WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonresident biological parents

  1. Disneyland Dads, Disneyland Moms? How Nonresident Parents Spend Time with Absent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Susan D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines gender differences in how nonresident parents spend time with their absent children. Results suggest that nonresident mothers and fathers exhibit a similar pattern of participation in activities with their absent children. Most nonresident parents either engage in only leisure activities with their children or have no contact. (Author/MKA)

  2. Engaging Nonresident African American Fathers in Intervention Research: What Practitioners Should Know about Parental Monitoring in Nonresident Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Bell, Lee; Brooks, Cassandra L.; Ward, Jasmine D.; Jennings, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of African American nonresident fathers who engaged in parental monitoring and to assess the relationship between engaging in monitoring and race-related socialization with their preadolescent sons on their psychological well-being. We also examined the moderating influences…

  3. Parenting as a "package deal": relationships, fertility, and nonresident father involvement among unmarried parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tach, Laura; Mincy, Ronald; Edin, Kathryn

    2010-02-01

    Fatherhood has traditionally been viewed as part of a "package deal" in which a father's relationship with his child is contingent on his relationship with the mother. We evaluate the accuracy of this hypothesis in light of the high rates of multiple-partner fertility among unmarried parents using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a recent longitudinal survey of nonmarital births in large cities. We examine whether unmarried mothers' and fathers' subsequent relationship and parenting transitions are associated with declines in fathers' contact with their nonresident biological children. We find that father involvement drops sharply after relationships between unmarried parents end. Mothers 'transitions into new romantic partnerships and new parenting roles are associated with larger declines in involvement than fathers' transitions. Declines in fathers' involvement following a mother's relationship or parenting transition are largest when children are young. We discuss the implications of our results for the well-being of nonmarital children and the quality of nonmarital relationships faced with high levels of relationship instability and multiple-partner fertility.

  4. Nonresident parental influence on adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors: similar or different from resident parental influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Meyer, Craig; MacLehose, Richard F; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-10-23

    Many parents do not live with, or have shared custody of, their adolescent children (i.e., nonresident parents). The degree of their influence on their children, as compared to parents who do live with their children the majority of the time (i.e. resident parents) has not been well-studied. The current study aimed to examine whether and how resident and nonresident parents' weight and weight-related behaviors are correlated with adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. Results will inform who may be important to include in adolescent obesity prevention interventions. Data from two linked population-based studies, EAT 2010 and F-EAT, were used for cross-sectional analyses. Resident parents (n = 200; 80% females; mean age =41.8), nonresident parents (n =200; 70% male; mean age =43.1), and adolescents (n =200; 60% girls; mean age =14.2 years) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Multiple regression models were fit to investigate the association between resident and nonresident parents' weight and weight-related behaviors and adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. Both resident and nonresident parents' BMI were significantly associated with adolescents' BMI percentile. Additionally, resident parents' sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and fruit and vegetable intake were significantly associated with adolescents' sugar-sweetened beverage intake and fruit and vegetable intake (p parent physical activity and adolescent physical activity was marginally significant (p = 0.067). Neither resident nor nonresident parents' fast food consumption, breakfast frequency, or sedentary behaviors were significantly associated with adolescents' same behaviors. These preliminary findings suggest that resident and nonresident parents may have slightly different influences on their adolescent children's weight-related behaviors. Longitudinal follow-up is needed to determine temporality of associations.

  5. Nonresident Fathers' Parenting Style and the Adjustment of Late-Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Jennifer K.; Mounts, Nina S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between nonresident fathers' parenting style, mothers' parenting style and behaviors, and depression and antisocial behavior in a sample of late-adolescent boys (n = 177). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Maternal psychological well-being was associated with fewer adolescent depression symptoms.…

  6. Nonresident Fathers' Parenting Style and the Adjustment of Late-Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Jennifer K.; Mounts, Nina S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between nonresident fathers' parenting style, mothers' parenting style and behaviors, and depression and antisocial behavior in a sample of late-adolescent boys (n = 177). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Maternal psychological well-being was associated with fewer adolescent depression symptoms.…

  7. Nonresident fathers' parenting, family processes, and children's development in urban, poor, single-mother families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Kyun

    2010-01-01

    With dramatic growth in nonrmarital births, an increasing number of children are growing up in single-mother families. This study examines the relationships among nonresident fathers' parenting and children's behavioral and cognitive development in low-income, single-mother families. It also considers the personal characteristics of the children's single mothers as well as family processes and economic circumstances. Analyses use the first three waves of longitudinal data from a subsample of single and noncohabiting mothers in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Results suggest that nonresident fathers' parenting is indirectly associated with children's behavior problems and cognitive development. The findings further suggest that those estimated associations are transmitted through mothers' parenting. The study also discusses the policy and practice implications of its findings.

  8. Pathways to Prevention: Improving Nonresident African American Fathers' Parenting Skills and Behaviors to Reduce Sons' Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Antonakos, Cathy L.; Assari, Shervin; Kruger, Daniel; De Loney, E. Hill; Njai, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a test of the Fathers and Sons Program for increasing intentions to avoid violence and reducing aggressive behaviors in 8-to 12-year-old African American boys by enhancing the parenting skills satisfaction and parenting behaviors of their nonresident fathers. The study included 158 intervention and 129 comparison group…

  9. Pathways to prevention: improving nonresident African American fathers' parenting skills and behaviors to reduce sons' aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard Caldwell, Cleopatra; Antonakos, Cathy L; Assari, Shervin; Kruger, Daniel; De Loney, E Hill; Njai, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a test of the Fathers and Sons Program for increasing intentions to avoid violence and reducing aggressive behaviors in 8- to 12-year-old African American boys by enhancing the parenting skills satisfaction and parenting behaviors of their nonresident fathers. The study included 158 intervention and 129 comparison group families. Structural equation model results indicated that the intervention was effective for improving fathers' parenting skills satisfaction, which was positively associated with sons' satisfaction with paternal engagement. Sons' paternal engagement satisfaction was positively associated with their intentions to avoid violence. Although aggressive behaviors were lower for comparison group sons, the intervention effectively reduced sons' aggressive behaviors indirectly by enhancing fathers' parenting behaviors. Support for family-centered youth violence prevention efforts is discussed.

  10. Parenting as a “Package Deal”: Relationships, Fertility, and Nonresident Father Involvement Among Unmarried Parents

    OpenAIRE

    TACH, LAURA; Mincy, Ronald; Edin, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Fatherhood has traditionally been viewed as part of a “package deal” in which a father’s relationship with his child is contingent on his relationship with the mother. We evaluate the accuracy of this hypothesis in light of the high rates of multiple-partner fertility among unmarried parents using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a recent longitudinal survey of nonmarital births in large cities. We examine whether unmarried mothers’ and fathers’ subsequent relationship and pare...

  11. Stepfamily Formation: Implications for Adolescent Ties to Mothers, Nonresident Fathers, and Stepfathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Valarie

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how the entrance of a stepfather influences adolescent ties to mothers and nonresident fathers and how prior ties to each biological parent influence the development of stepfather-stepchild ties. Data come from 1,753 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health who lived with a single mother in Wave 1 who…

  12. Parenting from Abroad: Migration, Nonresident Father Involvement, and Children's Education in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna

    2011-01-01

    In Mexico, a country with high emigration rates, parental migration matches divorce as a contributor to child-father separation. Yet little has been written about children's relationships with migrating parents. In this study, I use nationally representative data from the 2005 Mexican Family Life Survey to model variation in the interaction…

  13. Factors Associated with Unmarried, Nonresident Fathers' Perceptions of Their Coparenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Horowitz, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Using a longitudinal sample of 522 biological, never-married, nonresident fathers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this article examines the factors associated with fathers' coparenting 36 months after a birth. Ordinary least squares regression models indicate never-married, nonresident fathers are less likely to perceive high…

  14. Nonresident fatherhood and adolescent sexual behavior: a comparison of siblings approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rebecca M

    2015-02-01

    Although voluminous research has linked nonresident fatherhood to riskier sexual behavior in adolescence, including earlier sexual debut, neither the causality of that link nor the mechanism accounting for it has been well-established. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-the Young Adult Survey (CNLSY-YA), the present study addresses both questions by comparing the sexual development of siblings discordant for age at father departure from the home and examining results across behavioral (age at first intercourse), biological (pubertal timing), and cognitive (attitudes about childbearing and marriage) sexual outcomes (N = 5,542). Findings indicate that nonresident fatherhood, beginning either at birth or during middle childhood, leads to an earlier sexual debut for girls, but not for boys, an effect likely explained by weak parental monitoring rather than an accelerated reproductive strategy. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Assortative mating by unwed biological parents of adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, R; DeFries, J C; Roberts, M K

    1977-04-22

    Analyses of data obtained from 662 unwed couples whose children were relinquished for adoption reveal that biological parents of adopted children mate assortatively. For physical characters, assortative mating of unwed parents was similar to that of wed parents; for behavior characters, however, there was less assortative mating by the unwed parents. Because assortative mating inflates estimates of genetic parameters in adoption studies, future studies should collect information on both biological parents.

  16. Nonresident Fathering and School Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menning, Chadwick L.

    2006-01-01

    Does involvement by nonresident fathers affect adolescents' propensity to remain in school? If so, is some involvement necessarily better than none, and are changes in involvement with time associated with changes in the odds of school failure? What aspects of involvement matter the most? This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study…

  17. Parental Relationships in Fragile Families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sara McLanahan; Audrey N. Beck

    2010-01-01

    ...: the quality of parents' intimate relationship, the stability of that relationship, the quality of the co-parenting relationship among parents who live apart, and nonresident fathers' involvement with their child...

  18. 26 CFR 1.6654-6 - Nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonresident alien individuals. 1.6654-6 Section....6654-6 Nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. A nonresident alien individual is required to... gross income of a nonresident alien individual is such as to require making a payment of...

  19. Cohort Crowding and Nonresident College Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John V.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses a fixed effects panel data framework to examine the effects of cohort crowding and other variables on nonresident enrollment at four-year public colleges and universities. The results suggest that larger cohorts of resident students crowd out nonresident students at flagship universities, but there is inconsistent evidence of crowd…

  20. Poor Single Mothers with Young Children: Mastery, Relations with Nonresident Fathers, and Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Choi, Jeong-Kyun; Franke, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from two waves of a short-term longitudinal study, the authors examined the impact of maternal socioeconomic conditions (education, employment, and income) and family processes (quality of mother-father relations, frequency of nonresident fathers' contacts with their children, and mothers' parenting stress) at time (T) 1 on maternal…

  1. Poor Single Mothers with Young Children: Mastery, Relations with Nonresident Fathers, and Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Choi, Jeong-Kyun; Franke, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from two waves of a short-term longitudinal study, the authors examined the impact of maternal socioeconomic conditions (education, employment, and income) and family processes (quality of mother-father relations, frequency of nonresident fathers' contacts with their children, and mothers' parenting stress) at time (T) 1 on maternal…

  2. Low-Income Parents' Warmth and Parent-Child Activities for Children with Disabilities, Suspected Delays and Biological Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.; Peterson, Carla A.; Wall, Shavaun; Carta, Judith J.; Luze, Gayle; Swanson, Mark; Jeon, Hyun-Joo

    2011-01-01

    Warm and responsive parenting is optimal for child development, but this style of parenting may be difficult for some parents to achieve. This study examines how parents' observed warmth and their reported frequency of parent-child activities were related to children's classifications as having biological risks or a range of disability indicators.…

  3. The Constitutionality of a Biological Father's Recognition as a Parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Louw

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increased recognition afforded to biological fathers as legal parents, the Children's Act 38 of 2005 still does not treat fathers on the same basis as mothers as far as the automatic allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned. This article investigates the constitutionality of the differential treatment of fathers in this respect, given South Africa's international obligations, especially in terms of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, to ensure that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing of their child. After a brief consideration of the constitutionality of the mother's position as parent, the constitutionality of the father's position is investigated, firstly, with reference to Section 9 of the Constitution and the question of whether the differentiation between mothers and fathers as far as the allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, amounts to unfair discrimination. The inquiry also considers whether the differentiation between committed fathers (that is, those who have shown the necessary commitment in terms of Sections 20 and 21 of the Children's Act to acquire parental responsibilities and rights and uncommitted fathers may amount to discrimination on an unspecified ground. Since the limitation of the father's rights to equality may be justifiable, the outcomes of both inquiries are shown to be inconclusive. Finally, the legal position of the father is considered in relation to the child's constitutional rights – the rights to parental care and the right of the child to the paramountcy of its interests embodied in Section 28 of the Constitution. While there appears to be some justification for the limitation of the child's right to committed paternal care, it is submitted that an equalisation of the legal position of mothers and fathers as far as the automatic acquisition of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, is not

  4. 76 FR 7757 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Nonresident Aliens; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to notice... and paid to nonresident alien individuals. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathryn Holman at (202...

  5. The impact of fostering a child on biological children of foster parents

    OpenAIRE

    Večeřová, Štěpánka

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis discusses the impact of foster care on biological children of foster parents from the perspective of foster parents, biological children of foster parents and experts in their work with the issue of foster care encounter. Aim of this work is to propose options for social work with biological children of applicants for foster care in the way they are not negatively affected. Key words: foster care, biological children of foster parents, accompanying foster families, preparin...

  6. Adolescents with Nonresident Fathers: Are Daughters more Disadvantaged than Sons?

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Katherine Stamps; Booth, Alan; KING, VALARIE

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sons' and daughters' involvement with nonresident fathers and associated outcomes (N=4,663). Results indicate that sons and daughters report equal involvement with nonresident fathers on most measures of father investment, although sons report more overnight visits, sports, and movies, and feeling closer to their fathers compared to daughters. Sons and daughters generally benefit from nonresident father involvement in the same way in internalizing and externalizing problem...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3402(f)(6)-1 - Withholding exemptions for nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withholding exemptions for nonresident alien... exemptions for nonresident alien individuals. A nonresident alien individual (other than, in regard to wages paid after February 28, 1979, a nonresident alien individual treated as a resident under section...

  8. 26 CFR 1.872-1 - Gross income of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.872-1 Gross income of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general—(1) Inclusions. The gross income of a nonresident...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1036 - Certain nonresident aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain nonresident aliens. 404.1036 Section... Employment § 404.1036 Certain nonresident aliens. (a) Foreign students. (1) Foreign students (nonimmigrant aliens) may be temporarily in the United States under subparagraph (F) of section 101(a)(15) of the...

  10. Adolescents with Nonresident Fathers: Are Daughters More Disadvantaged than Sons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Katherine Stamps; Booth, Alan; King, Valarie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sons' and daughters' involvement with nonresident fathers and associated outcomes (N = 4,663). Results indicated that sons and daughters reported equal involvement with nonresident fathers on most measures of father investment, although sons reported more overnight visits, sports, and movies and feeling closer to their fathers…

  11. 19 CFR 141.37 - Additional requirements for nonresident corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... corporations. 141.37 Section 141.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Additional requirements for nonresident corporations. If a nonresident corporation has not qualified to... authority of the grantor designated to execute the power of attorney on behalf of the corporation....

  12. What Kids Get from Parents: Packages of Parental Involvement across Complex Family Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Marcia J; Berger, Lawrence M

    2013-06-01

    While demographers have continued to document the notable family changes that have occurred in recent decades, the nature of family functioning across diverse family forms is less well understood. In particular, we know little about the level and quality of parental investment that children receive across a range of contemporary family types. In this paper, we use data from a recent U.S. urban birth cohort to examine the 'package' of parental involvement that young children receive in two key domains across family types. We aggregate parent-child engagement across three potential parent(-figures)-biological mothers, biological fathers (resident or non-resident), and resident social fathers-and also assess the child's household income. We examine parental investments at child age 5 and changes in investments between child ages 1 and 5 by family structure categories. Overall, we find that children living with both of their married biological parents are advantaged with respect to both economic resources and parental engagement, while children living with single mothers-or their mother and a cohabiting social father-fare especially poorly in both domains; children in married social-father families receive higher overall levels of parental engagement than those in biological-father families but are much less economically advantaged. Our research sheds light on how changing family demography is related to parental investments in children, which may have implications for public policies designed to support disadvantaged families.

  13. ON GLOBAL STABILITY OF A NONRESIDENT COMPUTER VIRUS MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiaki MUROYA; Huaixing LI; Toshikazu KUNIYA

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we establish new sufficient conditions for the infected equilibrium of a nonresident computer virus model to be globally asymptotically stable. Our results extend two kind of known results in recent literature.

  14. 77 FR 23391 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Nonresident Aliens AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This... alien individuals. These regulations will affect commercial banks, savings institutions, credit unions... companies that maintain deposit accounts for nonresident alien individuals. An agency may not conduct or...

  15. 76 FR 2852 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Nonresident Aliens; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to a... nonresident alien individuals. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathryn Holman, (202) 622-3840 (not a toll...

  16. 76 FR 22064 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Nonresident Aliens; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing... maintained at U.S. offices of certain financial institutions and paid to nonresident alien individuals. DATES...

  17. 76 FR 20595 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens; Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Nonresident Aliens; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing... nonresident alien individuals. DATES: The public hearing is being rescheduled on Monday, April 25, 2011, at 10...

  18. 26 CFR 31.3121(b)(19)-1 - Services of certain nonresident aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services of certain nonresident aliens. 31.3121... 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(b)(19)-1 Services of certain nonresident aliens. (a) (1) Services performed after 1961 by a nonresident alien individual who is temporarily present in the United States as a...

  19. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(18)-1 - Services of certain nonresident aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services of certain nonresident aliens. 31.3306...) § 31.3306(c)(18)-1 Services of certain nonresident aliens. (a) (1) Services performed after 1961 by a nonresident alien individual who is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under...

  20. 76 FR 1105 - Guidance on Reporting Interest Paid to Nonresident Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Nonresident Aliens AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... maintained at U.S. offices of certain financial institutions and paid to nonresident alien individuals. These... provide that U.S. bank deposit interest paid to any nonresident alien individual must be reported annually...

  1. 26 CFR 1.873-1 - Deductions allowed nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deductions allowed nonresident alien individuals... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.873-1 Deductions allowed nonresident alien individuals. (a) General provisions—(1) Allocation of deductions....

  2. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(6)-1 - Remuneration for services of nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remuneration for services of nonresident alien... services of nonresident alien individuals. (a) In general. All remuneration paid after December 31, 1966, for services performed by a nonresident alien individual, if such remuneration otherwise...

  3. Parenting quality and children's mental health: biological mechanisms and psychological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    The quality of parenting that children receive can have a profound influence on their development and mental health. This article reviews articles published from late 2010 onwards that address the effects of parenting on the child's physiological and genetic systems, and how interventions can improve children's security of attachments, antisocial behaviour and other outcomes across a range of settings. Biological indices of stress, such as C-reactive protein, show that prenatal anxiety is a significant determinant of later outcomes for children, and abusive parenting of young children has lasting biological effects into adulthood. Increasingly, specific genes, especially those that code for neurotransmitter synthesis and functions, are being identified that moderate parenting effects. Furthermore, animal studies suggest that harsh parenting affects the expression of genes by epigenetic processes.Parenting programmes are effective in increasing the security of infant children's attachments, and reducing conduct problems/antisocial behaviour in childhood, and they can be effective at a population level in preventing abuse. These programmes are now widening their reach to cover a broader range of children's outcomes such as literacy and obesity. We are learning much more about the biological impact of poor parenting and the need for interventions that are crafted to improve the quality of parent-child relationships in many settings. Hopefully, they will also ameliorate the biological effects of poor parenting.

  4. How Parents Influence School Grades: Hints from a Sample of Adoptive and Biological Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    Using the biological and adoptive families in the Minnesota-based Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, we investigated the associations among genetic and environmental influences on IQ, parenting, parental expectations for offspring educational attainment, engagement in school, and school grades. All variables showed substantial genetic…

  5. Father by law: effects of joint legal custody on nonresident fathers' involvement with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, J A

    1998-05-01

    Family membership and household composition do not always coincide. Joint legal custody after divorce formalizes the relationship between fathers and children who live apart. Policymakers hope that explicit acknowledgment of nonresident fathers' rights and responsibilities will increase their involvement with their children. I use prospective data from the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the association between joint legal custody and two aspects of nonresident fathers' contributions to their children--the frequency of visits between fathers and children and child-support payments. The analysis examines approximately 160 families in which parents divorced between interviews conducted for Wave 1 (1987-1988) and Wave 2 (1992-1994) of the survey. I investigate the effects of joint legal custody holding constant physical custody or replacement by restricting the analysis to children who live with their mothers most of the year. Controlling for socioeconomic status and the quality of family relationships before separation, fathers with joint legal custody see their children more frequently and have more overnight visits than do other fathers. The positive effect of joint legal custody on frequency of visits persists once unobserved differences among families are taken into account. Although fathers with joint legal custody pay more child support than those without joint legal custody, this difference lacks statistical significance when other family characteristics are taken into account. These findings support the view that joint legal custody may encourage some aspects of paternal involvement after divorce.

  6. Parenting Practices of Resident Fathers: The Role of Marital and Biological Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Carlson, Marcia J.; Bzostek, Sharon H.; Osborne, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,098) to examine differences in the parenting practices of four types of resident fathers, defined by their biological relationship to a focal child and their marital status with regard to the focal child's mother. Regression results suggest that biological fathers and…

  7. The Texas Adoption Project: adopted children and their intellectual resemblance to biological and adoptive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, J M

    1983-04-01

    Intelligence test scores were obtained from parents and children in 300 adoptive families and compared with similar measures available for the biological mothers of the same adopted children. Results supported the hypothesis that genetic variability is an important influence in the development of individual differences for intelligence. The most salient finding was that adopted children resemble their biological mothers more than they resemble the adoptive parents who reared them from birth. A small subset of the oldest adopted children did not resemble their biological mothers. The suggestion that the influence of genes declines with age is treated with caution since other adoption studies report a trend in the opposite direction.

  8. The effect of parents' conversational style and disciplinary knowledge on children's observation of biological phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberbach, Catherine

    This study was designed to better understand how children begin to make the transition from seeing the natural world to scientifically observing the natural world during shared family activity in an informal learning environment. Specifically, this study addressed research questions: (1) What is the effect of differences in parent conversational style and disciplinary knowledge on children's observations of biological phenomena? (2) What is the relationship between parent disciplinary knowledge and conversational style to children's observations of biological phenomena? and (3) Can parents, regardless of knowledge, be trained to use a teaching strategy with their children that can be implemented in informal learning contexts? To address these questions, 79 parent-child dyads with children 6-10 years old participated in a controlled study in which half of the parents used their natural conversational style and the other half were trained to use particular conversational strategies during family observations of pollination in a botanical garden. Parents were also assigned to high and low knowledge groups according to their disciplinary knowledge of pollination. Data sources included video recordings of parent-child observations in a garden, pre-post child tasks, and parent surveys. Findings revealed that parents who received training used the conversational strategies more than parents who used their natural conversational style. Parents and children who knew more about pollination at the start of the study exhibited higher levels of disciplinary talk in the garden, which is to be expected. However, the use of the conversational strategies also increased the amount of disciplinary talk in the garden, independent of what families knew about pollination. The extent to which families engaged in disciplinary talk in the garden predicted significant variance in children's post-test scores. In addition to these findings, an Observation Framework (Eberbach & Crowley, 2009

  9. Conflict Between Mothers and Adolescents in Single-Mother, Blended, and Two-Biological-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This investigation was designed to shed light on household structure differences in mother - adolescent conflict. DESIGN: Atotal of 453 early, mid, and late adolescents from 3 ethnic groups completed questionnaires describing the rate and affective intensity of daily conflicts with mothers and fathers in single-mother (divorced or never married), 2-biological-parent, and blended (remarried) families. RESULTS: Compared to sons, daughters reported more disagreements with mothers and more negative affect in disagreements with mothers and fathers. Adolescents reported more total disagreements and more angry disagreements with single mothers than with mothers in 2-biological-parent families; adolescents in blended families fell in between. Reports of conflict with fathers did not differ across 2-biological-parent families and blended families. There were no household structure differences in conflict with parents (mothers and residential fathers combined), indicating that levels of conflict with single mothers are elevated by approximately the same number of disagreements that otherwise fall to fathers in 2-parent households. Potential moderators (adolescent age, ethnicity, and gender, maternal employment, prior marital status of single-mothers, socioeconomic status, and levels of social interaction) did not alter the results. CONCLUSIONS: For adolescents, single parenthood restricts the number of partners available for disagreement but has little bearing on the number or affective tenor of daily disagreements with mothers. In contrast, single parenthood is associated with elevated levels of family discord for mothers.

  10. Schizotypal, schizoid and paranoid characteristics in the biological parents of social anhedonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alex S; Emmerson, Lindsay C; Mann, Monica C; Forbes, Courtney B; Blanchard, Jack J

    2010-06-30

    Mounting evidence suggests that social anhedonia may be a marker of genetic liability for schizophrenia-spectrum pathology. To examine this hypothesis, we conducted a study of severity of schizotypal, schizoid and paranoid pathology (i.e., Cluster A personality disorders) in the biological parents of individuals with high levels of social anhedonia and healthy controls. Eighty-six individuals with social anhedonia, 89 healthy controls and their biological parents were recruited from a large community. Structured clinical interviews were conducted to obtain Cluster A diagnoses and symptom ratings for parents. The biological parents of socially anhedonic probands had elevated rates of Cluster A disorders (24%) compared with the parents of control probands (12%). Post hoc analyses revealed that these group differences were the result of elevated rates of diagnoses in the fathers of social anhedonic probands, but not the mothers. This finding was replicated when Cluster A symptoms were examined dimensionally. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that social anhedonia is a promising indicator of the genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia-spectrum pathology. The unexpected findings of elevated pathology in fathers, but not mothers of socially anhedonic probands, require further exploration.

  11. Behavioral Signs of Schizoidia and Schizotypy in the Biological Parents of Social Anhedonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Lindsay C.; Miller, Sarah L.; Blanchard, Jack J.

    2009-01-01

    A community sample of 88 putative schizotypes (48 social anhedonics, 40 controls), aged 18 to 19 years, and their biological parents (42 mothers of social anhedonics, 37 mothers of controls; 24 fathers of social anhedonics, 20 fathers of controls) receive videotaped diagnostic evaluations that serve as the basis for ratings of behavioral signs of…

  12. Behavioral Signs of Schizoidia and Schizotypy in the Biological Parents of Social Anhedonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Lindsay C.; Miller, Sarah L.; Blanchard, Jack J.

    2009-01-01

    A community sample of 88 putative schizotypes (48 social anhedonics, 40 controls), aged 18 to 19 years, and their biological parents (42 mothers of social anhedonics, 37 mothers of controls; 24 fathers of social anhedonics, 20 fathers of controls) receive videotaped diagnostic evaluations that serve as the basis for ratings of behavioral signs of…

  13. "Do as I say!" : parenting and the biology of child self-regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Rianne

    2013-01-01

    The development of self-regulation is one of the major challenges of a child’s healthy development. In the current thesis, the contribution and interplay of parental and biological factors in the development of self-regulation in preschoolers are studied in a large population-based cohort, the Gener

  14. Young Children's Understanding of a Biological Basis for Parent-Offspring Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Results of two experiments indicated that preschoolers expected adopted babies to share physical properties, but not preferences with their biological parents; and recognized that a baby who looks like and lives with a woman but who grew inside another woman's body is not the first woman's baby. (BC)

  15. "Do as I say!" : parenting and the biology of child self-regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Rianne

    2013-01-01

    The development of self-regulation is one of the major challenges of a child’s healthy development. In the current thesis, the contribution and interplay of parental and biological factors in the development of self-regulation in preschoolers are studied in a large population-based cohort, the

  16. Parental Divorce, Marital Conflict and Children's Behavior Problems: A Comparison of Adopted and Biological Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Cheadle, Jacob E.

    2008-01-01

    We used adopted and biological children from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households to study the links between parents' marital conflict, divorce and children's behavior problems. The standard family environment model assumes that marital conflict and divorce increase the risk of children's behavior problems. The passive…

  17. The Effects of Behavioral Parent Training on Placement Outcomes of Biological Families in a State Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Sabrina B.; Mata, Francesca C.; Wofford, Erin; Briggs, Adam M.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Carr, James E.; Lazarte, Alejandro A.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral parent training has proven effective in improving the skill performance of foster caregivers and biological parents of dependent children during role-play assessments. To date, however, no studies have examined the impact of behavioral parenting skills training on child placement outcomes. We conducted a quasi-experimental archival…

  18. The Effects of Behavioral Parent Training on Placement Outcomes of Biological Families in a State Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Sabrina B.; Mata, Francesca C.; Wofford, Erin; Briggs, Adam M.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Carr, James E.; Lazarte, Alejandro A.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral parent training has proven effective in improving the skill performance of foster caregivers and biological parents of dependent children during role-play assessments. To date, however, no studies have examined the impact of behavioral parenting skills training on child placement outcomes. We conducted a quasi-experimental archival…

  19. Biology-environment interaction and evocative biology-environment correlation: contributions of harsh discipline and parental psychopathology to problem adolescent behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggins-Caspers, Kristin M; Cadoret, Remi J; Knutson, John F; Langbehn, Douglas

    2003-05-01

    Using an adoption paradigm, the Bioecological Model of development proposed by Bronfenbrenner and Ceci in 1994 was tested by concurrently modeling for biology-environment interaction and evocative biology-environment correlation. A sample of 150 adult adoptees (ages, 18-45 years) provided retrospective reports of harsh adoptive parent discipline, which served as the environmental independent variables. Birth parent psychopathology served as the biological predictor. The dependent variables were retrospective adoptee and adoptive parent reports on adolescent aggressive and conduct-disordered behaviors. Finally, adoptees were classified as experiencing contextual environmental risk using the presence of two or more adverse factors in the adoptive home (e.g., adoptive parent psychopathology) as the cutoff. The contextual environment was found to moderate the biological process of evocative biology-environment correlation, providing empirical support for the Bronfenbrenner and Ceci (1994) Bioecological Model.

  20. 26 CFR 1.874-1 - Allowance of deductions and credits to nonresident alien individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowance of deductions and credits to nonresident alien individuals. 1.874-1 Section 1.874-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.874-1 Allowance of deductions...

  1. More about the Dads: Exploring Associations between Nonresident Father Involvement and Child Welfare Case Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Karin; Zielewski, Erica; Chen, Henry

    2008-01-01

    This study follows up on a prior study of child welfare agencies' efforts to identify, locate, and involve nonresident fathers of children in foster care. These analyses use information from the original survey and administrative data on case outcomes to explore three research questions: (1) Is nonresident father involvement associated with case…

  2. Family structure and wellbeing of out-of-wedlock children: The significance of the biological parents' relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley H. Liu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of the relationship between the biological parents in determining child wellbeing using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS. We extend prior research by considering children born to unmarried parents in an investigation of the effect of the relationship structure between the biological parents on infant health and behavior. The main findings are that children born to cohabiting biological parents (i realize better outcomes, on average, than those born to mothers who are less involved with the child's biological father, and (ii whose parents marry within a year after childbirth do not display significantly better outcomes than children of parents who continue to cohabit. Furthermore, children born to cohabiting or visiting biological parents who end their relationship within the first year of the child's life are up to 9 percent more likely to have asthma compared to children whose biological parents remain (romantically involved. The results are robust to a rich set of controls for socioeconomic status, health endowments, home investments, and relationship characteristics.

  3. Parent perspectives on privacy and governance for a pediatric repository of non-biological, research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhas, Kiran P; Page, Stacey; Dodd, Shawn X; Letourneau, Nicole; Ambrose, Aleta; Cui, Xinjie; Tough, Suzanne C

    2015-02-01

    Research data repositories (RDRs) are data storage entities where data can be submitted, stored, and subsequently accessed for purposes beyond the original intent. There is little information relating to non-biological RDRs, nor considerations regarding pediatric data storage and re-use. We examined parent perspectives on pediatric, non-biological RDRs. Qualitative, descriptive methods including both interviews and focus groups were used. Purposive sampling of adult participants in two provincial birth cohorts yielded 19 interviewees and 18 focus group participants (4 groups). Transcripts were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Parent research participants strongly supported the sharing of their own, and their child's, non-biological research data. Four themes emerged: that altruism has limits, that participants have ongoing privacy concerns, that some participants need the assurance of congruent values between themselves and researchers/research questions, and that opinions diverge for some governance issues. The establishment of RDRs is important and maximizes participants', researchers', and funders' investments. Participants as data donors have concerns relating to privacy, relationships, and governance that must be considered in RDR development. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Littering dynamics in a coastal industrial setting: the influence of non-resident populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Marnie L; Paterson de Heer, Chloe; Kinslow, Amber

    2014-03-15

    We examined if there is truth to the preconceptions that non-resident workers (including FIFO/DIDO's) detract from communities. We used marine debris to test this, specifically focussing on littering behaviour and evidence of awareness of local environmental programs that focus on marine debris. Littering was most common at recreational areas, then beaches and whilst boating. Twenty-five percent of respondents that admit to littering, reported no associated guilt with their actions. Younger respondents litter more frequently. Thus, non-resident workers litter at the same rate as permanent residents, visitors and tourists in this region, within this study. Few respondents are aware of the environmental programs that operate in their local region. Awareness was influenced by a respondent's residency (non-residents are less aware), age, and level of education. To address this failure we recommend that industries, that use non-resident workers, should develop inductions that expose new workers to the environmental programs in their region.

  5. 26 CFR 1.871-9 - Nonresident alien students or trainees deemed to be engaged in U.S. business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonresident alien students or trainees deemed to... Corporations § 1.871-9 Nonresident alien students or trainees deemed to be engaged in U.S. business. (a) Participants in certain exchange or training programs. For purposes of §§ 1.871-7 and 1.871-8 a nonresident...

  6. The wellbeing of foster children and their relationship with foster parents and biological parents : a child’s perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Bos, H.M.W.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Most Dutch foster children live permanently in foster families. It is often assumed that foster children have ambivalent loyalties and attachments to their birth parents and foster parents and are torn between the two. In this study 59 children between 10 and 18 years placed in long term foster care

  7. The wellbeing of foster children and their relationship with foster parents and biological parents : a child’s perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Bos, H.M.W.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Most Dutch foster children live permanently in foster families. It is often assumed that foster children have ambivalent loyalties and attachments to their birth parents and foster parents and are torn between the two. In this study 59 children between 10 and 18 years placed in long term foster care

  8. 26 CFR 1.871-8 - Taxation of nonresident alien individuals engaged in U.S. business or treated as having...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonresident alien individual. (b) Imposition of tax—(1) Income not effectively connected with the conduct of a... income of the nonresident alien individual which is not effectively connected for the taxable year with... consists only of the nonresident alien individual's taxable income which is effectively connected for...

  9. 26 CFR 1.864-3 - Rules for determining income effectively connected with U.S. business of nonresident aliens or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... connected with U.S. business of nonresident aliens or foreign corporations. 1.864-3 Section 1.864-3 Internal... income effectively connected with U.S. business of nonresident aliens or foreign corporations. (a) In general. For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, in the case of a nonresident alien individual or...

  10. 17 CFR 249.509 - Form 9-M, consent to service of process by a partnership nonresident broker-dealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of process by a partnership nonresident broker-dealer. This form shall be filed pursuant to Rule 15b1... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form 9-M, consent to service of process by a partnership nonresident broker-dealer. 249.509 Section 249.509 Commodity...

  11. Life with (or without) father: the benefits of living with two biological parents depend on the father's antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Taylor, Alan

    2003-01-01

    The salutary effects of being raised by two married, biological parents depend on the quality of care parents can provide. Using data from an epidemiological sample of 1,116 5-year-old twin pairs and their parents, this study found that the less time fathers lived with their children, the more conduct problems their children had, but only if the fathers engaged in low levels of antisocial behavior. In contrast, when fathers engaged in high levels of antisocial behavior, the more time they lived with their children, the more conduct problems their children had. Behavioral genetic analyses showed that children who resided with antisocial fathers received a "double whammy" of genetic and environmental risk for conduct problems. Marriage may not be the answer to the problems faced by some children living in single-parent families unless their fathers can become reliable sources of emotional and economic support.

  12. Parental relocation
    Free movement rights and joint parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina G. Jeppesen de Boer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As joint parental authority increasingly becomes the legal norm applied in situations where the parents do not live together, for example, after divorce or the breakup of a relationship, the settlement of disputes regarding the concrete exercise of parental authority gain relevance. A common dispute concerns the relocation of the resident parent. How do the courts deal with relocation disputes? Is relocation dealt with even-handedly between resident and non-resident parents? Do the same principles apply to relocation inside and outside the jurisdiction? This article compares the approaches taken in Dutch and Danish law, as well as the Principles on Parental Responsibilities drafted by the European Commission on Family Law.

  13. Parental relocation Free movement rights and joint parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina G. Jeppesen de Boer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As joint parental authority increasingly becomes the legal norm applied in situations where the parents do not live together, for example, after divorce or the breakup of a relationship, the settlement of disputes regarding the concrete exercise of parental authority gain relevance. A common dispute concerns the relocation of the resident parent. How do the courts deal with relocation disputes? Is relocation dealt with even-handedly between resident and non-resident parents? Do the same principles apply to relocation inside and outside the jurisdiction? This article compares the approaches taken in Dutch and Danish law, as well as the Principles on Parental Responsibilities drafted by the European Commission on Family Law.

  14. Walking a high beam: the balance between employment stability, workplace flexibility, and nonresident father involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jason T; Welch, Greg W; Sarver, Christian M

    2012-03-01

    Compared with resident fathers, nonresident fathers are more likely to be unemployed or underemployed and less likely, when they are employed, to have access to flexible work arrangements. Although lack of employment stability is associated with lower levels of father involvement, some research shows that increased stability at work without increased flexibility is negatively related to involvement. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 895), the authors examined the relationship between nonresident fathers' employment stability, workplace flexibility, and father involvement. Results indicate that workplace flexibility, but not employment stability, is associated with higher levels of involvement. Policy and practice implications are discussed.

  15. The biological evolution of conscience – from parent-offspring conflict to morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voland Eckart

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two theories regarding the biological evolution of morality with conscience as its central regulatory agency are compared and contrasted. One theory (“navigator theory” interprets conscience as a strategically operating agency for the optimum balance between selfish and altruistic behavioral tendencies to maximize gains in cooperation in view of social complexity. From this standpoint, conscience serves the evolved self-interest of the person having a conscience. In contrast hereto, the second theory (“helper theory” locates the evolutionary origins of conscience on the battlefield of the parent- offspring conflict through intrafamilial demands for altruism. Functions of conscience, and thus human morality in a narrower sense, evolved during the transition of hominines to cooperative breeding and the novel helper conflict emerging through this evolution. The “helper theory” of the evolution of conscience can resolve some of the theoretical and empirical inconsistencies of the conventional “navigator theory”, in particular, the contradiction between the consequentialistic regulation of altruistic behavior and the non-consequentialistic nature of the judgment of conscience. And in contrast to the “navigator theory”, it is compatible with the observation that behavior guided by a conscience is not infrequently disastrous for one’s own fitness outcome.

  16. 20 CFR 704.102 - Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commutation of payments to aliens and... LHWCA EXTENSIONS Defense Base Act § 704.102 Commutation of payments to aliens and nonresidents. Authority to commute payments to aliens and nonnationals who are not residents of the United States and...

  17. Short-Term and Long-Term Government Debt and Nonresident Interest Withholding Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Huizinga, H.P.; Lemmen, J.J.G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the incidence of nonresident interest withholding taxes in the international 3-month Treasury-bill market and the international 5-year government bond market.The approach is one of pooled cross-section, time-series regressions.We find that, in general, U.S. dollar yields on

  18. Nonresident Undergraduates' Performance in English Writing Classes-- Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Allison A.; Bergman, Matthew; Fass-Holmes, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Do undergraduates whose native language is not English have writing deficiencies leading to academic struggles? The present study showed that the answer to this question was "no" at an American West Coast public university. This university's nonresident undergraduates on average earned B- to B+ in their colleges' English…

  19. Nonresident Fatherhood and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Comparison of Siblings Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Although voluminous research has linked nonresident fatherhood to riskier sexual behavior in adolescence, including earlier sexual debut, neither the causality of that link nor the mechanism accounting for it has been well-established. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979--the Young Adult Survey (CNLSY-YA), the present…

  20. Short-Term and Long-Term Government Debt and Nonresident Interest Withholding Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Huizinga, H.P.; Lemmen, J.J.G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the incidence of nonresident interest withholding taxes in the international 3-month Treasury-bill market and the international 5-year government bond market.The approach is one of pooled cross-section, time-series regressions.We find that, in general, U.S. dollar yields on natio

  1. 22 CFR 41.33 - Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification card (BCC). 41.33 Section 41.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION... Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC). (a) Validity of Canadian BCC. A Canadian BCC or the BCC portion of a Canadian B-1/B-2 Visa/BCC issued to a permanent resident of...

  2. Conditional Convergence of Nonresident Tuition Rates at Public Research Universities: A Panel Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Marvin A.; Vamosiu, Adriana; Gupta, Anubha

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines how nonresident tuition among public research universities has converged toward a national average over the 1987-2006 time period in the USA. Using dynamic fixed-effect panel modeling estimated via GMM (and instrumental variables fixed-effect model to account for endogeneity), we inquire (1) how do competitive market…

  3. 26 CFR 1.565-5 - Nonresident aliens and foreign corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Nonresident aliens and foreign corporations. 1... and foreign corporations. (a) Withholding. In the event that a corporation makes a consent dividend... 1441 or 1442 on a distribution of cash or other property, the corporation must remit an amount of...

  4. Parent-adolescent communication in foster, inter-country adoptive, and biological Italian families: Gender and generational differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnati, Rosa; Iafrate, Raffaella; Scabini, Eugenia

    2007-02-01

    There is a paucity of studies aimed at comparing how parents and children in different family structures cope with the challenges posed by the adolescence transition; in particular, there are few studies aimed at comparing adoptive and foster families. In order to partially fill this gap, the principal aims of the present study were to verify whether there are differences in parent-child communication among foster, intercountry adoptive, and biological families according to the adolescents' gender, and to compare the perceptions of parents and adolescents concerning parent-child communication. Data were elaborated on two levels: a generational level (adolescent's and his/her parents' perceptions among the three family groups) and a dyadic level (mother-child and father-child perceptions). The sample was composed of 276 Italian families with adolescents aged between 11 and 17 (81 foster, 98 international adoptive, and 97 biological families). Subjects (mothers, fathers, and children) filled out a questionnaire including the Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale (Barnes & Olson, 1985 ). Results highlighted that in foster families, parent-child communication showed more difficulties from both the adolescent's and the parents' point of view. Adoptive adolescents, however, reported a more positive communication with both their parents than did their peers living in biological and foster families. At a dyadic level, some differences emerged among the three groups. In biological families, a more pronounced distance emerged between parents and children. In adoptive families, father and adolescent shared more similar perceptions, whereas a significant discrepancy emerged between mother and child. A higher level of perceptual congruence between adolescents and parents was found in foster families. Gender differences were also seen: Mothers experienced a more open communication with their children than did fathers, and adolescents, and above all females, communicated better

  5. The relationship of parental influence on student career choice of biology and non-biology majors enrolled in a freshman biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Mitzie Leigh

    Recent declines in science literacy and inadequate numbers of individuals entering science careers has heightened the importance of determining why students major in science or do not major in science and then choose a science-related career. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental influences and student career choices of both males and females majoring and not majoring in science. This study specifically examined the constructs of parental occupation, parental involvement, and parental education levels. Aspects indicated by the participants as being influencers were also examined. In addition, differences between males and females were examined. A total of 282 students participated in the study; 122 were science majors and 160 were non-science majors. The data was collected through the use of a student information survey and the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scale. The findings suggest that students indicated the desire to help others, peers, salary, and skills as influencing their career choice. In regard to the various parental influences, mother's occupation was the only construct found as a statistically significant influencer on a student's decision to major in science. The results of this study can help educators, administrators, and policy makers understand what influences students to pursue science-related careers and possibly increase the number of students entering science-related careers. The results of the study specifically provide information that may prove useful to administrators and educators in the health science fields, particularly nursing fields. The findings provide insight into why students may choose to become nurses.

  6. Administrative Cicular No. 31 (Rev. 2) - International indemnity and non-resident allowance

    CERN Multimedia

    Department Head Office - HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 31 (Rev. 2) entitled "International indemnity and non-resident allowance", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 23 June 2016, will be available on 1st September 2016 via the following link: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2208547.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 31 (Rev. 1) also entitled "International indemnity and non-resident allowance" of October 2007. The main changes reflect the decision taken in the framework of the five-yearly review to extend eligibility for international indemnity to all staff members, as well to introduce a distinction between current staff members and those recruited as from 1st September 2016. For the latter, the international indemnity will be calculated as a percentage of the minimum salary of the grade into which they are recruited; the amount granted to the former will not change, and is now expressed ...

  7. Hearing children in court disputes between parents.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Kirsteen

    2013-01-01

    The Children (Scotland) Act 1995 gives children the right to have their views taken into account when their parents take a dispute over the child to court. This is consistent with Article 12 of the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). The most common dispute concerning children which comes before the court is over the amount of contact a child should have with the non-resident parent. This briefing reports key findings from a recent study that examined court cas...

  8. Educational Aspirations of Male and Female Adolescents from Single-Parent and Two Biological Parent Families: A Comparison of Influential Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rashmi; Melanson, Stella; Levin, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Youth from single-parent families report lower educational aspirations than those from two-parent families. This study explored the influence of background factors (gender, grade, parental education and SES), parental involvement with education, academic self-concept, and peer influences on educational aspirations. The participants were Canadian…

  9. Educational Aspirations of Male and Female Adolescents from Single-Parent and Two Biological Parent Families: A Comparison of Influential Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rashmi; Melanson, Stella; Levin, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Youth from single-parent families report lower educational aspirations than those from two-parent families. This study explored the influence of background factors (gender, grade, parental education and SES), parental involvement with education, academic self-concept, and peer influences on educational aspirations. The participants were Canadian…

  10. Parenting Stress, Perceived Child Regard, and Depressive Symptoms among Stepmothers and Biological Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Danielle N.; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2011-01-01

    Although stepmothering is a common undertaking in American families, little research has investigated the mental health consequences, and their correlates, associated with adopting a stepmother role. To help fill this gap, the current study examines parenting stress and participants' perceptions of their (step)children's regard toward them and the…

  11. Organ transplantation for nonresidents of the United States: a policy for transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, A K; Danovitch, G M; Delmonico, F L

    2014-08-01

    A policy proposal relating to transplantation of deceased donor organs into nonresidents of the United States was jointly sponsored by the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) International Relations and Ethics Committees and approved by the OPTN/UNOS Board in June 2012. The proposal followed prior acceptance by the Board of the definitions of "travel for transplantation" and "transplant tourism" and the introduction in March 2012 of revised data collection categories for transplant candidates who are neither citizens nor residents. The most important aspect of the new policy concerns replacement of the previous so-called "5% rule" with the review of all residency and citizenship data and the preparation of a public annual report. The new policy does not prohibit organ transplantation in nonresidents. However, the policy and public data report will ensure transparency and support transplant center responsibility to account for their practices. Since the adoption of the policy, the first 19 months of data show that less than 1% of new deceased donor waitlist additions and less than 1% of transplantation recipients were non-US citizen/nonresidents candidates who traveled to the United States for purposes of transplantation. By adopting this policy, the US transplant community promotes public trust and serves as an example to the international transplant community.

  12. 20 CFR 25.203 - How is the Special Schedule applied to non-resident aliens in the Territory of Guam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-resident aliens in the Territory of Guam? 25.203 Section 25.203 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... Compensation § 25.203 How is the Special Schedule applied to non-resident aliens in the Territory of Guam? (a... on or after July 1, 1971 in the Territory of Guam to non-resident alien employees recruited...

  13. Multi-biological defects caused by lead exposure exhibit transferable properties from exposed parents to their progeny in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Whether the multi-biological toxicity from lead exposure could be transferred to progeny has not been clarified. In the present study, we explored the Caenorhabditis elegans to analyze the multiple toxicities from lead exposure and their possibly transferable properties. The lead exposure could cause series of severe multi-biological defects with a concentration-dependent manner by affecting the endpoints of life span, development, reproduction and locomotion behaviors in nematodes. Moreover, most of these toxicities could be transferred to progeny from lead exposed animals and some of the defects in progeny appeared even more severe than in their parents, such as the body sizes and mean life spans. We summarized the defects caused by lead exposure into three groups according to their transferable properties or rescue patterns. That is, the defects caused by lead exposure could be largely, or partially, or became even more severe in progeny animals. Therefore, our results suggest that lead exposure can cause severely multi-biological defects, and most of these multiple toxicities can be considered as transferable for exposed animals in C. elegans.

  14. Modeling Nonresident Seabird Foraging Distributions to Inform Ocean Zoning in Central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studwell, Anna J; Hines, Ellen; Elliott, Meredith L; Howar, Julie; Holzman, Barbara; Nur, Nadav; Jahncke, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Seabird aggregations at sea have been shown to be associated with concentrations of prey. Previous research identified Central California as a highly used foraging area for seabirds, with locally breeding seabirds foraging close to their colonies on Southeast Farallon Island. Herein, we focus on nonresident (i.e. non-locally breeding) seabird species off of Central California. We hypothesized that high-use foraging areas for nonresident seabirds would be influenced by oceanographic and bathymetric factors and that spatial and temporal distributions would be similar within planktivorous and generalist foraging guilds but would differ between them. With data collected by the Applied California Current Ecosystem Studies (ACCESS) partnership during cruises between April and October from 2004-2013, we developed generalized linear models to identify high-use foraging areas for each of six nonresident seabird species. The four generalist species are Phoebastria nigripes (black-footed albatross), Ardenna griseus (sooty shearwater), Ardenna creatopus (pink-footed shearwater), and Fulmarus glacialis (northern fulmar). The two planktivorous species are Phalaropus lobatus (red-necked phalarope) and Phalaropus fulicarius (red phalarope). Sea surface temperature was significant for generalist species and sea surface salinity was important for planktivorous species. The distance to the 200-m isobath was significant in five of six models, Pacific Decadal Oscillation with a 3-month lag in four models, and sea surface fluorescence, the distance to Cordell Bank, and depth in three models. We did not find statistically significant differences between distributions of individual seabird species within a foraging guild or between guilds, with the exception of the sooty shearwater. Model results for a multi-use seabird foraging area highlighted the continental shelf break, particularly within the vicinity of Cordell Bank, as the highest use areas as did Marxan prioritization. Our

  15. Modeling Nonresident Seabird Foraging Distributions to Inform Ocean Zoning in Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Ellen; Elliott, Meredith L.; Howar, Julie; Holzman, Barbara; Nur, Nadav; Jahncke, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Seabird aggregations at sea have been shown to be associated with concentrations of prey. Previous research identified Central California as a highly used foraging area for seabirds, with locally breeding seabirds foraging close to their colonies on Southeast Farallon Island. Herein, we focus on nonresident (i.e. non-locally breeding) seabird species off of Central California. We hypothesized that high-use foraging areas for nonresident seabirds would be influenced by oceanographic and bathymetric factors and that spatial and temporal distributions would be similar within planktivorous and generalist foraging guilds but would differ between them. With data collected by the Applied California Current Ecosystem Studies (ACCESS) partnership during cruises between April and October from 2004–2013, we developed generalized linear models to identify high-use foraging areas for each of six nonresident seabird species. The four generalist species are Phoebastria nigripes (black-footed albatross), Ardenna griseus (sooty shearwater), Ardenna creatopus (pink-footed shearwater), and Fulmarus glacialis (northern fulmar). The two planktivorous species are Phalaropus lobatus (red-necked phalarope) and Phalaropus fulicarius (red phalarope). Sea surface temperature was significant for generalist species and sea surface salinity was important for planktivorous species. The distance to the 200-m isobath was significant in five of six models, Pacific Decadal Oscillation with a 3-month lag in four models, and sea surface fluorescence, the distance to Cordell Bank, and depth in three models. We did not find statistically significant differences between distributions of individual seabird species within a foraging guild or between guilds, with the exception of the sooty shearwater. Model results for a multi-use seabird foraging area highlighted the continental shelf break, particularly within the vicinity of Cordell Bank, as the highest use areas as did Marxan prioritization. Our

  16. Developments and Thoroughgoing Studies on Taxation of Royalties Obtained by French Non-Residents in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calotă Traian-Ovidiu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Romanian tax legislation continues to contain contradictory provisions that give it a strong ambiguity and which often generates controversy in interpretation and application. The authors of the research show the situations of tax income from royalties obtained by a French non-resident from a Romanian beneficiary. Thus, are addresses the taxation from the perspective of (i the law, (ii the avoidance of double taxation (CEDI concluded by Romania with other countries and (iii the EU legislation. Also, the authors present one of the cases of controversy generated by the Romanian tax legislation, which create controversy and maintain a high level of uncertainty in the business environment.

  17. Occurrence, behavior and removal of typical substituted and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a biological wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Meng; Qi, Weixiao; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-04-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent is the major source for substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (SPAHs) to the receiving rivers, as well as the parent PAHs. Some of the SPAHs showed higher toxicities and levels than their parent PAHs. The occurrence and behavior of typical SPAHs were investigated in a representative biological WWTP in Beijing, China. Methyl PAHs (MPAHs) (149-221 ng/L in the influent; 29.6-56.3 ng/L in the effluent; 202-375 ng/g in the activated sludge), oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) (139-155 ng/L; 69.9-109 ng/L; 695-1533 ng/g) and PAHs (372-749 ng/L; 182-241 ng/L; 2402-3321 ng/g) existed, but nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) were not detected. 2-Methylnaphthalene, anthraquinone, 9-fluorenone and 2-methylanthraquinone were the predominant SPAHs. OPAHs were deduced to be formed from PAHs especially during summer, based on the ratios variation and removal efficiencies of the two seasons, and the surplus mass in the outflows. Low molecular weight compounds (2-3 rings) might be mainly removed by mineralization/transformation and adsorption in the anaerobic unit, and by volatilization in the aerobic unit. High molecular weight compounds (4-6 rings) might be mainly removed by adsorption in the anaerobic unit. The total outflows of SPAHs and PAHs were 66 g/d in summer and 148 g/d in winter from the WWTP to the receiving river. The percentage of OPAHs was higher in summer than in winter.

  18. Elderly parent health and the migration decisions of adult children: evidence from rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, John; Mu, Ren

    2007-05-01

    Recent research has shown that participation in migrant labor markets has led to substantial increases in income for families in rural China. This article addresses the question of how participation is affected by elderly parent health. We find that younger adults are less likely to work as migrants when a parent is ill. Poor health of an elderly parent has less impact on the probability of employment as a migrant when an adult child has siblings who may be available to provide care. We also highlight the potential importance of including information on nonresident family members when studying how parent illness and elder care requirements influence the labor supply decisions of adult children.

  19. Differential patterns of whole-genome DNA methylation in institutionalized children and children raised by their biological parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, Oksana Yu; Lee, Maria; Koposov, Roman; Szyf, Moshe; Dozier, Mary; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies with nonhuman species have shown that animals exposed to early adversity show differential DNA methylation relative to comparison animals. The current study examined differential methylation among 14 children raised since birth in institutional care and 14 comparison children raised by their biological parents. Blood samples were taken from children in middle childhood. Analysis of whole-genome methylation patterns was performed using the Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip assay (Illumina), which contains 27,578 CpG sites, covering approximately 14,000 gene promoters. Group differences were registered, which were characterized primarily by greater methylation in the institutionalized group relative to the comparison group, with most of these differences in genes involved in the control of immune response and cellular signaling systems, including a number of crucial players important for neural communication and brain development and functioning. The findings suggest that patterns of differential methylation seen in nonhuman species with altered maternal care are also characteristic of children who experience early maternal separation.

  20. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  1. Approaching the biology of human parental attachment: brain imaging, oxytocin and coordinated assessments of mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, J E; Kim, P; Spicer, J; Ho, S S; Dayton, C J; Elmadih, A; Abel, K M

    2014-09-11

    Brain networks that govern parental response to infant signals have been studied with imaging techniques over the last 15 years. The complex interaction of thoughts and behaviors required for sensitive parenting enables the formation of each individual's first social bonds and critically shapes development. This review concentrates on magnetic resonance imaging experiments which directly examine the brain systems involved in parental responses to infant cues. First, we introduce themes in the literature on parental brain circuits studied to date. Next, we present a thorough chronological review of state-of-the-art fMRI studies that probe the parental brain with a range of baby audio and visual stimuli. We also highlight the putative role of oxytocin and effects of psychopathology, as well as the most recent work on the paternal brain. Taken together, a new model emerges in which we propose that cortico-limbic networks interact to support parental brain responses to infants. These include circuitry for arousal/salience/motivation/reward, reflexive/instrumental caring, emotion response/regulation and integrative/complex cognitive processing. Maternal sensitivity and the quality of caregiving behavior are likely determined by the responsiveness of these circuits during early parent-infant experiences. The function of these circuits is modifiable by current and early-life experiences, hormonal and other factors. Severe deviation from the range of normal function in these systems is particularly associated with (maternal) mental illnesses - commonly, depression and anxiety, but also schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Finally, we discuss the limits and extent to which brain imaging may broaden our understanding of the parental brain given our current model. Developments in the understanding of the parental brain may have profound implications for long-term outcomes in families across risk, resilience and possible interventions. This article is part of a Special Issue

  2. Biological Aspects of the Development and Self-Concept in Adolescents Living in Single-Parent Families

    OpenAIRE

    Veček, Andrea; Vidović, Vesna; Miličić, Jasna; Špoljar-Vržina, Sanja; Veček, Nenad; Arch-Veček, Branka

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigate whether there are differences between adolescents who grow up in single-parent families and those who grow up in nucleus families. We have decided that there are no differences in the physical development between the adolescents who are growing up in single parent families and those growing up in nucleus families. There is no difference in the self-concept between these two groups, except in the ethical and moral self-image of adolescents living with one parent. A...

  3. APPROACHING THE BIOLOGY OF HUMAN PARENTAL ATTACHMENT: BRAIN IMAGING, OXYTOCIN AND COORDINATED ASSESSMENTS OF MOTHERS AND FATHERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, JE; Kim, P; Spicer, J; Ho, SS; Dayton, CJ; Elmadih, A; Abel, KM

    2014-01-01

    Brain networks that govern parental response to infant signals have been studied with imaging techniques over the last 15 years. The complex interaction of thoughts and behaviors required for sensitive parenting of offspring enable formation of each individual’s first social bonds and critically shape infants’ behavior. This review concentrates on magnetic resonance imaging experiments which directly examine the brain systems involved in parental responses to infant cues. First, we introduce themes in the literature on parental brain circuits studied to date. Next, we present a thorough chronological review of state-of-the-art fMRI studies that probe the parental brain with a range of baby audio and visual stimuli. We also highlight the putative role of oxytocin and effects of psychopathology, as well as the most recent work on the paternal brain. Taken together, a new model emerges in which we propose that cortico-limbic networks interact to support parental brain responses to infants for arousal/salience/motivation/reward, reflexive/instrumental caring, emotion response/regulation and integrative/complex cognitive processing. Maternal sensitivity and the quality of caregiving behavior are likely determined by the responsiveness of these circuits toward long-term influence of early-life experiences on offspring. The function of these circuits is modifiable by current and early-life experiences, hormonal and other factors. Known deviation from the range of normal function in these systems is particularly associated with (maternal) mental illnesses – commonly, depression and anxiety, but also schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Finally, we discuss the limits and extent to which brain imaging may broaden our understanding of the parental brain, and consider a current model and future directions that may have profound implications for intervention long term outcomes in families across risk and resilience profiles. PMID:24637261

  4. Life with (or without) Father: The Benefits of Living with Two Biological Parents Depend on the Father's Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Taylor, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Data were analyzed from an epidemiological sample of 5-year- old twins and their parents. Findings indicated that the less time fathers lived with their children, the more conduct problems their children had, but only if the fathers engaged in low levels of antisocial behavior. When fathers engaged in high levels of antisocial behavior, the more…

  5. Parental Engagement with Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Joanna; Harbinson, Terence

    2010-01-01

    A programme of parental engagement with school science is described, in which parents and their children take part in scientific debate and practical science lessons. Three sessions, in biology, chemistry and physics, of this ongoing programme are described, through which parents have been able to support their children by learning science with…

  6. In vitro replication competence of a hepatitis B genotype D/A recombinant virus: dissimilar biological behaviour regarding its parental genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinks, Julieta; Sugiyama, Masaya; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Kurbanov, Fuat; Benetucci, Jorge; Giménez, Edgardo; Weissenbacher, Mercedes C; Mizokami, Masashi; Oubiña, José R

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA recombinants contribute to ~30% of the overall full-length sequences already deposited in GenBank. However, their biological behaviour has not been analysed so far. In this study, the in vitro replication kinetics of the first D/A recombinant from the American continent differed from its parental genotypes, exhibiting higher extracellular levels of HBV DNA and hepatitis B e antigen. Southern blots of intracellular core-associated HBV DNA were in agreement with such results. Because this recombinant was obtained from an Argentinian injecting drug user belonging to a vulnerable community, these results are of singular relevance for regional public health. Further in vivo studies are urgently needed to determine the pathogenicity of these replicative competent clones.

  7. Aviation Support Equipment Technician (ASE 3 & 2 and ASM 3 & 2). Volume 1, Basics. Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jesse R.; And Others

    This Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package that will enable aviation support equipment personnel to help themselves fulfill the requirements for advancement. Designed for individual study and not formal classroom instruction, the RTM provides subject matter that relates directly to the occupational…

  8. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(7)-1 - Remuneration paid before January 1, 1967, for services performed by nonresident alien individuals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remuneration paid before January 1, 1967, for services performed by nonresident alien individuals who are residents of a contiguous country and who enter and leave the United States at frequent intervals. 31.3401(a)(7)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(7)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE...

  9. Parents are Educators: Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Ed

    1982-01-01

    Discusses growing recognition of the importance of parenting and of parents as educators, due to the increase in single-parent households and awareness of importance of early childhood learning experiences. Ways outdoor education can help (emphasizing methods, materials, motivations) are described, including 11 starting points and 15 tips for…

  10. Parent-to-Parent Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sue; Doyle, Phyllis

    1984-01-01

    A parent-to-parent support program was begun to provide early support for parents of handicapped children. New parents are carefully matched with helping parents, who have been trained in communication, resource finding, and referral making. (CL)

  11. Hepatoma cell line HepG2.2.15 demonstrates distinct biological features compared with parental HepG2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Zhao; Tian-Zhen Wang; Dan Kong; Lei Zhang; Hong-Xue Meng; Yang Jiang; Yi-Qi Wu; Zu-Xi Yu; Xiao-Ming Jin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the biological features of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-transfected HepG2.2.15 cells. METHODS: The cell ultrastructure, cell cycle and apop-tosis, and the abilities of proliferation and invasion of HBV-transfected HepG2.2.15 and the parent HepG2 cells were examined by electron microscopy, flow cytometry, 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and trans-well assay. Oncogenicity of the two cell lines was compared via subcutaneous injection and orthotopic injection or implantation in nude mice, and the pathological analysis of tumor formation was performed. Two cytoskeletal proteins were detected by Western blotting.RESULTS: Compared with HepG2 cells, HepG2.2.15 cells showed organelle degeneration and filopodia disappear-ance under electron microscope. HepG2.2.15 cells pro-liferated and migrated slowly in vitro, and hardly formed tumor and lung metastasis in nude mice. Flow cytom-etry showed that the majority of HepG2.2.15 cells were arrested in G1 phase, and apoptosis was minor in both cell lines. Furthermore, the levels of cytoskeletal pro-teins F-actin and Ezrin were decreased in HepG2.2.15 cells.CONCLUSION: HepG2.2.15 cells demonstrated a low-er proliferation and invasion ability than the HepG2 cells due to HBV transfection.

  12. Prenatal parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Vivette; Capron, Lauren

    2017-06-01

    Parenting begins before birth. This includes prenatal maternal and paternal bonding with the baby, and biological effects on fetal development. Recent research has confirmed how prenatal maternal stress can alter the development of the fetus and the child, and that this can persist until early adulthood. Children are affected in different ways depending, in part, on their own genetic makeup. The fetus may also have a direct effect on prenatal maternal mood and later parenting behaviour via the placenta. The father is important prenatally too. An abusive partner can increase the mother's prenatal stress and alter fetal development, but he can also be an important source of emotional support. New research suggests the potential benefits of prenatal interventions, including viewing of prenatal scans and cognitive behavioural therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Analysis of Offshore Finance and Offshore Accounts, Non-Resident Account%浅析离岸金融与离岸账户、NRA账户

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓翊平

    2016-01-01

    With the development of globalization and integration of economy and finance, the rapid development of offshore ifnance based on offshore accounts and Non-Resident accounts. This paper analyzes the current situation of the management of China's offshore ifnance, the difference and relationship between offshore accounts and Non-Resident accounts. And it is pointed out that the Non-Resident accounts can basically achieve offshore accounts of function. The author puts forward the policy suggestions to promote the orderly development of the offshore ifnance.%随着经济金融全球化、一体化的发展,以离岸账户、非居民机构账户为载体的离岸金融迅速发展。本文阐述了当前我国离岸金融的管理现状,分析了离岸账户和非居民机构账户存在的区别与联系,指出非居民机构账户可基本实现离岸账户的功能,提出了促进离岸金融规范有序发展的政策建议。

  14. Predictors of Paternal Involvement for Resident and Nonresident Low-Income Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Hernandez, Daphne C.

    2006-01-01

    In a sample of low-income families (N = 239), structural equation models assessed predictors of fathers' involvement with preschool-aged children in instrumental, behavioral, and emotional realms. Results suggest that parental conflict has a strong negative relation with father involvement. Fathers' human capital characteristics, healthy…

  15. Marital and job satisfaction among non-resident physicians at a Hispanic academic medical center, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-de Martí, Luz N; Acevedo, Luis F; Céspedes-Gómez, Wayca R

    2009-01-01

    Marital satisfaction has been previously associated with job satisfaction although few studies have addressed this issue among Hispanic physicians. Marital and job satisfaction were assessed in a sample of 92 legally married non-residents physicians working at a Hispanic Academic Medical Center during the 2006-2007 academic year. Marital satisfaction was assessed using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and job satisfaction was measured using a 18-item scale. Response rate was 34.8%. Most (70.7%) of the subjects were males. Forty- five percent (45.0%) belonged to the surgical specialties group. The mean scale value for marital satisfaction was found to be in the average range. Almost all (88.7%) the participants reported being "satisfied "to "very satisfied" with their job. Ninety percent (90.0%) of the surgical specialists and 86.9% of the non-surgical specialists reported being satisfied with their job. The percentage of participants that reported to be "very satisfied" with their job, was higher among the group of surgical specialists (23.3%) than among the non-surgical specialists (13.0%) There was no significant relationship between marital satisfaction and job satisfaction. Also, no statistically significant difference was observed in the level of marital satisfaction and job satisfaction when surgical and non-surgical physicians were compared. The findings on marital satisfaction obtained in this sample were similar to those observed in a previous study of resident physicians at the same academic medical center.

  16. Links between parent characteristics and attachment variables for college students of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Laura V; Kilmann, Peter R; Vendemia, Jennifer M C

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated links between offsprings' attachment patterns and parent characteristics in 157 females and 62 males of parental divorce. Secure females and males reported affection, respect, and closeness toward both biological parents. Offsprings' insecure attachment pattern was associated with negative parent characteristics. Participants who perceived their same-sex parent negatively were more likely to report an insecure attachment. Our findings suggest delayed negative consequences of parental divorce for college women and men.

  17. A Comparison of Biological and Adoptive Mothers and Fathers: The Relevance of Biological Kinship and Gendered Constructs of Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miall, Charlene E.; March, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Used qualitative interviews to examine beliefs and values about biological and adoptive parents. Considered how biological kinship, gender, and actual parenting behavior affect the assessments respondents made of the emotional bonding between parents and children. Found that biological and adoptive parents viewed motherhood as instinctive and…

  18. Parental Support and High School Students' Motivation in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics: Understanding Differences among Latino and Caucasian Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Price, Chara D.; Garcia, Krystal

    2015-01-01

    Individuals are at an increased risk to drop out of the STEM pipeline if they are female or Latino, and during certain periods including high school. Families are a potential untapped resource of support for high school students. Based on the expectancy-value model, we examined if a variety of parental behaviors predicted students' ability…

  19. Parental Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Ezra S Simon

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted in Ghana to investigate, (1) factors that predict parental involvement, (2) the relationship between parental home and school involvement and the educational achievement of adolescents, (3) the relationship between parental authoritativeness and the educational achievement of adolescent students, (4) parental involvement serving as a mediator between their authoritativeness and the educational achievement of the students, and (5) whether parental involvement decreases...

  20. Teen Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents can continue to attend school Classes in parenting skills and child development Child health care Counseling ... the fact that success stories abound. There are single teenage mothers who complete their educations and go ...

  1. Single Parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    FOR some parents the responsibility of bringing up a child is a one person task. Shouldering parental duties of two, single parents not only raise the child, but bring home the bacon as well. This is life for many people—either because of the death of a spouse, divorce, living apart from a spouse, pregnancy without marriage, or abandonment—the parent and child

  2. Invasibility of a nutrient-poor pasture through resident and non-resident herbs is controlled by litter, gap size and propagule pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Lutz Eckstein

    Full Text Available Since inference concerning the relative effects of propagule pressure, biotic interactions, site conditions and species traits on the invasibility of plant communities is limited, we carried out a field experiment to study the role of these factors for absolute and relative seedling emergence in three resident and three non-resident confamilial herb species on a nutrient-poor temperate pasture. We set up a factorial field experiment with two levels each of the factors litter cover (0 and 400 g m(-2, gap size (0.01 and 0.1 m(2 and propagule pressure (5 and 50 seeds and documented soil temperature, soil water content and relative light availability. Recruitment was recorded in spring and autumn 2010 and in spring 2011 to cover initial seedling emergence, establishment after summer drought and final establishment after the first winter. Litter alleviated temperature and moisture conditions and had positive effects on proportional and absolute seedling emergence during all phases of recruitment. Large gaps presented competition-free space with high light availability but showed higher temperature amplitudes and lower soil moisture. Proportional and absolute seedling recruitment was significantly higher in large than in small gaps. In contrast, propagule pressure facilitated absolute seedling emergence but had no effects on proportional emergence or the chance for successful colonisation. Despite significantly higher initial seedling emergence of resident than non-resident species, seed mass and other species-specific traits may be better predictors for idiosyncratic variation in seedling establishment than status. Our data support the fluctuating resource hypothesis and demonstrate that the reserve effect of seeds may facilitate seedling emergence. The direct comparison of propagule pressure with other environmental factors showed that propagule pressure affects absolute seedling abundance, which may be crucial for species that depend on other

  3. Adoptive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; Lo, Albert Yh

    2017-06-01

    Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents. Overall, parenting processes (e.g., supportive vs. problematic family interaction) are better predictors of child adjustment than are group differences (e.g., open vs. closed adoptions; adoption by heterosexual vs. same-sex parents). The distinctive needs of adopted children call for preparation of adoption-competent mental health, casework, education, and health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul de Cock

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  5. Challenging the Presumption of Diminished Capacity to Parent: Does Divorce Really Change Parenting Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohschein, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine whether divorced parents exhibit a diminished capacity to parent in the period following divorce. Using 2 waves of data from a national survey of Canadian children, the current study prospectively follows 5,004 children living in 2-biological parent households at initial interview and compares changes in…

  6. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....

  7. Parent Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    and parents say given these assumptions? Which management responsibility is addressed through such training of the difficult conversation?  My conclusions are, briefly, that the difficult conversation is more correctly to be called an impossible conversation. It is an asking for the parent's consent...

  8. Parental Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain, Katrin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Parental responsibility can be broadly defined as a legal term that specifies rights and responsibilities of parents towards their children. It is usually given initially to the birth mother and the married father, though unmarried fathers can obtain it either with the agreement of the mother or through a court order. In accordance with the provisions in law the court can also transfer parental responsibility to other persons (e.g. adoptive parents or in cases of child abuse or neglect to the state, represented by local authority social services. While the concept of parental responsibility can be found in most countries, the exact terminology varies from one country to another, as well as over time.

  9. Low immunogenicity but reduced bioavailability of an interferon beta-1a biosimilar compared with its biological parent: results of MATRIX, a cross-sectional, multicenter phase 4 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas C

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Cuevas,1 Florian Deisenhammer,2 Xiaojun You,3 Mariano Scolnik,4 Regine Buffels,3 Bjørn Sperling,3 Francisco Flores-Ramírez,5 Miguel Macías-Islas,6 Sergio Sauri-Suárez7 On behalf of the MATRIX Investigator Group 1Specialty Hospital, Department of Neurology, National Medical Center Siglo XXI, Mexican Institute of Social Security, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Neurology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; 3Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA; 4Biogen, Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 5Department of Internal Medicine–Neurology, Hospital Regional ISSSTE Monterrey, Monterrey, 6University Center for Health Sciences, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, 7Internal Medicine/Department of Neurology, National Medical Center, Mexico City, Mexico Abstract: MATRIX (Measuring neutralizing Antibodies in patients TReated with Interferon beta-1a IM in MeXico was primarily a cross-sectional phase 4 study of patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS that evaluated neutralizing antibody (NAb frequency in Mexican and Colombian patients treated with intramuscular interferon (IFN beta-1a in the form of Avonex® or the biosimilar drug Jumtab®. A secondary long-term retrospective observational evaluation of safety, tolerability, and relapses was also performed for patients in each arm of the study. In the cross-sectional portion of the study, patients with multiple sclerosis who had been treated with once-weekly Avonex (n=36 or Jumtab (n=29 self-injections as their first and only disease-modifying therapy for 1–3 years were retrospectively identified. The primary and secondary endpoints were proportion of patients with NAb levels >100 tenfold reduction units (TRU and >20 TRU. The biological response to IFN beta-1a injections was assessed by change in serum neopterin levels and by pre- versus post-dose concentration difference. Safety, tolerability, and relapse-related information were also retrospectively assessed. No patients developed

  10. 非居民企业纳税筹划:框架设计与案例分析%Tax Planning Research for Non-resident Enterprises: Theoretical Analysis and Case Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曾莲; 吴晓娟

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, non-resident enterprise tax revenue is increasing in China, and has a more and more significant contribution on financial performance. But most of non-resident enterprises in China last a short duration, and they change quickly with large and complex service types. What's more, non-resident enterprises are not familiar with the tax environment, and their consciousness of paying tax is not strong. This situation is not only the problem of China' s tax administrations, but also aggravating the non-resident enterprise' s tax risk and burden. In view of the lacking of related literature, this paper hopes establishing a tax planning framework for non-resident enterprises in China. The frame includes five parts: taxpayer's identification and permanent establishment, entity form, income tax, tax incentives and other kinds of tax. And this paper will combine with the case to analysis and verify the usefulness of the proposed tax planning framework.%近年来中国非居民企业税收规模越来越大,对财政业绩贡献显著。但非居民企业大多在中国持续时间短,变化快,业务类型多而复杂,且对中国税务环境不熟悉,纳税意识不强。这对中国的税收管理带来难题,也加重了其自身的税务风险和税收负担。而相关研究相对较少,文章力争构建非居民企业在我国税收环境下的有效税收筹划框架:从纳税人身份和常设机构、组织形式、所得税、税收优惠及其它税种五个方面进行筹划,并结合案例,分析该框架的有用性。

  11. Department of Biological Sciences, Federal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-05-07

    May 7, 2015 ... Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria ... concentrations in the parent soil under Gmelina plantation were significantly higher (p 0.05) ... In spite of the many benefits that.

  12. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We modelled the association between perceived parental warmth and rejection at age eleven and personality resemblance to parents at about age sixteen. Parenting experienced during early adolescence was related to the degree and direction in which adolescents resembled their parents five years later in life. Rejection, especially from fathers, significantly predicted a smaller resemblance to both the parents. Girls were more strongly affected by parental quality than boys, and there was some indication that adolescents responded in opposite ways to parenting from mothers and fathers. This study is a first step in uncovering the complex interplay between parenting, gender, and the current generation's ability to develop personality traits independent from the previous generation.

  13. Parental Marital Quality, Parental Divorce, and Relations with Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Amato, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined data from 419 parents and their adult children to assess impact of parental marital quality and divorce while child is residing with parents on parent-child relations 12 years later. Low marital quality and divorce appeared to have independent effects on adult child-parent relations. Fathers' relationships suffered more than mothers';…

  14. Cognitive tempo in children and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkind, N J

    1977-04-01

    An adoption study was conducted to determine if cognitive tempo (as characterized by errors and latencies on the Matching Familiar Figures Test) is more similar between parents and their biological children or between parents and their adopted children. Zero-order correlations between parents and children were not significant (regardless of familial relationship), but the results of canonical correlations for mean of parents' scores with those of biological and adopted children respectively were consonant with hypothesized values, suggesting a degree of heritability exists. A slight trend for parents' latency to be consistently related to their biological children's latency was noted, but no such trend was present for errors. The heritability of latency versus errors in cognitive tempo is discussed.

  15. Who is mommy tonight? Lesbian parenting issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciano-Boyce, Claudia; Shelley-Sireci, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Developing an identity as mother and establishing what it means to mother is a task not defined by sexual orientation. Both heterosexual and homosexual women encounter role models and the dictates of society when mothering (Nelson, 1996). The present study explores how 18 lesbian adoptive parents, 49 lesbian parents who formed their families biologically, and 44 heterosexual adoptive parents experience and perceive their parenting role, how they respond when their children seek them or their partner for particular nurturing, and how the parents negotiate the cultural expectation of a primary caregiver. Lesbian couples were more equal in their division of childcare than heterosexual parents, and lesbian adoptive parents were the most egalitarian. In all types of dual parent families, parents were sought by their child for different activities. In heterosexual adoptive and lesbian biological families, the child's parental preference was rarely a source of conflict between partners. Lesbian adoptive parents were more likely to report that this preference caused occasional conflict. Reasons for this conflict are discussed in light of societal expectations of women and the role of mother.

  16. Foster parenting, human imprinting and conventional handling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    3 School of Animal Biology, Faculty of Natural Agricultural Science, ... reared by foster parents were heavier than human-imprinted chicks, while early .... Moreover, the research was designed as a preliminary study to explore potential benefits.

  17. Relationship types among adolescent parents participating in a home-visiting program: A latent-transition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Maryna; Fosse, Nathan E; Fauth, Rebecca C; Bumgarner, Erin; Easterbrooks, M Ann

    2016-04-01

    Young parents (less than 25 years of age) have been shown to have especially low rates of father involvement and union stability. However, research has also shown that parenting experiences of young fathers may not be uniform. There is a need for more research that assesses both the multidimensionality of relationship typologies and their temporality. Using a large longitudinal sample of low-income, young mothers enrolled in a randomized control study of a home-visitation program (n = 704; 61% program, 39% control), we evaluated how mother-father relationship dynamics changed over time. Ten mother-reported indicators of relationships (e.g., coresidence, marital status, types of father support) were used to conduct a latent-class analysis of relationship types. A 4-class solution was identified at each time point: Single Parent, Supportive Nonresident Partner, Supportive Resident Partner, and Questioning/Ambivalent Coupling. Latent-transition analyses were used to evaluate stability of relationships across 2 years. At each transition, a large proportion of women moved from one relationship class to another, indicating heterogeneity in relationship dynamics of adolescent parents. Results revealed the potential of a home-visiting program targeted at young parents to favorably promote more stable and supportive mother-father relationships and coparenting arrangements.

  18. Greek Secondary School Students' Views about Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrikaki, Evangelia; Koumparou, Helen; Kyriakoudi, Margarita; Papacharalampous, Irene; Trimandili, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to give a picture of Greek students' views about biology and some of the factors that affect them. A questionnaire measuring students' intrinsic motivation to learn biology, individual interest in biology and perceived difficulty of biology, along with information about students' gender, level, parents' occupation and educational…

  19. FAMILY STRUCTURE TRANSITIONS AND MATERNAL PARENTING STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Meadows, Sarah O.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,176) are used to examine family structure transitions and maternal parenting stress. Using multilevel modeling, we find that mothers who exit coresidential relationships with biological fathers or enter coresidential relationships with nonbiological fathers report higher levels of parenting stress than mothers in stable coresidential relationships. Mothers who enter coresidential relationships with biological fathers report lower...

  20. Prenatal Genetic Counseling (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... every physical and biological characteristic of that person. Humans have 46 chromosomes, arranged in pairs in every living cell of ... from each parent. This newly formed combination of chromosomes then copies itself ... science suggests that every human has about 25,000 genes per cell. An ...

  1. Parenting Behavior Mediates the Intergenerational Association of Parent and Child Offspring ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A; Li, James J; Lee, Steve S

    2015-01-01

    Although there are likely to be multiple mechanisms underlying parent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as a key risk factor for offspring ADHD, potential explanatory factors have yet to be reliably identified. Given that parent ADHD symptoms independently predict parenting behavior and child ADHD symptoms, we tested whether individual differences in multiple dimensions of positive and negative parenting behavior (i.e., corporal punishment, inconsistent discipline, positive parenting behavior, observed negative talk, and observed praise) mediated the association between parental and offspring ADHD. We used a prospective design that featured predictors (i.e., parent ADHD symptoms) and mediators (i.e., parenting behavior) that temporally preceded the outcome (i.e., offspring ADHD symptoms). Using a well-characterized sample of 120 children with and without ADHD (ages 5-10 at Wave 1, 7-12 at Wave 2) and their biological parents, we examined multimethod (i.e., observed, self-report) measures of positive and negative parenting behavior as simultaneous mediators of the association of Wave 1 parent and Wave 2 offspring ADHD symptoms. Using a multiple mediation framework, consisting of rigorous bootstrapping procedures and controlling for parent depression, child's baseline ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and child's age, corporal punishment significantly and uniquely mediated the association of Wave 1 parent ADHD symptoms and Wave 2 offspring ADHD. We consider the role of parenting behavior in the intergenerational transmission of ADHD as well as implications of these findings for the intervention and prevention of childhood ADHD.

  2. Total Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins…

  3. Total Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins…

  4. Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1988-01-01

    Children ranging from fifth to twelfth grade, and their parents, were presented with items pertaining to family transgressions and asked to judge the legitimacy of parental jurisdiction, justify its wrongness or permissibility, and assess its contingency on parental authority. (PCB)

  5. Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1988-01-01

    Children ranging from fifth to twelfth grade, and their parents, were presented with items pertaining to family transgressions and asked to judge the legitimacy of parental jurisdiction, justify its wrongness or permissibility, and assess its contingency on parental authority. (PCB)

  6. A qualitative study of non-residents on voluntary AIDS counseling and testing service in a city%某市异地人口艾滋病自愿咨询和检测服务的定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贵; 马福军; 王慧玲; 罗江磋

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To learn why non-residents use the Vduntary counseling testing services, their psychological state and coping style, and the stigma and discrimination facing the patients and their families. Methods: All non-residents who came to the city from December 2013 to November 2014 for the AIDS VCT were interviewed one-by-one.ResuIts: Of a total of 75 non-residents who came for the AIDS VCT, 26 were confirmed HIV positive. All interviewees felt great psychological pressure. However, those who were confirmed HIV positive feel shameful in front of their family, and both the patients and their family members are facing discrimination from society. ConcIusion: Non-resident HIV positive patients have severe psychological disability and are reluctant to release their HIV status. Promoting AIDS health education, eliminating discrimination against HIV positive patients and their family, and providing all necessary support would be helpful to establish a barrier-free channel for patients to seek medical care.%目的::了解异地人群VCT(Vduntary counseling testing)服务的原因、心理状态、应对方式,艾滋病感染者及家庭承受的耻辱和受到社会歧视状况。方法:采取偶遇抽样的方法,对某市的VCT机构2013年12月~2014年11月期间前来咨询的异地人群进行一对一访谈。结果:来自异地接受访谈的75名VCT求询人员中,26名确诊为阳性,存在的心理压力比一般人群大, HIV阳性受访者表现出无颜面对家人的心理行为,社会对本人及其家庭成员都存在社会歧视。结论:异地咨询HIV阳性人员存在严重心理障碍,患病信息不愿被人知道;积极开展艾滋病健康教育,社会大众应该给艾滋病感染者及病人更多的支持和关怀,消除对艾滋病患者及家属的歧视;搭建艾滋病患无障碍求医需要构建有效策略。

  7. Responsive Parenting: One Approach for Teaching Single Parents Parenting Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marilyn C.; Nelson, Dorellis J.

    1981-01-01

    Responsive Parenting is a program designed to use parents in helping teach other parents to apply a behavior analysis approach in managing the behavior of their children. A description and evaluation of the adaptations for single-parents are discussed. Guidelines for program development and implementation are provided. (Author/RL)

  8. Helicopter Parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宪国

    2008-01-01

    孩子的自理能力差,与父母的过度关心有关。请阅读下面一篇短文,想想你有此经历吗? Do you know parents of high school students who come to the rescue whenever their son or daughter is in a tough spot?Are they still delivering forgotten lunches or gym clothes to school?Have they tried to

  9. Transformative Parents: Facilitating Transformative Experiences and Interest with a Parent Involvement Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddy, Benjamin C.; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the implementation of a parental involvement intervention coupled with small group discussions aimed at facilitating transformative experiences (TEs) in science courses (biology and chemistry) in an all-girls middle and high school. Specifically, the goal was to generate parental involvement, TE, and interest. Analyses showed…

  10. Is Separation Anxiety in Adolescents and Parents Related to Parental Differentiation of Self?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ora; Miller, Paul; Yitzhak, Meital

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between separation anxiety in adolescents after their transition to middle school, on the one hand, and differentiation of self and separation anxiety in their parents, on the other hand. The sample included 88 adolescents from northern Israel, together with their biological parents. Adolescents'…

  11. Consequences of Parental Divorce for Adult Children's Support of Their Frail Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen

    2008-01-01

    Using three waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study, I examined the association of parental divorce and remarriage with the odds that biological, adult children give personal care and financial assistance to their frail parents. The analysis included 5,099 adult children in the mother sample and 4,029 children in the father sample.…

  12. Parenting Styles and Beliefs about Parental Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…

  13. Parenting Styles and Beliefs about Parental Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…

  14. Recollections of Parent Characteristics and Attachment Patterns for College Women of Intact vs. Non-Intact Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmann, Peter R.; Carranza, Laura V.; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.

    2006-01-01

    This study contrasted offsprings' attachment patterns and recollections of parent characteristics in two college samples: 147 females from intact biological parents and 157 females of parental divorce. Secure females from intact or non-intact families rated parents positively, while insecure females rated parents as absent, distant, and demanding.…

  15. Insight of patients and their parents into schizophrenia: Exploring agreement and the influence of parental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, Alexandra; Norton, Joanna; Bortolon, Catherine; Robichon, Melissa; Rolland, Camille; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Raffard, Stéphane; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2015-08-30

    Poor insight is found in up to 80% of schizophrenia patients and has been associated with multiple factors of which cognitive functioning, social and environmental factors. Few studies have explored associations between patient insight and that of their biological parents', and the influence of parental factors. Insight was assessed in 41 patients and their biological parents with Amador's Scale for the assessment of Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). Parents' knowledge about schizophrenia and critical attitudes were assessed with validated self-report questionnaires. Both groups underwent cognitive assessments for working memory and executive functioning. Insight in patients and their parents was not associated for any of the SUMD dimensions but a significant correlation was found between patient and parent awareness of treatment effect for patient-parent dyads with frequent daily contact. Low parental critical attitude was associated with higher patient awareness of symptoms and a high parental memory task score with high patient insight. Our study is the first to suggest a possible influence of parental factors such as critical attitudes and cognitive performance on patient insight.

  16. Living with a Single Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Living With a Single Parent KidsHealth > For Kids > Living With a Single Parent ... single parents can be a great idea, too. Single Parents and Work Single parents are often working parents ...

  17. Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…

  18. All biology is computational biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowetz, Florian

    2017-03-01

    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science.

  19. All biology is computational biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science. PMID:28278152

  20. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... KidsHealth from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Search Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections ... this movie to learn more about diabetes. For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...

  1. Parent perspectives on biomarkers for OCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise Emma; Borgelt, Emily L; Stewart, S Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates parent perspectives on potential future applications of neuroimaging and genetic research in the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) clinic: for prediction, diagnosis, and treatment choice. It does so with a reflective eye on parental motivations for discussing near but st...... about biological selfhood and the ontological status of the brain and genes in the concrete specificities of individual lived experience; where knowledge is defined in relation to both the actions and rhetorics it facilitates....

  2. Why Do Entrepreneurial Parents Have Entrepreneurial Children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    We explore the origins of the intergenerational association in entrepreneurship using Swedish adoption data that allow us to quantify the relative importance of prebirth and postbirth factors. We find that parental entrepreneurship increases the probability of children's entrepreneurship by about...... 60%. For adoptees, both biological and adoptive parents make significant contributions to this association. These contributions, however, are quite different in size. Postbirth factors account for twice as much as prebirth factors in our decomposition of the intergenerational association...

  3. Resilient Parenting: Overcoming Poor Parental Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Wendy J.; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2007-01-01

    This study identified groups of mothers with varying patterns of adaptive functioning and bonds with their own parents. These patterns were related to mothers' parenting of their own children to understand how some mothers avoid repeating the cycle of poor parenting. Data from 210 new mothers were analyzed before hospital discharge about bonding…

  4. Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

    This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…

  5. Reaching Parents Through Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerber, Ronald J.

    1974-01-01

    The parent involvement program evolved from the needs of parents. Basic to the program is the concept of parenting, which implies taking positive action to facilitate and meet the needs of the children ahe family. Parents participate in the development, implementation, and evaluation of their child's program. (Author)

  6. A Chance to Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Susan; Brillhart, Lindsay; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    While parents with disabilities may face big challenges, with appropriate supports, many can be great parents. Just like other parents, they do not have to be responsible for every part of childrearing all by themselves. All parents rely on supports to help raise their children, such as day care, carpools, schools, babysitting co-ops, or advice…

  7. Parental Relationships and Homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ray B.

    1971-01-01

    Confirmed is Bieber's finding (1962) that childhood parental relationships of homosexual men are less desirable than those of heterosexual men. However, while parental impact on children may be greater than the other way around, child impact on the parent probably determines parental attitudes toward that child. (CJ)

  8. Parental Relationships and Homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ray B.

    1971-01-01

    Confirmed is Bieber's finding (1962) that childhood parental relationships of homosexual men are less desirable than those of heterosexual men. However, while parental impact on children may be greater than the other way around, child impact on the parent probably determines parental attitudes toward that child. (CJ)

  9. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  10. Effects of Family Structure and the Experience of Parental Separation: A Study on Adolescents’ Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Walper

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Large numbers of studies, mostly from the U.S., have addressed the effects of parental separation and divorce, pointing to disadvantages of children and adolescents growing up in separated families. However, evidence on this topic varies across countries and is limited for Germany. Using longitudinal data from waves 1 and 3 of the German Family Panel pairfam, we investigated differences in adolescents’ well-being by comparing stable nuclear families (n = 1968, single mother families (n = 360, and stepfather families (n = 214, as well as an additional smaller group of adolescents whose parents separated between waves 1 and 3 (“prospective separators”; n = 76. Adolescents’ satisfaction with different domains of life (family, education/work, and their general life satisfaction as well as their self-esteem were used as indicators of well-being. A series of multiple regression analyses tested the effects of family structure on well-being at T1 and changes in well-being over time, controlling for various background factors. Furthermore, likely mediation effects of infrequent contact to the non-resident father and economic strain were tested. The findings show (relatively minor effects of parental separation, namely lower well-being among youth1 in single mother families compared to nuclear families. Disadvantages of youth in single mother families could only be partly explained by the higher financial strain generally experienced in these families. Youth in stepfather families reported a similar overall well-being as adolescents in nuclear families, but indicated a greater decrease in family satisfaction over time. Pre-separation disadvantages among prospective separators were limited to greater dissatisfaction with school. Infrequent contact with the non-resident father did not affect adolescents’ well-being. Effects of family structure did not differ between boys and girls, but maternal education moderated the effects of family structure

  11. Are both parents always better than one? Parental conflict and young adult well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Kelly; Meier, Ann

    2010-09-01

    Using data from three waves of the National Survey of Families and Households (N=1,963), we examine associations between adolescent family experiences and young adult well-being across a range of indicators, including schooling, substance use, and family-related transitions. We compare children living with both biological parents, but whose parents differ in how often they argue, to children in stepfather and single-mother families, and we assess the extent to which differences can be understood in terms of family income and parenting practices. Findings suggest that parental conflict is associated with children's poorer academic achievement, increased substance use, and early family formation and dissolution. Living in single mother and stepfather families tend to be more strongly associated with our indicators of well-being, although differences between these family types and living with high conflict continuously married parents are often statistically indistinguishable. Income and parenting largely do not account for associations between adolescent family type and later life outcomes. We conclude that while children do better, on average, living with two biological married parents, the advantages of two-parent families are not shared equally by all.

  12. Reconceptualizing Parent Involvement: Parent as Accomplice or Parent as Partner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, Nichole M.; Brooks, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Policy statements of the last two decades have directed schools to enter into partnerships with parents to enhance the social, emotional, and academic growth of their children. However, in practice and scholarship, parental involvement has been constructed as attendance to school-based activities and needs. This article draws on data from an…

  13. Single-parent family forms and children's educational performance in a comparative perspective: Effects of school's share of single-parent families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M. de; Dronkers, J.A.; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Living in a single-parent family is negatively related with children's educational performance compared to living with 2 biological parents. In this article, we aim to find out to what extent the context of the school's share of single-parent families affects this negative relationship. We use poole

  14. Single-Parent Family Forms and Children's Educational Performance in a Comparative Perspective: Effects of School's Share of Single-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Marloes; Dronkers, Jaap; Wolbers, Maarten H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Living in a single-parent family is negatively related with children's educational performance compared to living with 2 biological parents. In this article, we aim to find out to what extent the context of the school's share of single-parent families affects this negative relationship. We use pooled data from the Organisation for Economic…

  15. Single-parent family forms and children's educational performance in a comparative perspective: Effects of school's share of single-parent families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M. de; Dronkers, J.A.; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Living in a single-parent family is negatively related with children's educational performance compared to living with 2 biological parents. In this article, we aim to find out to what extent the context of the school's share of single-parent families affects this negative relationship. We use

  16. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  17. Same-Sex Parent Families and Children's Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Children in traditional families (i.e., married, 2 biological parents) tend to do better than their peers in nontraditional families. An exception to this pattern appears to be children from same-sex parent families. Children with lesbian mothers or gay fathers do not exhibit the poorer outcomes typically associated with nontraditional families.…

  18. Same-Sex Parent Families and Children's Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Children in traditional families (i.e., married, 2 biological parents) tend to do better than their peers in nontraditional families. An exception to this pattern appears to be children from same-sex parent families. Children with lesbian mothers or gay fathers do not exhibit the poorer outcomes typically associated with nontraditional families.…

  19. Cognitive function assessment in the biological parents of the children with autism%孤独症患儿生物学父母的认知功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷青云; 王白兰; 陈劲梅; 李雪荣; 罗学荣; 张荣花

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较孤独症父母和健康对照的认知功能,探索孤独症核心家系中神经心理的改变.方法 选用11个效能可靠的神经心理测验,通过与正常对照的比较,来探索孤独症父母的认知损害.结果 孤独症父母在数字符号、木块图、Stroop CW、言语流畅性测验的重复数、WCST的持续错误数、WCST的非持续错误数、坚持性反应数和概括力水平百分数、Hanoi塔的执行时间、Hanoi塔的总分和总分/执行时间测验上与正常对照组有明显差异.结论 孤独症父母存在一定程度的认知功能损害,特别是构建功能、注意和执行功能方面,这些神经心理指标可能是孤独症遗传的表型标记.%Objective Comparing the cognitive neuropsychological function between the autistic children's parents and the normal controls,to exploring the neuropsychological defects in the pedigree of autism.Methods We choose eleven neuropsychological tests to compare the neuropsychological function of the autism's parents and normal controls.Results Compared with normal controls, the parents of children with autism showed the impairments of the cognitive functions,which included digit-symbol,block design,verbal fluency,ToH and WCST.Conclusions Compared with normal controls,the parents of the children with autism show the impairment of some cognitive functions.It suggests that the cognition defects are possible genetic marker in autism.

  20. Biologi Radiasi

    OpenAIRE

    Milla Yoesfianda

    2008-01-01

    Biologi radiasi adalah ilmu yang mempelajari tentang pengaruh dari ionisasi radiasi dalam tubuh makhluk hidup. Kemungkinan terjadinya efek biologis akibat interaksi radiasi dan jaringan tubuh manusia, berbanding lurus dengan besarnya dosis radiasi yang mengenai jaringan tubuh tersebut. Radiasi dapat mengakibatkan efek baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Efek yang merusak secara biologis dari radiasi ionisasi diklasifikasikan menjadi tiga kategori utama, yaitu efek somatik determin...

  1. Parental authority questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness.

  2. Parent and child psychopathology and suicide attempts among children of parents with alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Kenneth R; Bossarte, Robert M; Lu, Naiji; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; Chan, Grace; Wyman, Peter; Tu, Xin M; Goldston, David B; Houston, Rebecca J; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Hesselbrock, Victor M

    2014-01-01

    Parents with psychopathology such as alcohol use disorder (AUD) that confers risk for suicide attempt (SA) may have children who are more likely to develop such psychopathology and to attempt suicide, suggesting that risk may be "transmitted" from parents to children. We examined this phenomenon during the transition from childhood to adolescence, when risk for SA increases dramatically. A cohort of 418 children were examined at average age 9.4 (range 7-14) years at enrollment (Time 1, childhood) and approximately 5 years later, prior to reaching age 18 (Time 2, adolescence). One or both biological parents, oversampled for AUD, were also interviewed. Structural equation models (SEM) examined father-child, mother-child, and either/both parent-child associations. The primary outcome was SA over follow-up among offspring, assessed at Time 2. As hypothesized, parental antisocial personality disorder predicted conduct disorder symptoms in offspring both during childhood and adolescence (parent-child model, father-child model) and maternal AUD predicted conduct disorder symptoms during childhood (mother-child model). However, we did not find evidence to support transmission of depression from parents to offspring either during childhood or adolescence, and parent psychopathology did not show statistically significant associations with SA during adolescence. In conclusion, we conducted a rare study of parent-to-child "transmission" of risk for SA that used a prospective research design, included diagnostic interviews with both parents and offspring, and examined the transition from childhood to adolescence, and the first such study in children of parents with AUD. Results provided mixed support for hypothesized parent-child associations.

  3. Parenting children with down syndrome: An analysis of parenting styles, parenting dimensions, and parental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B Allyson; Conners, Frances; Curtner-Smith, Mary Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Effective parenting is vital for a child's development. Although much work has been conducted on parenting typically developing children, little work has examined parenting children with Down syndrome. The purpose of the current study was to compare the parenting styles and dimensions in mothers of children with DS and mothers of TD children. Thirty-five mothers of children with DS and 47 mothers of TD children completed questionnaires about parenting, parental stress, child behavior problems, and child executive function. We found that mothers of children with DS use an authoritative parenting style less and a permissive parenting style more than mothers of TD children. Additionally, we found that mothers of children with DS use reasoning/induction and verbal hostility less and ignoring misbehavior more than mothers of TD children. All of these differences, except for those of reasoning/induction, were at least partially accounted for by the higher levels of parental stress in the DS group. Parenting interventions should be focused on reducing parental stress and training mothers to parent under stress in an effort to improve parenting techniques, which would, in theory, improve long-term child outcomes for children with DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Biological weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  5. Mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James D

    1993-01-01

    The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...

  6. Parental perceptions and childhood dietary quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Kristi B; Brett, Kendra E

    2014-05-01

    The early years represent a critical period of growth and development of health behaviours. While optimal child growth is associated with a complex set of factors, the importance of diet quality is undeniable. The objective of this narrative review is to examine contributors to child diet quality and parental perception and how such perceptions might affect child diet quality. An extensive literature search was conducted, generating a variety of sources including research trials (randomized and non-randomized), lab-based studies, cohort studies, topical reviews, government or NGO reports and grey literature. In addition, reflection and opinion, accrued through regular interaction with families, regarding some of the potential links has also been included. Parental perception of diet quality is influenced by many different social, biological economical and psychological factors. Research suggests that diet quality of today's children is sub-optimal and a parent's perception of their child's diet may not accurately reflect this reality. Various parental attitudes and perceptions/misperceptions are important to address as knowledge awareness and beliefs can impact diet quality as can parental practices, and family structure. Issues related to socioeconomics and convenience, and a child's preferences and their peer and/or social environment are also potential factors impacting child diet quality. Knowing that parents play such an integral role in the development and maintenance of their child's health behaviours, addressing misconceptions and unhealthy parental beliefs about diet quality may be an important area for early intervention and prevention work in childhood obesity.

  7. Influence of Self-Esteem, Parenting Style and Parental Monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Self-Esteem, Parenting Style and Parental Monitoring on Sexual Risk Behaviour of ... authoritative parenting style [t(192)=4.99, p<.001]; authoritarian parenting style has no significant effect on adolescents' risky sexual behavior ...

  8. Parents' Reactions to Teacher Practices of Parent Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Joyce L.

    1986-01-01

    Presents the findings of a survey of parents' experiences with different kinds of parent involvement. Views school and family relations from the parents' perspective and suggests that parents favor programs that stress cooperation between school and home. (DR)

  9. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... KidsHealth from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life ...

  10. Who Needs Parent Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1978-01-01

    The author proposes that those most in need of parent education are non-parents; the basis for this contradictory conclusion is in the changes that have been taking place in the structure and position of the American family. (MM)

  11. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety Print A A ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  12. Stresses of Single Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ways to avoid the stress of being a single parent? Single parenthood can bring added pressure and stress ... share day-to-day responsibilities or decision-making, single parents must provide greater support for their children while ...

  13. Parenting in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Camilla J; Berrow, Steffan R; Harwood, Chris G

    2017-08-01

    This paper provides a brief summary and commentary on the growing literature on parenting in sport, with a particular emphasis on literature from the last 2-3 years. Following a brief introduction overviewing the topic area, we firstly focus on the influence of parental involvement on children. Specifically, we examine the range of factors that influence children's perceptions of parental involvement and the consequences of different behaviors. Next we discuss the factors influencing parental involvement, such as the challenges and stressors associated with parenting children in sport and the culture within different sports. Finally, our review focuses upon the strategies developed by parents to facilitate their involvement in their children's sport, as well as the few papers focused upon parent education and support. We conclude by examining the need for further research and examination of support strategies for parents. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety A A A ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  15. Night Terrors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Night Terrors KidsHealth > For Parents > Night Terrors Print A A A en español Terrores nocturnos What Are Night Terrors? Most parents have comforted their child after the ...

  16. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines ... or her parents, and the doctor. Why the Vaccines Are Recommended Meningococcal disease is caused by a ...

  17. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  18. New Parent Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your parenting and improve your childrearing skills. Everyone wins with responsible parenting. Protect Your Children from Health ... or peer aggression, is more common than you think. It consists of any behavior – verbal or physical – ...

  19. Helping Parents Say No.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duel, Debra K.

    1988-01-01

    Provides some activities that are designed to help students understand some of the reasons why parents sometimes refuse to let their children have pets. Includes mathematics and writing lessons, a student checklist, and a set of tips for parents. (TW)

  20. Does Parents' Money Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    This paper asks whether parental income per se has a positive impact on children's human capital accumulation. Previous research has established that income is positively correlated across generations. This does not prove that parents' money matters, however, since income is presumably correlated with unobserved abilities transmitted across generations. This paper estimates the impact of parental income by focusing on variation due to parental factors -- union, industry, and job loss experien...

  1. Emotional distress and parenting among community and clinic parents

    OpenAIRE

    Rimehaug, Tormod

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the distribution of and the change in parental emotional distress and parenting dimensions by combining samples of community parents, non-parents and clinic parents. Clinic parents were involved in intensive inpatient family treatment related to their children’s psychiatric problems. Research questions: The focal themes of the three research questions were as follows: 1) Anxiety and depression among community parent and non-parent subg...

  2. The Importance of Parenting and Financial Contributions in Promoting Fathers' Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Holly S.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between residential, biological fathers' parental engagement, financial contributions, and psychological well-being in 2-parent families. Specifically, this study focuses on how fathers' parental engagement and financial contributions are related to their self-esteem, self-efficacy, and psychological distress.…

  3. The Importance of Parenting and Financial Contributions in Promoting Fathers' Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Holly S.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between residential, biological fathers' parental engagement, financial contributions, and psychological well-being in 2-parent families. Specifically, this study focuses on how fathers' parental engagement and financial contributions are related to their self-esteem, self-efficacy, and psychological distress.…

  4. Parent's Journal. [Videotape Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    Parent's Journal is a set of 16 videotapes for parents of prenatal, infant, and toddler-age children, created by the Alaska Native Home Base Video Project of the Tlingit and Haida Head Start Program. This series offers culturally relevant solutions to the challenges of parenting, drawing on the life stories and experiences of capable mothers and…

  5. Parenting after Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…

  6. Parenting after Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…

  7. Parenting by Lying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gail D.; Luu, Diem H.; Lee, Kang

    2009-01-01

    The present set of studies identifies the phenomenon of "parenting by lying", in which parents lie to their children as a means of influencing their emotional states and behaviour. In Study 1, undergraduates (n = 127) reported that their parents had lied to them while maintaining a concurrent emphasis on the importance of honesty. In Study 2 (n =…

  8. Shared Parenting Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkat, Ira Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Joint custody of children is the most prevalent court ordered arrangement for families of divorce. A growing body of literature indicates that many parents engage in behaviors that are incompatible with shared parenting. This article provides specific criteria for a definition of the Shared Parenting Dysfunction. Clinical aspects of the phenomenon…

  9. Parenting Beliefs, Parental Stress, and Social Support Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee

    2012-01-01

    The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…

  10. Personality and Parenting Style in Parents of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huver, Rose M. E.; Otten, Roy; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian,…

  11. Personality and Parenting Style in Parents of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huver, Rose M. E.; Otten, Roy; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian,…

  12. Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority and Personal Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Asquith, Pamela

    1994-01-01

    Conceptions of parental authority and ratings of adolescent-parent conflict were assessed in 6th-, 8th-, and 10th-graders and their parents. Participants judged the legitimacy of parental authority and rated the frequency and intensity of conflict regarding 24 hypothetical issues. Adolescents and parents agreed that parents should retain authority…

  13. Parent Behavior Importance and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaires: Psychometric Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowder, Barbara A.; Sanders, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of two parenting measures: the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire (PBIQ) and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire (PBFQ). Both research questionnaires are based on the parent development theory (PDT) and offer parent as well as non-parent respondents the opportunity to rate 38 parenting…

  14. Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority and Personal Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Asquith, Pamela

    1994-01-01

    Conceptions of parental authority and ratings of adolescent-parent conflict were assessed in 6th-, 8th-, and 10th-graders and their parents. Participants judged the legitimacy of parental authority and rated the frequency and intensity of conflict regarding 24 hypothetical issues. Adolescents and parents agreed that parents should retain authority…

  15. Assessing Dimensions of Single Parenting: The Single Parenting Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Arnold L.; Ullman, Ann J.

    1984-01-01

    Developed and validated an instrument that assesses five dimensions of single parenting: problem solving skills, parental warmth, discipline procedures, parent rules, enthusiasm for parenting and parent support systems. Results gave statistical support for the Single Parenting Questionnaire, suggesting it may be useful in both clinical and…

  16. IVF, same-sex couples and the value of biological ties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2016-01-01

    Ought parents, in general, to value being biologically tied to their children? Is it important, in particular, that both parents be biologically tied to their children? I will address these fundamental questions by looking at a fairly new practice within IVF treatments, so-called IVF-with-ROPA (R......Ought parents, in general, to value being biologically tied to their children? Is it important, in particular, that both parents be biologically tied to their children? I will address these fundamental questions by looking at a fairly new practice within IVF treatments, so-called IVF......-with-ROPA allows for do not have any particular value beside the satisfaction of a legitimate wish, because there is no intrinsic value in a biological tie between parents and children; further, I argue that equality within parental projects cannot be achieved by redistributing biological ties....

  17. Intergenerational Transmission of Internalizing Problems: Effects of Parental and Grandparental Major Depressive Disorder on Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Roberts, Robert E.; Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of lifetime histories of grandparental (G1) and parental (G2) major depressive disorder (MDD) on children's (G3) internalizing problems were investigated among 267 G3 children (ages 2-18 years) who received Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) ratings and had diagnostic data available on 267 biological G2 parents and 527 biological G1…

  18. Parental Responsibilities to Children in the Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Shpresa Ibrahimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, in Albanian customary law, parental responsibilities were an exclusive competency of fathers. In positive law, especially with the reform of the legal system in the Republic of Kosovo, now both parents are fully equal in exercising parental responsibilities. Children are the future of any society, and therefore, their upraising, education and proper welfare of children is an objective and responsibility not only for the parents, but also of societal and state institutions. Although parent-child relations incorporate moral, biological and legal elements, the absolute power of parents must be shared between parents and proper social and educational policies, in the heart of which are always the best interests of the child. Kosovo has already adopted a complete legal framework, approximated to the standards of the European Union and international instruments which clearly provide on the rights of the child and responsibilities of parents and institutions in enjoying such rights. Within the range of this new legal framework, we make an effort of addressing parental responsibilities, which are exercised in terms of personality of children, and derive as a result of personal non-material relations. Our work is focused on a study of parental responsibilities in terms of giving a personal name, healthy development, education and upraising. We have also analysed several court rulings related to the rights of the child and responsibilities of parents in enjoying such rights, which we believe are to enrich and render the paper more interesting.

  19. Parent-child interaction: Does parental language matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashe, Atara; Atzaba-Poria, Naama

    2016-11-01

    Although parental language and behaviour have been widely investigated, few studies have examined their unique and interactive contribution to the parent-child relationship. The current study explores how parental behaviour (sensitivity and non-intrusiveness) and the use of parental language (exploring and control languages) correlate with parent-child dyadic mutuality. Specifically, we investigated the following questions: (1) 'Is parental language associated with parent-child dyadic mutuality above and beyond parental behaviour?' (2) 'Does parental language moderate the links between parental behaviour and the parent-child dyadic mutuality?' (3) 'Do these differences vary between mothers and fathers?' The sample included 65 children (Mage  = 1.97 years, SD = 0.86) and their parents. We observed parental behaviour, parent-child dyadic mutuality, and the type of parental language used during videotaped in-home observations. The results indicated that parental language and behaviours are distinct components of the parent-child interaction. Parents who used higher levels of exploring language showed higher levels of parent-child dyadic mutuality, even when accounting for parental behaviour. Use of controlling language, however, was not found to be related to the parent-child dyadic mutuality. Different moderation models were found for mothers and fathers. These results highlight the need to distinguish parental language and behaviour when assessing their contribution to the parent-child relationship. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Parents who use drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bernays, Sarah; Houmøller, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    ' parenting. Accounts of damage acceptance highlight a theme of 'recovery'. We find that the interview accounts operate in response to a regulative norm of 'good parenting' in which one strives to deflect damaged identity through narratives of damage qualification and to seek understanding and acceptance......Parents who use drugs parent in a context of heightened concern regarding the damaging effects of parental drug use on child welfare and family life. Yet there is little research exploring how parents who use drugs account for such damage and its limitation. We draw here upon analyses of audio......-recorded depth qualitative interviews, conducted in south-east England between 2008 and 2009, with 29 parents who use drugs. Our approach to thematic analysis treated accounts as co-produced and socially situated. An over-arching theme of accounts was 'damage limitation'. Most damage limitation work centred...

  1. Parental Alienation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Torun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Children who have been programmed by one parent to be alienated from the other parent are commonly seen in the context of child-custody disputes. Its primary manifestation is the child’s campaign of denigration against a parent, a campaign that has no justification. It is said to result from a combination of a programming (brainwashing parent’s indoctrinations and the child’s own contributions to the vilification of the targeted parent. Many evaluators use the term parental alienation syndrome to refer to the disorder engendered in such children. However, there is significant controversy going on about the validity of parental alienation syndrome. The purpose of this article has been to describe and help to differentiate parental alienation syndrome and abuse for mental health professionals working in the field, and discuss the arguments about the validity of this syndrome.

  2. Children with ostomies: parents helping parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A

    1992-01-01

    Thousands of ostomies are performed on children every year to treat a variety of acquired conditions and congenital anomalies. The parents of children with ostomies are faced with the challenge of successfully living with and managing their child's ostomy. These families need practical information and support, both from the professional community and from parents who have shared the responsibility of a child with an ostomy. A parental support network has been developed throughout the country to address some of the needs of these families. This article provides current information about the status of these networks: what they have to offer and how they can be accessed. These groups, which continue to evolve, demonstrate a trend within this unique population. The parents of a child with an ostomy no longer need to feel alone in their experience.

  3. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  4. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  5. Parenting styles and conceptions of parental authority during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, J G

    1995-04-01

    Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 110 primarily white, middle-class sixth, eighth, and tenth graders (M = 11.98, 13.84, and 16.18 years of age) and their parents (108 mothers and 92 fathers). Parents judged the legitimacy of parental authority and rated family conflict and rules regarding 24 hypothetical moral, conventional, personal, multifaceted (containing conventional and personal components), prudential, and friendship issues. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Parents' parenting styles differentiated their conceptions of parental authority, but adolescents' perceptions did not. Differences were primarily over the boundaries of adolescents' personal jurisdiction. Furthermore, conceptions of parental authority and parenting styles both contributed significantly to emotional autonomy and adolescent-parent conflict. The implications of the findings for typological models of parenting and distinct domain views of social-cognitive development are discussed.

  6. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Roos; Meijer, Anne Marie; Deković, Maja; Aldenkamp, Albert P

    2007-09-01

    The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting. Participants were 91 parents of children with epilepsy (mean age of children=8 years, 5 months). Parental perceptions of stressors, resources, parental coping behaviors, parenting stress, and parenting were assessed by means of questionnaires. Regression analyses were used to analyze the unique and combined power of the predictors to predict parenting stress and parenting. Sobel tests were used to identify the mediational role of parenting stress. Evidence was found for direct effects of stressors, resources, and coping behaviors on parenting stress and parenting, with relatively large effects for stressors. The mediational role of parenting stress was largest in the domain of parental behavioral control. In the context of pediatric epilepsy, parenting stress mediates both disruptive and resilient family factors for their effects on parenting. Parents of children with epilepsy may benefit from parent training programs that, to reduce parenting stress, address epilepsy education, the management of difficult child temperament, building social support networks, and the modification of inadequate parental coping behaviors.

  7. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting. Metho

  8. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting. METHO

  9. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting.

  10. Parents of children with enduring epilepsy: predictors of parenting stress and parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting.

  11. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-01-01

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We

  12. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyhrman, Sonya

    2004-10-01

    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  13. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  14. Foldit Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Report 8/1/2013-7/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Foldit Biology NOOO 14-13-C-0221 Sb. GRANT NUMBER N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Include area code) Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified (206) 616-2660 Zoran Popović Foldit Biology (Task 1, 2, 3, 4) Final Report...Period Covered by the Report August 1, 2013 – July 31, 2015 Date of Report: July 31, 2015 Project Title: Foldit Biology Contract Number: N00014-13

  15. Parenting in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Karen L

    2017-06-01

    The study of parenting in animals has allowed us to come to a better understanding of the neural and physiological mechanisms that underlie mammalian parental behavior. The long-term effects of parenting (and parental abuse or neglect) on offspring, and the neurobiological changes that underlie those changes, have also been best studied in animal models. Our greater experimental control and ability to directly manipulate neural and hormonal systems, as well as the environment of the subjects, will ensure that animal models remain important in the study of parenting; while in the future, the great variety of parental caregiving systems displayed by animals should be more thoroughly explored. Most importantly, cross-talk between animal and human subjects research should be promoted.

  16. Late adolescent perceptions of parent religiosity and parenting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, J Blake; Clements, Andrea; Vazsonyi, Alexander T

    2004-12-01

    The current investigation examined the relations between adolescent reports of parent religiosity and parenting processes, using both a dimensional and a typological conceptualization of parenting. Self-report data were collected from 357 late adolescents. Partial correlations indicated that parent religiosity was associated with both parenting dimensions and parenting styles in conceptually expected directions. Regression analyses provided evidence that the dimensional conceptualization of parenting explained additional variability in perceived parental religiosity above and beyond parenting style effects. Findings suggest that a dimensional conceptualization of parenting processes extends the literature on parent religiosity because it yields more nuanced information about how parental religiosity may be related to differentiated parenting behaviors. Potential therapeutic implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. The Supreme Court upholds parental notice requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    On June 25, 1990 the US Supreme Court ruled in 2 cases concerned with the constitutionally of 2 state law that required parental notification of minors seeking an abortion. In Hodgson v Minnesota the Court ruled that states may not require 2 parent notification. They can however require that both biological parents be notified if a judicial bypass is provided for minors wishing to keep the matter private. In Ohio v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health the Court upheld a 1 parent notification law which included a judicial bypass clause. The Court however did refuse to decide whether the state must provide the bypass option it is mandates 1 parent notification. In the Hodgson case the courts opinion stated that the state did not have the right to require that family members talk to each other. Also the Court upheld that states may require a 48-hour waiting period between notification and the procedure to give parents time to provide medical records and to check the doctor's competency. In Ohio the court ruled that states do not have to guarantee absolute anonymity of the minor as long as they make a reasonable effort to keep her name from beginning public. The Court also ruled that states can require a minor to provide "clear and compelling" evidence, the most difficult legal standard of proof, when she is petitioning the court that she is sufficiently mature to consent to the procedure or that parental notification is not in her best interest. Also, the Court ruled that the state may require doctors to notify the parents personally concerning the procedure.

  18. Parenting style, parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.

  19. Natural Parenting — Back to Basics in Infant Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine A. Schön

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review examines an age-old approach to parenting recently rediscovered in Western industrialized societies and known by names such as natural parenting, attachment parenting, and instinctive parenting. Its leading principle is utmost sensitivity to the child's innate emotional and physical needs, resulting in extended breastfeeding on demand, extensive infant carrying on the caregiver's body, and cosleeping of infant and parents. The described practices prevailed during the evolutionary history of the human species and reflect the natural, innate rearing style of the human species to which the human infant has biologically adapted over the course of evolution. An overview of research from diverse areas regarding psychological as well as physiological aspects of early care provides evidence for the beneficial effects of natural parenting. Cross-cultural and historical data is cited to reveal the widespread use of the investigated parenting style. It is concluded that the described approach to parenting provides the human infant with an ideal environment for optimal growth both psychologically and physiologically. It is yet to be determined how much departure from this prototype of optimal human parenting is possible without compromising infant and parental wellbeing. The review also invites a critical reevaluation of current Western childrearing practices.

  20. Parental leave in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Maron, Leila; Meulders, Danièle; O'Dorchai, Sile Padraigin

    2008-01-01

    All over Europe, parental leaves are essentially taken by women which leads to perpetuate gender inequalities in the labour market. The economic literature illustrates the issues at stake and is presented in this article to contextualise the analysis of the Belgian parental leave system. The Belgian parental leave system has two strong features: it is individualised and it offers a relatively short leave. The system could be improved by the implementation of a wage-related payment. However, p...

  1. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  2. Parental Involvement in Mathematics: Giving Parents a Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, S.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why parents become involved in their children's education is crucial in strengthening the relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement. The present study focuses on the parental role construction and parental self-efficacy. The resulting trends suggest that parents, regardless of their self-efficacy, may assume…

  3. Handbook of Parenting. Volume 1: Children and Parenting. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.

    Concerned with different types of parents and the forces that shape parenting, this volume, the first of five volumes on parenting, deals specifically with parent-child relationships throughout the lifespan and the parenting of children of different physical, behavioral, and intellectual needs. The volume consists of the following 14 chapters: (1)…

  4. Parenting Styles and Conceptions of Parental Authority during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1995-01-01

    Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 100 mostly white, middle-class, 6th, 8th, and 10th graders and their parents. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Differences were primarily over the…

  5. Personality and parenting style in parents of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huver, R.M.E.; Otten, R.; Vries, H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parentin

  6. Personality and parenting style in parents of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huver, R.M.E.; Otten, R.; Vries, H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived

  7. Personality and parenting style in parents of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huver, R.M.E.; Otten, R.; Vries, H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parentin

  8. Longitudinal impact of parental and adolescent personality on parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Amaranta D; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a test of how personality may shape social behaviors in a long-lasting dyad: the parent-adolescent relationship. In a large Belgian community sample, it was examined which parent Big Five characteristics were related to parenting and whether adolescent Big Five characteristics elicited certain parenting behaviors. Further, the proposition that individual differences are amplified under stress was examined by exploring whether parent personality was differentially related to parenting for parents of "easy" versus "difficult" adolescents. Moreover, possible differences in associations across parental and adolescent gender were explored. Mothers (N = 467) and fathers (N = 428) reported on their personality using the Five-Factor Personality Inventory; adolescents (N = 475) assessed their personality with the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children. Two types of parenting behaviors, overreactive discipline and warmth, were assessed 2 years later by parent self-reports, partner reports, and adolescent reports, from which multi-informant latent factors were created. Results indicate that parental personality was more relevant than adolescent personality for explaining overreactivity, but parent and adolescent personality were similarly relevant in explaining warmth. Especially parental and adolescent Agreeableness and adolescent Extraversion were important predictors of both types of parenting. Associations between parental personality and parenting were similarly related to parents of easy versus difficult adolescents, and for mothers and fathers parenting daughters or sons. Together, results show that parent characteristics as well as adolescent characteristics importantly affect dysfunctional and adaptive parenting.

  9. Parental Involvement in Mathematics: Giving Parents a Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, S.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why parents become involved in their children's education is crucial in strengthening the relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement. The present study focuses on the parental role construction and parental self-efficacy. The resulting trends suggest that parents, regardless of their self-efficacy, may assume…

  10. Parents' Perspectives on Parental Notification of College Students' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosden, Merith; Hughes, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Although many colleges and universities use "parental notification" to inform parents of students' alcohol use, the impact of this intervention on student and parent behavior is unclear. Surveys were obtained from 326 parents of university undergraduates, 56 of whom had received a notification. Parent responses to the notification were…

  11. [Being raised by lesbian parents or in a single-parent family is no risk factor for problem behavior, however being raised as an adopted child is].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, F C; Versluis-den Bieman, H O; Balmus, N C

    1997-03-01

    Modern reproductive techniques and alternative family structures (with single or homosexual parents and adoption situations) raise questions about the consequences for the growing children involved. Genetic links appear to be less important for the functioning of a family than a strong wish for parenthood; parents who have become parents only through great efforts display a better quality of parenthood than average natural parents. Characteristics of the parent/parents, such as paedagogic qualities, and the quality of the parent-child relationship appear more important than the type of family. Published results of research reveal no reason why lesbian families should be judged differently from heterosexual ones as family types for the raising of children. The main negative factor for the functioning of the child growing up in a single-parent family is the marriage conflicts that have led to the single-parent situation; being raised by a single parent in itself has no adverse effect. Raising adopted children from other countries makes far greater demands on the adoptive parents than parents of biological children have to meet. The raising of a foreign adopted child by a single parent entails additional risks for the child's development. Data on the development of children in alternative family structures frequently concern exceptionally competent parents, which may have biased the findings.

  12. Biology teachers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematics, Science and Biology teachers code switch when they teach. ... (by constantly translating back and forth), and argue for a 'separation approach' ..... for the classroom, only 3 students did not give an answer to this open-ended.

  13. Gay and lesbian parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M B; Turner, P H

    An anonymous survey of 23 gay and lesbian parents and 16 heterosexual single parents was conducted in order to see whether the parents' homosexuality created special problems or benefits or both, for their children. Both sets of parents reported relatively few serious problems and generally positive relationships with their children, with only a minority encouraging sex-typed toys, activities, and playmates. Heterosexual parents made a greater effort to provide an opposite-sex role model for their children, but no other differences in their parenting behaviors were found. Gay and lesbian parents saw a number of benefits and relatively few problems for their children as a result of their homosexuality, with lesbians perceiving greater benefits than gay men. Conversely, the gay males reported greater satisfaction with their first child, fewer disagreements with their partners over discipline, and a greater tendency to encourage play with sex-typed toys than did the lesbians. The findings suggest that being homosexual is clearly compatible with effective parenting and is not a major issue in parents' relationships with their children.

  14. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Kids for Teens Search Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ...

  15. Changes in Stepparents' Coparenting and Parenting Following Participation in a Community-Based Relationship Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garneau, Chelsea L; Adler-Baeder, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Studies of coparents typically center on the relationship between parents who share a biological child; limited attention in research on community-based programs is given to the coparenting relationship within a stepfamily, even though clinicians note the challenges inherent in this relationship. We examined changes in coparenting agreement, parenting efficacy, and parental involvement for 96 stepparents following participation in a coparenting-focused community education program. A significant main effect of time was found for improvement in coparenting agreement, yet a significant time × gender interaction effect suggests that this is driven by improvements for stepmothers only. Parenting efficacy improved, regardless of gender, race, residence, or curriculum. A significant time × race interaction effect on change in parental involvement indicates increases in parental involvement for European American participants only. Finally, increases in coparenting agreement were associated with increases in parenting efficacy, and increases in parenting efficacy were associated with increases in parental involvement.

  16. INTERESES Y DERECHOS EN COLISIÓN SOBRE LA IDENTIDAD DEL PROGENITOR BIOLÓGICO: LOS SUPUESTOS DE LA MADRE SOLTERA Y DEL DONANTE DE GAMETOS Interests and rights in conflict about biological parent's identity: the unmarried mother and sperm donor's cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Corral Talciani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de un trabajo anterior del profesor español Ramón Duran, publicado en esta misma Revista, se analizan dos casos en los que se enfrentan derechos e intereses entre progenitores e hijos. En los dos casos el problema se presenta ante el reconocimiento y tutela de un derecho del hijo a conocer la identidad de sus progenitores, y las pretensiones de limitar ese derecho para garantizar el anonimato de ciertos progenitores, como la madre soltera que pretende así evitar las cargas de la maternidad sin atentar contra la vida y salud del hijo y el tercero aportante de esperma que desea que su intervención en la técnica de reproducción asistida no le ocasione responsabilidades ni situaciones incómodas frente a los hijos que se han concebido gracias a sus gametos. Se postula que deben distinguirse tres conceptos que pueden jugar a favor de la preferencia del interés del hijo: el principio de verdad biológica, el principio del interés superior del niño ofavor filii y el derecho a la identidad. El trabajo proporciona argumentos para sostener la idea de que, al menos en el contexto jurídico y sociocultural chileno y latinoamericano, no se debe establecer ni el anonimato de la madre soltera ni la reserva del donante de gametos, yse manifiesta favorable a propiciar una interpretación de los textos normativos que hagan primar el derecho del hijo a conocer la identidad de sus progenitores en ambos supuestos.In light of a previous work by profesor Ramón Duran, from Spain, published in this same magazine, two cases will be analyzed in which the rights and interests of biological parents and offspring collide. In both cases, the problem arises from the recognition and protection of the right of a child to know the identity of his biological parents, and the attempts to limit that right by guaranteeing the anonymity of certain biológica! parents, such as the unmarried mother who by those means seeks to avoid the burdens of motherhood without

  17. Pulp development, repair, and regeneration: challenges of the transition from traditional dentistry to biologically based therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Gottfried; Smith, Anthony J

    2014-04-01

    The traditional concept of replacing diseased tooth/pulp tissues by inert materials (restoration) is being challenged by recent advances in pulp biology leading to regenerative strategies aiming at the generation of new vital tissue. New tissue formation in the pulp chamber can be observed after adequate infection control and the formation of a blood clot. However, differentiation of true odontoblasts is still more speculative, and the approach is largely limited to immature teeth with open apices. A more systematic approach may be provided by the adoption of the tissue engineering concepts of using matrices, suitable (stem) cells, and signaling molecules to direct tissue events. With these tools, pulplike constructs have already been generated in experimental animals. However, a number of challenges still remain for clinical translation of pulp regeneration (eg, the cell source [resident vs nonresident stem cells, the latter associated with cell-free approaches], mechanisms of odontoblast differentiation, the pulp environment, the role of infection and inflammation, dentin pretreatment to release fossilized signaling molecules from dentin, and the provision of suitable matrices). Transition as a process, defined by moving from one form of "normal" to another, is based not only on the progress of science but also on achieving change to established treatment concepts in daily practice. However, it is clear that the significant recent achievements in pulp biology are providing an exciting platform from which clinical translation of dental pulp regeneration can advance. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  19. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  20. Are Indian parents of children with Down syndrome engaged in the blame game?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranjan, Mamta N; Budyal, Sweta R; Shah, Henal R

    2013-07-01

    To study blame ascription among parents of children with Down syndrome and to study its correlation with sociodemographic factors, parental perception of dysmorphisms and parents' knowledge about Down syndrome. This is a prospective, observational, non-interventional case control study. Interview of biological parents of children with Down syndrome less than 12 y of age was taken. Dysmorphism and parents' feeling of blame was assessed and graded by Likert's scale. Controls were parents of age and gender matched children with non-genetic chronic disorders. During the study period, 50 mothers and 46 fathers of cases and 50 control parents were interviewed. Parents in the study group were older; the mothers were better educated and had more frequent antenatal visits. There was no significant difference in the proportion of parents counseled but genetic counseling was associated with a significantly higher proportion of parents having knowledge about Down syndrome. A higher proportion of parents perceived their child with Down syndrome being dysmorphic. Blame ascription was not significantly different among the two groups and was seen only in a small proportion of parents of cases. When it did occur, it was directed at health professionals. Blame ascription is not frequent in a cohort of Indian parents of children with Down syndrome even when dysmorphism is perceived by parents. Genetic counseling was associated with better knowledge about Down syndrome in the parents.

  1. Parental Divorce, Parental Religious Characteristics, and Religious Outcomes in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Ellison, Christopher G

    2012-12-01

    Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one's custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family-but not a stepparent family-is positively associated with religious disaffiliation and religious switching and negatively associated with regular religious attendance. Accounting for parental religious characteristics, however, explains sizable proportions of these relationships. Accounting for parental religious affiliation and attendance, growing up with a single parent does not significantly affect religious attendance. Parental religiosity also moderates the relationship between growing up with a single parent and religious attendance: being raised in a single-parent home has a negative effect on religious attendance among adults who had two religiously involved parents.

  2. Parenting and adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, Ariel; Schwartz, Shalom H

    2003-01-01

    What determines adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values? The current study examined potential predictors including parental value communication, family value agreement, and parenting styles. In the study, 547 Israeli adolescents (aged 16 to 18) of diverse socioeconomic backgrounds participated with their parents. Adolescents reported the values they perceive their parents want them to hold. Parents reported their socialization values. Accuracy in perceiving parents' overall value system correlated positively with parents' actual and perceived value agreement and perceived parental warmth and responsiveness, but negatively with perceived value conflict, indifferent parenting, and autocratic parenting in all gender compositions of parent-child dyads. Other associations varied by dyad type. Findings were similar for predicting accuracy in perceiving two specific values: tradition and hedonism. The article discusses implications for the processes that underlie accurate perception, gender differences, and other potential influences on accuracy in value perception.

  3. Codependency and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.

    1992-01-01

    College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…

  4. Parenting Young Gifted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Linda Kreger

    1986-01-01

    Provides information on the following for parents and care-givers of gifted children: (1) recognizing giftedness; (2) dealing with nongifted children in the family; (3) effect of chronic early ear infection on IQ; (4) introversion; (5) "normalizing" gifted children; (6) need for gifted peers; and (7) responsive parenting. A list of guidelines for…

  5. Codependency and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.

    1992-01-01

    College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…

  6. Parenting: An Ecological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Tom, Ed.; Okagaki, Lynn, Ed.

    This book examines various aspects of parenting and influences on parents, including such key contexts affecting child development as school, neighborhood, and culture. After a forward by Urie Bronfenbrenner and a preface by Tom Luster and Lynn Okagaki, which together help to introduce the topics to be discussed, the book is divided into nine…

  7. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents for Kids for Teens Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & ... Q&A Recipes En Español Teachers - Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other ...

  8. Hemophilia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Hemophilia KidsHealth > For Parents > Hemophilia Print A A A ... bike or a stray kick in a soccer game means a temporary bruise or a cut that ... with hemophilia, these everyday mishaps are cause for concern. What ...

  9. Parent News Offline, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Anne S., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document is comprised of the two issues in volume 5 of "Parent News Offline," a publication of the National Parent Information Network (NPIN) designed to introduced those without Internet Access to the activities and information available through NPIN. The Spring 2003 issue contains the following articles: (1) "Summer Academic…

  10. Parents on education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lex Herweijer; Ria Vogels

    2004-01-01

    Original title: Ouders over opvoeding en onderwijs. The position of parents with regard to children' education has been changing in recent years: the government believes that they should have a major influence on what happens at their children's school, and also that parents and schools should coop

  11. Tips for Divorcing Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... Cope With Divorce? How Can I Help My Child Deal With My Dating After Divorce? ... With a Single Parent Living With Stepparents What Kids Who Are Moving ...

  12. Profile: parents help themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, G E

    1981-01-01

    A short account is given of a voluntary organization, PACE, formed by parents of young handicapped children in Leeds. PACE provides friendship and help to other parents, arranges the toy library, riding for the disabled and other activities for the children. It also raises money that is needed for special projects.

  13. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  14. Parents, Peers and Pot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, Marsha

    This book looks at the problem of drug abuse, particularly the use of marihuana by children ages 9 to 14, and describes one strategy parents can use to prevent drug use by their children. On the premise that nonmedical drug use is not acceptable for children, parents need to provide guidance and exercise discipline with respect to drug use among…

  15. Adolescent to Parent Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Claire Pedrick; Gelles, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the extent of violence toward parents by adolescent children in relation to: (1) sex and age of the child; (2) the likelihood that mothers, more than fathers, are victims of children's violence; (3) social factors that may influence child to parent violence; and (4) stress as a factor in family violence. (Author/MJL)

  16. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, Machteld

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. Th

  17. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents > Diabetes Movie Print A A A Kids who have diabetes have trouble taking energy from food and delivering ... to learn more about diabetes. For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Diabetes Center Diabetes: Marco's Story (Video) Diabetes: Grace's Story ( ...

  18. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Parents > Diabetes Movie Print A A A Kids who have diabetes have trouble taking energy from food and delivering ... to learn more about diabetes. For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Diabetes Center Diabetes: Marco's Story (Video) Diabetes: Grace's Story ( ...

  19. Parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rodenburg (Gerda); A. Oenema (Anke); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the association between parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background. A cross-sectional study was performed among 1762 parent-child dyads. Mean age of the children was 8. years. One parent completed

  20. Foster Parents' Involvement in Authoritative Parenting and Interest in Future Parenting Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Kraemer, Linda K.; Bernard, Amy L.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2007-01-01

    We surveyed 191 Southwest Ohio foster parents regarding their involvement in authoritative parenting and interest for additional parenting education. Our results showed that most respondents reported using an authoritative parenting style and were interested in receiving future training. Involvement in authoritative parenting differed…

  1. Parenting stress and affective symptoms in parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yun; Du, YaSong; Li, HuiLin; Zhang, XiYan; An, Yu; Wu, Bai-Lin

    2015-10-01

    We examined parenting stress and mental health status in parents of autistic children and assessed factors associated with such stress. Participants were parents of 188 autistic children diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria and parents of 144 normally developing children. Parents of autistic children reported higher levels of stress, depression, and anxiety than parents of normally developing children. Mothers of autistic children had a higher risk of depression and anxiety than that did parents of normally developing children. Mothers compared to fathers of autistic children were more vulnerable to depression. Age, behavior problems of autistic children, and mothers' anxiety were significantly associated with parenting stress.

  2. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  3. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  4. Gender differences in depression across parental roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Kevin; Pace, Garrett T

    2015-04-01

    Prior research has focused on the relationship between parenthood and psychological well-being, with mixed results. Some studies have also addressed potential gender differences in this relationship, again yielding varied findings. One reason may be methodological choices pursued in these studies, including the lack of focus on combined parental roles (for example, biological parent and stepparent). The authors used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (N = 6,276) and multinomial treatment models to address how combined roles influence depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. Further, they explored potential gender differences. Their results indicated that having multiple parental roles is negatively associated with psychological well-being for both men and women, whereas childlessness is more negative for women, and specific parental role combinations affect mothers and fathers differently. Within the context of changing family structure in the United States, these results have important implications for social workers and other mental health professionals-particularly with regard to screening for depression among parents, who are less likely to seek mental health counseling than childless adults.

  5. Parents as parents-in-law in the light of Erik Erikson’s theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Juroszek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of parents-in-law according to Erik Erikson’s theory, has been analyzed in this paper. Erikson claims that a man develops throughout his whole life, solving subsequently appearing crises. The proper solution of these crises enables the achievement of integration. The results of research, carried out by Menelaos Apostolou, regarding the influence of parents on the choice of a son or daughter-in-law have been presented in this paper. These results show that the marital choices of offspring most often lack their parents’ approval, and they often also lead parents to use manipulation techniques. Such regularity is often the basis of difficult spouse-parent-in-law relationships. The role of parents-in-law takes place in the period of middle adulthood in which an individual faces the productivity-stagnation process. It has been assumed that the role of parents-in-law is embedded in this crisis. According to Erikson, the crisis in the period of middle adulthood, as well as in any other period, is the friction of two opposing pursuits: progression and regression, where in case of middle adulthood, the progression stage is called productivity and regression – stagnation. Moreover, social and individual factors (including biological and psychological levels activating regressive and progressive states in parents-in-law have been submitted for analysis. It is stressed, in this paper, that the parents’ virtue, which is care, is not limited only and exclusively to their own biological offspring – the process of upbringing should also include a broad understanding of the notion of providing welfare to future generations.

  6. The Developmental Interface between Nature and Nurture: A Mutual Influence Model of Child Antisocial Behavior and Parent Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaojia; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined evidence for reciprocal influence between adoptive parents' behavior and heritable characteristics of adopted children. Found that psychiatric disorders of biological parents were significantly related to children's antisocial/hostile behaviors and consequently with adoptive parents' behavior. Also, the adoptee's antisocial/hostile…

  7. Cyclical Cohabitation Among Unmarried Parents in Fragile Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Teitler, Julien

    2013-10-01

    Building on past research suggesting that cohabitation is an ambiguous family form, the authors examined an understudied residential pattern among unmarried parents: cyclical cohabitation, in which parents have multiple cohabitation spells with each other. Using 9 years of panel data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,084), they found that 10% of all parents with nonmarital births, and nearly a quarter of those living together when the child is 9 years old, are cyclical cohabitors. Cyclically cohabiting mothers reported more material hardships than mothers in most other relationship patterns but also reported more father involvement with children. On all measures of child well-being, except grade retention, children of cyclically cohabiting parents fared no worse than children of stably cohabiting biological parents and did not differ significantly from any other group.

  8. [Promoting sensitivity and parenting competencies in teenage mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenhain, Ute

    2007-01-01

    Relevant concepts of parenting emphasize biologically oriented behavioral tendencies as intuitive parenting that unconsciously guides interaction with the infant. They can be violated by risk factors or adverse life conditions and are to be perceived in parental problems to cope with the infants' needs and even in neglecting and maltreating behavioral displays. In particular high risk groups as teenage mothers are affected. Early and preventive intervention efforts promoting parent-child relationship seem to be successful to prevent maltreatment and later behavioral problems in the child. An attachment-oriented and video-based program for intervention with teenage mothers is described. Chances and limits of promoting parent-child attachment in teenage mothers are discussed.

  9. (Biological dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  10. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  11. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  12. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  13. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  14. Parent-Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Strandgaard

    2016-01-01

    of parents as co-consumers prevailed despite radical changes in views on children’s media consumption. In particular, I examine the shared inter-Scandinavian socio-cultural contexts that structured the changing professional and political groups’ pressure on parents to perform according to their norms......In this article, I examine change and continuity in conceptions of parental agency in public debates about children’s media consumption in Scandinavia, 1945-1975. During this period, public debates about the various kinds of media products children consumed were dominated by different groups...

  15. Real Parents, Real Children: Parenting the Adopted Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gulden, Holly; Bartels-Rabb, Lisa M.

    Parenting an adopted child is, for the most part, the same as parenting any other child, but is different in some unique and critical ways related to the child's separation from birth parents and genetic roots. Understanding how a child interprets, understands, and feels about adoption, and why, can help the parent guide the adopted child…

  16. Educational Groups for Single Parents: The Parenting after Divorce Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Nancy J.; Amara, Ingrid A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a group that teaches parenting skills to divorced parents. Presents various elements of the group experience, including a focus on the child's needs and developmental stages, role-playing, and co-parenting issues. Response to the group suggests that parents with greater postdivorce stress benefit the most. (BH)

  17. Perceptions of Parent School Collaboration within Single Parent Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josafat, Jason Marc

    2015-01-01

    Little is known regarding the involvement levels of single parents in their child's education or what schools can do to support the collaborative involvement with single parents. This is important, because parent involvement is crucial for student success, and schools play an important part in garnering this role towards parent involvement; single…

  18. Patterns of Parenting during Adolescence: Perceptions of Adolescents and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.; Sputa, Cheryl L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores differences in maternal and paternal parenting styles and involvement, the differences between parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and involvement, and changes in parenting style and involvement between the adolescents' 9th and 12th grade years. Subjects were 244 ninth graders from the Southeast and Midwest. Discusses…

  19. Parents Want Their Children's Data: DQC's 2015 Parent Poll Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Data Quality Campaign (DQC) believes that when parents and educators have the right information to make decisions, students excel. Parents agree, according to a recent survey. DQC's Parent Poll, conducted online by Harris Poll in November 2015, surveyed 1,093 US parents with children ages 5-17 about their attitudes toward data collection and…

  20. Parental problem drinking, parenting, and adolescent alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, C.S. van der; Scholte, R.H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether parental problem drinking affected parenting (i.e., behavioral control, support, rule-setting, alcohol-specific behavioral control), and whether parental problem drinking and parenting affected subsequent adolescent alcohol use over time. A total of 428 families, c

  1. Patterns of Parenting during Adolescence: Perceptions of Adolescents and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.; Sputa, Cheryl L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores differences in maternal and paternal parenting styles and involvement, the differences between parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and involvement, and changes in parenting style and involvement between the adolescents' 9th and 12th grade years. Subjects were 244 ninth graders from the Southeast and Midwest. Discusses…

  2. Parenting during toddlerhood: Contributions of parental, contextual and child characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; Aken, van Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; Aken, van Marcel A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the contribution of parental, contextual, and child characteristics to parenting behavior during toddlerhood in 111 two-parent families with a 17-month-old son (M = 16.9 months, SD = 0.57). Parenting was conceptualized in terms of five dimensions: support, structure, posit

  3. Malaria (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Malaria KidsHealth > For Parents > Malaria A A A What's ... Prevention Diagnosis and Treatment en español Malaria About Malaria Malaria is a common infection in hot, tropical ...

  4. Tetanus (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Dealing With Cuts Osteomyelitis Bites and Scratches Frequently Asked Questions About Immunizations ... Scratches, and Abrasions Dealing With Cuts and Wounds Osteomyelitis Wound Healing and Care Why Did I Feel ...

  5. Rh Incompatibility (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Rh Incompatibility KidsHealth > For Parents > Rh Incompatibility Print A ... this information early in your pregnancy. About the Rh Factor People with different blood types have proteins ...

  6. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Listeria Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Listeria Infections A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Listeriosis About Listeria Listeria infections (known as listeriosis ) are rare. When ...

  7. Burns (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > Burns A A A What's ... outlets, etc.) overexposure to the sun Types of Burns Burns are often categorized as first-, second-, or ...

  8. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: ... vaccines are a good idea. Caring for Your Child After Immunization Your child might have a fever, soreness, and ...

  9. Listeria Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Listeria Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Listeria Infections Print A A ... your risk of getting this infection. continue Treating Listeriosis Listeriosis is usually treated with antibiotics in the ...

  10. Understanding Dyslexia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Understanding Dyslexia KidsHealth > For Parents > Understanding Dyslexia A A A ... be taught to become successful readers. Reading and Dyslexia Most kids begin learning to read by learning ...

  11. Asperger Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Asperger Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Asperger Syndrome Print A ... the medical community still use the term. About Asperger Syndrome The disorder is named after Hans Asperger, ...

  12. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reconcile their teen's sexual orientation with their religious or personal beliefs. Sadly, some react with anger, hostility, or rejection. But many parents find that they just need time to adjust ...

  13. Amblyopia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Amblyopia KidsHealth > For Parents > Amblyopia Print A A A ... could lead to permanent vision loss later. About Amblyopia From birth until about age 8, a child's ...

  14. Broken Bones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Parents > Broken Bones Print A A ... bone fragments in place. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ...

  15. Strokes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 ... test that uses magnets, radio waves, and computer technology to produce very good pictures of internal body ...

  16. Cochlear Implants (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 ... understand their new bionic ear and the cool technology behind it that allows them to hear better. ...

  17. Turner Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 ... become pregnant) as adults. However, advances in medical technology, including hormonal therapy and in vitro fertilization, can ...

  18. Metabolic Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Metabolic Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Metabolic Syndrome A A A ... this is a condition called metabolic syndrome . About Metabolic Syndrome Not to be confused with metabolic disease (which ...

  19. CPR (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help CPR KidsHealth > For Parents > CPR Print A A A ... can be given by health care providers. About CPR CPR (or cardiopulmonary resuscitation ) is a combination of ...

  20. Cradle Cap (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Cradle Cap (Infantile Seborrheic Dermatitis) KidsHealth > For Parents > Cradle Cap ( ... many babies develop called cradle cap. About Cradle Cap Cradle cap is the common term for seborrheic ...

  1. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Q&A ... Media Use Affects Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help Diabetes Movie KidsHealth > For Parents > Diabetes ...

  2. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents Help Kids Handle Teasing? Talking to Your Child About Puberty Helping Kids Deal With Bullies How Media Use Affects Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help Diabetes Movie ...

  3. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Diabetes Movie KidsHealth > For Parents > Diabetes Movie Print A A A Kids who have diabetes have trouble taking energy from food and delivering ...

  4. Pneumocystis Pneumonia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Pneumocystis Pneumonia KidsHealth > For Parents > Pneumocystis Pneumonia A A A What's in this article? About PCP Diagnosing PCP Treating PCP Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an infection caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci , ...

  5. Immune System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections, but the condition is usually not severe. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is also known as the "bubble boy ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Definition: Autoimmunity Immunotherapy Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Living With Lupus Blood Test: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ...

  6. Understanding Dyslexia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Understanding Dyslexia KidsHealth > For Parents > Understanding Dyslexia Print A A ... be taught to become successful readers. Reading and Dyslexia Most kids begin learning to read by learning ...

  7. Blood (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood A A A What's ... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ...

  8. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Genital Herpes KidsHealth > For Parents > Genital Herpes Print A A A What's in this article? Symptoms Contagiousness Treatment Prevention Getting Help Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that's usually ...

  9. When Parents Argue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fight with each other? When Parents Disagree All couples argue from time to time. They might disagree ... happen and that's OK — it's all part of learning how to live with each other and get ...

  10. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  11. Diphtheria (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help Diphtheria KidsHealth > For Parents > Diphtheria Print A A A ... Contagiousness Treatment When to Call the Doctor About Diphtheria Diphtheria is a bacterial infection that spreads easily ...

  12. Gun Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Gun Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Gun Safety Print A ... unloaded, and the ammunition should be stored separately. Guns and Pretend Play Allowing kids to play with ...

  13. Warts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affects Your Child What Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Community Service: A Family's Guide to Getting Involved Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Warts KidsHealth > For Parents > Warts Print A A A ...

  14. Sepsis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help Sepsis KidsHealth > For Parents > Sepsis Print A A A ... Infections When to Call the Doctor What Is Sepsis? Sepsis is when the immune system responds to ...

  15. Amebiasis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Amebiasis KidsHealth > For Parents > Amebiasis Print A A A ... Prevention Treatment When to Call the Doctor About Amebiasis Amebiasis is an intestinal illness that's typically transmitted ...

  16. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Beta Thalassemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Beta Thalassemia Print A A ... Complications Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment en español Beta talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  17. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or bleeding disorder , such as sickle cell disease , thalassemia, or anemia caused by kidney disease , hemophilia , or ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Beta Thalassemia Sickle Cell Disease Alpha Thalassemia von Willebrand Disease ...

  18. Alpha Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Alpha Thalassemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Alpha Thalassemia Print A A ... Complications Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment en español Alfa talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  19. Psoriasis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Psoriasis KidsHealth > For Parents > Psoriasis A A A What's ... treatment doesn't work, another probably will. About Psoriasis Psoriasis (suh-RYE-uh-sus) is a non- ...

  20. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Occupational Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Occupational Therapy Print A A ... for some kids. continue Kids Who Might Need Occupational Therapy According to the AOTA, kids with these medical ...

  1. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Blood Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Culture Print A A ... adjust the treatment choice. Why Do a Blood Culture? During some illnesses, certain infection-causing bacteria and ...

  2. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Diabetes Movie KidsHealth > For Parents > Diabetes Movie Print A A A Kids who have diabetes have trouble taking energy from food and delivering ...

  3. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Parents > Hepatitis Print A A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Hepatitis About Hepatitis The word hepatitis simply means an inflammation of ...

  4. Hernias (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help Hernias KidsHealth > For Parents > Hernias Print A A A ... get your child the appropriate medical care. About Hernias When part of an organ or tissue in ...

  5. Scoliosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Scoliosis KidsHealth > For Parents > Scoliosis Print A A A en español Escoliosis What Is Scoliosis? Scoliosis affects the spine. Although the spine is ...

  6. Thyroid Disease (for Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Thyroid Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Thyroid Disease Print A ... many other parts of the body. What Is Thyroid Disease? Thyroid disease is when the thyroid gland ...

  7. Chlamydia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with urination Untreated chlamydia also can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can affect the vagina, cervix, uterus, ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Sexual Development Pelvic Inflammatory Disease About Condoms STDs Questions and Answers About Sex ...

  8. Thyroid Disease (for Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Thyroid Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Thyroid Disease A A ... many other parts of the body. What Is Thyroid Disease? Thyroid disease is when the thyroid gland ...

  9. Neurofibromatosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help Neurofibromatosis KidsHealth > For Parents > Neurofibromatosis Print A A A ... Caring for Your Child en español Neurofibromatosis About Neurofibromatosis Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a neurocutaneous syndrome that can ...

  10. Measles: Information for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PARENTS | DISEASES and the VACCINES THAT PREVENT THEM | Measles and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It Last ... July 2015 The best way to protect against measles is to get the measles-mumps-rubella shot ( ...

  11. Counseling Black Adolescent Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gwendolyn C.

    1974-01-01

    Black adolescent parents need counsel from social workers who are able to intervene with a discerning knowledge of concepts, such as neocolonialism, survival, and liberation, that are important to them and to the black community. (Author)

  12. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Eye Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > Eye Injuries Print A ... sand, dirt, and other foreign bodies on the eye surface) Wash your hands thoroughly before touching the ...

  13. Spider Bites (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TV, Video Games, and the Internet First Aid: Spider Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Spider Bites ... rare. Signs and Symptoms Of a brown recluse spider bite: red blister in the center with surrounding ...

  14. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  15. Sibling Rivalry (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to any family member is damaging to the self-esteem or psychological well-being of any family member ... Should I Intervene During Teasing? Becoming a Stepparent Parenting Multiples Birth of a Second Child Preparing Your ...

  16. ECG Electrocardiogram (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old ECG (Electrocardiogram) KidsHealth > For Parents > ECG (Electrocardiogram) Print A ... whether there is any damage. How Is an ECG Done? There is nothing painful about getting an ...

  17. Sleep Apnea (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Obstructive Sleep Apnea KidsHealth > For Parents > Obstructive Sleep Apnea Print ... kids and teens can develop it, too. About Sleep Apnea Sleep apnea happens when a person stops ...

  18. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Transfusions KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Transfusions A A ... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. ...

  19. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Child Natural Disasters: How Families Can Help Diabetes Movie KidsHealth > For Parents > Diabetes Movie Print A A A Kids who have diabetes have trouble taking energy from food and delivering ...

  20. Meningitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Meningitis KidsHealth > For Parents > Meningitis A A A What's ... to Call the Doctor en español Meningitis About Meningitis Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the ...

  1. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Sexual Orientation KidsHealth > For Parents > Sexual Orientation Print A ... orientation is part of that process. What Is Sexual Orientation? The term sexual orientation refers to the ...

  2. Bronchiolitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Bronchiolitis KidsHealth > For Parents > Bronchiolitis Print A A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Bronquiolitis About Bronchiolitis Bronchiolitis is a common illness of the respiratory ...

  3. Ebola (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Ebola KidsHealth > For Parents > Ebola Print A A A ... take precautions to avoid becoming infected. What Is Ebola? Ebola, or Ebola hemorrhagic fever ( Ebola HF) , is ...

  4. MRSA (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... are harder to kill. They become resistant by changing in some way that affects the ability of ...

  5. Understanding Puberty (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... voice is a sign that his voice is changing and will become deeper. Dark, coarse, curly hair ...

  6. Toxoplasmosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... it, then wash his or her hands after changing the litter. If you are unable to have ...

  7. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned.

  8. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Shivashankar

    2002-02-01

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological systems. In recent years advances in technology have led to the study of some of the design principles of these machines; in particular at the level of an individual molecule. For example, the forces that operate in molecular interactions, the stochasticity involved in these interactions and their spatio-temporal dynamics are beginning to be explored. Understanding such design principles is opening new possibilities in mesoscopic physics with potential applications.

  9. Parents as Writing Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenworth, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Parents know that writing is essential to their children's success, and they're eager to help their children become good writers. But often, they're at a loss about how to help. Instead of leaving them in the dark, schools can make parents into valuable writing partners by giving them a toolkit of guidelines for coaching writers.…

  10. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Diabetes Movie ... For Parents > Diabetes Movie Print A A A Kids who ...

  11. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  12. Parenting Role's Tasks as Parents of Healthy and Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Riyahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks as parents of healthy and disabled children younger than 7 years old in Iran (Arak. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 120 parents of healthy children and 120 parents of disabled children with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. T-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between parents of healthy and disabled children based on studied variables including child age, parent age, child gender, parent education, family economic status, history of trauma and seizure in children was applied to perform the role of parents. Results: There was a significant difference of parent role in both groups of parents. There was observed a significant relationship between role of healthy children's parents and age of child (r=0.21, P=0.016, but not observed in disabled children's parents. In healthy children, there was no significant correlation between parent's role and maternal age. In contrast, in disabled children, there was found a significant difference (P= 0.04 with correlation coefficient of -0.18 representing the inverse relationship. Moreover, no relationship was found between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks in the group of disabled children (P>0.05. Conclusion The performance of tasks of parenting role in two groups of parents of healthy children and disabled ones in four areas of primary care, education, leisure and improving cognitive level had significant difference. This difference in the area of improving the cognitive level was higher. Due to complications of disability, parents of these children pay more attention to other areas of care except of improving cognitive level. Therefore presence of disabled child has negative effect on the balance of the

  13. Parental attitudes toward mouthguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, N; Mourino, A P

    1997-01-01

    An 11-item, one-page questionnaire was mailed to 1800 parents chosen at random in the Henrico County, VA public school system. Parents were asked questions such as "who should be responsible for mouthguard wear?" "what sports should require mouthguards?" and "has [their] child ever sustained an oral or facial injury?" The parental responses indicate that mouthguard enforcement is the responsibility of both parents and coaches. Of the total injuries reported, 19% were sustained in basketball, 17% in baseball, and 11% in soccer. Despite these high injury rates, however, there was a lack of perceived need for mouthguard use in these sports. When asked which sports should require a mouthguard rule, the sports that generated the most responses were, in decreasing order, football, boxing, ice hockey, wrestling, field hockey, and karate. Parents were more likely to require mouthguards for their sons than daughters, and more likely to require them for their children who participated in a mandatory mouthguard sport, a contact sport, or who had been previously injured. The authors conclude that because parents view themselves as equally responsible as coaches for maintaining mouthguard use, both groups should be targeted and approached as a possible source for the recommendation of mandatory mouthguard rules in basketball, baseball, and soccer.

  14. Implications of antisocial parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torry, Zachary D; Billick, Stephen B

    2011-12-01

    Antisocial behavior is a socially maladaptive and harmful trait to possess. This can be especially injurious for a child who is raised by a parent with this personality structure. The pathology of antisocial behavior implies traits such as deceitfulness, irresponsibility, unreliability, and an incapability to feel guilt, remorse, or even love. This is damaging to a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parents with this personality makeup can leave a child traumatized, empty, and incapable of forming meaningful personal relationships. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of antisocial behavior. Moreover, the child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial behavior who is raised with a parental style that triggers the genetic liability is at high risk for developing the same personality structure. Antisocial individuals are impulsive, irritable, and often have no concerns over their purported responsibilities. As a parent, this can lead to erratic discipline, neglectful parenting, and can undermine effective care giving. This paper will focus on the implications of parents with antisocial behavior and the impact that this behavior has on attachment as well as on the development of antisocial traits in children.

  15. Reflections on Parental Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela LUPŞAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The movement in the European Union territory of the family members de jure or de facto - parents married or not, on the one hand, and their children, on the other hand, the birth of litigation related to the content, exercising or limiting the parental authority in the event at least one holder of parental authority is in a Member State other than where the minor child is, and the interest of achieving a good administration of justice within the European Union, led to the development of Community instruments in the area of parental authority, which has provisions on conflicts of jurisdiction, conflict of laws, recognition and enforceability, enforcement, legal aid and cooperation between central authorities, designating the applicable law. In the first part of the study we have analyzed the rules of jurisdiction by establishing the jurisdiction of the court hearing with an application for parental responsibility, whether there are pending divorce proceeding or not. In the second part of the study, we have limited the analysis to the rules applicable to the law causes that have as object parental authority.

  16. Parental Involvement in Norwegian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jan Merok

    2012-01-01

    This article examines findings on key challenges of school-parent relations in Norway. The review is based on recent large-scale studies on several issues, including formalized school-parent cooperation, parental involvement in the pedagogical discourse, and teacher perspectives on the parents' role in the school community. Findings suggest a…

  17. Parents' Knowledge of Emergent Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Ellen

    This study investigated parents' knowledge of their child's emergent literacy development by administering parent questionnaires that examined parents' beliefs of literacy learning and the early writing and reading experiences of preschool children in their home. A total of 115 questionnaires were administered to parents with children enrolled in…

  18. Active Parenting Now: Program Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Michael H.

    Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…

  19. Parents of "Beyond Control" Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paul A.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the child rearing and disciplinary methods of parents of adolescent boys who were reported by their parents to be serious control problems. On the basis of a social learning analysis of family relationships, it was hypothesized that parental difficulty in controlling adolescents was related to two factors: parent consistency in setting…

  20. Parents, Teens, and Online Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Mary; Cortesi, Sandra; Gasser, Urs; Lenhart, Amanda; Duggan, Maeve

    2012-01-01

    Most parents of teenagers are concerned about what their teenage children do online and how their behavior could be monitored by others. Some parents are taking steps to observe, discuss, and check up on their children's digital footprints. A new survey of 802 parents and their teens shows that: (1) 81% of parents of online teens say they are…

  1. Single Parenting of the Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll

    1991-06-01

    This article discusses issues that are of interest and concern to all parents of adolescents, but that may be particularly difficult for single parents to manage. It also provides a framework for examining the areas of similarity as well as difference between the adolescent and the single parent. Attention is paid to the potential advantages of single-parent status.

  2. Active Parenting Now: Program Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Michael H.

    Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…

  3. Adult patients with schizophrenia using violence towards their parents: a phenomenological study of views and experiences of violence in parent-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Mei-Chi; Tu, Chun-Hsien

    2014-02-01

    To describe the lived experiences of aggression and violence among patients with schizophrenia and their victimized biological parent as the major caregiver being aggressed by their child (parent-adult-child dyads), and to gain an understanding of the precipitating factors influencing violence. Child-to-parent violence, particularly in the mentally ill adult child, is arguably the most stressful and under-researched issue of family violence. Violence in patients with mental illness is most frequently targeted at family members, and most often takes place at home. Both patients and their parents' experiences of violence are relatively unexplored. Qualitative study design. Data were collected using individual in-depth interviews between August 2010-August 2011 in Taiwan. Purposive sample of 14 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia who had aggression and violence in the past year directed towards their biological parent of either gender. Five main themes were identified: violence occurring beyond control in a particular situation translated into parent and patient's possible endangerment, the repetitive nature of violence, distress, ineffective communication, and management of violence and help-seeking. Repetitive violent episodes and tension made both the parent and patient feel uncontrollable. Parents had a perceived fear of adverse consequences such as being punished by receiving more retribution and they also had concerns related to their parental responsibility. Health professionals should be aware of the complexity of phenomena and the interplay of factors inducing violence. A comprehensive dyadic parent-child intervention is suggested for violence prevention. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area ​Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  5. Digital Parenting and Changing Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl KABAKÇI YURDAKUL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies are developing rapidly. Developing technologies are integrated in many fields of life. This situation facilitated almost all fields of life. Owing to integration process, children’s technology use and adaption is easy compare to their parents. But technology use and adaption brings several disadvantages for children. Computer and the Internet have been used nearly all home in about last five years. Parents who were worried about their children when they played outside are worried about their children when they are on net at home. Due to these developments, parenting notion has gain new different dimensions and parenting roles are changed. Parents should now be digital parent, the Internet Parent or online parent. In this paper Digital Parenting is examined and described in additon to thisdigital parenting roles are determined. Based on these roles recommendations are presented for future studies and practices

  6. Human infant faces provoke implicit positive affective responses in parents and non-parents alike.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Paolo Senese

    Full Text Available Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors.

  7. The Relations between Parents' Smoking, General Parenting, Parental Smoking Communication, and Adolescents' Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Vermulst, Ad A.; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether the associations between general parenting practices (i.e., support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and parental smoking on the one hand and older and younger siblings' smoking on the other were mediated by parental smoking communication (i.e., frequency and quality of parent-adolescent…

  8. The Influences of the Sixth Graders' Parents' Internet Literacy and Parenting Style on Internet Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Shih, Ru-Chu; Liu, Hung-Tzu; Guo, Yuan-Chang; Tseng, Kuo-Hung

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the sixth grade students' parents' Internet literacy and parenting style on Internet parenting in Kaohsiung County in Taiwan. Upon stratified cluster sampling, a total of 822 parents from 34 classes in 28 schools participated in this study. The descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used to analyze the responses…

  9. Biological Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviena Baskaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biology has entered a new era in distributing information based on database and this collection of database become primary in publishing information. This data publishing is done through Internet Gopher where information resources easy and affordable offered by powerful research tools. The more important thing now is the development of high quality and professionally operated electronic data publishing sites. To enhance the service and appropriate editorial and policies for electronic data publishing has been established and editors of article shoulder the responsibility.

  10. Parental feeding practices predict authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Page, Melanie C; Topham, Glade L; Harrist, Amanda W

    2008-07-01

    Our goal was to identify how parental feeding practices from the nutrition literature link to general parenting styles from the child development literature to understand how to target parenting practices to increase effectiveness of interventions. Stand-alone parental feeding practices could be targeted independently. However, parental feeding practices linked to parenting styles require interventions treating underlying family dynamics as a whole. To predict parenting styles from feeding practices and to test three hypotheses: restriction and pressure to eat are positively related whereas responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are negatively related to an authoritarian parenting style; responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are positively related whereas restriction and pressure to eat are negatively related to an authoritative parenting style; a permissive parenting style is negatively linked with all six feeding practices. Baseline data of a randomized-controlled intervention study. Two hundred thirty-nine parents (93.5% mothers) of first-grade children (134 boys, 105 girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Parental responses to encouraging and modeling questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as well as parenting styles measured by the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses. Feeding practices explained 21%, 15%, and 8% of the variance in authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting, respectively. Restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring (negative) significantly predicted an authoritarian style (Hypothesis 1); responsibility, restriction (negative), monitoring, and modeling predicted an authoritative style (Hypothesis 2); and modeling (negative) and restriction significantly predicted a permissive style (Hypothesis 3). Parental feeding practices with young children predict general parenting styles. Interventions that fail to address underlying parenting styles

  11. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  12. The impact of parental self-esteem and parental rearing behavior on adolescent attachment to parents

    OpenAIRE

    Anbo Yang

    2011-01-01

    In this study the relationship of parental self-esteem, parental rearing and adolescent adult attachment was investigated. A total 448 senior high school students completed EMBU(Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, or ―Own memories of parental rearing‖, Perris et al., 1980), the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, &Shaver, 1998), and their parents completed The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES; Rosenberg, 1965). The results suggested that parental global self-esteem ...

  13. Theoretical approach to biological aging

    CERN Document Server

    D'Almeida, R M C; Penna, T J P

    1997-01-01

    We present a model for biological aging that considers the number of individuals whose (inherited) genetic charge determines the maximum age for death: each individual may die before that age due to some external factor, but never after that limit. The genetic charge of the offspring is inherited from the parent with some mutations, described by a transition matrix. The model can describe different strategies of reproduction and it is exactly soluble. We applied our method to the bit-string model for aging and the results are in perfect agreement with numerical simulations.

  14. Theoretical approach to biological aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, R. M. C. de; Oliveira, S. Moss de; Penna, T. J. P.

    We present a model for biological aging that considers the number of individuals whose (inherited) genotype determines the maximum age for death: each individual may die before that age due to some external factor, but never after that limit. The genotype of the offspring is inherited from the parent with some mutations, described by a transition matrix. The model can describe different strategies of reproduction and it is exactly soluble. We applied our method to the bit-string model for aging and the results are in perfect agreement with numerical simulations.

  15. Are Adopted Children and Their Parents at Greater Risk for Negative Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, L. DiAnne; Black, Lynda K.; Pasley, B. Kay

    1998-01-01

    Adoptive (n=72) and biological (n=72) parents' responses on items related to their own well-being, attitudes toward family life, parenting behaviors and values, and perceptions of their child's behaviors were compared. No differences were found. Findings challenge pathological assumptions about adoptive families, suggesting that deficiency models…

  16. The Division of Labor in Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual New Adoptive Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Little research has investigated the division of child care and housework in adoptive or lesbian/gay parent families, yet these contexts "control for" family characteristics such as biological relatedness and parental gender differences known to be linked to family work. This study examined predictors (measured preadoption) of the division of…

  17. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior.

  18. The evolution of parental care in stochastic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsall, M B; Klug, H

    2011-03-01

    Parental care is of fundamental importance to understanding reproductive strategies and allocation decisions. Here, we explore how parental care strategies evolve in variable environments. Using a set of life-history trait trade-offs, we explore the relative costs and benefits of parental care in stochastic environments. Specifically, we consider the cases in which environmental variability results in varying adult death rates, egg death rates, reproductive rate and carrying capacity. Using a measure of fitness appropriate for stochastic environments, we find that parental care has the potential to evolve over a wide range of life-history characteristics when the environment is variable. A variable environment that affects adult or egg death rates can either increase or decrease the fitness of care relative to that in a constant environment, depending on the specific costs of care. Variability that affects carrying capacity or adult reproductive rate has negligible effects on the fitness associated with care. Increasing parental care across different life-history stages can increase fitness gains in variable environments. Costly investment in care is expected to affect the overall fitness benefits, the fitness optimum and rate of evolution of parental care. In general, we find that environmental variability, the life-history traits affected by such variability and the specific costs of care interact to determine whether care will be favoured in a variable environment and what levels of care will be selected. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Parents bereaved by offspring suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Leslie, William D

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT Suicide bereavement remains understudied and poorly understood. OBJECTIVES To examine outcomes of parents bereaved by the suicide death of their offspring and to compare these with both nonbereaved parent controls and parents who had offspring die in a motor vehicle crash (MVC). DESIGN...... Population-based case-control study. Suicide-bereaved parents were compared with nonbereaved matched control parents in the general population (n = 1415) and with MVC-bereaved parents (n = 1132) on the rates of physician-diagnosed mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use in the 2...... years after the suicide of an offspring, as compared with the 2 years prior to the death. Suicide-bereaved and MVC-bereaved parents had very few differences on predeath to postdeath outcomes. Depression rate increases were greater for MVC-bereaved parents (19.9%) compared with suicide-bereaved parents...

  20. Parent-offspring transaction: Mechanisms and the value of within family designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer M; McGowan, Patrick; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Parenting is best understood as a transactional process between parents and their offspring. Each responds to cues in the other, adapting their own behavior to that of their partner. One of the goals of parenting research in the past twenty years has been to untangle reciprocal processes between parents and children in order to specify what comes from the child (child effects) and what comes from the parent (parent effects). Child effects have been found to relate to genetic, pre and perinatal, family-wide, and child-specific environmental influences. Parent effects relate to stresses in the current context (e.g. financial strain, marital conflict), personality and ethnicity but also to adverse childhood experiences (e.g. parental mental health and substance abuse, poverty, divorce). Rodent models have allowed for the specification of biological mechanisms in parent and child effects, including neurobiological and genomic mechanisms, and of the causal role of environmental experience on outcomes for offspring through random assignment of offspring-mother groupings. One of the methods that have been developed in the human and animal models to differentiate between parent and child effects has been to study multiple offspring in the family. By holding the parent steady, and studying different offspring, we can examine the similarities and differences in how parents parent multiple offspring. Studies have distinguished between family average parenting, child-specific parenting and family-wide dispersion (the within family standard deviation). These different aspects of parenting have been differentially linked to offspring behavioral phenotypes.

  1. Parental Investments in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Esping-Andersen, Gösta

    This study examines parental time investment in their children, distinguishing between developmental and non-developmental care. Our analyses centre on three influential determinants: educational background, marital homogamy, and spouses’ relative bargaining power. We find that the emphasis...... on quality care time is correlated with parents’ education, and that marital homogamy reduces couple specialization, but only among the highly educated. In line with earlier research, we identify gendered parental behaviour. The presence of boys is an important condition for fathers’ time dedication......, but primarily among lower educated fathers. To the extent that parental stimulation is decisive for child outcomes, our findings suggest the persistence of important inequalities. This emerges through our special attention to behavioural differences across the educational distribution among households....

  2. Parental trisomy 21 mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D J; Begleiter, M L; Chamberlin, J; Hankins, L; Magenis, R E

    1982-01-01

    A family with three children with trisomy 21 in which the mother is a phenotypically normal, trisomy 21/normal mosaic was studied. Chromosome 21 fluorescent heteromorphisms were used to document that two of the three number 21's in two of the Down syndrome offspring were of maternal origin. Five cytogenetic surveys in which both parents of a child with trisomy 21 were studied have been reviewed. From these data, it is estimated that 3% of couples producing a child with trisomy 21 can be explained by parental mosaicism. From 17 informative sibships, with one parent mosaic, the segregation ratio was estimated to be 0.43 +/- 0.11. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6211090

  3. Parental precaution: neurobiological means and adaptive ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Holbrook, Colin; Haselton, Martie G

    2011-03-01

    Humans invest precious reproductive resources in just a few offspring, who remain vulnerable for an extended period of their lifetimes relative to other primates. Therefore, it is likely that humans evolved a rich precautionary psychology that assists in the formidable task of protecting offspring. In this review, we integrate precautionary behaviors during pregnancy and postpartum with the adaptive functions they may serve and what is known of their biological mediators, particularly brain systems motivating security and attachment. We highlight the role of reproductive hormones in (i) priming parental affiliation with young to incentivize offspring protection, (ii) focusing parental attention on cues of potential threat, and (iii) facilitating maternal defense against potentially dangerous conspecifics and predators. Throughout, we center discussion on adaptive responses to threats of disease, accident and assault as common causes of child mortality in the ancestral past.

  4. Parenting Style and Its Correlates. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nancy

    One of the most robust approaches to researching parents' influence on children's social competence is the study of what has been called "parenting style." Parenting style captures two important elements of parenting: parental responsiveness and parental demandingness. Categorizing parents according to whether they are high or low on parental…

  5. Parent-Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Strandgaard

    2016-01-01

    of parents as co-consumers prevailed despite radical changes in views on children’s media consumption. In particular, I examine the shared inter-Scandinavian socio-cultural contexts that structured the changing professional and political groups’ pressure on parents to perform according to their norms...... of professionals: first, by teachers and librarians in the mid-fifties and, then, by intellectuals and performing artists in the late sixties. With a radically changed professional hegemony and a shifting media landscape, the role of media in children’s lives was described very differently during the period...

  6. Parental Investments in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Esping-Andersen, Gösta

    on quality care time is correlated with parents’ education, and that marital homogamy reduces couple specialization, but only among the highly educated. In line with earlier research, we identify gendered parental behaviour. The presence of boys is an important condition for fathers’ time dedication......, but primarily among lower educated fathers. To the extent that parental stimulation is decisive for child outcomes, our findings suggest the persistence of important inequalities. This emerges through our special attention to behavioural differences across the educational distribution among households....

  7. Aimons nos parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑涛

    2004-01-01

    En général, on trouve naturel d'aimer ses parents. Par exemple, on dit très souvent penser à papa et à maman quand on est loin de chez sol; et beaucoup de gens ont écrit de belles phrases pour chanter l'amour éternel entre parents et enfants. Mais est-ce que la réalité est aussi simple? Ma réponse est bien sūr que non.

  8. Parents who use drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bernays, Sarah; Houmøller, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    on efforts to create a sense of normalcy of family life, involving keeping drug use secret from children, and investing heavily in strategies to maintain ambiguity regarding children's awareness. Our analysis highlights that damage limitation strategies double-up in accounts as resources of child protection......' parenting. Accounts of damage acceptance highlight a theme of 'recovery'. We find that the interview accounts operate in response to a regulative norm of 'good parenting' in which one strives to deflect damaged identity through narratives of damage qualification and to seek understanding and acceptance...

  9. Students, Parents Give Thumbs-Up to Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    The Flipped Classroom isn't for everyone, but it's been well received by Math and Biology students and their parents at Okanagan Mission Secondary School (OKM) in Kelowna, B.C., and was strongly supported by the OKM principal, Scott Mclean. As teacher Graham Johnson noted in his personal account of his first year using the Flipped Classroom…

  10. Misunderstandings between Parents and Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建琳; 尹小明

    2002-01-01

    Today more and mere young men say that their parents don’t understand them well. They think their parents are very striet with them and don't give them enough space to do their own things which they like to. They even think their parents are out of touch with modern life. So,generally speaking, they don' t want to talk with their parents, they don' t tell everything, especially their secret to their parents. It seems there is a gap between the parents and their children.

  11. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K.; Ruder, Warren C.

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  12. The impact of parental self-esteem and parental rearing behavior on adolescent attachment to parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbo Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationship of parental self-esteem, parental rearing and adolescent adult attachment was investigated. A total 448 senior high school students completed EMBU(Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, or ―Own memories of parental rearing‖, Perris et al., 1980, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, &Shaver, 1998, and their parents completed The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES; Rosenberg, 1965. The results suggested that parental global self-esteem has no effect on the adolescent attachment to parents. Parental positive rearing behaviors have been significantly associated with avoidance to parents. Furthermore, the negative rearing behaviors, such as paternal denying and rejecting, maternal punitiveness, maternal overinvolved and overprotective behavior, can predict the adolescent avoidance and anxiety to parents.

  13. Parenting of adult children in an Israeli sample: parents are always parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzki, Naama

    2009-04-01

    This qualitative study examines the role of parents with regard to their adult children, by exploring parents' experiences, meanings, and the underlying psychological processes of their parental role. In-depth interviews with healthy Israeli parents (N = 23) aged 56 to 69 explored their perceptions about their parental role. Narrative analysis techniques focused on the content and on the form of the narratives were applied. Five important internal dialectic dimensions emerged: emotional connection and separation; the child as narcissistic extension of the parent and the parent's desire to let the child individuate; growing importance of familial connections and the perceived generation gap; parents' balancing personal needs and the children's needs, and finally, maintaining a hierarchical stance and an equal stance. The results are integrated into the developing theory of intergenerational ambivalence, suggesting a dialectical configuration for the role of parent to adult children.

  14. Parental divorce, sibship size, family resources, and children's academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2009-09-01

    Using data from 19,839 adolescents from the National Education Longitudinal Study, this study investigates whether the effects of parental divorce on adolescents' academic test performance vary by sibship size. Analyses show that the negative effect of divorce on adolescent performance attenuates as sibship size increases. On the other side of the interaction, the inverse relationship between sibship size and test performance is weaker in disrupted than in two-biological-parent families. Trends of such interactions are evident when sibship size is examined either as a continuous or a categorical measure. Finally, the observed interactions on adolescents' academic performance are completely explained by variations in parental financial, human, cultural, and social resources. In sum, this study underlines the importance of treating the effect of parental divorce as a variable and calls for more research to identify child and family features that may change the magnitude of such an effect.

  15. Why Do Parents Homeschool? A Systematic Examination of Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christa L.; Hoover-Dempsey, Kathleen V.

    2007-01-01

    Although homeschooling is growing in popularity in the United States, little systematic research has focused on this population. Grounded in the parental involvement literature, this study examines why parents decide to home-school. Parents of 136 homeschooled elementary children completed questionnaires assessing constructs derived from the…

  16. Mainland Chinese Parenting Styles and Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu; Zeng, Qiang; Yu, Lidong; Cai, Beiying

    2005-01-01

    Parenting styles and mother-child interaction were examined with 97 Mainland Chinese mothers (M age = 29.64 years, SD = 3.64) and their young children (M = 24.30 months, SD = 4.57). Mothers completed questionnaires about their parenting styles, orientation to Chinese cultural values, perceived parenting stress, and sources of social support. The…

  17. Parental influences on memories of parents and friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Franca; Bonechi, Alice; Peterson, Carole; Smorti, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The authors evaluated the role parent-child relationship quality has on two types of memories, those of parents and those of friends. Participants were 198 Italian university students who recalled memories during 4 separate timed memory-fluency tasks about their preschool, elementary school, middle school, high school and university years. Half were instructed to recall memories involving parents and the remainder memories involving friends. Moreover, parent-child relationships were assessed by the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI; W. Furman & D. Buhrmester, 1985) and Adolescents' Report of Parental Monitoring (D. M. Capaldi & G. R. Patterson, 1989). Results showed that men with positive parent-son relationships had more memories of parents and more affectively positive memories of friends, supporting a consistency model positing similarity between parent-child relationships and memories of friends. Women with positive parental relationship quality had more affectively positive memories of parents but for friends, positive relationship quality only predicted positive memories when young. At older ages, especially middle school-aged children, negative parent-daughter relationships predicted more positive memories of friends, supporting a compensatory model. The gender of parent also mattered, with fathers having a more influential role on affect for memories of friends.

  18. Parental relocation Free movement rights and joint parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeppesen de Boer, Christina G.

    2008-01-01

    As joint parental authority increasingly becomes the legal norm applied in situations where the parents do not live together, for example, after divorce or the breakup of a relationship, the settlement of disputes regarding the concrete exercise of parental authority gain relevance. A common dispute

  19. Exploring Parental Perspectives on Parent-Child Sexual Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Sharon M.; Gross, Kevin H.

    2009-01-01

    We examined parental perspectives about parent-child sexual communication through four focus groups conducted with 25 parents of young children. Participant comments fell into six areas: 1) personal experience with sexuality education, 2) current sexuality education efforts, 3) comfort and confidence, 4) content and timing, 5) importance of a…

  20. Parental relocation Free movement rights and joint parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeppesen de Boer, Christina G.

    2008-01-01

    As joint parental authority increasingly becomes the legal norm applied in situations where the parents do not live together, for example, after divorce or the breakup of a relationship, the settlement of disputes regarding the concrete exercise of parental authority gain relevance. A common dispute

  1. Adolescents' and Parents' Changing Conceptions of Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith; Crean, Hugh F.; Campione-Barr, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents and parents view parents' regulation of some aspects of adolescents' lives as legitimate, but they disagree as to how much personal freedom adolescents should have. Too much parental control over personal issues in early adolescence leads to feelings of psychological control, but increasing autonomy over personal issues in later…

  2. Parental monitoring, sensitivity toward parents, and a child's mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbs, Shelli L.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Li, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in parental monitoring and sensitivity toward parents and the extent to which these measures can influence children's mate preferences. In 2 samples (the United States and the Netherlands), females reported experiencing higher levels of parental monitoring

  3. Parent Training: Implementation Strategies for "Adventures in Parenting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Shannon Carothers; Farris, Jaelyn R.; Borkowski, John G.

    2008-01-01

    "Adventures in Parenting", an informational booklet published by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, offers five principles that parents can use to develop a mental model of parenting: Responding, Preventing, Monitoring, Mentoring, and Modeling (RPM3). The current study was designed to assess the differential impact of…

  4. Parenting Behaviour among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Greet; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Boonen, Hannah; Maes, Bea; Noens, Ilse

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to the extensive amount of empirical findings about parental perceptions, parenting cognitions, and coping in families with a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research about parenting itself is very scarce. A first goal of this study was to examine the factor structure and internal consistency of two scales to measure parenting…

  5. Parenting Style and Parental Involvement: Relations with Adolescent Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.

    1994-01-01

    Eighty ninth-grade students completed questionnaires regarding their parents' demandingness, responsiveness, school involvement, and commitment to achievement. Boys' reports of both maternal and paternal parenting significantly predicted their achievement, with parental values toward achievement significantly predicting achievement in boys above…

  6. Parental Care Aids, but Parental Overprotection Hinders, College Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Matthew B.; Pierce, John D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has shown that students who have troublesome relationships with their parents show higher risk factors for poorer college adjustment. In the present study, we focused on the balance between two key aspects of parenting style, parental care and overprotection, as they affect the transition to college life. Eighty-three undergraduate…

  7. Parenting "Gifted and Talented" Children in Urban Areas: Parents' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Valsa; Smith, Carole Portman; Brown, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    International evidence demonstrates the importance of engaging parents in the education of their "high-potential" children, yet limited research has focused on the involvement of parents from differing economic strata/backgrounds. The current study explored the dilemmas of parenting academically high-ability children from economically…

  8. Evaluation of a Parent Education Program for Divorcing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenry, Patrick C.; Clark, Kathleen A.; Stone, Glenn

    1999-01-01

    Compares participants in a parent education program [Parents' Education about Children's Emotions Program (PEACE)] mandated for divorcing parents with a similar sample of individuals who had not participated in such a program. Although the findings provide little evidence for the longer-term impact of this program, the program participants…

  9. Parenting Style and Parental Involvement: Relations with Adolescent Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.

    1994-01-01

    Eighty ninth-grade students completed questionnaires regarding their parents' demandingness, responsiveness, school involvement, and commitment to achievement. Boys' reports of both maternal and paternal parenting significantly predicted their achievement, with parental values toward achievement significantly predicting achievement in boys above…

  10. Adolescents' and Parents' Changing Conceptions of Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith; Crean, Hugh F.; Campione-Barr, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents and parents view parents' regulation of some aspects of adolescents' lives as legitimate, but they disagree as to how much personal freedom adolescents should have. Too much parental control over personal issues in early adolescence leads to feelings of psychological control, but increasing autonomy over personal issues in later…

  11. Parental Influence on Adolescent Sexuality: Implications for Parents as Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Carol A.; Hicks, Mary W.

    1982-01-01

    Positive and negative sexual messages are communicated by parents to their children, verbally and nonverbally. The impact of parental messages upon the sexuality of youth appears relatively straightforward for males but quite complex for females. Educational approaches are suggested to be used to recycle early parental sexual messages. (Author/PN)

  12. Parental monitoring, sensitivity toward parents, and a child's mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbs, Shelli L.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Li, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in parental monitoring and sensitivity toward parents and the extent to which these measures can influence children's mate preferences. In 2 samples (the United States and the Netherlands), females reported experiencing higher levels of parental monitoring

  13. Genes, Parenting, Self-Control, and Criminal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Stephen J; McNulty, Thomas L

    2016-03-01

    Self-control has been found to predict a wide variety of criminal behaviors. In addition, studies have consistently shown that parenting is an important influence on both self-control and offending. However, few studies have examined the role that biological factors may play in moderating the relationship between parenting, self-control, and offending. Using a sample of adolescent males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 3,610), we explore whether variants of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) and the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene interact with parenting to affect self-control and offending. Results reveal that parenting interacts with these genes to influence self-control and offending, and that the parenting-by-gene interaction effect on offending is mediated by self-control. The effects of parenting on self-control and offending are most pronounced for those who carry plasticity alleles for both MAOA and DAT1. Thus, MAOA and DAT1 may be implicated in offending because they increase the negative effects of parenting on self-control. Implications for theory are discussed.

  14. Unmarried Parents in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Sorensen, Kia

    2010-01-01

    Noting that access to higher education has expanded dramatically in the past several decades, Sara Goldrick-Rab and Kia Sorensen focus on how unmarried parents fare once they enter college. Contrary to the expectation that access to college consistently promotes family stability and economic security, the authors argue that deficiencies in current…

  15. Scarlet Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Scarlet Fever KidsHealth > For Parents > Scarlet Fever Print A A A What's in this article? ... to Call the Doctor en español Escarlatina Scarlet fever is caused by an infection with group A ...

  16. Kawasaki Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Kawasaki Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Kawasaki Disease Print A A A What's in this ... Complications Diagnosis Treatment en español La enfermedad de Kawasaki Kawasaki disease is an illness that involves the ...

  17. Toxocariasis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Toxocariasis KidsHealth > For Parents > Toxocariasis Print A A A What's in this article? ... Treatment When to Call the Doctor en español Toxocariasis When common parasites of dogs and cats infect ...

  18. Depression (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Depression KidsHealth > For Parents > Depression A A A What's ... to Help en español Comprender la depresión About Depression It's normal for kids to feel sad, down, ...

  19. Electroencephalogram (EEG) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old EEG (Electroencephalogram) KidsHealth > For Parents > EEG (Electroencephalogram) A A A What's in this article? ... Child If You Have Questions en español Electroencefalograma (EEG) What It Is An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a ...

  20. Parent Education: Abstract Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Barbara, Comp.

    This bibliography has been compiled to alert educators to parent education documents found in the ERIC microfiche collection and in journal literature. Abstracts of selected documents have been taken from "Research in Education (RIE)", and journal article citations from the "Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE)". Included are published…

  1. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Liver Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Liver Tumors Print A A A What's in this ... Malignant (Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  2. Salmonella Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Salmonella Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Salmonella Infections A A A What's in this article? Salmonella ... contaminated food (usually meat, poultry, eggs, or milk). Salmonella infections affect the intestines and cause vomiting, fever, and ...

  3. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Kids for Teens Search Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & ... Q&A Recipes En Español Teachers - Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other ...

  4. Explaining "DSM" to Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") is useful for children and families for three practical reasons: (1) It provides a way to communicate about emotional and behavioral problems of youth in a common language; (2) Parents can get an Individual Education Plan (IEP) for a child if that process…

  5. Pneumonia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Pneumonia KidsHealth > For Parents > Pneumonia A A A What's in this article? Signs ... Doctor Professional Treatment Home Care en español Neumonía Pneumonia is a general term for lung infections that ...

  6. Tuberculosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Tuberculosis KidsHealth > For Parents > Tuberculosis A A A What's in this article? Signs ... When to You Call the Doctor en español Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (popularly known as "TB") is a disease ...

  7. Strokes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the brain that's affected and the amount of damage the stroke causes. More likely, a parent first notices changes ... rehabilitation and therapy. previous continue Complications The brain damage that occurs during a stroke can cause a number of other problems that ...

  8. Down Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Down Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Down Syndrome Print A A ... Help en español El síndrome de Down About Down Syndrome Down syndrome (DS), also called Trisomy 21, is ...

  9. Parenting NICU graduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schappin, R.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis reflects the results of our randomized, clinical trial on the effectiveness of a generic parenting intervention named Primary Care Triple P. We investigated whether Primary Care Triple P reduced emotional and behavioral problems in preterm-born and asphyxiated term-born preschoolers. The

  10. Ultrasound: Abdomen (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Ultrasound: Abdomen KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Abdomen Print A A A What's in this article? ... Child If You Have Questions en español Ultrasonido: abdomen What It Is An abdominal ultrasound is a ...

  11. Genital Warts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth > For Parents > Genital Warts (HPV) Print A A A What's in this ... Active Teens en español Verrugas genitales G enital warts are warts that are on or near a ...

  12. Yoga for Exceptional Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jackie

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shares how Yoga can help make life easier for parents. The author started practicing with a Hatha Yoga teacher once a week at the local church community center. The breath (Pranayama) leads to self-discovery, Yoga poses (asanas) lead to quieting of the mind and self-connection. That was seven years ago, and since then,…

  13. Parenting for Moral Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Ralph L.

    1981-01-01

    Describes Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental theory of moral development and provides examples of how Kohlberg's theoretical principles can be employed in everyday family interaction. Holds that parents are always moral educators and must therefore consciously implement moral development strategies in the home environment. (GC)

  14. Growing Pains (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Growing Pains KidsHealth > For Parents > Growing Pains Print A ... olds and, later, in 8- to 12-year-olds. Signs and Symptoms Growing pains always concentrate in the muscles , rather than ...

  15. Lyme Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Lyme Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Lyme Disease Print A A ... en español La enfermedad de Lyme What Is Lyme Disease? Lyme disease is the leading tick-borne disease ...

  16. Depression (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Depression KidsHealth > For Parents > Depression Print A A A ... to Help en español Comprender la depresión About Depression It's normal for kids to feel sad, down, ...

  17. Physical Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Physical Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Physical Therapy A A A en español Terapia física Physical Therapy Basics Doctors often recommend physical therapy (PT) for ...

  18. Parents and School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ria Vogels

    2002-01-01

    Original title: Ouders bij de les. The government is increasingly withdrawing from playing a foreground role in primary and secondary education, transferring competences to local authorities, school boards and school management. Parents are also assigned a role in this process, based on the philoso

  19. Explaining "DSM" to Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") is useful for children and families for three practical reasons: (1) It provides a way to communicate about emotional and behavioral problems of youth in a common language; (2) Parents can get an Individual Education Plan (IEP) for a child if that process…

  20. Electroencephalogram (EEG) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old EEG (Electroencephalogram) KidsHealth > For Parents > EEG (Electroencephalogram) Print A A A What's in this ... Child If You Have Questions en español Electroencefalograma (EEG) What It Is An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a ...

  1. Pneumocystis Pneumonia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Pneumocystis Pneumonia KidsHealth > For Parents > Pneumocystis Pneumonia Print A A A What's in this article? About PCP Diagnosing PCP Treating PCP Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an infection caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci , ...

  2. Biopsy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Biopsy KidsHealth > For Parents > Biopsy Print A A A What's in this article? ... Questions en español Biopsias What It Is A biopsy is a test that's performed to examine tissue ...

  3. Ultrasound: Bladder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ultrasound: Bladder KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Bladder A A A What's in this article? ... español Ultrasonido: vejiga What It Is A bladder ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  4. Ultrasound: Pelvis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ultrasound: Pelvis KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Pelvis A A A What's in this article? ... español Ultrasonido: pelvis What It Is A pelvic ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  5. Ultrasound: Abdomen (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ultrasound: Abdomen KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Abdomen A A A What's in this article? ... español Ultrasonido: abdomen What It Is An abdominal ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  6. Mexican Parenting Questionnaire (MPQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted in four phases and constructed a self-report parenting instrument for use with Mexican immigrant mothers of children aged 6 to 10. The 14-item measure was based on semistructured qualitative interviews with Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 10), was refined by a focus group of Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 5), and was…

  7. Parenting NICU graduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schappin, R.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis reflects the results of our randomized, clinical trial on the effectiveness of a generic parenting intervention named Primary Care Triple P. We investigated whether Primary Care Triple P reduced emotional and behavioral problems in preterm-born and asphyxiated term-born preschoolers. The

  8. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading How Media Use Affects Your Child What ... Getting Involved Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Diabetes ... by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  9. Sinusitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Sinusitis KidsHealth > For Parents > Sinusitis Print A A A What's in this article? Causes Symptoms Prevention Treatment en español Sinusitis Sinuses are moist air spaces within the bones ...

  10. Parents and School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ria Vogels

    2002-01-01

    Original title: Ouders bij de les. The government is increasingly withdrawing from playing a foreground role in primary and secondary education, transferring competences to local authorities, school boards and school management. Parents are also assigned a role in this process, based on

  11. Metabolic Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the road to heart disease and type 2 diabetes . Kids with metabolic syndrome have at least three of ... previous 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Diabetes Center Acanthosis Nigricans Overweight and Obesity Can Diabetes ...

  12. Tuberculosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Tuberculosis KidsHealth > For Parents > Tuberculosis Print A A A What's in this article? ... When to You Call the Doctor en español Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (popularly known as "TB") is a disease ...

  13. Yoga for Exceptional Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jackie

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shares how Yoga can help make life easier for parents. The author started practicing with a Hatha Yoga teacher once a week at the local church community center. The breath (Pranayama) leads to self-discovery, Yoga poses (asanas) lead to quieting of the mind and self-connection. That was seven years ago, and since then,…

  14. Parents' discursive resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boman, Ase; Borup, Ina; Povlsen, Lene

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes type 1 in children, the most common metabolic disorder in childhood, increases worldwide, with highest incidence in Scandinavia. Having diabetes means demands in everyday life, and the outcome of the child's treatment highly depends on parents' engagement and involvement...

  15. Ratings of parent behaviours for delinquents from two-parent and single-parent homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgosh, L; Paitich, D

    1982-01-01

    Mother and son ratings of parent behaviours on the dimensions of loving, demanding and punishing, using the Bronfenbrenner Parent Behaviour Questionnaire, were compared for juvenile delinquents from two-parent and single-parent homes respectively. Mean rating for all variables were in the average range, and little difference in ratings of mothers' behaviours was found, for either boys or mothers, between the single-parent and two-parent groups. These findings are in contrast to the frequently suggested link between delinquency and disturbed family interactions.

  16. Parents with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Thomas; Bromet, Evelyn J

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of parenthood in a community-based sample of first-admission patients with DSM-IV diagnoses of Schizophrenia/Schizoaffective Disorder, Bipolar Disorder with psychotic features and Major Depressive Disorder with psychosis. A total of 130 (28.7%) of 453 patients were parents at the time of first admission. Women were twice as likely as men to be parents in all diagnostic groups. Patients with mood disorder with psychosis were twice as likely to be parents as those with Schizophrenia/Schizoaffective Disorder. Substance Use Disorder was a common comorbidity among fathers and to a somewhat lesser extent among mothers as well. At the time of admission, over three-quarters of mothers were living with their children, as were half or more of the fathers with mood disorder. Most continued to live with their children after discharge. Almost 40% of mothers with mood disorders were living as single parents both before and after admission. Almost three-quarters of the children were under 16 years of age. Over 40% of mothers in all diagnostic categories had at least one child under 5 years of age. About 20% of mothers in all 3 diagnoses experienced the onset of psychosis within 6 months of childbirth. Over half of these experienced psychotic symptoms related to the child or had neglected the child prior to admission. Our findings contrast with earlier studies from more chronic patient samples in documenting that first-admission patients with psychosis are generally intimately involved in their children's lives both before and after admission. Despite the fact that over three-quarters of these parents were still in treatment at 6-month follow-up, there was virtually no evidence that any form of educational or family-oriented treatment was offered to these parents. These results, coupled with earlier reports of highly disrupted family lives and serious adverse outcomes among the children of chronically ill parents, underscore the need for early

  17. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  18. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  19. Parents Speak Out: A Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carolyn; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Three parents who met each other for the first time talk about their experiences with elementary school counselors. The dialogue emphasizes both the concerns and the positive impressions that parents have regarding the work of a counselor. (Author)

  20. Parent and Child Living Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushaw, David R.

    1978-01-01

    Parent and child living centers offer a program to improve parenting skills with areas of learning including child growth and development, family management, home care and repair, and personal growth and development. (MM)

  1. Parents' Employment and Children's Wellbeing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carolyn J. Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    .... Thus, unlike some of the other two-generation mechanisms discussed in this issue of Future of Children, policies that encourage low-income parents to work are both widespread and well-entrenched in the United States. But parents...

  2. Parent Apathy: Problem or Symptom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Richard A.

    1977-01-01

    Considers the school administrator's dilemma when confronted with parental apathy concerning their student's development and his relationship with his school as well as some factors which may restrict parental involvement with the school. (Author/RK)

  3. Socioeconomic status, hair cortisol and internalizing symptoms in parents and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Alexandra; Merz, Emily C; Melvin, Samantha; Meyer, Jerrold; Noble, Kimberly G

    2017-04-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage is consistently linked with higher risk for internalizing problems, and stress is likely one important mechanism explaining this increased risk. Few studies have examined socioeconomic differences in hair cortisol, a novel biomarker of long-term adrenocortical activity and chronic stress. Moreover, no studies have examined whether differences in hair cortisol might explain socioeconomic disparities in internalizing problems. To address these gaps, we first examined relations of socioeconomic status (SES; family income and parental education) to variation in both parents' and children's hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) and then tested whether HCC and perceptions of stress mediated relations of SES to parents' and children's internalizing symptoms. Participants were a socioeconomically diverse sample of 35 parents and 26 children (ages 5-7). Parents completed questionnaires, and hair samples were collected from parents and children. Parents reported on children's internalizing symptoms on average 2 years after the initial visit. Results demonstrated that lower parental education was associated with higher HCC for both parents and children. Effects for child HCC held even after controlling for parent HCC. Lower family income was associated with higher parent HCC, but not child HCC. This relation was nonlinear, such that the relation between HCC and income was strongest among the most disadvantaged parents. Furthermore, associations of SES with parental anxiety were significantly mediated by parental perceptions of stress and marginally mediated by parent HCC. These findings suggest that socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with greater accumulation of cortisol in hair in parents and children, and that both perceived and biological markers of stress capture important facets of the experiences that underlie socioeconomic disparities in adult anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparing Teachers for Parent Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Daniel

    This paper examines the potential impact of parent involvement in the formal education of their children and suggests ways that teacher education can be restructured to prepare teachers to work with parents. This paper attempts to answer five questions: (1) Why should parents be involved in the formal education of their children? (2) Why should…

  5. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  6. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  7. Parent Education in the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Charo

    2017-01-01

    Charo Alarcón speaks about the work of Lumin Education in partnering with parents, Early Head Start, and a national program called Parents as Teachers (PAT) to come together to serve low-income families. Recognizing that parents cannot prioritize their child's education when they are putting all of their energy into meeting the basic needs of the…

  8. Parental Schooling and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Why is it that parents with more schooling tend to have children with better outcomes? We use unique Danish administrative data for identical and fraternal twin parents and their children to estimate the effect of parental schooling on short-run and long-run outcomes for their children...

  9. Parental Rights and State Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Joel S.

    1975-01-01

    Regarding the balance of state and parental control over the education of children, the author argues that control is being returned to the parents, parental prerogative now being manifested on a constitutional rather than a statute basis. Cases discussed deal with compulsory secondary education, school violence, objection to school practices. (JT)

  10. The Parent Role in College Admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses techniques secondary school counselors can use to help parents understand and negotiate the college admissions process, including encouraging parental self-assessment; assisting parents to assess student; giving parents special tips; and maintaining open and ethical communication. (ABL)

  11. Addressing Parenting Disputes Between Estranged Parents Through Community Mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhawa Palihapitiya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mediation provides a means of resolving disputes that promises to reduce litigation while avoiding further damage to party relationships. The present study addressed the question whether parents engaged in parenting disputes generated by divorce or separation received the promised benefits of mediation when services were delivered by means of community mediation, which combined the dual features of free services and volunteer mediators. Reported outcomes such as agreements, party satisfaction, relationship changes, and court involvement, as well as the connection between these outcomes and party factors of custodial status and income level, were examined, and several encouraging trends emerged. Results indicated that an economically diverse group of disputing parents were provided access to mediation services delivered under community mediation. Moreover, the prospect of avoiding litigation motivated a majority of parents to participate in community mediation. The positive outcomes reported by most parents, irrespective of income level and custodial status, included agreement and process satisfaction rates consistent with national trends, the development of parenting plans, and for a sizable minority of parents, reduced court involvement and improved between-parent interactions. However, non-custodial parents tended to be significantly more positive about mediation’s helpfulness with parenting issues than were custodial parents.

  12. Relations among Positive Parenting, parent-child Relationship, and Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Liyun; Zhang, Xingli; Shi, Jiannong

    This study demonstrated relations among 2 features of positive parenting——supportive responsiveness to distress and warmth ,parent-child relationship and empathy.171 children aged 8-10 years (mean age = 9.31 years, 89 girls) participated in the study.In school,participants completed Empathic......,Prosocial Response to Another’s Distress Scale,Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Questionaire,Network of Relationships Inventory. Results showed that: (1)Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy.(2)Near parent......-child relationship mediates the relationship between positive parenting(Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress or warmth) and empathy. In conclusion,parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy. Warmth had indirect effects on children’s empathy through near...

  13. Same-Sex and Different-Sex Parent Households and Child Health Outcomes: Findings from the National Survey of Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M W; Knox, Justin R; van Rijn-van Gelderen, Loes; Gartrell, Nanette K

    2016-04-01

    Using the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health data set, we compared spouse/partner relationships and parent-child relationships (family relationships), parenting stress, and children's general health, emotional difficulties, coping behavior, and learning behavior (child outcomes) in households of same-sex (female) versus different-sex continuously coupled parents with biological offspring. We assessed whether associations among family relationships, parenting stress, and child outcomes were different in the 2 household types. Parental and child characteristics were matched for 95 female same-sex parent and 95 different-sex parent households with children 6 to 17 years old. One parent per household was interviewed by telephone. Multivariate analyses of variance and multiple linear regressions were conducted. No differences were observed between household types on family relationships or any child outcomes. Same-sex parent households scored higher on parenting stress (95% confidence interval = 2.03-2.30) than different-sex parent households (95% confidence interval = 1.76-2.03), p = .006. No significant interactions between household type and family relationships or household type and parenting stress were found for any child outcomes. Children with female same-sex parents and different-sex parents demonstrated no differences in outcomes, despite female same-sex parents reporting more parenting stress. Future studies may reveal the sources of this parenting stress.

  14. The Effectiveness of Parent Education for Incarcerated Parents: An Evaluation of Parenting from Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristina; Gonzalez, Patricia; Romero, Tony; Henry, Kimberly; Cerbana, Christine

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of the Parenting from Prison curriculum which was implemented across Colorado correctional institutions. Parenting from Prison is a skills-based program that aims to strengthen family relationships and promote positive behaviors by increasing parental knowledge about risks, resiliency and developmental assets. A…

  15. Mindful Parenting Training in Child Psychiatric Settings : Heightened Parental Mindfulness Reduces Parents' and Children's Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, Renee; de Bruin, Esther I.; Wanders-Mulder, Femy H.; Vennik, Corinne J.; Bogels, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Mindful parenting training is an application of mindfulness-based interventions that allows parents to perceive their children with unbiased and open attention without prejudgment and become more attentive and less reactive in their parenting. This study examined the effectiveness of mindful parenti

  16. The Impact of Parental Religiosity on Parenting Goals and Parenting Style: A Dutch Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Several studies, conducted mainly in the United States, have revealed that parental religiosity influences the way parents raise their children. Against this background, the current study explores if such an effect is also discernible in the Netherlands. Data were gathered as part of a longitudinal study, in which 356 Dutch parents answered…

  17. Taxonomic chauvinism revisited: insight from parental care research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary R Stahlschmidt

    Full Text Available Parental care (any non-genetic contribution by a parent that appears likely to increase the fitness of its offspring is a widespread trait exhibited by a broad range of animal taxa. In addition to influencing the fitness of parent(s and offspring, parental care may be inextricably involved in other evolutionary processes, such as sexual selection and the evolution of endothermy. Yet, recent work has demonstrated that bias related to taxonomy is prevalent across many biological disciplines, and research in parental care may be similarly burdened. Thus, I used parental care articles published in six leading journals of fundamental behavioral sciences (Animal Behaviour, Behavioral Ecology, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Ethology, Hormones and Behavior, and Physiology & Behavior from 2001-2010 (n = 712 to examine the year-to-year dynamics of two types of bias related to taxonomy across animals: (1 taxonomic bias, which exists when research output is not proportional to the frequency of organisms in nature, and (2 taxonomic citation bias, which is a proxy for the breadth of a given article-specifically, the proportion of articles cited that refer solely to the studied taxon. I demonstrate that research on birds likely represents a disproportionate amount of parental care research and, thus, exhibits taxonomic bias. Parental care research on birds and mammals also refers to a relatively narrow range of taxonomic groups when discussing its context and, thus, exhibits taxonomic citation bias. Further, the levels of taxonomic bias and taxonomic citation bias have not declined over the past decade despite cautionary messages about similar bias in related disciplines--in fact, taxonomic bias may have increased. As in Bonnet et al. (2002, my results should not be interpreted as evidence of an 'ornithological Mafia' conspiring to suppress other taxonomic groups. Rather, I generate several rational hypotheses to determine why bias persists and to

  18. Quitter ses parents

    OpenAIRE

    Maunaye, Emmanuelle

    2007-01-01

    Comment évoluent les rencontres parents-enfants après le départ de ceux-ci de la maison familiale ? Elles prennent tout d’abord pour les jeunes le sens d’un retour. La maison des parents est encore considérée comme le chez-soi où ils souhaitent retrouver leur espace – notamment celui de leur « chambre » – ainsi que leur rôle et leur place d’enfant. Puis, progressivement, les rencontres se transforment, prenant davantage la forme d’une visite. La maison familiale est plus considérée comme un l...

  19. Transgender People (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the result of a complex mixture of biology, psychology, and environmental factors — and not simply a matter ... is not a choice, trying to force a child to change his or her gender identity is ...

  20. Same-sex parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Lokar, Daša

    2012-01-01

    Homosexuality has always caused a lot of fears, doubts, prejudice and stereotypes among people. Gay men and lesbians are being prosecuted, stigmatized, discriminated and put down just because of their sexual orientation. Nowadays we hear many discussions about the modern family relationships and partnerships, among which same-sex partnerships and families are also included. Public discussions are mainly concentrated on the question whether or not homosexual couples can be fit parents. Althoug...