 36-35 line). Disk models are unable to explain the brightness of the observed lines (CO and H2O line fluxes up to 10-15-6 × 10-16 W m-2). Slow C- or J-shocks with high pre-shock densities reproduce the observed H2O and high-J CO lines; however, the disk and/or UV-heated outflow cavities may contribute to the observed emission. Conclusions

  4. Chronic tophaceous gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa D

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of chronic tophaceous gout, in a 27-year-old female on diuretics for chronic congestive cardiac failure with characteristic histopathological and radiological changes is reported.

  5. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maintaining good health. Can chronic pancreatitis give my child cancer? If your child has chronic pancreatitis, he or she will be at an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer compared to the general population. The degree of ...

  6. Chronic granulomatous disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGD; Fatal granulomatosis of childhood; Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood; Progressive septic granulomatosis ... In chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), immune system cells called phagocytes are unable to kill some types of bacteria and ...

  7. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Nepper-Christensen, Steen;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults.......To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults....

  8. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth > For Kids > Chronic Kidney Diseases Print ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  9. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002442.htm Diet - chronic kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... make changes to your diet when you have chronic kidney disease. These changes may include limiting fluids, eating a ...

  10. People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Goals Ending Chronic Homelessness Share This: Ending Chronic Homelessness Last updated on January 19, 2017 We can ... the USICH newsletter. We know how to end homelessness. Let's do it, together. Sign up for our ...

  11. Ultrasound appearance of chronic mammary duct ectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchesne, N. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: nathalie_duchesne_22@yahoo.ca; Skolnik, S. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Family Medicine, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bilmer, S. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-12-15

    Mammary duct ectasia (MDE), also called periductal mastitis, mammary dysplasia, or plasma cell mastitis, is a benign condition of the mammary gland first described by Haagensen in 1951. The etiology of MDE is unknown and its pathogenesis still controversial; the periductal inflammation could be either the cause or the result of dilated damaged ducts. The process is usually bilateral and asymptomatic, with only a small percentage of patients presenting with symptoms that may include long course of tumour formation, usually subareolar breast lumps, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, mastalgia, and mammary abscess or fistulas. Mammographic presentation of MDE is well known; its features include periductal calcification, benign intraductal calcification, and retroareolar duct dilatation. The periductal calcification results from dystrophic calcification and forms calcified rings or very dense, oval, elongated calcifications, each with a central lucency representing the dilated duct. Intraductal calcifications of duct ectasia represent inspissated intraductal material and are typically of uniform high density, often needle-like, and occasionally branching. Occasionally, there are no mammographic findings, and the diagnosis must rely on sonographic features. Appearance of MDE on ultrasonography (US) depends on the stage of the disease and the contents of the dilated ducts. The acute presentation has been demonstrated in the literature more often than has its chronic counterpart. In the former, duct content can vary from anechoic to isoechoic with surrounding fatty tissue. In chronic MDE, episodes of inflammation are longer. This tends to result in secretions that have a more solid, cheesy texture, partly due to cholesterol crystals, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. For both types of MDE, the appearance can mimic high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on US. In this essay, 2 chronic MDE cases are presented and their US appearance discussed. Our goal is to explore

  12. Searching the Gamma-ray Sky for Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Sources: Fermi GBM and LAT Observations of LVT151012 and GW151226

    CERN Document Server

    Racusin, J L; Goldstein, A; Connaughton, V; Wilson-Hodge, C A; Jenke, P; Blackburn, L; Briggs, M S; Broida, J; Camp, J; Christensen, N; Hui, C M; Littenberg, T; Shawhan, P; Singer, L; Veitch, J; Bhat, P N; Cleveland, W; Fitzpatrick, G; Gibby, M H; von Kienlin, A; McBreen, S; Mailyan, B; Meegan, C A; Paciesas, W S; Preece, R D; Roberts, O J; Stanbro, M; Veres, P; Zhang, B -B; Ackermann, M; Albert, A; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonino, R; Bregeon, J; Bruel, P; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caputo, R; Caragiulo, M; Caraveo, P A; Cavazzuti, E; Charles, E; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Costanza, F; Cuoco, A; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Palma, F; Desiante, R; Digel, S W; Di Lalla, N; Di Mauro, M; Di Venere, L; Drell, P S; Favuzzi, C; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Gill, R; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Granot, J; Green, D; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Harding, A K; Jogler, T; Johannesson, G; Kamae, T; Kensei, S; Kocevski, D; Kuss, M; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Li, J; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lubrano, P; Magill, J D; Maldera, S; Malyshev, D; McEnery, J E; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Negro, M; Nuss, E; Omodei, N; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Principe, G; Raino, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Parkinson, P M Saz; Scargle, J D; Sgro, C; Simone, D; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Spada, F; Spinelli, P; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Thayer, J B; Torres, D F; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vianello, G; Wood, K S; Wood, M

    2016-01-01

    We present the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the LIGO binary black hole merger event GW151226 and candi- date LVT151012. No candidate electromagnetic counterparts were detected by either the GBM or LAT. We present a detailed analysis of the GBM and LAT data over a range of timescales from seconds to years, using automated pipelines and new techniques for char- acterizing the upper limits across a large area of the sky. Due to the partial GBM and LAT coverage of the large LIGO localization regions at the trigger times for both events, dif- ferences in source distances and masses, as well as the uncertain degree to which emission from these sources could be beamed, these non-detections cannot be used to constrain the variety of theoretical models recently applied to explain the candidate GBM counterpart to GW150914.

  13. Discovery and Monitoring of the likely IR Counterpart of SGR 1806-20 during the 2004 gamma-ray burst-active state

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, G L; Mignani, R; Stella, L; Marconi, G; Testa, V; Mereghetti, S; Campana, S; Rea, N; Gotz, D; Perna, R; Curto, G L; Israel, GianLuca; Covino, Stefano; Mignani, Roberto; Stella, Luigi; Marconi, Gianni; Testa, Vincenzo; Mereghetti, Sandro; Campana, Sergio; Rea, Nanda; Gotz, Diego; Perna, Rosalba; Curto, Gaspare Lo

    2005-01-01

    The sky region including the Chandra position of SGR 1806-20 was monitored in the IR band during 2004, following its increased high energy bursting activity. Observations were performed using NAOS-CONICA, the adaptive optics IR camera mounted on Yepun VLT, which provided images of unprecedented quality (FWHM better than 0.1"). After the 2004 December 27th giant flare, the source position has been nailed by VLA observations of its radio counterpart, reducing the positional uncertainty to 0.04". Using IR data from our monitoring campaign, we discovered the likely IR counterpart to SGR 1806-20 based on positional coincidence with the Chandra and VLA uncertainty regions and flux variability of a factor of about 2 correlated with that at higher energies. We compare our findings with other isolated neutron star classes thought to be related, at some level, with SGRs.

  14. Self-esteem in adolescents with chronic physical illness vs. controls in Northern Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Zashikhina, Anna; Hägglöf, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This work aims to study self-esteem in adolescents with diabetes, asthma and epilepsy; compare the results with those of the representative sample of healthy adolescents; and evaluate the predictive value of certain demographic, family-related, and disease-related factors on self-esteem. Methods: A total of 148 chronically ill adolescents and 301 matched healthy counterparts completed the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and the "I think I am" questionnaire. Adolescents' parents answere...

  15. Decreased plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor in high-altitude excessive erythrocytosis and Chronic Mountain Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Villafuerte, Francisco C.; Macarlupú, José Luis; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Corrales-Melgar, Daniela; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Corante, Noemí; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2014-01-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the hallmark of chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a prevalent syndrome in high-altitude Andean populations. Although hypoxemia represents its underlying stimulus, why some individuals develop EE despite having altitude-normal blood erythropoietin (Epo) concentration is still unclear. A soluble form of the Epo receptor (sEpoR) has been identified in human blood and competes directly for Epo with its membrane counterpart (mEpoR). Thus, reduced levels of circulati...

  16. Self-esteem in adolescents with chronic physical illness vs. controls in Northern Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Zashikhina, Anna; Hägglöf, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This work aims to study self-esteem in adolescents with diabetes, asthma and epilepsy; compare the results with those of the representative sample of healthy adolescents; and evaluate the predictive value of certain demographic, family-related, and disease-related factors on self-esteem. Methods: A total of 148 chronically ill adolescents and 301 matched healthy counterparts completed the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and the "I think I am" questionnaire. Adolescents' parents answere...

  17. The Fault Lies on the Other Side: Altered Brain Functional Connectivity in Psychiatric Disorders is Mainly Caused by Counterpart Regions in the Opposite Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Kendrick, Keith M; Lu, Guangming; Feng, Jianfeng

    2015-10-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal resting-state functional connectivity between pairs of brain regions, although it remains unclear whether the fault resides within the pair of regions themselves or other regions connected to them. Identifying the source of dysfunction is crucial for understanding the etiology of different disorders. Using pathway- and network-based techniques to analyze resting-state functional magnetic imaging data from a large population of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (239 patients, 251 controls), major depression (39 patients, 37 controls), and schizophrenia (69 patients, 62 controls), we show for the first time that only network-based cross-correlation identifies significant functional connectivity changes in all 3 disorders which survive correction. This demonstrates that the primary source of dysfunction resides not in the regional pairs themselves but in their external connections. Combining pathway and network-based functional-connectivity analysis, we established that, in all 3 disorders, the counterparts of pairs of regions in the opposite hemisphere contribute 60-76% to altered functional connectivity, compared with only 17-21% from the regions themselves. Thus, a transdiagnostic feature is of abnormal functional connectivity between brain regions produced via their contralateral counterparts. Our results demonstrate an important role for contralateral counterpart regions in contributing to altered regional connectivity in psychiatric disorders.

  18. Accurate X-ray position of the Anomalous X-ray Pulsar XTE J1810-197 and identification of its likely IR counterpart

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, G L; Mangano, V; Testa, V; Perna, R; Hummel, W; Mignani, R P; Ageorges, N; Curto, G L; Marco, O; Angelini, L; Campana, S; Covino, S; Marconi, G; Mereghetti, S; Stella, L

    2004-01-01

    We report the accurate sub-arcsec X-ray position of the new Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP) XTE J1810-197, derived with a Chndra-HRC Target of Opportunity observation carried out in November 2003. We also report the discovery of a likely IR counterpart based on a VLT (IR band) Target of Opportunity observation carried out in October 2003. Our proposed counterpart is the only IR source (Ks=20.8) in the X-ray error circle. Its IR colors as well as the X-ray/IR flux ratio, are consistent with those of the counterparts of all other AXPs (at variance with field star colors). Deep Gunn-i band images obtained at the 3.6m ESO telescope detected no sources down to a limiting magnitude of 24.3. Moreover, we find that the pulsed fraction and count rates of XTE J1810-197 remained nearly unchanged since the previous Chandra and XMM-Newton observations (2003 August 27th and September 8th, respectively). We briefly discuss the implications of these results. In particular, we note that the transient (or at least highly variable...

  19. 325 and 610 MHz Radio Counterparts of SNR G353.6-0.7 a.k.a. HESS J1731-347

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayana, A. J.; Chandra, Poonam; Roy, Subhashis; Green, David A.; Acero, Fabio; Lemoine-Goumard, Marianne; Marcowith, Alexandre; Ray, Alak K.; Renaud, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    HESS J1731-347 a.k.a. SNR G353.6-0.7 is one of the five known shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs) emitting in the very high energy (VHE, Energy > 0.1 TeV) γ-ray domain. We observed this TeV SNR with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) in 1390, 610 and 325 MHz bands. In this paper, we report the discovery of 325 and 610 MHz radio counterparts of the SNR HESS J1731-347 with the GMRT. Various filaments of the SNR are clearly seen in the 325 and 610 MHz bands. However, the faintest feature in the radio bands corresponds to the peak in VHE emission. We explain this anti-correlation in terms of a possible leptonic origin of the observed VHE γ-ray emission. We determine the spectral indices of the bright individual filaments, which were detected in both the 610 and the 325 MHz bands. Our values range from -1.11 to -0.15, consistent with the non-thermal radio emission. We also report a possible radio counterpart of a nearby TeV source HESS J1729-345 from the 843 MHz Molonglo Galactic Plane Survey and the 1.4 GHz Southern Galactic Plane Survey maps. The positive radio spectral index of this possible counterpart suggests a thermal origin of the radio emission of this nearby TeV source.

  20. UNVEILING THE NATURE OF UNIDENTIFIED GAMMA-RAY SOURCES. II. RADIO, INFRARED, AND OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS OF THE GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR CANDIDATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F.; Funk, S. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); D' Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Masetti, N. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Giroletti, M. [INAF-Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2013-06-01

    A significant fraction ({approx}30%) of the high-energy gamma-ray sources listed in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope catalog (2FGL) are still of unknown origin, being not yet associated with counterparts at low energies. We recently developed a new association method to identify if there is a {gamma}-ray blazar candidate within the positional uncertainty region of a generic 2FGL source. This method is entirely based on the discovery that blazars have distinct infrared colors with respect to other extragalactic sources found, thanks to the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky observations. Several improvements have also been performed to increase the efficiency of our method in recognizing {gamma}-ray blazar candidates. In this paper we applied our method to two different samples, the first constituted by unidentified {gamma}-ray sources (UGSs), and the second by active galaxies of uncertain type, both listed in the 2FGL. We present a catalog of IR counterparts for {approx}20% of the UGSs investigated. Then, we also compare our results for the associated sources with those present in the literature. In addition, we illustrate the extensive archival research carried out to identify the radio, infrared, optical, and X-ray counterparts of the WISE-selected, {gamma}-ray blazar candidates. Finally, we discuss the future developments of our method based on ground-based follow-up observations.

  1. Application of the MST clustering to the high energy gamma-ray sky. IV - Blazar candidates found as possible counterparts of photon clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, R; Bernieri, E

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a cluster search in the Fermi-LAT Pass 8 gamma-ray sky by means of the Minimum Spanning Tree algorithm, at energies higher than 10 GeV and at Galactic latitudes higher than 25 degrees. The selected clusters have a minimum number of photons higher than or equal to 5, a high degree of concentration, and are without a clear corresponding counterpart in blazar catalogues. A sample of 30 possible gamma-ray sources was obtained. These objects were verified by applying the standard Maximum Likelihood analysis on the Fermi-LAT data. A search for possible radio counterparts in a circle having a radius of 6 arcmin was performed, finding several interesting objects, the majority of them without optical spectroscopical data. These can be considered as new blazar candidates. Some of them were already noticed as possible blazars or Active Galactic Nuclei in previous surveys, but never associated with high energy emission. These possible counterparts are reported and their properties are discussed.

  2. Searching for near-infrared counterparts of the faint neutron star X-ray transients XMMU J174716.1-281048 and SAX J1806.5-2215

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Ramanpreet; Kamble, Atish; Cackett, Edward M; Kutulla, Ralf; Kaplan, David; Degenaar, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    We present our near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations of the two neutron star low mass X-ray binaries XMMU J174716.1-281048 and SAX J1806.5-2215 obtained using the PANIC instrument on the 6.5-meter Magellan telescope and the WHIRC instrument on 3.5-meter WIYN telescope. Both sources are members of the group of faint to very-faint X-ray binaries and are undergoing very long X-ray outbursts since 2003 and 2011, respectively- `the quasi-persistent X-ray binaries'. The goal of our observations is to identify the NIR counterpart of both sources. We identified two NIR stars consistent with the Chandra X-ray error circle of XMMU J174716.1-281048 and one for SAX J1806.5-2215. We studied the magnitude variations of the possible counterparts with respect to the UKIRT NIR Galactic plane observations. For XMMU J174716.1-281048, we also investigated the candidate counterparts using the color-color diagram and spectral energy distribution. We observed large variability in one NIR star having position consistent with the ...

  3. Heredity of chronic bronchitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meteran, Howraman; Backer, Vibeke; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is a major risk factor for lung diseases and lower respiratory symptoms, but since not all smokers develop chronic bronchitis and since chronic bronchitis is also diagnosed in never-smokers, it has been suggested that some individuals are more susceptible to develop chronic...... bronchitis due to genetics. OBJECTIVE: To study the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on the variation in the susceptibility to chronic bronchitis. METHODS: In a population-based questionnaire study of 13,649 twins, 50-71 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry, we calculated sex......-specific concordance rates and heritability of chronic bronchitis. The response rate was 75%. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 9.3% among men and 8.5% among women. The concordance rate for chronic bronchitis was higher in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins among women; 0.30 vs. 0...

  4. Approaching chronic sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarber, Kathleen M; Dion, Gregory Robert; Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, Kevin C

    2013-11-01

    Chronic sinusitis is a common disease that encompasses a number of syndromes that are characterized by sinonasal mucosal inflammation. Chronic sinusitis can be defined as two or more of the following symptoms lasting for more than 12 consecutive weeks: discolored rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, nasal obstruction, facial pressure or pain, or decreased sense of smell. Chronic sinusitis is further classified as chronic sinusitis with polyposis, chronic sinusitis without polyposis, or allergic fungal sinusitis using physical examination, and histologic and radiographic findings. Treatment methods for chronic sinusitis are based upon categorization of the disease and include oral and inhaled corticosteroids, nasal saline irrigations, and antibiotics in selected patients. Understanding the various forms of chronic sinusitis and managing and ruling out comorbidities are key to successful management of this common disorder.

  5. Biofilms in chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Garth A; Swogger, Ellen; Wolcott, Randall; Pulcini, Elinor deLancey; Secor, Patrick; Sestrich, Jennifer; Costerton, John W; Stewart, Philip S

    2008-01-01

    Chronic wounds including diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and venous leg ulcers are a worldwide health problem. It has been speculated that bacteria colonizing chronic wounds exist as highly persistent biofilm communities. This research examined chronic and acute wounds for biofilms and characterized microorganisms inhabiting these wounds. Chronic wound specimens were obtained from 77 subjects and acute wound specimens were obtained from 16 subjects. Culture data were collected using standard clinical techniques. Light and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to analyze 50 of the chronic wound specimens and the 16 acute wound specimens. Molecular analyses were performed on the remaining 27 chronic wound specimens using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequence analysis. Of the 50 chronic wound specimens evaluated by microscopy, 30 were characterized as containing biofilm (60%), whereas only one of the 16 acute wound specimens was characterized as containing biofilm (6%). This was a statistically significant difference (p<0.001). Molecular analyses of chronic wound specimens revealed diverse polymicrobial communities and the presence of bacteria, including strictly anaerobic bacteria, not revealed by culture. Bacterial biofilm prevalence in specimens from chronic wounds relative to acute wounds observed in this study provides evidence that biofilms may be abundant in chronic wounds.

  6. Chronic Inflammatory Polyneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen children with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy monitored between 1975 and 2005 are reported from Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Canada.

  7. The Optical Counterpart to the Accreting Millisecond X-Ray Pulsar SAX J1748.9-2021 in the Globular Cluster NGC 6440

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadelano, M.; Pallanca, C.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.; Patruno, A.

    2017-07-01

    We used a combination of deep optical and {{H}}α images of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6440, acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope, to identify the optical counterpart to the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1748.9-2021 during quiescence. A strong {{H}}α emission has been detected from a main-sequence star (hereafter COM-SAX J1748.9-2021) located at only 0.″15 from the nominal position of the X-ray source. The position of the star also agrees with the optical counterpart found by Verbunt et al. during an outburst. We propose this star as the most likely optical counterpart to the binary system. By direct comparison with isochrones, we estimated that COM-SAX J1748.9-2021 has a mass of 0.70{--}0.83 {M}⊙ , a radius of 0.88+/- 0.02 {R}⊙ , and a superficial temperature of 5250 ± 80 K. These parameters, combined with the orbital characteristics of the binary, suggest that the system is observed at a very low inclination angle (˜ 8^\\circ {--}14^\\circ ) and that the star is filling or even overflowing its Roche lobe. This, together with the EW of the {{H}}α emission (˜20 Å), suggests possible ongoing mass transfer. The possible presence of such an ongoing mass transfer during a quiescence state also suggests that the radio pulsar is not active yet and thus this system, despite its similarity with the class of redback millisecond pulsars, is not a transitional millisecond pulsar. Based on observations collected with the NASA/ESA HST (Prop. 12517, 13410), obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  8. Young, Star-forming Galaxies and their local Counterparts: the Evolving Relationship of Mass-SFR-Metallicity since z ~ 2.1

    CERN Document Server

    Gebhardt, Henry S Grasshorn; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Bridge, Joanna S; Schneider, Donald P; Trump, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    We explore the evolution of the Stellar Mass-Star Formation Rate-Metallicity Relation using a set of 256 COSMOS and GOODS galaxies in the redshift range 1.90 3 . 10^40 ergs s^-1) local galaxies, and this offset cannot be explained by simple systematic offsets in the derived quantities. At stellar masses above ~10^9 Msol and star formation rates above ~10 Msol yr^-1, the z ~ 2.1 galaxies have higher oxygen abundances than their local counterparts, while the opposite is true for lower-mass, lower-SFR systems.

  9. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... U.S. Morbidity Number of adults with diagnosed chronic bronchitis in the past year: 9.3 million Percent ...

  10. Coping with Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having a long-term, or chronic, illness can disrupt your life in many ways. You may often be tired and in pain. Your illness might affect your ... able to work, causing financial problems. For children, chronic illnesses can be frightening, because they may not ...

  11. Chronic Postoperative Roseomonas Endophthalmitis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kuan-Jen; Lai, Chi-Chun; Kuo, Ya-Hui; WU, WEI-CHI; CHEN, TUN-LU

    2008-01-01

    We report one case with chronic postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Roseomonas species. Roseomonas spp. induced chronic endophthalmitis, which might result in misdiagnosis and delayed treatment and causes ocular damage and severe visual loss. This report is the first one related to a case with postoperative endophthalmitis secondary to Roseomonas infection.

  12. Chronic postoperative Roseomonas endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Jen; Lai, Chi-Chun; Kuo, Ya-Hui; Wu, Wei-Chi; Chen, Tun-Lu

    2009-01-01

    We report one case with chronic postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Roseomonas species. Roseomonas spp. induced chronic endophthalmitis, which might result in misdiagnosis and delayed treatment and causes ocular damage and severe visual loss. This report is the first one related to a case with postoperative endophthalmitis secondary to Roseomonas infection.

  13. [Chronic pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, T; Katada, N; Nishimura, D; Hoshino, H; Shimizu, F; Suzuki, R; Sano, H; Kato, K

    1998-11-01

    MRCP has been recognized as a safe and noninvasive diagnostic method. In the present study we evaluated the usefulness of MRCP in diagnosis of chronic and acute pancreatitis. Two-dimensional fast asymmetric spin-echo (FASE) MRCP was performed in 40 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 13 with acute pancreatitis. In 29 patients (72.5%) with chronic pancreatitis and 9 (66.7%) with acute pancreatitis, main pancreatic duct (MPD) was visualized entirely. MRCP could demonstrate the characteristic findings of chronic pancreatitis such as dilatation and irregularity of MPD in most cases. In acute pancreatitis, MRCP indicated that MPD was normal in diameter, but irregular in configuration compared with that of the control group. MRCP may facilitate the diagnosis of chronic and acute pancreatitis.

  14. Chronic gastritis - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbanova, Mariya; Frauenschläger, Katrin; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the main aetiologic factor for chronic gastritis worldwide. The degree of inflammation and the evolution of this form of chronic gastritis can vary largely depending on bacterial virulence factors, host susceptibility factors and environmental conditions. Autoimmune gastritis is another cause of chronic inflammation in the stomach, which can occur in all age groups. This disease presents typically with vitamin B12 deficiency and pernicious anaemia. The presence of anti-parietal cell antibodies is highly specific for the diagnosis. The role of H. pylori as a trigger for autoimmune gastritis remains uncertain. Other rare conditions for chronic gastritis are chronic inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease or on the background of lymphocytic or collagenous gastroenteropathies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. XMM-Newton Observations Reveal the X-ray Counterpart of the Very-high-energy gamma-ray Source HESS J1640-465

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, S.; Hinton, J.A.; Puhlhofer, G.; Aharonian, F.A.; Hofmann, W.; Reimer, O.; Wagner, S.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Leeds U. /Dublin Inst. /Stanford U., HEPL; Funk, S.; Hinton, J.A.; Puehlhofer, G.; Aharonian, F.A.; Hofmann, W.; Reimer, O.; Wagner, S.

    2007-03-05

    We present X-ray observations of the as of yet unidentified very high-energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray source HESS J1640-465 with the aim of establishing a counterpart of this source in the keV energy range, and identifying the mechanism responsible for the VHE emission. The 21.8 ksec XMM-Newton observation of HESS J1640-465 in September 2005 represents a significant improvement in sensitivity and angular resolution over previous ASCA studies in this region. These new data show a hard-spectrum X-ray emitting object at the centroid of the H.E.S.S. source, within the shell of the radio Supernova Remnant (SNR) G338.3-0.0. This object is consistent with the position and flux previously measured by both ASCA and Swift-XRT but is now shown to be significantly extended. We argue that this object is very likely the counterpart to HESS J1640-465 and that both objects may represent the Pulsar Wind Nebula of an as of yet undiscovered pulsar associated with G338.3-0.0.

  16. J-GEM follow-up observations to search for an optical counterpart of the first gravitational wave source GW150914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokuma, Tomoki; Tanaka, Masaomi; Asakura, Yuichiro; Abe, Fumio; Tristram, Paul J.; Utsumi, Yousuke; Doi, Mamoru; Fujisawa, Kenta; Itoh, Ryosuke; Itoh, Yoichi; Kawabata, Koji S.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kuroda, Daisuke; Matsubayashi, Kazuya; Motohara, Kentaro; Murata, Katsuhiro L.; Nagayama, Takahiro; Ohta, Kouji; Saito, Yoshihiko; Tamura, Yoichi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Uemura, Makoto; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2016-08-01

    We present our optical follow-up observations to search for an electromagnetic counterpart of the first gravitational wave source GW150914 in the framework of the Japanese collaboration for Gravitational wave ElectroMagnetic follow-up (J-GEM), which is an observing group utilizing optical and radio telescopes in Japan, as well as in New Zealand, China, South Africa, Chile, and Hawaii. We carried out a wide-field imaging survey with the Kiso Wide Field Camera (KWFC) on the 1.05 m Kiso Schmidt telescope in Japan and a galaxy-targeted survey with Tripole5 on the B&C 61 cm telescope in New Zealand. Approximately 24 deg2 regions in total were surveyed in i-band with KWFC and 18 nearby galaxies were observed with Tripole5 in g-, r-, and i-bands 4-12 days after the gravitational wave detection. Median 5 σ depths are i ˜ 18.9 mag for the KWFC data and g ˜ 18.9 mag, r ˜ 18.7 mag, and i ˜ 18.3 mag for the Tripole5 data. The probability for a counterpart to be in the observed area is 1.2% in the initial skymap and 0.1% in the final skymap. We do not find any transient source associated to an external galaxy with spatial offset from its center, which is consistent with the local supernova rate.

  17. Comparison of visual working memory in deaf and hearing-impaired students with normal counterparts: A research in people without sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Tangestani Zadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The hearing defects in deaf and hearing-impaired students also affect their cognitive skills such as memory in addition to communication skills. Hence, the aim of this study was to compare visual working memory in deaf and hearing-impaired students with that in normal counterparts.Method: In the present study, which was a causal-comparative study using the André Rey test, 30 deaf and 30 hearing-impaired students were compared with 30 students in a normal group, and they were matched based on gender, intelligence, educational grade, and socioeconomic status.Findings: Findings show that there is significant difference between the three groups’ subjects (p0.05.Conclusion: Function of deaf or hard-of-hearing students in the visual working memory task was weaker in comparison with the normal counterparts, while the two deaf and hard-of-hearing groups have similar functions. With a better identification and understanding of the factors that affect the development of this cognitive ability, we can offer new methods of teaching and reduce many of the disadvantages of this group of people in the different fields of cognitive science.

  18. Radio counterpart of the lensed sub-mm emission in the cluster MS0451.6-0305: new evidence for the merger scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Alba, A Berciano; Garrett, M A; Wucknitz, O; Limousin, M

    2009-01-01

    SMM J04542-0301 is an extended (~1 arcmin) sub-mm source located near the core of the cluster MS0451.6-0305. It has been suggested that part of its emission arises from the interaction between a LBG and two EROs at z~2.9 that are multiply-imaged. However, the dramatic resolution difference between the sub-mm map and the optical/NIR images make it difficult to confirm this hypothesis. In this paper, we present a deep (~ 10 microJy/beam), high resolution (~2 arcsec) 1.4 GHz radio map of the cluster core, in which we have identified 6 sources located within SMM J04542-0301. The strong lensing effect in the radio data has been quantified by constructing a new lens model of the cluster. The brightest and most extended of these sources (RJ) is located in the middle of the sub-mm emission, and has no obvious counterpart in the optical/NIR. Three other detections (E1, E2 and E3) seem to be associated with the images of one of the EROs. The last two detections (CR1 and CR2), for which no optical/NIR counterpart have b...

  19. Molecular alterations in lesions of anogenital mammary-like glands and their mammary counterparts including hidradenoma papilliferum, intraductal papilloma, fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Vanecek, Tomas; Martinek, Petr; Kyrpychova, Liubov; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Stewart, Colin J R; Portelli, Francesca; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2017-06-01

    Lesions affecting anogenital mammary-like glands (AGMLG) are histopathologically very similar to those seen in the breast but whether this morphological similarity is also reflected at the genetic level is unknown. To compare the underlying molecular mechanisms in lesions of AGMLG and their mammary counterparts, we analyzed the mutational profile of 16 anogenital neoplasms including 5 hidradenomas papilliferum (HP), 1 lesion with features of HP and fibroadenoma (FA), 7 FA, 3 phyllodes tumors (PhT)) and 18 analogous breast lesions (6 intraductal papillomas (IDP), 9 FA, and 3 PhT) by high-coverage next generation sequencing (NGS) using a panel comprising 50 cancer-related genes. Additionally, all cases were analyzed for the presence of a mutation in the MED12 gene. All detected mutations with allele frequencies over 20% were independently validated by Sanger sequencing (concordance: 100%). Mutations in PIK3CA, AKT1, MET, ABL1 and TP53 genes were found in lesions of AGMLG and also their mammary counterparts. The PI3K-AKT cascade plays a role in tumors arising at both sites. It appears that some histopathologically similar anogenital and breast lesions develop along similar molecular pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Searching for high-energy gamma-ray counterparts to Gravitational Wave sources with Fermi-LAT: a needle in a haystack

    CERN Document Server

    Vianello, Giacomo; Chiang, James

    2016-01-01

    At least a fraction of Gravitational Wave (GW) progenitors are expected to emit an electromagnetic (EM) signal in the form of a short gamma-ray burst (sGRB). The discovery of such a transient EM counterpart is challenging because the LIGO/VIRGO localization region is much larger (several hundreds of square degrees) than the field of view of X-ray, optical and radio telescopes. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has a wide field of view ($\\sim 2.4$ sr), and detects $\\sim 2-3$ sGRBs per year above 100 MeV. It can detect them not only during the short prompt phase, but also during their long-lasting high-energy afterglow phase. If other wide-field high-energy instruments such as Fermi-GBM, Swift-BAT or INTEGRAL-ISGRI cannot detect or localize with enough precision an EM counterpart during the prompt phase, the LAT can potentially pinpoint it with $\\lesssim 10$ arcmin accuracy during the afterglow phase. This routinely happens with gamma-ray bursts. Moreover, the LAT will cover the entire localization region wi...

  1. J-GEM Follow-Up Observations to Search for an Optical Counterpart of The First Gravitational Wave Source GW150914

    CERN Document Server

    Morokuma, Tomoki; Asakura, Yuichiro; Abe, Fumio; Tristram, Paul J; Utsumi, Yousuke; Doi, Mamoru; Fujisawa, Kenta; Itoh, Ryosuke; Itoh, Yoichi; Kawabata, Koji S; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kuroda, Daisuke; Matsubayashi, Kazuya; Motohara, Kentaro; Murata, Katsuhiro L; Nagayama, Takahiro; Ohta, Kouji; Saito, Yoshihiko; Tamura, Yoichi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Uemura, Makoto; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2016-01-01

    We present our optical follow-up observations to search for an electromagnetic counterpart of the first gravitational wave source GW150914 in the framework of the Japanese collaboration for Gravitational wave ElectroMagnetic follow-up (J-GEM), which is an observing group utilizing optical and radio telescopes in Japan, as well as those in New Zealand, China, South Africa, Chile, and Hawaii. We carried out a wide-field imaging survey with Kiso Wide Field Camera (KWFC) on the 1.05-m Kiso Schmidt telescope in Japan and a galaxy-targeted survey with Tripole5 on the B&C 61-cm telescope in New Zealand. Approximately 24 deg2 regions in total were surveyed in i-band with KWFC and 18 nearby galaxies were observed with Tripole5 in g-, r-, and i-bands 4-12 days after the gravitational wave detection. Median 5-sigma depths are i~18.9 mag for the KWFC data and g~18.9 mag, r~18.7 mag, and i~18.3 mag for the Tripole5 data. Probability for a counterpart to be in the observed area is 1.2% in the initial skymap and 0.1% in...

  2. Discovery of the near-infrared counterpart to the luminous neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary GX 3+1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Berg, Maureen; Fridriksson, Joel K. [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Homan, Jeroen [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Linares, Manuel, E-mail: M.C.vandenBerg@uva.nl [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna, E-38205, S/C de Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-10-01

    Using the High Resolution Camera on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we have measured an accurate position for the bright persistent neutron star X-ray binary and atoll source GX 3+1. At a location that is consistent with this new position, we have discovered the near-infrared (NIR) counterpart to GX 3+1 in images taken with the PANIC and FourStar cameras on the Magellan Baade Telescope. The identification of this K{sub s} = 15.8 ± 0.1 mag star as the counterpart is based on the presence of a Br γ emission line in an NIR spectrum taken with the Folded-port InfraRed Echelette spectrograph on the Baade Telescope. The absolute magnitude derived from the best available distance estimate to GX 3+1 indicates that the mass donor in the system is not a late-type giant. We find that the NIR light in GX 3+1 is likely dominated by the contribution from a heated outer accretion disk. This is similar to what has been found for the NIR flux from the brighter class of Z sources, but unlike the behavior of atolls fainter (L{sub X} ≈ 10{sup 36}-10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1}) than GX 3+1, where optically thin synchrotron emission from a jet probably dominates the NIR flux.

  3. Near-infrared counterparts to Chandra X-ray sources toward the Galactic Center. II. Discovery of Wolf-Rayet stars and O supergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Mauerhan, Jon C; Morris, Mark R; Stolovy, Susan R; Cotera, Angela S

    2009-01-01

    We present new identifications of infrared counterparts to the population of hard X-ray sources near the Galactic center detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We have confirmed 16 new massive stellar counterparts to the X-ray population, including nitrogen-type (WN) and carbon-type (WC) Wolf-Rayet stars, and O supergiants. For the majority of these sources, the X-ray photometry is consistent with thermal emission from plasma having temperatures in the range of kT=1-8 keV or non-thermal emission having power-law indices in the range of -1

  4. Discovery of the Near-infrared Counterpart to the Luminous Neutron-star Low-mass X-Ray Binary GX 3+1

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Maureen; Homan, Jeroen; Fridriksson, Joel K.; Linares, Manuel

    2014-10-01

    Using the High Resolution Camera on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we have measured an accurate position for the bright persistent neutron star X-ray binary and atoll source GX 3+1. At a location that is consistent with this new position, we have discovered the near-infrared (NIR) counterpart to GX 3+1 in images taken with the PANIC and FourStar cameras on the Magellan Baade Telescope. The identification of this Ks = 15.8 ± 0.1 mag star as the counterpart is based on the presence of a Br γ emission line in an NIR spectrum taken with the Folded-port InfraRed Echelette spectrograph on the Baade Telescope. The absolute magnitude derived from the best available distance estimate to GX 3+1 indicates that the mass donor in the system is not a late-type giant. We find that the NIR light in GX 3+1 is likely dominated by the contribution from a heated outer accretion disk. This is similar to what has been found for the NIR flux from the brighter class of Z sources, but unlike the behavior of atolls fainter (LX ≈ 1036-1037 erg s-1) than GX 3+1, where optically thin synchrotron emission from a jet probably dominates the NIR flux. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  5. Discovery of the near-infrared counterpart to the luminous neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary GX 3+1

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Maureen van den; Fridriksson, Joel K; Linares, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Using the High Resolution Camera onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we have measured an accurate position for the bright persistent neutron-star X-ray binary and atoll source GX 3+1. At a location that is consistent with this new position we have discovered the near-infrared (NIR) counterpart to GX 3+1 in images taken with the PANIC and FourStar cameras on the Magellan Baade Telescope. The identification of this K_s=15.8+-0.1 mag star as the counterpart is based on the presence of a Br-gamma emission line in a NIR spectrum taken with the FIRE spectrograph on the Baade Telescope. The absolute magnitude derived from the best available distance estimate to GX 3+1 indicates that the mass donor in the system is not a late-type giant. We find that the NIR light in GX 3+1 is likely dominated by the contribution from a heated outer accretion disk. This is similar to what has been found for the NIR flux from the brighter class of Z sources, but unlike the behavior of atolls fainter (Lx ~ 1e36 to 1e37 erg/s) than G...

  6. Herschel FIR counterparts of selected Ly-alpha emitters at z~2.2. Fast evolution since z~3 or missed obscured AGNs?

    CERN Document Server

    Bongiovanni, A; Cepa, J; Garcia, A M Perez; Sanchez-Portal, M; Ederoclite, A; Aguerri, J A L; Alfaro, E J; Altieri, B; Andreani, P; Aparicio-Villegas, M T; Aussel, H; Benitez, N; Berta, S; Broadhurst, T; Cabrera-Cano, J; Castander, F J; Cava, A; Cervino, M; Chulani, H; Cimatti, A; Cristobal-Hornillos, D; Daddi, E; Dominguez, H; Elbaz, D; Fernandez-Soto, A; Schreiber, N Forster; Genzel, R; Gomez, M F; Delgado, R M Gonzalez; Grazian, A; Gruppioni, C; Herreros, J M; Iglesias-Groth, S; Infante, L; Lutz, D; Magnelli, B; Magdis, G; Maiolino, R; Marquez, I; Martinez, V J; Masegosa, J; Moles, M; Molino, A; Nordon, R; del Olmo, A; Perea, J; Poglitsch, A; Popesso, P; Pozzi, F; Prada, F; Quintana, J M; Riguccini, L; Rodighiero, G; Saintonge, A; Sanchez, S F; Santini, P; Shao, L; Sturm, E; Tacconi, L; Valtchanov, I

    2010-01-01

    Ly-alpha emitters (LAEs) are seen everywhere in the redshift domain from local to z~7. Far-infrared (FIR) counterparts of LAEs at different epochs could provide direct clues on dust content, extinction, and spectral energy distribution (SED) for these galaxies. We search for FIR counterparts of LAEs that are optically detected in the GOODS-North field at redshift z~2.2 using data from the Herschel Space Telescope with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS). The LAE candidates were isolated via color-magnitude diagram using the medium-band photometry from the ALHAMBRA Survey, ancillary data on GOODS-North, and stellar population models. According to the fitting of these spectral synthesis models and FIR/optical diagnostics, most of them seem to be obscured galaxies whose spectra are AGN-dominated. From the analysis of the optical data, we have observed a fraction of AGN or composite over source total number of ~0.75 in the LAE population at z~2.2, which is marginally consistent with the fractio...

  7. Chronic granulomatous disease associated with chronic glomerulonephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frifelt, J J; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Valerius, Niels Henrik

    1985-01-01

    A boy with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) developed glomerulonephritis at the age of 12 years. The glomerulonephritis progressed to terminal uraemia at age 15 when maintenance haemodialysis was started. The clinical course was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis and Pseudomonas septicaemia...... from which he eventually died. The glomerulonephritis was of unknown origin, and a possible relationship between CGD and glomerulonephritis is discussed....

  8. What Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) About Chronic Myeloid Leukemia What Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells ... their treatment is the same as for adults. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts ...

  9. What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells ... body, including the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts ...

  10. Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pelvic pain in women Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Chronic pelvic pain is pain in the area below your bellybutton ... your hips that lasts six months or longer. Chronic pelvic pain can have multiple causes. It can be a ...

  11. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos AC; Gimenez, Andréa; Kuranishi, Lilian; Storrer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP) is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary. PMID:27703382

  12. Inflammation in Chronic Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruilong; Liang, Helena; Clarke, Elizabeth; Jackson, Christopher; Xue, Meilang

    2016-12-11

    Non-healing chronic wounds present a major biological, psychological, social, and financial burden on both individual patients and the broader health system. Pathologically extensive inflammation plays a major role in the disruption of the normal healing cascade. The causes of chronic wounds (venous, arterial, pressure, and diabetic ulcers) can be examined through a juxtaposition of normal healing and the rogue inflammatory response created by the common components within chronic wounds (ageing, hypoxia, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and bacterial colonisation). Wound bed care through debridement, dressings, and antibiotics currently form the basic mode of treatment. Despite recent setbacks, pharmaceutical adjuncts form an interesting area of research.

  13. Chronic Arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Tasnim; Zehra, Kaneez; Munshi, Alia; Ahsan, Samiah

    2009-02-01

    Chronic Arsenic Toxicity may have varied clinical presentations ranging from non-cancerous manifestations to malignancy of skin and different internal organs. Dermal lesions such as hyper pigmentation and hyperkeratosis, predominantly over palms and soles are diagnostic of Chronic Arsenicosis. We report two cases from a family living in Sukkur who presented with classical skin lesions described in Chronic Arsenicosis. The urine, nail and hair samples of these patients contained markedly elevated levels of arsenic. Also the water samples from their household and the neighbouring households were found to have alarming levels of inorganic Arsenic.

  14. Growth Arrest Specific 2 Is Up-Regulated in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells and Required for Their Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Haixia Zhou; Yue Ge; Lili Sun; Wenjuan Ma; Jie Wu; Xiuyan Zhang; Xiaohui Hu; Eaves, Connie J; Depei Wu; Yun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Although the generation of BCR-ABL is the molecular hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), the comprehensive molecular mechanisms of the disease remain unclear yet. Growth arrest specific 2 (GAS2) regulates multiple cellular functions including cell cycle, apoptosis and calpain activities. In the present study, we found GAS2 was up-regulated in CML cells including CD34+ progenitor cells compared to their normal counterparts. We utilized RNAi and the expression of dominant negative form o...

  15. Chronic dysimmune neuropathies: Beyond chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadilkar Satish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of chronic dysimmune neuropathies has widened well beyond chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP. Pure motor (multifocal motor neuropathy, sensorimotor with asymmetrical involvement (multifocal acquired demylinating sensory and motor neuropathy, exclusively distal sensory (distal acquired demyelinating sensory neuropathy and very proximal sensory (chronic immune sensory polyradiculopathy constitute the variants of CIDP. Correct diagnosis of these entities is of importance in terms of initiation of appropriate therapy as well as prognostication of these patients. The rates of detection of immune-mediated neuropathies with monoclonal cell proliferation (monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance, multiple myeloma, etc. have been facilitated as better diagnostic tools such as serum immunofixation electrophoresis are being used more often. Immune neuropathies associated with malignancies and systemic vasculitic disorders are being defined further and treated early with better understanding of the disease processes. As this field of dysimmune neuropathies will evolve in the future, some of the curious aspects of the clinical presentations and response patterns to different immunosuppressants or immunomodulators will be further elucidated. This review also discusses representative case studies.

  16. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is present. For More Information Share Chronic Illness & Mental Health Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... For more information, see the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) booklet on Depression at http://www.nimh. ...

  17. Chronic penile strangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Roberto I

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic penile strangulation is exceedingly rare with only 5 cases previously reported. We report an additional case of progressive penile lymphedema due to chronic intermittent strangulation caused by a rubber band applied to the penile base for 6 years. A 49-year-old man presented incapacity to exteriorize the glans penis. For erotic purposes, he had been using a rubber-enlarging band placed in the penile base for 6 years. With chronic use, he noticed that his penis swelled. Physical examination revealed lymphedema of the penis, phimosis and a stricture in the penile base. The patient was submitted to circumcision and the lymphedema remained stable 10 months postoperatively. Chronic penile incarceration usually causes penile lymphedema and urinary disturbance. Treatment consists of removal of foreign devices and surgical treatment of lymphedema.

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and oxygen therapy Right-sided heart failure or cor pulmonale (heart swelling and heart failure due to chronic ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 44. Read More Cor pulmonale Dilated cardiomyopathy Heart failure - overview Lung disease Patient ...

  19. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CKD treated? Kidney-friendly diet for CKD What causes chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Anyone can get CKD. Some people are ... and high blood pressure are the most common causes of CKD. If you have diabetes or high blood pressure, ...

  20. Chronic Conditions Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Conditions Dashboard presents statistical views of information on the prevalence, utilization and Medicare spending for Medicare beneficiaries with...

  1. Chronic Daily Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reduce the frequency and intensity of chronic headaches. Biofeedback. You might be able to control headaches by ... reduction techniques, such as yoga, tai chi or meditation. Reduce caffeine. While some headache medications include caffeine ...

  2. Chronic pelvic pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It affects all spheres of life, from physical and psychological health to relationship intimacy .... pelvic and sexual pain, in the absence of obvious pathology, has a strong .... Uterine orientation, size, mobility and sensitivity can point to a chronic ...

  3. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disorder that causes extreme fatigue. This fatigue is not the kind of tired feeling that ... activities. The main symptom of CFS is severe fatigue that lasts for 6 months or more. You ...

  4. Chronic pelvic pain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slawomir Wozniak

    2016-01-01

    [b][/b][b]Introduction. [/b]Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) affects about 10–40% of women presenting to a physician, and is characterised by pain within the minor pelvis persisting for over 6 months. [b...

  5. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  6. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through the pain; that can lead to permanent muscle or nerve damage. Sometimes chronic exertional compartment syndrome is mistaken for shin splints, a more common cause of leg pain in young people who do a lot of vigorous weight- ...

  7. Chronic Condition Data Warehouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW) provides researchers with Medicare and Medicaid beneficiary, claims, and assessment data linked by beneficiary across...

  8. Chronic Conditions Chartbook

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Chronic Conditions among Medicare Beneficiaries is a chartbook prepared by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and created to provide an overview of...

  9. CHRONIC UNEXPLAINED OROFACIAL PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Vesnaver

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic unexplained orofacial pain is frequently the cause of prolonged suffering for the patient and an unsolvable problem for the therapist. Pathophysiology of the onset of this type of pain is virtually unknown. Still, it is possible to divide chronic orofacial pain into several separate categories, according to its onset, symptoms and therapy. All forms of this type of pain have a strong psychological component.Methods. A retrograde review was conducted, in which patients’ records, treated in 1994 for chronic unexplained orofacial pain, were followed through a 5 year period. The modalities of treatment then and at present were compared.Conclusions. Except for trigeminal neuralgia, where carbamazepine remains the first choice drug, treatment of chronic facial pain has changed considerably.

  10. Zabofloxacin for chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, B; Szabo, D

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of lower respiratory tract infection poses as an ongoing challenge among respiratory tract diseases. Bacterial infections are causes of acute exacerbations in chronic bronchitis and indications for antibacterial therapy. Several antibiotics were applied to treat bacterial infections in chronic bronchitis, among them fluoroquinolones are considered potent, broad-spectrum agents with excellent tissue penetration. This monograph focuses on zabofloxacin, a novel fluoroquinolone agent recently approved and launched in South Korea, and summarizes the drug's antibacterial efficacy, pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity. Recent advances concerning fluoroquinolones in chronic bronchitis will be discussed, along with a comparison between zabofloxacin and moxifloxacin. Zabofloxacin has proved to be noninferior to moxifloxacin against major community-acquired Gram-positive and Gram-negative respiratory tract pathogens and found to be well tolerated in both oral and parenteral administrations. These features can make it a potential antimicrobial agent in therapy of chronic bronchitis and other lower respiratory tract infections.

  11. Chronic sinusitis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cartilage and lined with a mucous membrane. Sinusitis occurs when the membranes becomes inflamed and painful, ... a result of a blocked sinus opening. Chronic sinusitis is often caused by inflammation and blockage due ...

  12. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep ... Sheets Data & Statistics Projects and Partners Resources Events Sleep and Chronic Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  13. Chronic inflammatory demyelinative polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Said, Gérard; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinative polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired polyneuropathy presumably of immunological origin. It is characterized by a progressive or a relapsing course with predominant motor deficit. The diagnosis rests on the association of non-length-dependent predominantly motor ...

  14. Chronic Conditions PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Chronic Conditions PUFs are aggregated files in which each record is a profile or cell defined by the characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries. A profile is...

  15. Understanding chronic heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton, Matthew; Burch, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The key principles of chronic heart failure and the development of clinical management strategies are described. The physiological changes in chronic heart failure and the clinical management of children with heart failure are considered, but the treatment of heart failure related to congenital heart disease or the intensive care management of heart failure are not mentioned as both topics require consideration in their own right. A greater understanding of the maladaptive responses to chroni...

  16. Tolerance and chronic rejection.

    OpenAIRE

    Womer, K. L.; Lee, R S; Madsen, J. C.; Sayegh, M H

    2001-01-01

    The most common cause of chronic allograft loss is an incompletely understood clinicopathological entity called chronic rejection (CR). Recent reports suggest an improvement in long-term renal allograft survival, although it is not clear from these data whether a true reduction of biopsy-proven CR has occurred. Although newer immunosuppressive medications have greatly reduced the incidence of acute rejection (AR) in the early post-transplantation period, the ideal therapy for both AR and CR w...

  17. Omalizumab for chronic urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivyanskiy, Ilya; Sand, Carsten; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2012-01-01

    urticaria. We present a case series of 19 patients with chronic urticaria treated in a university department with omalizumab and give an overview of the existing literature comprising an additional 59 cases as well as a total of 139 patients enrolled in two randomized controlled trials comparing omalizumab...... with placebo. The collective evidence points to omalizumab as a safe and effective treatment option for patients with chronic urticaria who do not sufficiently respond to standard therapy as recommended by existing guidelines....

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008430 Effect of gas exchange at maximal intensity on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. WANG Haoyan(王浩彦), et al. Dept Respir Dis, Beijing Friendship Hosp, Capital Med Sci Univ, Beijing 100050. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2008;31(6):414-416. Objective To investigate the effect of gas exchange at maximal intensity on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

  19. Experimental chronic periodontitis morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Morphogenesis of periodontium tissue in a model of chronic periodontitis was studied. Adult Wistar rats wereused in a model; chronic periodontitis was developed through mastication-related loading decrease. Histological assessmentof periodontium tissue was conducted at Days 7, 14, 21 and 30. It was demonstrated that dystrophic tissue changes prevailover the inflammatory one in this particular experimental model. The structural elements of periodontium were involved intothe pathologic process ...

  20. Treatment of Chronic Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Resha S; Ebersole, Barbara; Jamal, Nausheen

    2017-01-01

    Objective Chronic cough remains a challenging condition, especially in cases where it persists despite comprehensive medical management. For these particular patients, there appears to be an emerging role for behavior modification therapy. We report a series of patients with refractory chronic cough to assess if there is any benefit of adding behavioral therapy to their treatment regimen. Study Design A case series with planned chart review of patients treated for chronic cough. Setting The review was performed with an outpatient electronic health record system at a tertiary care center. Subjects and Methods The charts of all patients treated for chronic cough by a single laryngologist over a 30-month period were analyzed. Patients' response to treatment and rate of cough improvement were assessed for those with refractory chronic cough who underwent behavior modification therapy. Results Thirty-eight patients with chronic cough were initially treated empirically for the most common causes of cough, of which 32% experienced improvement. Nineteen patients who did not significantly improve with medical management underwent behavior modification therapy with a speech-language pathologist. Of these patients, 84% experienced resolution or marked improvement of their symptoms. Conclusion Behavioral therapy may be underutilized in practice and could lead to improvement of otherwise recalcitrant cough.

  1. Chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and related illnesses: a clinical model of assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Fred

    2010-06-01

    A clinically informative behavioral literature on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM) has emerged over the past decade. The purpose of this article is to (a) define these conditions and their less severe counterparts, i.e., unexplained chronic fatigue (UCF) and chronic widespread pain; (b) briefly review the behavioral theory and intervention literature on CFS and FM; and (c) describe a user-friendly clinical model of assessment and intervention for these illnesses. The assessments described will facilitate understanding of the somewhat unusual and puzzling somatic presentations that characterize these patients. Using an individualized cognitive-behavioral approach the mental health clinician can offer significant help to these often stigmatized and medically underserved patients. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Obesity paradox: does fat alter outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittal, Prerana; Babu, Abraham Samuel; Lavie, Carl J

    2015-02-01

    The role of obesity and its influence on mortality in the general population has been well established. However, over the last decade, there has been substantial focus on the paradox that exists among the obese with various chronic diseases, where overweight and at least mild-moderately obese with these chronic diseases appear to have a better prognosis than do their leaner counterparts. Among them, congestive heart failure and coronary heart disease have received considerable attention. However, the influence of the obesity paradox on outcomes among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including those requiring long-term oxygen therapy, has not been elucidated. This paper highlights the current research in this area and brings to light the lacunae that exists with regard to this paradox in COPD.

  3. Disparities in Prenatal Care Utilization Among U.S. Versus Foreign-Born Women with Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Samantha S; Smith, Whitney; Epstein, Anne E; Burrows, Stevie; Wingate, Martha

    2016-05-25

    We examined disparities in prenatal care utilization (PNCU) among U.S. and foreign-born women with chronic conditions. We performed a cross-sectional analyses using data from 2011 to 2012 National Center for Health Statistics Natality Files (n = 6,644,577) to examine the association between maternal nativity (U.S. vs. foreign-born), presence of a chronic condition (diabetes or hypertensive disorder) and PNCU. After adjustment for selected maternal characteristics, overall and among those with chronic conditions, foreign-born women reported significantly lower odds of intensive and adequate PNCU and higher odds of intermediate and inadequate PNCU than U.S.-born women. Few differences in report of no care were found by maternal nativity. These findings suggest that foreign-born women may be receiving some form of prenatal care, but adequacy of care is likely to be lower compared to U.S.-born counterparts, even among those with chronic conditions.

  4. Gender differences in general mental health, smoking, drinking and chronic diseases in older adults in Jilin province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Ungvari, Gabor S; Forester, Brent P; Chiu, Helen F K; Wu, Yanhua; Kou, Changgui; Fu, Yingli; Qi, Yue; Liu, Yawen; Tao, Yuchun; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-05-01

    There is little information on gender differences in general mental health, smoking, drinking and chronic diseases in Chinese elderly. We examined the gender differences in general mental health, smoking, drinking and a number of chronic diseases in a large Chinese old population. Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used in this cross-sectional study. A total of 4115 people (2198 women; 1917 men) aged between 60 and 79 years were included and their general mental health, smoking, drinking and chronic diseases were recorded with standardized assessment tools. Multivariate analyses revealed that women were less likely to be current smokers and frequent drinkers, but had higher prevalence of poor mental health compared with their male counterparts. In addition, the prevalence rate of chronic diseases and multi-morbidities were higher in women than that in men (both p values diseases and poor mental health in older women and higher prevalence of smoking and drinking in men.

  5. Nutritional status, gender and marital status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odencrants, Sigrid; Bjuström, Tomas; Wiklund, Nils; Blomberg, Karin

    2013-10-01

    To describe and compare nutritional status, pulmonary function, gender and marital status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a chronic illness that can lead to poor nutritional status due to an increased energy requirements related to laboured breathing. Inadequate nutritional intake has often been described in this patient group. Nutritional support for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who suffer from nutritional problems is essential, both for their sense of well-being and for their survival with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The study design was descriptive and comparative. Quantitative data collection was carried out among 81 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (47 women and 34 men) with an average age of 65 years (SD 3·5). The Mini Nutritional Assessment was used to assess nutritional status. Participants who lived alone had worse nutritional status than those who did not live alone, and female participants had worse nutritional status than their male counterparts. No significant correlation was found between pulmonary function and nutritional status. This study contributes knowledge of a potential correlation between nutritional status, gender and marital status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be at an increased risk of malnutrition. Despite the previous results showing malnutrition and underweight to be common, the present study found that many of the participants were overweight, which may reflect a global health trend regardless of disease. Early identification of patients at risk of malnutrition is important. Registered nurses should be aware that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who are female or who live alone may be at an increased risk of nutritional problems. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease must be offered information and support

  6. Chronic prostatitis: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Vaidyanathan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chronic prostatitis (CP is a common condition. It causes significant suffering to the patients and constitutes a sizeable workload for the urologists. The purpose of this review is to describe the currently accepted concepts regarding the aspects of CP. Materials and Methods: Relevant papers on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, evaluation and management of CP were identified through a search of MEDLINE using text terms "prostatitis", "chronic prostatitis" and "chronic pelvic pain syndrome". The list of articles thus obtained was supplemented by manual search of bibliographies of the identified articles and also by exploring the MEDLINE option "Related Articles". Results: The salient points of the relevant articles on each aspect of CP have been summarized in the form of a non-systematic narrative review. Conclusion: Chronic prostatitis is caused by a variety of infective and non-infective factors and is characterized by a rather long remitting and relapsing clinical course. The diagnosis is based on symptoms comprising pain and nonspecific urinary and/or ejaculatory disturbances and microbiological tests to localize bacteria and/or leucocytes in segmented urinary tract specimens. The contemporary classification was proposed by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes Digestive Kidney Diseases (NIH/NIDDK. National Institutes of Health - Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI is the patient evaluation tool used extensively in clinical practice and research. Management should be individualized, multimodal and of an appropriate duration.

  7. Autoantibodies in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Marner, B; Pedersen, N T

    1985-01-01

    In 60 consecutive patients clinically suspected of having chronic pancreatitis the serum concentration of the immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), the IgG- and IgA-type non-organ-specific autoantibodies against nuclear material (ANA), smooth and striated muscle, mitochondria, basal membrane, and reti......In 60 consecutive patients clinically suspected of having chronic pancreatitis the serum concentration of the immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), the IgG- and IgA-type non-organ-specific autoantibodies against nuclear material (ANA), smooth and striated muscle, mitochondria, basal membrane......, and reticulin, and the IgG- and IgA-type pancreas-specific antibodies against islet cells, acinus cells, and ductal cells (DA) were estimated blindly. In 23 of the patients chronic pancreatitis was verified, whereas chronic pancreatitis was rejected in 37 patients (control group). IgG and IgA were found...... in significantly higher concentrations in the patients with chronic pancreatitis than in the control group but within the normal range. ANA and DA occurred very frequently in both groups but with no statistical difference. Other autoantibodies only occurred sporadically. The findings of this study do not support...

  8. Management of chronic paronychia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Relhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic paronychia is an inflammatory disorder of the nail folds of a toe or finger presenting as redness, tenderness, and swelling. It is recalcitrant dermatoses seen commonly in housewives and housemaids. It is a multifactorial inflammatory reaction of the proximal nail fold to irritants and allergens. Repeated bouts of inflammation lead to fibrosis of proximal nail fold with poor generation of cuticle, which in turn exposes the nail further to irritants and allergens. Thus, general preventive measures form cornerstone of the therapy. Though previously anti-fungals were the mainstay of therapy, topical steroid creams have been found to be more effective in the treatment of chronic paronychia. In recalcitrant cases, surgical treatment may be resorted to, which includes en bloc excision of the proximal nail fold or an eponychial marsupialization, with or without nail plate removal. Newer therapies and surgical modalities are being employed in the management of chronic paronychia. In this overview, we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to chronic paronychia, discuss the challenges chronic paronychia presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management.

  9. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  10. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schölzel, B E; Snijder, R J; Mager, J J; van Es, H W; Plokker, H W M; Reesink, H J; Morshuis, W J; Post, M C

    2014-12-01

    Chronic pulmonary thromboembolic disease is an important cause of severe pulmonary hypertension, and as such is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis of this condition reflects the degree of associated right ventricular dysfunction, with predictable mortality related to the severity of the underlying pulmonary hypertension. Left untreated, the prognosis is poor. Pulmonary endarterectomy is the treatment of choice to relieve pulmonary artery obstruction in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and has been remarkably successful. Advances in surgical techniques along with the introduction of pulmonary hypertension-specific medication provide therapeutic options for the majority of patients afflicted with the disease. However, a substantial number of patients are not candidates for pulmonary endarterectomy due to either distal pulmonary vascular obstruction or significant comorbidities. Therefore, careful selection of surgical candidates in expert centres is paramount. The current review focuses on the diagnostic approach to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and the available surgical and medical therapeutic options.

  11. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira CA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos AC Pereira,1 Andréa Gimenez,2 Lilian Kuranishi,2 Karin Storrer 2 1Interstitial Lung Diseases Program, 2Pulmonology Postgraduate, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary. Keywords: interstitial lung diseases, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, diffuse lung disease, lung immune response, HRCT, farmers lung

  12. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management.

  13. [Anaemia and chronic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassagne, Philippe; Amalou, Laetitia; Thillard, Anne-Lyse; Gbaguidi, Xavier; Roca, Frédéric

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of anemia in old patients is 20%. Anemia is mostly multifactorial associated with multiple comorbidities that are frequently observed in people of 65 years or older. Chronic renal failure, inflammatory diseases, nutrient deficiencies and especially iron deficiency are the most associated conditions with anemia. Anemia represents a prognosis marker of general health in old people. Thus anemia is associated with higher rates of morbidities (such as unplanned hospitalizations) and greatest mortality. Therefore anemia could be considered either as a consequence of chronic diseases or a prognosis marker of their severity. The prognosis of chronic cardiac failure is for example worst in anemic patients. Finally anemia is listed as a component of the frailty.

  14. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed silage and grain from a maize hybrid with the cry1F trait versus its nonbiotech counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, M; Smith, B; Rice, D; Owens, F; Hinds, M; Dana, G; Hunst, P

    2007-12-01

    Effects of feeding grain and maize silage from a non-Bt maize and a variety of Bt maize that contains cry1F (event TC1507, event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1), a gene that provides maize with insect resistance, on the health and performance of dairy cows were evaluated. In a crossover trial, 20 lactating Holstein cows were assigned to each of 2 dietary treatment groups and fed diets containing whole-plant maize silage plus maize grain from TC1507 or its near-isoline counterpart (control). Each period of the crossover trial lasted 28 d and was preceded by a 7-d adjustment period. To minimize variability due to stage of lactation, 2 blocks of 10 cows at 90 to 130 d of lactation at the start of the trial were used. Within each dietary treatment, 10 cows were from each of 2 genetic selection lines (high and average fat plus protein predicted transmitting ability). Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Dry matter intake and daily production of milk, fat, protein, lactose, nonfat solids, and total solids did not differ between cows fed the TC1507 diet and cows fed the control diet. Furthermore, milk from cows in different dietary treatment groups did not differ in milk urea nitrogen concentration or somatic cell count. For milk fat percentage, a significant dietary treatment by genetic group interaction was detected although overall yield of milk and solids-corrected milk did not differ with diet. Physical measures of cow health including body weight, body condition score, temperature, pulse, and respiration rate were collected weekly; dietary treatment group means for these measures were not different. Blood chemistry and hematological analyses were conducted using blood samples collected from cows before the start of the trial and at the end of each period. Overall, the TC1507 and control groups did not differ in any of these indices of health status. Further, hematological profiles for cows in the dietary treatment groups were not different. In summary, no

  15. The galaxy counterpart of the high-metallicity and 16 kpc impact parameter DLA towards Q 0918+1636 - a challenge to galaxy formation models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer-Larsen, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.

    2016-10-01

    The quasar Q0918+1636 (z=3.07) has an intervening high-metallicity Damped Lyman-α Absorber (DLA) along the line of sight, at a redshift of z=2.58. The DLA is located at a large impact parameter of 16.2 kpc, and despite this large impact parameter it has a very high metallicity (consistent with solar). In this paper it is investigated whether a novel type of galaxy formation models, based on hydrodynamical/gravitational TreeSPH simulations invoking a new SNII feedback prescription, the Haardt & Madau (2012) ultra-violet background radiation (UVB) field and explicit treatment of UVB self-shielding effects, can reproduce the observed characteristics of the DLA. Effects of UV radiation from young stellar populations in the galaxy, in particular in the photon energy range 10.36-13.61 eV (of relevance for the abundance of Sulfur II), are also considered in the analysis. It is found that a) for L˜L⋆ galaxies (at z=2.58), about 10% of the sight-lines through the galaxies at impact parameter b=16.2 kpc will display a Sulfur II column density of N({SII)} ≥ 10^{15.82} cm-2 (the observed value for the DLA), and b) considering only cases where a near-solar metallicity will be detected at 16.2 kpc impact parameter, the (Bayesian) probability distribution of galaxy star formation rate (SFR) peaks near the value actually observed for the DLA galaxy counterpart of 27^{+20}_{-9} {M_⊙}/yr. The probability that the SFR lies in the range 10-100 M⊙/yr is found to be 0.65-0.80 for a very broad range of assumptions about the z=2.58 galaxy luminosity function. Hence, the main result is that extreme galaxies are not required to match the high impact parameter and high metallicity DLA. In fact, very good agreement between the theoretical predictions and the observed properties of the proposed DLA galaxy counterpart is found. It is argued, that the bulk of the α-elements, like Sulfur, traced by the high metal column density, b=16.2 kpc absorption lines, have been produced by

  16. [Histaminergic angioedema and chronic urticaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacard, Florence; Nosbaum, Audrey; Bensaid, Benoit; Nicolas, Jean-François; Augey, Frédéric; Goujon, Catherine; Bérard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Most angioedemas are histaminergic and correspond to deep urticarial swelling. Recurrent histaminergic angioedema led to the diagnosis of chronic urticaria, even when there are no superficial associated hives. Chronic urticaria is a benign disease, and autoimmune in 40 % of cases. The occurrence of angioedema in chronic urticaria is not a sign of severity. The occurrence of angioedema in chronic urticaria is associated with a longer duration of urticarial disease. NSAIDs and/or systemic corticotherapy are classic triggers of angioedema in chronic urticaria. In the absence of clinical endpoints, there is no need to make further assessment in chronic urticaria good responders to antihistamines.

  17. Observations of the optical counterpart to XTE J1118+480 during outburst by the robotic optical transient search experiment In telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Wren, J; Balsano, R; Bloch, J; Borozdin, K N; Casperson, D E; Gisler, G; Kehoe, R; Lee Byung Cheol; Marshall, S; McKay, T; Priedhorsky, W; Rykoff, E S; Smith, D; Trudolyubov, S P; Vestrand, W T

    2001-01-01

    The X-ray nova XTE J1118+480 exhibited two outbursts in the early part of 2000. As detected by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the first outburst began in early January and the second began in early March. Routine imaging of the northern sky by the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) shows the optical counterpart to XTE J1118+480 during both outbursts. These data include over 60 epochs from January to June 2000. A search of the ROTSE data archives reveal no previous optical outbursts of this source in selected data between April 1998 and January 2000. While the X-ray to optical flux ratio of XTE J1118+480 was low during both outbursts, we suggest that they were full X-ray novae and not mini-outbursts based on comparison with similar sources. The ROTSE measurements taken during the March 2000 outburst also indicate a rapid rise in the optical flux that preceded the X-ray emission measured by the RXTE by approximately 10 days. Using these results, we estimate a pre-outburst accretion dis...

  18. A first-principles study of cementite (Fe3C) and its alloyed counterparts: Elastic constants, elastic anisotropies, and isotropic elastic moduli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, G.

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive computational study of elastic properties of cementite (Fe3C) and its alloyed counterparts (M3C (M = Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ta, Ti, V, W, Zr, Cr2FeC and CrFe2C) having the crystal structure of Fe3C is carried out employing electronic density-functional theory (DFT), all-electron PAW pseudopotentials and the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation energy (GGA). Specifically, as a part of our systematic study of cohesive properties of solids and in the spirit of materials genome, following properties are calculated: (i) single-crystal elastic constants, Cij, of above M3Cs; (ii) anisotropies of bulk, Young's and shear moduli, and Poisson's ratio based on calculated Cijs, demonstrating their extreme anisotropies; (iii) isotropic (polycrystalline) elastic moduli (bulk, shear, Young's moduli and Poisson's ratio) of M3Cs by homogenization of calculated Cijs; and (iv) acoustic Debye temperature, θD, of M3Cs based on calculated Cijs. We provide a critical appraisal of available data of polycrystalline elastic properties of alloyed cementite. Calculated single crystal properties may be incorporated in anisotropic constitutive models to develop and test microstructure-processing-property-performance links in multi-phase materials where cementite is a constituent phase.

  19. A first-principles study of cementite (Fe3C and its alloyed counterparts: Elastic constants, elastic anisotropies, and isotropic elastic moduli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ghosh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive computational study of elastic properties of cementite (Fe3C and its alloyed counterparts (M3C (M = Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ta, Ti, V, W, Zr, Cr2FeC and CrFe2C having the crystal structure of Fe3C is carried out employing electronic density-functional theory (DFT, all-electron PAW pseudopotentials and the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation energy (GGA. Specifically, as a part of our systematic study of cohesive properties of solids and in the spirit of materials genome, following properties are calculated: (i single-crystal elastic constants, Cij, of above M3Cs; (ii anisotropies of bulk, Young’s and shear moduli, and Poisson’s ratio based on calculated Cijs, demonstrating their extreme anisotropies; (iii isotropic (polycrystalline elastic moduli (bulk, shear, Young’s moduli and Poisson’s ratio of M3Cs by homogenization of calculated Cijs; and (iv acoustic Debye temperature, θD, of M3Cs based on calculated Cijs. We provide a critical appraisal of available data of polycrystalline elastic properties of alloyed cementite. Calculated single crystal properties may be incorporated in anisotropic constitutive models to develop and test microstructure-processing-property-performance links in multi-phase materials where cementite is a constituent phase.

  20. Fidelity of rocky intertidal mollusks in subtidal death assemblages to their counterpart life assemblages: a case study in San Salvador Island, Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Diego A.

    2016-04-01

    Rocky shores preserved in the geological record were rarely reported until a couple of decades ago. Even today, most of the literature focuses on bioerosional features in these high-energy environments due to their higher fossilization potential relative to shell material. Hard parts of taxa adapted to intertidal rocky shores may be preserved as allochthonous material in death assemblages (DAs) formed in adjacent shallow subtidal habitats due to lateral mixing. To test if life assemblages (LAs) of rocky intertidal mollusks (RIM) are faithfully recorded in shallow subtidal DAs, two ~30 m long transects across a proximal-distal gradient were studied on San Salvador Island, Bahamas. These transects encompass a proximal ripple field which grades into a facies dominated by green algae, and a distal ripple field. A total of 22 bulk samples, representing 155 liters of sediment, were wet-sieved with a 2-mm mesh. The samples yielded 528 RIM shells representing 15 species. Unexpectedly, abundance and compositional similarity of RIM shells to counterpart LAs sharply peaks along a belt of lag deposits of coarse sands fringing proximal ripple fields, in transition to green algae communities. These results suggest that, although a substantial transport of intertidal shells takes place in shallow subtidal environments, the signal is diluted in background sediment composition even in close proximity to the shore (30 m), and significant concentrations (loosely packed) of RIM shells in subtidal DAs might be used as a proxy to pinpoint past rocky intertidal environments.

  1. Exploring the potential X-ray counterpart of the puzzling TeV gamma-ray source HESS J1507-622 with new Suzaku observations

    CERN Document Server

    Eger, P; Hahn, J

    2014-01-01

    The unidentified VHE (E>100 GeV) gamma-ray source HESS J1507-622 seems to not fit into standard models for sources related to young supernova remnants, pulsar wind nebulae, or young stellar populations in general. This is due to its intrinsically extended, but yet compact morphology, coupled with a relative large offset (~3.5 deg) from the Galactic plane. Therefore, it has been suggested that this object may be the first representative of a new distinct class of extended off-plane gamma-ray sources. The distance to HESS J1507-622 is the key parameter to constrain the source's most important properties, such as age and energetics of the relativistic particle population. In this article we report on results of follow-up observations of the potential X-ray counterpart with Suzaku. We present detailed measurements of its spectral parameters and find a high absorbing hydrogen column density, compatible with the total amount of Galactic gas in this direction. In comparisons to measurements and models of the Galacti...

  2. Where and When: Optimal Scheduling of the Electromagnetic Follow-up of Gravitational-wave Events Based on Counterpart Light-curve Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salafia, Om Sharan; Colpi, Monica; Branchesi, Marica; Chassande-Mottin, Eric; Ghirlanda, Giancarlo; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Vergani, Susanna D.

    2017-09-01

    The electromagnetic (EM) follow-up of a gravitational-wave (GW) event requires scanning a wide sky region, defined by the so-called “skymap,” to detect and identify a transient counterpart. We propose a novel method that exploits the information encoded in the GW signal to construct a “detectability map,” which represents the time-dependent (“when”) probability of detecting the transient at each position of the skymap (“where”). Focusing on the case of a neutron star binary inspiral, we model the associated short gamma-ray burst afterglow and macronova emission using the probability distributions of binary parameters (sky position, distance, orbit inclination, mass ratio) extracted from the GW signal as inputs. The resulting family of possible light curves is the basis for constructing the detectability map. As a practical example, we apply the method to a simulated GW signal produced by a neutron star merger at 75 Mpc whose localization uncertainty is very large (∼1500 deg2). We construct observing strategies for optical, infrared, and radio facilities based on the detectability maps, taking VST, VISTA, and MeerKAT as prototypes. Assuming limiting fluxes of r∼ 24.5, J∼ 22.4 (AB magnitudes), and 500 μ {Jy} (1.4 {GHz}) for ∼1000 s of exposure each, the afterglow and macronova emissions are successfully detected with a minimum observing time of 7, 15, and 5 hr respectively.

  3. The isolated neutron star RBS1774 revisited. Revised XMM-Newton X-ray parameters and an optical counterpart from deep LBT-observations

    CERN Document Server

    Schwope, A; Kohnert, J; Lamer, G; Steinmetz, M; Strassmeier, K; Zinnecker, H; Bechtold, J; Diolaiti, E; Fontana, A; Gallozzi, S; Giallongo, E; Ragazzoni, R; De Santis, C; Testa, V

    2009-01-01

    We report optical B-band observations with the Large Binocular Telescope LBT of the isolated neutron star RBS1774. The stacked image with total exposure 2.5h reveals a candidate optical counterpart at mB = 26.96 +- 0.20 at position RA(2000) = 21:43:03.4, DEC(2000)} = +06:54:17:5, within the joint Chandra and XMM-Newton error circles. We analyse archival XMM-Newton observations and derive revised spectral and positional parameters. The predicted optical flux from the extrapolated X-ray spectrum is likely twice as high as reported before. The measured optical flux exceeds the extrapolated X-ray spectral flux by a factor ~40 (15 - 60 at 1sigma confidence). We interpret our detection and the spectral energy distribution as further evidence of a temperature structure over the neutron star's surface and present a pure thermal model reflecting both the SED and the pulsed fraction of the light curve.

  4. The discovery of the optical/IR counterpart of the 12s transient X-ray pulsar GS 0834-43

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, G L; Campana, S; Polcaro, V F; Roche, P; Stella, L; Di Paola, A; Lazzati, D; Mereghetti, S; Giallongo, E; Fontana, A; Verrecchia, P

    2000-01-01

    We report the discovery of the optical/infra-red counterpart of the 12.3s transient X-ray pulsar GS0834-43. We re-analysed archival ROSAT PSPC observations of GS0834-43, obtaining two new refined positions, about 14" and 18" away from the previously published one, and a new spin period measurement. Within the new error circles we found a relatively faint (V=20.1) early type reddened star (V-R=2.24). The optical spectrum shows a strong Halpha emission line. The IR observations of the field confirm the presence of an IR excess for the Halpha-emitting star (K'=11.4, J-K'=1.94) which is likely surrounded by a conspicuous circumstellar envelope. Spectroscopic and photometric data indicate a B0-2 V-IIIe spectral-type star located at a distance of 3-5kpc and confirm the Be-star/X-ray binary nature of GS0834-43.

  5. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Varieties of Genetically Modified (GM) Embrapa 5.1 Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Non-GM Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Geisi M; Valentim-Neto, Pedro A; Mello, Carla S; Arisi, Ana C M

    2015-12-01

    The genetically modified (GM) common bean event Embrapa 5.1 was commercially approved in Brazil in 2011; it is resistant to golden mosaic virus infection. In the present work grain proteome profiles of two Embrapa 5.1 common bean varieties, Pérola and Pontal, and their non-GM counterparts were compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by mass spectrometry (MS). Analyses detected 23 spots differentially accumulated between GM Pérola and non-GM Pérola and 21 spots between GM Pontal and non-GM Pontal, although they were not the same proteins in Pérola and Pontal varieties, indicating that the variability observed may not be due to the genetic transformation. Among them, eight proteins were identified in Pérola varieties, and four proteins were identified in Pontal. Moreover, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) on 2-DE data, and variation between varieties was explained in the first two principal components. This work provides a first 2-DE-MS/MS-based analysis of Embrapa 5.1 common bean grains.

  6. Electrodeposited polyethylenedioxythiophene with infiltrated gel electrolyte interface: a close contest of an all-solid-state supercapacitor with its liquid-state counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anothumakkool, Bihag; Torris A. T, Arun; Bhange, Siddheshwar N.; Badiger, Manohar V.; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2014-05-01

    We report the design of an all-solid-state supercapacitor, which has charge storage characteristics closely matching that of its liquid-state counterpart even under extreme temperature and humidity conditions. The prototype is made by electro-depositing polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) onto the individual carbon fibers of a porous carbon substrate followed by intercalating the matrix with polyvinyl alcohol-sulphuric acid (PVA-H2SO4) gel electrolyte. The electrodeposited layer of PEDOT maintained a flower-like growth pattern along the threads of each carbon fiber. This morphology and the alignment of PEDOT led to an enhanced surface area and electrical conductivity, and the pores in the system enabled effective intercalation of the polymer-gel electrolyte. Thus, the established electrode-electrolyte interface nearly mimics that of its counterpart based on the liquid electrolyte. Consequently, the solid device attained very low internal resistance (1.1 Ω cm-2) and a high specific capacitance (181 F g-1) for PEDOT at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g-1. Even with a high areal capacitance of 836 mF cm-2 and volumetric capacitance of 28 F cm-3, the solid device retained a mass-specific capacitance of 111 F g-1 for PEDOT. This is in close agreement with the value displayed by the corresponding liquid-state system (112 F g-1), which was fabricated by replacing the gel electrolyte with 0.5 M H2SO4. The device also showed excellent charge-discharge stability for 12 000 cycles at 5 A g-1. The performance of the device was consistent even under wide-ranging humidity (30-80%) and temperature (-10 to 80 °C) conditions. Finally, a device fabricated by increasing the electrode area four times was used to light an LED, which validated the scalability of the process.We report the design of an all-solid-state supercapacitor, which has charge storage characteristics closely matching that of its liquid-state counterpart even under extreme temperature and humidity conditions

  7. Comparative transcriptome profiling of an SV40-transformed human fibroblast (MRC5CVI and its untransformed counterpart (MRC-5 in response to UVB irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Chang

    Full Text Available Simian virus 40 (SV40 transforms cells through the suppression of tumor-suppressive responses by large T and small t antigens; studies on the effects of these two oncoproteins have greatly improved our knowledge of tumorigenesis. Large T antigen promotes cellular transformation by binding and inactivating p53 and pRb tumor suppressor proteins. Previous studies have shown that not all of the tumor-suppressive responses were inactivated in SV40-transformed cells; however, the underlying cause is not fully studied. In this study, we investigated the UVB-responsive transcriptome of an SV40-transformed fibroblast (MRC5CVI and that of its untransformed counterpart (MRC-5. We found that, in response to UVB irradiation, MRC-5 and MRC5CVI commonly up-regulated the expression of oxidative phosphorylation genes. MRC-5 up-regulated the expressions of chromosome condensation, DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, and apoptotic genes, but MRC5CVI did not. Further cell death assays indicated that MRC5CVI was more sensitive than MRC-5 to UVB-induced cell death with increased caspase-3 activation; combining with the transcriptomic results suggested that MRC5CVI may undergo UVB-induced cell death through mechanisms other than transcriptional regulation. Our study provides a further understanding of the effects of SV40 transformation on cellular stress responses, and emphasizes the value of SV40-transformed cells in the researches of sensitizing neoplastic cells to radiations.

  8. The Relationship between the Movements of Capital Markets in Developed Economies and Their Emerging Market Counterparts in The Asian Paciic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Azlinna Azizan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research revisits at the relationship between the movements of capital markets in developed  economies  and  their  emerging  market  counterparts  in  the  Asian  Paciic  region using market indices of the American, British, Malaysian, Singaporean, Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR, Indian, Japanese and Australian markets for  the  periods  1997  to  2007.  The  Johansen's  Cointegration  Test,  and  Vector  Correction Model  Test  were  used  to  determine  the  long  term  relationship  between  the  markets.  This study inds that the Asian markets are very much inluenced by the events in the United States rather  than  other  developed  markets.  Of  all  the  markets  being  surveyed,  The  South  East Asian markets are the most sensitive towards events in their own region and regions outside themselves. Mainland China in the long run is not affected by events outside themselves.  ";} // -->activate javascript

  9. Crystallization and Corrosion Resistance in Different Aqueous Solutions of Zr50.7Ni28Cu9Al12.3 Amorphous Alloy and Its Crystallization Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wenjuan; Li, Boyu; Axinte, Eugen; Zhang, Zitang; Shang, Caiyun; Wang, Yan

    2017-02-01

    The Zr50.7Ni28Cu9Al12.3 amorphous alloy and its crystallization counterparts have been prepared using a melt spinning technique and proper annealing treatment. The as-annealed products at 768 K are amorphous composites consisting of a main amorphous phase and a few ZrO2 nanocrystals. The corrosion behaviors have been investigated in 0.5-M NaCl, 1-M HCl, and 0.5-M H2SO4 solutions. The results show that amorphous composites present the enhanced corrosion resistance in Cl- containing solutions due to the formation of compact passive films, which are promoted by an appropriate quantity of ZrO2 nanocrystals. Nevertheless, the relaxed samples possess good corrosion resistance in H2SO4 solution, which is attributed to the existence of Zr(Al, Ni)-rich protective film induced by the depletion of Cu. In addition, corrosion resistance of the tested alloys is relatively superior in H2SO4 solution, especially for pitting corrosion resistance, and inferior in HCl solution.

  10. The StEllar Counterparts of COmpact high velocity clouds (SECCO) survey. II. Sensitivity of the survey and an Atlas of Synthetic Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Beccari, G; Battaglia, G; Ibata, R; Martin, N; Testa, V; Cignoni, M; Correnti, M

    2016-01-01

    SECCO is a survey devoted to the search for stellar counterparts within Ultra Compact High Velocity Clouds. In this contribution we present the results of a set of simulations aimed at the quantitative estimate of the sensitivity of the survey as a function of the total luminosity, size and distance of the stellar systems we are looking for. For all our synthetic galaxies we assumed an exponential surface brightness profile and an old and metal-poor population. The synthetic galaxies are simulated both on the images and on the photometric catalogs, taking into account all the observational effects. In the fields where the available observational material is of the top quality we detect synthetic galaxies as >=5 sigma over-densities of resolved stars down to muV,h=30.0 mag/arcsec2, for D<=1.5 Mpc, and down to muV,h~29.5 mag/arcsec2, for D<=2.5 Mpc. In the field with the worst observational material of the whole survey we detect synthetic galaxies with muV,h<=28.8 mag/arcsec2 out to D<=1.0 Mpc, and ...

  11. A multi-wavelength survey of NGC\\,6752: X-ray counterparts, two new dwarf novae, and a core-collapsed radial profile

    CERN Document Server

    Thomson, G S; Dieball, A; Maccarone, T J; Dolphin, A; Zurek, D; Long, K S; Shara, M; Sarajedini, A

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a multi-wavelength (FUV to I-band) survey of the stellar populations of the globular cluster NGC 6752, using STIS, ACS and WFC3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We have confirmed that two previously identified CV candidates are, in fact, dwarf novae which underwent outbursts during our observations. We have also identified previously unknown optical counterparts to two X-ray sources. We estimate the position of the centre of the cluster, and show that the stellar density profile is not well described by a single King model, indicating that this cluster is in a core-collapsed or post-core collapse phase. The colour-magnitude diagram shows a well-populated horizontal branch, numerous blue stragglers and white dwarfs (WDs), as well as 87 sources in the gap region where we expect to find WD - main sequence binaries, including cataclysmic variables (CVs). The X-ray sources and WD binary systems are the most centrally concentrated populations, with dynamically estimated characteristic ...

  12. From major merger to radio galaxy: low surface-brightness stellar counterpart to the giant HI ring around B2 0648+27

    CERN Document Server

    Emonts, B H C; Van Gorkom, J H; Oosterloo, T A; Brogt, E; Tadhunter, C N

    2008-01-01

    We present the detection of a low surface-brightness stellar counterpart to an enormous (190 kpc) ring of neutral hydrogen (HI) gas that surrounds the nearby radio galaxy B2 0648+27. This system is currently in an evolutionary stage between major merger and (radio-loud) early-type galaxy. In a previous paper we investigated in detail the timescales between merger, starburst and AGN activity in B2 0648+27, based on its unusual multi-wavelength properties (large-scale HI ring, dominating post-starburst stellar population and infra-red luminosity). In this Research Note we present deep optical B- and V-band imaging that provides further evidence for the merger origin of B2 0648+27. The host galaxy shows a distorted optical morphology and a broad tidal arm is clearly present. A low surface-brightness stellar tail or partial ring curls around more than half the host galaxy at a distance of up to 55 kpc from the centre of the galaxy, following the large-scale, ring-like HI structure that we detected previously arou...

  13. Off-axis emission of short γ-ray bursts and the detectability of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational-wave-detected binary mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzati, Davide; Deich, Alex; Morsony, Brian J.; Workman, Jared C.

    2017-10-01

    We present calculations of the wide angle emission of short-duration gamma-ray bursts from compact binary merger progenitors. Such events are expected to be localized by their gravitational wave emission, fairly irrespective of the orientation of the angular momentum vector of the system, along which the gamma-ray burst outflow is expected to propagate. We show that both the prompt and afterglow emission are dim and challenging to detect for observers lying outside the cone within which the relativistic outflow is propagating. If the jet initially propagates through a baryon contaminated region surrounding the merger site, however, a hot cocoon forms around it. The cocoon subsequently expands quasi-isotropically producing its own prompt emission and external shock powered afterglow. We show that the cocoon prompt emission is detectable by Swift BAT and Fermi GBM. We also show that the cocoon afterglow peaks a few hours to a few days after the burst and is detectable for up to a few weeks at all wavelengths. The timing and brightness of the transient are however uncertain due to their dependence on unknown quantities such as the density of the ambient medium surrounding the merger site, the cocoon energy and the cocoon Lorentz factor. For a significant fraction of the gravitationally detected neutron-star-binary mergers, the cocoon afterglow could possibly be the only identifiable electromagnetic counterpart, at least at radio and X-ray frequencies.

  14. Mesenchymal stem cells from cortical bone demonstrate increased clonal incidence, potency, and developmental capacity compared to their bone marrow–derived counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Blashki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we show that matrix dense cortical bone is the more potent compartment of bone than bone marrow as a stromal source for mesenchymal stem cells as isolated from adult rats. Lineage-depleted cortical bone-mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated >150-fold enrichment of colony forming unit–fibroblasts per cell incidence. compared to lineage-depleted bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells, corresponding to a 70-fold increase in absolute recovered colony forming unit–fibroblasts. The composite phenotype Lin−/CD45−/CD31−/VLA-1+/Thy-1+ enriched for clonogenic mesenchymal stem cells solely from cortical bone–derived cells from which 70% of clones spontaneously differentiated into all lineages of bone, cartilage, and adipose. Both populations generated vascularized bone tissue within subcutaneous implanted collagen scaffolds; however, cortical bone–derived cells formed significantly more osteoid than bone marrow counterparts, quantified by histology. The data demonstrate that our isolation protocol identifies and validates mesenchymal stem cells with superior clonal, proliferative, and developmental potential from cortical bone compared to the bone marrow niche although marrow persists as the typical source for mesenchymal stem cells both in the literature and current pre-clinical therapies.

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells from cortical bone demonstrate increased clonal incidence, potency, and developmental capacity compared to their bone marrow–derived counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashki, Daniel; Murphy, Matthew B; Ferrari, Mauro; Simmons, Paul J; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we show that matrix dense cortical bone is the more potent compartment of bone than bone marrow as a stromal source for mesenchymal stem cells as isolated from adult rats. Lineage-depleted cortical bone-mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated >150-fold enrichment of colony forming unit–fibroblasts per cell incidence. compared to lineage-depleted bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells, corresponding to a 70-fold increase in absolute recovered colony forming unit–fibroblasts. The composite phenotype Lin−/CD45−/CD31−/VLA-1+/Thy-1+ enriched for clonogenic mesenchymal stem cells solely from cortical bone–derived cells from which 70% of clones spontaneously differentiated into all lineages of bone, cartilage, and adipose. Both populations generated vascularized bone tissue within subcutaneous implanted collagen scaffolds; however, cortical bone–derived cells formed significantly more osteoid than bone marrow counterparts, quantified by histology. The data demonstrate that our isolation protocol identifies and validates mesenchymal stem cells with superior clonal, proliferative, and developmental potential from cortical bone compared to the bone marrow niche although marrow persists as the typical source for mesenchymal stem cells both in the literature and current pre-clinical therapies. PMID:27579159

  16. Sigma-like transcription factors from mustard (Sinapis alba L.) etioplast are similar in size to, but functionally distinct from, their chloroplast counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiller, K; Link, G

    1993-02-01

    Three proteins resembling bacterial sigma factors were previously isolated from mustard chloroplasts (K. Tiller, A. Eisermann and G. Link, Eur J Biochem 198: 93-99, 1991). These sigma-like factors (SLFs) confer DNA-binding and transcription specificity to a system consisting of Escherichia coli core RNA polymerase and cloned DNA regions that carry a chloroplast promoter. Sigma-like activity was now isolated also from etioplasts and could be assigned to three polypeptides of M(r) 67,000 (SLF67), 52,000 (SLF52) and 29,000 (SLF29), i.e. the same sizes as for the chloroplast SLFs. The purification scheme for the factors from either plastid type included an initial heparin-Sepharose and a final gel filtration step. For the etioplast factors, however, an additional phosphocellulose step was required to release these polypeptides from the RNA polymerase. The etioplast SLFs have similar, but not identical, salt requirements for DNA binding as compared to their chloroplast counterparts. Under conditions of maximum binding activity there is overall preference of etioplast SLFs for the psbA promoter over the trnQ and rps16 promoters.

  17. Comparison of the oral bioavailability of silymarin-loaded lipid nanoparticles with their artificial lipolysate counterparts: implications on the contribution of integral structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Mingzhu; Qi, Jianping; Lu, Yi; Wu, Wei

    2015-07-15

    Both solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were artificially broken down into lipolysates. Their oral bioavailability, with silymarin as a model drug, was compared in dogs to highlight the contribution of their integral structure. The lipid nanoparticles were prepared using a conventional hot homogenization method, whereas the lipolysates were obtained through lipolysis in phospholipid- and bile salt-enriched simulated intestinal fluid. More than 80% of vehicle-associated drugs could be transformed into the water-soluble form of mixed micelles. Pharmacokinetics analysis in dogs showed a decrease in bioavailability of 74.86% and 59.09% for lipolysates compared to integral NLCs and SLNs, respectively. It was indicated that lipolysates contributed to a majority of drug absorption. Integral nanoparticles were superior to their lipolysate counterparts, but only marginally; if the approximately 20% of the drug that precipitated during in vitro lipolysis was deducted from the overall absorption amount, the superiority of integral nanoparticles would be significantly compromised. In conclusion, lipolysis was the predominant in vivo absorption mechanism, and the contribution of intact lipid nanoparticles was limited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    COPD - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - discharge; Bronchitis - ...

  19. Chronic heart failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    population, and up to 10% in people aged 75 years and older. It is also estimated that ... The first step in the development of heart failure is an injury to the myocardium ... treatment of heart failure by blocking the compensatory mechanisms with ... pulmonary disease, cognitive dysfunction, depression, chronic kidney disease ...

  20. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the feet and ankles Causes & Risk FactorsWhat causes CKD?The most common causes of CKD are high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease. ... caused by CKD.How else is CKD treated?Chronic kidney disease can cause other problems. Talk with your doctor about how ...

  1. Chronic pancreatitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Penny

    2012-08-01

    Chronic pancreatitis used to be considered uncommon in dogs, but recent pathological and clinical studies have confirmed that it is in fact a common and clinically significant disease. Clinical signs can vary from low-grade recurrent gastrointestinal signs to acute exacerbations that are indistinguishable from classical acute pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a significant cause of chronic pain in dogs, which must not be underestimated. It also results in progressive impairment of endocrine and exocrine function and the eventual development of diabetes mellitus or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency or both in some affected dogs at end stage. The etiology is unknown in most cases. Chronic pancreatitis shows an increased prevalence in certain breeds, and recent work in English Cocker Spaniels suggests it is part of a polysystemic immune-mediated disease in this breed. The histological and clinical appearance is different in different breeds, suggesting that etiologies may also be different. Diagnosis is challenging because the sensitivities of the available noninvasive tests are relatively low. However, with an increased index of suspicion, clinicians will recognize more cases that will allow them to institute supportive treatment to improve the quality of life of the patient.

  2. Chronic blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Michael W

    2012-10-01

    Chronic blood pressure is maintained within very narrow limits around an average value. However, the multitude of physiologic processes that participate in blood pressure control present a bewildering array of possibilities to explain how such tight control of arterial pressure is achieved. Guyton and Coleman and colleagues addressed this challenge by creating a mathematical model that integrated the short- and long-term control systems for overall regulation of the circulation. The hub is the renal-body fluid feedback control system, which links cardiac function and vascular resistance and capacitance with fluid volume homeostasis as the foundation for chronic blood pressure control. The cornerstone of that system is renal sodium excretory capability, which is defined by the direct effect of blood pressure on urinary sodium excretion, that is, "pressure natriuresis." Steady-state blood pressure is the pressure at which pressure natriuresis balances sodium intake over time; therefore, renal sodium excretory capability is the set point for chronic blood pressure. However, this often is misinterpreted as dismissing, or minimizing, the importance of nonrenal mechanisms in chronic blood pressure control. This article explains the renal basis for the blood pressure set point by focusing on the absolute dependence of our survival on the maintenance of sodium balance. Two principal threats to sodium balance are discussed: (1) a change in sodium intake or renal excretory capability and (2) a change in blood pressure. In both instances, circulatory homeostasis is maintained because the sodium balance blood pressure set point is reached.

  3. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedman, Jan; van Weissenbruch, Ranny

    2005-01-01

    We report what is, to our best knowledge, the first case of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) in which the frontal and sphenoid bones were involved. Characterized by a prolonged and fluctuating course of osteomyelitis at different sites, CRMO is self-limited, although sequelae can oc

  4. CHRONIC PROBLEM FAMILIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STONE, EDWARD

    THE REPORT POINTS OUT THAT, IN GENERAL, CHRONIC PROBLEM PARENTS GREW UP IN ENVIRONMENTS OF EMOTIONAL IMPOVERISHMENT, INCONSISTENCY, CONFUSION, AND DISORDER, OFTEN WITH DEPRIVATION OF FOOD, CLOTHING, AND SHELTER. THESE PARENTS CATEGORIZE PEOPLE AS THOSE WHO GIVE AND THOSE WHO TAKE. THEY BLAME THEIR PROBLEMS ON EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCES NOT UNDER THEIR…

  5. Acetaminophen for Chronic Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ennis, Zandra Nymand; Dideriksen, Dorthe; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke;

    2016-01-01

    strategies for acetaminophen use in chronic pain in both Embase and PubMed, 1,551 hits were obtained. Following cross-reference searches of both trials and 38 reviews, seven studies comparing acetaminophen in continuous dosing regimens of more than two weeks with placebo were included. The review...

  6. The Chronic Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Iben M; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    behavior to be the main factors influencing susceptibility to chronic diseases. We argue that this discursive construction naturalizes a division between people who can actively manage responsible self-care and those who cannot. Such discourses may serve the interests of those patients who are already...

  7. Diagnosing chronic rhinosinusitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, B; Thilsing, T; Baelum, J

    2013-01-01

    The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EP3OS) incorporates symptomatic and endo- scopic criteria in the clinical diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), while in epidemiological studies the definition is based on symptoms only. The aim of this study was to evaluate the...

  8. Diagnosing chronic rhinosinusitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, B; Thilsing, T; Baelum, J;

    2013-01-01

    The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EP3OS) incorporates symptomatic and endo- scopic criteria in the clinical diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), while in epidemiological studies the definition is based on symptoms only. The aim of this study was to evaluate the...

  9. Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Nina Christine; Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Bergholt, Bo

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (bCSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition frequently associated with the need for retreatment. The reason for the high rate of retreatment has not been thoroughly investigated. Thus, the authors focused on determining which independent predictors ar...

  10. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligio Pizzigallo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.. However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious. Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse

  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Vijayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec to FVC (forced vital capacity ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure, hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity, bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia, stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, V K

    2013-02-01

    The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines recommend influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations.

  13. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Symptoms On this Page Primary Symptoms Other Symptoms What's ... a doctor distinguish CFS from other illnesses. Primary Symptoms As the name chronic fatigue syndrome suggests , fatigue ...

  14. Defining and Measuring Chronic Conditions

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-20

    This podcast is an interview with Dr. Anand Parekh, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health, and Dr. Samuel Posner, Preventing Chronic Disease Editor in Chief, about the definition and burden of multiple chronic conditions in the United States.  Created: 5/20/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/20/2013.

  15. The StEllar Counterparts of COmpact high velocity clouds (SECCO) survey. II. Sensitivity of the survey and the atlas of synthetic dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccari, G.; Bellazzini, M.; Battaglia, G.; Ibata, R.; Martin, N.; Testa, V.; Cignoni, M.; Correnti, M.

    2016-06-01

    The searching for StEllar Counterparts of COmpact high velocity clouds (SECCO) survey is devoted to the search for stellar counterparts within ultra compact high velocity clouds that are candidate low-mass, low-luminosity galaxies. We present the results of a set of simulations aimed at the quantitative estimate of the sensitivity of the survey as a function of the total luminosity, size, and distance of the stellar systems we are looking for. For all of our synthetic galaxies we assumed an exponential surface brightness profile and an old and metal-poor population. The synthetic galaxies are simulated both on the images and on the photometric catalogues, taking all the observational effects into account. In the fields where the available observational material is of top quality (≃36% of the SECCO fields), we detect synthetic galaxies as ≥5σ over-densities of resolved stars down to μV,h ≃ 30.0 mag/arcsec2, for D ≤ 1.5 Mpc, and down to μV,h ≃ 29.5 mag/arcsec2, for D ≤ 2.5 Mpc. In the field with the worst observational material of the whole survey, we detect synthetic galaxies with μV,h ≤ 28.8 mag/arcsec2 out to D ≤ 1.0 Mpc, and those with μV,h ≤ 27.5 mag/arcsec2 out to D ≤ 2.5 Mpc. Dwarf galaxies with MV = -10.0, with sizes in the range spanned by known dwarfs, are detected by visual inspection of the images up to D = 5 Mpc independent of the image quality. In the best quality images, dwarfs are partially resolved into stars up to D = 3.0 Mpc and completely unresolved at D = 5 Mpc. As an independent test of the sensitivity of our images to low surface brightness galaxies, we report on the detection of several dwarf spheroidal galaxies probably located in the Virgo cluster with MV ≲ -8.0 and μV,h ≲ 26.8 mag/arcsec2. The nature of the previously discovered SECCO 1 stellar system, also likely located in the Virgo cluster, is rediscussed in comparison with these dwarfs. While specific for the SECCO survey, our study may also provide general

  16. 农村学前教育信息化对口支援模式探究%Rural Preschool Education Model of Information Counterpart Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜永燕; 徐东

    2016-01-01

    China has found a model with Chinese characteristics--educational counterpart aid--to effectively solve the problem of equity allocation of educational resources. The advance of information technology-based education reveals the significant drawbacks of traditional rural preschool aid model. Its costs seems to be high, its mode onefold, and its performance poor. Rural pre-school education model of information counterpart support shows the inclusiveness and relevance of education, maximizes the vast spread and share of information, improves rural preschool teachersˊprofessional qualities, as well as shortens the gap between schools in the urban and rural areas. The government is suggested to recognize its importance of its social gains, speed up the development of the two-way platform and provide technical support, establish special funds to hire professional agency services, introduce market mechanisms, encourage experts to actively participate in the construction of high-quality courses. A healthy and rapid development of rural preschool education will not go without the guidance and overall planning from the government.%如何有效解决教育资源公平配置问题,我国探索出一条有中国特色的模式———教育对口支援。基于教育信息化的推进,传统的农村学前教育援助模式弊端显著,如承担成本高、农村幼儿教师援助模式单一、成效不佳等。农村学前教育信息化对口支援模式的实施,有利于教育包容性和适切性的体现,有利于优质资源最大化传递和分享,同时有利于提升农村幼儿教师专业能力素养,以及缩短城市与农村之间学前教育差距。政府应从社会收益角度高度认识其重要性,加速发展“三通两平台”并提供技术保障,成立专项资金聘请专业机构服务,引入市场机制运营,鼓励专家积极参与建设优质课程,以政府主导、统筹规划,促进农村学前教育健康快速发展。

  17. Treating Chronic Myeloid Leukemia by Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Myeloid Leukemia (CML) Treating Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Treating Chronic Myeloid Leukemia by Phase Treatment options for people ... a stem cell donor with matching tissue type. Chronic phase The standard treatment for chronic phase CML ...

  18. The ESO UVES Advanced Data Products quasar sample - V. Identifying the galaxy counterpart to the sub-damped Lyα system towards Q 2239-2949

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Tayyaba; Møller, Palle; Péroux, Céline; Quiret, Samuel; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Ledoux, Cédric; Deharveng, Jean-Michel

    2017-02-01

    Gas flows in and out of galaxies are one of the key unknowns in today's galaxy evolution studies. Because gas flows carry mass, energy, and metals, they are believed to be closely connected to the star formation history of galaxies. Most of these processes take place in the circum-galactic medium (CGM) which remains challenging to observe in emission. A powerful tool to study the CGM gas is offered by combining observations of the gas traced by absorption lines in quasar spectra with detection of the stellar component of the same absorbing-galaxy. To this end, we have targeted the zabs = 1.825 sub-damped Lyα absorber (sub-DLA) towards the zem = 2.102 quasar 2dF J 223941.8-294955 (hereafter Q 2239-2949) with the ESO VLT/X-Shooter spectrograph. Our aim is to investigate the relation between its properties in emission and in absorption. The derived metallicity of the sub-DLA with log N(H I) = 19.84 ± 0.14 cm-2 is [M/H] > -0.75. Using the Voigt profile optical depth method, we measure Δv90(Fe II) = 64 km s-1. The sub-DLA galaxy counterpart is located at an impact parameter of 2{^''.}4 ± 0{^''.}2 (20.8 ± 1.7 kpc at z = 1.825). We have detected Lyα and marginal [O II] emissions. The mean measured flux of the Lyα line is FLy α ∼ 5.7 × 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 Å-1, corresponding to a dust uncorrected SFR of ∼0.13 M⊙ yr-1.

  19. Identification of Cis-Acting Elements on Positive-Strand Subgenomic mRNA Required for the Synthesis of Negative-Strand Counterpart in Bovine Coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yuan Yeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that, in addition to genomic RNA, sgmRNA is able to serve as a template for the synthesis of the negative-strand [(−-strand] complement. However, the cis-acting elements on the positive-strand [(+-strand] sgmRNA required for (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis have not yet been systematically identified. In this study, we employed real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to analyze the cis-acting elements on bovine coronavirus (BCoV sgmRNA 7 required for the synthesis of its (−-strand counterpart by deletion mutagenesis. The major findings are as follows. (1 Deletion of the 5'-terminal leader sequence on sgmRNA 7 decreased the synthesis of the (−-strand sgmRNA complement. (2 Deletions of the 3' untranslated region (UTR bulged stem-loop showed no effect on (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis; however, deletion of the 3' UTR pseudoknot decreased the yield of (−-strand sgmRNA. (3 Nucleotides positioned from −15 to −34 of the sgmRNA 7 3'-terminal region are required for efficient (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis. (4 Nucleotide species at the 3'-most position (−1 of sgmRNA 7 is correlated to the efficiency of (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis. These results together suggest, in principle, that the 5'- and 3'-terminal sequences on sgmRNA 7 harbor cis-acting elements are critical for efficient (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis in BCoV.

  20. A first-principles study of cementite (Fe{sub 3}C) and its alloyed counterparts: Elastic constants, elastic anisotropies, and isotropic elastic moduli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, G., E-mail: g-ghosh@northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Robert R. McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208-3108 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    A comprehensive computational study of elastic properties of cementite (Fe{sub 3}C) and its alloyed counterparts (M{sub 3}C (M = Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ta, Ti, V, W, Zr, Cr{sub 2}FeC and CrFe{sub 2}C) having the crystal structure of Fe{sub 3}C is carried out employing electronic density-functional theory (DFT), all-electron PAW pseudopotentials and the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation energy (GGA). Specifically, as a part of our systematic study of cohesive properties of solids and in the spirit of materials genome, following properties are calculated: (i) single-crystal elastic constants, C{sub ij}, of above M{sub 3}Cs; (ii) anisotropies of bulk, Young’s and shear moduli, and Poisson’s ratio based on calculated C{sub ij}s, demonstrating their extreme anisotropies; (iii) isotropic (polycrystalline) elastic moduli (bulk, shear, Young’s moduli and Poisson’s ratio) of M{sub 3}Cs by homogenization of calculated C{sub ij}s; and (iv) acoustic Debye temperature, θ{sub D}, of M{sub 3}Cs based on calculated C{sub ij}s. We provide a critical appraisal of available data of polycrystalline elastic properties of alloyed cementite. Calculated single crystal properties may be incorporated in anisotropic constitutive models to develop and test microstructure-processing-property-performance links in multi-phase materials where cementite is a constituent phase.

  1. The galaxy counterpart of the high-metallicity and 16 kpc impact parameter DLA towards Q 0918+1636 - a challenge to galaxy formation models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer-Larsen, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.

    2017-01-01

    The quasar Q0918+1636 (z = 3.07) has an intervening high-metallicity damped Lyman α absorber (DLA) along the line of sight, at a redshift of z = 2.58. The DLA is located at a large impact parameter of 16.2 kpc, and despite this large impact parameter, it has a very high metallicity (consistent with solar). In this paper, it is investigated whether a novel type of galaxy formation models, based on hydrodynamical/gravitational TreeSPH simulations invoking a new Supernova Type II feedback prescription, the Haardt & Madau most recent ultraviolet background radiation (UVB) field and explicit treatment of UVB self-shielding effects, can reproduce the observed characteristics of the DLA. Effects of UV radiation from young stellar populations in the galaxy, in particular in the photon energy range 10.36-13.61 eV (relating to Sulphur II abundance), are also considered in the analysis. It is found that (a) for L ˜ L⋆ galaxies (at z = 2.58), about 10 per cent of the sight-lines through the galaxies at impact parameter b = 16.2 kpc will display a Sulphur II column density of N({S II)} ≥ 10^{15.82} cm-2 (the observed value for the DLA), and (b) considering only cases where a near-solar metallicity will be detected at 16.2 kpc impact parameter, the (Bayesian) probability distribution of galaxy star formation rate peaks near the value observed for the DLA galaxy counterpart of 27^{+20}_{-9} { M_{⊙}} yr-1. It is argued that the bulk of the α-elements, like Sulphur, traced by the high metal column density, b = 16.2 kpc absorption lines, have been produced by evolving stars in the inner galaxy, and subsequently transported outwards by galactic winds.

  2. Potential of asymmetrical Si/Ge and Ge/Si based hetero-junction transit time devices over homo-junction counterparts for generation of high power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moumita Mukherjee; Pravash R. Tripathy; S. P. Pati

    2011-01-01

    Static and dynamic properties of both complementary n-Ge/p-Si and p-Ge/n-Si hetero-junction DoubleDrift IMPATT diodes have been investigated by an advanced and realistic computer simulation technique,developed by the authors,for operation in the Ka-,V- and W-band frequencies.The results are further compared with corresponding Si and Ge homo-junction devices.The study shows high values of device efficiency,such as 23%,22% and 21.5%,for n-Ge/p-Si IMPATTs at the Ka,V and W bands,respectively.The peak device negative conductances for n-Si/p-Ge and n-Ge/p-Si hetero-junction devices found to be 50.7 × 106 S/m2 and 71.3 × 106 S/m2,which are ~3-4 times better than their Si and Ge counterparts at the V-band.The computed values of RF powerdensity for n-Ge/p-Si hetero-junction IMPATTs are 1.0 × 109,1.1 × 109 and 1.4 × 109 W/m2,respectively,for Ka-,V- and W-band operation,which can be observed to be the highest when compared with Si,Ge and n-Si/p-Ge devices.Both of the hetero-junctions,especially the n-Ge/p-Si hetero-junction diode,can thus become a superior RF-power generator over a wide range of frequencies.The present study will help the device engineers to choose a suitable material pair for the development of high-power MM-wave IMPATT for applications in the civil and defense-related arena.

  3. Self-association of short-chain nonionic amphiphiles in binary and ternary systems: comparison between the cleavable ethylene glycol monobutyrate and its ether counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Fournial, Anne-Gaëlle; Molinier, Valérie; Azaroual, Nathalie; Vermeersch, Gaston; Aubry, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-20

    In the context of environmental concerns for the production of surface active species, the introduction of a carbonyl function into the skeleton of ethyleneglycol-derived solvo-surfactants is a way to access cleavable compounds with presumed enhanced biodegradability. Ethylene glycol monobutyrate (C(3)COE(1)) was synthesized and compared to its ether counterparts, ethylene glycol monopropyl (C(3)E(1)) and monobutyl ethers (C(4)E(1)), to assess the effect of the insertion of a carbonyl function in the skeleton of short-chain ethoxylated amphiphilic compounds. In aqueous solutions, the ester has intermediate behavior between that of the two ethers with regard to surface tension, solubilization of Me-naphtalene in water, and self-diffusion by PGSE NMR. In ternary systems, C(3)COE(1) and C(3)E(1) have the same optimal oil (EACN = 2.8), which is much more polar than that of C(4)E(1) (EACN = 8.5). With regard to the ability to form structured systems, the behavior in water does not differ significantly for the three compounds, and the transition between nonassociating solvents and amphiphilic solvents, sometimes called solvo-surfactants, is gradual. In ternary systems, however, only C(4)E(1) and C(3)COE(1) form a third phase near the optimal formulation, which tends to show that C(3)COE(1) possesses the minimum amphiphilicity to get a structuration. Self-diffusion NMR studies of the one-phase domains do not, however, allow us to distinguish between different degrees of organization in the three systems.

  4. The normal counterpart of IgD myeloma cells in germinal center displays extensively mutated IgVH gene, Cmu-Cdelta switch, and lambda light chain expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpin, C; de Bouteiller, O; Razanajaona, D; Fugier-Vivier, I; Brière, F; Banchereau, J; Lebecque, S; Liu, Y J

    1998-04-20

    Human myeloma are incurable hematologic cancers of immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells in bone marrow. Although malignant plasma cells can be almost eradicated from the patient's bone marrow by chemotherapy, drug-resistant myeloma precursor cells persist in an apparently cryptic compartment. Controversy exists as to whether myeloma precursor cells are hematopoietic stem cells, pre-B cells, germinal center (GC) B cells, circulating memory cells, or plasma blasts. This situation reflects what has been a general problem in cancer research for years: how to compare a tumor with its normal counterpart. Although several studies have demonstrated somatically mutated immunoglobulin variable region genes in multiple myeloma, it is unclear if myeloma cells are derived from GCs or post-GC memory B cells. Immunoglobulin (Ig)D-secreting myeloma have two unique immunoglobulin features, including a biased lambda light chain expression and a Cmu-Cdelta isotype switch. Using surface markers, we have previously isolated a population of surface IgM-IgD+CD38+ GC B cells that carry the most impressive somatic mutation in their IgV genes. Here we show that this population of GC B cells displays the two molecular features of IgD-secreting myeloma cells: a biased lambda light chain expression and a C&mu-Cdelta isotype switch. The demonstration of these peculiar GC B cells to differentiate into IgD-secreting plasma cells but not memory B cells both in vivo and in vitro suggests that IgD-secreting plasma and myeloma cells are derived from GCs.

  5. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Lee, Yong Seok [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which impaired intestinal peristalsis causes recurrent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical occlusion. This syndrome may involve variable segments of small or large bowel, and may be associated with urinary bladder retention. This study included 6 children(3 boys and 3 girls) of chronic intestinal obstruction. Four were symptomatic at birth and two were of the ages of one month and one year. All had abdominal distension and deflection difficulty. Five had urinary bladder distension. Despite parenteral nutrition and surgical intervention(ileostomy or colostomy), bowel obstruction persisted and four patients expired from sepses within one year. All had gaseous distension of small and large bowel on abdominal films. In small bowel series, consistent findings were variable degree of dilatation, decreased peristalsis(prolonged transit time) and microcolon or microrectum. This disease entity must be differentiated from congenital megacolon, ileal atresia and megacystis syndrome.

  6. [Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franques, J; Azulay, J-P; Pouget, J; Attarian, S

    2010-06-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a demyelinating chronic neuropathy of immune origin whose diagnosis is based upon clinical, biological and electrophysiological data; previously critical to the diagnosis the nerve biopsy is now restricted to the rare situations where accurate diagnosis cannot be reached using these data alone. CIDP are mainly idiopathic, but a few associated diseases must be sought for as they require specific attention. Such associated diseases must particularly be discussed when the manifestations are severe or resistant to immunomodulating or immunosuppressive agents. Indeed, idiopathic CIDP are usually responsive to these treatments. The effectiveness of these treatments is limited by the importance of the secondary axonal loss. The dependence or the resistance may sometimes justify the association of several immunomodulating treatments. A single randomized controlled trial support the use of cytotoxic drugs and none with rituximab.

  7. Chronic Stress and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    to the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor agonist HU-210 following chronic stress. European Journal of Pharmacology, 499(3), 291-295. Holscher, C. (1999...learning and memory, has the highest concentration of GC receptors in the brain and is involved in the stress response. Extensive research has... receptor levels than stressed male rodents (Konkle, 2003; Figueiredo, 2002; Handa, 1994). Males and females react to stress differently, so two models

  8. Renal failure (chronic)

    OpenAIRE

    Clase, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is characterised by a gradual and sustained decline in renal clearance or glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Continued progression of renal failure will lead to renal function too low to sustain healthy life. In developed countries, such people will be offered renal replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or renal transplantation. Requirement for dialysis or transplantation is termed end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Diabetes, glomerulonephritis, hypertension, pyelone...

  9. Chronic pneumonitis of infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Katsumi; Kamata, Noriko; Okazaki, Eiwa [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Moriyama, Sachiko; Funata, Nobuaki [Department of Pathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Takita, Junko; Yamada, Hideo; Takayama, Naohide [Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, 3-18-22 Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare lung disease in infants and young children. We report a 33-day-old infant with CPI, focusing on the radiologic aspects of the disease. Chest radiographs showed variable and non-specific appearances including ground-glass shadowing, consolidation, volume loss, and hyperinflation. Dense alveolar opacities progressed as CPI advanced. The radiologic features of our case reflected pathologic changes. (orig.)

  10. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.

    Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis

  11. Chronic arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan H

    2002-03-10

    Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS).

  12. Chronic pelvic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Wozniak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available [b][/b][b]Introduction. [/b]Chronic pelvic pain (CPP affects about 10–40% of women presenting to a physician, and is characterised by pain within the minor pelvis persisting for over 6 months. [b]Materials and method. [/b]The Medline database was searched using the key words ‘chronic pelvic pain’ and ‘pelvic congestion syndrome’, published in English during the past 15 years. The condition markedly deteriorates the quality of life of the affected. Its aetiology has not been fully described and elucidated, although organic, functional and psychosomatic factors are implicated. Pain associated with parametrial varices was defined as pelvis congestion syndrome (PCS. Since the aetiology of CPP is complex, multi-directional diagnostic procedures are required. [b]Results. [/b]The main diagnostic methods employed are imaging examinations (ultrasound, computer tomography, magnetic resonance. Advances in interventional radiology considerably contributed to the CPP treatment. Currently, embolization of parametrial vessels is one of the most effective methods to relieve pain associated with pelvic congestion syndrome. [b]Conclusions. [/b]Due to the complex aetiology of chronic pelvic pain, the most beneficial effects are obtained when the therapy is based on cooperation of the gynaecologist, physiotherapist, psychologist and interventional radiologist.

  13. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: case-based session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, K R; Döhner, H; Keating, M J; Montserrat, E

    2001-01-01

    Drs. Hartmut Döhner, Michael J. Keating, Kanti R. Rai and Emili Montserrat form the panel to review chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) while focusing on the clinical features of a particular patient. The pace of progress in CLL has accelerated in the past decade. The pathophysiological nature of this disease, as had been known in the past, was based largely on the intuitive and empiric notions of two leaders in hematology, William Dameshek and David Galton. Now the works of a new generation of leaders are providing us with the scientific explanations of why CLL is a heterogeneous disease, perhaps consisting of at least two separate entities. In one form of CLL, the leukemic lymphocytes have a surface immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region gene that has undergone somatic mutations, with tell-tale markers suggesting that these cells had previously traversed the germinal centers. Such patients have a distinctly superior prognosis than their counterparts whose leukemic lymphocytes IgV genes have no mutations (these are indeed immunologically naive cells), who have a worse prognosis. The introduction of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique has provided us with new insights into the diverse chromosomal abnormalities that can occur in CLL, and which have significant impact on the clinical behavior and prognosis of patients with this disease. Major advances in therapeutics of CLL also have occurred during the past decade. Two monoclonal antibodies, Campath-1H (anti-CD52) and rituximab (anti-CD20), and one nucleoside analogue, fludarabine, have emerged as three agents of most promise in the front-line treatment of this disease. Studies currently in progress reflect our attempts to find the most effective manner of combining these agents to improve the overall survival statistics for CLL patients. As in many other hematological malignancies, high dose chemotherapy followed by autologous or HLA-compatible allogeneic stem cells rescue strategies are under study as

  14. Chronic disease management in general practice: results from a national study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Darker, C

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to provide baseline data on chronic disease management (CDM) provision in Irish general practice (GP). The survey instrument was previously used in a study of primary care physicians in 11 countries, thus allowing international comparisons. The response rate was 72% (380\\/527).The majority of GPs (240\\/380; 63%) reported significant changes are needed in our health care system to make CDM work better. Small numbers of routine clinical audits are being performed (95\\/380; 25%). Irish GPs use evidence based guidelines for treatment of diabetes (267\\/380; 71%), asthma \\/ COPD (279\\/380; 74%) and hypertension (297\\/380; 79%), to the same extent as international counterparts. Barriers to delivering chronic care include increased workload (379\\/380; 99%), lack of appropriate funding (286\\/380; 76%), with GPs interested in targeted payments (244\\/380; 68%). This study provides baseline data to assess future changes in CDM.

  15. No Counterpart Employment of College Students and its Countermeasures%大学生未对口就业问题成因及应对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温娟; 王纪平

    2012-01-01

    面对当前严峻的就业形势,大学生就业不仅遭遇到前所未有的挑战,同时还面临着就业"未对口"的现实问题,如何抉择,已经成为困扰大学生顺利就业的重要因素之一。其中造成这一问题的原因包括:国家发展与教育结构、专业学习与职业发展、严峻的就业形势与就业、家长意愿与专业选择等产生的四个矛盾体。作为高校辅导员应对"未对口就业"的策略有:明确职责、提升素质、主动服务,强化大学生职业生涯规划意识、教育引导大学生转变就业观念、做好大学生就业心理辅导、培养大学生全面发展的理念等五个方面。%In current severe employment situation, college students are faced with unprecedented challenges, choice trou- ble has become one of the important factors for successful employment for college students. No counterpart employment problem was caused by four contradictory bodies including national development and education structure, professional learning and career development, severe employment situation and employment, parents' wishes and professional choices. A college counselor can adopt the following five strategies to deal with the problem, namely, having a clear sense of re sponsibilities, promoting personality, providing active service, strengthening students' consciousness of career planning, changing students' employment concept, offering psychological counseling for students , cultivating students' all--round development concept.

  16. Disease features and outcomes in United States lupus patients of Hispanic origin and their Mestizo counterparts in Latin America: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte-Gil, Manuel F; Pons-Estel, Guillermo J; Molineros, Julio; Wojdyla, Daniel; McGwin, Gerald; Nath, Swapan K; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta; Alarcón, Graciela S

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate disease features and outcomes in two populations with significant Amerindian ancestry. Hispanic patients (from Texas) from the Lupus in Minorities: Nature versus Nurture (LUMINA) cohort and Mestizo patients from the Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio del Lupus or Latin American Group for the Study of Lupus (GLADEL) cohort were included. Disease features and outcomes were evaluated at baseline and last visit. Admixture informative markers of Mestizo Genoma de Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico Network consortium (GENLES) patients and Hispanic LUMINA patients were compared. Univariable analyses were performed using Chi square or Student's t test as appropriate. Multivariable analyses adjusting for possible confounders were carried out using Poisson, logistic or Cox regression models as appropriate. A total of 114 LUMINA and 619 GLADEL patients were included. GLADEL patients had accrued more damage at baseline, but the opposite was the case at last visit. Being from LUMINA was a risk factor for damage accrual, even after adjusting for possible confounders [relative risk (RR) 1.33, 95% CI 1.12, 1.58]. Also, LUMINA patients have a higher risk of mortality than GLADEL patients [hazard ratio (HR) 2.37, 95% CI 1.10, 5.15], having 5-year survival of 85.6% and 94.5%, respectively. In addition, 79 LUMINA patients and 744 Mestizo GENLES patients were evaluated in order to compare genetic ancestry between the two groups; GENLES patients had a higher proportion of European ancestry (48.5% vs 43.3%, P = 0.003) and a lower proportion of Asian ancestry (3.7% vs 4.9%, P = 0.048), but the proportions of Amerindian and African ancestry were comparable in both. USA Hispanic patients seemed to have a poorer prognosis than their counterparts from Latin America, despite having a comparable genetic background. Socioeconomic factors may account for these observations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights

  17. Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Nedim Yuceturk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic prostatitis is a chronic syndrome that effects men with a wide range of age. The etiology, natural history and appropriate therapy models are still unclear. According to the classification of National Institutes of Health; 4 types of prostatitis were defined; acute bacterial prostatitis (category I, chronic bacterial prostatitis (category II, chronic nonbacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (category III and asymptomatic prostatitis (category IV.Since microorganisms can only be isolated from a small percent of patients, empiric treatment is given to the most of the men. Multidisciplinary approach to the patients with suspected chronic prostatitis will help clinicians to play an active role in the treatment and prevent unnecessary medical therapies. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 691-702

  18. History of Chronic Subdural Hematoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Trephination or trepanation is an intentional surgical procedure performed from the Stone Age. It looks like escaping a black evil from the head. This technique is still used for treatment of chronic subdural hematoma (SDH). Now, we know the origin, pathogenesis and natural history of this lesion. The author try to explore the history of trephination and modern discovery of chronic SDH. The author performed a detailed electronic search of PubMed. By the key word of chronic SDH, 2,593 articles were found without language restriction in May 2015. The author reviewed the fact and way, discovering the present knowledge on the chronic SDH. The first authentic report of chronic SDH was that of Wepfer in 1657. Chronic SDH was regarded as a stroke in 17th century. It was changed as an inflammatory disease in 19th century by Virchow, and became a traumatic lesion in 20th century. However, trauma is not necessary in many cases of chronic SDHs. The more important prerequisite is sufficient potential subdural space, degeneration of the brain. Modifying Virchow's description, chronic SDH is sometimes traumatic, but most often caused by severe degeneration of the brain. From Wepfer's first description, nearly 350 years passed to explore the origin, pathogenesis, and fate of chronic SDH. The nature of the black evil in the head of the Stone Age is uncovering by many authors riding the giant's shoulder. Chronic SDH should be categorized as a degenerative lesion instead of a traumatic lesion. PMID:27169062

  19. Chronic radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akleyev, Alexander V. [Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation). Clinical Dept.

    2014-04-01

    Comprehensive analysis of chronic radiation syndrome, covering epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathoanatomy, diagnosis and treatment. Based on observations in a unique sample of exposed residents of the Techa riverside villages in the Urals. Casts new light on the condition. Of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in chronic radiation syndrome. This book covers all aspects of chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) based on observations in a unique sample of residents of the Techa riverside villages in the southern Urals who were exposed to radioactive contamination in the 1950s owing to releases of liquid radioactive wastes from Mayak Production Association, which produced plutonium for weapons. In total, 940 cases of CRS were diagnosed in this population and these patients were subjected to detailed analysis. The opening chapters address the definition and classification of CRS, epidemiology and pathogenesis, covering molecular and cellular mechanisms, radioadaptation, and the role of tissue reactions. The pathoanatomy of CRS during the development and recovery stages is discussed for all organ systems. Clinical manifestations of CRS at the different stages are then described in detail and the dynamics of hematopoietic changes are thoroughly examined. In the following chapters, principles of diagnosis (including assessment of the exposure doses to critical organs) and differential diagnosis from a wide range of other conditions are discussed and current and potential treatment options, described. The medical and social rehabilitation of persons with CRS is also covered. This book, which casts new light on the condition, will be of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in CRS.

  20. Chronic cough in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Rigoberto; Bahna, Sami L

    2014-08-01

    Cough is probably the most common cause of seeking medical care in pediatric practice. Most acute cough is caused by infection and usually resolves within less than 4 weeks. If it lasts longer, it is considered chronic and deserves investigation to identify the underlying cause, which can be almost any of a wide variety of illnesses of the respiratory tract and certain extrathoracic conditions. This review provides an optimal approach for diagnosis through a skillful history taking, physical examination, and selection of appropriate tests.

  1. Approaching chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Vijo; Tiew, Pei Yee; How, Choon How

    2016-02-01

    Chronic cough is one of the most common reasons for referral to a respiratory physician. Although fatal complications are rare, it may cause considerable distress in the patient's daily life. Western and local data shows that in patients with a normal chest radiograph, the most common causes are postnasal drip syndrome, postinfectious cough, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and cough variant asthma. Less common causes are the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, smoker's cough and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. A detailed history-taking and physical examination will provide a diagnosis in most patients, even at the primary care level. Some cases may need further investigations or specialist referral for diagnosis.

  2. The Chronic Poverty Report 2005

    OpenAIRE

    The Chronic Poverty Research Centre, CPRC

    2005-01-01

    The report examines what chronic poverty is and why it matters, who the chronically poor are, where they live, what causes poverty to be persistent and what should be done about it. It argues that approaches to development policy must acknowledge the agency of the chronically poor themselves in overcoming their poverty. But they also need real commitment, matched by actions and resources, to support their efforts to attain their rights and overcome the obstacles that trap them in poverty.

  3. Late and chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donta, Sam T

    2002-03-01

    This article reviews the late and chronic manifestations of Lyme disease. Special attention is given to the chronic manifestations of the disease, detailing its pathogenesis, clinical spectrum, and laboratory criteria for the diagnosis. Based on experimental evidence and experience, approaches to the successful treatment of the late and chronic disease are outlined. Much additional work is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the disease, its diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Chronic avulsive injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, L.F.; Helms, C.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Bisset, G.S. III [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Squire, D.L. [Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Children and adolescents are prone to avulsive injuries related to a combination of their propensity for great strength, ability to sustain extreme levels of activity, and immature growing apophyses. Appropriate interpretation of imaging studies showing chronic avulsive injuries is essential so that the irregularity and periostitis that can be associated with chronic avulsions is not misinterpreted as probable malignancy. This article reviews the chronic avulsive injuries of childhood. (orig.) With 12 figs., 8 refs.

  5. Treatment Strategies for Chronic Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Lord

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of chronic somatic pain, including pain referred to the head, neck, shoulder girdle and upper limb from somatic structures, is addressed. Levels of evidence for the various treatments that have been prescribed for chronic whiplash associated disorders are considered. The challenge to find a treatment strategy for chronic pain after whiplash that completely relieves the condition and prevents its sequelae is reviewed.

  6. The Chronic Poverty Report 2005

    OpenAIRE

    The Chronic Poverty Research Centre, CPRC

    2005-01-01

    The report examines what chronic poverty is and why it matters, who the chronically poor are, where they live, what causes poverty to be persistent and what should be done about it. It argues that approaches to development policy must acknowledge the agency of the chronically poor themselves in overcoming their poverty. But they also need real commitment, matched by actions and resources, to support their efforts to attain their rights and overcome the obstacles that trap them in poverty.

  7. Chronic subjective dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odman, Micaela; Maire, Raphaël

    2008-10-01

    Chronic subjective dizziness (CSD) is frequent and affects twice as many women as men. Anxiety is a strong predisposing factor. The pathophysiologic concept of this disorder assumes that balance function and emotion share common neurologic pathways, which might explain that the balance disorder can provoke fear and vice versa, giving rise to a problem in perception of space and motion. In anxious patients this can turn into a space and motion phobia, with avoidance behaviour. CSD is a diagnosis based on the hypothesis of an interaction between the vestibular system and the psychiatric sphere. Patients complain of chronic imbalance, worsened by visual motion stimulation, and frequently suffer from anxiety. Vestibular examination reveals no anomalies. We evaluated the incidence and characteristics of CSD in patients referred to our neuro-otology centre (tertiary hospital outpatient clinic). This was a retrospective study of 1552 consecutive patients presenting with vertigo. CSD was diagnosed in 164 patients (female:male=111:53). CSD represents 10.6% of the dizzy patients in our clinic. Psychiatric disorder, mainly anxiety, was found in 79.3% of the cases. Other frequently associated factors were fear of heights and former vestibular lesion (healed). In all, 79.0% of the patients with CSD had poor balance performance on dynamic posturography testing.

  8. Understanding Biofilms in Chronic Sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudeen, Bobby A; Schwartz, Joseph S; Palmer, James N

    2016-02-01

    Chronic sinusitis is a burdensome disease that has substantial individual and societal impact. Although great advances in medical and surgical therapies have been made, some patients continue to have recalcitrant infections. Microbial biofilms have been implicated as a cause of recalcitrant chronic sinusitis, and recent studies have tried to better understand the pathogenesis of chronic sinusitis as it relates to microbial biofilms. Here, we provide an overview of biofilms in chronic sinusitis with emphasis on pathogenesis, treatment, and future directions. In addition, recent evidence is presented, elucidating the role of bitter taste receptors as a possible key factor leading to biofilm formation.

  9. Socio-economic status and quality of life in children with chronic disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didsbury, Madeleine S; Kim, Siah; Medway, Meredith M; Tong, Allison; McTaggart, Steven J; Walker, Amanda M; White, Sarah; Mackie, Fiona E; Kara, Tonya; Craig, Jonathan C; Wong, Germaine

    2016-12-01

    Reduced quality of life (QoL) is a known consequence of chronic disease in children, and this association may be more evident in those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. The aims of this systematic review were to assess the association between socio-economic disadvantage and QoL among children with chronic disease, and to identify the specific socio-economic factors that are most influential. MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO were searched to March 2015. Observational studies that reported the association between at least one measure of social disadvantage in caregivers and at least one QoL measure in children and young people (age 2-21 years) with a debilitating non-communicable childhood disease (asthma, chronic kidney disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus and epilepsy) were eligible. A total of 30 studies involving 6957 patients were included (asthma (six studies, n = 576), chronic kidney disease (four studies, n = 796), epilepsy (14 studies, n = 2121), type 1 diabetes mellitus (six studies, n = 3464)). A total of 22 (73%) studies reported a statistically significant association between at least one socio-economic determinant and QoL. Parental education, occupation, marital status, income and health insurance coverage were associated with reduced QoL in children with chronic disease. The quality of the included studies varied widely and there was a high risk of reporting bias. Children with chronic disease from lower socio-economic backgrounds experience reduced QoL compared with their wealthier counterparts. Initiatives to improve access to and usage of medical and psychological services by children and their families who are socio-economically disadvantaged may help to mitigate the disparities and improve outcomes in children with chronic illnesses. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. An analysis of Japan Disaster Medical Assistance Team (J-DMAT) deployments in comparison with those of J-DMAT's counterpart in the United States (US-DMAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Akira; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2010-12-01

    Lessons learned from the Great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake of 1995 underscored the necessity of establishing Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs) in Japan, and in 2005, the Japanese government's Central Disaster Prevention Council revised its Basic Disaster Management Plan to include full deployment of DMATs in disaster areas. Defining a DMAT as a trained, mobile, self-contained medical team that can act in the acute phase of a disaster (48 to 72 hours after its occurrence) to provide medical treatment in the devastated area, the revised plan called for the training of DMAT personnel for rapid deployment to any area of the country hit by a disaster. This paper presents descriptive data on the number and types of missions carried out by Japan DMAT (J-DMAT) in its first 5 years, and clarifies how J-DMAT differs from its counterpart in the United States (US-DMAT). The DMAT that the present authors belong to has been deployed for 2 natural disasters and 1 man-made disaster, and the operations carried out during these deployments are analyzed. Reports on J-DMAT activities published from 2004 through 2009 by the Japanese Association for Disaster Medicine are also included in the analysis. After training courses for J-DMAT personnel started in fiscal 2004, J-DMATs were deployed for 8 disasters in a period of 4 years. Five of these were natural disasters, and 3 man-made. Of the 5 natural disasters, 3 were earthquakes, and of the 3 man-made disasters, 2 were derailment accidents. Unlike in the United States, where hurricanes and floods account for the greatest number of DMAT deployments, earthquakes cause the largest number of disasters in Japan. Because Japan is small in comparison with the US (Japan has about 1/25 the land area of the US), most J-DMATs head for devastated areas by car from their respective hospitals. This is one reason why J-DMATs are smaller and more agile than US-DMATs. Another difference is that J-DMATs' activities following earthquakes involve

  11. Refractory chronic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martelletti, Paolo; Katsarava, Zaza; Lampl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    and in the uncontrolled application of therapeutic techniques not yet validated.The European Headache Federation Expert Group on rCM presents hereby the updated definition criteria for this harmful subset of headache disorders. This attempt wants to be the first impulse towards the correct identification......The debate on the clinical definition of refractory Chronic Migraine (rCM) is still far to be concluded. The importance to create a clinical framing of these rCM patients resides in the complete disability they show, in the high risk of serious adverse events from acute and preventative drugs...... of these patients, the correct application of innovative therapeutic techniques and lastly aim to be acknowledged as clinical entity in the next definitive version of the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3 (ICHD-3 beta)....

  12. Chronic hypophosphatemic osteopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppers, B.; Schmid, L.; Hofmann, E.; Sauer, E.

    1980-07-01

    The process of chronic hypophosphatemic vitamine D-resistant rickets is described by observation of two cases. With the male patient - our first case - the disease was sporadic and had not been recognized for a long time. In his early adulthood it manifested itself as Umbauzonen (pseudofractures) in the larger context of active osteomalacia. It was possible to observe the pseudofractures before and while the patient was medicamentously treated. High doses of vitamine D 3 and dosage of phosphate mitigated the complaints although with respect to the radiological, scintigraphical, humoral and histological findings there was only slow improvement or no improvement at all. The patient's daughter is affected by the disease as well. In her case the pathological signs of her bones became better when treated with vitamine D 3.

  13. Refractory chronic cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Edvinsson, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cluster headache (CCH) often resists to prophylactic pharmaceutical treatments resulting in patients' life damage. In this rare but pragmatic situation escalation to invasive management is needed but framing criteria are lacking. We aimed to reach a consensus for refractory CCH definition...... for clinical and research use. The preparation of the final consensus followed three stages. Internal between authors, a larger between all European Headache Federation members and finally an international one among all investigators that have published clinical studies on cluster headache the last five years....... Eighty-five investigators reached by email. Proposed criteria were in the format of the International Classification of Headache Disorders III-beta (description, criteria, notes, comments and references). Following this evaluation eight drafts were prepared before the final. Twenty-four (28...

  14. Chronic endometritis and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jong; Kim, You Shin; Yoon, Tae Ki; Lee, Woo Sik

    2016-12-01

    Chronic endometritis (CE) is a condition involving the breakdown of the peaceful co-existence between microorganisms and the host immune system in the endometrium. A majority of CE cases produce no noticeable signs or mild symptoms, and the prevalence rate of CE has been found to be approximately 10%. Gynecologists and pathologists often do not focus much clinical attention on CE due to the time-consuming microscopic examinations necessary to diagnose CE, its mild clinical manifestations, and the benign nature of the disease. However, the relationship between CE and infertility-related conditions such as repeated implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage has recently emerged as an area of inquiry. In this study, we reviewed the literature on the pathophysiology of CE and how it may be associated with infertility, as well as the literature regarding the diagnosis and treatment of CE. In addition, we discuss the value of hysteroscopic procedures in the diagnosis and treatment of CE.

  15. [Chronic occupational metallic mercurialism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Marcília de Araújo Medrado

    2003-02-01

    This is a review on current knowledge of chronic occupational mercurialism syndrome. Major scientific studies and reviews on clinical manifestation and physiopathology of mercury poisoning were evaluated. The search was complemented using Medline and Lilacs data. Erethism or neuropsychological syndrome, characterized by irritability, personality change, loss of self-confidence, depression, delirium, insomnia, apathy, loss of memory, headaches, general pain, and tremors, is seen after exposure to metallic mercury. Hypertension, renal disturbances, allergies and immunological conditions are also common. Mercury is found in many different work processes: industries, gold mining, and dentistry. As prevention measures are not often adopted there is an increasing risk of mercury poisoning. The disease has been under diagnosed even though 16 clinical forms of mercury poisoning are described by Brazilian regulations. Clinical diagnosis is important, especially because abnormalities in the central nervous, renal and immunological systems can be detected using current medical technology, helping to develop the knowledge and control measures for mercurialism.

  16. Chronic granulomatous disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towbin, Alexander J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Chaves, Ian [Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare congenital immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent bacterial and fungal infections as well as granuloma formation. The manifestations of this disease can involve single or multiple organ systems. The lungs are the most commonly affected organ; however, lymphatic, hepatic, skeletal, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, head and neck, and central nervous system involvement have also been described. Most patients present with symptoms in their first few years of life. Due to the nonspecific manner in which patients present, the pediatric radiologist may be among the first to recognize the pattern of infection, inflammation, and granuloma formation leading to a diagnosis of CGD. The purpose of this paper is to review the imaging findings of CGD that can manifest throughout the body. (orig.)

  17. Chronic endometritis and infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jong; Kim, You Shin; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2016-01-01

    Chronic endometritis (CE) is a condition involving the breakdown of the peaceful co-existence between microorganisms and the host immune system in the endometrium. A majority of CE cases produce no noticeable signs or mild symptoms, and the prevalence rate of CE has been found to be approximately 10%. Gynecologists and pathologists often do not focus much clinical attention on CE due to the time-consuming microscopic examinations necessary to diagnose CE, its mild clinical manifestations, and the benign nature of the disease. However, the relationship between CE and infertility-related conditions such as repeated implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage has recently emerged as an area of inquiry. In this study, we reviewed the literature on the pathophysiology of CE and how it may be associated with infertility, as well as the literature regarding the diagnosis and treatment of CE. In addition, we discuss the value of hysteroscopic procedures in the diagnosis and treatment of CE. PMID:28090456

  18. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term that is used to include chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or a combination of both conditions. Asthma is also a disease where it is difficult ... with COPD to also have some degree of asthma. What is chronic ... back to their original size. In emphysema, the walls of some of the alveoli have ...

  19. [Histopathologic study of chronic sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayoff, M; Parache, R M; Bodelet, B; Gazel, P

    1983-01-01

    The conventional histopathology of the sinus is a criterium for the therapeutic indication, since it is possible to distinguish between granulomatous chronic sinusitis, chronic sinusitis with oedema and nasal polyposis. Each one of these clinical pictures has his own etiology and requires a specific therapeutic approach.

  20. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which the body ... function as well as they should. How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs ...

  1. Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from our online catalog. Alternate Language URL Español Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines: What You Need to Know Page ... What you need to know Because you have chronic kidney disease, you should take steps to protect your kidneys. ...

  2. Obinutuzumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Jehan

    2015-09-01

    Obinutuzumab is the second next-generation monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody (after ofatumumab) to enter clinical practice in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Its superiority in association with chlorambucil as compared with chlorambucil alone has led to its approval as a first-line treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, for patients who are not candidates for a more intensive treatment.

  3. Chronic sleep reduction in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the results of this thesis, it can be concluded that sleep problems and chronic sleep reduction have a high impact on adolescents’ daytime functioning. Additionally, this research shows that gradual sleep extension can improve adolescents’ sleep and especially their chronic sleep reduction.

  4. Chronic diseases and mental disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; Peters, L.; Rijken, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between chronic medical illness and mental distress. Therefore, the association between chronic medical illness and mental distress was analysed, taking into account the modifying effects of generic disease characteristi

  5. [Chronic pyelonephritis in polycystic kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, V; Penkova, S; Monov, A

    1989-01-01

    The characteristics of chronic pyelonephritis are studied in 37 patients out of a total of 53 patients with proved renal polycystosis. A group of 71 patients with chronic pyelonephritis selected at random are used as a control group. The frequency of chronic pyelonephritis among the patients with renal polycystosis is 69.8%. The difference between the mean age of the patients with renal polycystosis and chronic pyelonephritis and the patients with renal polycystosis without chronic pyelonephritis is 8.6 years. A significant difference is established between these two groups of patients concerning the frequency of symptomatic hypertension--89.2% for the patients with renal polycystosis and chronic pyelonephritis and 45% for the patients with uncomplicated renal polycystosis. A similar difference is established also for the renal failure--respectively 64.9% and 37.5%. The frequency of hypertension and chronic renal failure is lower in the control group of patients. 59% of the patients with renal polycystosis and chronic pyelonephritis have significant bacteriuria, E. coli and Proteus being the most frequently isolated bacteria but Pseudomonas shows the highest drug resistance. The isolated bacteria are most sensitive to nitroxoline and aminoglycoside antibiotics.

  6. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reductio...

  7. Mozart's chronic subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M E

    1993-11-01

    No commemoration of the bicentennial of Mozart's death would be complete without some consideration of that premature yet predictable demise. Mozart's premonitions of death are well known and apparently played a role in the composition of the K.626 Requiem and perhaps other works. His death has traditionally been ascribed to infectious causes, chiefly rheumatic fever or post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, exacerbated by intemperance and chronic penury. Pathology has been difficult because of his supposed burial in a pauper's grave, the location and contents of which were later supposedly lost. Mozart's burial place in St. Mark's Cemetery in Vienna was known and, in the parlance of the day, "reorganized" a decade later, as the occupants of plots were disinterred to make room for the more recently decreased. A skull believed to the Mozart's was saved by the successor of the gravedigger who had supervised Mozart's burial, and then passed into the collections of the anatomist Josef Hyrtl, the municipality of Salzburg, and the Mozarteum museum (Salzburg). Forensic reconstruction of soft tissues related to this skull reveals substantial concordance with Mozart's portraits. The skull suggests premature closure of the metopic suture, which has been suggested on the basis of his physiognomy. A left temporal fracture and concomitant erosions raise the question of chronic subdural hematoma, which would be consistent with several falls in 1789 and 1790 and could have caused the weakness, headaches, and fainting he experienced in 1790 and 1791. Aggressive bloodletting to treat suspected rheumatic fever could have decompensated such a lesion to produce his death on December 5, 1791.

  8. [Conservative therapy of chronic sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Michael; Reiss, Gilfe

    2012-01-01

    The chronic rhinosinusitis is defined as chronic inflammation of the nose and nasal sinuses, with or without nasal polyps. Patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis report about nasal obstruction and secretion, olfactory impairment, head and facial pain. These symptoms cause also considerable impact on quality of life. Therefore, an adequate rhinological diagnostics as well as therapies are essential. This paper reviews the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapy of chronic rhinosinusitis. First choice of therapy should be topical glucocorticoids. The application of glucocorticoids causes anti-inflammatory and certain curative effects. Hypertonic salt solutions improve nasal symptoms. Long-term therapy with oral macrolides might improve median to severe symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps. An additional therapy with antihistamines is possible in patients with an allergy. Adaptive desensitization in patients suffering from analgesic-intolerance associating among other with nasal polyps is currently the single causal therapy. Therefore, frequency of endonasal revision surgery is reduced after desensitization.

  9. Understanding anemia of chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Paula G

    2015-01-01

    The anemia of chronic disease is an old disease concept, but contemporary research in the role of proinflammatory cytokines and iron biology has shed new light on the pathophysiology of the condition. Recent epidemiologic studies have connected the anemia of chronic disease with critical illness, obesity, aging, and kidney failure, as well as with the well-established associations of cancer, chronic infection, and autoimmune disease. Functional iron deficiency, mediated principally by the interaction of interleukin-6, the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, and the iron exporter ferroportin, is a major contributor to the anemia of chronic disease. Although anemia is associated with adverse outcomes, experimental models suggest that iron sequestration is desirable in the setting of severe infection. Experimental therapeutic approaches targeting interleukin-6 or the ferroportin-hepcidin axis have shown efficacy in reversing anemia in either animal models or human patients, although these agents have not yet been approved for the treatment of the anemia of chronic disease.

  10. Microbial Biofilms and Chronic Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Amin; Wright, J. Barry; Schultz, Gregory; Burrell, Robert; Nadworny, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Background is provided on biofilms, including their formation, tolerance mechanisms, structure, and morphology within the context of chronic wounds. The features of biofilms in chronic wounds are discussed in detail, as is the impact of biofilm on wound chronicity. Difficulties associated with the use of standard susceptibility tests (minimum inhibitory concentrations or MICs) to determine appropriate treatment regimens for, or develop new treatments for use in, chronic wounds are discussed, with alternate test methods specific to biofilms being recommended. Animal models appropriate for evaluating biofilm treatments are also described. Current and potential future therapies for treatment of biofilm-containing chronic wounds, including probiotic therapy, virulence attenuation, biofilm phenotype expression attenuation, immune response suppression, and aggressive debridement combined with antimicrobial dressings, are described. PMID:28272369

  11. Adjusting to Chronic Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Zajdel, Melissa

    2017-01-03

    Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Then we review categories of factors that influence how one adjusts to chronic illness, with particular emphasis on the impact of these factors on functional status and psychosocial adjustment. We begin with contextual factors, including demographic variables such as sex and race, as well as illness dimensions such as stigma and illness identity. We then examine a set of dispositional factors that influence chronic illness adjustment, organizing these into resilience and vulnerability factors. Resilience factors include cognitive adaptation indicators, personality variables, and benefit-finding. Vulnerability factors include a pessimistic attributional style, negative gender-related traits, and rumination. We then turn to social environmental variables, including both supportive and unsupportive interactions. Finally, we review chronic illness adjustment within the context of dyadic coping. We conclude by examining potential interactions among these classes of variables and outlining a set of directions for future research.

  12. Common Questions About Chronic Prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James D; Garrett, W Allan; McCurry, Tyler K; Teichman, Joel M H

    2016-02-15

    Chronic prostatitis is relatively common, with a lifetime prevalence of 1.8% to 8.2%. Risk factors include conditions that facilitate introduction of bacteria into the urethra and prostate (which also predispose the patient to urinary tract infections) and conditions that can lead to chronic neuropathic pain. Chronic prostatitis must be differentiated from other causes of chronic pelvic pain, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and pelvic floor dysfunction; prostate and bladder cancers; benign prostatic hyperplasia; urolithiasis; and other causes of dysuria, urinary frequency, and nocturia. The National Institutes of Health divides prostatitis into four syndromes: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP)/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS), and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. CBP and CNP/CPPS both lead to pelvic pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. CBP presents as recurrent urinary tract infections with the same organism identified on repeated cultures; it responds to a prolonged course of an antibiotic that adequately penetrates the prostate, if the urine culture suggests sensitivity. If four to six weeks of antibiotic therapy is effective but symptoms recur, another course may be prescribed, perhaps in combination with alpha blockers or nonopioid analgesics. CNP/CPPS, accounting for more than 90% of chronic prostatitis cases, presents as prostatic pain lasting at least three months without consistent culture results. Weak evidence supports the use of alpha blockers, pain medications, and a four- to six-week course of antibiotics for the treatment of CNP/CPPS. Patients may also be referred to a psychologist experienced in managing chronic pain. Experts on this condition recommend a combination of treatments tailored to the patient's phenotypic presentation. Urology referral should be considered when appropriate treatment is ineffective. Additional treatments include pelvic

  13. Multimodal Treatment of Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Rebecca; Stacey, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with chronic pain receive multimodal treatment. There is scant literature to guide us, but when approaching combination pharmacotherapy, the practitioner and patient must weigh the benefits with the side effects; many medications have modest effect yet carry significant side effects that can be additive. Chronic pain often leads to depression, anxiety, and deconditioning, which are targets for treatment. Structured interdisciplinary programs are beneficial but costly. Interventions have their place in the treatment of chronic pain and should be a part of a multidisciplinary treatment plan. Further research is needed to validate many common combination treatments.

  14. Laryngeal hypersensitivity in chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J H; Menon, A

    2015-12-01

    Patients with chronic cough often report symptoms arising in the throat, in response to non-specific stimuli. Accordingly, the concept of a 'hypersensitivity' of the larynx in chronic cough has evolved over the past ten years. Patients with cough and laryngeal hypersensitivity frequently report features that overlap other laryngeal dysfunction syndromes, including a tendency for the vocal cords to inappropriately adduct. The mechanisms underlying laryngeal hypersensitivity in chronic cough are currently unclear, however recent studies provide new clinical and physiological techniques to aid detection and monitoring of laryngeal hypersensitivity. This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge in this field.

  15. [Chronic pain in geriatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennes, B

    2001-06-01

    Pain is frequent in communicative or no-communicative, ambulatory, institutionalized or hospitalized veterans. It is associated with severe comorbidity so much more than chronic pain could be neglected and expressed of atypical manner or masked by the absence of classical symptoms in particular in case of dementia or of sensory disorders. Pain detection by clinic examination or by pain assessment's methods and adequate approach by pharmacological and non pharmacological therapies are essential for correct pain management. On pharmacological plan, the strategy of the O.M.S. landings is applicable owing to a more particular attention to secondary effects and drugs interactions. AINS must be manipulated with prudence. There are no reasons to exclude opioides from the therapeutic arsenal but with a reduction of the starting doses, a regular adaptation and a very attentive survey. In drugs of landing 2, tramadol reveals itself as efficient and better tolerated as the codeine and dextropropoxyphene has to be to avoid. The obtaining of a satisfactory result depends on a regular assessment of the pain in a context of polydisciplinar approach (physicians, nurses, paramedicals, other care givers).

  16. [Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F; Eckardt, A; Kessler, S

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a detailed description of the so-called "chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis" (CRMO). The clinical, radiological and histopathological results of an analysis of 29 cases (15 children/adolescents and 14 adults) are presented and correlated to current data from the literature. We could delinate the following points: 1. CRMO is a systemic aseptic inflammation of the bone marrow (Osteitis), it can occur polytopically and association with pustulous dermatologic symptoms is possible. 2. It is not a rare disease 3. Osteomyelitis is probably "reactive" and a plasma-cell sclerotic process with ist own characteristic histologic three-phase course. 4. We could observe 5 specific types of localization which can be documented by X-ray or bone scan. 5. Accompanying arthritis os often present, especially "sympathetic coxitis". 6. The use of drugs in treatment of CRMO (i.e. azithromycin, calcitonin, and bisphosphonates) is discussed. In conclusion we want to point out, that 1. 99mTC bone scan should always be performed when there is suspicion for CRMO to reveal the pattern of affection, 2. the rheumatologist and dermatologist should be contacted, 3. operation is normally not necessary for treatment of the mostly self-limitin disease, and 4. the term "SAPHO syndrome" should be avoided, further differentiation of the diagnosis is necessary.

  17. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Marion R; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V

    2013-01-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an autoinflammatory bone disease occurring primarily in children and adolescents. Episodes of systemic inflammation occur due to immune dysregulation without autoantibodies, pathogens or antigen-specific T cells. CRMO is characterised by the insidious onset of pain with swelling and tenderness over the affected bones. Clavicular involvement was the classical description; however, the metaphyses and epiphyses of long bones are frequently affected. Lesions may occur in any bone, including vertebrae. Characteristic imaging includes bone oedema, lytic areas, periosteal reaction and soft tissue reaction. Biopsies from affected areas display polymorphonuclear leucocytes with osteoclasts and necrosis in the early stages. Subsequently, lymphocytes and plasma cells predominate followed by fibrosis and signs of reactive new bone forming around the inflammation. Diagnosis is facilitated by the use of STIR MRI scanning, potentially obviating the need for biopsy and unnecessary long-term antibiotics due to incorrect diagnosis. Treatment options include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bisphosphonates. Biologics have been tried in resistant cases with promising initial results. Gene identification has not proved easy although research in this area continues. Early descriptions of the disease suggested a benign course; however, longer-term follow up shows that it can cause significant morbidity and longer-term disability. Although it has always been thought of as very rare, the prevalence is likely to be vastly underestimated due to poor recognition of the disease.

  18. Chronic allograft nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivel, Nidyanandh; Tullius, Stefan G; Chandraker, Anil

    2007-07-01

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) remains the Achilles heel of renal transplantation. In spite of the significant strides achieved in one-year renal allograft survival with newer immunosuppressant strategies, the fate of long-term renal allograft survival remains unchanged. The number of renal transplant recipients returning to dialysis has doubled in the past decade. This is especially important since these patients pose a significantly increased likelihood of dying while on the waiting list for retransplantation, due to increasing disparity between donor organ availability versus demand and longer waiting time secondary to heightened immunologic sensitization from their prior transplants. In this review we analyze the latest literature in detail and discuss the definition, natural history, pathophysiology, alloantigen dependent and independent factors that play a crucial role in CAN and the potential newer therapeutic targets on the horizon. This article highlights the importance of early identification and careful management of all the potential contributing factors with particular emphasis on prevention rather than cure of CAN as the core management strategy.

  19. Economics of Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an updated review of the economic burden of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and discuss how both medical and surgical interventions impact direct and indirect costs related to CRS. By understanding the economics of CRS, clinicians may improve the patient-centeredness of their care and help distinguish between low and high value interventions. Direct costs related to CRS are primarily driven by outpatient physician visits, prescription medical therapy, and endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). CRS produces large indirect costs and these costs often vary based on the severity of the patients CRS-specific QoL impairment. The overall direct cost related to CRS is estimated to range between $10 and $13 billion per year in the USA. The overall indirect cost related to CRS-related losses in work productivity is estimated to be in excess of $20 billion per year. In the appropriate patients with refractory CRS, ESS provides significant reductions in both direct and indirect costs; however, continued medical therapy alone may be a high value intervention in select patients who have lower severity in their baseline QoL and work productivity.

  20. [Chronic ataxia in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erazo Torricelli, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Chronic ataxias are an heterogeneous group of disorders that affect the child at different ages. Thus, the congenital forms, generally non progressive are observed from first months of life and are expressed by hypotonia and motor delay long before the ataxia became evident. The cerebral magnetic resonance images (MRI) may be diagnostic in some pictures like Joubert syndrome. The group of progressive hereditary ataxias, usually begin after the infant period. The clinical signs are gait instability and ocular apraxia that can be associated with oculocutaneous telangiectasias (ataxia-telangiesctasia) or with sensory neuropathy (Friedreich ataxia). In this review are briefly described congenital ataxias and in more detailed form the progressive hereditary ataxias autosomal recessive, autosomal dominants and mitochondrials. The importance of genetic study is emphasized, because it is the key to obtain the diagnosis in the majority of these diseases. Although now there are no treatments for the majority of progressive hereditary ataxias, some they have like Refsum disease, vitamine E deficiency, Coenzyme Q10 deficiency and others, thus the diagnosis in these cases is even more important. At present the diagnosis of childhood hereditary ataxia not yet treatable is fundamental to obtain suitable handling, determine a precise outcome and to give to the family an opportune genetic counseling.

  1. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipps, Thomas J.; Stevenson, Freda K.; Wu, Catherine J.; Croce, Carlo M.; Packham, Graham; Wierda, William G.; O’Brien, Susan; Gribben, John; Rai, Kanti

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a malignancy of CD5+ B cells that is characterized by the accumulation of small, mature-appearing lymphocytes in the blood, marrow and lymphoid tissues. Signalling via surface immunoglobulin, which constitutes the major part of the B cell receptor, and several genetic alterations play a part in CLL pathogenesis, in addition to interactions between CLL cells and other cell types, such as stromal cells, T cells and nurse-like cells in the lymph nodes. The clinical progression of CLL is heterogeneous and ranges from patients who require treatment soon after diagnosis to others who do not require therapy for many years, if at all. Several factors, including the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene (IGHV) mutational status, genomic changes, patient age and the presence of comorbidities, should be considered when defining the optimal management strategies, which include chemotherapy, chemoimmunotherapy and/or drugs targeting B cell receptor signalling or inhibitors of apoptosis, such as BCL-2. Research on the biology of CLL has profoundly enhanced our ability to identify patients who are at higher risk for disease progression and our capacity to treat patients with drugs that selectively target distinctive phenotypic or physiological features of CLL. How these and other advances have shaped our current understanding and treatment of patients with CLL is the subject of this Primer. PMID:28102226

  2. Organophosphate induced chronic neurotoxicity: Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organophosphate induced chronic neurotoxicity: Health, environmental and risk exposure issues in developing nations of the world. ... show that many agents considered toxic and banned in many parts of the industrialized world are still in ...

  3. Chronic Conditions among Medicare Beneficiaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The data used in the chronic condition reports are based upon CMS administrative enrollment and claims data for Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in the...

  4. Nitazoxanide for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, Kristiana; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C infection is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. The estimated number of chronically infected people with hepatitis C virus worldwide is about 150 million people. Every year, another three to four million people acquire the infection. Chronic hepatitis C......) and ribavirin was the approved standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. In 2011, first-generation direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been licensed, for use in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin for treating hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Nitazoxanide is another antiviral drug with broad...... antiviral activity and may have potential as an effective alternative, or an addition to standard treatment for the treatment of the hepatitis C virus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nitazoxanide in people with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane...

  5. Tai chi and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Philip W H

    2012-01-01

    In the last 2 decades, a growing body of research aimed at investigating the health benefits of Tai Chi in various chronic health conditions has been recognized in the literature. This article reviewed the history, the philosophy, and the evidence for the role of Tai Chi in a few selected chronic pain conditions. The ancient health art of Tai Chi contributes to chronic pain management in 3 major areas: adaptive exercise, mind-body interaction, and meditation. Trials examining the health benefit of Tai Chi in chronic pain conditions are mostly low quality. Only 5 pain conditions were reviewed: osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, low back pain, and headache. Of these, Tai Chi seems to be an effective intervention in osteoarthritis, low back pain, and fibromyalgia. The limitations of the Tai Chi study design and suggestions for the direction of future research are also discussed.

  6. Chronic diseases in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Wraae, Kristian; Gudex, Claire

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: prevalence estimates for chronic diseases and associated risk factors are needed for priority setting and disease prevention strategies. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the self-reported and clinical prevalence of common chronic disorders in elderly men. STUDY......-reported data on risk factors and disease prevalence were compared with data from hospital medical records. RESULTS: physical inactivity, smoking and excessive alcohol intake were reported by 27, 22 and 17% of the study population, respectively. Except for diabetes, all the chronic diseases investigated......: the study showed a high prevalence of detrimental life style factors including smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and physical inactivity in elderly Danish men. Except for diabetes and respiratory disease, chronic diseases were underreported and in particular erectile dysfunction and osteoporosis were...

  7. Treatment of chronic inflammatory neuropathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Eftimov

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the efficacy of existing and alternative treatments in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and explores predictors of treatment response in patients with CIDP treated with corticosteroids. The efficacy of intra

  8. Pregnancy and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, John M; Lindheimer, Marshall D

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the association of chronic renal disease and pregnancy. Included are discussions of guidelines for counseling pregnant women with underlying chronic renal disease who are considering conceiving as well as management of those already pregnant. Specifically highlighted are recent studies that question the validity of using estimated glomerular filtration rate and other formulae and questions of whether we should strive to replace the classic counseling approaches based primarily on serum creatinine levels with guidelines based on chronic kidney disease classification. The article concludes with a review as well as a critique of recent research on the prevalence of preeclampsia in women with underlying chronic renal disease, as well as if women with preeclampsia and underlying kidney disease have accelerated courses toward end-stage renal disease.

  9. chronic diseases in northwest Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chronic diseases (tuberculosis, diabetes, epilepsy, asthma, 'hypertension, congestive heart failure and other cardiovascular ... non-compliance with medications prescribed for patients with ... 68% after 3 weeks of treatment, but this percentage ...

  10. Trulance Approved for Chronic Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163171.html Trulance Approved for Chronic Constipation Drug designed to stimulate upper gastrointestinal tract To ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat persistent constipation of unknown (idiopathic) cause in adults. Some 42 ...

  11. CCR2 knockout exacerbates cerulein-induced chronic pancreatitis with hyperglycemia via decreased GLP-1 receptor expression and insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuji; Kanai, Takanori; Saeki, Keita; Takabe, Miho; Irie, Junichiro; Miyoshi, Jun; Mikami, Yohei; Teratani, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Takahiro; Miyata, Naoteru; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Nakamoto, Nobuhiro; Yamagishi, Yoshiyuki; Higuchi, Hajime; Ebinuma, Hirotoshi; Hozawa, Shigenari; Saito, Hidetsugu; Itoh, Hiroshi; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2013-04-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) promotes insulin release; however, the relationship between the GLP-1 signal and chronic pancreatitis is not well understood. Here we focus on chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and its receptor (CCR2) axis, which regulates various immune cells, including macrophages, to clarify the mechanism of GLP-1-mediated insulin secretion in chronic pancreatitis in mice. One and multiple series of repetitive cerulein administrations were used to induce acute and chronic cerulein pancreatitis, respectively. Acute cerulein-administered CCR2-knockout (KO) mice showed suppressed infiltration of CD11b(+)Gr-1(low) macrophages and pancreatic inflammation and significantly upregulated insulin secretion compared with paired wild-type (WT) mice. However, chronic cerulein-administered CCR2-KO mice showed significantly increased infiltration of CD11b(+)/Gr-1(-) and CD11b(+)/Gr-1(high) cells, but not CD11b(+)/Gr-1(low) cells, in pancreas with severe inflammation and significantly decreased insulin secretion compared with their WT counterparts. Furthermore, although serum GLP-1 levels in chronic cerulein-administered WT and CCR2-KO mice were comparably upregulated after cerulein administrations, GLP-1 receptor levels in pancreases of chronic cerulein-administered CCR2-KO mice were significantly lower than in paired WT mice. Nevertheless, a significantly higher hyperglycemia level in chronic cerulein-administered CCR2-KO mice was markedly restored by treatment with a GLP-1 analog to a level comparable to the paired WT mice. Collectively, the CCR2/CCL2 axis-mediated CD11b(+)-cell migration to the pancreas is critically involved in chronic pancreatitis-mediated hyperglycemia through the modulation of GLP-1 receptor expression and insulin secretion.

  12. [Symptomatic approach to chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavierre, D; Rigaud, J; Sibert, L; Labat, J-J

    2010-11-01

    To review the diagnosis and pathogenesis of chronic prostatitis (CP) and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS). A review of the literature was performed by searching the Medline database (National Library of Medicine). Search terms were either medical subject heading (MeSH) keywords (microbiology, pelvic pain, prostatitis) or terms derived from the title or abstract. Search terms were used alone or in combinations by using the "AND" operator. The literature search was conducted from 1990 to the present time. Chronic bacterial prostatitis is a chronic, recurrent bacterial infection of the prostate, accounting for about 5 to 10% of all cases of chronic prostatitis (CP). CPPS is nonbacterial genitourinary pelvic pain present for at least 3 months, sometimes associated with sexual and voiding disorders. Although the prostate does not appear to be involved in all cases of chronic pelvic pain in men, the term CP usually remains associated with CPPS (CP/CPPS). CP/CPPS has a negative impact on quality of life. The precise pathogenesis of CP/CPPS has not been elucidated, but prostatic infection and inflammation could be involved, not as direct causes, but as initiating factors of a neurological hypersensitization phenomenon. Evaluation of CP/CPPS comprises clinical interview completed by the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index questionnaire (NIH-CPSI), physical examination, urine culture and uroflowmetry combined with determination of the post-voiding residual volume. The other investigations are optional and are designed to exclude other urological diagnoses. The Meares-Stamey four-glass test should be abandoned in favour of a simplified test comprising urine analysis before and after prostatic massage. However, the indications for this test are limited to patients in whom chronic bacterial prostatitis is suspected or with bacteriuria on urine culture. Chronic bacterial prostatitis represents only about 5 to 10% of all cases of CP. The usual

  13. Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Oyvind; Würtz, Else Toft; Aasen, Tor Børvig

    2014-01-01

    Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures.......Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures....

  14. The Ubiquity of Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Claudia; Fleischer, Soraya; Rui, Taniele

    2016-01-01

    This is a review of five different books dealing with some aspect of what might be termed a "chronic illness" - Alzheimer's disease, lupus, addiction, erectile dysfunction, and leprosy. The array of different subjects examined in these books points to the negotiable limits of this hugely open category. What exactly constitutes an "illness"? Why not use a less biomedical term instead: "disturbance", "problem", or simply "condition"? And how are we to understand "chronic" - simply as the flipside of "acute" or "curable"?

  15. Pregabalin for chronic prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboumarzouk, Omar M; Nelson, Richard L

    2012-08-15

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a condition that is detrimental to the quality of life of men. Evidence suggests that it may have a neuropathic origin and therefore medications such as pregabalin might have a role in the controlling of symptoms. The primary objective was to compare pregabalin to other modalities of pain relief to alleviate men's symptoms of CP/CPPS.The secondary objective was to assess the safety and effectiveness of pregabalin to improve various individual symptoms consistent with CP/CPPS. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (1966 to May 2012), EMBASE (1980 to May 2012), CINAHL, clinicaltrials.gov, Google Scholar, and reference lists of articles and abstracts from conference proceedings, without language restriction for pregabalin treatment of Class III prostatitis and CP/CPPS. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing pregabalin to placebo or other types of analgesics for the management of patients with CP/CPPS were included. Patients with known causes of pain/discomfort were excluded. Only one RCT was included. The trial compared pregabalin to placebo for patients who had CP/CPPS. For men who responded clinically (≥ 6-point improvement), there was no difference between the pregabalin (103/218; 47.2%) and placebo (38/106; 35.8%) arms (risk ratio (RR) 1.32; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.76). There was less pain with a higher point improvement in the pregabalin group compared to the placebo group (4.2 points versus 1.7 points, respectively; mean difference (MD) -2.3 points; 95% CI -4.0 to -0.7 points).Though 59% (191/324) of the patients developed side effects, no serious effects were experienced. There were significantly more neurologic side effects in the pregabalin group compared to the placebo group (38.5% (84/218) versus 22.6% (24/106), respectively; RR 1.7; 95% CI 1.15 to 2.51), and less pain in the pregabalin group than in the placebo group (17.4% (38/218) versus 33.3% (35

  16. Chronic intussuception due to ileocaecal tuberculosis in a young adult with severe anemia: Case report with literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Intestinal intussuception in an adult is a rare entity that differs in etiology from its pediatric counterpart owing to underlying pathologic lead points in adults, mostly neoplasms. The main clinical presentation in chronic intussuception in adults remains dull abdominal pain, and acute intussuception is uncommon. Computed tomography (CT remains the diagnostic modality of choice and surgical resection is the optimal treatment. Case Report : We report a case of chronic intussuception in a young adult presenting with severe anemia and chronic abdominal pain in right hypochondrium and lumbar region. Pre operative diagnosis of chronic ileocolocolic intussuception was made on the basis of ultrasound, barium and CT scan findings. Exploratory laparotomy was done and right hemicolectomy with end to end anastomosis was performed. Histopathological examination of resected specimen revealed presence of tuberculosis in the mass along with mesenteric lymph nodes involvement. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and he was put on antitubercular drugs. In follow-up the patient is asymptomatic. Conclusion : Chronic ileocolocolic intussuception due to tuberculosis should be considered as a possible cause of intestinal obstruction in young patients presenting with vague abdominal pain and severe anemia even in the absence of any specific medical history.

  17. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bergh, Peter Y K; Rajabally, Yusuf A

    2013-06-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common autoimmune neuropathy. The diagnosis depends on the clinical presentation with a progressive or relapsing course over at least 2 months and electrophysiological evidence of primary demyelination. Whereas typical CIDP is quite easily recognizable because virtually no other neuropathies present with both distal and proximal motor and sensory deficit, atypical CIDP, focal and multifocal variants in particular, may represent a difficult diagnostic challenge. CIDP very likely is an underdiagnosed condition as suggested also by a positive correlation between prevalence rates and sensitivity of electrophysiological criteria. Since no 'gold standard' diagnostic marker exists, electrophysiological criteria have been optimized to be at the same time as sensitive and as specific as possible. Additional supportive laboratory features, such as increased spinal fluid protein, MRI abnormalities of nerve segments, and in selected cases nerve biopsy lead to the correct diagnosis in the large majority of the cases. Objective clinical improvement following immune therapy is also a useful parameter to confirm the diagnosis. The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of CIDP remain poorly understood, but the available evidence for an inflammatory origin is quite convincing. Steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and plasma exchange (PE) have been proven to be effective treatments. IVIG usually leads to rapid improvement, which is useful in severely disabled patients. Repeat treatment over regular time intervals for many years is often necessary. The effect of steroids is slower and the side-effect profile may be problematic, but they may induce disease remission more frequently than IVIG. An important and as of yet uncompletely resolved issue is the evaluation of long-term outcome to determine whether the disease is still active and responsive to treatment.

  18. CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetislav Kostić

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of chronic renal failure (CRF is already known for more than 150 years. Current research in this domain changed our understanding in epidemiology, aetiology, prevention of disease progression, classifications, definition, and adequate treatment of comorbid conditions in predialytic period. With data collection and registration on CRF patients it is obvious an increase in prevalence and incidence of patients with CRF in the world. The diabetic nephropathy is the most common disease leading in 40% of cases to terminal CRF. In the follow up of these patients the most important goal is slowing down the disease progression with low protein diet (0,6-0,8 g/kg BW/day and vigorous blood pressure control (target values: 120-135/75-85 mmHg. The adequate therapy of anaemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism including predialytic use of erythopoietin and vitamin D significantly slow down the progression of CRF and postpones the beginning of dialytic treatment. Numerous comorbid conditions present in predialytic period fasten the progression of CRF. The most common are of cardiovascular origin (congestive heart failure and coronary artery disease. Those cardiovascular comorbid conditions have an impact on CRF progresion as well as on the outcome in dialytic therapy. The most common causes of cardiovascular comorbidity are hypertension, anemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism, all of which should be treated in predialytic period. Of special concern is use of nephrotoxic drugs, particularly nephrotoxic antibioticsaminoglycosides. The optimal timing of creation of permanent vascular access and vaccination against hepatitis B in predialytic period are cost-effective and have an impact on quality of dialysis.

  19. Chronic Constipation: Current Treatment Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Wing Cheong Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic constipation is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects patients of all ages. In 2007, a consensus group of 10 Canadian gastroenterologists developed a set of recommendations pertaining to the management of chronic constipation and constipation-dominant irritable bowel syndrome. Since then, tegaserod has been withdrawn from the Canadian market. A new, highly selective serotonin receptor subtype 4 agonist, prucalopride, has been examined in several large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating its efficacy and safety in the management of patients with chronic constipation. Additional studies evaluating the use of stimulant laxatives, polyethylene glycol and probiotics in the management of chronic constipation have also been published. The present review summarizes the previous recommendations and new evidence supporting different treatment modalities – namely, diet and lifestyle, bulking agents, stool softeners, osmotic and stimulant laxatives, prucalopride and probiotics in the management of chronic constipation. A brief summary of lubiprostone and linaclotide is also presented. The quality of evidence is presented by adopting the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Finally, a management pyramid for patients with chronic constipation is proposed based on the quality of evidence, impact of each modality on constipation and on general health, and their availabilities in Canada.

  20. Neurovascular Unit in Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Mihaela Radu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with major socioeconomic impact, whose neurobiological basis is still not clear. An involvement of the neurovascular unit (NVU has been recently proposed. In particular, the blood-brain barrier (BBB and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB, two NVU key players, may be affected during the development of chronic pain; in particular, transient permeabilization of the barrier is suggested by several inflammatory- and nerve-injury-based pain models, and we argue that the clarification of molecular BBB/BSCB permeabilization events will shed new light in understanding chronic pain mechanisms. Possible biases in experiments supporting this theory and its translational potentials are discussed. Moving beyond an exclusive focus on the role of the endothelium, we propose that our understanding of the mechanisms subserving chronic pain will benefit from the extension of research efforts to the NVU as a whole. In this view, the available evidence on the interaction between analgesic drugs and the NVU is here reviewed. Chronic pain comorbidities, such as neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, are also discussed in view of NVU changes, together with innovative pharmacological solutions targeting NVU components in chronic pain treatment.

  1. Chronic Cough in Otorhinolaryngologic Routine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palheta Neto, Francisco Xavier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The chronic cough is sometimes manifested as an imprecise symptom, but of great importance for both the diagnosis and the prognosis. In an otorhinolaryngologic approach, several illnesses that can occur with it can be numbered, including 2 of the 3 main causes of chronic cough. Objective: To identify the main otorhinolaryngologic diseases showing the chronic cough as one of their manifestations. Method: A literature's revision was performed in several scientific articles, specialized books and consultation in Birene and Scielo databases. Literature's revision: cough production in the upper airways is usually associated with an inflammatory reaction by stimulating sensitive receptors of these areas or by mechanic stimulus. The main cause of the chronic cough in the otorhinolaryngology day-to-day is the post-nasal drip, gathering together by itself 02 of the most common diseases: rhinitis and sinusitis. Laryngitis as a result of gastroesophageal reflux (GER stands out in the index of chronic cough etiology, but it is not as severe as GER . Neoplasias are also somewhat frequent causes of cough, and the difficulty in diagnosing the cough cause is common in this disease group. Motility disorder, laryngeal irritation persistence, parasitic disease and injuries by inhalation of toxic products were also found as a cause of cough for longer than 03 months. Conclusion:Chronic cough is a frequent and important finding in otorhinolaryngology and cannot be underestimated, and a careful anamnesis is the best way to determine the etiology and perform a correct treatment for the patient's disease.

  2. Latest advances in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrique Domínguez-Muñoz, J

    2016-09-01

    This article summarizes some of the recent and clinically relevant advances in chronic pancreatitis. These advances mainly concern the definition of the disease, the etiological diagnosis of idiopathic disease, the correlation between fibrosis degree and pancreatic secretion in the early stages of chronic pancreatitis, the treatment of the disease and of pain, the clinical relevance of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, and the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. A new mechanistic definition of chronic pancreatitis has been proposed. Genetic testing is mainly of help in patients with relapsing idiopathic pancreatitis. A significant correlation has been shown between the degree of pancreatic fibrosis as evaluated by elastography and pancreatic secretion of bicarbonate. New data supports the efficacy of antioxidants and simvastatin for the therapy of chronic pancreatitis. The pancreatoscopy-guided intraductal lithotripsy is an effective alternative to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with chronic calcifying pancreatitis. The presence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in patients with chronic pancreatitis is associated with a significant risk of cardiovascular events. Fine needle biopsy and contrast enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography are of help for the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis and its differential diagnosis with pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Neurovascular Unit in Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Bramanti, Placido; Osculati, Francesco; Flonta, Maria-Luisa; Radu, Mihai; Bertini, Giuseppe; Fabene, Paolo Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with major socioeconomic impact, whose neurobiological basis is still not clear. An involvement of the neurovascular unit (NVU) has been recently proposed. In particular, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB), two NVU key players, may be affected during the development of chronic pain; in particular, transient permeabilization of the barrier is suggested by several inflammatory- and nerve-injury-based pain models, and we argue that the clarification of molecular BBB/BSCB permeabilization events will shed new light in understanding chronic pain mechanisms. Possible biases in experiments supporting this theory and its translational potentials are discussed. Moving beyond an exclusive focus on the role of the endothelium, we propose that our understanding of the mechanisms subserving chronic pain will benefit from the extension of research efforts to the NVU as a whole. In this view, the available evidence on the interaction between analgesic drugs and the NVU is here reviewed. Chronic pain comorbidities, such as neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, are also discussed in view of NVU changes, together with innovative pharmacological solutions targeting NVU components in chronic pain treatment. PMID:23840097

  4. [Chronic respiratory insufficiency in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chailleux, E; Boffa, C

    2001-05-31

    The data concerning the prevalence of chronic respiratory insufficiency (CRI) in France are scarce: in 1994 official numbers were 14,000 deaths due to chronic bronchitis, 2,000 due to asthma for a total number of 40,000 deaths with respiratory cause; the same year 27,000 new patients were compensated for chronic respiratory insufficiency by social security services. On January 1st 2000 the non-profit organizations was in charge of 21,500 patients with long term oxygen therapy and 10,500 with home ventilation, and the commercial companies respectively 30,000 and 6,000. Accordingly the total of patients treated at home for CRI is about 68,000. The repartition by cause of CRI, the characteristics of patients and the prognosis can be evaluated thanks to the ANTADIR observatory which collects medical data since 1981. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, bronchiectasis) count for more than half of the total of cases. Other causes comprise pleuro-parietal diseases (tuberculosis sequelae, kyphoscoliosis), neuro-muscular diseases and interstitial lung diseases. CRI is a severe disease with a survival median of three years for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and a prognosis slightly better for kyphoscoliosis and neuro-muscular diseases, and worse for pulmonary fibrosis.

  5. Effect of surface reactions on steel, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} counterparts on their tribological performance with polytetrafluoroethylene filled composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J.T.; Top, M. [Materials Innovation Institute M2i, Department of Applied Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Ivashenko, O.; Rudolf, P. [Department of Surfaces and Thin Films, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Pei, Y.T., E-mail: y.pei@rug.nl [Materials Innovation Institute M2i, Department of Applied Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Advanced Production Engineering, Engineering and Technology Institute Groningen, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); De Hosson, J.Th.M., E-mail: j.t.m.de.hosson@rug.nl [Materials Innovation Institute M2i, Department of Applied Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The influence of surface reactions with PTFE on the tribo-performance of different counterparts is revealed. • Experiments confirm that friction can be greatly reduced by two F-terminated surfaces sliding over each other. • Al−F and Fe−F chemical bonding form on the surface of alumina and steel counterpart balls during sliding against PTFE-containing composite. • No Si−F bonding formed on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ball under the same condition, leading to higher friction and wear. - Abstract: The influence of surface reactions on the tribo-performance of steel, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls sliding against polytetrafluoroethylene/SiO{sub 2}/epoxy composites was investigated. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ball were found to exhibit the best tribo-performance, namely a low coefficient of friction and the lowest wear rates of both the composites and the counterpart ball, when sliding against the PTFE filled composites. The difference in the tribo-performance of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ball and the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ball can neither be attributed to the different morphology of the worn composite surfaces nor to the amount of PTFE transferred onto the wear surfaces. Instead we found that the friction is greatly reduced in the case of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ball because two fluoro-terminated surfaces are sliding over each other; in fact, the formation of Al−F bonding was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  6. Comparing the management within the law of the Chinese travel agencies industry with that of their Japanese counterparts%中日旅行社业法制化管理的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏哲

    2000-01-01

    Abstract:By comparing the management of the Chinese travel agencies with that of their Japanese counterparts ,we draw the conclusion that the combination of the management within the law with the trade self-restraint is the inevitable trend for the steady and perfect developement of the travel agency industry.%研究中国和日本旅行社管理的异同,指出法制化管理和行业自律相结合是旅行社业持续健康发展的必然选择.

  7. [Chronic lymphatic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Manuela; Wendtner, Clemens-Martin

    2015-04-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common form of leukemia in the Western world. Median age at diagnosis is around 70 years. To confirm the diagnosis more than 5000 B-lymphocytes/µl need to be present. The expression of the typical surface markers CD5, CD19, CD20 and CD23 has to be confirmed by flow cytometry. A bone marrow biopsy is not mandatory for the diagnosis. Before start of treatment the assessment of 17 p deletion and/or TP53-mutational status is recommended. Treatment indications include stage Binet C or signs of an active disease as rapidly progressive lymphadenopathy or organomegaly together with physical limitation, B symptoms that cannot be tolerated, rapidly deteriorating blood values, or rapidly increasing leukocyte counts (Lymphocyte doubling time less than 6 months). The patient's physical condition has major impact on the treatment decision. Currently immunochemotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and the CD20-antibody rituximab (FCR) is the standard of care in previously untreated and physically fit patients. An alternative regimen is the combination of bendamustine and rituximab (BR) or ofatumumab. Physically compromised patients can be treated with the oral drug chlorambucil in combination with an anti-CD20 antibody. Due to high morbidity and mortality, allogeneic stem cell transplantation is limited to a small group of patients and should be discussed in a high-risk situation, such as 17 p deletion and/or TP53-mutation, lack of response to standard therapy or early relapse. Recently several new chemo-free treatment options have been introduced within clinical trials. Among them are monoclonal antibodies, most of them targeting the CD20 molecule: besides the licensed drugs rituximab and ofatumumab, obinutuzumab, in combination with chemotherapy, has recently shown high clinical efficacy in front-line treatment of elderly patients with CLL. Novel agents have been designed to block aberrant signaling from the B

  8. Chronic fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome: shifting boundaries and attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A R

    1998-09-28

    The subjective symptom of "fatigue" is one of the most widespread in the general population and is a major source of healthcare utilization. Prolonged fatigue is often associated with neuropsychological and musculoskeletal symptoms that form the basis of several syndromal diagnoses including chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and neurasthenia, and is clearly not simply the result of a lack of force generation from the muscle. Current epidemiologic research in this area relies predominantly on self-report data to document the prevalence and associations of chronic fatigue. Of necessity, this subjective data source gives rise to uncertain diagnostic boundaries and consequent divergent epidemiologic, clinical, and pathophysiologic research findings. This review will highlight the impact of the case definition and ascertainment methods on the varying prevalence estimates of chronic fatigue syndrome and patterns of reported psychological comorbidty. It will also evaluate the evidence for a true postinfective fatigue syndrome.

  9. Chronic Achilles Tendon Disorders: Tendinopathy and Chronic Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, Nicola; Via, Alessio Giai; Oliva, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon involves clinical conditions in and around the tendon and it is the result of a failure of a chronic healing response. Although several conservative therapeutic options have been proposed, few of them are supported by randomized controlled trials. The management is primarily conservative and many patients respond well to conservative measures. If clinical conditions do not improve after 6 months of conservative management, surgery is recommended. The management of chronic ruptures is different from that of acute ruptures. The optimal surgical procedure is still debated. In this article chronic Achilles tendon disorders are debated and evidence-based medicine treatment strategies are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between family members of dialysis patients and chronic kidney disease: a multicenter study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xianglei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family members of patients with end stage renal disease were reported to have an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, studies differentiated genetic and non-genetic family members are limited. We sought to investigate the prevalence of CKD among fist-degree relatives and spouses of dialysis patients in China. Methods Seventeen dialysis facilities from 4 cities of China including 1062 first-degree relatives and 450 spouses of dialysis patients were enrolled. Sex- and age- matched controls were randomly selected from a representative sample of general population in Beijing. CKD was defined as decreased estimated glomerular (eGFR 2 or albuminuria. Results The prevalence of eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, albuminuria and the overall prevalence of CKD in dialysis spouses were compared with their counterpart controls, which was 3.8% vs. 7.8% (P 2, albuminuria and the overall prevalence of CKD in dialysis relatives were also compared with their counterpart controls, which was 1.5% vs. 2.4% (P = 0.12, 14.4% vs. 8.4% (P  Conclusions The association between being family members of dialysis patients and presence of CKD is different between first-degree relatives and spouses. The underlying mechanisms deserve further investigation.

  11. Self-esteem in adolescents with chronic physical illness vs. controls in Northern Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zashikhina, Anna; Hagglof, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to study self-esteem in adolescents with diabetes, asthma and epilepsy; compare the results with those of the representative sample of healthy adolescents; and evaluate the predictive value of certain demographic, family-related, and disease-related factors on self-esteem. A total of 148 chronically ill adolescents and 301 matched healthy counterparts completed the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and the "I think I am" questionnaire. Adolescents' parents answered socio-economic status questions. Disease severity was evaluated by doctors of the outpatient clinic. Comparison analysis of the three disease groups revealed highest self-esteem perception in adolescents with diabetes, and lowest in adolescents with epilepsy. Unexpectedly, adolescents with diabetes scored higher than their healthy counterparts. There were no significant differences between the reports of adolescents with asthma and controls. In the epilepsy group, self-esteem was predicted mostly by disease severity and socio-economic status in diabetes and asthma groups, as well as by age and gender. The maintenance of positive self-esteem in adolescents with diabetes and asthma is a very reassuring finding. The other results of our study provide support for recognizing adolescents with epilepsy as a vulnerable group in the society. A multidisciplinary professional approach targeted on adolescents with epilepsy is needed, with focus on factors connected with maturation and gender issues.

  12. Clinical and histological characteristics of chronic hepatitis B with negative hepatitis B e-antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭劼; 骆抗先; 朱幼芙; 郭亚兵; 章廉; 侯金林

    2003-01-01

    Abstract:Objective To study the clinical and histological features of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with negative hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg). Methods A tatal of 743 in-patients with chronic hepatitis B were recruited into the study and divided into two groups according to the HBeAg status. The correlation among alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA semiquantification, and the liver histopathological data were dectected.Results Of the 743 successive in-patients, 267 (35.9%) were HBeAg-negative. The HBDAG-negative group had significantly lower serologic HBV DNA levels (63.0% of100 pg/ml, while 8.2% of them had HAIinf≥9 and 12.3% had HAIfib≥3 with HBV DNA<20 pg/ml, indicating an obverse correlation between HBV DNA levels and histology scores.Conclusions As regards clinical and histological background, the chronic HBeAg-negative hepatitis B is a different subpopulation from the HBeAg-positive counterpart.

  13. [Chronic polyradiculoneuritis and its frontiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, J M; Tabaraud, F; Magy, L; Macian, F

    2002-12-01

    The Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathies (CIDP) constitute a syndrome whose incidence is difficult to evaluate, and is probably underestimated. In the course of this presentation, we deliberately restricted discussion to issues raised in recent years concerning the extent of this syndrome. We discuss diagnostic criteria, especially electrophysiological ones. As the criteria proposed by the ad hoc committee of the American Academy of Neurology in 1991 have been questioned due to lack of sensitivity, new ones have been proposed recently. We briefly discuss the different types of chronic dysimmune demyelinating neuropathy: not only the CIDP, but also the Lewis and Sumner syndrome or multifocal inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy and the multiple conduction block neuropathies. At last, we point out the consistent finding of axonal involvement in the course of a chronic demyelinating neuropathy; over time, it can become pre-dominant, which may make diagnosis difficult by suggesting a chronic axonal neuropathy that may be assumed to be primary. Consideration of these points may help clinicians recognize more chronic dysimmune neuropathies, for which immunosuppressive therapy has been found to be effective.

  14. Periodontitis in Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A; Zugck, Christian; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2016-08-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases.

  15. Management of chronic refractory cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter G; Vertigan, Anne E

    2015-12-14

    Chronic refractory cough (CRC) is defined as a cough that persists despite guideline based treatment. It is seen in 20-46% of patients presenting to specialist cough clinics and it has a substantial impact on quality of life and healthcare utilization. Several terms have been used to describe this condition, including the recently introduced term cough hypersensitivity syndrome. Key symptoms include a dry irritated cough localized around the laryngeal region. Symptoms are not restricted to cough and can include globus, dyspnea, and dysphonia. Chronic refractory cough has factors in common with laryngeal hypersensitivity syndromes and chronic pain syndromes, and these similarities help to shed light on the pathophysiology of the condition. Its pathophysiology is complex and includes cough reflex sensitivity, central sensitization, peripheral sensitization, and paradoxical vocal fold movement. Chronic refractory cough often occurs after a viral infection. The diagnosis is made once the main diseases that cause chronic cough have been excluded (or treated) and cough remains refractory to medical treatment. Several treatments have been developed over the past decade. These include speech pathology interventions using techniques adapted from the treatment of hyperfunctional voice disorders, as well as the use of centrally acting neuromodulators such as gabapentin and pregabalin. Potential new treatments in development also show promise.

  16. [Latest advances in chronic pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

    2013-10-01

    This article summarizes some of the recent and clinically relevant advances in chronic pancreatitis. These advances mainly concern knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of the disease, the pharmacological treatment of pain, and knowledge of the natural history of autoimmune pancreatitis. New evidence supports the relatively low prevalence of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, and the role of tobacco in triggering the etiopathogenic mechanisms of chronic pancreatitis is better understood. Some studies have identified certain factors that are associated with having a positive genetic test in adults with chronic idiopathic pancreatitis, which should help to select those patients who should undergo genetic studies. Antioxidant therapy has been shown to be effective in reducing pain secondary to chronic pancreatitis, although the type and optimal dose of antioxidants remains to be elucidated. Finally, the development of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency is a very common finding during the long-term follow-up of patients with autoimmune pancreatitis. Smoking also seems to play a role in this type of pancreatitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly.

  18. [Latest advances in chronic pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

    2014-09-01

    This article summarizes some of the recent and clinically relevant advances in chronic pancreatitis. These advances mainly concern the early diagnosis of the disease, the prediction of the fibrosis degree of the gland, the evaluation of patients with asymptomatic hyperenzimemia, the medical and surgical treatment of abdominal pain and the knowledge of the natural history of the autoimmune pancreatitis. In patients with indetermined EUS findings of chronic pancreatitis, a new endoscopic ultrasound examination in the follow-up is of help to confirm or to exclude the disease. Smoking, number of relapses, results of pancreatic function tests and EUS findings allow predicting the degree of pancreatic fibrosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Antioxidant therapy has shown to be effective in reducing pain secondary to chronic pancreatitis, although the type and optimal dose of antioxidants remains to be elucidated. Development of intestinal bacterial overgrowth is frequent in patients with chronic pancreatitis, but its impact on symptoms is unknown and deserves further investigations. Finally, autoimmune pancreatitis relapses in about half of the patients with either type 1 or type 2 disease; relapses frequently occur within the first two years of follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. CHRONIC FOLLICULITIS- A CLINICOEPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran Parapattu Kunjukunju

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic folliculitis is a chronic infection of the hair follicles predominantly seen on legs. The main features of the disease are follicular pustules, perifolliculitis, cutaneous oedema, crusting, scaling, atrophy, loss of hair and follicular scarring. In spite of treatment, the condition progresses till loss of all hair from the affected area. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of seventy five patients with chronic folliculitis who attended the Outpatient Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala. After getting the informed written consent, they were enrolled in the study. Aim of the study is to find out the clinical and demographic profile, aetiology and treatment response. RESULTS Out of the 75 patients studied, 57 (76% were males and 18 (24% were females. Maximum age group affected were in the 21-40 years (60%. Out of 75 patients studied, 58.7% were manual labourers. Initial site of involvement was lower limb in 86.7% patients. Involvement of legs seen in all patients in the course of the disease. Oil application, working with wet soil, soap application and rubbing are the common precipitating factors noted in the study. Staphylococci was the commonest aetiological agent seen in 57 (76% patients. CONCLUSION We conclude that chronic folliculitis is mainly a disease of males affecting mainly to the manual labourers, chronic folliculitis is a disease refractory to treatment.

  20. 论行政强制法对行政相对人程序性权利的保护及完善%The Protection and Perfection of Administrative Counterparts'Procedural Rights Under Administrative Coercion Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关博豪

    2015-01-01

    行政强制法实施中具有保障行政相对人程序性权利的必要性,行政强制的单向性特征弱化和损益性特质,以及程序正义的要求,彰显了相对人程序性权利保障的重要意义。我国应在行政强制的设定、决定与实施,行政强制权利救济与监督等方面,全面保护行政相对人的程序性权利。%It is necessary to protect the procedural rights of administrative counterparts during the implementa-tion of the Administrative Coercion Law.Both the weakening of the one-way characteristic of the administrative law and the requirements to realize the procedural justice highlight the importance of protecting administrative counter-parts'procedural rights.Therefore, we should improve the design and implementation of administrative coercion, as well as its relief and the supervision, in order to completely protect administrative counterparts'procedural rights.