WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonreciprocal photonic devices

  1. Magneto-optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon waveguide optical non-reciprocal devices based on the magneto-optical effect are reviewed. The non-reciprocal phase shift caused by the first-order magneto-optical effect is effective in realizing optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon waveguide platforms. In a silicon-on-insulator waveguide, the low refractive index of the buried oxide layer enhances the magneto-optical phase shift, which reduces the device footprints. A surface activated direct bonding technique was developed to integrate a magneto-optical garnet crystal on the silicon waveguides. A silicon waveguide optical isolator based on the magneto-optical phase shift was demonstrated with an optical isolation of 30 dB and insertion loss of 13 dB at a wavelength of 1548 nm. Furthermore, a four port optical circulator was demonstrated with maximum isolations of 15.3 and 9.3 dB in cross and bar ports, respectively, at a wavelength of 1531 nm.

  2. Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Lei; Hu, Juejun; Jiang, Peng; Kim, Hyun Suk; Kim, Dong Hun; Onbasli, Mehmet Cengiz; Dionne, Gerald F; Ross, Caroline A

    2013-11-08

    Achieving monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on semiconductor substrates has been long sought by the photonics research society. One way to achieve this goal is to deposit high quality magneto-optical oxide thin films on a semiconductor substrate. In this paper, we review our recent research activity on magneto-optical oxide thin films toward the goal of monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on silicon. We demonstrate high Faraday rotation at telecommunication wavelengths in several novel magnetooptical oxide thin films including Co substituted CeO₂ -δ , Co- or Fe-substituted SrTiO 3- δ , as well as polycrystalline garnets on silicon. Figures of merit of 3~4 deg/dB and 21 deg/dB are achieved in epitaxial Sr(Ti 0.2 Ga 0.4 Fe 0.4 )O 3- δ and polycrystalline (CeY₂)Fe₅O 12 films, respectively. We also demonstrate an optical isolator on silicon, based on a racetrack resonator using polycrystalline (CeY₂)Fe₅O 12 /silicon strip-loaded waveguides. Our work demonstrates that physical vapor deposited magneto-optical oxide thin films on silicon can achieve high Faraday rotation, low optical loss and high magneto-optical figure of merit, therefore enabling novel high-performance non-reciprocal photonic devices monolithically integrated on semiconductor substrates.

  3. Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Cengiz Onbasli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on semiconductor substrates has been long sought by the photonics research society. One way to achieve this goal is to deposit high quality magneto-optical oxide thin films on a semiconductor substrate. In this paper, we review our recent research activity on magneto-optical oxide thin films toward the goal of monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on silicon. We demonstrate high Faraday rotation at telecommunication wavelengths in several novel magnetooptical oxide thin films including Co substituted CeO2−δ, Co- or Fe-substituted SrTiO3−δ, as well as polycrystalline garnets on silicon. Figures of merit of 3~4 deg/dB and 21 deg/dB are achieved in epitaxial Sr(Ti0.2Ga0.4Fe0.4O3−δ and polycrystalline (CeY2Fe5O12 films, respectively. We also demonstrate an optical isolator on silicon, based on a racetrack resonator using polycrystalline (CeY2Fe5O12/silicon strip-loaded waveguides. Our work demonstrates that physical vapor deposited magneto-optical oxide thin films on silicon can achieve high Faraday rotation, low optical loss and high magneto-optical figure of merit, therefore enabling novel high-performance non-reciprocal photonic devices monolithically integrated on semiconductor substrates.

  4. On-chip non-reciprocal optical devices based on quantum inspired photonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ganainy, R.; Eisfeld, A.; Levy, Miguel; Christodoulides, D. N.

    2013-10-01

    We propose integrated optical structures that can be used as isolators and polarization splitters based on engineered photonic lattices. Starting from optical waveguide arrays that mimic Fock space (quantum state with a well-defined particle number) representation of a non-interacting two-site Bose Hubbard Hamiltonian, we show that introducing magneto-optic nonreciprocity to these structures leads to a superior optical isolation performance. In the forward propagation direction, an input TM polarized beam experiences a perfect state transfer between the input and output waveguide channels while surface Bloch oscillations block the backward transmission between the same ports. Our analysis indicates a large isolation ratio of 75 dB after a propagation distance of 8 mm inside seven coupled waveguides. Moreover, we demonstrate that, a judicious choice of the nonreciprocity in this same geometry can lead to perfect polarization splitting.

  5. Optical nonreciprocal transmission in an asymmetric silicon photonic crystal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zheng; Chen, Juguang; Ji, Mengxi; Huang, Qingzhong; Xia, Jinsong; Wang, Yi, E-mail: yingwu2@126.com, E-mail: ywangwnlo@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wu, Ying, E-mail: yingwu2@126.com, E-mail: ywangwnlo@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2015-11-30

    An optical nonreciprocal transmission (ONT) is realized by employing the nonlinear effects in a compact asymmetric direct-coupled nanocavity-waveguide silicon photonic crystal structure with a high loaded quality factor (Q{sub L}) of 42 360 and large extinction ratio exceeding 30 dB. Applying a single step lithography and successive etching, the device can realize the ONT in an individual nanocavity, alleviating the requirement to accurately control the resonance of the cavities. A maximum nonreciprocal transmission ratio of 21.1 dB as well as a working bandwidth of 280 pm in the telecommunication band are obtained at a low input power of 76.7 μW. The calculated results by employing a nonlinear coupled-mode model are in good agreement with the experiment.

  6. Nonreciprocal optical isolation via graphene based photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan Entezar, S.; Karimi Habil, M.

    2018-03-01

    The transmission properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing graphene mono-layers are studied using the transfer matrix method. It is shown that the structure can be used as a polarization-selective nonreciprocal device which discriminates between the two circularly polarized waves with different handedness impinging in the same direction. This structure may be utilized in designing optical isolators for the circularly polarized waves due to the gyrotropic behavior of the graphene mono-layers under the perpendicularly applied external magnetic field. Moreover, the effect of an external magnetic field and the chemical potential of the graphene mono-layers on the band gap of the structure are investigated.

  7. Role of photonic angular momentum states in nonreciprocal diffraction from magneto-optical cylinder arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Jing Guo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical eigenstates in a concentrically symmetric resonator are photonic angular momentum states (PAMSs with quantized optical orbital angular momentums (OAMs. Nonreciprocal optical phenomena can be obtained if we lift the degeneracy of PAMSs. In this article, we provide a comprehensive study of nonreciprocal optical diffraction of various orders from a magneto-optical cylinder array. We show that nonreciprocal diffraction can be obtained only for these nonzero orders. Role of PAMSs, the excitation of which is sensitive to the directions of incidence, applied magnetic field, and arrangement of the cylinders, are studied. Some interesting phenomena such as a dispersionless quasi-omnidirectional nonreciprocal diffraction and spikes associated with high-OAM PAMSs are present and discussed.

  8. Experimental demonstration of non-reciprocal transmission in a nonlinear photonic-crystal Fano structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yi; Chen, Yaohui; Hu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    We suggest and experimentally demonstrate a photonic-crystal structure with more than 30 dB difference between forward and backward transmission levels. The non-reciprocity relies on the combination of ultrafast carrier nonlinearities and spatial symmetry breaking in a Fano structure employing...

  9. Casimir-Lifshitz force for nonreciprocal media and applications to photonic topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sebastian; Lindel, Frieder; Krems, Roman V.; Hanson, George W.; Antezza, Mauro; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2017-12-01

    Based on the theory of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics, we generalize the expression of the Casimir force for nonreciprocal media. The essential ingredient of this result is the Green's tensor between two nonreciprocal semi-infinite slabs, including a reflexion matrix with four coefficients that mixes optical polarizations. This Green's tensor does not obey Lorentz's reciprocity and thus violates time-reversal symmetry. The general result for the Casimir force is analyzed in the retarded and nonretarded limits, concentrating on the influences arising from reflections with or without change of polarization. In a second step, we apply our general result to a photonic topological insulator whose nonreciprocity stems from an anisotropic permittivity tensor, namely InSb. We show that there is a regime for the distance between the slabs where the magnitude of the Casimir force is tunable by an external magnetic field. Furthermore, the strength of this tuning depends on the orientation of the magnetic field with respect to the slab surfaces.

  10. Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoxin Dai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon-based large-scale photonic integrated circuits are becoming important, due to the need for higher complexity and lower cost for optical transmitters, receivers and optical buffers. In this paper, passive technologies for large-scale photonic integrated circuits are described, including polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction. The design rule for polarization beam splitters based on asymmetrical directional couplers is summarized and several novel designs for ultra-short polarization beam splitters are reviewed. A novel concept for realizing a polarization splitter–rotator is presented with a very simple fabrication process. Realization of silicon-based light non-reciprocity devices (e.g., optical isolator, which is very important for transmitters to avoid sensitivity to reflections, is also demonstrated with the help of magneto-optical material by the bonding technology. Low-loss waveguides are another important technology for large-scale photonic integrated circuits. Ultra-low loss optical waveguides are achieved by designing a Si3N4 core with a very high aspect ratio. The loss is reduced further to <0.1 dB m−1 with an improved fabrication process incorporating a high-quality thermal oxide upper cladding by means of wafer bonding. With the developed ultra-low loss Si3N4 optical waveguides, some devices are also demonstrated, including ultra-high-Q ring resonators, low-loss arrayed-waveguide grating (demultiplexers, and high-extinction-ratio polarizers.

  11. Physics of photonic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, Shun Lien

    2009-01-01

    The most up-to-date book available on the physics of photonic devices This new edition of Physics of Photonic Devices incorporates significant advancements in the field of photonics that have occurred since publication of the first edition (Physics of Optoelectronic Devices). New topics covered include a brief history of the invention of semiconductor lasers, the Lorentz dipole method and metal plasmas, matrix optics, surface plasma waveguides, optical ring resonators, integrated electroabsorption modulator-lasers, and solar cells. It also introduces exciting new fields of research such as:

  12. Photonic crystal Fano resonances for realizing optical switches, lasers and non-reciprocal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekele, Dagmawi Alemayehu; Yu, Yi; Hu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    structure in combination with cavity-enhanced nonlinearity can be used to realize non-reciprocal transmission at ultra-low power and with large bandwidth. A novel type of laser structure, denoted a Fano laser, is discussed in which one of the mirrors is based on a Fano resonance. Finally, the design...

  13. Photonic Crystals Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Maystre, Daniel; Tchelnokov, Alexei; Pagnoux, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Just like the periodical crystalline potential in solid state crystals determines their properties for the conduction of electrons, the periodical structuring of photonic crystals leads to envisioning the possibility of achieving a control of the photon flux in dielectric and metallic materials. The use of photonic crystals as cages for storing, filtering or guiding light at the wavelength scale paves the way to the realization of optical and optoelectronic devices with ultimate properties and dimensions. This will contribute towards meeting the demands for greater miniaturization imposed by the processing of an ever increasing number of data. Photonic Crystals will provide students and researchers from different fields with the theoretical background required for modelling photonic crystals and their optical properties, while at the same time presenting the large variety of devices, ranging from optics to microwaves, where photonic crystals have found application. As such, it aims at building bridges between...

  14. Photonic Crystals Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Maystre, Daniel; Tchelnokov, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    Just like the periodical crystalline potential in solid-state crystals determines their properties for the conduction of electrons, the periodical structuring of photonic crystals leads to envisioning the possibility of achieving a control of the photon flux in dielectric and metallic materials. The use of photonic crystals as a cage for storing, filtering or guiding light at the wavelength scale thus paves the way to the realisation of optical and optoelectronic devices with ultimate properties and dimensions. This should contribute toward meeting the demands for a greater miniaturisation that the processing of an ever increasing number of data requires. Photonic Crystals intends at providing students and researchers from different fields with the theoretical background needed for modelling photonic crystals and their optical properties, while at the same time presenting the large variety of devices, from optics to microwaves, where photonic crystals have found applications. As such, it aims at building brid...

  15. Silicon photonics fundamentals and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Deen, M Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The creation of affordable high speed optical communications using standard semiconductor manufacturing technology is a principal aim of silicon photonics research. This would involve replacing copper connections with optical fibres or waveguides, and electrons with photons. With applications such as telecommunications and information processing, light detection, spectroscopy, holography and robotics, silicon photonics has the potential to revolutionise electronic-only systems. Providing an overview of the physics, technology and device operation of photonic devices using exclusively silicon and related alloys, the book includes: * Basic Properties of Silicon * Quantum Wells, Wires, Dots and Superlattices * Absorption Processes in Semiconductors * Light Emitters in Silicon * Photodetectors , Photodiodes and Phototransistors * Raman Lasers including Raman Scattering * Guided Lightwaves * Planar Waveguide Devices * Fabrication Techniques and Material Systems Silicon Photonics: Fundamentals and Devices outlines ...

  16. Nonreciprocal frequency doubler of electromagnetic waves diode based on a photonic crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konotop, V. V.; Kuzmiak, Vladimír

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2003), s. - Grant - others:NATO-Linkadge(US) PST.CLG.978177 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : harmonic generation * nonlinear media * photonic band gap Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers http://www.vjnano.org

  17. Nonreciprocal frequency doubler of electromagnetic waves based on a photonic crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konotop, V. V.; Kuzmiak, Vladimír

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 23 (2003), s. 2352081-2352085 ISSN 0163-1829 Grant - others:NATO-Linkadge(US) PST.CLG.978177 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : harmonic generation * nonlinear media * photonic band gap Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.962, year: 2003

  18. Integrated Ultrasonic-Photonic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barretto, Elaine Cristina Saraiva

    in channel waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. Numerical models are developed based on the finite element method, and applied to several scenarios, such as optimization of the geometrical parameters of waveguides, use of slow light in photonic crystal waveguides and use of Lamb waves in membranized......This thesis deals with the modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of integrated ultrasonic-photonic devices, with particular focus on the use of standard semiconductor materials such as GaAs and silicon. The devices are based on the use of guided acoustic waves to modulate the light...... investigated. Comparisons are made with the numerical and experimental results, and they validate the obtained response of the acoustic and photonic components of the device. Finally, a new design for an optical frequency shifter is proposed, posing several advantages over existing devices in terms of size...

  19. Tunable optical nonreciprocity and a phonon-photon router in an optomechanical system with coupled mechanical and optical modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guolong; Xiao, Xiao; Li, Yong; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2018-02-01

    We propose a multimode optomechanical system to realize tunable optical nonreciprocity that has the prospect of making an optical diode for information technology. The proposed model consists of two subsystems, each of which contains two optical cavities, injected with a classical field and a quantum signal via a 50:50 beam splitter, and a mechanical oscillator, coupled to both cavities via optomechanical coupling. Meanwhile two cavities and an oscillator in a subsystem are respectively coupled to their corresponding cavities and an oscillator in the other subsystem. Our scheme yields nonreciprocal effects at different frequencies with opposite directions, but each effective linear optomechanical coupling can be controlled by an independent classical one-frequency pump. With this setup one is able to apply quantum states with large fluctuations, which extends the scope of applicable quantum states, and exploit the independence of paths. Moreover, the optimal frequencies for nonreciprocal effects can be controlled by adjusting the relevant parameters. We also exhibit the path switching of two directions, from a mechanical input to two optical output channels, via tuning the signal frequency. In experiment, the considered scheme can be tuned to reach small damping rates of the oscillators relative to those of the cavities, which is more practical and requires less power than in previous schemes.

  20. Nonreciprocal frequency conversion in a multimode microwave optomechanical circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofanov, A. K.; Bernier, N. R.; Toth, L. D.; Koottandavida, A.; Kippenberg, T. J.

    Nonreciprocal devices such as isolators, circulators, and directional amplifiers are pivotal to quantum signal processing with superconducting circuits. In the microwave domain, commercially available nonreciprocal devices are based on ferrite materials. They are barely compatible with superconducting quantum circuits, lossy, and cannot be integrated on chip. Significant potential exists for implementing non-magnetic chip-scale nonreciprocal devices using microwave optomechanical circuits. Here we demonstrate a possibility of nonreciprocal frequency conversion in a multimode microwave optomechanical circuit using solely optomechanical interaction between modes. The conversion scheme and the results reflecting the actual progress on the experimental implementation of the scheme will be presented.

  1. Photonic crystals: towards nanoscale photonic devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lourtioz, J.-M

    2005-01-01

    .... From this point of view, the emergence of photonic bandgap materials and photonic crystals at the end of the 1980s can be seen as a revenge to the benefit this time of optics and electromagnetism. In the same way as the periodicity of solid state crystals determines the energy bands and the conduction properties of electrons, the periodical structur...

  2. CMOS-compatible photonic devices for single-photon generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Chunle

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sources of single photons are one of the key building blocks for quantum photonic technologies such as quantum secure communication and powerful quantum computing. To bring the proof-of-principle demonstration of these technologies from the laboratory to the real world, complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS-compatible photonic chips are highly desirable for photon generation, manipulation, processing and even detection because of their compactness, scalability, robustness, and the potential for integration with electronics. In this paper, we review the development of photonic devices made from materials (e.g., silicon and processes that are compatible with CMOS fabrication facilities for the generation of single photons.

  3. Nonreciprocal light transmission based on the thermal radiative effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Dong, Jianji; Ding, Yunhong

    2015-01-01

    Nonreciprocal light transmission is critical in building optical isolations and circulations in optical communication systems. Achieving high optical isolation and broad bandwidth with CMOS-compatibility are still difficult in silicon nano-photonics. Here we first experimentally demonstrate that ...

  4. Flexible manufacturing for photonics device assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Shin-yee; Young, K.D.

    1994-01-01

    The assembly of photonics devices such as laser diodes, optical modulators, and optoelectronics (OE) multi-chip modules usually requires the placement of micron-size devices, and sub-micron precision attachment between optical fibers and diodes or waveguide modulators (pigtailing). This is a labor-intensive process. Studies done by the OE industry have shown that 95% of the cost of a pigtailed photonic device is attributed to the current practice of manual alignment and bonding techniques. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the authors are working to reduce the cost of packaging OE devices, through the use of automation

  5. Photonic devices prepared by embossing in PDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandura, D., E-mail: jandura@fyzika.uniza.sk; Pudis, D.; Berezina, S.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Fabrication technology of photonic devices based on embossing in PDMS is presented. • Analysis of morphological properties of prepared devices in PDMS by CLSM and AFM. • Spectral characterization of PDMS ring resonator proved the resonator functionality. - Abstract: In this paper, we present useful technique for fabrication of novel photonic devices created in the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). We use combination of direct laser writing in thin photoresist layer with embossing process of liquid PDMS. We prepared ring resonator and Mach-Zehnder interferometer in PDMS. The shape of prepared PDMS photonic devices was analyzed by confocal laser microscope and atomic force microscope. Optical characterization of these devices reveals extinction ratios of up to 20 dB.

  6. Liquid Crystal photonic Bandgap Fiber Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei

    In this Ph.D. thesis, an experimental investigation of liquid crystal photonic bandgap (LCPBG) fiber devices and applications is presented. Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) consist of a cladding microstructure with periodic index variations and a core defined by a defect of the structure. The prese......In this Ph.D. thesis, an experimental investigation of liquid crystal photonic bandgap (LCPBG) fiber devices and applications is presented. Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) consist of a cladding microstructure with periodic index variations and a core defined by a defect of the structure...... of each LCPBG fiber. Finally, the applications for LCPBG fiber devices based on the on-chip platform design have been demonstrated in realizing microwave true-time delay and creating an electrically tunable fiber laser. Referatet mailes...

  7. Toward biomaterial-based implantable photonic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humar Matjaž

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical technologies are essential for the rapid and efficient delivery of health care to patients. Efforts have begun to implement these technologies in miniature devices that are implantable in patients for continuous or chronic uses. In this review, we discuss guidelines for biomaterials suitable for use in vivo. Basic optical functions such as focusing, reflection, and diffraction have been realized with biopolymers. Biocompatible optical fibers can deliver sensing or therapeutic-inducing light into tissues and enable optical communications with implanted photonic devices. Wirelessly powered, light-emitting diodes (LEDs and miniature lasers made of biocompatible materials may offer new approaches in optical sensing and therapy. Advances in biotechnologies, such as optogenetics, enable more sophisticated photonic devices with a high level of integration with neurological or physiological circuits. With further innovations and translational development, implantable photonic devices offer a pathway to improve health monitoring, diagnostics, and light-activated therapies.

  8. Insertion devices at the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moog, E.R.

    1996-01-01

    The insertion devices being installed at the Advanced Photon Source cause the stored particle beam to wiggle, emitting x-rays with each wiggle. These x-rays combine to make an intense beam of radiation. Both wiggler and undulator types of insertion devices are being installed; the characteristics of the radiation produced by these two types of insertion devices are discussed, along with the reasons for those characteristics

  9. Flexible manufacturing for photonics device assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shin-Yee; Pocha, Michael D.; Strand, Oliver T.; Young, K. David

    1994-01-01

    The assembly of photonics devices such as laser diodes, optical modulators, and opto-electronics multi-chip modules (OEMCM), usually requires the placement of micron size devices such as laser diodes, and sub-micron precision attachment between optical fibers and diodes or waveguide modulators (usually referred to as pigtailing). This is a very labor intensive process. Studies done by the opto-electronics (OE) industry have shown that 95 percent of the cost of a pigtailed photonic device is due to the use of manual alignment and bonding techniques, which is the current practice in industry. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we are working to reduce the cost of packaging OE devices through the use of automation. Our efforts are concentrated on several areas that are directly related to an automated process. This paper will focus on our progress in two of those areas, in particular, an automated fiber pigtailing machine and silicon micro-technology compatible with an automated process.

  10. Electrically Driven Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    material, here gallium arsenide and indium arsenide self- assembled quantum dots (QDs). QDs are preferred for the gain medium because they can have...blue points ) and 150 K (green points ). The black lines are linear fits to the above threshold output power of the lasers, which are used to find the...SHAMBAT et al.: ELECTRICALLY DRIVEN PHOTONIC CRYSTAL NANOCAVITY DEVICES 1707 Fig. 13. (a) Tilted SEM picture of a fabricated triple cavity device. The in

  11. Current control of light by nonreciprocal magnetoplasmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yongkang, E-mail: yongkang.gong@southwales.ac.uk; Li, Kang; Carver, Sara; Martinez, Juan Jose; Huang, Jungang; Copner, Nigel [Wireless and Optoelectronics Research and Innovation Centre (WORIC), Faculty of Computing, Engineering and Science, University of South Wales, Cardiff CF37 1DL (United Kingdom); Thueux, Yoann; Avlonitis, Nick [Airbus Group Innovations, Quadrant House, Celtic Springs, Coedkernew, NP10 8FZ Newport (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-11

    The ability to actively control light has long been a major scientific and technological goal. We proposed a scheme that allows for active control of light by utilizing the nonreciprocal magnetoplasmonic effect. As a proof of concept, we applied current signal through an ultrathin metallic film in a magneto-plasmonic multilayer and found that dynamic photonic nonreciprocity appears in magnetic-optical material layer due to the magnetic field being induced from current signal and modulates surface plasmon polaritons trapped in the metal surface and the light reflected. The proposed concept provides a possible way for the active control of light and could find potential applications such as ultrafast optoelectronic signal processing for plasmonic nanocircuit technology and ultrafast/large-aperture free-space electro-optic modulation platform for wireless laser communication technology.

  12. Non-Reciprocal Geometric Wave Diode by Engineering Asymmetric Shapes of Nonlinear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Jie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Nianbei [Tongji Univ., Shanghai Shi (China)

    2014-02-18

    Unidirectional nonreciprocal transport is at the heart of many fundamental problems and applications in both science and technology. Here we study how to design the novel wave diode devices to realize the non-reciprocal wave propagations. Analytical results reveal that such non-reciprocal wave propagation can be purely induced by asymmetric geometry in nonlinear materials. The detailed numerical simulations are performed for a more realistic geometric wave diode model with typical asymmetric shape, where good non-reciprocal wave diode effect has been demonstrated. The results open a way for making wave diodes efficiently simply through shape engineering.

  13. Nonreciprocal Thermal Material by Spatiotemporal Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, Daniel; Poncelet, Olivier; Batsale, Jean-Chirstophe

    2018-03-01

    The thermal properties of a material with a spatiotemporal modulation, in the form of a traveling wave, in both the thermal conductivity and the specific heat capacity are studied. It is found that these materials behave as materials with an internal convectionlike term that provides them with nonreciprocal properties, in the sense that the heat flux has different properties when it propagates in the same direction or in the opposite one to the modulation of the parameters. An effective medium description is presented which accurately describes the modulated material, and numerical simulations support this description and verify the nonreciprocal properties of the material. It is found that these materials are promising candidates for the design of thermal diodes and other advanced devices for the control of the heat flow at all scales.

  14. Demonstration of Efficient Nonreciprocity in a Microwave Optomechanical Circuit*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, G. A.; Lecocq, F.; Cicak, K.; Simmonds, R. W.; Aumentado, J.; Teufel, J. D.

    2017-07-01

    The ability to engineer nonreciprocal interactions is an essential tool in modern communication technology as well as a powerful resource for building quantum networks. Aside from large reverse isolation, a nonreciprocal device suitable for applications must also have high efficiency (low insertion loss) and low output noise. Recent theoretical and experimental studies have shown that nonreciprocal behavior can be achieved in optomechanical systems, but performance in these last two attributes has been limited. Here, we demonstrate an efficient, frequency-converting microwave isolator based on the optomechanical interactions between electromagnetic fields and a mechanically compliant vacuum-gap capacitor. We achieve simultaneous reverse isolation of more than 20 dB and insertion loss less than 1.5 dB. We characterize the nonreciprocal noise performance of the device, observing that the residual thermal noise from the mechanical environments is routed solely to the input of the isolator. Our measurements show quantitative agreement with a general coupled-mode theory. Unlike conventional isolators and circulators, these compact nonreciprocal devices do not require a static magnetic field, and they allow for dynamic control of the direction of isolation. With these advantages, similar devices could enable programmable, high-efficiency connections between disparate nodes of quantum networks, even efficiently bridging the microwave and optical domains.

  15. Optical isolation based on space-time engineered asymmetric photonic band gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanara, Nima; Taravati, Sajjad; Deck-Léger, Zoé-Lise; Caloz, Christophe

    2017-10-01

    Nonreciprocal electromagnetic devices play a crucial role in modern microwave and optical technologies. Conventional methods for realizing such systems are incompatible with integrated circuits. With recent advances in integrated photonics, the need for efficient on-chip magnetless nonreciprocal devices has become more pressing than ever. This paper leverages space-time engineered asymmetric photonic band gaps to generate optical isolation. It shows that a properly designed space-time modulated slab is highly reflective/transparent for opposite directions of propagation. The corresponding design is magnetless, accommodates low modulation frequencies, and can achieve very high isolation levels. An experimental proof of concept at microwave frequencies is provided.

  16. Nonreciprocal Linear Transmission of Sound in a Viscous Environment with Broken P Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, E.; Neogi, A.; Bozhko, A.; Zubov, Yu.; Arriaga, J.; Heo, H.; Ju, J.; Krokhin, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Reciprocity is a fundamental property of the wave equation in a linear medium that originates from time-reversal symmetry, or T symmetry. For electromagnetic waves, reciprocity can be violated by an external magnetic field. It is much harder to realize nonreciprocity for acoustic waves. Here we report the first experimental observation of linear nonreciprocal transmission of ultrasound through a water-submerged phononic crystal consisting of asymmetric rods. Viscosity of water is the factor that breaks the T symmetry. Asymmetry, or broken P symmetry along the direction of sound propagation, is the second necessary factor for nonreciprocity. Experimental results are in agreement with numerical simulations based on the Navier-Stokes equation. Our study demonstrates that a medium with broken PT symmetry is acoustically nonreciprocal. The proposed passive nonreciprocal device is cheap, robust, and does not require an energy source.

  17. Using Protection Layers for a 2-Photon Water Splitting Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Mei, Bastian Timo; Frydendal, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The 2-photon tandem device for photocatalytic water splitting has been theoretically shown to provide a higher efficiency than a single photon device(1). This increased efficiency can be achieved by having one material optimized to absorb high energy photons (large bandgap) and another material...... optimized to absorb low energy photons (small bandgap). To a large degree this approach has been hindered by corrosion issues. In this talk I will first discuss how our computational screening of 2,400 materials showed that very few materials can efficiently absorb light without corroding in water splitting...

  18. Finite element modeling of micromachined MEMS photon devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Boyd M., III; Schonberger, D. W.; Datskos, Panos G.

    1999-09-01

    The technology of microelectronics that has evolved over the past half century is one of great power and sophistication and can now be extended to many applications (MEMS and MOEMS) other than electronics. An interesting application of MEMS quantum devices is the detection of electromagnetic radiation. The operation principle of MEMS quantum devices is based on the photoinduced stress in semiconductors, and the photon detection results from the measurement of the photoinduced bending. These devices can be described as micromechanical photon detectors. In this work, we have developed a technique for simulating electronic stresses using finite element analysis. We have used our technique to model the response of micromechanical photon devices to external stimuli and compared these results with experimental data. Material properties, geometry, and bimaterial design play an important role in the performance of micromechanical photon detectors. We have modeled these effects using finite element analysis and included the effects of bimaterial thickness coating, effective length of the device, width, and thickness.

  19. Finite Element Modeling of Micromachined MEMS Photon Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datskos, P.G.; Evans, B.M.; Schonberger, D.

    1999-01-01

    The technology of microelectronics that has evolved over the past half century is one of great power and sophistication and can now be extended to many applications (MEMS and MOEMS) other than electronics. An interesting application of MEMS quantum devices is the detection of electromagnetic radiation. The operation principle of MEMS quantum devices is based on the photoinduced stress in semiconductors, and the photon detection results from the measurement of the photoinduced bending. These devices can be described as micromechanical photon detectors. In this work, we have developed a technique for simulating electronic stresses using finite element analysis. We have used our technique to model the response of micromechanical photon devices to external stimuli and compared these results with experimental data. Material properties, geometry, and bimaterial design play an important role in the performance of micromechanical photon detectors. We have modeled these effects using finite element analysis and included the effects of bimaterial thickness coating, effective length of the device, width, and thickness

  20. Nonreciprocal signal routing in an active quantum network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelmann, A.; Türeci, H. E.

    2018-04-01

    As superconductor quantum technologies are moving towards large-scale integrated circuits, a robust and flexible approach to routing photons at the quantum level becomes a critical problem. Active circuits, which contain parametrically driven elements selectively embedded in the circuit, offer a viable solution. Here, we present a general strategy for routing nonreciprocally quantum signals between two sites of a given lattice of oscillators, implementable with existing superconducting circuit components. Our approach makes use of a dual lattice of overdamped oscillators linking the nodes of the main lattice. Solutions for spatially selective driving of the lattice elements can be found, which optimally balance coherent and dissipative hopping of microwave photons to nonreciprocally route signals between two given nodes. In certain lattices these optimal solutions are obtained at the exceptional point of the dynamical matrix of the network. We also demonstrate that signal and noise transmission characteristics can be separately optimized.

  1. Surface wave photonic device based on porous silicon multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermain, E.; Lysenko, V.; Benyattou, T.

    2006-01-01

    Porous silicon is widely studied in the field of photonics due to its interesting optical properties. In this work, we present theoretical and first experimental studies of a new kind of porous silicon photonic device based on optical surface wave. A theoretical analysis of the device is presented using plane-wave approximation. The porous silicon multilayered structures are realized using electrochemical etching of p + -type silicon. Morphological and optical characterizations of the realized structures are reported

  2. Quantum communications system with integrated photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholt, Jane E.; Peterson, Charles Glen; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Hughes, Richard John

    2017-11-14

    Security is increased in quantum communication (QC) systems lacking a true single-photon laser source by encoding a transmitted optical signal with two or more decoy-states. A variable attenuator or amplitude modulator randomly imposes average photon values onto the optical signal based on data input and the predetermined decoy-states. By measuring and comparing photon distributions for a received QC signal, a single-photon transmittance is estimated. Fiber birefringence is compensated by applying polarization modulation. A transmitter can be configured to transmit in conjugate polarization bases whose states of polarization (SOPs) can be represented as equidistant points on a great circle on the Poincare sphere so that the received SOPs are mapped to equidistant points on a great circle and routed to corresponding detectors. Transmitters are implemented in quantum communication cards and can be assembled from micro-optical components, or transmitter components can be fabricated as part of a monolithic or hybrid chip-scale circuit.

  3. Biomedical photonics handbook fundamentals, devices, and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2012-01-01

    Photonics and Tissue OpticsOptical Properties of TissuesJoel Mobley, Tuan Vo-Dinh and Valery TuchinLight-Tissue InteractionsValery V. TuchinTheoretical Models and Algorithms in Optical Diffusion TomographyStephen J. Norton and Tuan Vo-DinhBasic InstrumentationBasic Instrumentation in PhotonicsTuan Vo-DinhOptical Fibers and Waveguides for Medical ApplicationsIsrael Gannot and Moshe Ben DavidFiberoptics Probe DesignUrs Ut

  4. Silicon light-emitting diodes and lasers photon breeding devices using dressed photons

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on a novel phenomenon named photon breeding. It is applied to realizing light-emitting diodes and lasers made of indirect-transition-type silicon bulk crystals in which the light-emission principle is based on dressed photons. After presenting physical pictures of dressed photons and dressed-photon phonons, the principle of light emission by using dressed-photon phonons is reviewed. A novel phenomenon named photon breeding is also reviewed. Next, the fabrication and operation of light emitting diodes and lasers are described The role of coherent phonons in these devices is discussed. Finally, light-emitting diodes using other relevant crystals are described and other relevant devices are also reviewed.

  5. Bridging ultrahigh-Q devices and photonic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ki Youl; Oh, Dong Yoon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Yang, Qi-Fan; Yi, Xu; Shen, Boqiang; Wang, Heming; Vahala, Kerry

    2018-05-01

    Optical microresonators are essential to a broad range of technologies and scientific disciplines. However, many of their applications rely on discrete devices to attain challenging combinations of ultra-low-loss performance (ultrahigh Q) and resonator design requirements. This prevents access to scalable fabrication methods for photonic integration and lithographic feature control. Indeed, finding a microfabrication bridge that connects ultrahigh-Q device functions with photonic circuits is a priority of the microcavity field. Here, an integrated resonator having a record Q factor over 200 million is presented. Its ultra-low-loss and flexible cavity design brings performance to integrated systems that has been the exclusive domain of discrete silica and crystalline microcavity devices. Two distinctly different devices are demonstrated: soliton sources with electronic repetition rates and high-coherence/low-threshold Brillouin lasers. This multi-device capability and performance from a single integrated cavity platform represents a critical advance for future photonic circuits and systems.

  6. Static non-reciprocity in mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulais, Corentin; Sounas, Dimitrios; Alù, Andrea

    2017-02-23

    Reciprocity is a general, fundamental principle governing various physical systems, which ensures that the transfer function-the transmission of a physical quantity, say light intensity-between any two points in space is identical, regardless of geometrical or material asymmetries. Breaking this transmission symmetry offers enhanced control over signal transport, isolation and source protection. So far, devices that break reciprocity (and therefore show non-reciprocity) have been mostly considered in dynamic systems involving electromagnetic, acoustic and mechanical wave propagation associated with fields varying in space and time. Here we show that it is possible to break reciprocity in static systems, realizing mechanical metamaterials that exhibit vastly different output displacements under excitation from different sides, as well as one-way displacement amplification. This is achieved by combining large nonlinearities with suitable geometrical asymmetries and/or topological features. In addition to extending non-reciprocity and isolation to statics, our work sheds light on energy propagation in nonlinear materials with asymmetric crystalline structures and topological properties. We anticipate that breaking reciprocity will open avenues for energy absorption, conversion and harvesting, soft robotics, prosthetics and optomechanics.

  7. 2-Photon tandem device for water splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2014-01-01

    Within the field Of photocatalytic water splitting there are several strategies to achieve the goal of efficient and cheap photocatalytic water splitting. This work examines one particular strategy by focusing on monolithically stacked, two-photon photoelectrochemical cells. The overall aim...... for photocatalytic water splitting by using a large bandgap photocathode and a low bandgap photoanode with attached protection layers....

  8. Silicon photonics design from devices to systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chrostowski, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    From design and simulation through to testing and fabrication, this hands-on introduction to silicon photonics engineering equips students with everything they need to begin creating foundry-ready designs. In-depth discussion of real-world issues and fabrication challenges ensures that students are fully equipped for careers in industry. Step-by-step tutorials, straightforward examples, and illustrative source code fragments guide students through every aspect of the design process, providing a practical framework for developing and refining key skills. Offering industry-ready expertise, the text supports existing PDKs for CMOS UV-lithography foundry services (OpSIS, ePIXfab, imec, LETI, IME and CMC) and the development of new kits for proprietary processes and clean-room based research. Accompanied by additional online resources to support students, this is the perfect learning package for senior undergraduate and graduate students studying silicon photonics design, and academic and industrial researchers in...

  9. Hybrid graphene/silicon integrated optical isolators with photonic spin–orbit interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jingwen; Sun, Xiankai; Xi, Xiang; Yu, Zejie

    2016-01-01

    Optical isolators are an important building block in photonic computation and communication. In traditional optics, isolators are realized with magneto-optical garnets. However, it remains challenging to incorporate such materials on an integrated platform because of the difficulty in material growth and bulky device footprint. Here, we propose an ultracompact integrated isolator by exploiting graphene's magneto-optical property on a silicon-on-insulator platform. The photonic nonreciprocity is achieved because the cyclotrons in graphene experiencing different optical spins exhibit different responses to counterpropagating light. Taking advantage of cavity resonance effects, we have numerically optimized a device design, which shows excellent isolation performance with the extinction ratio over 45 dB and the insertion loss around 12 dB at a wavelength near 1.55 μm. Featuring graphene's CMOS compatibility and substantially reduced device footprint, our proposal sheds light on monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices.

  10. Two-dimensional topological photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Shvets, Gennady

    2017-12-01

    Originating from the studies of two-dimensional condensed-matter states, the concept of topological order has recently been expanded to other fields of physics and engineering, particularly optics and photonics. Topological photonic structures have already overturned some of the traditional views on wave propagation and manipulation. The application of topological concepts to guided wave propagation has enabled novel photonic devices, such as reflection-free sharply bent waveguides, robust delay lines, spin-polarized switches and non-reciprocal devices. Discrete degrees of freedom, widely used in condensed-matter physics, such as spin and valley, are now entering the realm of photonics. In this Review, we summarize the latest advances in this highly dynamic field, with special emphasis on the experimental work on two-dimensional photonic topological structures.

  11. Photonic crystal-adaptive optical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas

    This Ph.D. thesis presents methods for enhancing the optical functionality of transparent glass panes by introduction of invisible nanoscale surface structures, such as gratings and planar photonic cyrstals. In this way the primary functionality of the glass - transparancy - may be enhanced...... been designed, fabricated and analyzed. First a solar harvesting method, based on nanoscale gratings which are imprinted in a thin-film which is deposited on the window pane is discussed. Free-space light which is incident onto a window is coupled to guided modes in the thin-film or the substrate...

  12. Photonic Switching Devices Using Light Bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A unique ultra-fast, all-optical switching device or switch is made with readily available, relatively inexpensive, highly nonlinear optical materials. which includes highly nonlinear optical glasses, semiconductor crystals and/or multiple quantum well semiconductor materials. At the specified wavelengths. these optical materials have a sufficiently negative group velocity dispersion and high nonlinear index of refraction to support stable light bullets. The light bullets counter-propagate through, and interact within the waveguide to selectively change each others' directions of propagation into predetermined channels. In one embodiment, the switch utilizes a rectangularly planar slab waveguide. and further includes two central channels and a plurality of lateral channels for guiding the light bullets into and out of the waveguide. An advantage of the present all-optical switching device lies in its practical use of light bullets, thus preventing the degeneration of the pulses due to dispersion and diffraction at the front and back of the pulses. Another advantage of the switching device is the relative insensitivity of the collision process to the time difference in which the counter-propagating pulses enter the waveguide. since. contrary to conventional co-propagating spatial solitons, the relative phase of the colliding pulses does not affect the interaction of these pulses. Yet another feature of the present all-optical switching device is the selection of the light pulse parameters which enables the generation of light bullets in nonlinear optical materials. including highly nonlinear optical glasses and semiconductor materials such as semiconductor crystals and/or multiple quantum well semiconductor materials.

  13. Si light-emitting device in integrated photonic CMOS ICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kaikai; Snyman, Lukas W.; Aharoni, Herzl

    2017-07-01

    The motivation for integrated Si optoelectronics is the creation of low-cost photonics for mass-market applications. Especially, the growing demand for sensitive biochemical sensors in the environmental control or medicine leads to the development of integrated high resolution sensors. Here CMOS-compatible Si light-emitting device structures are presented for investigating the effect of various depletion layer profiles and defect engineering on the photonic transition in the 1.4-2.8 eV. A novel Si device is proposed to realize both a two-terminal Si-diode light-emitting device and a three-terminal Si gate-controlled diode light-emitting device in the same device structure. In addition to the spectral analysis, differences between two-terminal and three-terminal devices are discussed, showing the light emission efficiency change. The proposed Si optical source may find potential applications in micro-photonic systems and micro-optoelectro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) in CMOS integrated circuitry.

  14. Implantable photonic devices for improved medical treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinman, Victor; Rudnitsky, Arkady; Toichuev, Rakhmanbek; Eshiev, Abdyrakhman; Abdullaeva, Svetlana; Egemkulov, Talantbek; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2014-10-01

    An evolving area of biomedical research is related to the creation of implantable units that provide various possibilities for imaging, measurement, and the monitoring of a wide range of diseases and intrabody phototherapy. The units can be autonomic or built-in in some kind of clinically applicable implants. Because of specific working conditions in the live body, such implants must have a number of features requiring further development. This topic can cause wide interest among developers of optical, mechanical, and electronic solutions in biomedicine. We introduce preliminary clinical trials obtained with an implantable pill and devices that we have developed. The pill and devices are capable of applying in-body phototherapy, low-level laser therapy, blue light (450 nm) for sterilization, and controlled injection of chemicals. The pill is also capable of communicating with an external control box, including the transmission of images from inside the patient's body. In this work, our pill was utilized for illumination of the sinus-carotid zone in dog and red light influence on arterial pressure and heart rate was demonstrated. Intrabody liver tissue laser ablation and nanoparticle-assisted laser ablation was investigated. Sterilization effect of intrabody blue light illumination was applied during a maxillofacial phlegmon treatment.

  15. Photonic devices based on black phosphorus and related hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitiello, M.S.; Viti, L.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial semiconductor heterostructures played a pivotal role in modern electronic and photonic technologies, providing a highly effective means for the manipulation and control of carriers, from the visible to the far-infrared, leading to the development of highly efficient devices like sources, detectors and modulators. The discovery of graphene and the related fascinating capabilities have triggered an unprecedented interest in devices based on inorganic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Amongst them, black phosphorus (BP) recently showed an extraordinary potential in a variety of applications across micro-electronics and photonics. With an energy gap between the gapless graphene and the larger gap transition metal dichalcogenides, BP can form the basis for a new generation of high-performance photonic devices that could be specifically engineered to comply with different applications, like transparent saturable absorbers, fast photocounductive switches and low noise photodetectors, exploiting its peculiar electrical, thermal and optical anisotropy. This paper will review the latest achievements in black-phosphorus–based THz photonics and discuss future perspectives of this rapidly developing research field.

  16. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying the technology instrumentation of photonics This volume discusses photonics technology and instrumentation. The topics discussed in this volume are: Communication Networks; Data Buffers; Defense and Security Applications; Detectors; Fiber Optics and Amplifiers; Green Photonics; Instrumentation and Metrology; Interferometers; Light-Harvesting Materials; Logic Devices; Optical Communications; Remote Sensing; Solar Energy; Solid-State Lighting; Wavelength Conversion Comprehensive and accessible coverage of the whole of modern photonics Emphas

  17. Photon management of GaN-based optoelectronic devices via nanoscaled phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Yu-Lin; Lai, Kun-Yu; Lee, Ming-Jui; Liao, Yu-Kuang; Ooi, Boon S.; Kuo, Hao-Chung; He, Jr-Hau

    2016-01-01

    Photon management is essential in improving the performances of optoelectronic devices including light emitting diodes, solar cells and photo detectors. Beyond the advances in material growth and device structure design, photon management via

  18. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Devices for Nonlinear Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yi

    , membranization of InP/InGaAs structure and wet etching. Experimental investigation of the switching dynamics of InP photonic crystal nanocavity structures are carried out using short-pulse homodyne pump-probe techniques, both in the linear and nonlinear region where the cavity is perturbed by a relatively small......This thesis deals with the investigation of InP material based photonic crystal cavity membrane structures, both experimentally and theoretically. The work emphasizes on the understanding of the physics underlying the structures’ nonlinear properties and their applications for all-optical signal...... processing. Based on the previous fabrication recipe developed in our III-V platform, several processing techniques are developed and optimized for the fabrication of InP photonic crystal membrane structures. Several key issues are identified to ensure a good device quality such as air hole size control...

  19. Switchable Photonic Crystals Using One-Dimensional Confined Liquid Crystals for Photonic Device Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seong Ho; Gim, Min-Jun; Lee, Wonsuk; Choi, Suk-Won; Yoon, Dong Ki

    2017-01-25

    Photonic crystals (PCs) have recently attracted considerable attention, with much effort devoted to photonic bandgap (PBG) control for varying the reflected color. Here, fabrication of a modulated one-dimensional (1D) anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) PC with a periodic porous structure is reported. The PBG of the fabricated PC can be reversibly changed by switching the ultraviolet (UV) light on/off. The AAO nanopores contain a mixture of photoresponsive liquid crystals (LCs) with irradiation-activated cis/trans photoisomerizable azobenzene. The resultant mixture of LCs in the porous AAO film exhibits a reversible PBG, depending on the cis/trans configuration of azobenzene molecules. The PBG switching is reliable over many cycles, suggesting that the fabricated device can be used in optical and photonic applications such as light modulators, smart windows, and sensors.

  20. Photonics in Environment and Energy. A technology roadmap for SMEs on new photonic devices and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, Jonathan; Salingre, Anthony; Vitale, David; Yatsunenko, Sergey; Lojkowski, Witold

    2012-11-01

    Scientific and technological developments in photonics will have a major influence on lots of industries over the next ten to fifteen years. In this highly evolving field, the long-term competitiveness of companies, and especially of Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs), mainly depends on their ability to offer a good product and to establish a successful market position, which is well connected to the management of the hidden potential in existing technological capabilities. Technology roadmaps are interesting tools used to portray the structural and temporal relationships among science, technology and applications and thus help in the decision-making process to remain successful on the market. The present roadmap aims at identifying technological trends for new photonic devices and nanophotonic materials, mainly in terms of market development. It has the main objective to inform SMEs about new scientific discoveries and developments in photonics and their related problem-solving potential for future products and applications in the Environment and Energy sector. This roadmap is part of a set of four roadmaps about the use of photonic technologies in the industrial sectors of ICT, Heath and Well-being, Environment and Energy and Safety and Security. They were developed in the course of the European project PhotonicRoadSME. Altogether, these roadmaps will contribute to support SMEs in their strategic planning for future applications and products.

  1. Printed polymer photonic devices for optical interconnect systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Harish; Pan, Zeyu; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiaochu; Guo, L. J.; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-03-01

    Polymer photonic device fabrication usually relies on the utilization of clean-room processes, including photolithography, e-beam lithography, reactive ion etching (RIE) and lift-off methods etc, which are expensive and are limited to areas as large as a wafer. Utilizing a novel and a scalable printing process involving ink-jet printing and imprinting, we have fabricated polymer based photonic interconnect components, such as electro-optic polymer based modulators and ring resonator switches, and thermo-optic polymer switch based delay networks and demonstrated their operation. Specifically, a modulator operating at 15MHz and a 2-bit delay network providing up to 35.4ps are presented. In this paper, we also discuss the manufacturing challenges that need to be overcome in order to make roll-to-roll manufacturing practically viable. We discuss a few manufacturing challenges, such as inspection and quality control, registration, and web control, that need to be overcome in order to realize true implementation of roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible polymer photonic systems. We have overcome these challenges, and currently utilizing our inhouse developed hardware and software tools, <10μm alignment accuracy at a 5m/min is demonstrated. Such a scalable roll-to-roll manufacturing scheme will enable the development of unique optoelectronic devices which can be used in a myriad of different applications, including communication, sensing, medicine, security, imaging, energy, lighting etc.

  2. Towards roll-to-roll manufacturing of polymer photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Harish; Lin, Xiaohui; Ling, Tao; Guo, L. Jay; Chen, Ray T.

    2014-03-01

    Traditionally, polymer photonic devices are fabricated using clean-room processes such as photolithography, e-beam lithography, reactive ion etching (RIE) and lift-off methods etc, which leads to long fabrication time, low throughput and high cost. We have utilized a novel process for fabricating polymer photonic devices using a combination of imprinting and ink jet printing methods, which provides high throughput on a variety of rigid and flexible substrates with low cost. We discuss the manufacturing challenges that need to be overcome in order to realize true implementation of roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible polymer photonic systems. Several metrology and instrumentation challenges involved such as availability of particulate-free high quality substrate, development and implementation of high-speed in-line and off-line inspection and diagnostic tools with adaptive control for patterned and unpatterned material films, development of reliable hardware, etc need to be addressed and overcome in order to realize a successful manufacturing process. Due to extreme resolution requirements compared to print media, the burden of software and hardware tools on the throughput also needs to be carefully determined. Moreover, the effect of web wander and variations in web speed need to accurately be determined in the design of the system hardware and software. In this paper, we show the realization of solutions for few challenges, and utilizing these solutions for developing a high-rate R2R dual stage ink-jet printer that can provide alignment accuracy of web speed of 5m/min. The development of a roll-to-roll manufacturing system for polymer photonic systems opens limitless possibilities for the deployment of high performance components in a variety of applications including communication, sensing, medicine, agriculture, energy, lighting etc.

  3. Photonomics: automation approaches yield economic aikido for photonics device manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Scott

    2002-09-01

    In the glory days of photonics, with exponentiating demand for photonics devices came exponentiating competition, with new ventures commencing deliveries seemingly weekly. Suddenly the industry was faced with a commodity marketplace well before a commodity cost structure was in place. Economic issues like cost, scalability, yield-call it all "Photonomics" -now drive the industry. Automation and throughput-optimization are obvious answers, but until now, suitable modular tools had not been introduced. Available solutions were barely compatible with typical transverse alignment tolerances and could not automate angular alignments of collimated devices and arrays. And settling physics served as the insoluble bottleneck to throughput and resolution advancement in packaging, characterization and fabrication processes. The industry has addressed these needs in several ways, ranging from special configurations of catalog motion devices to integrated microrobots based on a novel mini-hexapod configuration. This intriguing approach allows tip/tilt alignments to be automated about any point in space, such as a beam waist, a focal point, the cleaved face of a fiber, or the optical axis of a waveguide- ideal for MEMS packaging automation and array alignment. Meanwhile, patented new low-cost settling-enhancement technology has been applied in applications ranging from air-bearing long-travel stages to subnanometer-resolution piezo positioners to advance resolution and process cycle-times in sensitive applications such as optical coupling characterization and fiber Bragg grating generation. Background, examples and metrics are discussed, providing an up-to-date industry overview of available solutions.

  4. Athermal Photonic Devices and Circuits on a Silicon Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, Vivek

    In recent years, silicon based optical interconnects has been pursued as an effective solution that can offer cost, energy, distance and bandwidth density improvements over copper. Monolithic integration of optics and electronics has been enabled by silicon photonic devices that can be fabricated using CMOS technology. However, high levels of device integration result in significant local and global temperature fluctuations that prove problematic for silicon based photonic devices. In particular, high temperature dependence of Si refractive index (thermo-optic (TO) coefficient) shifts the filter response of resonant devices that limit wavelength resolution in various applications. Active thermal compensation using heaters and thermo-electric coolers are the legacy solution for low density integration. However, the required electrical power, device foot print and number of input/output (I/O) lines limit the integration density. We present a passive approach to an athermal design that involves compensation of positive TO effects from a silicon core by negative TO effects of the polymer cladding. In addition, the design rule involves engineering the waveguide core geometry depending on the resonance wavelength under consideration to ensure desired amount of light in the polymer. We develop exact design requirements for a TO peak stability of 0 pm/K and present prototype performance of 0.5 pm/K. We explore the material design space through initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) of 2 polymer cladding choices. We study the effect of cross-linking on the optical properties of a polymer and establish the superior performance of the co-polymer cladding compared to the homo-polymer. Integration of polymer clad devices in an electronic-photonic architecture requires the possibility of multi-layer stacking capability. We use a low temperature, high density plasma chemical vapor deposition of SiO2/SiN x to hermetically seal the athermal. Further, we employ visible light for

  5. Plasma Photonic Devices for High Energy Density Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, R.

    2005-01-01

    High power laser technologies are opening a variety of attractive fields of science and technology using high energy density plasmas such as plasma physics, laboratory astrophysics, material science, nuclear science including medical applications and laser fusion. The critical issues in the applications are attributed to the control of intense light and enormous density of charged particles including efficient generation of the particles such as MeV electrons and protons with a current density of TA/cm2. Now these application possibilities are limited only by the laser technology. These applications have been limited in the control of the high power laser technologies and their optics. However, if we have another device consisted of the 4th material, i.e. plasma, we will obtain a higher energy density condition and explore the application possibilities, which could be called high energy plasma device. One of the most attractive devices has been demonstrated in the fast ignition scheme of the laser fusion, which is cone-guiding of ultra-intense laser light in to high density regions1. This is one of the applications of the plasma device to control the ultra-intense laser light. The other role of the devices consisted of transient plasmas is control of enormous energy-density particles in a fashion analogous to light control with a conventional optical device. A plasma fibre (5?m/1mm), as one example of the devices, has guided and deflected the high-density MeV electrons generated by ultra-intense laser light 2. The electrons have been well collimated with either a lens-like plasma device or a fibre-like plasma, resulting in isochoric heating and creation of ultra-high pressures such as Giga bar with an order of 100J. Plasmas would be uniquely a device to easily control the higher energy density particles like a conventional optical device as well as the ultra-intense laser light, which could be called plasma photonic device. (Author)

  6. Non-reciprocity in nonlinear elastodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Antoine; Sapsis, Themistoklis P.; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2018-01-01

    Reciprocity is a fundamental property of linear time-invariant (LTI) acoustic waveguides governed by self-adjoint operators with symmetric Green's functions. The break of reciprocity in LTI elastodynamics is only possible through the break of time reversal symmetry on the micro-level, and this can be achieved by imposing external biases, adding nonlinearities or allowing for time-varying system properties. We present a Volterra-series based asymptotic analysis for studying spatial non-reciprocity in a class of one-dimensional (1D), time-invariant elastic systems with weak stiffness nonlinearities. We show that nonlinearity is neither necessary nor sufficient for breaking reciprocity in this class of systems; rather, it depends on the boundary conditions, the symmetries of the governing linear and nonlinear operators, and the choice of the spatial points where the non-reciprocity criterion is tested. Extension of the analysis to higher dimensions and time-varying systems is straightforward from a mathematical point of view (but not in terms of new non-reciprocal physical phenomena), whereas the connection of non-reciprocity and time irreversibility can be studied as well. Finally, we show that suitably defined non-reciprocity measures enable optimization, and can provide physical understanding of the nonlinear effects in the dynamics, enabling one to establish regimes of "maximum nonlinearity." We highlight the theoretical developments by means of a numerical example.

  7. Low dimension structures and devices for new generation photonic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D. H.; Tang, D. Y.; Chen, T. P.; Mei, T.; Yuan, X. C.

    2014-01-01

    Low dimensional structures and devices are the key technological building blocks for new generation of electronic and photonic technology. Such structures and devices show novel properties and can be integrated into systems for wide applications in many areas, including medical, biological and military and advancement of science. In this invited talk, I will present the main results achieved in our competitive research program which aims to explore the application of the mesoscopic structures in light source, manipulation and imaging and integrate them into advanced systems. In the light source aspect, we have for the first time developed graphene mode-locked lasers which are in the process of commercialization. Nanocrystal Si embedded in dielectrics was formed by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. Si light emitting devices with external quantum efficiency of about 2.9×10 −3 % for visible emission were demonstrated at room temperature and the color of emitted light can be tuned electrically from violet to white by varying the injected current. In light manipulation, loss compensation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) using quantum well (QW) gain media was studied theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. The SPP propagation length was effectively elongated several times through electrical pumping. One and two microring resonators based on silicon on insulator and III-V semiconductors technologies have been successfully fabricated and they can be used as filter and switch in the photonic circuit. In imaging, both SPP and low dimension structures are investigated and resolution far beyond diffraction limit in visible range has been realized. The integration of the components in the three aspects into complicated systems is on the way

  8. Photodetection, photon event localization and position tomography device comprising a gammagraphy camera equipped wit such devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatteau, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    This device of photodetection and photon event (and noticeably scintillations) localization comprises at least a photomultiplier tube with unique photomultiplying structure and in front of this tube, a net of juxtaposed conduction metal wires excited by voltage pulses. This net comprises only 2n metallic wires to assure the localization of 2sup(2n) possible positions, and that is one of its characteristics [fr

  9. Semiconductor devices for entangled photon pair generation: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orieux, Adeline; Versteegh, Marijn A. M.; Jöns, Klaus D.; Ducci, Sara

    2017-07-01

    Entanglement is one of the most fascinating properties of quantum mechanical systems; when two particles are entangled the measurement of the properties of one of the two allows the properties of the other to be instantaneously known, whatever the distance separating them. In parallel with fundamental research on the foundations of quantum mechanics performed on complex experimental set-ups, we assist today with bourgeoning of quantum information technologies bound to exploit entanglement for a large variety of applications such as secure communications, metrology and computation. Among the different physical systems under investigation, those involving photonic components are likely to play a central role and in this context semiconductor materials exhibit a huge potential in terms of integration of several quantum components in miniature chips. In this article we review the recent progress in the development of semiconductor devices emitting entangled photons. We will present the physical processes allowing the generation of entanglement and the tools to characterize it; we will give an overview of major recent results of the last few years and highlight perspectives for future developments.

  10. Resonance oscillations of nonreciprocal long-range van der Waals forces between atoms in electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkunov, Yury

    2018-03-01

    We study theoretically the van der Waals interaction between two atoms out of equilibrium with an isotropic electromagnetic field. We demonstrate that at large interatomic separations, the van der Waals forces are resonant, spatially oscillating, and nonreciprocal due to resonance absorption and emission of virtual photons. We suggest that the van der Waals forces can be controlled and manipulated by tuning the spectrum of artificially created random light.

  11. Photon management of GaN-based optoelectronic devices via nanoscaled phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Yu-Lin

    2016-09-06

    Photon management is essential in improving the performances of optoelectronic devices including light emitting diodes, solar cells and photo detectors. Beyond the advances in material growth and device structure design, photon management via nanoscaled phenomena have also been demonstrated as a promising way for further modifying/improving the device performance. The accomplishments achieved by photon management via nanoscaled phenomena include strain-induced polarization field management, crystal quality improvement, light extraction/harvesting enhancement, radiation pattern control, and spectrum management. In this review, we summarize recent development, challenges and underlying physics of photon management in GaN-based light emitting diodes and solar cells. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhancement of broadband optical absorption in photovoltaic devices by band-edge effect of photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshinori; Kawamoto, Yosuke; Fujita, Masayuki; Noda, Susumu

    2013-08-26

    We numerically investigate broadband optical absorption enhancement in thin, 400-nm thick microcrystalline silicon (µc-Si) photovoltaic devices by photonic crystals (PCs). We realize absorption enhancement by coupling the light from the free space to the large area resonant modes at the photonic band-edge induced by the photonic crystals. We show that multiple photonic band-edge modes can be produced by higher order modes in the vertical direction of the Si photovoltaic layer, which can enhance the absorption on multiple wavelengths. Moreover, we reveal that the photonic superlattice structure can produce more photonic band-edge modes that lead to further optical absorption. The absorption average in wavelengths of 500-1000 nm weighted to the solar spectrum (AM 1.5) increases almost twice: from 33% without photonic crystal to 58% with a 4 × 4 period superlattice photonic crystal; our result outperforms the Lambertian textured structure.

  13. Modelling band-to-band tunneling current in InP-based heterostructure photonic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engelen, J.P.; Shen, L.; van der Tol, J.J.G.M.; Smit, M.K.; Kockaert, P.; Emplit, P.; Gorza, S.-P.; Massar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Some semiconductor photonic devices show large discontinuities in the band structure. Short tunnel paths caused by this band structure may lead to an excessive tunneling current, especially in highly doped layers. Modelling of this tunnelling current is therefore important when designing photonic

  14. Hamiltonian description of non-reciprocal light propagation in nonlinear chiral fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trendafilov, S.; Khudik, V.; Tokman, M.; Shvets, G.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a novel type of a nonlinear optical isolator based on adiabatic time-irreversible mode conversion of a tightly confined core mode of an optical fiber into a loosely confined cladding mode of the same fiber. A simple model is developed, describing this device in terms of the time evolution of a driven nonlinear oscillator. Non-reciprocity is shown to be related to the combination of the phase space bifurcation and weak dissipation.

  15. Recent progress in organic electronics and photonics: A perspective on the future of organic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    The fields of organic electronics and photonics have witnessed remarkable advances over the past few years. This progress bodes well for the increased utilization of organic materials as the active layers in devices for applications as diverse

  16. Nanostructured silicon for photonics from materials to devices

    CERN Document Server

    Gaburro, Z; Daldosso, N

    2006-01-01

    The use of light to channel signals around electronic chips could solve several current problems in microelectronic evolution including: power dissipation, interconnect bottlenecks, input/output from/to optical communication channels, poor signal bandwidth, etc. It is unfortunate that silicon is not a good photonic material: it has a poor light-emission efficiency and exhibits a negligible electro-optical effect. Silicon photonics is a field having the objective of improving the physical properties of silicon; thus turning it into a photonic material and permitting the full convergence of elec

  17. Few-photon Non-linearities in Nanophotonic Devices for Quantum Information Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Anders

    In this thesis we investigate few-photon non-linearities in all-optical, on-chip circuits, and we discuss their possible applications in devices of interest for quantum information technology, such as conditional two-photon gates and single-photon sources. In order to propose efficient devices...... the scattered photons. Even though the non-linearity also alters the pulse spectrum due to a four-wave mixing process, we demonstrate that input pulses with a Gaussian spectrum can be mapped to the output with up to 80 % fidelity. Using two identical two-level emitters, we propose a setup for a deterministic...... by the capturing process. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are promising for realizing few-photon non-linearities in solid-state implementations, although coupling to phonon modes in the surrounding lattice have significant influence on the dynamics. By accounting for the commonly neglected asymmetry between...

  18. Ultra-Wide Band Non-reciprocity through Sequentially-Switched Delay Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedka, Mathew M; Zhu, Rui; Xu, Qiang Mark; Wang, Yuanxun Ethan

    2017-01-06

    Achieving non-reciprocity through unconventional methods without the use of magnetic material has recently become a subject of great interest. Towards this goal a time switching strategy known as the Sequentially-Switched Delay Line (SSDL) is proposed. The essential SSDL configuration consists of six transmission lines of equal length, along with five switches. Each switch is turned on and off sequentially to distribute and route the propagating electromagnetic wave, allowing for simultaneous transmission and receiving of signals through the device. Preliminary experimental results with commercial off the shelf parts are presented which demonstrated non-reciprocal behavior with greater than 40 dB isolation from 200 KHz to 200 MHz. The theory and experimental results demonstrated that the SSDL concept may lead to future on-chip circulators over multi-octaves of frequency.

  19. Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2005-01-01

    the waveguiding mechanism of LC filled PCFs. The principle of tunable fibers based on LCs is thereafter discussed and an alignment and coating study of LC in capillaries is presented. Next, the Liquid Crystal Photonic BandGap (LCPBG) fiber is presented and the waveguiding mechanism is analyzed through plane...... hole. The presence of a LC in the holes of the PCF transforms the fiber from a Total Internal Reflection (TIR) guiding type into a Photonic BandGap (PBG) guiding type, where light is confined to the silica core by coherent scattering from the LC-billed holes. The high dielectric and optical anisotropy...

  20. Passive Temperature Stabilization of Silicon Photonic Devices Using Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Ptasinski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we explore the negative thermo-optic properties of liquid crystal claddings for passive temperature stabilization of silicon photonic integrated circuits. Photonic circuits are playing an increasing role in communications and computing, but they suffer from temperature dependent performance variation. Most existing techniques aimed at compensation of thermal effects rely on power hungry Joule heating. We show that integrating a liquid crystal cladding helps to minimize the effects of a temperature dependent drift. The advantage of liquid crystals lies in their high negative thermo-optic coefficients in addition to low absorption at the infrared wavelengths.

  1. Integrated Photonic Devices Incorporating Low-Loss Fluorinated Polymer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Jong Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-loss polymer materials incorporating fluorinated compounds have been utilized for the investigation of various functional optical devices useful for optical communication and optical sensor systems. Since reliability issues concerning the polymer device have been resolved, polymeric waveguide devices have been gradually adopted for commercial application systems. The two most successfully commercialized polymeric integrated optic devices, variable optical attenuators and digital optical switches, are reviewed in this paper. Utilizing unique properties of optical polymers which are not available in other optical materials, novel polymeric optical devices are proposed including widely tunable external cavity lasers and integrated optical current sensors.

  2. Precision Controlled Carbon Materials for Next-Generation Optoelectronic and Photonic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-08

    engineer next-generation carbon-based optoelectronic and photonic devices with superior performance and capabilities. These devices include carbon...electronics; (4) nanostructured graphene plasmonics; and (5) polymer-nanotube conjugate chemistry . (1) Semiconducting carbon nanotube-based...applications (In Preparation, 2018). (5) Polymer-nanotube conjugate chemistry Conjugated polymers can be exploited as agents for selectively wrapping and

  3. Deterministic multimode photonic device for quantum-information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne E. B.; Mølmer, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    We propose the implementation of a light source that can deterministically generate a rich variety of multimode quantum states. The desired states are encoded in the collective population of different ground hyperfine states of an atomic ensemble and converted to multimode photonic states by exci...

  4. Liquid crystal parameter analysis for tunable photonic bandgap fiber devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Wei, Lei

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the tunability of splay-aligned liquid crystals for the use in solid core photonic crystal fibers. Finite element simulations are used to obtain the alignment of the liquid crystals subject to an external electric field. By means of the liquid crystal director field the optical...

  5. Frequency Conversion of Single Photons: Physics, Devices, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Anton Zeilinger , Alexan- der V. Sergienko, and Yanhua Shih. New high-intensity source of polarization- entangled photon pairs. Physical Review Letters...interface. Nature, 437(7055):116–120, 2005. [36] S. Ramelow, A. Fedrizzi, A. Poppe, N. K. Langford, and A. Zeilinger . Polarization-entanglement-conserving

  6. Non-reciprocity and topology in optics: one-way road for light via surface magnon polariton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Tetsuyuki

    2015-02-01

    We show how non-reciprocity and topology are used to construct an optical one-way waveguide in the Voigt geometry. First, we present a traditional approach of the one-way waveguide of light using surface polaritons under a static magnetic field. Second, we explain a recent discovery of a topological approach using photonic crystals with the magneto-optical coupling. Third, we present a combination of the two approaches, toward a broadband one-way waveguide in the microwave range.

  7. Photon absorption models in nanostructured semiconductor solar cells and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended to be used by materials and device physicists and also solar cells researchers. It models the performance characteristics of nanostructured solar cells and resolves the dynamics of transitions between several levels of these devices. An outstanding insight into the physical behaviour of these devices is provided, which complements experimental work. This therefore allows a better understanding of the results, enabling the development of new experiments and optimization of new devices. It is intended to be accessible to researchers, but also to provide engineering tools w

  8. Bistability, multistability and non-reciprocal light propagation in Thue-Morse multilayered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, Victor; Biancalana, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    The nonlinear properties of quasi-periodic photonic crystals based on the Thue-Morse sequence are investigated. The intrinsic spatial asymmetry of these one-dimensional structures for odd generation numbers results in bistability thresholds, which are sensitive to the propagation direction. Along with resonances of perfect transmission, this feature allows us to achieve strongly non-reciprocal propagation and to create an all-optical diode. The salient qualitative features of such optical diode action are readily explained through a simple coupled resonator model. The efficiency of a passive scheme that does not necessitate an additional short pump signal is compared to an active scheme where such a signal is required.

  9. In-chip microstructures and photonic devices fabricated by nonlinear laser lithography deep inside silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokel, Onur; Turnalı, Ahmet; Makey, Ghaith; Elahi, Parviz; ćolakoǧlu, Tahir; Ergeçen, Emre; Yavuz, Ã.-zgün; Hübner, René; Zolfaghari Borra, Mona; Pavlov, Ihor; Bek, Alpan; Turan, Raşit; Kesim, Denizhan Koray; Tozburun, Serhat; Ilday, Serim; Ilday, F. Ã.-mer

    2017-10-01

    Silicon is an excellent material for microelectronics and integrated photonics1-3, with untapped potential for mid-infrared optics4. Despite broad recognition of the importance of the third dimension5,6, current lithography methods do not allow the fabrication of photonic devices and functional microelements directly inside silicon chips. Even relatively simple curved geometries cannot be realized with techniques like reactive ion etching. Embedded optical elements7, electronic devices and better electronic-photonic integration are lacking8. Here, we demonstrate laser-based fabrication of complex 3D structures deep inside silicon using 1-µm-sized dots and rod-like structures of adjustable length as basic building blocks. The laser-modified Si has an optical index different to that in unmodified parts, enabling the creation of numerous photonic devices. Optionally, these parts can be chemically etched to produce desired 3D shapes. We exemplify a plethora of subsurface—that is, `in-chip'—microstructures for microfluidic cooling of chips, vias, micro-electro-mechanical systems, photovoltaic applications and photonic devices that match or surpass corresponding state-of-the-art device performances.

  10. In-chip microstructures and photonic devices fabricated by nonlinear laser lithography deep inside silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokel, Onur; Turnali, Ahmet; Makey, Ghaith; Elahi, Parviz; Çolakoğlu, Tahir; Ergeçen, Emre; Yavuz, Özgün; Hübner, René; Borra, Mona Zolfaghari; Pavlov, Ihor; Bek, Alpan; Turan, Raşit; Kesim, Denizhan Koray; Tozburun, Serhat; Ilday, Serim; Ilday, F Ömer

    2017-10-01

    Silicon is an excellent material for microelectronics and integrated photonics1-3 with untapped potential for mid-IR optics4. Despite broad recognition of the importance of the third dimension5,6, current lithography methods do not allow fabrication of photonic devices and functional microelements directly inside silicon chips. Even relatively simple curved geometries cannot be realised with techniques like reactive ion etching. Embedded optical elements, like in glass7, electronic devices, and better electronic-photonic integration are lacking8. Here, we demonstrate laser-based fabrication of complex 3D structures deep inside silicon using 1 µm-sized dots and rod-like structures of adjustable length as basic building blocks. The laser-modified Si has a different optical index than unmodified parts, which enables numerous photonic devices. Optionally, these parts are chemically etched to produce desired 3D shapes. We exemplify a plethora of subsurface, i.e. , " in-chip" microstructures for microfluidic cooling of chips, vias, MEMS, photovoltaic applications and photonic devices that match or surpass the corresponding state-of-the-art device performances.

  11. Nonreciprocity of spin waves in metallized magnonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mruczkiewicz, M; Krawczyk, M; Gubbiotti, G; Tacchi, S; Filimonov, Yu A; Kalyabin, D V; Lisenkov, I V; Nikitov, S A

    2013-01-01

    The nonreciprocal properties of spin waves in metallized one-dimensional bi-component magnonic crystal composed of two materials with different magnetizations are investigated numerically. Nonreciprocity leads to the appearance of indirect magnonic band gaps for magnonic crystals with both low and high magnetization contrast. Specific features of the nonreciprocity in low contrast magnonic crystals lead to the appearance of several magnonic band gaps located within the first Brillouin zone for waves propagating along the metallized surface. Analysis of the spatial distribution of dynamic magnetization amplitudes explains the mechanism of dispersion band formation and hybridization between magnonic bands in magnonic crystals with metallization. (paper)

  12. Quantum Dot/Liquid Crystal Nanocomposites in Photonic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Rodarte

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dot/liquid crystal nano-composites are promising new materials for a variety of applications in energy harvesting, displays and photonics including the liquid crystal laser. To realize many applications, however, we need to control and stabilize nano-particle dispersion in different liquid crystal host phases and understand how the particles behave in an anisotropic fluid. An ideal system will allow for the controlled assembly of either well-defined nano-particle clusters or a uniform particle distribution. In this paper, we investigate mesogen-functionalized quantum dots for dispersion in cholesteric liquid crystal. These nanoparticles are known to assemble into dense stable packings in the nematic phase, and such structures, when localized in the liquid crystal defects, can potentially enhance the coupling between particles and a cholesteric cavity. Controlling the dispersion and assembly of quantum dots using mesogenic surface ligands, we demonstrate how resonant fluid photonic cavities can result from the co-assembly of luminescent nanoparticles in the presence of cholesteric liquid crystalline ordering.

  13. Simulation of photons from plasmas for the applications to display devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae June; Yoon, Hyun Jin; Lee, Jae Koo

    2007-07-01

    Numerical modeling of the photon transport of the ultraviolet (UV) and the visible lights are presented for plasma based display devices. The transport of UV lights which undergo resonance trapping by ground state atoms is solved by using the Holstein equation. After the UV lights are transformed to visible lights at the phosphor surfaces, the visible lights experience complicated traces inside the cell and finally are emitted toward the viewing window after having some power loss within the cell. A three-dimensional ray trace of the visible lights is calculated with a radiosity model. These simulations for the photons strengthen plasma discharge modeling for the application to display devices.

  14. Optimizing performance of plasmonic devices for photonic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenzveig, Tiberiu; Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    specifications similar to or better than commercially available thermo-optic integrated optical components. Specifically, we have considered the insertion loss, power consumption, footprint, polarization-dependent loss, extinction ratio, and frequency response of the plasmonic devices, in addition to fabrication...

  15. Photon and neutron doses of the personnel using moisture and density measurement devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carinou, E.; Papadomarkaki, E.; Tritakis, P.; Hourdakis, C.I.; Kamenopoulou, V. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Agia Paraskevi, Attiki, 60092 (Greece)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study is to present the evolution of the photon doses received by the workers who use mobile devices for measuring the moisture and the density in various materials and to estimate the neutron doses. The workers employed in more than 30 construction companies in Greece were 76 in 2004. The devices used for that purpose incorporate a {sup 137}Cs source for density measurements and an {sup 241}Am-Be source for moisture measurements of soil, asphalt or concrete. Photon and neutron measurements were performed occasionally during the on site inspections. The results of the measurements showed that the photon and neutron dose rates were not negligible. The workers were monitored for photon radiation using film badges (Kodak Type 2, Holder NRPB type) till the year 2000 and then TLD badges issued by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), on a monthly basis. Since the neutron dose rates measured by a rem-meter were not so high, no neutron dosemeters were issued for them. Their personal dose equivalent data for photons are kept in the National Dose Registry Information System (N.D.R.I.S.) in G.A.E.C. and were used for statistical analysis for the period from 1997 till 2004. As far as the neutrons are concerned, a Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the measuring devices and the working positions in order to calculate the neutron individual doses. (authors)

  16. Photon and neutron doses of the personnel using moisture and density measurement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carinou, E.; Papadomarkaki, E.; Tritakis, P.; Hourdakis, C.I.; Kamenopoulou, V.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present the evolution of the photon doses received by the workers who use mobile devices for measuring the moisture and the density in various materials and to estimate the neutron doses. The workers employed in more than 30 construction companies in Greece were 76 in 2004. The devices used for that purpose incorporate a 137 Cs source for density measurements and an 241 Am-Be source for moisture measurements of soil, asphalt or concrete. Photon and neutron measurements were performed occasionally during the on site inspections. The results of the measurements showed that the photon and neutron dose rates were not negligible. The workers were monitored for photon radiation using film badges (Kodak Type 2, Holder NRPB type) till the year 2000 and then TLD badges issued by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), on a monthly basis. Since the neutron dose rates measured by a rem-meter were not so high, no neutron dosemeters were issued for them. Their personal dose equivalent data for photons are kept in the National Dose Registry Information System (N.D.R.I.S.) in G.A.E.C. and were used for statistical analysis for the period from 1997 till 2004. As far as the neutrons are concerned, a Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the measuring devices and the working positions in order to calculate the neutron individual doses. (authors)

  17. Tunable photonic bandgap fiber based devices for optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Scolari, Lara; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    In future all optical networks one of the enabling technologies is tunable elements including reconfigurable routers, switches etc. Thus, the development of a technology platform that allows construction of tuning components is critical. Lately, microstructured optical fibers, filled with liquid......, for example a liquid crystal that changes optical properties when subjected to, for example, an optical or an electrical field. The utilization of these two basic properties allows design of tunable optical devices for optical networks. In this work, we focus on applications of such devices and discuss recent...... crystals, have proven to be a candidate for such a platform. Microstructured optical fibers offer unique wave-guiding properties that are strongly related to the design of the air holes in the cladding of the fiber. These wave-guiding properties may be altered by filling the air holes with a material...

  18. Continuously tunable devices based on electrical control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scolari, Lara; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Riishede, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    We present an electrically controlled photonic bandgap fiber device obtained by infiltrating the air holes of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a dual-frequency liquid crystal (LC) with pre-tilted molecules. Compared to previously demonstrated devices of this kind, the main new feature of this ...... in the same device. We investigate the dynamics of this device and demonstrate a birefringence controller based on this principle....

  19. Photolithography of thick photoresist coating for electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibre devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Khomtchenko, Elena; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2009-01-01

    Thick photoresist coating for electrode patterning in an anisotropically etched V-groove is investigated for electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibre devices. The photoresist step coverage at the convex corners is compared with and without soft baking after photoresist spin...

  20. Hybrid optical security system using photonic crystals and MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciosek, Jerzy; Ostrowski, Roman

    2017-10-01

    An important issue in security systems is that of selection of the appropriate detectors or sensors, whose sensitivity guarantees functional reliability whilst avoiding false alarms. Modern technology enables the optimization of sensor systems, tailored to specific risk factors. In optical security systems, one of the safety parameters considered is the spectral range in which the excitation signal is associated with a risk factor. Advanced safety systems should be designed taking into consideration the possible occurrence of, often multiple, complex risk factors, which can be identified individually. The hazards of concern in this work are chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial compounds present in the forms of gases and aerosols. The proposed sensor solution is a hybrid optical system consisting of a multi-spectral structure of photonic crystals associated with a MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System) resonator. The crystallographic structures of carbon present in graphene rings and graphenecarbon nanotube nanocomposites have properties which make them desirable for use in detectors. The advantage of this system is a multi-spectral sensitivity at the same time as narrow-band selectivity for the identification of risk factors. It is possible to design a system optimized for detecting specified types of risk factor from very complex signals.

  1. Nonlinear Silicon Photonic Signal Processing Devices for Future Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Lacava

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a review on silicon-based nonlinear devices for all optical nonlinear processing of complex telecommunication signals. We discuss some recent developments achieved by our research group, through extensive collaborations with academic partners across Europe, on optical signal processing using silicon-germanium and amorphous silicon based waveguides as well as novel materials such as silicon rich silicon nitride and tantalum pentoxide. We review the performance of four wave mixing wavelength conversion applied on complex signals such as Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK, 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM and 64-QAM that dramatically enhance the telecom signal spectral efficiency, paving the way to next generation terabit all-optical networks.

  2. Radiation Testing, Characterization and Qualification Challenges for Modern Microelectronics and Photonics Devices and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2008-01-01

    At GOMAC 2007, we discussed a selection of the challenges for radiation testing of modern semiconductor devices focusing on state-of-the-art memory technologies. This included FLASH non-volatile memories (NVMs) and synchronous dynamic random access memories (SDRAMs). In this presentation, we extend this discussion in device packaging and complexity as well as single event upset (SEU) mechanisms using several technology areas as examples including: system-on-a-chip (SOC) devices and photonic or fiber optic systems. The underlying goal is intended to provoke thought for understanding the limitations and interpretation of radiation testing results.

  3. Modeling and optimization of nonreciprocal transmission through 2D magnetophotonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanwolleghem, M; Halagacka, L; Magdenko, L; Beavillain, P; Dagens, B [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Postava, K, E-mail: mathias.vanwolleghem@u-psud.fr, E-mail: kamil.postava@vsb.cz [Department of Physics, Technical University of Ostrava, 708 33 Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-06

    A combination of unique magneto-optic (MO) non-reciprocity and photonic band gap in periodic structures is promising for efficient enhancement of optical isolation and integrated isolator applications [M. Vanwolleghem et al, Phys. Rev. B 80 (2009) 121102(R)]. In this paper we model and optimize a novel magneto-photonic crystal structure consisting air holes in transparent magneto-optic material in transverse geometry (Bismuth iron garnet ({epsilon}{sub xx} = 6.25 and {epsilon}{sub yz} = 0.1 i) at wavelength {lambda} = 1300 nm). Such a system with reduced symmetry shows an unidirectional bandgap. The model is based on plane wave Fourier expansion of the field inside the periodic system using RCWA. While in the forward direction the structure transmit the light in the backward direction it shows a band gap and transmission is almost forbidden.

  4. Quantification of the Impact of Photon Distinguishability on Measurement-Device- Independent Quantum Key Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett K. Simon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution (MDI-QKD is a two-photon protocol devised to eliminate eavesdropping attacks that interrogate or control the detector in realized quantum key distribution systems. In MDI-QKD, the measurements are carried out by an untrusted third party, and the measurement results are announced openly. Knowledge or control of the measurement results gives the third party no information about the secret key. Error-free implementation of the MDI-QKD protocol requires the crypto-communicating parties, Alice and Bob, to independently prepare and transmit single photons that are physically indistinguishable, with the possible exception of their polarization states. In this paper, we apply the formalism of quantum optics and Monte Carlo simulations to quantify the impact of small errors in wavelength, bandwidth, polarization and timing between Alice’s photons and Bob’s photons on the MDI-QKD quantum bit error rate (QBER. Using published single-photon source characteristics from two-photon interference experiments as a test case, our simulations predict that the finite tolerances of these sources contribute ( 4.04 ± 20 / N sifted % to the QBER in an MDI-QKD implementation generating an N sifted -bit sifted key.

  5. Optimization and applications of planar silicon-based photonic crystal devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Burgos Leon, Juan

    2005-01-01

    such as topology optimization. We have also investigated a new device concept for coarse wavelength division de-multiplexing based on planar photonic crystal waveguides. The filtering of the wavelength channels has been realized by shifting the cut-off frequency of the fundamental photonic band gap mode...... in consecutive sections of the waveguide. Preliminary investigations show that this concepts allows coarse de-multiplexing to take place, but that optimization is required in order to reduce cross talk between adjacent channels and to increase the overall transmission. In this work the design, fabrication...

  6. Photonic devices based on patterning by two photon induced polymerization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunati, I.; Dainese, T.; Signorini, R.; Bozio, R.; Tagliazucca, V.; Dirè, S.; Lemercier, G.; Mulatier, J.-C.; Andraud, C.; Schiavuta, P.; Rinaldi, A.; Licoccia, S.; Bottazzo, J.; Franco Perez, A.; Guglielmi, M.; Brusatin, G.

    2008-04-01

    Two and three dimensional structures with micron and submicron resolution have been achieved in commercial resists, polymeric materials and sol-gel materials by several lithographic techniques. In this context, silicon-based sol-gel materials are particularly interesting because of their versatility, chemical and thermal stability, amount of embeddable active compounds. Compared with other micro- and nano-fabrication schemes, the Two Photon Induced Polymerization is unique in its 3D processing capability. The photopolymerization is performed with laser beam in the near-IR region, where samples show less absorption and less scattering, giving rise to a deeper penetration of the light. The use of ultrashort laser pulses allows the starting of nonlinear processes like multiphoton absorption at relatively low average power without thermally damaging the samples. In this work we report results on the photopolymerization process in hybrid organic-inorganic films based photopolymerizable methacrylate-containing Si-nanobuilding blocks. Films, obtained through sol-gel synthesis, are doped with a photo-initiator allowing a radical polymerization of methacrylic groups. The photo-initiator is activated by femtosecond laser source, at different input energies. The development of the unexposed regions is performed with a suitable solvent and the photopolymerized structures are characterized by microscopy techniques.

  7. NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP): Space Qualification Guidelines of Optoelectronic and Photonic Devices for Optical Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Quiesup

    2001-01-01

    Key elements of space qualification of opto-electric and photonic optical devices were overviewed. Efforts were concentrated on the reliability concerns of the devices needed for potential applications in space environments. The ultimate goal for this effort is to gradually establish enough data to develop a space qualification plan of newly developed specific photonic parts using empirical and numerical models to assess the life-time and degradation of the devices for potential long term space missions.

  8. Continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with photon subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Xin; Huang, Peng; Bai, Dong-Yun; Wang, Shi-Yu; Bao, Wan-Su; Zeng, Gui-Hua

    2018-04-01

    It has been found that non-Gaussian operations can be applied to increase and distill entanglement between Gaussian entangled states. We show the successful use of the non-Gaussian operation, in particular, photon subtraction operation, on the continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI-QKD) protocol. The proposed method can be implemented based on existing technologies. Security analysis shows that the photon subtraction operation can remarkably increase the maximal transmission distance of the CV-MDI-QKD protocol, which precisely make up for the shortcoming of the original CV-MDI-QKD protocol, and one-photon subtraction operation has the best performance. Moreover, the proposed protocol provides a feasible method for the experimental implementation of the CV-MDI-QKD protocol.

  9. The first photon shutter development for APS insertion device beamline front ends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Deming; Nian, H.L.T.; Wang, Zhibi; Collins, J.T.; Ryding, D.G.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most critical components on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) insertion device (ID) beamline front ends is the first photon shutter. It operates in two modes to fully intercept the high total power and high-heat flux ID photon beam in seconds (normal mode) or in less than 100 ms (emergency fast mode). It is designed to operate in ultra high vacuum (UHV). The design incorporates a multi-channel rectangular bar, bent in a ''hockey stick'' configuration, with two-point suspension. The flanged end is an articulated bellows with rolling hinges. The actuation end is a spring-assisted, pneumatic fail-safe flexural pivot type. The coolant (water) channels incorporate brazed copper foam to enhance the heat transfer, a tube technology particular to the APS. The design development, and material aspects, as well as the extensive thermal and vibrational analyses in support of the design, are presented in this paper

  10. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying Biomedical Photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy This volume discusses biomedical photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy, the basic physical principles underlying the technology and its applications. The topics discussed in this volume are: Biophotonics; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Medical Photonics; Microscopy; Nonlinear Optics; Ophthalmic Technology; Optical Tomography; Optofluidics; Photodynamic Therapy; Image Processing; Imaging Systems; Sensors; Single Molecule Detection; Futurology in Photonics. Comprehensive and accessible cov

  11. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying thescience and technology of nanophotonics, its materials andstructures This volume presents nanophotonic structures and Materials.Nanophotonics is photonic science and technology that utilizeslight/matter interactions on the nanoscale where researchers arediscovering new phenomena and developing techniques that go wellbeyond what is possible with conventional photonics andelectronics.The topics discussed in this volume are: CavityPhotonics; Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates; Displays;E-paper; Graphene; Integrated Photonics; Liquid Cry

  12. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    This book covers modern photonics accessibly and discusses the basic physical principles underlying all the applications and technology of photonicsThis volume covers the basic physical principles underlying the technology and all applications of photonics from statistical optics to quantum optics. The topics discussed in this volume are: Photons in perspective; Coherence and Statistical Optics; Complex Light and Singular Optics; Electrodynamics of Dielectric Media; Fast and slow Light; Holography; Multiphoton Processes; Optical Angular Momentum; Optical Forces, Trapping and Manipulation; Pol

  13. Single-photon superradiance and cooperative Lamb shift in an optoelectronic device (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Carlo

    2017-02-01

    Superradiance is one of the many fascinating phenomena predicted by quantum electrodynamics that have first been experimentally demonstrated in atomic systems and more recently in condensed matter systems like quantum dots, superconducting q-bits, cyclotron transitions and plasma oscillations in quantum wells (QWs). It occurs when a dense collection of N identical two-level emitters are phased via the exchange of photons, giving rise to enhanced light-matter interaction, hence to a faster emission rate. Of great interest is the regime where the ensemble interacts with one photon only and therefore all of the atoms, but one, are in the ground state. In this case the quantum superposition of all possible configurations produces a symmetric state that decays radiatively with a rate N times larger than that of the individual oscillators. This phenomenon, called single photon superradiance, results from the exchange of real photons among the N emitters. Yet, to single photon superradiance is also associated another collective effect that renormalizes the emission frequency, known as cooperative Lamb shift. In this work, we show that single photon superradiance and cooperative Lamb shift can be engineered in a semiconductor device by coupling spatially separated plasma resonances arising from the collective motion of confined electrons in QWs. These resonances hold a giant dipole along the growth direction z and have no mutual Coulomb coupling. They thus behave as a collection of macro-atoms on different positions along the z axis. Our device is therefore a test bench to simulate the low excitation regime of quantum electrodynamics.

  14. FY1995 ultrafast photonic devices using dielectric domain superlattice; 1995 nendo yudentai domain chokoshi wo mochiita chokosoku photonic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-31

    All optical wavelength conversion around 1550nm is of great importance for the wavelength division multiplexing optical communication system. A dielectric domain superlattice, which has a periodically domain inverted structure, has a wide potential for the various nonlinear interactions such as second harmonic generation (SHG) and difference frequency generation (DFG). The purpose of our research is to establish the theoretical bases and fabrication processes of the guided-wave wavelength converter based on the DFG by domain-inverted LiTaO{sub 3}. We have investigated basic characteristics of guided-wave DFG devices and developed the domain-inversion process by an electric field poling utilizing a liquid electrolyte consisting of LiCI in deionized water as a electrode for applying the electric field to LiTaO{sub 3} substrate. By controlling the injection current for the domain inversion precisely, we fabricated successfully uniform domain-inverted structures. 0.5mm-thick domain-inverted LiTaO{sub 3} of 7.8, 17.2 and 21.3 {mu}m periods and 0.5 duty ratio were obtained by optimizing electrode structure and the domain-inversion process. Waveguide structures can increase the conversion efficiency of DFG by several orders of magnitude over bulk interactions. We have also developed waveguide fabrication process for the domain-inverted LiTaO{sub 3} substrate. Low loss proton-exchanged waveguides were formed by annealed proton exchange technique without a degradation of the domain inversion structure. Domain-controlled nonlinear optics by designing the ferroelectric domain structure of LiTaO{sub 3} and LiNbO{sub 3} make it possible to extend all the spectral range from ultra-violet to far-infrared and THz wave region. (NEDO)

  15. Optical absorption and oxygen passivation of surface states in III-nitride photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Ian; Callsen, Gordon; Jacopin, Gwénolé; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    III-nitride surface states are expected to impact high surface-to-volume ratio devices, such as nano- and micro-wire light-emitting diodes, transistors, and photonic integrated circuits. In this work, reversible photoinduced oxygen desorption from III-nitride microdisk resonator surfaces is shown to increase optical attenuation of whispering gallery modes by 100 cm-1 at λ = 450 nm. Comparison of photoinduced oxygen desorption in unintentionally and n+-doped microdisks suggests that the spectral changes originate from the unpinning of the surface Fermi level, likely taking place at etched nonpolar III-nitride sidewalls. An oxygen-rich surface prepared by thermal annealing results in a broadband Q improvement to state-of-the-art values exceeding 1 × 104 at 2.6 eV. Such findings emphasize the importance of optically active surface states and their passivation for future nanoscale III-nitride optoelectronic and photonic devices.

  16. Recent progress in organic electronics and photonics: A perspective on the future of organic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2016-02-25

    The fields of organic electronics and photonics have witnessed remarkable advances over the past few years. This progress bodes well for the increased utilization of organic materials as the active layers in devices for applications as diverse as light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, solar cells, or all-optical switches. In the present document, we choose to focus the discussion on organic all-optical switching applications. © 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  17. Micro-/nanoscale multi-field coupling in nonlinear photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Wang, Yubo; Tang, Mingwei; Xu, Pengfei; Xu, Yingke; Liu, Xu

    2017-08-01

    The coupling of mechanics/electronics/photonics may improve the performance of nanophotonic devices not only in the linear region but also in the nonlinear region. This review letter mainly presents the recent advances on multi-field coupling in nonlinear photonic devices. The nonlinear piezoelectric effect and piezo-phototronic effects in quantum wells and fibers show that large second-order nonlinear susceptibilities can be achieved, and second harmonic generation and electro-optic modulation can be enhanced and modulated. Strain engineering can tune the lattice structures and induce second order susceptibilities in central symmetry semiconductors. By combining the absorption-based photoacoustic effect and intensity-dependent photobleaching effect, subdiffraction imaging can be achieved. This review will also discuss possible future applications of these novel effects and the perspective of their research. The review can help us develop a deeper knowledge of the substance of photon-electron-phonon interaction in a micro-/nano- system. Moreover, it can benefit the design of nonlinear optical sensors and imaging devices with a faster response rate, higher efficiency, more sensitivity and higher spatial resolution which could be applied in environmental detection, bio-sensors, medical imaging and so on.

  18. Data reading with the aid of one-photon and two-photon luminescence in three-dimensional optical memory devices based on photochromic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, Denis A; Zheltikov, Aleksei M; Koroteev, Nikolai I; Naumov, A N; Fedotov, Andrei B; Magnitskiy, Sergey A; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A; Sokolyuk, N T

    1998-01-01

    The problem of nondestructive reading of the data stored in the interior of a photochromic sample was analysed. A comparison was made of the feasibility of reading based on one-photon and two-photon luminescence. A model was proposed for the processes of reading the data stored in photochromic molecules with the aid of one-photon and two-photon luminescence. In addition to photochromic transitions, account was taken of the transfer of populations between optically coupled transitions in molecules under the action of the exciting radiation. This model provided a satisfactory description of the kinetics of decay of the coloured form of bulk samples of spiropyran and made it possible to determine experimentally the quantum yield of the reverse photoreaction as well as the two-photon absorption cross section of the coloured form. Measurements were made of the characteristic erasure times of the data stored in a photochromic medium under one-photon and two-photon luminescence reading conditions. It was found that the use of two-photon luminescence made it possible to enhance considerably the contrast and localisation of the optical data reading scheme in three-dimensional optical memory devices. The experimental results were used to estimate the two-photon absorption cross section of the coloured form of a sample of indoline spiropyran in a polymethyl methacrylate matrix. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  19. Paul Drude's prediction of nonreciprocal mutual inductance for Tesla transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuyer, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Inductors, transmission lines, and Tesla transformers have been modeled with lumped-element equivalent circuits for over a century. In a well-known paper from 1904, Paul Drude predicts that the mutual inductance for an unloaded Tesla transformer should be nonreciprocal. This historical curiosity is mostly forgotten today, perhaps because it appears incorrect. However, Drude's prediction is shown to be correct for the conditions treated, demonstrating the importance of constraints in deriving equivalent circuits for distributed systems. The predicted nonreciprocity is not fundamental, but instead is an artifact of the misrepresentation of energy by an equivalent circuit. The application to modern equivalent circuits is discussed.

  20. Nonreciprocity of edge modes in 1D magnonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisenkov, I.; Kalyabin, D.; Osokin, S.; Klos, J.W.; Krawczyk, M.; Nikitov, S.

    2015-01-01

    Spin waves propagation in 1D magnonic crystals is investigated theoretically. Mathematical model based on plane wave expansion method is applied to different types of magnonic crystals, namely bi-component magnonic crystal with symmetric/asymmetric boundaries and ferromagnetic film with periodically corrugated top surface. It is shown that edge modes in magnonic crystals may exhibit nonreciprocal behaviour at much lower frequencies than in homogeneous films. - Highlights: • Magnetostatic surface spin waves in 1D magnonic crystals were studied theoretically. • Mathematical model is based on plane wave method. • Mathematical model was applied to different types of magnonic crystals. • Stop band formation and nonreciprocity were obtained

  1. Non-reciprocal wave propagation in one-dimensional nonlinear periodic structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benbiao Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a one-dimensional nonlinear periodic structure which contains two different spring stiffness and an identical mass in each period. The linear dispersion relationship we obtain indicates that our periodic structure has obvious advantages compared to other kinds of periodic structures (i.e. those with the same spring stiffness but two different mass, including its increased flexibility for manipulating the band gap. Theoretically, the optical cutoff frequency remains unchanged while the acoustic cutoff frequency shifts to a lower or higher frequency. A numerical simulation verifies the dispersion relationship and the effect of the amplitude-dependent signal filter. Based upon this, we design a device which contains both a linear periodic structure and a nonlinear periodic structure. When incident waves with the same, large amplitude pass through it from opposite directions, the output amplitude of the forward input is one order magnitude larger than that of the reverse input. Our devised, non-reciprocal device can potentially act as an acoustic diode (AD without an electrical circuit and frequency shifting. Our result represents a significant step forwards in the research of non-reciprocal wave manipulation.

  2. Monolithic photonic integration technology platform and devices at wavelengths beyond 2 μm for gas spectroscopy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latkowski, S.; van Veldhoven, P.J.; Hänsel, A.; D'Agostino, D.; Rabbani-Haghighi, H.; Docter, B.; Bhattacharya, N.; Thijs, P.J.A.; Ambrosius, H.P.M.M.; Smit, M.K.; Williams, K.A.; Bente, E.A.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a generic monolithic photonic integration technology platform and tunable laser devices for gas sensing applications at 2 μm will be presented. The basic set of long wavelength optical functions which is fundamental for a generic photonic integration approach is realized using planar,

  3. Non-reciprocity and topology in optics: one-way road for light via surface magnon polariton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Tetsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    We show how non-reciprocity and topology are used to construct an optical one-way waveguide in the Voigt geometry. First, we present a traditional approach of the one-way waveguide of light using surface polaritons under a static magnetic field. Second, we explain a recent discovery of a topological approach using photonic crystals with the magneto-optical coupling. Third, we present a combination of the two approaches, toward a broadband one-way waveguide in the microwave range. PMID:27877739

  4. Nonreciprocal propagation of light without external magnetic fields in a semiconductor waveguide isolator with a MnAs layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amemiya, T. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan) and Japan Science and Techonology Agency, SORST (Japan)]. E-mail: ametomo@hotaka.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Shimizu, H. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Japan Science and Techonology Agency, SORST (Japan); Hai, P.N. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Japan Science and Techonology Agency, SORST (Japan); Tanaka, M. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Japan Science and Techonology Agency, SORST (Japan); Nakano, Y. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Japan Science and Techonology Agency, SORST (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    A 1.5-{mu}m, TM-mode waveguide optical isolator was developed for use in photonic integrated circuits. It consists of an InGaAlAs-based optical waveguide with a ferromagnetic MnAs layer and makes use of nonreciprocal propagation loss of light induced by the magnetized MnAs layer. With a large-remanence MnAs layer grown with the Mn-template epitaxy method, the isolator successfully showed an 8.7 dB/mm isolation ratio without external magnetic fields.

  5. Multidimensional microstructured photonic device based on all-solid waveguide array fiber and magnetic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yinping

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An all-solid waveguide array fiber (WAF is one kind of special microstructured optical fiber in which the higher-index rods are periodically distributed in a low-index silica host to form the transverse two-dimensional photonic crystal. In this paper, one kind of multidimensional microstructured optical fiber photonic device is proposed by using electric arc discharge method to fabricate periodic tapers along the fiber axis. By tuning the applied magnetic field intensity, the propagation characteristics of the all-solid WAF integrated with magnetic fluid are periodically modulated in both radial and axial directions. Experimental results show that the wavelength changes little while the transmission loss increases for an applied magnetic field intensity range from 0 to 500 Oe. The magnetic field sensitivity is 0.055 dB/Oe within the linear range from 50 to 300 Oe. Meanwhile, the all-solid WAF has very similar thermal expansion coefficient for both high- and low-refractive index glasses, and thermal drifts have a little effect on the mode profile. The results show that the temperature-induced transmission loss is <0.3 dB from 26°C to 44°C. Further tuning coherent coupling of waveguides and controlling light propagation, the all-solid WAF would be found great potential applications to develop new micro-nano photonic devices for optical communications and optical sensing applications.

  6. Molecular beam epitaxy grown Ge/Si pin layer sequence for photonic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, J.; Oehme, M.; Werner, J.

    2012-01-01

    A key challenge to obtain a convergence of classical Si-based microelectronics and optoelectronics is the manufacturing of photonic integrated circuits integrable into classical Si-based integrated circuits. This integration would be greatly enhanced if similar facilities and technologies could be used. Therefore one approach is the development of optoelectronic components and devices made from group-IV-based materials such as SiGe, Ge or Ge:Sn. In this paper the optoelectronic performances of a pin diode made from a Ge/Si heterostructure pin layer sequence grown by molecular beam epitaxy are discussed. After a detailed description of the layer sequence growth and the device manufacturing process it will be shown that – depending on the chosen operating point and device design – the diode serves as a broadband high speed photo detector, Franz–Keldysh effect modulator or light emitting diode.

  7. Molecular beam epitaxy grown Ge/Si pin layer sequence for photonic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, J., E-mail: schulze@iht.uni-stuttgart.de; Oehme, M.; Werner, J.

    2012-02-01

    A key challenge to obtain a convergence of classical Si-based microelectronics and optoelectronics is the manufacturing of photonic integrated circuits integrable into classical Si-based integrated circuits. This integration would be greatly enhanced if similar facilities and technologies could be used. Therefore one approach is the development of optoelectronic components and devices made from group-IV-based materials such as SiGe, Ge or Ge:Sn. In this paper the optoelectronic performances of a pin diode made from a Ge/Si heterostructure pin layer sequence grown by molecular beam epitaxy are discussed. After a detailed description of the layer sequence growth and the device manufacturing process it will be shown that - depending on the chosen operating point and device design - the diode serves as a broadband high speed photo detector, Franz-Keldysh effect modulator or light emitting diode.

  8. Non-reciprocal optical mirrors based on spatio-temporal acousto-optic modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, R.; Sounas, D. L.; Alù, A.

    2018-03-01

    Here, we investigate a scheme to realize free-space isolators and highly non-reciprocal mirrors with weak modulation imparted by an acoustic wave. We propose a strategy to dramatically break time-reversal symmetry by exploiting resonant interactions between a travelling acoustic wave and highly resonant Fabry-Pérot modes, inducing total reflection of an optical beam at a given angle, and no reflection at the negative angle. Different from conventional acousto-optic isolators, which are based on non-resonant frequency conversion and filtering, our proposal operates at the frequency of the optical signal by tailoring the resonant properties of the structure as well as the acoustic wave frequency and intensity, enabling 50 dB isolation with modest modulation requirements. Operation in the reflection mode allows for close-to-zero insertion loss, enabling disruptive opportunities in our ability to control and manipulate photons.

  9. Extremely broadband, on-chip optical nonreciprocity enabled by mimicking nonlinear anti-adiabatic quantum jumps near exceptional points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngsun; Hahn, Choloong; Yoon, Jae Woong; Song, Seok Ho; Berini, Pierre

    2017-01-20

    Time-asymmetric state-evolution properties while encircling an exceptional point are presently of great interest in search of new principles for controlling atomic and optical systems. Here, we show that encircling-an-exceptional-point interactions that are essentially reciprocal in the linear interaction regime make a plausible nonlinear integrated optical device architecture highly nonreciprocal over an extremely broad spectrum. In the proposed strategy, we describe an experimentally realizable coupled-waveguide structure that supports an encircling-an-exceptional-point parametric evolution under the influence of a gain saturation nonlinearity. Using an intuitive time-dependent Hamiltonian and rigorous numerical computations, we demonstrate strictly nonreciprocal optical transmission with a forward-to-backward transmission ratio exceeding 10 dB and high forward transmission efficiency (∼100%) persisting over an extremely broad bandwidth approaching 100 THz. This predicted performance strongly encourages experimental realization of the proposed concept to establish a practical on-chip optical nonreciprocal element for ultra-short laser pulses and broadband high-density optical signal processing.

  10. Optimized optical devices for edge-coupling-enabled silicon photonics platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Png, Ching Eng; Ang, Thomas Y. L.; Ong, Jun Rong; Lim, Soon Thor; Sahin, Ezgi; Chen, G. F. R.; Tan, D. T. H.; Guo, Tina X.; Wang, Hong

    2018-02-01

    We present a library of high-performance passive and active silicon photonic devices at the C-band that is specifically designed and optimized for edge-coupling-enabled silicon photonics platform. These devices meet the broadband (100 nm), low-loss (= 25 Gb/s), and polarization diversity requirements (TE and TM polarization extinction ratio beam splitters (PBSs), and high-speed modulators are some of the devices within our library. In particular, we have designed and fabricated inverse taper fiber-to-waveguide edge couplers of tip widths ranging from 120 nm to 200 nm, and we obtained a low coupling loss of 1.80+/-0.28 dB for 160 nm tip width. To achieve polarization diversity operation for inverse tapers, we have experimentally realized different designs of polarization beam splitters (PBS). Our optimized PBS has a measured extinction ratio of <= 25 dB for both the quasiTE modes, and quasi-TM modes. Additionally, a broadband (100 nm) directional coupler with a 50/50 power splitting ratio was experimentally realized on a small footprint of 20×3 μm2 . Last but not least, high-speed silicon modulators with a range of carrier doping concentrations and offset of the PN junction can be used to optimise the modulation efficiency, and insertion losses for operation at 25 GHz.

  11. Bio-Inspired Photon Absorption and Energy Transfer for Next Generation Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsi, Komal

    Nature's solar energy harvesting system, photosynthesis, serves as a model for photon absorption, spectra broadening, and energy transfer. Photosynthesis harvests light far differently than photovoltaic cells. These differences offer both engineering opportunity and scientific challenges since not all of the natural photon absorption mechanisms have been understood. In return, solar cells can be a very sensitive probe for the absorption characteristics of molecules capable of transferring charge to a conductive interface. The objective of this scientific work is the advancement of next generation photovoltaics through the development and application of natural photo-energy transfer processes. Two scientific methods were used in the development and application of enhancing photon absorption and transfer. First, a detailed analysis of photovoltaic front surface fluorescent spectral modification and light scattering by hetero-structure was conducted. Phosphor based spectral down-conversion is a well-known laser technology. The theoretical calculations presented here indicate that parasitic losses and light scattering within the spectral range are large enough to offset any expected gains. The second approach for enhancing photon absorption is based on bio-inspired mechanisms. Key to the utilization of these natural processes is the development of a detailed scientific understanding and the application of these processes to cost effective systems and devices. In this work both aspects are investigated. Dye type solar cells were prepared and tested as a function of Chlorophyll (or Sodium-Copper Chlorophyllin) and accessory dyes. Forster has shown that the fluorescence ratio of Chlorophyll is modified and broadened by separate photon absorption (sensitized absorption) through interaction with nearby accessory pigments. This work used the dye type solar cell as a diagnostic tool by which to investigate photon absorption and photon energy transfer. These experiments shed

  12. Continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with virtual photon subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yijia; Zhang, Yichen; Xu, Bingjie; Yu, Song; Guo, Hong

    2018-04-01

    The method of improving the performance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols by postselection has been recently proposed and verified. In continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI QKD) protocols, the measurement results are obtained from untrusted third party Charlie. There is still not an effective method of improving CV-MDI QKD by the postselection with untrusted measurement. We propose a method to improve the performance of coherent-state CV-MDI QKD protocol by virtual photon subtraction via non-Gaussian postselection. The non-Gaussian postselection of transmitted data is equivalent to an ideal photon subtraction on the two-mode squeezed vacuum state, which is favorable to enhance the performance of CV-MDI QKD. In CV-MDI QKD protocol with non-Gaussian postselection, two users select their own data independently. We demonstrate that the optimal performance of the renovated CV-MDI QKD protocol is obtained with the transmitted data only selected by Alice. By setting appropriate parameters of the virtual photon subtraction, the secret key rate and tolerable excess noise are both improved at long transmission distance. The method provides an effective optimization scheme for the application of CV-MDI QKD protocols.

  13. Dark and bright modes manipulation for plasmon-triggered photonic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Panaro, S.; Nazir, A.; Liberale, Carlo; Wang, H.; De Angelis, F.; Proietti Zaccaria, R.; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Toma, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, several efforts have been spent in the study of near-field coupled systems, in order to induce hybridization of plasmonic modes. Within this context, particular attention has been recently paid on the possibility to couple conventional bright and dark modes. As a result of such phenomenon, a Fano resonance appears as a characteristic sharp dip in the scattering spectra. Here we show how, gradually coupling a single rod-like nanostructure to an aligned nanoantenna dimer, it is possible to induce the near-field activation of an anti-bonding dark mode. The high polarization sensitivity presented by the far-field response of T-shape trimer, combined with the sharp Fano resonance sustained by this plasmonic device, opens interesting perspectives towards a new era of photonic devices. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  14. Dark and bright modes manipulation for plasmon-triggered photonic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Panaro, S.

    2014-09-10

    In the last decade, several efforts have been spent in the study of near-field coupled systems, in order to induce hybridization of plasmonic modes. Within this context, particular attention has been recently paid on the possibility to couple conventional bright and dark modes. As a result of such phenomenon, a Fano resonance appears as a characteristic sharp dip in the scattering spectra. Here we show how, gradually coupling a single rod-like nanostructure to an aligned nanoantenna dimer, it is possible to induce the near-field activation of an anti-bonding dark mode. The high polarization sensitivity presented by the far-field response of T-shape trimer, combined with the sharp Fano resonance sustained by this plasmonic device, opens interesting perspectives towards a new era of photonic devices. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  15. Silicon Photonics: All-Optical Devices for Linear and Nonlinear Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Jeffrey B.

    Silicon photonics has grown rapidly since the first Si electro-optic switch was demonstrated in 1987, and the field has never grown more quickly than it has over the past decade, fueled by milestone achievements in semiconductor processing technologies for low loss waveguides, high-speed Si modulators, Si lasers, Si detectors, and an enormous toolbox of passive and active integrated devices. Silicon photonics is now on the verge of major commercialization breakthroughs, and optical communication links remain the force driving integrated and Si photonics towards the first commercial telecom and datacom transceivers; however other potential and future applications are becoming uncovered and refined as researchers reveal the benefits of manipulating photons on the nanoscale. This thesis documents an exploration into the unique guided-wave and nonlinear properties of deeply-scaled high-index-contrast sub-wavelength Si waveguides. It is found that the tight confinement inherent to single-mode channel waveguides on the silicon-on-insulator platform lead to a rich physics, which can be leveraged for new devices extending well beyond simple passive interconnects and electro-optic devices. The following chapters will concentrate, in detail, on a number of unique physical features of Si waveguides and extend these attributes towards new and interesting devices. Linear optical properties and nonlinear optical properties are investigated, both of which are strongly affected by tight optical confinement of the guided waveguide modes. As will be shown, tight optical confinement directly results in strongly vectoral modal components, where the electric and magnetic fields of the guided modes extend into all spatial dimensions, even along the axis of propagation. In fact, the longitudinal electric and magnetic field components can be just as strong as the transverse fields, directly affecting the modal group velocity and energy transport properties since the longitudinal fields

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of Linear and Nonlinear Photonic Devices in Fused Silica by Femtosecond Laser Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jason Clement

    Femtosecond laser processing is a flexible, three-dimensional (3D) fabrication technique used to make integrated low-loss photonic devices in fused silica. My work expanded the suite of available optical devices through the design and optimization of linear optical components such as low-loss (70-nm spectral window. My work further complemented femtosecond laser processing with the development of nonlinear device capabilities. While thermal poling is a well known process, significant challenges had restricted the development of nonlinear devices in fused silica. The laser writing process would erase the induced nonlinearity (erasing) while a written waveguide core acted as a barrier to the thermal poling process (blocking). Using second harmonic (SH) microscopy, the effectiveness of thermal poling on laser-written waveguides was systematically analyzed leading to the technique of "double poling", which effectively overcomes the two challenges of erasing and blocking. In this new process the substrate is poled before and after waveguide writing to restore the induced nonlinearity within the vicinity of the waveguide to enable effective poling for inducing a second-order nonlinearity (SON) in fused silica. A new flexible, femtosecond laser based erasure process was also developed to enable quasi-phase matching and to form arbitrarily chirped gratings. Following this result, second harmonic generation (SHG) in a quasiphase-matched (QPM) femtosecond laser written waveguide device was demonstrated. SHG in a chirped QPM structure was also demonstrated to illustrate the flexibility of the femtosecond laser writing technique. These are the first demonstration of frequency doubling in an all-femtosecond-laser-written structure. A maximum SHG conversion efficiency of 1.3 +/- 0.1x10 -11/W-cm-2 was achieved for the fundamental wavelength of 1552.8 nm with a phase-matching bandwidth of 4.4 nm for a 10.0-mm-long waveguide. For a shorter sample, an effective SON of chi(2) = 0

  17. Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Optoelectronic materials and devices are examined. Optoelectronic devices, which generate, detect, modulate, or switch electromagnetic radiation are being developed for a variety of space applications. The program includes spatial light modulators, solid state lasers, optoelectronic integrated circuits, nonlinear optical materials and devices, fiber optics, and optical networking photovoltaic technology and optical processing.

  18. Dynamic Nonreciprocity in Loss-Compensated Piezophononic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Aurélien; Willatzen, Morten; Christensen, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Violating time-reversal symmetry enables one to engineer nonreciprocal structures for isolating and rectifying sound and mechanical vibrations. Rectifying sound is commonly achieved in nonlinear media, but the operation is inherently linked to weak and distorted signals. Here, we show how a pronounced electron-phonon coupling in linear piezophononic media under electrical bias can generate full mechanical rectification of broad spectral width, which permits the isolation of pulsed vibrations while keeping the wave-front shape fully intact. In this context, we deliberately show how the acoustoelectric effect can provide active loss compensation against lattice anharmonicity and thermoelastic damping. Further, our predictions confirm tunable nonreciprocity at an ultralarge contrast ratio, which should open the doors for future mechanical diodes and compact ultrasonic transducers for sensing and imaging.

  19. Nonreciprocal optical tunnelling through evanescently coupled Tamm states in magnetophotonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yun-Tuan [Jiangsu Univ., Zhenjiang (China). School of Computer Science and Telecommunication Engineering; Han, Ling [The Second Military Medical Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Radiation Medicine; Gao, Yong-Feng [Jiangsu Univ., Zhenjiang (China). School of Mechanical Engineering

    2015-07-01

    Evanescently coupled Tamm states are achieved through two magnetophotonic crystals (MPCs) with a pair of coupling prisms. At the wavelengths of coupled Tamm states, a double of nonreciprocal optical tunnelling channels is found through the transmission spectra obtained from a developed transfer matrix method. The nonreciprocal tunnelling wavelength and the interval between two nonreciprocal channels can be adjusted depending on the width of the air gap between two MPCs or the scale invariant of a PC. The nonreciprocal tunnelling is demonstrated through electromagnetic field distribution simulations based on finite element software. Such theoretical results may provide a new method to design tunable optical isolators with a double of channels.

  20. Characterization of Chemical Vapor Deposited Tetraethyl Orthosilicate based SiO2 Films for Photonic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhansirani KOTCHARLAKOTA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Silicon has been the choice for photonics technology because of its cost, compatibility with mass production and availability. Silicon based photonic devices are very significant from commercial point of view and are much compatible with established technology. This paper deals with deposition and characterization of SiO2 films prepared by indigenously developed chemical vapor deposition system. Ellipsometry study of prepared films showed an increase in refractive index and film thickness with the increment in deposition temperature. The deposition temperature has a significant role for stoichiometric SiO2 films, FTIR measurement has shown the three characteristics peaks of Si-O-Si through three samples prepared at temperatures 700, 750 and 800 °C while Si-O-Si stretching peak positions were observed to be shifted to lower wavenumber in accordance to the temperature. FESEM analysis has confirmed the smooth surface without any crack or disorder while EDX analysis showed the corresponding peaks of compositional SiO2 films.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.1.7245

  1. The vacuum system for insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trakhtenberg, E.; Gluskin, E.; Den Hartog, P.; Klippert, T.; Wiemerslage, G.; Xu, S.

    1995-01-01

    A vacuum system for the insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source was designed, and chambers of this design were successfully manufactured and tested. Three different versions of the vacuum chamber have been developed with vertical apertures of 12 mm, 8mm, and 5 mm, respectively. The chambers are fabricated by extruding 6063 aluminum alloy to form a tube with the desired internal shaped and machining the exterior to finish dimensions. The wall thickness of the completed chamber at the beam orbit position is 1 mm. The design utilizes a rigid strongback that limits deflection of the chamber under vacuum despite the thin wall. Chambers with lengths of 2.2m and 5.2 m have been fabricated. Pumping is accomplished by a combination of lumped and distributed non-evaporable getters and ion pumps. An ultimate pressure of 5.1· -11 torr was achieved with the 12-mm vertical aperture prototype. Alignment of the vacuum chamber on its support can be made with a precision of ± 25 μm in the vertical plane, which allows minimum insertion device pole gaps of 14.5 mm, 10.5 mm, and 7.5 mm

  2. Epidermal photonic devices for quantitative imaging of temperature and thermal transport characteristics of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Zhang, Yihui; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jia, Lin; Jang, Kyung-In; Chad Webb, R.; Fu, Haoran; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Guoyan; Shi, Luke; Shah, Deesha; Huang, Xian; Xu, Baoxing; Yu, Cunjiang; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-09-01

    Characterization of temperature and thermal transport properties of the skin can yield important information of relevance to both clinical medicine and basic research in skin physiology. Here we introduce an ultrathin, compliant skin-like, or ‘epidermal’, photonic device that combines colorimetric temperature indicators with wireless stretchable electronics for thermal measurements when softly laminated on the skin surface. The sensors exploit thermochromic liquid crystals patterned into large-scale, pixelated arrays on thin elastomeric substrates; the electronics provide means for controlled, local heating by radio frequency signals. Algorithms for extracting patterns of colour recorded from these devices with a digital camera and computational tools for relating the results to underlying thermal processes near the skin surface lend quantitative value to the resulting data. Application examples include non-invasive spatial mapping of skin temperature with milli-Kelvin precision (±50 mK) and sub-millimetre spatial resolution. Demonstrations in reactive hyperaemia assessments of blood flow and hydration analysis establish relevance to cardiovascular health and skin care, respectively.

  3. Validation of photon-heating calculations in irradiation reactor with the experimental AMMON program and the CARMEN device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    The temperature in the different core structures of Material-Testing Reactors (MTR) is a key physical parameter for MTRs' performance and safety. In nuclear reactors, where neutron and photon flux are sustained by fission chain reactions, neutrons and photons steadily deposit energy in the structures they cross and lead to a temperature rise in these structures. In non-fissile core structures (such as material samples, experimental devices, control rods, fuel claddings, and so on), the main part of nuclear heating is induced by photon interactions. This photon heating must therefore be well calculated as it is a key input parameter for MTR thermal studies, whose purpose is for instance to help determine the proper sizing of cooling power, electrical heaters and insulation gaps in MTR irradiation devices. The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is the next international MTR under construction in the south of France at CEA Cadarache research center (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission). The JHR will be a major research infrastructure for the test of structural material and fuel behavior under irradiation. It will also produce from 25% to 50% of the European demand of medical radioisotopes for diagnostic purposes. High levels of nuclear heating are expected in the JHR core, with an absorbed-dose rate up to 20 watts per hafnium gram at nominal power (100 MW). Compared to a Pressurized-Water Reactor (PWR), the JHR is made of a specific array of materials (aluminum rack, beryllium reflector, hafnium control rods) and the feedback on photon-heating calculations with these features is limited. It is therefore necessary to validate photon-heating calculation tools (calculation codes and the European nuclear-data JEFF3.1.1 library) for use in the JHR, that is, it is necessary to determine the biases and uncertainties that are relevant for the photon-heating values calculated with these tools in the JHR. This topic constitutes the core of the present

  4. Energy exchange in systems of particles with nonreciprocal interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaulina, O. S.; Lisina, I. I., E-mail: Irina.Lisina@mail.ru; Lisin, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    A model is proposed to describe the sources of additional kinetic energy and its redistribution in systems of particles with a nonreciprocal interaction. The proposed model is shown to explain the qualitative specific features of the dust particle dynamics in the sheath region of an RF discharge. Prominence is given to the systems of particles with a quasi-dipole–dipole interaction, which is similar to the interaction induced by the ion focusing effects that occur in experiments on a laboratory dusty plasma, and with the shadow interaction caused by thermophoretic forces and Le Sage’s forces.

  5. Revealing of photon-number splitting attack on quantum key distribution system by photon-number resolving devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidash, A A; Egorov, V I; Gleim, A V

    2016-01-01

    Quantum cryptography allows distributing secure keys between two users so that any performed eavesdropping attempt would be immediately discovered. However, in practice an eavesdropper can obtain key information from multi-photon states when attenuated laser radiation is used as a source of quantum states. In order to prevent actions of an eavesdropper, it is generally suggested to implement special cryptographic protocols, like decoy states or SARG04. In this paper, we describe an alternative method based on monitoring photon number statistics after detection. We provide a useful rule of thumb to estimate approximate order of difference of expected distribution and distribution in case of attack. Formula for calculating a minimum value of total pulses or time-gaps to resolve attack is shown. Also formulas for actual fraction of raw key known to Eve were derived. This method can therefore be used with any system and even combining with mentioned special protocols. (paper)

  6. Monolithic silicon photonics in a sub-100nm SOI CMOS microprocessor foundry: progress from devices to systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Miloš A.; Wade, Mark T.; Orcutt, Jason S.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Sun, Chen; Georgas, Michael; Moss, Benjamin; Kumar, Rajesh; Alloatti, Luca; Pavanello, Fabio; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Nammari, Kareem; Notaros, Jelena; Atabaki, Amir; Leu, Jonathan; Stojanović, Vladimir; Ram, Rajeev J.

    2015-02-01

    We review recent progress of an effort led by the Stojanović (UC Berkeley), Ram (MIT) and Popović (CU Boulder) research groups to enable the design of photonic devices, and complete on-chip electro-optic systems and interfaces, directly in standard microelectronics CMOS processes in a microprocessor foundry, with no in-foundry process modifications. This approach allows tight and large-scale monolithic integration of silicon photonics with state-of-the-art (sub-100nm-node) microelectronics, here a 45nm SOI CMOS process. It enables natural scale-up to manufacturing, and rapid advances in device design due to process repeatability. The initial driver application was addressing the processor-to-memory communication energy bottleneck. Device results include 5Gbps modulators based on an interleaved junction that take advantage of the high resolution of the sub-100nm CMOS process. We demonstrate operation at 5fJ/bit with 1.5dB insertion loss and 8dB extinction ratio. We also demonstrate the first infrared detectors in a zero-change CMOS process, using absorption in transistor source/drain SiGe stressors. Subsystems described include the first monolithically integrated electronic-photonic transmitter on chip (modulator+driver) with 20-70fJ/bit wall plug energy/bit (2-3.5Gbps), to our knowledge the lowest transmitter energy demonstrated to date. We also demonstrate native-process infrared receivers at 220fJ/bit (5Gbps). These are encouraging signs for the prospects of monolithic electronics-photonics integration. Beyond processor-to-memory interconnects, our approach to photonics as a "More-than- Moore" technology inside advanced CMOS promises to enable VLSI electronic-photonic chip platforms tailored to a vast array of emerging applications, from optical and acoustic sensing, high-speed signal processing, RF and optical metrology and clocks, through to analog computation and quantum technology.

  7. Glass-embedded two-dimensional silicon photonic crystal devices with a broad bandwidth waveguide and a high quality nanocavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seung-Woo; Han, Jin-Kyu; Song, Bong-Shik; Noda, Susumu

    2010-08-30

    To enhance the mechanical stability of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab structure and maintain its excellent performance, we designed a glass-embedded silicon photonic crystal device consisting of a broad bandwidth waveguide and a nanocavity with a high quality (Q) factor, and then fabricated the structure using spin-on glass (SOG). Furthermore, we showed that the refractive index of the SOG could be tuned from 1.37 to 1.57 by varying the curing temperature of the SOG. Finally, we demonstrated a glass-embedded heterostructured cavity with an ultrahigh Q factor of 160,000 by adjusting the refractive index of the SOG.

  8. Review of window and filter requirements for commissioning of the Advanced Photon Source insertion device beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Wang, Zhibi.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is building 16 insertion device (ID) front ends for the first phase of the project. Eleven of these are to be equipped with the APS Undulator A and the other five with a Wiggler-A-type source. The Undulator A front ends are designed to operate in a ''windowless'' mode using an APS-designed differential pump. However, during beamline commissioning and early operations of the storage ring, it is prudent to install windows to ensure storage ring vacuum safety before easing into windowless operation. However, the window designed for this interim period may not meet all the needs of a user's scientific program. In the early phases of the project through commissioning and start of operations, such a window will permit the user to prepare for his program, while allowing both the user and the facility operators to gain experience for safe phasing into eventual windowless operations. In this report, we will present analysis and design options for a variety of windows particularly suited to either the APS Undulator A front ends or as user windows located in the first optics enclosure (FOE)

  9. Single-crystal charge transfer interfaces for efficient photonic devices (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Helena; Pinto, Rui M.; Maçôas, Ermelinda M. S.; Baleizão, Carlos; Santos, Isabel C.

    2016-09-01

    Organic semiconductors have unique optical, mechanical and electronic properties that can be combined with customized chemical functionality. In the crystalline form, determinant features for electronic applications such as molecular purity, the charge mobility or the exciton diffusion length, reveal a superior performance when compared with materials in a more disordered form. Combining crystals of two different conjugated materials as even enable a new 2D electronic system. However, the use of organic single crystals in devices is still limited to a few applications, such as field-effect transistors. In 2013, we presented the first system composed of single-crystal charge transfer interfaces presenting photoconductivity behaviour. The system composed of rubrene and TCNQ has a responsivity reaching 1 A/W, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of nearly 100%. A similar approach, with a hybrid structure of a PCBM film and rubrene single crystal also presents high responsivity and the possibility to extract excitons generated in acceptor materials. This strategy led to an extended action towards the near IR. By adequate material design and structural organisation of perylediimides, we demonstrate that is possible to improve exciton diffusion efficiency. More recently, we have successfully used the concept of charge transfer interfaces in phototransistors. These results open the possibility of using organic single-crystal interfaces in photonic applications.

  10. Impact of Atomic Layer Deposition to NanoPhotonic Structures and Devices: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizwan eSaleem

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We review the significance of optical thin films by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD method to fabricate nanophotonic devices and structures. ALD is a versatile technique to deposit functional coatings on reactive surfaces with conformal growth of compound materials, precise thickness control capable of angstrom resolution and coverage of high aspect ratio nanostructures using wide range of materials. ALD has explored great potential in the emerging fields of photonics, plasmonics, nano-biotechnology, and microelectronics. ALD technique uses sequential reactive chemical reactions to saturate a surface with a monolayer by pulsing of a first precursor (metal alkoxides or covalent halides, followed by reaction with second precursor molecules such as water to form the desired compound coatings. The targeted thickness of the desired compound material is controlled by the number of ALD cycles of precursor molecules that ensures the self limiting nature of reactions. The conformal growth and filling of TiO2 and Al2O3 optical material on nanostructures and their resulting optical properties have been described. The low temperature ALD-growth on various replicated sub-wavelength polymeric gratings is discussed.

  11. Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Rogers, Edward T. F.; Gholipour, Behrad; Wang, Chih-Ming; Yuan, Guanghui; Teng, Jinghua; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2016-01-01

    Photonic components with adjustable parameters, such as variable-focal-length lenses or spectral filters, which can change functionality upon optical stimulation, could offer numerous useful applications. Tuning of such components is conventionally achieved by either micro- or nanomechanical actuation of their constituent parts, by stretching or by heating. Here, we report a novel approach for making reconfigurable optical components that are created with light in a non-volatile and reversible fashion. Such components are written, erased and rewritten as two-dimensional binary or greyscale patterns into a nanoscale film of phase-change material by inducing a refractive-index-changing phase transition with tailored trains of femtosecond pulses. We combine germanium-antimony-tellurium-based films with a diffraction-limited resolution optical writing process to demonstrate a variety of devices: visible-range reconfigurable bichromatic and multi-focus Fresnel zone plates, a super-oscillatory lens with subwavelength focus, a greyscale hologram, and a dielectric metamaterial with on-demand reflection and transmission resonances.

  12. Gold nanoparticle-embedded silk protein-ZnO nanorod hybrids for flexible bio-photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogurla, Narendar; Kundu, Subhas C.; Ray, Samit K.

    2017-04-01

    Silk protein has been used as a biopolymer substrate for flexible photonic devices. Here, we demonstrate ZnO nanorod array hybrid photodetectors on Au nanoparticle-embedded silk protein for flexible optoelectronics. Hybrid samples exhibit optical absorption at the band edge of ZnO as well as plasmonic energy due to Au nanoparticles, making them attractive for selective UV and visible wavelength detection. The device prepared on Au-silk protein shows a much lower dark current and a higher photo to dark-current ratio of ∼105 as compared to the control sample without Au nanoparticles. The hybrid device also exhibits a higher specific detectivity due to higher responsivity arising from the photo-generated hole trapping by Au nanoparticles. Sharp pulses in the transient photocurrent have been observed in devices prepared on glass and Au-silk protein substrates due to the light induced pyroelectric effect of ZnO, enabling the demonstration of self-powered photodetectors at zero bias. Flexible hybrid detectors have been demonstrated on Au-silk/polyethylene terephthalate substrates, exhibiting characteristics similar to those fabricated on rigid glass substrates. A study of the performance of photodetectors with different bending angles indicates very good mechanical stability of silk protein based flexible devices. This novel concept of ZnO nanorod array photodetectors on a natural silk protein platform provides an opportunity to realize integrated flexible and self-powered bio-photonic devices for medical applications in near future.

  13. Topologically-protected one-way leaky waves in nonreciprocal plasmonic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani Gangaraj, S. Ali; Monticone, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    We investigate topologically-protected unidirectional leaky waves on magnetized plasmonic structures acting as homogeneous photonic topological insulators. Our theoretical analyses and numerical experiments aim at unveiling the general properties of these exotic surface waves, and their nonreciprocal and topological nature. In particular, we study the behavior of topological leaky modes in stratified structures composed of a magnetized plasma at the interface with isotropic conventional media, and we show how to engineer their propagation and radiation properties, leading to topologically-protected backscattering-immune wave propagation, and highly directive and tunable radiation. Taking advantage of the non-trivial topological properties of these leaky modes, we also theoretically demonstrate advanced functionalities, including arbitrary re-routing of leaky waves on the surface of bodies with complex shapes, as well as the realization of topological leaky-wave (nano)antennas with isolated channels of radiation that are completely independent and separately tunable. Our findings help shedding light on the behavior of topologically-protected modes in open wave-guiding structures, and may open intriguing directions for future antenna generations based on topological structures, at microwaves and optical frequencies.

  14. Photonic Integrated Circuit (PIC) Device Structures: Background, Fabrication Ecosystem, Relevance to Space Systems Applications, and Discussion of Related Radiation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Electronic integrated circuits are considered one of the most significant technological advances of the 20th century, with demonstrated impact in their ability to incorporate successively higher numbers transistors and construct electronic devices onto a single CMOS chip. Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) exist as the optical analog to integrated circuits; however, in place of transistors, PICs consist of numerous scaled optical components, including such "building-block" structures as waveguides, MMIs, lasers, and optical ring resonators. The ability to construct electronic and photonic components on a single microsystems platform offers transformative potential for the development of technologies in fields including communications, biomedical device development, autonomous navigation, and chemical and atmospheric sensing. Developing on-chip systems that provide new avenues for integration and replacement of bulk optical and electro-optic components also reduces size, weight, power and cost (SWaP-C) limitations, which are important in the selection of instrumentation for specific flight projects. The number of applications currently emerging for complex photonics systems-particularly in data communications-warrants additional investigations when considering reliability for space systems development. This Body of Knowledge document seeks to provide an overview of existing integrated photonics architectures; the current state of design, development, and fabrication ecosystems in the United States and Europe; and potential space applications, with emphasis given to associated radiation effects and reliability.

  15. Theory of few photon dynamics in light emitting quantum dot devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmele, Alexander; Richter, Marten; Sitek, Anna; Knorr, Andreas

    2009-10-01

    We present a modified cluster expansion to describe single-photon emitters in a semiconductor environment. We calculate microscopically to what extent semiconductor features in quantum dot-wetting layer systems alter the exciton and photon dynamics in comparison to the atom-like emission dynamics. We access these systems by the photon-probability-cluster-expansion: a reliable approach for few photon dynamics in many body electron systems. As a first application, we show that the amplitude of vacuum Rabi flops determines the number of electrons in the quantum dot.

  16. Investigation and realization of an automatic device for the control and test of a photon tagging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallou, J.L.

    1987-12-01

    An intelligent control/test equipment for a monoenergetic photon production system was developed. The device enables simulations to be done outside experimental runs. Operation can be entirely automatic, or controlled by the experimenters. The device is modular and conforms to CAMAC standards. The architecture of the system is based around a local bus which comprises a central unit and its memory; a programmable pulse generator; a switching circuit to test and control the various paths; and a unit to communicate with the acquisition system [fr

  17. Improving Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Devices by Attaching Nanostructures with Self-Assembled Photonic Crystal Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Yu Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-monolayered hexagonal self-assembled photonic crystal (PC pattern fabricated onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET films by using simple nanosphere lithography (NSL method has been demonstrated in this research work. The patterned nanostructures acted as a scattering medium to extract the trapped photons from substrate mode of optical-electronic device for improving the overall external quantum efficiency of the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs. With an optimum latex concentration, the distribution of self-assembled polystyrene (PS nanosphere patterns on PET films can be easily controlled by adjusting the rotation speed of spin-coater. After attaching the PS nanosphere array brightness enhancement film (BEF sheet as a photonic crystal pattern onto the device, the luminous intensity of OLEDs in the normal viewing direction is 161% higher than the one without any BEF attachment. The electroluminescent (EL spectrum of OLEDs with PS patterned BEF attachment also showed minor color offset and superior color stabilization characteristics, and thus it possessed the potential applications in all kinds of display technology and solid-state optical-electronic devices.

  18. Light trapping in thin film solar cells using photonic engineering device concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutitu, James Gichuhi

    In this era of uncertainty concerning future energy solutions, strong reservations have arisen over the continued use and pursuit of fossil fuels and other conventional sources of energy. Moreover, there is currently a strong and global push for the implementation of stringent measures, in order to reduce the amount of green house gases emitted by every nation. As a consequence, there has emerged a sudden and frantic rush for new renewable energy solutions. In this world of renewable energy technologies is where we find photovoltaic (PV) technology today. However, as is, there are still many issues that need to be addressed before solar energy technologies become economically viable and available to all people, in every part of the world. This renewed interest in the development of solar electricity, has led to the advancement of new avenues that address the issues of cost and efficiency associated with PV. To this end, one of the prominent approaches being explored is thin film solar cell (TFSC) technology, which offers prospects of lower material costs and enables larger units of manufacture than conventional wafer based technology. However, TFSC technologies suffer from one major problem; they have lower efficiencies than conventional wafer based solar cell technologies. This lesser efficiency is based on a number of reasons, one of which is that with less material, there is less volume for the absorption of incident photons. This shortcoming leads to the need for optical light trapping; which is concerned with admitting the maximum amount of light into the solar cell and keeping the light within the structure for as long as possible. In this thesis, I present the fundamental scientific ideas, practice and methodology behind the application of photonic engineering device concepts to increase the light trapping capacity of thin film solar cells. In the introductory chapters, I develop the basic ideas behind light trapping in a sequential manner, where the effects

  19. Method for determination of the polarisation nonreciprocity in a fibre ring interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronova, Irina A; Gelikonov, V M; Gelikonov, G V

    2000-01-01

    A method is proposed for observation of the polarisation nonreciprocity of fibre ring interferometers (FRIs) by placing a rotating polariser at the output of an interferometer ahead of a photodetector. It is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that the absence of a signal for any position of the transmission axis of the polariser at the FRI output is a criterion of the absence of the polarisation nonreciprocity. It is suggested that the coaxial alignment of the anisotropic FRI components be monitored during assembly to ensure the polarisation nonreciprocity on the basis of the absence of a signal at the output of a rotating polariser. It is also shown that, when the conditions for the polarisation nonreciprocity are fulfilled, the signal from the output of a beam splitter located flush against the fibre loop output carries information about the phase characteristics of the beam splitter. (laser gyroscopes)

  20. Metastable modular metastructures for on-demand reconfiguration of band structures and nonreciprocal wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z.; Zheng, Y.; Wang, K. W.

    2018-02-01

    We present an approach to achieve adaptable band structures and nonreciprocal wave propagation by exploring and exploiting the concept of metastable modular metastructures. Through studying the dynamics of wave propagation in a chain composed of finite metastable modules, we provide experimental and analytical results on nonreciprocal wave propagation and unveil the underlying mechanisms that facilitate such unidirectional energy transmission. In addition, we demonstrate that via transitioning among the numerous metastable states, the proposed metastructure is endowed with a large number of bandgap reconfiguration possibilities. As a result, we illustrate that unprecedented adaptable nonreciprocal wave propagation can be realized using the metastable modular metastructure. Overall, this research elucidates the rich dynamics attainable through the combinations of periodicity, nonlinearity, spatial asymmetry, and metastability and creates a class of adaptive structural and material systems capable of realizing tunable bandgaps and nonreciprocal wave transmissions.

  1. Time-dependent photon heat transport through a mesoscopic Josephson device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wen-Ting; Zhao, Hong-Kang, E-mail: zhaohonk@bit.edu.cn

    2017-02-15

    The time-oscillating photon heat current through a dc voltage biased mesoscopic Josephson Junction (MJJ) has been investigated by employing the nonequilibrium Green’s function approach. The Landauer-like formula of photon heat current has been derived in both of the Fourier space and its time-oscillating versions, where Coulomb interaction, self inductance, and magnetic flux take effective roles. Nonlinear behaviors are exhibited in the photon heat current due to the quantum nature of MJJ and applied external dc voltage. The magnitude of heat current decreases with increasing the external bias voltage, and subtle oscillation structures appear as the superposition of different photon heat branches. The overall period of heat current with respect to time is not affected by Coulomb interaction, however, the magnitude and phase of it vary considerably by changing the Coulomb interaction. - Highlights: • The time-oscillating photon heat current through a mesoscopic Josephson Junction has been investigated. • The Landauer-like formula of photon heat current has been derived by the nonequilibrium Green’s function approach. • Nonlinear behaviors are exhibited in the photon heat current resulting from the self inductance and Coulomb interaction. • The oscillation structure of heat current is composed of the superposition of oscillations with different periods.

  2. Time-dependent photon heat transport through a mesoscopic Josephson device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Wen-Ting; Zhao, Hong-Kang

    2017-01-01

    The time-oscillating photon heat current through a dc voltage biased mesoscopic Josephson Junction (MJJ) has been investigated by employing the nonequilibrium Green’s function approach. The Landauer-like formula of photon heat current has been derived in both of the Fourier space and its time-oscillating versions, where Coulomb interaction, self inductance, and magnetic flux take effective roles. Nonlinear behaviors are exhibited in the photon heat current due to the quantum nature of MJJ and applied external dc voltage. The magnitude of heat current decreases with increasing the external bias voltage, and subtle oscillation structures appear as the superposition of different photon heat branches. The overall period of heat current with respect to time is not affected by Coulomb interaction, however, the magnitude and phase of it vary considerably by changing the Coulomb interaction. - Highlights: • The time-oscillating photon heat current through a mesoscopic Josephson Junction has been investigated. • The Landauer-like formula of photon heat current has been derived by the nonequilibrium Green’s function approach. • Nonlinear behaviors are exhibited in the photon heat current resulting from the self inductance and Coulomb interaction. • The oscillation structure of heat current is composed of the superposition of oscillations with different periods.

  3. SU-E-T-781: Using An Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) for Correlating Linac Photon Beam Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaddanapudi, S; Cai, B; Sun, B; Noel, C; Goddu, S; Mutic, S [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) have proven to be useful for measuring several parameters of interest in linear accelerator (linac) quality assurance (QA). The purpose of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of using EPIDs for determining linac photon beam energies. Methods: Two non-clinical Varian TrueBeam linacs (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with 6MV and 10MV photon beams were used to perform the measurements. The linacs were equipped with an amorphous silicon based EPIDs (aSi1000) that were used for the measurements. We compared the use of flatness versus percent depth dose (PDD) for predicting changes in linac photon beam energy. PDD was measured in 1D water tank (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne FL) and the profiles were measured using 2D ion-chamber array (IC-Profiler, Sun Nuclear) and the EPID. Energy changes were accomplished by varying the bending magnet current (BMC). The evaluated energies conformed with the AAPM TG142 tolerance of ±1% change in PDD. Results: BMC changes correlating with a ±1% change in PDD corresponded with a change in flatness of ∼1% to 2% from baseline values on the EPID. IC Profiler flatness values had the same correlation. We observed a similar trend for the 10MV beam energy changes. Our measurements indicated a strong correlation between changes in linac photon beam energy and changes in flatness. For all machines and energies, beam energy changes produced change in the uniformity (AAPM TG-142), varying from ∼1% to 2.5%. Conclusions: EPID image analysis of beam profiles can be used to determine linac photon beam energy changes. Flatness-based metrics or uniformity as defined by AAPM TG-142 were found to be more sensitive to linac photon beam energy changes than PDD. Research funding provided by Varian Medical Systems. Dr. Sasa Mutic receives compensation for providing patient safety training services from Varian Medical Systems, the sponsor of this study.

  4. Ultra-compact laser beam steering device using holographically formed two dimensional photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xinyuan; Chen, Xiaonan; Chen, Maggie Yihong; Wang, Alan Xiaolong; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Ray T

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we report the theoretical study of polymer-based photonic crystals for laser beam steering which is based on the superprism effect as well as the experiment fabrication of the two dimensional photonic crystals for the laser beam steering. Superprism effect, the principle for beam steering, was separately studied in details through EFC (Equifrequency Contour) analysis. Polymer based photonic crystals were fabricated through double exposure holographic interference method using SU8-2007. The experiment results showed a beam steering angle of 10 degree for 30 nm wavelength variation.

  5. Enhancing optical nonreciprocity by an atomic ensemble in two coupled cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, L. N.; Wang, Z. H.; Li, Yong

    2018-05-01

    We study the optical nonreciprocal propagation in an optical molecule of two coupled cavities with one of them interacting with a two-level atomic ensemble. The effect of increasing the number of atoms on the optical isolation ratio of the system is studied. We demonstrate that the significant nonlinearity supplied by the coupling of the atomic ensemble with the cavity leads to the realization of greatly-enhanced optical nonreciprocity compared with the case of single atom.

  6. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  7. Embedded RF Photonic Crystals as Routing and Processing Devices in Naval Aperstructures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prather, Dennis W

    2008-01-01

    .... To address these issues, we utilize advanced artificial materials - photonic crystals (PhCs) and meta-material - to construct a sensing head with minaturized antennas as RF receivers and embedded signal channelization for pre-processing...

  8. Self-Assembly of Nanocomposite Nonlinear Optical Materials for Photonic Devices, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program targets the development of new highly anisotropic nonlinear optical nanocomposite materials for NASA and non-NASA applications in advanced photonic and...

  9. Time-evolution of photon heat current through series coupled two mesoscopic Josephson junction devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Ting; Zhao, Hong-Kang; Wang, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Photon heat current tunneling through a series coupled two mesoscopic Josephson junction (MJJ) system biased by dc voltages has been investigated by employing the nonequilibrium Green’s function approach. The time-oscillating photon heat current is contributed by the superposition of different current branches associated with the frequencies of MJJs ω j (j = 1, 2). Nonlinear behaviors are exhibited to be induced by the self-inductance, Coulomb interaction, and interference effect relating to the coherent transport of Cooper pairs in the MJJs. Time-oscillating pumping photon heat current is generated in the absence of temperature difference, while it becomes zero after time-average. The combination of ω j and Coulomb interactions in the MJJs determines the concrete heat current configuration. As the external and intrinsic frequencies ω j and ω 0 of MJJs match some specific combinations, resonant photon heat current exhibits sinusoidal behaviors with large amplitudes. Symmetric and asymmetric evolutions versus time t with respect to ω 1 t and ω 2 t are controlled by the applied dc voltages of V 1 and V 2. The dc photon heat current formula is a special case of the general time-dependent heat current formula when the bias voltages are settled to zero. The Aharonov-Bohm effect has been investigated, and versatile oscillation structures of photon heat current can be achieved by tuning the magnetic fluxes threading through separating MJJs.

  10. Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willander, M; Nur, O; Zhao, Q X; Yang, L L [Department of Science and Technology, Linkoeping University, SE-601 74 Norrkoeping (Sweden); Lorenz, M; Cao, B Q; Zuniga Perez, J; Czekalla, C; Zimmermann, G; Grundmann, M [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Bakin, A; Behrends, A; Al-Suleiman, M; El-Shaer, A; Che Mofor, A; Postels, B; Waag, A [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Boukos, N; Travlos, A [National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Institute of Materials Science, GR 15310 Agia Paraskevi Attikis, Athens (Greece); Kwack, H S, E-mail: magwi@itn.liu.s [CEA-CNRS Group ' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' , Institut Neel, CNRS and Universit' e Joseph Fourier, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

    2009-08-19

    Zinc oxide (ZnO), with its excellent luminescent properties and the ease of growth of its nanostructures, holds promise for the development of photonic devices. The recent advances in growth of ZnO nanorods are discussed. Results from both low temperature and high temperature growth approaches are presented. The techniques which are presented include metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), vapour phase epitaxy (VPE), pulse laser deposition (PLD), vapour-liquid-solid (VLS), aqueous chemical growth (ACG) and finally the electrodeposition technique as an example of a selective growth approach. Results from structural as well as optical properties of a variety of ZnO nanorods are shown and analysed using different techniques, including high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL), for both room temperature and for low temperature performance. These results indicate that the grown ZnO nanorods possess reproducible and interesting optical properties. Results on obtaining p-type doping in ZnO micro- and nanorods are also demonstrated using PLD. Three independent indications were found for p-type conducting, phosphorus-doped ZnO nanorods: first, acceptor-related CL peaks, second, opposite transfer characteristics of back-gate field effect transistors using undoped and phosphorus doped wire channels, and finally, rectifying I-V characteristics of ZnO:P nanowire/ZnO:Ga p-n junctions. Then light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on n-ZnO nanorods combined with different technologies (hybrid technologies) are suggested and the recent electrical, as well as electro-optical, characteristics of these LEDs are shown and discussed. The hybrid LEDs reviewed and discussed here are mainly presented for two groups: those based on n-ZnO nanorods and p-type crystalline substrates, and those based on n-ZnO nanorods and p-type amorphous substrates. Promising electroluminescence

  11. Preliminary thermo-mechanical analysis of the second phase photon shutters for insertion device beamline front ends at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian, H.L.T.; Sheng, I.C.A.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    The photon shutters (PS) on the insertion device front end of the beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are designed to fully intercept powerful 7-GeV undulator radiation. Traditional materials (oxygen-free copper and Glidcop) are used in their construction. Initially, the APS proposes to operate the storage ring at 100 mA. In later phases of operation, the APS will operate the storage ring at 300 mA. The heat flux from the undulators is enormous. For example, in the later phase of the project, the first photon shutter (PS1) placed at a distance of 17 m from the Undulator A source will be subjected to 1400 W/mm 2 at normal incidence with a total power of 11.4 kW. The PS uses an enhanced heat transfer mechanism developed at Argonne National Laboratory, which increases the convective heat transfer coefficient to about 3 W/cm 2 · degrees C with single phase water as the coolant. To be able to handle the expected three-fold increase in the intense heat flux, some low-Z materials (such as beryllium or graphite), which can absorb the x-rays through their thickness, are now considered as the facing material on the absorber base plate of the PS. Our analysis of PSI indicates that the face plate made of either graphite or beryllium retains its integrity in most of the cases. The maximum effective stress of the absorber plate (made of annealed OFHC) exceeds the yield strength (50 MPa) except in the case of an absorber with a 10-mm graphite face plate

  12. Micro- and nano-scale optical devices for high density photonic integrated circuits at near-infrared wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Rohit

    In this research work, we explore fundamental silicon-based active and passive photonic devices that can be integrated together to form functional photonic integrated circuits. The devices which include power splitters, switches and lenses are studied starting from their physics, their design and fabrication techniques and finally from an experimental standpoint. The experimental results reveal high performance devices that are compatible with standard CMOS fabrication processes and can be easily integrated with other devices for near infrared telecom applications. In Chapter 2, a novel method for optical switching using nanomechanical proximity perturbation technique is described and demonstrated. The method which is experimentally demonstrated employs relatively low powers, small chip footprint and is compatible with standard CMOS fabrication processes. Further, in Chapter 3, this method is applied to develop a hitless bypass switch aimed at solving an important issue in current wavelength division multiplexing systems namely hitless switching of reconfigurable optical add drop multiplexers. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the application of the nanomechanical proximity perturbation technique to practical situations. In Chapter 4, a fundamental photonic component namely the power splitter is described. Power splitters are important components for any photonic integrated circuits because they help split the power from a single light source to multiple devices on the same chip so that different operations can be performed simultaneously. The power splitters demonstrated in this chapter are based on multimode interference principles resulting in highly compact low loss and highly uniform power splitting to split the power of the light from a single channel to two and four channels. These devices can further be scaled to achieve higher order splitting such as 1x16 and 1x32 power splits. Finally in Chapter 5 we overcome challenges in device

  13. Infrared detection and photon energy up-conversion in graphene layer infrared photodetectors integrated with LEDs based on van der Waals heterostructures: Concept, device model, and characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhii, V.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, M.; Karasik, V. E.; Shur, M. S.

    2017-09-01

    We propose the concept of the infrared detection and photon energy up-conversion in the devices using the integration of the graphene layer infrared detectors (GLIPs) and the light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures. Using the developed device model of the GLIP-LEDs, we calculate their characteristics. The GLIP-LED devices can operate as the detectors of far- and mid infrared radiation (FIR and MIR) with an electrical output or with near-infrared radiation (NIR) or visible radiation (VIR) output. In the latter case, GLIP-LED devices function as the photon energy up-converters of FIR and MIR to NIR or VIR. The operation of GLIP-LED devices is associated with the injection of the electron photocurrent produced due to the interband absorption of the FIR/MIR photons in the GLIP part into the LED emitting NIR/VIR photons. We calculate the GLIP-LED responsivity and up-conversion efficiency as functions the structure parameters and the energies of the incident FIR/MIR photons and the output NIR/VIR photons. The advantages of the GLs in the vdW heterostructures (relatively high photoexcitation rate from and low capture efficiency into GLs) combined with the reabsorption of a fraction of the NIR/FIR photon flux in the GLIP (which can enable an effective photonic feedback) result in the elevated GLIP-LED device responsivity and up-conversion efficiency. The positive optical feedback from the LED section of the device lead to increasing current injection enabling the appearance of the S-type current-voltage characteristic with a greatly enhanced responsivity near the switching point and current filamentation.

  14. Fabrication of micro- and nanometre-scale polymer structures in liquid crystal devices for next generation photonics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartan, Chloe C.; Salter, Patrick S.; Booth, Martin J.; Morris, Stephen M.; Elston, Steve J.

    2016-09-01

    Direct Laser Writing (DLW) by two-photon photopolymerization (TPP) enables the fabrication of micron-scale polymeric structures in soft matter systems. The technique has implications in a broad range of optics and photonics; in particular fast-switching liquid crystal (LC) modes for the development of next generation display technologies. In this paper, we report two different methodologies using our TPP-based fabrication technique. Two explicit examples are provided of voltage-dependent LC director profiles that are inherently unstable, but which appear to be promising candidates for fast-switching photonics applications. In the first instance, 1 μm-thick periodic walls of polymer network are written into a planar aligned (parallel rubbed) nematic pi-cell device containing a nematic LC-monomer mixture. The structures are fabricated when the device is electrically driven into a fast-switching nematic LC state and aberrations induced by the device substrates are corrected for by virtue of the adaptive optics elements included within the DLW setup. Optical polarizing microscopy images taken post-fabrication reveal that polymer walls oriented perpendicular to the rubbing direction promote the stability of the so-called optically compensated bend mode upon removal of the externally applied field. In the second case, polymer walls are written in a nematic LC-optically adhesive glue mixture. A polymer- LCs-polymer-slices or `POLICRYPS' template is formed by immersing the device in acetone post-fabrication to remove any remaining non-crosslinked material. Injecting the resultant series of polymer microchannels ( 1 μm-thick) with a short-pitch, chiral nematic LC mixture leads to the spontaneous alignment of a fast-switching chiral nematic mode, where the helical axis lies parallel to the glass substrates. Optimal contrast between the bright and dark states of the uniform lying helix alignment is achieved when the structures are spaced at the order of the device thickness

  15. Virtual Photon Contribution to Frictional Drag in Double-layer Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donarini, Andrea; Ferrari, R.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2003-01-01

    Frictional drag between coupled two-dimensional charge systems is commonly viewed as a second order effect arising either from screened Coulomb interaction, or phonon exchange. We point out that for single-photon exchange the first order contribution does not have to vanish even at T = 0, and eva......Frictional drag between coupled two-dimensional charge systems is commonly viewed as a second order effect arising either from screened Coulomb interaction, or phonon exchange. We point out that for single-photon exchange the first order contribution does not have to vanish even at T = 0...

  16. Graphene photonics for resonator-enhanced electro-optic devices and all-optical interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Dirk R.; Gan, Xuetao

    2017-03-21

    Techniques for coupling light into graphene using a planar photonic crystal having a resonant cavity characterized by a mode volume and a quality factor and at least one graphene layer positioned in proximity to the planar photonic crystal to at least partially overlap with an evanescent field of the resonant cavity. At least one mode of the resonant cavity can couple into the graphene layer via evanescent coupling. The optical properties of the graphene layer can be controlled, and characteristics of the graphene-cavity system can be detected. Coupling light into graphene can include electro-optic modulation of light, photodetection, saturable absorption, bistability, and autocorrelation.

  17. THz waveguides, devices and hybrid polymer-chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Hualong; Markos, Christos; Nielsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we review our recent activities in the design, fabrication and characterization of polymer THz waveguides. Besides the THz waveguides, we finally will also briefly show some of our initial results on a novel hybrid polymer photonic crystal fiber with integrated chalcogenide...

  18. Synchronized conductivity modulation to realize broadband lossless magnetic-free non-reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinc, Tolga; Tymchenko, Mykhailo; Nagulu, Aravind; Sounas, Dimitrios; Alu, Andrea; Krishnaswamy, Harish

    2017-10-06

    Recent research has explored the spatiotemporal modulation of permittivity to break Lorentz reciprocity in a manner compatible with integrated-circuit fabrication. However, permittivity modulation is inherently weak and accompanied by loss due to carrier injection, particularly at higher frequencies, resulting in large insertion loss, size, and/or narrow operation bandwidths. Here, we show that the presence of absorption in an integrated electronic circuit may be counter-intuitively used to our advantage to realize a new generation of magnet-free non-reciprocal components. We exploit the fact that conductivity in semiconductors provides a modulation index several orders of magnitude larger than permittivity. While directly associated with loss in static systems, we show that properly synchronized conductivity modulation enables loss-free, compact and extremely broadband non-reciprocity. We apply these concepts to obtain a wide range of responses, from isolation to gyration and circulation, and verify our findings by realizing a millimeter-wave (25 GHz) circulator fully integrated in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology.Optical non-reciprocity achieved through refractive index modulation can have its challenges and limitations. Here, Dinc et al. introduce the concept of non-reciprocity based on synchronized spatio-temporal modulation of conductivity to achieve different types of non-reciprocal functionality.

  19. Intrinsic rippling enhances static non-reciprocity in a graphene metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Duc Tam; Park, Harold S; Kim, Sung Youb

    2018-01-18

    In mechanical systems, Maxwell-Betti reciprocity means that the displacement at point B in response to a force at point A is the same as the displacement at point A in response to the same force applied at point B. Because the notion of reciprocity is general, fundamental, and is operant for other physical systems like electromagnetics, acoustics, and optics, there is significant interest in understanding systems that are not reciprocal, or exhibit non-reciprocity. However, most studies on non-reciprocity have occurred in bulk-scale structures for dynamic problems involving time reversal symmetry. As a result, little is known about the mechanisms governing static non-reciprocal responses, particularly in atomically-thin two-dimensional materials like graphene. Here, we use classical atomistic simulations to demonstrate that out-of-plane ripples, which are intrinsic to graphene, enable significant, multiple orders of magnitude enhancements in the statically non-reciprocal response of graphene metamaterials. Specifically, we find that a striking interplay between the ripples and the stress fields that are induced in the metamaterials due to their geometry impacts the displacements that are transmitted by the metamaterial, thus leading to a significantly enhanced static non-reciprocal response. This study thus demonstrates the potential of two-dimensional mechanical metamaterials for symmetry-breaking applications.

  20. Deuterated silicon nitride photonic devices for broadband optical frequency comb generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiles, Jeff; Nader, Nima; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Yu, Su Peng; Briles, Travis Crain; Carlson, David; Jung, Hojoong; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Diddams, Scott; Papp, Scott B.; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P.

    2018-04-01

    We report and characterize low-temperature, plasma-deposited deuterated silicon nitride thin films for nonlinear integrated photonics. With a peak processing temperature less than 300$^\\circ$C, it is back-end compatible with pre-processed CMOS substrates. We achieve microresonators with a quality factor of up to $1.6\\times 10^6 $ at 1552 nm, and $>1.2\\times 10^6$ throughout $\\lambda$ = 1510 -- 1600 nm, without annealing or stress management. We then demonstrate the immediate utility of this platform in nonlinear photonics by generating a 1 THz free spectral range, 900-nm-bandwidth modulation-instability microresonator Kerr comb and octave-spanning, supercontinuum-broadened spectra.

  1. Methods and devices for maintaining a resonant wavelength of a photonic microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adam; Zortman, William A.

    2015-07-14

    A photonic microresonator incorporates a localized heater element within a section of an optical bus waveguide that is in proximity to the resonator structure. The application of an adjustable control voltage to the heater element provides a localized change in the refractive index value of the bus waveguide, compensating for temperature-induced wavelength drift and maintaining a stabilized value of the microresonator's resonant wavelength.

  2. Non-reciprocality of waves in inhomogeneous gyrotropic media and multi layer systems with gyrotropic layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorgyan, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    There has been considered the dispersion of electromagnetic waves in natural gyrotropic, inhomogeneous media. There has been discovered a new mechanism of waves non-reciprocality conditioned by simultaneous presence of one of the media gradients and natural gyrotropy. The non- reciprocality of waves in multilayer systems with gydrotropic layers has been investigated. It was considered a simple multilayer system glass (1)- cholesteric liquid crystal- glass(2) and demonstrated that non-reciprocality of waves in multilayer system offers good challenges for establishing simple systems with greater reciprocality. It has been shown that the multilayer systems with cholesteric liquid crystal layer can be used as optic diodes

  3. Photon energy dependence of three fortuitous dosemeters from personal electronic devices, measured by optically stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerten, K.; Vanhavere, F.

    2010-01-01

    New data are presented with regard to the relative OSL sensitivity of three different emergency dosemeters irradiated to various photon energies approximately between 48 and 1250 keV using blue excitation light. Investigated components extracted from commonly worn objects include those from USB flash drives (alumina substrate), mobile phones (Ba-rich silicate) and credit cards (chip card module). Several basic properties have been investigated such as the overall radiation sensitivity, the shape of the decay curve and fading of the OSL signal. An increase of the sensitivity for low energies relative to 60 Co gamma rays can be observed for the three dosemeters, the increase being very pronounced for the Ba-rich component (factor of 10) and less pronounced for the chip card module (factor of 2). It is concluded that proper dose correction factors for photon energy have to be applied in order to accurately determine the absorbed dose to tissue. The OSL sensitivity to neutron irradiation was investigated as well, but this was found to be less than the gamma sensitivity. (authors)

  4. Photon energy dependence of three fortuitous dosemeters from personal electronic devices, measured by optically stimulated luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerten, Koen; Vanhavere, Filip

    2010-08-01

    New data are presented with regard to the relative OSL sensitivity of three different emergency dosemeters irradiated to various photon energies approximately between 48 and 1250 keV using blue excitation light. Investigated components extracted from commonly worn objects include those from USB flash drives (alumina substrate), mobile phones (Ba-rich silicate) and credit cards (chip card module). Several basic properties have been investigated such as the overall radiation sensitivity, the shape of the decay curve and fading of the OSL signal. An increase of the sensitivity for low energies relative to (60)Co gamma rays can be observed for the three dosemeters, the increase being very pronounced for the Ba-rich component (factor of 10) and less pronounced for the chip card module (factor of 2). It is concluded that proper dose correction factors for photon energy have to be applied in order to accurately determine the absorbed dose to tissue. The OSL sensitivity to neutron irradiation was investigated as well, but this was found to be less than the gamma sensitivity.

  5. High-efficiency power transfer for silicon-based photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Gyeongho; Yu, Kyoungsik

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate an efficient coupling of guided light of 1550 nm from a standard single-mode optical fiber to a silicon waveguide using the finite-difference time-domain method and propose a fabrication method of tapered optical fibers for efficient power transfer to silicon-based photonic integrated circuits. Adiabatically-varying fiber core diameters with a small tapering angle can be obtained using the tube etching method with hydrofluoric acid and standard single-mode fibers covered by plastic jackets. The optical power transmission of the fundamental HE11 and TE-like modes between the fiber tapers and the inversely-tapered silicon waveguides was calculated with the finite-difference time-domain method to be more than 99% at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The proposed method for adiabatic fiber tapering can be applied in quantum optics, silicon-based photonic integrated circuits, and nanophotonics. Furthermore, efficient coupling within the telecommunication C-band is a promising approach for quantum networks in the future.

  6. Obtaining better performance in the measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded single-photon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xing-Yu; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Qin

    2017-11-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) has been widely investigated due to its remarkable advantages on the achievable transmission distance and practical security. However, the relative low key generation rate limits its real-life implementations. In this work, we adopt the newly proposed four-intensity decoy-state scheme [Phys. Rev. A 93, 042324 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.042324] to study the performance of MDI-QKD with heralded single-photon sources (HSPS). Corresponding simulation results demonstrate that the four-intensity decoy-state scheme combining HSPS can drastically improve both the key generation rate and transmission distance in MDI-QKD, which may be very promising in future MDI-QKD systems.

  7. Complex-envelope alternating-direction-implicit FDTD method for simulating active photonic devices with semiconductor/solid-state media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Ravi, Koustuban; Wang, Qian; Ho, Seng-Tiong

    2012-06-15

    A complex-envelope (CE) alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach to treat light-matter interaction self-consistently with electromagnetic field evolution for efficient simulations of active photonic devices is presented for the first time (to our best knowledge). The active medium (AM) is modeled using an efficient multilevel system of carrier rate equations to yield the correct carrier distributions, suitable for modeling semiconductor/solid-state media accurately. To include the AM in the CE-ADI-FDTD method, a first-order differential system involving CE fields in the AM is first set up. The system matrix that includes AM parameters is then split into two time-dependent submatrices that are then used in an efficient ADI splitting formula. The proposed CE-ADI-FDTD approach with AM takes 22% of the time as the approach of the corresponding explicit FDTD, as validated by semiconductor microdisk laser simulations.

  8. Insertion device and beam line plans for the Advanced Photon Source: A report and recommendations by the Insertion Device and Beam Line Planning Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    In the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) Conceptual Design Report (CDR), fifteen complete experimental beam lines were specified in order to establish a representative technical and cost base for the components involved. In order to optimize the composition of the insertion devices and the beam line, these funds are considered a ''Trust Fund.'' The present report evaluates the optimization for the distribution of these funds so that the short- and long-term research programs will be most productive, making the facility more attractive from the user's point of view. It is recommended that part of the ''Trust Fund'' be used for the construction of the insertion devices, the front-end components, and the first-optics, minimizing the cost to potential users of completing a beam line. In addition, the possibility of cost savings resulting from replication and standardization of high multiplicity components (such as IDs, front ends, and first-optics instrumentation) is addressed. 2 refs., 5 tabs

  9. Modeling optical transmissivity of graphene grate in on-chip silicon photonic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Iraj S.; Ariannejad, M. M.; Jalil, M. A.; Ali, J.; Yupapin, P.

    2018-06-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) analysis was used to simulate a silicon photonic waveguide. We have calculated power and transmission of the graphene used as single or multilayers to study the light transmission behavior. A new technique has been developed to define the straight silicon waveguide integrated with grate graphene layer. The waveguide has a variable grate spacing to be filled by the graphene layer. The number of graphene atomic layers varies between 100 and 1000 (or 380 nm and 3800 nm), the transmitted power obtained varies as ∼30% and ∼80%. The ∼99%, blocking of the light was occurred in 10,000 (or 38,000 nm) atomic layers of the graphene grate.

  10. Porous silicon photonic devices using pulsed anodic etching of lightly doped silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escorcia-Garcia, J; Sarracino MartInez, O; Agarwal, V; Gracia-Jimenez, J M

    2009-01-01

    The fabrication of porous silicon photonic structures using lightly doped, p-type, silicon wafers (resistivity: 14-22 Ω cm) by pulsed anodic etching is reported. The optical properties have been found to be strongly dependent on the duty cycle and frequency of the applied current. All the interfaces of the single layered samples were digitally analysed by calculating the mean interface roughness (R m ). The interface roughness was found to be maximum for the sample with direct current. The use of a duty cycle above 50%, in a certain range of frequencies, is found to reduce the interface roughness. The optical properties of some microcavities and rugate filters are investigated from the optimized parameters of the duty cycle and frequency, using the current densities of 10, 90 and 150 mA cm -2 .

  11. Modeling optical transmissivity of graphene grate in on-chip silicon photonic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj S. Amiri

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3-D finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD analysis was used to simulate a silicon photonic waveguide. We have calculated power and transmission of the graphene used as single or multilayers to study the light transmission behavior. A new technique has been developed to define the straight silicon waveguide integrated with grate graphene layer. The waveguide has a variable grate spacing to be filled by the graphene layer. The number of graphene atomic layers varies between 100 and 1000 (or 380 nm and 3800 nm, the transmitted power obtained varies as ∼30% and ∼80%. The ∼99%, blocking of the light was occurred in 10,000 (or 38,000 nm atomic layers of the graphene grate. Keywords: Optical waveguide, Silicon waveguide, Grate, Graphene, Optical transmissivity

  12. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for statistical analysis of RF photonic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piels, Molly; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    uncertainty is shown to give unsatisfactory and incorrect results due to the nonlinear relationship between the circuit parameters and the measured data. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are shown to provide superior results, both for individual devices and for assessing within-die variation...

  13. Cascaded two-photon nonlinearity in a one-dimensional waveguide with multiple two-level emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    We propose and theoretically investigate a model to realize cascaded optical nonlinearity with few atoms and photons in one-dimension (1D). The optical nonlinearity in our system is mediated by resonant interactions of photons with two-level emitters, such as atoms or quantum dots in a 1D photonic waveguide. Multi-photon transmission in the waveguide is nonreciprocal when the emitters have different transition energies. Our theory provides a clear physical understanding of the origin of nonreciprocity in the presence of cascaded nonlinearity. We show how various two-photon nonlinear effects including spatial attraction and repulsion between photons, background fluorescence can be tuned by changing the number of emitters and the coupling between emitters (controlled by the separation). PMID:23948782

  14. A device for combined neutron-photon processes in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckli, A.; Isacson, A.; Koch, M.; Furrer, A.

    1985-01-01

    A device has been developed for performing neutron scattering experiments with simultaneous irradiation by light at low temperatures. The light source is a halogen lamp which yields broad bands of wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm by using appropriate filters. The light is guided by a series of lenses to the sample, which is mounted in a cooling system. A mechanical chopper may be inserted into the light beam in order to create light pulses with frequencies between 0.05 Hz and 5 Hz, and the neutron counts resulting from the dark and light experiments are separately stored. Our device has been used to study the light-induced dynamical behaviour of photosynthetic chlorophyll systems by neutron spectroscopy. (author)

  15. The Structural Engineering Strategy for Photonic Material Research and Device Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Lu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new structural engineering strategy is introduced for optimizing the fabrication of arrayed nanorod materials, optimizing superlattice structures for realizing a strong coupling, and directly developing nanophotonic devices. The strategy can be regarded as “combinatorial” because of the high efficiency in optimizing structures. In this article, this strategy was applied to grow ZnO nanorod arrays, and to develop a new multifunctional photodetector using such nanorod arrays, which is able to simultaneously detect power, energy, and polarization of an incident ultraviolet radiation. The strategy was also used to study the extraordinary dielectric behavior of relaxor ferroelectric lead titanate doped lead magnesium niobate heterophase superlattices in the terahertz frequencies, in order to investigate their dielectric polariton physics and the potential to be integrated with tunable surface resonant plasmonics devices.

  16. Integrated Magneto-Optical Devices for On-Chip Photonic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Technology SEPTEMBER 2017 Final Report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. See additional restrictions described on inside pages STINFO...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue...interferometer (MZI) isolator devices based on optical modeling, for both transverse- electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) polarization. 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  17. New photonic devices for ultrafast pulse processing operating on the basis of the diffraction-dispersion analogy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Company, Victor; Minguez-Vega, Gladys; Climent, Vicent; Lands, Jesus [GROC-UJI, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, 12080 Castello (Spain); Andres, Pedro [Departament d' Optica, Universitat de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot (Spain)], E-mail: lancis@fca.uji.es

    2008-11-01

    The space-time analogy is a well-known topic within wave optics that brings together some results from beam diffraction and pulse dispersion. On the above basis, and taking as starting point some classical concepts in Optics, several photonic devices have been proposed during the last few years with application in rapidly evolving fields such as ultrafast (femtosecond) optics or RF and microwave signal processing. In this contribution, we briefly review the above ideas with particular emphasis in the generation of trains of ultrafast pulses from periodic modulation of the phase of a CW laser source. This is the temporal analogue of Fresnel diffraction by a pure phase grating. Finally, we extend the analogy to the partially coherent case, what enables us to design an original technique for wavelength-to-time mapping of the spectrum of a temporally stationary source. Results of laboratory experiments concerning the generation of user-defined radio-frequency waveforms and filtering of microwave signals will be shown. The devices are operated with low-cost incoherent sources.

  18. Fabrication of optical fiber micro(and nano)-optical and photonic devices and components, using computer controlled spark thermo-pulling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatemi, H.; Mosleh, A.; Pashmkar, M.; Khaksar Kalati, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fabrication of optical fiber Micro (and Nano)-Optical component and devices, as well as, those applicable for photonic purposes are described. It is to demonstrate the practical capabilities and characterization of the previously reported Computer controlled spark thermo-pulling fabrication system.

  19. Nonreciprocal acoustics and dynamics in the in-plane oscillations of a geometrically nonlinear lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Koroleva, I; Manevitch, L I; Bergman, L A; Vakakis, A F

    2016-09-01

    We study the dynamics and acoustics of a nonlinear lattice with fixed boundary conditions composed of a finite number of particles coupled by linear springs, undergoing in-plane oscillations. The source of the strongly nonlinearity of this lattice is geometric effects generated by the in-plane stretching of the coupling linear springs. It has been shown that in the limit of low energy the lattice gives rise to a strongly nonlinear acoustic vacuum, which is a medium with zero speed of sound as defined in classical acoustics. The acoustic vacuum possesses strongly nonlocal coupling effects and an orthogonal set of nonlinear standing waves [or nonlinear normal modes (NNMs)] with mode shapes identical to those of the corresponding linear lattice; in contrast to the linear case, however, all NNMs except the one with the highest wavelength are unstable. In addition, the lattice supports two types of waves, namely, nearly linear sound waves (termed "L waves") corresponding to predominantly axial oscillations of the particles and strongly nonlinear localized propagating pulses (termed "NL pulses") corresponding to predominantly transverse oscillating wave packets of the particles with localized envelopes. We show the existence of nonlinear nonreciprocity phenomena in the dynamics and acoustics of the lattice. Two opposite cases are examined in the limit of low energy. The first gives rise to nonreciprocal dynamics and corresponds to collective, spatially extended transverse loading of the lattice leading to the excitation of individual, predominantly transverse NNMs, whereas the second case gives rise to nonreciprocal acoutics by considering the response of the lattice to spatially localized, transverse impulse or displacement excitations. We demonstrate intense and recurring energy exchanges between a directly excited NNM and other NNMs with higher wave numbers, so that nonreciprocal energy exchanges from small-to-large wave numbers are established. Moreover, we show the

  20. Electrically switchable photonic liquid crystal devices for routing of a polarized light wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushnova, Irina I.; Melnikova, Elena A.; Tolstik, Alexei L.; Muravsky, Alexander A.

    2018-04-01

    The new mode of LC alignment based on photoalignment AtA-2 azo dye where the refractive interface between orthogonal orientations of the LC director exists without voltage and disappeared or changed with critical voltage has been proposed. The technology to fabricate electrically controlled liquid crystal elements for spatial separation and switching of linearly polarized light beams on the basis of the total internal reflection effect has been significantly improved. Its distinctive feature is the application of a composite alignment material comprising two sublayers of Nylon-6 and AtA-2 photoalignment azo dye offering patterned liquid crystal director orientation with high alignment quality value q = 0 . 998. The fabricated electrically controlled spatially structured liquid crystal devices enable implementation of propagation directions separation for orthogonally polarized light beams and their switching with minimal crosstalk.

  1. Novel composites based on polymer micro-rods for photonic device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thankappan, Aparna; Thomas, Sheenu; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2014-06-01

    ZnO micro-crystals had been successfully fabricated on a large scale under mild conditions without any additives, templates or substrates, exhibiting a hexagonal wurtzite structure and grown along the [001] direction. Effects of the reactant concentration and temperature on the sizes and morphologies of the ZnO products had been investigated. The optical absorptive nonlinearity of the ZnO/PVA composites was analyzed using an open aperture and a closed Z-scan technique shows a negative value for nonlinear refractive index n2. Stability as well as the mechanical properties of the crystals embedded in the PVA matrix makes them more suitable for device fabrication as compared to the ZnO crystals dispersed in solution.

  2. Tight control of light trapping in surface addressable photonic crystal membranes: application to spectrally and spatially selective optical devices (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letartre, Xavier; Blanchard, Cédric; Grillet, Christian; Jamois, Cécile; Leclercq, Jean-Louis; Viktorovitch, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Surface addressable Photonic Crystal Membranes (PCM) are 1D or 2D photonic crystals formed in a slab waveguides where Bloch modes located above the light line are exploited. These modes are responsible for resonances in the reflection spectrum whose bandwidth can be adjusted at will. These resonances result from the coupling between a guided mode of the membrane and a free-space mode through the pattern of the photonic crystal. If broadband, these structures represent an ideal mirror to form compact vertical microcavity with 3D confinement of photons and polarization selectivity. Among numerous devices, low threshold VCSELs with remarkable and tunable modal properties have been demonstrated. Narrow band PCMs (or high Q resonators) have also been extensively used for surface addressable optoelectronic devices where an active material is embedded into the membrane, leading to the demonstration of low threshold surface emitting lasers, nonlinear bistables, optical traps... In this presentation, we will describe the main physical rules which govern the lifetime of photons in these resonant modes. More specifically, it will be emphasized that the Q factor of the PCM is determined, to the first order, by the integral overlap between the electromagnetic field distributions of the guided and free space modes and of the dielectric periodic perturbation which is applied to the homogeneous membrane to get the photonic crystal. It turns out that the symmetries of these distributions are of prime importance for the strength of the resonance. It will be shown that, by molding in-plane or vertical symmetries of Bloch modes, spectrally and spatially selective light absorbers or emitters can be designed. First proof of concept devices will be also presented.

  3. Monolithic integration of InGaAs/InP multiple quantum wells on SOI substrates for photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhibo; Wang, Mengqi; Fang, Xin; Li, Yajie; Zhou, Xuliang; Yu, Hongyan; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Wei; Pan, Jiaoqing

    2018-02-01

    A direct epitaxy of III-V nanowires with InGaAs/InP multiple quantum wells on v-shaped trenches patterned silicon on insulator (SOI) substrates was realized by combining the standard semiconductor fabrication process with the aspect ratio trapping growth technique. Silicon thickness as well as the width and gap of each nanowire were carefully designed to accommodate essential optical properties and appropriate growth conditions. The III-V element ingredient, crystalline quality, and surface topography of the grown nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and scanning electron microscope. Geometrical details and chemical information of multiple quantum wells were revealed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Numerical simulations confirmed that the optical guided mode supported by one single nanowire was able to propagate 50 μm with ˜30% optical loss. This proposed integration scheme opens up an alternative pathway for future photonic integrations of III-V devices on the SOI platform at nanoscale.

  4. Investigation on nonlinear optical and dielectric properties of L-arginine doped ZTC crystal to explore photonic device applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Mohd

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused to explore the photonic device applications of L-arginine doped ZTC (LA-ZTC crystals using nonlinear optical (NLO and dielectric studies. The LA-ZTC crystals have been grown by slow evaporation solution technique. The chemical composition and surface of LA-ZTC crystal have been analyzed by means of energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS and surface scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. The Vicker’s microhardness study has been carried out to determine the hardness, work hardening index, yield strength and elastic stiffness of LA-ZTC crystal. The enhanced SHG efficiency of LA-ZTC crystal has been ascertained using the Kurtz-Perry powder SHG test. The closed-and-open aperture Z-scan technique has been employed to confirm the third order nonlinear optical nature of LA-ZTC crystal. The Z-scan transmittance data has been utilized to calculate the superior cubic susceptibility, nonlinear refractive index, nonlinear absorption coefficient and figure of merit of LA-ZTC crystal. The behavior of dielectric constant and dielectric loss of LA-ZTC crystal at different temperatures has been investigated using the dielectric analysis.

  5. Microcavity Plasma Devices and Arrays Fabricated in Semiconductor, Ceramic, or Metal/polymer Structures: A New Realm of Plasma Physics and Photonics Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eden, J. G.

    2005-01-01

    Micro discharge, or microcavity plasma, is the broad term that has come to be associated with an emerging class of glow discharge devices in which the characteristic spatial dimension of the plasma is nominally ) dia. Si wafers and operated in the rare gases and Ar/N2 gas mixtures. Also, photodetection in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared with microplasma devices has been observed by interfacing a low temperature plasma with a semiconductor. Carbon nanotubes grown directly within the microcavity of microplasma devices improve all key performance parameters of the device, and nanoporous Al2O3 grown onto Al by wet chemical processing yields microplasma devices of exceptional stability and lifetime. The opportunities such structures offer for accessing new avenues in plasma physics and photonics will be discussed. (Author)

  6. On-chip photonic system using suspended p-n junction InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells device and multiple waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongjin; Zhu, Guixia; Gao, Xumin; Yang, Yongchao; Yuan, Jialei; Shi, Zheng; Zhu, Hongbo; Cai, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We propose, fabricate, and characterize the on-chip integration of suspended p-n junction InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) device and multiple waveguides on the same GaN-on-silicon platform. The integrated devices are fabricated via a wafer-level process and exhibit selectable functionalities for diverse applications. As the suspended p-n junction InGaN/GaN MQWs device operates under a light emitting diode (LED) mode, part of the light emission is confined and guided by the suspended waveguides. The in-plane propagation along the suspended waveguides is measured by a micro-transmittance setup. The on-chip data transmission is demonstrated for the proof-of-concept photonic integration. As the suspended p-n junction InGaN/GaN MQWs device operates under photodiode mode, the light is illuminated on the suspended waveguides with the aid of the micro-transmittance setup and, thus, coupled into the suspended waveguides. The guided light is finally sensed by the photodiode, and the induced photocurrent trace shows a distinct on/off switching performance. These experimental results indicate that the on-chip photonic integration is promising for the development of sophisticated integrated photonic circuits in the visible wavelength region.

  7. Advanced processing methods to introduce and preserve dipole orientation in organic electro-optic materials for next generation photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Su

    ) (PVP) and TOPAS as well as ferroelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE), 65/35 copolymer), which differ largely from the others in dielectric constant, conductivity and surface properties. The only common feature of them is that they all lowered the charge injection and leakage current for 1-2 orders during poling. On every buffer layer we tried, similar trend of stability enhancement is found. These results suggest that the observed temporal stability enhancement is indeed an effect from the abovementioned mechanism. Chapter 4 focuses on the development of an innovative new poling method, which utilizes pyroelectric effect instead of external power sources to overcome the limitations of conventional contact poling and corona poling. With careful theory assisted design, we developed a reliable protocol to efficiently introduce dipole orientation in organic E-O materials by heating and cooling them with detachable pyroelectric crystals. This new method can potentially improve the process adaptability of organic E-O materials in a variety of photonic devices. Large Pockels coefficients (up to 81 pm/V at 1.3 micron) have been successfully achieved in thin films poled using this method. The effective fields in these experiments are estimated to be around 0.5 to 0.9 MV/cm, which agree well with the electrostatics analysis using an idealized model. The same method is directly applied to surface modified hybrid polymer silicon slot waveguide ring-resonator modulators devices. A 25 pm/V tunability of resonance peak wavelength shift has been realized, which was higher than any reported results in similar devices. Chapter 5 discusses about the possible application of the pyroelectric poling in a multi-stack waveguide device architecture. A long-existing challenge to pole E-O polymer based photonic devices is how to effectively drop the poling voltage to the core layer, which is usually sandwiched between two dielectric claddings. In the past

  8. Growth and optical properties of CMOS-compatible silicon nanowires for photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Alex Richard

    Silicon (Si) is the dominant semiconductor material in both the microelectronic and photovoltaic industries. Despite its poor optical properties, Si is simply too abundant and useful to be completely abandoned in either industry. Since the initial discovery of efficient room temperature photoluminescence (PL) from porous Si and the following discoveries of PL and time-resolved optical gain from Si nanocrystals (Si-nc) in SiO2, many groups have studied the feasibility of making Si-based, CMOS-compatible electroluminescent devices and electrically pumped lasers. These studies have shown that for Si-ne sizes below about 10 nm, PL can be attributed to radiative recombination of confined excitons and quantum efficiencies can reach 90%. PL peak energies are blue-shifted from the bulk Si band edge of 1.1 eV due to the quantum confinement effect and PL decay lifetimes are on mus timescales. However, many unanswered questions still exist about both the ease of carrier injection and various non-radiative and loss mechanisms that are present. A potential alternative material system to porous Si and Si-nc is Si nanowires (SiNWs). In this thesis, I examine the optical properties of SiNWs with diameters in the range of 3-30 nm fabricated by a number of compound metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication techniques including Chemical Vapor Deposition on metal nanoparticle coated substrates, catalytic wet etching of bulk Si and top-down electron-beam lithographic patterning. Using thermal oxidation and etching, we can increase the degree of confinement in the SiNWs. I demonstrate PL peaked in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelength ranges that is tunable by controlling the crystalline SiNW core diameter, which is measured with dark field and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. PL decay lifetimes of the SiNWs are on the order of 50 mus after proper surface passivation, which suggest that the PL is indeed from confined carriers in the SiNW cores

  9. Investigation of non-reciprocal magnon propagation using lock-in thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wid, Olga; Bauer, Jan; Müller, Alexander; Breitenstein, Otwin; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; Schmidt, Georg

    2017-04-01

    We have investigated the unidirectional spin wave heat conveyer effect in a 200 nm thin yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film using lock-in thermography (LIT). This originates from the non-reciprocal propagation of magnons, which leads to an asymmetric heat transport. To excite the spin waves we use two different respective antenna geometries: a coplanar waveguide (CPW) or a ‘microstrip’-like antenna on top of the YIG. By using the CPW and comparing the results for the Damon-Eshbach and the backward volume modes we are able to show that the origin of the asymmetric heat profile are indeed the non-reciprocal spin waves. Using the ‘microstrip’-like geometry we can confirm these results and we can even observe a distinct excitation profile along the antenna due to small field inhomogeneities.

  10. Nonreciprocity in the dynamics of coupled oscillators with nonlinearity, asymmetry, and scale hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Keegan J.; Bunyan, Jonathan; Tawfick, Sameh; Gendelman, Oleg V.; Li, Shuangbao; Leamy, Michael; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2018-01-01

    In linear time-invariant dynamical and acoustical systems, reciprocity holds by the Onsager-Casimir principle of microscopic reversibility, and this can be broken only by odd external biases, nonlinearities, or time-dependent properties. A concept is proposed in this work for breaking dynamic reciprocity based on irreversible nonlinear energy transfers from large to small scales in a system with nonlinear hierarchical internal structure, asymmetry, and intentional strong stiffness nonlinearity. The resulting nonreciprocal large-to-small scale energy transfers mimic analogous nonlinear energy transfer cascades that occur in nature (e.g., in turbulent flows), and are caused by the strong frequency-energy dependence of the essentially nonlinear small-scale components of the system considered. The theoretical part of this work is mainly based on action-angle transformations, followed by direct numerical simulations of the resulting system of nonlinear coupled oscillators. The experimental part considers a system with two scales—a linear large-scale oscillator coupled to a small scale by a nonlinear spring—and validates the theoretical findings demonstrating nonreciprocal large-to-small scale energy transfer. The proposed study promotes a paradigm for designing nonreciprocal acoustic materials harnessing strong nonlinearity, which in a future application will be implemented in designing lattices incorporating nonlinear hierarchical internal structures, asymmetry, and scale mixing.

  11. Non-reciprocal elastic wave propagation in 2D phononic membranes with spatiotemporally varying material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarzadeh, M. A.; Nouh, M.

    2018-05-01

    One-dimensional phononic materials with material fields traveling simultaneously in space and time have been shown to break elastodynamic reciprocity resulting in unique wave propagation features. In the present work, a comprehensive mathematical analysis is presented to characterize and fully predict the non-reciprocal wave dispersion in two-dimensional space. The analytical dispersion relations, in the presence of the spatiotemporal material variations, are validated numerically using finite 2D membranes with a prescribed number of cells. Using omnidirectional excitations at the membrane's center, wave propagations are shown to exhibit directional asymmetry that increases drastically in the direction of the material travel and vanishes in the direction perpendicular to it. The topological nature of the predicted dispersion in different propagation directions are evaluated using the computed Chern numbers. Finally, the degree of the 2D non-reciprocity is quantified using a non-reciprocity index (NRI) which confirms the theoretical dispersion predictions as well as the finite simulations. The presented framework can be extended to plate-type structures as well as 3D spatiotemporally modulated phononic crystals.

  12. The strong non-reciprocity of metamaterial absorber: characteristic, interpretation and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yuanxun; Xie Yunsong; Zhang Huaiwu; Liu Yingli; Wen Qiye; Ling Weiwei, E-mail: liyuanxun@uestc.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Film and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054 (China)

    2009-05-07

    We simulated the metamaterial absorbers in two propagation conditions and observed the universal phenomenon of strong non-reciprocity. It is found that this non-reciprocity cannot be well interpreted using the effective medium theory, which indicates that the designing and understanding for the metamaterial absorber based on the proposed effective medium theory could not be applicable. The reason is pointed out that the metamaterial absorber does not satisfy the homogeneous-effective limit. So we put forward a three-parameter modified effective medium theory to fully describe the metamaterial absorbers. We have also investigated the relationships of S-parameters and absorptance among the metamaterial absorbers and the two components inside. Then the power absorption distributions in these three structures are discussed in detail. It can be concluded that the absorption is derived from the ERR structure and is enhanced largely by the coupling mechanism, and the strong non-reciprocity results from the different roles which wire structure plays in both propagation conditions.

  13. The strong non-reciprocity of metamaterial absorber: characteristic, interpretation and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuanxun; Xie Yunsong; Zhang Huaiwu; Liu Yingli; Wen Qiye; Ling Weiwei

    2009-01-01

    We simulated the metamaterial absorbers in two propagation conditions and observed the universal phenomenon of strong non-reciprocity. It is found that this non-reciprocity cannot be well interpreted using the effective medium theory, which indicates that the designing and understanding for the metamaterial absorber based on the proposed effective medium theory could not be applicable. The reason is pointed out that the metamaterial absorber does not satisfy the homogeneous-effective limit. So we put forward a three-parameter modified effective medium theory to fully describe the metamaterial absorbers. We have also investigated the relationships of S-parameters and absorptance among the metamaterial absorbers and the two components inside. Then the power absorption distributions in these three structures are discussed in detail. It can be concluded that the absorption is derived from the ERR structure and is enhanced largely by the coupling mechanism, and the strong non-reciprocity results from the different roles which wire structure plays in both propagation conditions.

  14. Laser Welding Characterization of Kovar and Stainless Steel Alloys as Suitable Materials for Components of Photonic Devices Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhali, M. M. A.; Zainal, Saktioto J.; Munajat, Y.; Jalil, A.; Rahman, R.

    2010-01-01

    The weldability of Kovar and stainless steel alloys by Nd:YAG laser beam is studied through changing of some laser beam parameters. It has been found that there is a suitable interaction of the pulsed laser beam of low power laser pulse with both the two alloys. The change of thermophysical properties with absorbed energy from the laser pulse is discussed in this paper which reports the suitability of both Kovar and stainless steel 304 as the base materials for photonic devices packaging. We used laser weld system (LW4000S from Newport) which employs Nd:YAG laser system with two simultaneous beams output for packaging 980 nm high power laser module. Results of changing both laser spot weld width and penetration depth with changing both the pulse peak power density, pulse energy and pulse duration show that there are good linear relationships between laser pulse energy or peak power density and pulse duration with laser spot weld dimensions( both laser spot weld width and penetration depth). Therefore we concluded that there should be an optimization for both the pulse peak power and pulse duration to give a suitable aspect ratio (laser spot width to penetration depth) for achieving the desired welds with suitable penetration depth and small spot width. This is to reduce the heat affected zone (HAZ) which affects the sensitive optical components. An optimum value of the power density in the order of 10 5 w/cm 2 found to be suitable to induce melting in the welded joints without vaporization. The desired ratio can also be optimized by changing the focus position on the target material as illustrated from our measurements. A theoretical model is developed to simulate the temperature distribution during the laser pulse heating and predict the penetration depth inside the material. Samples have been investigated using SEM with EDS. The metallographic measurements on the weld spot show a suitable weld yield with reasonable weld width to depth ratio.

  15. The equidosemeter ED-02 as a device for dose equivalent measurements in mixed neutron and photon radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrosimov, A.I.; Alekseev, A.G.; Antipov, V.A.; Golovachik, V.T.

    1985-01-01

    The equidosemeter ED-02 is to be used for simultaneous measurements of the dose equivalent, absorbed dose, and mean quality factor of mixed radiations. The detector is a tissue equivalent spherical low-pressure proportional counter tube the signal of which is simultaneously recorded in two channels - a current channel and a pulse one. The current channel is linear and its response proportional to the absorbed dose. The pulse channel includes a nonlinear pulse amplitude converter the characteristic of which, taking into account the required dependence of the mean quality factor on linear energy transfer, has been chosen in such a way that in final counting the pulse channel response is proportional to the difference between dose equivalent and absorbed dose. On the basis of calculations of event spectra in the sensitive volume of the detector, the energy dependence of the dosemeter sensitivity is analysed for neutron energies up to 20 MeV. The characteristic of the nonlinear converter has been calculated on the basis of the construction parameters of the detector and optimized with respect to a representative sample of neutron spectra beyond the shields of nuclear plants. The heterogeneity of the detector, i.e. the difference between the atomic composition of wall and filling and the composition of soft biological tissue as well as the effect of the conducting coating of the case cathode, has been taken into consideration. Moreover, the test results of the device in mixed neutron-photon fields of 60 Co, 239 Pu-α-Be and 252 Cf radioisotope sources are presented. The main measuring error of dose characteristics is shown to be less than 20% in the dose range 1 x 10 -3 to 4 x 10 -3 Sv/h. (author)

  16. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the application of photon to industrial technologies, in particular, a hard photon technology was surveyed which uses photon beams of 0.1-200nm in wavelength. Its features such as selective atom reaction, dense inner shell excitation and spacial high resolution by quantum energy are expected to provide innovative techniques for various field such as fine machining, material synthesis and advanced inspection technology. This wavelength region has been hardly utilized for industrial fields because of poor development of suitable photon sources and optical devices. The developmental meaning, usable time and issue of a hard photon reduction lithography were surveyed as lithography in ultra-fine region below 0.1{mu}m. On hard photon analysis/evaluation technology, the industrial use of analysis, measurement and evaluation technologies by micro-beam was viewed, and optimum photon sources and optical systems were surveyed. Prediction of surface and surface layer modification by inner shell excitation, the future trend of this process and development of a vacuum ultraviolet light source were also surveyed. 383 refs., 153 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. Nonreciprocity of spin waves in magnonic crystals created by surface acoustic waves in structures with yttrium iron garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshtal, R.G.; Medved, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results of investigations of nonreciprocity for surface magnetostatic spin waves (SMSW) in the magnonic crystal created by surface acoustic waves (SAW) in yttrium iron garnet films on a gallium gadolinium garnet substrate as without metallization and with aluminum films with different electrical conductivities (thicknesses) are presented. In structures without metallization, the frequency of magnonic gaps is dependent on mutual directions of propagation of the SAW and SMSW, showing nonreciprocal properties for SMSW in SAW – magnonic crystals even with the symmetrical dispersion characteristic. In metalized SAW – magnonic crystals the shift of the magnonic band gaps frequencies at the inversion of the biasing magnetic field was observed. The frequencies of magnonic band gaps as functions of SAW frequency are presented. Measured dependencies, showing the decrease of magnonic gaps frequency and the expansion of the magnonic band gap width with the decreasing of the metal film conductivity are given. Such nonreciprocal properties of the SAW – magnonic crystals are promising for signal processing in the GHz range. - Highlights: • Spin waves nonreciprocity in YIG magnonic crystals with SAW was studied. • SAW was shown to create nonreciprocity for spin waves in YIG–GGG even without metal. • Frequency and width of magnonic band gaps were measured versus metal conductivity. • Conductivity for practical use of spin waves in the structure YIG–metal was defined

  18. Nonreciprocity of spin waves in magnonic crystals created by surface acoustic waves in structures with yttrium iron garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshtal, R.G.; Medved, A.V., E-mail: avm@ms.ire.rssi.ru

    2015-12-01

    Experimental results of investigations of nonreciprocity for surface magnetostatic spin waves (SMSW) in the magnonic crystal created by surface acoustic waves (SAW) in yttrium iron garnet films on a gallium gadolinium garnet substrate as without metallization and with aluminum films with different electrical conductivities (thicknesses) are presented. In structures without metallization, the frequency of magnonic gaps is dependent on mutual directions of propagation of the SAW and SMSW, showing nonreciprocal properties for SMSW in SAW – magnonic crystals even with the symmetrical dispersion characteristic. In metalized SAW – magnonic crystals the shift of the magnonic band gaps frequencies at the inversion of the biasing magnetic field was observed. The frequencies of magnonic band gaps as functions of SAW frequency are presented. Measured dependencies, showing the decrease of magnonic gaps frequency and the expansion of the magnonic band gap width with the decreasing of the metal film conductivity are given. Such nonreciprocal properties of the SAW – magnonic crystals are promising for signal processing in the GHz range. - Highlights: • Spin waves nonreciprocity in YIG magnonic crystals with SAW was studied. • SAW was shown to create nonreciprocity for spin waves in YIG–GGG even without metal. • Frequency and width of magnonic band gaps were measured versus metal conductivity. • Conductivity for practical use of spin waves in the structure YIG–metal was defined.

  19. Manipulating the Flow of Thermal Noise in Quantum Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzanjeh, Shabir; Aquilina, Matteo; Xuereb, André

    2018-02-01

    There has been significant interest recently in using complex quantum systems to create effective nonreciprocal dynamics. Proposals have been put forward for the realization of artificial magnetic fields for photons and phonons; experimental progress is fast making these proposals a reality. Much work has concentrated on the use of such systems for controlling the flow of signals, e.g., to create isolators or directional amplifiers for optical signals. In this Letter, we build on this work but move in a different direction. We develop the theory of and discuss a potential realization for the controllable flow of thermal noise in quantum systems. We demonstrate theoretically that the unidirectional flow of thermal noise is possible within quantum cascaded systems. Viewing an optomechanical platform as a cascaded system we show here that one can ultimately control the direction of the flow of thermal noise. By appropriately engineering the mechanical resonator, which acts as an artificial reservoir, the flow of thermal noise can be constrained to a desired direction, yielding a thermal rectifier. The proposed quantum thermal noise rectifier could potentially be used to develop devices such as a thermal modulator, a thermal router, and a thermal amplifier for nanoelectronic devices and superconducting circuits.

  20. Photonics: Technology project summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaula, Ramon P.

    1991-01-01

    Photonics involves the use of light (photons) in conjunction with electronics for applications in communications, computing, control, and sensing. Components used in photonic systems include lasers, optical detectors, optical wave guide devices, fiber optics, and traditional electronic devices. The goal of this program is to develop hybrid optoelectronic devices and systems for sensing, information processing, communications, and control. It is hoped that these new devices will yield at least an order of magnitude improvement in performance over existing technology. The objective of the program is to conduct research and development in the following areas: (1) materials and devices; (2) networking and computing; (3) optical processing/advanced pattern recognition; and (4) sensing.

  1. Fast broad-band photon detector based on quantum well devices and charge-integrating electronics for non-invasive FEL monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonelli, M., E-mail: matias.antonelli@elettra.eu; Cautero, G.; Sergo, R.; Castellaro, C.; Menk, R. H. [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy); Ganbold, T. [School in Nanotechnology, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); IOM CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste (Italy); Biasiol, G. [IOM CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste (Italy)

    2016-07-27

    The recent evolution of free-electron lasers has not been matched by the development of adequate beam-monitoring instrumentation. However, for both experimental and diagnostics purposes, it is crucial to keep such photon beams under control, avoiding at the same time the absorption of the beam and the possible destruction of the detector. These requirements can be fulfilled by utilizing fast and non-invasive photon detectors operated in situ, upstream from the experimental station. From this perspective, sensors based on Quantum Well (QW) devices can be the key to detecting ultra-short light pulses. In fact, owing to their high electron mobility, InGaAs/InAlAs QW devices operated at room temperature exhibit sub-nanosecond response times. Their direct, low-energy band gap renders them capable of detecting photons ranging from visible to X-ray. Furthermore, the 2D electron gas forming inside the QW is responsible for a charge amplification mechanism, which increases the charge collection efficiency of these devices. In order to acquire the signals produced by these QW sensors, a novel readout electronics has been developed. It is based on a high-speed charge integrator, which allows short, low-intensity current pulses to be read within a 50-ns window. The integrated signal is acquired through an ADC and the entire process can be performed at a 10-MHz repetition rate. This work provides a detailed description of the development of the QW detectors and the acquisition electronics, as well as reporting the main experimental results, which show how these tools are well suited for the realization of fast, broad-band beam monitors.

  2. Study of asymmetric multilayered structures by means of nonreciprocity in phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V S C Manga; Gupta, S Dutta; Agarwal, G S

    2004-01-01

    We study symmetric and asymmetric stratified media with resonant absorbers to bring out the role of inversion symmetry and absorption. We show that both can be probed using the reflected fields for excitation of the structure from opposite sides. The phase asymmetry is shown to bear the signature of broken inversion symmetry in lossless systems, while losses in addition lead to the nonreciprocity in the intensity reflection coefficient. We demonstrate how reflected pulses from opposite ends can reveal both of the aspects through their shapes and delays. Moreover, we demonstrate a great flexibility in manipulating the pulse velocities mediated by the resonant atom-field interaction

  3. In-plane angular dependence of the spin-wave nonreciprocity of an ultrathin film with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Vanessa Li; Di, Kai; Lim, Hock Siah; Ng, Ser Choon; Kuok, Meng Hau, E-mail: phykmh@nus.edu.sg [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore); Yu, Jiawei; Yoon, Jungbum; Qiu, Xuepeng; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2015-07-13

    The nonreciprocal propagation of spin waves in an ultrathin Pt/Co/Ni film has been measured by Brillouin light scattering. The frequency nonreciprocity, due to the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI), has a sinusoidal dependence on the in-plane angle between the magnon wavevector and the applied magnetic field. The results, which are in good agreement with analytical predictions reported earlier, yield a value of the DMI constant which is the same as that obtained previously from a study of the magnon dispersion relations. We have demonstrated that our magnon-dynamics based method can experimentally ascertain the DMI constant of multilayer thin films.

  4. Mode conversion in magneto photonic crystal fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otmani, Hamza; Bouchemat, Mohamed; Hocini, Abdesselam; Boumaza, Touraya; Benmerkhi, Ahlem

    2017-01-01

    The first concept of an integrated isolator was based on nonreciprocal TE–TM mode conversion, the nonreciprocal coupling between these modes is caused by the Faraday rotation if the magnetization is aligned along the z–axis, parallel to mode propagation. We propose to study this magneto-optical phenomenon, by the simulation of magneto photonic crystal fibre (MPCF), it consists of a periodic triangular lattice of air-holes filled with magnetic fluid which consists of magnetic nanoparticles into a BIG (Bismuth Iron Garnet) fibre. We simulated the influence of gyrotropy and the wavelength, and calculated Faraday rotation and modal birefringence. In this fibre the light is guided by internal total reflection, like classical fibres. However it was shown that they could function on a mode conversion much stronger than conventional fibres. - Highlights: • We propose to study mode conversion TE–TM, by the simulation of magneto photonic crystal fibre (MPCF). • We simulated the influence of gyrotropy. • We simulated the wavelength. • We calculated Faraday rotation. • We calculated modal birefringence.

  5. Strained Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf B. Wehrspohn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon.

  6. Smart x-ray beam position monitor system using artificial intelligence methods for the advanced photon source insertion-device beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Ding, H.; Barraza, J.; Kuzay, T.M.; Haeffner, D.; Ramanathan, M.

    1997-09-01

    At the Advanced Photon Source (APS), each insertion device (ID) beamline front-end has two XBPMs to monitor the X-ray beam position for both that vertical and horizontal directions. Performance challenges for a conventional photoemission type X-ray beam position monitor (XBPM) during operations are contamination of the signal from the neighboring bending magnet sources and the sensitivity of the XBPM to the insertion device (ID) gap variations. Problems are exacerbated because users change the ID gap during their operations, and hence the percentage level of the contamination in the front end XBPM signals varies. A smart XBPM system with a high speed digital signal processor has been built at the Advanced Photon Source for the ID beamline front ends. The new version of the software, which uses an artificial intelligence method, provides a self learning and self-calibration capability to the smart XBPM system. The structure of and recent test results with the system are presented in this paper

  7. Estimation and Mitigation of Channel Non-Reciprocity in Massive MIMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeesi, Orod; Gokceoglu, Ahmet; Valkama, Mikko

    2018-05-01

    Time-division duplex (TDD) based massive MIMO systems rely on the reciprocity of the wireless propagation channels when calculating the downlink precoders based on uplink pilots. However, the effective uplink and downlink channels incorporating the analog radio front-ends of the base station (BS) and user equipments (UEs) exhibit non-reciprocity due to non-identical behavior of the individual transmit and receive chains. When downlink precoder is not aware of such channel non-reciprocity (NRC), system performance can be significantly degraded due to NRC induced interference terms. In this work, we consider a general TDD-based massive MIMO system where frequency-response mismatches at both the BS and UEs, as well as the mutual coupling mismatch at the BS large-array system all coexist and induce channel NRC. Based on the NRC-impaired signal models, we first propose a novel iterative estimation method for acquiring both the BS and UE side NRC matrices and then also propose a novel NRC-aware downlink precoder design which utilizes the obtained estimates. Furthermore, an efficient pilot signaling scheme between the BS and UEs is introduced in order to facilitate executing the proposed estimation method and the NRC-aware precoding technique in practical systems. Comprehensive numerical results indicate substantially improved spectral efficiency performance when the proposed NRC estimation and NRC-aware precoding methods are adopted, compared to the existing state-of-the-art methods.

  8. Combined atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence imaging to select single InAs/GaAs quantum dots for quantum photonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Luca; Liu, Jin; Song, Jin Dong; Fält, Stefan; Wegscheider, Werner; Badolato, Antonio; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2017-07-24

    We report on a combined photoluminescence imaging and atomic force microscopy study of single, isolated self-assembled InAs quantum dots. The motivation of this work is to determine an approach that allows to assess single quantum dots as candidates for quantum nanophotonic devices. By combining optical and scanning probe characterization techniques, we find that single quantum dots often appear in the vicinity of comparatively large topographic features. Despite this, the quantum dots generally do not exhibit significant differences in their non-resonantly pumped emission spectra in comparison to quantum dots appearing in defect-free regions, and this behavior is observed across multiple wafers produced in different growth chambers. Such large surface features are nevertheless a detriment to applications in which single quantum dots are embedded within nanofabricated photonic devices: they are likely to cause large spectral shifts in the wavelength of cavity modes designed to resonantly enhance the quantum dot emission, thereby resulting in a nominally perfectly-fabricated single quantum dot device failing to behave in accordance with design. We anticipate that the approach of screening quantum dots not only based on their optical properties, but also their surrounding surface topographies, will be necessary to improve the yield of single quantum dot nanophotonic devices.

  9. Ge-rich graded-index Si1-xGex devices for MID-IR integrated photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, J. M.; Vakarin, V.; Liu, Q.; Frigerio, J.; Ballabio, A.; Le Roux, X.; Benedikovic, D.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Isella, G.; Vivien, L.; Marris-Morini, D.

    2018-02-01

    Mid-infrared (mid-IR) silicon photonics is becoming a prominent research with remarkable potential in several applications such as in early medical diagnosis, safe communications, imaging, food safety and many more. In the quest for the best material platform to develop new photonic systems, Si and Ge depart with a notable advantage over other materials due to the high processing maturity accomplished during the last part of the 20th century through the deployment of the CMOS technology. From an optical viewpoint, combining Si with Ge to obtain SiGe alloys with controlled stoichiometry is also of interest for the photonic community since permits to increase the effective refractive index and the nonlinear parameter, providing a fascinating playground to exploit nonlinear effects. Furthermore, using Ge-rich SiGe gives access to a range of deep mid-IR wavelengths otherwise inaccessible (λ 2-20 μm). In this paper, we explore for the first time the limits of this approach by measuring the spectral loss characteristic over a broadband wavelength range spanning from λ = 5.5 μm to 8.5 μm. Three different SiGe waveguide platforms are compared, each one showing higher compactness than the preceding through the engineering of the vertical Ge profile, giving rise to different confinement characteristics to the propagating modes. A flat propagation loss characteristic of 2-3 dB/cm over the entire wavelength span is demonstrated in Ge-rich graded-index SiGe waveguides of only 6 μm thick. Also, the role of the overlap fraction of the confined optical mode with the Si-rich area at the bottom side of the epitaxial SiGe waveguide is put in perspective, revealing a lossy characteristic compared to the other designs were the optical mode is located in the Ge-rich area at the top of the waveguide uniquely. These Ge-rich graded-index SiGe waveguides may pave the way towards a new generation of photonic integrated circuits operating at deep mid-IR wavelengths.

  10. Photon-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    A brief summary of the present status of photon-photon interactions is presented. Stress is placed on the use of two-photon collisions to test present ideas on the quark constituents of hadrons and on the theory of strong interactions

  11. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, M.; Castellan, C.; Signorini, S.; Trenti, A.; Pavesi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Silicon photonics is a technology based on fabricating integrated optical circuits by using the same paradigms as the dominant electronics industry. After twenty years of fervid development, silicon photonics is entering the market with low cost, high performance and mass-manufacturable optical devices. Until now, most silicon photonic devices have been based on linear optical effects, despite the many phenomenologies associated with nonlinear optics in both bulk materials and integrated waveguides. Silicon and silicon-based materials have strong optical nonlinearities which are enhanced in integrated devices by the small cross-section of the high-index contrast silicon waveguides or photonic crystals. Here the photons are made to strongly interact with the medium where they propagate. This is the central argument of nonlinear silicon photonics. It is the aim of this review to describe the state-of-the-art in the field. Starting from the basic nonlinearities in a silicon waveguide or in optical resonator geometries, many phenomena and applications are described—including frequency generation, frequency conversion, frequency-comb generation, supercontinuum generation, soliton formation, temporal imaging and time lensing, Raman lasing, and comb spectroscopy. Emerging quantum photonics applications, such as entangled photon sources, heralded single-photon sources and integrated quantum photonic circuits are also addressed at the end of this review.

  12. A new XUV optical end-station to characterize compact and flexible photonic devices using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, A.; Mazuritskiy, M. I.; Dabagov, S. B.; Hampai, D.; Lerer, A. M.; Izotova, E. A.; D'Elia, A.; Turchini, S.; Zema, N.; Zuccaro, F.; de Simone, M.; Javad Rezvani, S.; Coreno, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this contribution we present the new experimental end-station to characterize XUV diffractive optics, such as Micro Channel Plates (MCPs) and other polycapillary optics, presently under commission at the Elettra synchrotron radiation laboratory (Trieste, Italy). To show the opportunities offered by these new optical devices for 3rd and 4th generation radiation sources, in this work we present also some patterns collected at different energies of the primary XUV radiation transmitted by MCP optical devices working in the normal incidence geometry.

  13. [Non-reciprocal social exchange is a health risk: a medical sociological research model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, J

    2002-02-01

    Contrary to a reductionist disease concept prevailing in molecular medicine, a systemic disease concept is emphasised in this sociopsychosomatic approach towards analysing disease as a result of disturbed social exchange among people. More precisely, violations of the norms of social reciprocity in core social roles in adult life, in particular in the work role, are assumed to trigger stressful experience with adverse long-term consequences for health. The model of effort-reward imbalance at work provides an illustrative case of nonreciprocal social exchange. It defines distinct conditions in which an imbalance between high efforts spent and low rewards received in turn is maintained by the workers. In this model social rewards are analysed in terms of money, esteem and promotion prospect including job security. The contribution summarises results from 6 international prospective and cross-sectional epidemiological investigations testing the model of effort-reward imbalance at work with regard to different health indicators (especially coronary heart disease, hypertension, depression, alcohol dependence). In all instances an elevated risk of illness is observed among those who experience non-reciprocal social exchange in terms of effort-reward imbalance at work, compared to people who are free from this type of stressful experience. Results are derived from logistic regression analysis adjusting for the effects of potential confounders. In view of this evidence the medical sociological approach outlined here may be helpful in contrasting a reductionist concept of disease with a systemic concept centred around the sociopsychosomatic aspects of human health and disease. Copyright 2002 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  14. Nonreciprocal and Reciprocal Dating Violence and Injury Occurrence among Urban Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swahn, Monica H

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dating violence is a significant health problem among youth that leads to adverse health outcomes, including injuries. Reciprocal violence (perpetrated by both partners is associated with increased injury in adults, but very little is known about the prevalence and context for reciprocal violence, as well as injury rates, among youth. We sought to determine the prevalence and scope of reciprocal dating violence and injury occurrence among urban youth in a high-risk community. Methods: Analyses were based on data from the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and administered to over 80% of public school students in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N=4,131 in a high-risk, urban school district. The current analyses were restricted to those who reported dating in the past year and who also reported any dating violence (n=1,158. Dating violence was categorized as reciprocal (the participant reported both violence perpetration and victimization and non-reciprocal (the participant report either violence perpetration or victimization, but not both. Results: Dating violence reciprocity varied by sex. Girls who reported any dating violence were more likely to report reciprocal dating violence (50.4% than were boys (38.9%. However, reciprocity did not vary by race/ethnicity or grade level. Reciprocal dating violence was more common among participants who reported more frequent violence experiences. Reciprocal violence was also associated with greater injury occurrences relative to non-reciprocal relationships (10.1% versus 1.2%. Conclusion: Reciprocal dating violence is common among adolescents and leads more often to injury outcomes. In particular, relationships in which boys report reciprocal violence against their partner appear to lead to more frequent injury occurrences. These findings underscore the importance of addressing dating violence and factors that increase risk for reciprocal violence and therefore exacerbate injury occurrence

  15. Photonics in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bollig, C

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available : photonics, ultrafast and ultra- intense laser science (Heinrich Schwoerer, University of Stellenbosch); quantum information processing and communication (Francesco Petruccione, University of KwaZulu-Natal); medicinal chemistry and nanotechnology... of experience in diamond research, where scientists are now turning their attention to diamond for photonic devices. �ere is an active community in South Africa studying the potential of diamond as a single-photon source for applications in quantum...

  16. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic e#betta# scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by #betta##betta# collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function F 2 /sup #betta#/(x,Q 2 ) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved

  17. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haissinski, J.

    1986-06-01

    The discussions presented in this paper deal with the following points: distinctive features of gamma-gamma collisions; related processes; photon-photon elastic scattering in the continuum and γγ →gg; total cross section; γγ → V 1 V 2 (V=vector meson); radiative width measurements and light meson spectroscopy; exclusive channels at large /t/; jets and inclusive particle distribution in γγ collisions; and, the photon structure function F γ 2

  18. The photonic device for integrated evaluation of collateral circulation of lower extremities in patients with local hypertensive-ischemic pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Volodymyr S.; Bezsmernyi, Yurii O.; Zlepko, Sergey M.; Bezsmertna, Halyna V.

    2017-08-01

    The given paper analyzes principles of interaction and analysis of the reflected optical radiation from biotissue in the process of assessment of regional hemodynamics state in patients with local hypertensive- ischemic pain syndrome of amputation stumps of lower extremities, applying the method of photoplethysmography. The purpose is the evaluation of Laser photoplethysmography (LPPG) diagnostic value in examination of patients with chronic ischemia of lower extremities. Photonic device is developed to determine the level of the peripheral blood circulation, which determines the basic parameters of peripheral blood circulation and saturation level. Device consists of two sensors: infrared sensor, which contains the infrared laser radiation source and photodetector, and red sensor, which contains the red radiation source and photodetector. LPPG method allows to determined pulsatility of blood flow in different areas of the foot and lower leg, the degree of compensation and conservation perspectives limb. Surgical treatment of local hypertensive -ischemic pain syndrome of amputation stumps of lower extremities by means of semiclosed fasciotomy in combination with revasculating osteotrepanation enabled to improve considerably regional hemodynamics in the tissues of the stump and decrease pain and hypostatic disorders.

  19. Photon-photon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1995-04-01

    Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et at., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention. A 1990 article by V.I. Teinov describes the situation at that time. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons -- the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R ampersand D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy

  20. First-principles approach to the dynamic magnetoelectric couplings for the non-reciprocal directional dichroism in BiFeO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Fishman, Randy S; Kézsmáki, István

    2016-01-01

    Due to the complicated magnetic and crystallographic structures of BiFeO 3 , its magnetoelectric (ME) couplings and microscopic model Hamiltonian remain poorly understood. By employing a first-principles approach, we uncover all possible ME couplings associated with the spin-current (SC) and exchange-striction (ES) polarizations, and construct an appropriate Hamiltonian for the long-range spin-cycloid in BiFeO 3 . First-principles calculations are used to understand the microscopic origins of the ME couplings. We find that inversion symmetries broken by ferroelectric and antiferroelectric distortions induce the SC and the ES polarizations, which cooperatively produce the dynamic ME effects in BiFeO 3 . A model motivated by first principles reproduces the absorption difference of counter-propagating light beams called non-reciprocal directional dichroism. The current paper focuses on the spin-driven (SD) polarizations produced by a dynamic electric field, i.e. the dynamic ME couplings. Due to the inertial properties of Fe, the dynamic SD polarizations differ significantly from the static SD polarizations. Our systematic approach can be generally applied to any multiferroic material, laying the foundation for revealing hidden ME couplings on the atomic scale and for exploiting optical ME effects in the next generation of technological devices such as optical diodes. (paper)

  1. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael; Merritt, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  2. Biomedical photonics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-01-01

    1.Biomedical Photonics: A Revolution at the Interface of Science and Technology, T. Vo-DinhPHOTONICS AND TISSUE OPTICS2.Optical Properties of Tissues, J. Mobley and T. Vo-Dinh3.Light-Tissue Interactions, V.V. Tuchin 4.Theoretical Models and Algorithms in Optical Diffusion Tomography, S.J. Norton and T. Vo-DinhPHOTONIC DEVICES5.Laser Light in Biomedicine and the Life Sciences: From the Present to the Future, V.S. Letokhov6.Basic Instrumentation in Photonics, T. Vo-Dinh7.Optical Fibers and Waveguides for Medical Applications, I. Gannot and

  3. Frontier of nanometer devices. Part 6. New devices with fully controlled electrons and photons. Nanometa debaisu kenkyu saizensen. 6. Denshi to koshi no kanzen seigyo wo mezashita jisedai debaisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Y [The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Inst. of Industrial Science

    1994-06-20

    In the nanotechnology to realize an artificial structure of a magnitude of atomic size, new electron devices and photon devices are aimed by confining electron and controlling the behavior of the electron with transition of a quantum mechanical state including a tunneling effect. The degree of freedom of electron decreased when electron is confined in a very small area within semiconductor and is 1 in a quantum wire while it is 0 in a quantum box. Energy level of electron is completely dispersed. The condition required to realize the nanometer structure is examined and the formation techniques of semiconductor nanometer structure are studied. This paper describes research results by the authors aiming to realize quantum wire and quantum box structures. Ultrafine pattern of SiO2 is formed by electron beam drawing technique followed by crystal growth with a MOCVD method to form the quantum wire and quantum box structures successfully. Laser oscillation is successful at 77K with optical pumping using a quantum wire and vertical micro resonator. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Spectroscopic study of Pr3+ ions doped Zinc Lead Tungsten Tellurite glasses for visible photonic device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ritu; Rao, A. S.; Deopa, Nisha; Venkateswarlu, M.; Jayasimhadri, M.; Haranath, D.; Prakash, G. Vijaya

    2018-04-01

    Zinc Lead Tungsten Tellurite (ZnPbWTe) glasses doped with different Pr3+ ion concentrations having the composition 5ZnO + 15PbO + 20WO3 + (60-x)TeO2 + xPr6O11 (where x = 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol%) were prepared by using sudden quenching technique and characterized to understand their visible emission characteristic features using spectroscopic techniques such as absorption, excitation and emission. The Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory has been applied to the absorption spectral features with an aim to evaluate various radiative properties for the prominent fluorescent levels of Pr3+ions in the as-prepared glasses. The emission spectra recorded for the as-prepared glasses under 468 nm excitation show three prominent emission transitions 3P0→3H6, 3P0→3F2 and 3P1→3F4, of which 3P0→3F2 observed in visible red region (648 nm), is relatively more intense. The intensity of 3P0→3F2 emission transition in the titled glasses increases up to 1mol% of Pr3+ ions and beyond concentration quenching is observed. Branching ratios (βR) and emission cross-sections (σse) were estimated for 3P0→3F2 transition to understand the luminescence efficiency in visible red region (648 nm). The CIE chromaticity coordinates were also evaluated in order to understand the suitability of these glasses for visible red luminescence devices. From the emission cross-sections, quantum efficiency and CIE coordinates, it was concluded that 1mol% of Pr3+ ions in ZnPbWTe glasses are quite suitable for preparing visible reddish orange luminescent devices.

  5. Advances in ferrite microwave materials and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloemann, Ernst

    2000-01-01

    The application of ferrites in non-reciprocal components is discussed, with the emphasis on broadband isolators and circulators. The performance of such devices may be characterized by the ratio f max /f min of the frequencies that define the edges of the frequency band, within which satisfactory performance has been achieved. For the best currently available devices this ratio is approx. 3 : 1, but larger values appear feasible according to a detailed analysis of the 'low-field, low-frequency loss' that limits the performance

  6. Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husko, Chad A.; Clark, Alex S.; Collins, Matthew J.; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Rey, Isabella H.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Single photons are of paramount importance to future quantum technologies, including quantum communication and computation. Nonlinear photonic devices using parametric processes offer a straightforward route to generating photons, however additional nonlinear processes may come into play and interfere with these sources. Here we analyse spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) sources in the presence of multi-photon processes. We conduct experiments in silicon and gallium indium phosphide photonic crystal waveguides which display inherently different nonlinear absorption processes, namely two-photon (TPA) and three-photon absorption (ThPA), respectively. We develop a novel model capturing these diverse effects which is in excellent quantitative agreement with measurements of brightness, coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) and second-order correlation function g(2)(0), showing that TPA imposes an intrinsic limit on heralded single photon sources. We build on these observations to devise a new metric, the quantum utility (QMU), enabling further optimisation of single photon sources. PMID:24186400

  7. Methodological developments and qualification of calculation schemes for the modelling of photonic heating in the experimental devices of the future Jules Horowitz material testing reactor (RJH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, D.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop the modelling of the nuclear heating of the experimental devices of the future Jules Horowitz material testing reactor (RJH). The strong specific nuclear power produced (460 kW/l), induces so intense photonic fluxes which cause heating and large temperature gradients that it is necessary to control it by an adequate design. However, calculations of heating are penalized by the very large uncertainties estimated at a value of about 30% (2*σ) coming from the gaps and uncertainties of the data of gamma emission present in the libraries of basic nuclear data. The experimental program ADAPh aims at reducing these uncertainties. Measurements by thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) and ionisation chambers are carried out in the critical assemblies EOLE (Mox) and Minerve (UO 2 ). The rigorous interpretation of these measurements requires specific developments based on Monte-Carlo simulations of coupled neutron-gamma and gamma-electron transport. The developments carried out are made different in particular by the modelling of cavities phenomena and delayed gamma emissions by the decay of fission products. The comparisons calculation-measurement made it possible to identify a systematic bias confirming a tendency of calculations to underestimate measurements. A Bayesian method of adjustment was developed in order to re-estimate the principal components of the gamma heating and to transpose the results obtained to the devices of the RJH, under conditions clearly and definitely representative. This work made possible to reduce significantly the uncertainties on the determination of the gamma heating from 30 to 15 per cent. (author)

  8. Development and calibration of a portable detection device for in vivo measurement of high-energy photon emitters incorporated by humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, A.B.; Arbach, M.N.; Lucena, E.A.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents the evaluation of the applicability and sensitivity of a portable detection device specially designed for in vivo measurement of high-energy photon emitters in the human body. The calibration was performed at the In-Vivo Monitoring Laboratory of the IRD. The equipment consists of a lead-collimated NaI (Tl) 3″ x 3″ scintillation detector assembled on a tripod. The detector and its compact associated electronics are connected via USB cable to a portable PC. Spectrum acquisition and analysis is controlled by specific commercially available software. The calibration was performed using a standard liquid source of 152 Eu contained in 3 L polyethylene bottles. The evaluation of the system is based on the estimation of the minimum committed effective doses associated to the minimum detectable activities, calculated using current biokinetic and dosimetric models available in the literature. The dose detection limits for selected radionuclides of interest in an emergency scenario have shown to be far below 1 mSv allowing the system to be useful in accident situations. (author)

  9. Development and calibration of a portable detection device for in vivo measurement of high-energy photon emitters incorporated by humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, A.B.; Arbach, M.N.; Lucena, E.A.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: alexandrebaso@globo.com [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoração Interna

    2017-07-01

    This work presents the evaluation of the applicability and sensitivity of a portable detection device specially designed for in vivo measurement of high-energy photon emitters in the human body. The calibration was performed at the In-Vivo Monitoring Laboratory of the IRD. The equipment consists of a lead-collimated NaI (Tl) 3″ x 3″ scintillation detector assembled on a tripod. The detector and its compact associated electronics are connected via USB cable to a portable PC. Spectrum acquisition and analysis is controlled by specific commercially available software. The calibration was performed using a standard liquid source of {sup 152}Eu contained in 3 L polyethylene bottles. The evaluation of the system is based on the estimation of the minimum committed effective doses associated to the minimum detectable activities, calculated using current biokinetic and dosimetric models available in the literature. The dose detection limits for selected radionuclides of interest in an emergency scenario have shown to be far below 1 mSv allowing the system to be useful in accident situations. (author)

  10. Fluorescence enhancement and nonreciprocal transmission of light waves by nanomaterial interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, M.; Shevchenko, A.; Kaivola, M.

    2017-11-01

    In an optically absorbing or amplifying linear medium, the energy flow density of interfering optical waves is in general periodically modulated in space. This makes the wave transmission through a material boundary, as described by the Fresnel transmission coefficients, nonreciprocal and apparently violating the energy conservation law. The modulation has been previously described in connection to ordinary homogeneous nonmagnetic materials. In this work, we extend the description to nanomaterials with designed structural units that can be magnetic at optical frequencies. We find that in such a "metamaterial" the modulation in energy flow can be used to enhance optical far-field emission in spite of the fact that the material is highly absorbing. We also demonstrate a nanomaterial design that absorbs light, but simultaneously eliminates the power flow modulation and returns the reciprocity, which is impossible to achieve with a nonmagnetic material. We anticipate that these unusual optical effects can be used to increase the efficiency of nanostructured light emitters and absorbers, such as light-emitting diodes and solar cells.

  11. Non-reciprocal Interspecies Hybridization Barriers in the Capsella Genus Are Established in the Endosperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin A Rebernig

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition to selfing in Capsella rubella accompanies its recent divergence from the ancestral outcrossing C. grandiflora species about 100,000 years ago. Whether the change in mating system was accompanied by the evolution of additional reproductive barriers that enforced species divergence remained unknown. Here, we show that C. rubella and C. grandiflora are reproductively separated by an endosperm-based, non-reciprocal postzygotic hybridization barrier. While hybridizations of C. rubella maternal plants with C. grandiflora pollen donors resulted in complete seed abortion caused by endosperm cellularization failure, the reciprocal hybridization resulted in the formation of small seeds with precociously cellularized endosperm. Strikingly, the transcriptomic response of both hybridizations mimicked respectively the response of paternal and maternal excess hybridizations in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting unbalanced genome strength causes hybridization failure in both species. These results provide strong support for the theory that crosses between plants of different mating systems will be unbalanced, with the outcrosser behaving like a plant of increased ploidy, evoking a response that resembles an interploidy-type seed failure. Seed incompatilibity of C. rubella pollinated by C. grandiflora followed the Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model, involving negative genetic interaction of multiple paternal C. grandiflora loci with at least one maternal C. rubella locus. Given that both species only recently diverged, our data suggest that a fast evolving mechanism underlies the post-zygotic hybridization barrier(s separating both species.

  12. Femtosecond laser-induced structural difference in fused silica with a non-reciprocal writing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Dai, Ye; Song, Juan; Ma, Hongliang; Yan, Xiaona; Ma, Guohong

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we report a non-reciprocal writing process for inducing asymmetric microstructure using a femtosecond laser with tilted pulse fronts in fused silica. The shape of the induced microstructure at the focus closely depends on the laser scan direction. An elongated end is observed as a kind of structural difference between the written lines with two reverse scans along + x and - x, which further leads to a birefringence intensity difference. We also find a bifurcation in the head region of the induced microstructure between the written lines along x and y. That process results from the focal intensity distortion caused by the pulse front tilt by comparing the simulated intensity distribution with the experimental results. The current results demonstrate that the pulse front tilt not only affects the free electron excitation at the focus but also further distorts the shape of the induced microstructure during a high-energy femtosecond laser irradiation. These results offer a route to fabricate optical elements by changing the spatiotemporal characteristics of ultrashort pulses.

  13. Progress in neuromorphic photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira de Lima, Thomas; Shastri, Bhavin J.; Tait, Alexander N.; Nahmias, Mitchell A.; Prucnal, Paul R.

    2017-03-01

    As society's appetite for information continues to grow, so does our need to process this information with increasing speed and versatility. Many believe that the one-size-fits-all solution of digital electronics is becoming a limiting factor in certain areas such as data links, cognitive radio, and ultrafast control. Analog photonic devices have found relatively simple signal processing niches where electronics can no longer provide sufficient speed and reconfigurability. Recently, the landscape for commercially manufacturable photonic chips has been changing rapidly and now promises to achieve economies of scale previously enjoyed solely by microelectronics. By bridging the mathematical prowess of artificial neural networks to the underlying physics of optoelectronic devices, neuromorphic photonics could breach new domains of information processing demanding significant complexity, low cost, and unmatched speed. In this article, we review the progress in neuromorphic photonics, focusing on photonic integrated devices. The challenges and design rules for optoelectronic instantiation of artificial neurons are presented. The proposed photonic architecture revolves around the processing network node composed of two parts: a nonlinear element and a network interface. We then survey excitable lasers in the recent literature as candidates for the nonlinear node and microring-resonator weight banks as the network interface. Finally, we compare metrics between neuromorphic electronics and neuromorphic photonics and discuss potential applications.

  14. Single-photon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lounis, Brahim; Orrit, Michel

    2005-01-01

    The concept of the photon, central to Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect, is exactly 100 years old. Yet, while photons have been detected individually for more than 50 years, devices producing individual photons on demand have only appeared in the last few years. New concepts for single-photon sources, or 'photon guns', have originated from recent progress in the optical detection, characterization and manipulation of single quantum objects. Single emitters usually deliver photons one at a time. This so-called antibunching of emitted photons can arise from various mechanisms, but ensures that the probability of obtaining two or more photons at the same time remains negligible. We briefly recall basic concepts in quantum optics and discuss potential applications of single-photon states to optical processing of quantum information: cryptography, computing and communication. A photon gun's properties are significantly improved by coupling it to a resonant cavity mode, either in the Purcell or strong-coupling regimes. We briefly recall early production of single photons with atomic beams, and the operation principles of macroscopic parametric sources, which are used in an overwhelming majority of quantum-optical experiments. We then review the photophysical and spectroscopic properties and compare the advantages and weaknesses of various single nanometre-scale objects used as single-photon sources: atoms or ions in the gas phase and, in condensed matter, organic molecules, defect centres, semiconductor nanocrystals and heterostructures. As new generations of sources are developed, coupling to cavities and nano-fabrication techniques lead to improved characteristics, delivery rates and spectral ranges. Judging from the brisk pace of recent progress, we expect single photons to soon proceed from demonstrations to applications and to bring with them the first practical uses of quantum information

  15. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Stephen N.; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C.

    2013-01-22

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  16. Photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of ..cap alpha../sub s/ and ..lambda../sup ms/ from the ..gamma..*..gamma.. ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/ form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub ..gamma gamma../ from exclusive channels at low W/sub ..gamma gamma../, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z/sup 0/ and W/sup + -/ beams from e ..-->.. eZ/sup 0/ and e ..-->.. nu W will become important. 44 references.

  17. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of α/sub s/ and Λ/sup ms/ from the γ*γ → π 0 form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from γγ → H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub γγ/ from exclusive channels at low W/sub γγ/, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z 0 and W +- beams from e → eZ 0 and e → nu W will become important. 44 references

  18. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The current status, both theoretical and experimental, of two photon collision physics is reviewed with special emphasis on recent experimental results from e + e - storage rings. After a complete presentation of the helicity amplitude formalism for the general process e + e - → Xe + e - , various approximations (transverse photon, Weisaecker Williams) are discussed. Beam polarisation effects and radiative corrections are also briefly considered. A number of specific processes, for which experimental results are now available, are then described. In each case existing theoretical prediction are confronted with experimental results. The processes described include single resonance production, lepton and hadron pair production, the structure functions of the photon, the production of high Psub(T) jets and the total photon photon cross section. In the last part of the review the current status of the subject is summarised and some comments are made on future prospects. These include both extrapolations of current research to higher energy machines (LEP, HERA) as well as a brief mention of both the technical realisation and the physics interest of the real γγ and eγ collisions which may be possible using linear electron colliders in the 1 TeV energy range

  19. Silicon Nano-Photonic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao

    with the couplers, a silicon ridge waveguide is utilized in nonlinear all-optical signal processing for optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) systems. Record ultra-highspeed error-free optical demultiplexing and waveform sampling are realized and demonstrated for the rst time. Microwave phase shifters and notch...... lters based on tunable microring resonators are proposed and analyzed. Based on a single microring resonator, a maximum radio frequency (RF) phase shift of 336degrees is obtained, but with large power variation. By utilizing a dual-microring resonator, a RF phase shifting range larger than 2pi...

  20. The effect of output-input isolation on the scaling and energy consumption of all-spin logic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jiaxi; Haratipour, Nazila; Koester, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    All-spin logic (ASL) is a novel approach for digital logic applications wherein spin is used as the state variable instead of charge. One of the challenges in realizing a practical ASL system is the need to ensure non-reciprocity, meaning the information flows from input to output, not vice versa. One approach described previously, is to introduce an asymmetric ground contact, and while this approach was shown to be effective, it remains unclear as to the optimal approach for achieving non-reciprocity in ASL. In this study, we quantitatively analyze techniques to achieve non-reciprocity in ASL devices, and we specifically compare the effect of using asymmetric ground position and dipole-coupled output/input isolation. For this analysis, we simulate the switching dynamics of multiple-stage logic devices with FePt and FePd perpendicular magnetic anisotropy materials using a combination of a matrix-based spin circuit model coupled to the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. The dipole field is included in this model and can act as both a desirable means of coupling magnets and a source of noise. The dynamic energy consumption has been calculated for these schemes, as a function of input/output magnet separation, and the results show that using a scheme that electrically isolates logic stages produces superior non-reciprocity, thus allowing both improved scaling and reduced energy consumption

  1. The effect of output-input isolation on the scaling and energy consumption of all-spin logic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jiaxi; Haratipour, Nazila; Koester, Steven J., E-mail: skoester@umn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, 200 Union St. SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    All-spin logic (ASL) is a novel approach for digital logic applications wherein spin is used as the state variable instead of charge. One of the challenges in realizing a practical ASL system is the need to ensure non-reciprocity, meaning the information flows from input to output, not vice versa. One approach described previously, is to introduce an asymmetric ground contact, and while this approach was shown to be effective, it remains unclear as to the optimal approach for achieving non-reciprocity in ASL. In this study, we quantitatively analyze techniques to achieve non-reciprocity in ASL devices, and we specifically compare the effect of using asymmetric ground position and dipole-coupled output/input isolation. For this analysis, we simulate the switching dynamics of multiple-stage logic devices with FePt and FePd perpendicular magnetic anisotropy materials using a combination of a matrix-based spin circuit model coupled to the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. The dipole field is included in this model and can act as both a desirable means of coupling magnets and a source of noise. The dynamic energy consumption has been calculated for these schemes, as a function of input/output magnet separation, and the results show that using a scheme that electrically isolates logic stages produces superior non-reciprocity, thus allowing both improved scaling and reduced energy consumption.

  2. First-principles approach to the dynamic magnetoelectric couplings for the non-reciprocal directional dichroism in BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Kézsmáki, István; Fishman, Randy S.

    2016-04-01

    Due to the complicated magnetic and crystallographic structures of BiFeO3, its magnetoelectric (ME) couplings and microscopic model Hamiltonian remain poorly understood. By employing a first-principles approach, we uncover all possible ME couplings associated with the spin-current (SC) and exchange-striction (ES) polarizations, and construct an appropriate Hamiltonian for the long-range spin-cycloid in BiFeO3. First-principles calculations are used to understand the microscopic origins of the ME couplings. We find that inversion symmetries broken by ferroelectric and antiferroelectric distortions induce the SC and the ES polarizations, which cooperatively produce the dynamic ME effects in BiFeO3. A model motivated by first principles reproduces the absorption difference of counter-propagating light beams called non-reciprocal directional dichroism. The current paper focuses on the spin-driven (SD) polarizations produced by a dynamic electric field, i.e. the dynamic ME couplings. Due to the inertial properties of Fe, the dynamic SD polarizations differ significantly from the static SD polarizations. Our systematic approach can be generally applied to any multiferroic material, laying the foundation for revealing hidden ME couplings on the atomic scale and for exploiting optical ME effects in the next generation of technological devices such as optical diodes. This manuscript has been written by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan.

  3. Photon beam position monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  4. CONFERENCE: Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Despite being difficult to observe, photon-photon collisions have opened up a range of physics difficult, or even impossible, to access by other methods. The progress which has been made in this field was evident at the fifth international workshop on photon-photon collisions, held in Aachen from 13-16 April and attended by some 120 physicists

  5. Workplace photon radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Bartlett, D.T.; Ambrosi, P.

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of workplace radiation fields is essential for measures in radiation protection. Information about the energy and directional distribution of the incident photon radiation was obtained by several devices developed by the National Radiation Protection Board, United Kingdom, by the Statens Stralskyddsinstitut, Sweden, together with EURADOS and by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany. The devices are described and some results obtained at workplaces in nuclear industry, medicine and science in the photon energy range from 20 keV to 7 MeV are given. (author)

  6. Mapping the broadband polarization properties of linear 2D SOI photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canning, John; Skivesen, Nina; Kristensen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Both quasi-TE and TM polarisation spectra for a silicon- on-insulator (SOI) waveguide are recorded over (1100-1700) nm using a broadband supercontinuum source. By studying both the input and output polarisation eigenstates we observe narrowband resonant cross coupling near the lowest quasi-TE mode...... cut-off. We also observe relatively broadband mixing between the two eigenstates to generate a complete photonic bandgap. By careful analysis of the output polarisation state we report on an inherent non-reciprocity between quasi TE and TM fundamental mode cross coupling. The nature of polarisation...

  7. Quantum photonics with quantum dots in photonic wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, Mathieu; Kuhlmann, Andreas; Cadeddu, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We present results from the spectroscopy of a single quantum dot in a photonic wire. The device presents a high photon extraction efficiency, and strong hybrid coupling to mechanical modes. We use resonance fluorescence to probe the emitter’s properties with the highest sensitivity. Weperform...

  8. CERN manufactured hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    These hybrid photon detectors (HPDs) produce an electric signal from a single photon. An electron is liberated from a photocathode and accelerated to a silicon pixel array allowing the location of the photon on the cathode to be recorded. The electronics and optics for these devices have been developed in close collaboration with industry. HPDs have potential for further use in astrophysics and medical imaging.

  9. Quantum photonic networks in diamond

    KAUST Repository

    Lončar, Marko; Faraon, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the opportunity to fabricate nanoscale optical devices and chip-scale systems in diamond that can generate, manipulate, and store optical signals at the single-photon level. In particular, nanophotonics has

  10. Principles of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental concepts and major principles of photonics. Assuming only a basic background in optics, readers are guided through key topics such as the nature of optical fields, the properties of optical materials, and the principles of major photonic functions regarding the generation, propagation, coupling, interference, amplification, modulation, and detection of optical waves or signals. Numerous examples and problems are provided throughout to enhance understanding, and a solutions manual containing detailed solutions and explanations is available online for instructors. This is the ideal resource for electrical engineering and physics undergraduates taking introductory, single-semester or single-quarter courses in photonics, providing them with the knowledge and skills needed to progress to more advanced courses on photonic devices, systems and applications.

  11. Mesoscopic photon heat transistor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojanen, T.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2008-01-01

    We show that the heat transport between two bodies, mediated by electromagnetic fluctuations, can be controlled with an intermediate quantum circuit-leading to the device concept of a mesoscopic photon heat transistor (MPHT). Our theoretical analysis is based on a novel Meir-Wingreen-Landauer-typ......We show that the heat transport between two bodies, mediated by electromagnetic fluctuations, can be controlled with an intermediate quantum circuit-leading to the device concept of a mesoscopic photon heat transistor (MPHT). Our theoretical analysis is based on a novel Meir......-Wingreen-Landauer-type of conductance formula, which gives the photonic heat current through an arbitrary circuit element coupled to two dissipative reservoirs at finite temperatures. As an illustration we present an exact solution for the case when the intermediate circuit can be described as an electromagnetic resonator. We discuss...

  12. Polychromatic photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Ole

    2002-01-01

    train quantum electrodynamics. A brief description of particle (photon) position operators is given, and it is shown that photons usually are only algebraically confined in an emission process. Finally, it is demonstrated that the profile of the birth domain of a radio-frequency photon emitted...

  13. Waveguide modes of 1D photonic crystals in a transverse magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylgacheva, D. A., E-mail: sylgacheva.darjja@physics.msu.ru; Khokhlov, N. E.; Kalish, A. N.; Belotelov, V. I. [Moscow State University, Physics Department (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    We analyze waveguide modes in 1D photonic crystals containing layers magnetized in the plane. It is shown that the magnetooptical nonreciprocity effect emerges in such structures during the propagation of waveguide modes along the layers and perpendicularly to the magnetization. This effect involves a change in the phase velocity of the mode upon reversal of the direction of magnetization. Comparison of the effects in a nonmagnetic photonic crystal with an additional magnetic layer and in a photonic crystal with magnetic layers shows that the magnitude of this effect is several times larger in the former case in spite of the fact that the electromagnetic field of the modes in the latter case is localized in magnetic regions more strongly. This is associated with asymmetry of the dielectric layers contacting with the magnetic layer in the former case. This effect is important for controlling waveguide structure modes with the help of an external magnetic field.

  14. Theoretical Analysis of Moving Reference Planes Associated with Unit Cells of Nonreciprocal Lossy Periodic Transmission-Line Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lamultree

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis of moving reference planes associated with unit cells of nonreciprocal lossy periodic transmission-line structures (NRLSPTLSs by the equivalent bi-characteristic-impedance transmission line (BCITL model. Applying the BCITL theory, only the equivalent BCITL parameters (characteristic impedances for waves propagating in forward and reverse directions and associated complex propagation constants are of interest. An infinite NRLSPTLS is considered first by shifting a reference position of unit cells along TLs of interest. Then, a semi-infinite terminated NRLSPTLS is investigated in terms of associated load reflection coefficients. It is found that the equivalent BCITL characteristic impedances of the original and shifted unit cells are mathematically related by the bilinear transformation. In addition, the associated load reflection coefficients of both unit cells are mathematically related by the bilinear transformation. However, the equivalent BCITL complex propagation constants remain unchanged. Numerical results are provided to show the validity of the proposed theoretical analysis.

  15. Photonics for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Bassi, Andrea; Comelli, Daniela; Cova, Sergio; Farina, Andrea; Ghioni, Massimo; Rech, Ivan; Pifferi, Antonio; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Taroni, Paola; Torricelli, Alessandro; Tosi, Alberto; Valentini, Gianluca; Zappa, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Light is strictly connected with life, and its presence is fundamental for any living environment. Thus, many biological mechanisms are related to light interaction or can be evaluated through processes involving energy exchange with photons. Optics has always been a precious tool to evaluate molecular and cellular mechanisms, but the discovery of lasers opened new pathways of interactions of light with biological matter, pushing an impressive development for both therapeutic and diagnostic applications in biomedicine. The use of light in different fields has become so widespread that the word photonics has been utilized to identify all the applications related to processes where the light is involved. The photonics area covers a wide range of wavelengths spanning from soft X-rays to mid-infrared and includes all devices related to photons as light sources, optical fibers and light guides, detectors, and all the related electronic equipment. The recent use of photons in the field of telecommunications has pushed the technology toward low-cost, compact, and efficient devices, making them available for many other applications, including those related to biology and medicine where these requirements are of particular relevance. Moreover, basic sciences such as physics, chemistry, mathematics, and electronics have recognized the interdisciplinary need of biomedical science and are translating the most advanced researches into these fields. The Politecnico school has pioneered many of them,and this article reviews the state of the art of biomedical research at the Politecnico in the field internationally known as biophotonics.

  16. Engineering photonic density of states using metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Z.; Kim, J.Y.; Naik, G.V.

    2010-01-01

    The photonic density of states (PDOS), like its electronic counterpart, is one of the key physical quantities governing a variety of phenomena and hence PDOS manipulation is the route to new photonic devices. The PDOS is conventionally altered by exploiting the resonance within a device such as a......The photonic density of states (PDOS), like its electronic counterpart, is one of the key physical quantities governing a variety of phenomena and hence PDOS manipulation is the route to new photonic devices. The PDOS is conventionally altered by exploiting the resonance within a device...... such as a microcavity or a bandgap structure like a photonic crystal. Here we show that nanostructured metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion can dramatically enhance the photonic density of states paving the way for metamaterial-based PDOS engineering....

  17. Possibility of producing the event-ready two-photon polarization entangled state with normal photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiangbin

    2003-01-01

    We propose a scheme to produce the maximally two-photon polarization entangled state with single-photon sources and the passive linear optics devices. In particular, our scheme only requires the normal photon detectors which distinguish the vacuum and non-vacuum Fock number states. A sophisticated photon detector distinguishing between one-photon state and two-photon state is unnecessary in the scheme

  18. Photonic Hypercrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii E. Narimanov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new “universality class” of artificial optical media—photonic hypercrystals. These hyperbolic metamaterials, with periodic spatial variation of dielectric permittivity on subwavelength scale, combine the features of optical metamaterials and photonic crystals. In particular, surface waves supported by a hypercrystal possess the properties of both the optical Tamm states in photonic crystals and surface-plasmon polaritons at the metal-dielectric interface.

  19. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H

    2006-01-01

    Wireless, optical, and electronic networks continue to converge, prompting heavy research into the interface between microwave electronics, ultrafast optics, and photonic technologies. New developments arrive nearly as fast as the photons under investigation, and their commercial impact depends on the ability to stay abreast of new findings, techniques, and technologies. Presenting a broad yet in-depth survey, Microwave Photonics examines the major advances that are affecting new applications in this rapidly expanding field.This book reviews important achievements made in microwave photonics o

  20. Transverse magnetic field impact on waveguide modes of photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylgacheva, Daria; Khokhlov, Nikolai; Kalish, Andrey; Dagesyan, Sarkis; Prokopov, Anatoly; Shaposhnikov, Alexandr; Berzhansky, Vladimir; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Alameh, Kamal; Belotelov, Vladimir

    2016-08-15

    This Letter presents a theoretical and experimental study of waveguide modes of one-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals magnetized in the in-plane direction. It is shown that the propagation constants of the TM waveguide modes are sensitive to the transverse magnetization and the spectrum of the transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect has resonant features at mode excitation frequencies. Two types of structures are considered: a non-magnetic photonic crystal with an additional magnetic layer on top and a magneto-photonic crystal with a magnetic layer within each period. We found that the magneto-optical non-reciprocity effect is greater in the first case: it has a magnitude of δ∼10-4, while the second structure type demonstrates δ∼10-5 only, due to the higher asymmetry of the claddings of the magnetic layer. Experimental observations show resonant features in the optical and magneto-optical Kerr effect spectra. The measured dispersion properties are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. An amplitude of light intensity modulation of up to 2.5% was observed for waveguide mode excitation within the magnetic top layer of the non-magnetic photonic crystal structure. The presented theoretical approach may be utilized for the design of magneto-optical sensors and modulators requiring pre-determined spectral features.

  1. Spin-photon entangling diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian; Sørensen, A. S.; Lukin, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a semiconductor device that can electrically generate entangled electron spin-photon states, providing a building block for entanglement of distant spins. The device consists of a p-i-n diode structure that incorporates a coupled double quantum dot. We show that electronic control of t...

  2. Optics of globular photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelik, V S

    2007-01-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical studies of the optical properties of globular photonic crystals - new physical objects having a crystal structure with the lattice period exceeding considerably the atomic size, are presented. As globular photonic crystals, artificial opal matrices consisting of close-packed silica globules of diameter ∼200 nm were used. The reflection spectra of these objects characterising the parameters of photonic bands existing in these crystals in the visible spectral region are presented. The idealised models of the energy band structure of photonic crystals investigated in the review give analytic dispersion dependences for the group velocity and the effective photon mass in a globular photonic crystal. The characteristics of secondary emission excited in globular photonic crystals by monochromatic and broadband radiation are presented. The results of investigations of single-photon-excited delayed scattering of light observed in globular photonic crystals exposed to cw UV radiation and radiation from a repetitively pulsed copper vapour laser are presented. The possibilities of using globular photonic crystals as active media for lasing in different spectral regions are considered. It is proposed to use globular photonic crystals as sensitive sensors in optoelectronic devices for molecular analysis of organic and inorganic materials by the modern methods of laser spectroscopy. The results of experimental studies of spontaneous and stimulated globular scattering of light are discussed. The conditions for observing resonance and two-photon-excited delayed scattering of light are found. The possibility of accumulation and localisation of the laser radiation energy inside a globular photonic crystal is reported. (review)

  3. Resonant Photonic States in Coupled Heterostructure Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabarinathan J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we study the photonic resonance states and transmission spectra of coupled waveguides made from heterostructure photonic crystals. We consider photonic crystal waveguides made from three photonic crystals A, B and C, where the waveguide heterostructure is denoted as B/A/C/A/B. Due to the band structure engineering, light is confined within crystal A, which thus act as waveguides. Here, photonic crystal C is taken as a nonlinear photonic crystal, which has a band gap that may be modified by applying a pump laser. We have found that the number of bound states within the waveguides depends on the width and well depth of photonic crystal A. It has also been found that when both waveguides are far away from each other, the energies of bound photons in each of the waveguides are degenerate. However, when they are brought close to each other, the degeneracy of the bound states is removed due to the coupling between them, which causes these states to split into pairs. We have also investigated the effect of the pump field on photonic crystal C. We have shown that by applying a pump field, the system may be switched between a double waveguide to a single waveguide, which effectively turns on or off the coupling between degenerate states. This reveals interesting results that can be applied to develop new types of nanophotonic devices such as nano-switches and nano-transistors.

  4. Cross two photon absorption in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide fiber taper coupler with a physical junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkissian, Raymond, E-mail: RaymondSark@gmail.com; O' Brien, John [Electrophysics department, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2015-01-21

    Cross two photon absorption in silicon is characterized using a tapered fiber photonic crystal silicon waveguide coupler. There is a physical junction between the tapered fiber and the waveguide constituting a stand-alone device. This device is used to obtain the spectrum for cross two photon absorption coefficient per unit volume of interaction between photons of nondegenerate energy. The corresponding Kerr coefficient per unit volume of interaction is also experimentally extracted. The thermal resistance of the device is also experimentally determined and the response time of the device is estimated for on-chip all-optical signal processing and data transfer between optical signals of different photon energies.

  5. Photon energy tunability of advanced photon source undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viccaro, P.J.; Shenoy, G.K.

    1987-08-01

    At a fixed storage ring energy, the energy of the harmonics of an undulator can be shifted or ''tuned'' by changing the magnet gap of the device. The possible photon energy interval spanned in this way depends on the undulator period, minimum closed gap, minimum acceptable photon intensity and storage ring energy. The minimum magnet gap depends directly on the stay clear particle beam aperture required for storage ring operation. The tunability of undulators planned for the Advanced Photon Source with first harmonic photon energies in the range of 5 to 20 keV are discussed. The results of an analysis used to optimize the APS ring energy is presented and tunability contours and intensity parameters are presented for two typical classes of devices

  6. Amplified Photon Upconversion by Photonic Shell of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; Reichmanis, Elsa

    2017-04-26

    As an effective platform to exploit triplet-triplet-annihilation-based photon upconversion (TTA-UC), microcapsules composed of a fluidic UC core and photonic shell are microfluidically prepared using a triple emulsion as the template. The photonic shell consists of cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) with a periodic helical structure, exhibiting a photonic band gap. Combined with planar anchoring at the boundaries, the shell serves as a resonance cavity for TTA-UC emission and enables spectral tuning of the UC under low-power-density excitation. The CLC shell can be stabilized by introducing a polymerizable mesogen in the LC host. Because of the microcapsule spherical symmetry, spontaneous emission of the delayed fluorescence is omnidirectionally amplified at the edge of the stop band. These results demonstrate the range of opportunities provided by TTA-UC systems for the future design of low-threshold photonic devices.

  7. Photonic integration and photonics-electronics convergence on silicon platform

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jifeng; Baba, Toshihiko; Vivien, Laurent; Xu, Dan-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Silicon photonics technology, which has the DNA of silicon electronics technology, promises to provide a compact photonic integration platform with high integration density, mass-producibility, and excellent cost performance. This technology has been used to develop and to integrate various photonic functions on silicon substrate. Moreover, photonics-electronics convergence based on silicon substrate is now being pursued. Thanks to these features, silicon photonics will have the potential to be a superior technology used in the construction of energy-efficient cost-effective apparatuses for various applications, such as communications, information processing, and sensing. Considering the material characteristics of silicon and difficulties in microfabrication technology, however, silicon by itself is not necessarily an ideal material. For example, silicon is not suitable for light emitting devices because it is an indirect transition material. The resolution and dynamic range of silicon-based interference de...

  8. Subwavelength silicon photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheben, P.; Bock, P.J.; Schmid, J.H.; Lapointe, J.; Janz, S.; Xu, D.-X.; Densmore, A.; Delage, A.; Lamontagne, B.; Florjanczyk, M.; Ma, R.

    2011-01-01

    With the goal of developing photonic components that are compatible with silicon microelectronic integrated circuits, silicon photonics has been the subject of intense research activity. Silicon is an excellent material for confining and manipulating light at the submicrometer scale. Silicon optoelectronic integrated devices have the potential to be miniaturized and mass-produced at affordable cost for many applications, including telecommunications, optical interconnects, medical screening, and biological and chemical sensing. We review recent advances in silicon photonics research at the National Research Council Canada. A new type of optical waveguide is presented, exploiting subwavelength grating (SWG) effect. We demonstrate subwavelength grating waveguides made of silicon, including practical components operating at telecom wavelengths: input couplers, waveguide crossings and spectrometer chips. SWG technique avoids loss and wavelength resonances due to diffraction effects and allows for single-mode operation with direct control of the mode confinement by changing the refractive index of a waveguide core over a range as broad as 1.6 - 3.5 simply by lithographic patterning. The light can be launched to these waveguides with a coupling loss as small as 0.5 dB and with minimal wavelength dependence, using coupling structures similar to that shown in Fig. 1. The subwavelength grating waveguides can cross each other with minimal loss and negligible crosstalk which allows massive photonic circuit connectivity to overcome the limits of electrical interconnects. These results suggest that the SWG waveguides could become key elements for future integrated photonic circuits. (authors)

  9. Reconfigurable topological photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaev, Mikhail I.; Desnavi, Sameerah; Walasik, Wiktor; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2018-02-01

    Topological insulators are materials that conduct on the surface and insulate in their interior due to non-trivial topology of the band structure. The edge states on the interface between topological (non-trivial) and conventional (trivial) insulators are topologically protected from scattering due to structural defects and disorders. Recently, it was shown that photonic crystals (PCs) can serve as a platform for realizing a scatter-free propagation of light waves. In conventional PCs, imperfections, structural disorders, and surface roughness lead to significant losses. The breakthrough in overcoming these problems is likely to come from the synergy of the topological PCs and silicon-based photonics technology that enables high integration density, lossless propagation, and immunity to fabrication imperfections. For many applications, reconfigurability and capability to control the propagation of these non-trivial photonic edge states is essential. One way to facilitate such dynamic control is to use liquid crystals (LCs), which allow to modify the refractive index with external electric field. Here, we demonstrate dynamic control of topological edge states by modifying the refractive index of a LC background medium. Background index is changed depending on the orientation of a LC, while preserving the topology of the system. This results in a change of the spectral position of the photonic bandgap and the topological edge states. The proposed concept might be implemented using conventional semiconductor technology, and can be used for robust energy transport in integrated photonic devices, all-optical circuity, and optical communication systems.

  10. Inverse photon-photon processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carimalo, C.; Crozon, M.; Kesler, P.; Parisi, J.

    1981-12-01

    We here consider inverse photon-photon processes, i.e. AB → γγX (where A, B are hadrons, in particular protons or antiprotons), at high energies. As regards the production of a γγ continuum, we show that, under specific conditions the study of such processes might provide some information on the subprocess gg γγ, involving a quark box. It is also suggested to use those processes in order to systematically look for heavy C = + structures (quarkonium states, gluonia, etc.) showing up in the γγ channel. Inverse photon-photon processes might thus become a new and fertile area of investigation in high-energy physics, provided the difficult problem of discriminating between direct photons and indirect ones can be handled in a satisfactory way

  11. Topological photonic orbital-angular-momentum switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhang, Chuanwei; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2018-04-01

    The large number of available orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) states of photons provides a unique resource for many important applications in quantum information and optical communications. However, conventional OAM switching devices usually rely on precise parameter control and are limited by slow switching rate and low efficiency. Here we propose a robust, fast, and efficient photonic OAM switch device based on a topological process, where photons are adiabatically pumped to a target OAM state on demand. Such topological OAM pumping can be realized through manipulating photons in a few degenerate main cavities and involves only a limited number of optical elements. A large change of OAM at ˜10q can be realized with only q degenerate main cavities and at most 5 q pumping cycles. The topological photonic OAM switch may become a powerful device for broad applications in many different fields and motivate a topological design of conventional optical devices.

  12. Photonic Microresonator Research and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chremmos, Ioannis; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos

    2010-01-01

    Photonic Microresonator Research and Applications explores advances in the fabrication process that enable nanometer waveguide separations. The technology surrounding the design and fabrication of optical microresonators has matured to a point where there is a need for commercialization. Consequently, there is a need for device research involving more advanced architectures and more esoteric operating princples. This volume discusses these issues, while also: Showing a reader how to design and fabricate microresonators Discussing microresonators in photonic crystals, microsphere circuits, and sensors, and provides application oriented examples Covering the latest in microresonator research with contributions from the leading researchers Photonic Microresonator Research and Applications would appeal to researchers and academics working in the optical sciences.

  13. A stable dual-wavelength Q-switch using a compact passive device containing photonics crystal fiber embedded with carbon platinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, R.; Amiri, I. S.; Rezayi, M.; Ahmad, H.

    2018-01-01

    A compact fiber laser utilizing platinum nanoparticles doped on carbon (Pt/C) embedded in photonic crystal fiber capable of generating a stable Q-switch dual-wavelength is designed and verified. Stable Q-switch pulses, with a repetition rate of 73.6 kHz, pulse width of 1.45 µs and power of 3.8 nJ in two separated wavelengths of 1557.39 nm and 1558.86 nm at a pump power of 350 mW, have been obtained. This is a novel method for generating Q-switch dual-wavelength pulses using a well-protected component that introduces both a saturable absorber and Mach-Zehnder interferometer effects simultaneously in the laser cavity. Furthermore, to best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Pt/C nanoparticles have been used in a saturable absorber for optical pulse generation.

  14. Charge qubit coupled to an intense microwave electromagnetic field in a superconducting Nb device: evidence for photon-assisted quasiparticle tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, S E; Leppäkangas, J; Adamyan, A; Danilov, A V; Lindström, T; Fogelström, M; Bauch, T; Johansson, G; Kubatkin, S E

    2013-09-27

    We study a superconducting charge qubit coupled to an intensive electromagnetic field and probe changes in the resonance frequency of the formed dressed states. At large driving strengths, exceeding the qubit energy-level splitting, this reveals the well known Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interference structure of a longitudinally driven two-level system. For even stronger drives, we observe a significant change in the Landau-Zener-Stückelberg pattern and contrast. We attribute this to photon-assisted quasiparticle tunneling in the qubit. This results in the recovery of the qubit parity, eliminating effects of quasiparticle poisoning, and leads to an enhanced interferometric response. The interference pattern becomes robust to quasiparticle poisoning and has a good potential for accurate charge sensing.

  15. Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    We will review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices.......We will review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices....

  16. Photon generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni

    2002-01-01

    A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

  17. ZnCdMgSe as a Materials Platform for Advanced Photonic Devices: Broadband Quantum Cascade Detectors and Green Semiconductor Disk Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Joel

    The ZnCdMgSe family of II-VI materials has unique and promising characteristics that may be useful in practical applications. For example they can be grown lattice matched to InP substrates with lattice matched bandgaps that span from 2.1 to 3.5 eV, they can be successfully doped n-type, have a large conduction band offset (CBO) with no intervalley scattering present when strained, they have lower average phonon energies, and the InP lattice constant lies in the middle of the ZnSe and CdSe binaries compounds giving room to experiment with tensile and compressive stress. However they have not been studied in detail for use in practical devices. Here we have identified two types of devices that are being currently developed that benefit from the ZnCdMgSe-based material properties. These are the intersubband (ISB) quantum cascade (QC) detectors and optically pumped semiconductor lasers that emit in the visible range. The paucity for semiconductor lasers operating in the green-orange portion of the visible spectrum can be easily overcome with the ZnCdMgSe materials system developed in our research. The non-strain limited, large CBO available allows to expand the operating wavelength of ISB devices providing shorter and longer wavelengths than the currently commercially available devices. This property can also be exploited to develop broadband room temperature operation ISB detectors. The work presented here focused first on using the ZnCdMgSe-based material properties and parameter to understand and predict the interband and intersubband transitions of its heterostructures. We did this by studying an active region of a QC device by contactless electroreflectance, photoluminescence, FTIR transmittance and correlating the measurements to the quantum well structure by transfer matrix modeling. Then we worked on optimizing the ZnCdMgSe material heterostructures quality by studying the effects of growth interruptions on their optical and optoelectronic properties of

  18. Active functional devices using parity-time symmetry optics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brac de la Perriere, Vincent; Benisty, Henri; Ramdane, Abderrahim; Lupu, Anatole

    2017-05-01

    The progress of nanotechnologies has triggered the emergence of many photonic artificial structures: photonic crystals, metamaterials, plasmonic resonators. Recently the intriguing class of PT-symmetric devices, referring to Parity-Time symmetry [1] has attracted much attention. The characteristic feature of PT-symmetry is that the structures' refractive index profile is complex-valued due to the presence of alternating gain and loss regions in the system. Apart from fundamental research motivations, the tremendous interest in these artificial systems is strongly driven by the practical outcomes expected to foster a new generation of tunable, reconfigurable and non-reciprocal devices. The principle of gain-loss modulation lying in the heart of PT-symmetry optics enables a range of innovative solutions in the field of integrated optics at 1.5μm [2-7]. By using PT-symmetric coupled waveguides and Bragg reflectors as fundamental building blocks, it is possible to build a wide variety of functional optical devices. The PT-symmetry principle provides an alternative way for the realization of active devices that could become functional in a new platform for integrated optics. For instance one major bottleneck of the III-V/Si hybrid integration approach is that each type of active devices (laser, modulator, etc) requires a specific composition of III-V semiconductor alloy, involving a variety of (re)growth challenges. The advantage of the PT-symmetry solution is that the fabrication of all these devices can be done with a single stack of III-V semiconductor alloys that greatly simplifies the technological process. The aim of the current contribution is to provide a survey of the most promising applications of PT-symmetry in photonics with a particular emphases on the transition from theoretical concepts to experimental devices. The intention is to draw attention to the risks and issues related to the practical implementation that are most often overlooked in the basic

  19. REVIEW: Optics of globular photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.

    2007-05-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical studies of the optical properties of globular photonic crystals - new physical objects having a crystal structure with the lattice period exceeding considerably the atomic size, are presented. As globular photonic crystals, artificial opal matrices consisting of close-packed silica globules of diameter ~200 nm were used. The reflection spectra of these objects characterising the parameters of photonic bands existing in these crystals in the visible spectral region are presented. The idealised models of the energy band structure of photonic crystals investigated in the review give analytic dispersion dependences for the group velocity and the effective photon mass in a globular photonic crystal. The characteristics of secondary emission excited in globular photonic crystals by monochromatic and broadband radiation are presented. The results of investigations of single-photon-excited delayed scattering of light observed in globular photonic crystals exposed to cw UV radiation and radiation from a repetitively pulsed copper vapour laser are presented. The possibilities of using globular photonic crystals as active media for lasing in different spectral regions are considered. It is proposed to use globular photonic crystals as sensitive sensors in optoelectronic devices for molecular analysis of organic and inorganic materials by the modern methods of laser spectroscopy. The results of experimental studies of spontaneous and stimulated globular scattering of light are discussed. The conditions for observing resonance and two-photon-excited delayed scattering of light are found. The possibility of accumulation and localisation of the laser radiation energy inside a globular photonic crystal is reported.

  20. The MOCVD challenge a survey of GaInAsp-InP and GaInAsp-GaAs for photonic and electronic device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Razeghi, Manijeh

    2010-01-01

    Introduction to Semiconductor Compounds III-V semiconductor alloys III-V semiconductor devices Technology of multilayer growth Growth Technology Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition New non-equilibrium growth techniques In situ Characterization during MOCVD Reflectance anisotropy and ellipsometry Optimization of the growth of III-V binaries by RDS RDS investigation of III-V lattice-matched heterojunctions RDS investigation of III-V lattice-mismatched structures Insights on the growt

  1. Nonreciprocal plasmonics enables giant enhancement of thin-film Faraday rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jessie Yao; Steinle, Tobias; Wehlus, Thomas; Dregely, Daniel; Weiss, Thomas; Belotelov, Vladimir I; Stritzker, Bernd; Giessen, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Light propagation is usually reciprocal. However, a static magnetic field along the propagation direction can break the time-reversal symmetry in the presence of magneto-optical materials. The Faraday effect in magneto-optical materials rotates the polarization plane of light, and when light travels backward the polarization is further rotated. This is applied in optical isolators, which are of crucial importance in optical systems. Faraday isolators are typically bulky due to the weak Faraday effect of available magneto-optical materials. The growing research endeavour in integrated optics demands thin-film Faraday rotators and enhancement of the Faraday effect. Here, we report significant enhancement of Faraday rotation by hybridizing plasmonics with magneto-optics. By fabricating plasmonic nanostructures on laser-deposited magneto-optical thin films, Faraday rotation is enhanced by one order of magnitude in our experiment, while high transparency is maintained. We elucidate the enhanced Faraday effect by the interplay between plasmons and different photonic waveguide modes in our system.

  2. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, Mark G.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Di Falco, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study. PMID:23503295

  3. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Falco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study.

  4. Quantum photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Pearsall, Thomas P

    2017-01-01

    This textbook employs a pedagogical approach that facilitates access to the fundamentals of Quantum Photonics. It contains an introductory description of the quantum properties of photons through the second quantization of the electromagnetic field, introducing stimulated and spontaneous emission of photons at the quantum level. Schrödinger’s equation is used to describe the behavior of electrons in a one-dimensional potential. Tunneling through a barrier is used to introduce the concept of non­locality of an electron at the quantum level, which is closely-related to quantum confinement tunneling, resonant tunneling, and the origin of energy bands in both periodic (crystalline) and aperiodic (non-crystalline) materials. Introducing the concepts of reciprocal space, Brillouin zones, and Bloch’s theorem, the determination of electronic band structure using the pseudopotential method is presented, allowing direct computation of the band structures of most group IV, group III-V, and group II-VI semiconducto...

  5. Green photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Photonics, the broad merger of electronics with the optical sciences, encompasses such a wide swath of technology that its impact is almost universal in our everyday lives. This is a broad overview of some aspects of the industry and their contribution to the ‘green’ or environmental movement. The rationale for energy conservation is briefly discussed and the impact of photonics on our everyday lives and certain industries is described. Some opinions from industry are presented along with market estimates. References are provided to some of the most recent research in these areas. (review article)

  6. The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Whipp

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education. Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical and student learning outcomes within high school physical education classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59 were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach. Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in physical education.

  7. The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipp, Peter R; Jackson, Ben; Dimmock, James A; Soh, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education (PE). Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT) program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and student learning outcomes within high school PE classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59) were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach) or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach). Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in PE.

  8. PHOTON: A user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, D.

    1988-01-01

    PHOTON has proven very useful in the development of the X17 superconducting wiggler beamline. Its use has determined the shielding required from the wiggler device to the very end of the beamline in the hutches and angiography section. Doses calculated by this program have been compared with experimental results from conventional bending magnet beamline with great success. In each case the program consistently overestimated the dose by factors ranging from 2 to 10. The reason for this overestimation is understood and was not refined further in the program in order to maintain some level of safety in the shielding calculations. PHOTON should prove useful in the design of any beamline. Its ability to calculate power deposited and spectra transmitted through nearly arbitrary beamline configurations as well as the scattered radiation doses through shielding walls make it a very powerful tool

  9. Packaged mode multiplexer based on silicon photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Snyder, B.; Raz, O.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Chen, X.

    2012-01-01

    A silicon photonics based mode multiplexer is proposed. Four chirped grating couplers structure can support all 6 channels in a two-mode fiber and realize LP01 and LP11 mode selective exciting. The packaged device is tested.

  10. Compound FDTD method for silicon photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Olyaee

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Attempt to manufacture photonics devices on silicon requires theoretical and numerical prediction. This essay presents Compound FDTD (C-FDTD method for comprehensive simulation of silicon photonics devices. Although this method is comprehensive, it maintains conventional Yee algorithm. The method involves variation of refractive index due to nonlinear effects. With the help of this simulator, refractive index change due to free-carriers created through two photon absorption and Kerr effect in silicon waveguide is considered. Results indicate how to choose pump pulse shape to optimum operation of active photonics devices. Also conductivity variation of Si waveguide due to change in free-carrier density is studied. By considering variations in conductivity profile, we are able to design better schemes for sweep free carriers away with reverse bias or nonlinear photovoltaic effect for fast devices and Raman amplifiers.

  11. Photon Differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny

    2007-01-01

    illumination features. This is often not desirable as these may lose clarity or vanish altogether. We present an accurate method for reconstruction of indirect illumination with photon mapping. Instead of reconstructing illumination using classic density estimation on finite points, we use the correlation...

  12. Photon Rao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 2 Issue 5 May 1997 pp 69-72 Feature Article. Molecule of the Month Molecular–Chameleon: Solvatochromism at its Iridescent Best! Photon Rao · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1303-1306. Molecule of the Month - Molecular-Chameleon: Solvatochromism at its Iridescent Best!

  13. Parity-Time Symmetric Photonics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Han

    2018-01-17

    The establishment of non-Hermitian quantum mechanics (such as parity-time (PT) symmetry) stimulates a paradigmatic shift for studying symmetries of complex potentials. Owing to the convenient manipulation of optical gain and loss in analogy to the complex quantum potentials, photonics provides an ideal platform for visualization of many conceptually striking predictions from the non-Hermitian quantum theory. A rapidly developing field has emerged, namely, PT symmetric photonics, demonstrating intriguing optical phenomena including eigenstate coalescence and spontaneous PT symmetry breaking. The advance of quantum physics, as the feedback, provides photonics with brand-new paradigms to explore the entire complex permittivity plane for novel optical functionalities. Here, we review recent exciting breakthroughs in PT symmetric photonics while systematically presenting their underlying principles guided by non-Hermitian symmetries. The potential device applications for optical communication and computing, bio-chemical sensing, and healthcare are also discussed.

  14. Silicon photonics for multicore fiber communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Kamchevska, Valerija; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    We review our recent work on silicon photonics for multicore fiber communication, including multicore fiber fan-in/fan-out, multicore fiber switches towards reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers. We also present multicore fiber based quantum communication using silicon devices.......We review our recent work on silicon photonics for multicore fiber communication, including multicore fiber fan-in/fan-out, multicore fiber switches towards reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers. We also present multicore fiber based quantum communication using silicon devices....

  15. Luneburg lens in silicon photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Falco, Andrea; Kehr, Susanne C; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2011-03-14

    The Luneburg lens is an aberration-free lens that focuses light from all directions equally well. We fabricated and tested a Luneburg lens in silicon photonics. Such fully-integrated lenses may become the building blocks of compact Fourier optics on chips. Furthermore, our fabrication technique is sufficiently versatile for making perfect imaging devices on silicon platforms.

  16. Photon Collider Physics with Real Photon Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronberg, J; Asztalos, S

    2005-01-01

    Photon-photon interactions have been an important probe into fundamental particle physics. Until recently, the only way to produce photon-photon collisions was parasitically in the collision of charged particles. Recent advances in short-pulse laser technology have made it possible to consider producing high intensity, tightly focused beams of real photons through Compton scattering. A linear e + e - collider could thus be transformed into a photon-photon collider with the addition of high power lasers. In this paper they show that it is possible to make a competitive photon-photon collider experiment using the currently mothballed Stanford Linear Collider. This would produce photon-photon collisions in the GeV energy range which would allow the discovery and study of exotic heavy mesons with spin states of zero and two

  17. Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Scolari, Lara; Wei, Lei

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate electrical tunability of a fiber laser by using a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber. Tuning of the laser is achieved by combining the wavelength filtering effect of a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device with an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. We fabricate an al...

  18. Hybrid Integrated Platforms for Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel; Bowers, John E.

    2010-01-01

    A review of recent progress in hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics is presented. Integration of III-V semiconductors onto silicon-on-insulator substrates based on two different bonding techniques is compared, one comprising only inorganic materials, the other technique using an organic bonding agent. Issues such as bonding process and mechanism, bonding strength, uniformity, wafer surface requirement, and stress distribution are studied in detail. The application in silicon photonics to realize high-performance active and passive photonic devices on low-cost silicon wafers is discussed. Hybrid integration is believed to be a promising technology in a variety of applications of silicon photonics.

  19. Hybrid Integrated Platforms for Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Bowers

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics is presented. Integration of III-V semiconductors onto silicon-on-insulator substrates based on two different bonding techniques is compared, one comprising only inorganic materials, the other technique using an organic bonding agent. Issues such as bonding process and mechanism, bonding strength, uniformity, wafer surface requirement, and stress distribution are studied in detail. The application in silicon photonics to realize high-performance active and passive photonic devices on low-cost silicon wafers is discussed. Hybrid integration is believed to be a promising technology in a variety of applications of silicon photonics.

  20. Photonic network-on-chip design

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Keren; Biberman, Aleksandr; Chan, Johnnie; Hendry, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive synthesis of the theory and practice of photonic devices for networks-on-chip. It outlines the issues in designing photonic network-on-chip architectures for future many-core high performance chip multiprocessors. The discussion is built from the bottom up: starting with the design and implementation of key photonic devices and building blocks, reviewing networking and network-on-chip theory and existing research, and finishing with describing various architectures, their characteristics, and the impact they will have on a computing system. After acquainting

  1. Carbon photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konov, V I [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    The properties of new carbon materials (single-crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond films and wafers, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene) and the prospects of their use as optical elements and devices are discussed. (optical elements of laser devices)

  2. Digital device for synchronous storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzar', Yu.M.; Kovtun, V.G.; Pashechko, N.I.

    1991-01-01

    Synchronous storage digital device for IR electron-photon emission spectrometer operating with analogue-to-digital converter F4223 or monocrystal converter K572PV1 is described. The device accomplished deduction of noise-background in each storage cycle. Summation and deduction operational time equals 90 ns, device output code discharge - 20, number of storages -2 23

  3. Photonics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Azzawi, Abdul

    2006-01-01

    Light The Nature of Light Light and Shadows Thermal Radiation Light Production Light Intensity Light and Colour Laws of Light Optics Plane Mirrors Spherical Mirrors Lenses Prisms Beamsplitters Light Passing through Optical Components Optical Instruments for Viewing Applications Polarization of Light Optical Materials Waves and Diffraction Waves Interference and Diffraction The Diffraction Grating Interferometers Spectrometers and Spectroscopes Optical Fibres Fibre Optic Cables Advanced Fibre Optic Cables Light Attenuation in Optical Components Fibre-Optic Cable Types and Installations Fibre-Optic Connectors Passive Fibre Optic Devices Wavelength Division Multiplexer Optical Amplifiers Optical Receivers Lasers Optical Switches Optical Fibre Communications Fibre Optic Lighting Testing Fibre Optic Testing Safety Photonics Laboratory Safety Miscellaneous Appendix A: Details of the Devices, Components, Tools, and Parts Appendix B: Alignment Procedure of a Conventional Ar...

  4. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  5. Single-photon manipulation in Nanophotonic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Lindskov

    Quantum dots in photonic nanostructures has long been known to be a very powerful and versatile solid-state platform for conducting quantum optics experiments. The present PhD thesis describes experimental demonstrations of single-photon generation and subsequent manipulation all realized...... on a gallium arsenide platform. This platform offers near-unity coupling between embedded single-photon emitters and a photonic mode, as well as the ability to suppress decoherence mechanisms, making it highly suited for quantum information applications. In this thesis we show how a single-photon router can...... be realized on a chip with embedded quantum dots. This allows for on-chip generation and manipulation of single photons. The router consists of an on-chip interferometer where the phase difference between the arms of the interferometer is controlled electrically. The response time of the device...

  6. Tunable Multiband Microwave Photonic Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mable P. Fok

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for multifunctional devices, the use of cognitive wireless technology to solve the frequency resource shortage problem, as well as the capabilities and operational flexibility necessary to meet ever-changing environment result in an urgent need of multiband wireless communications. Spectral filter is an essential part of any communication systems, and in the case of multiband wireless communications, tunable multiband RF filters are required for channel selection, noise/interference removal, and RF signal processing. Unfortunately, it is difficult for RF electronics to achieve both tunable and multiband spectral filtering. Recent advancements of microwave photonics have proven itself to be a promising candidate to solve various challenges in RF electronics including spectral filtering, however, the development of multiband microwave photonic filtering still faces lots of difficulties, due to the limited scalability and tunability of existing microwave photonic schemes. In this review paper, we first discuss the challenges that were facing by multiband microwave photonic filter, then we review recent techniques that have been developed to tackle the challenge and lead to promising developments of tunable microwave photonic multiband filters. The successful design and implementation of tunable microwave photonic multiband filter facilitate the vision of dynamic multiband wireless communications and radio frequency signal processing for commercial, defense, and civilian applications.

  7. Single-photon generation with InAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santori, Charles; Fattal, David; Vuckovic, Jelena; Solomon, Glenn S; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2004-01-01

    Single-photon generation using InAs quantum dots in pillar microcavities is described. The effects on performance of the excitation wavelength and polarization, and the collection bandwidth and polarization, are studied in detail. The efficiency and photon state purity of these devices have been measured, and issues affecting these parameters are discussed. Prospects for improved devices are also discussed

  8. Photorefractive Photonics 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Preface This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series represents a selection of the contributions presented in the Photorefractive Photonics 2017 (PR17) conference which was held in Qingdao, Shandong, China from July 17 through July 20, 2017. The conference is the successor of the traditional Photorefractive (PR) Conference Series: the International Conference on Photorefractive Effects, Materials and Devices. The first PR Conference was held in Los Angeles, California, USA in 1987. After that, the PR Conference was held every two years around the world: Aussois, France (1989), Beverly, Massachusetts, USA (1991), Kiev, Ukraine (1993), Aspen Lodge, Colorado, USA (1995), Chiba, Japan (1997), Elsinore, Denmark (1999), Delevan, Wisconsin, USA (2001), Nice, France (2003), Sanya, Hainan, China (2005), Olympic Valley, California, USA (2007), Bad Honnef, Germany (2009), Ensenada, Mexico (2011), Winchester, UK (2013) and Villars, Switzerland (2015). The Conference was renamed to be Photorefractive Photonics Conference in 2015. The PR17 conference was organized by Nankai University, Qingdao University and Qingdao Society of Physics. The scientific topics of the PR17 conference include, but not limited to, wave mixing and its applications (T1), nonlinear light-matter interaction and its applications (T2), material engineering and photonic micro-structures (T3), photorefractive lattice photonics (T4), digital photorefractive photonics (T5), and novel photorefractive effects, materials and applications (T6). Note that both traditional topics such as photorefractive wave mixing and new topics such as energy photonics and nano/micro-structures based on photorefractive effects and materials are included, especially, basic issues such as the influence of pyroelectric effect on the photorefractive wave-mixing are considered, and much attention was paid to the development of new applications of photorefractive effects and materials, which reflect the current state of the art

  9. Photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkema, R.; Blokland, J.A.K.; Papapoulos, S.E.; Bijvoet, O.L.M.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant health problem in the western world, with important medical, social and economical consequences. Prevention and treatment require reliable methods for in vivo monitoring of the bone mineral content (BMC) and its change in time. This paper presents an overview of currently used radiological methods, based on photon absorptiometry, and their clinical applications. With recent methods based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry accurate and precise measurements of axial BMC can be obtained. Whether this improvements allows reliable detection of small changes in BMC remains to be investigated. (Author). 95 refs.; 1 tab

  10. Tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device includes at least one elongated structure at least partially fabricated from one or more semiconductor materials exhibiting a bandgap characteristic including one or more energy transitions whose energies correspond to photon energies of light

  11. Patterned Colloidal Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jue; Li, Mingzhu; Song, Yanlin

    2018-03-01

    Colloidal photonic crystals (PCs) have been well developed because they are easy to prepare, cost-effective, and versatile with regards to modification and functionalization. Patterned colloidal PCs contribute a novel approach to constructing high-performance PC devices with unique structures and specific functions. In this review, an overview of the strategies for fabricating patterned colloidal PCs, including patterned substrate-induced assembly, inkjet printing, and selective immobilization and modification, is presented. The advantages of patterned PC devices are also discussed in detail, for example, improved detection sensitivity and response speed of the sensors, control over the flow direction and wicking rate of microfluidic channels, recognition of cross-reactive molecules through an array-patterned microchip, fabrication of display devices with tunable patterns, well-arranged RGB units, and wide viewing-angles, and the ability to construct anti-counterfeiting devices with different security strategies. Finally, the perspective of future developments and challenges is presented. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Fresnel Lenses fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining on Polymer 1D Photonic Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guduru Surya S.K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of micro Fresnel lenses by femtosecond laser surface ablation on polymer 1D photonic crystals. This device is designed to focus the transmitted wavelength of the photonic crystal and filter the wavelengths corresponding to the photonic band gap region. Integration of such devices in a wavelength selective light harvesting and filtering microchip can be achieved.

  13. High-performance silicon photonics technology for telecommunications applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Koji; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Nishi, Hidetaka; Kou, Rai; Hiraki, Tatsurou; Takeda, Kotaro; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Wada, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi

    2014-04-01

    By way of a brief review of Si photonics technology, we show that significant improvements in device performance are necessary for practical telecommunications applications. In order to improve device performance in Si photonics, we have developed a Si-Ge-silica monolithic integration platform, on which compact Si-Ge-based modulators/detectors and silica-based high-performance wavelength filters are monolithically integrated. The platform features low-temperature silica film deposition, which cannot damage Si-Ge-based active devices. Using this platform, we have developed various integrated photonic devices for broadband telecommunications applications.

  14. High-performance silicon photonics technology for telecommunications applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Koji; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Nishi, Hidetaka; Kou, Rai; Hiraki, Tatsurou; Takeda, Kotaro; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Wada, Kazumi

    2014-01-01

    By way of a brief review of Si photonics technology, we show that significant improvements in device performance are necessary for practical telecommunications applications. In order to improve device performance in Si photonics, we have developed a Si-Ge-silica monolithic integration platform, on which compact Si-Ge–based modulators/detectors and silica-based high-performance wavelength filters are monolithically integrated. The platform features low-temperature silica film deposition, which cannot damage Si-Ge–based active devices. Using this platform, we have developed various integrated photonic devices for broadband telecommunications applications. (review)

  15. High-performance silicon photonics technology for telecommunications applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Koji; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Nishi, Hidetaka; Kou, Rai; Hiraki, Tatsurou; Takeda, Kotaro; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Wada, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi

    2014-04-01

    By way of a brief review of Si photonics technology, we show that significant improvements in device performance are necessary for practical telecommunications applications. In order to improve device performance in Si photonics, we have developed a Si-Ge-silica monolithic integration platform, on which compact Si-Ge-based modulators/detectors and silica-based high-performance wavelength filters are monolithically integrated. The platform features low-temperature silica film deposition, which cannot damage Si-Ge-based active devices. Using this platform, we have developed various integrated photonic devices for broadband telecommunications applications.

  16. Photonic quantum technologies (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jeremy L.

    2015-09-01

    The impact of quantum technology will be profound and far-reaching: secure communication networks for consumers, corporations and government; precision sensors for biomedical technology and environmental monitoring; quantum simulators for the design of new materials, pharmaceuticals and clean energy devices; and ultra-powerful quantum computers for addressing otherwise impossibly large datasets for machine learning and artificial intelligence applications. However, engineering quantum systems and controlling them is an immense technological challenge: they are inherently fragile; and information extracted from a quantum system necessarily disturbs the system itself. Of the various approaches to quantum technologies, photons are particularly appealing for their low-noise properties and ease of manipulation at the single qubit level. We have developed an integrated waveguide approach to photonic quantum circuits for high performance, miniaturization and scalability. We will described our latest progress in generating, manipulating and interacting single photons in waveguide circuits on silicon chips.

  17. Quantum photonics hybrid integration platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, E.; Floether, F. F. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellis, D. J. P.; Meany, T.; Bennett, A. J., E-mail: anthony.bennet@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Shields, A. J. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Lee, J. P. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G. A. C.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-26

    Fundamental to integrated photonic quantum computing is an on-chip method for routing and modulating quantum light emission. We demonstrate a hybrid integration platform consisting of arbitrarily designed waveguide circuits and single-photon sources. InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in GaAs are bonded to a SiON waveguide chip such that the QD emission is coupled to the waveguide mode. The waveguides are SiON core embedded in a SiO{sub 2} cladding. A tuneable Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulates the emission between two output ports and can act as a path-encoded qubit preparation device. The single-photon nature of the emission was verified using the on-chip MZI as a beamsplitter in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss measurement.

  18. Computational Modeling of Photonic Crystal Microcavity Single-Photon Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Nicole A.

    Conventional cryptography is based on algorithms that are mathematically complex and difficult to solve, such as factoring large numbers. The advent of a quantum computer would render these schemes useless. As scientists work to develop a quantum computer, cryptographers are developing new schemes for unconditionally secure cryptography. Quantum key distribution has emerged as one of the potential replacements of classical cryptography. It relics on the fact that measurement of a quantum bit changes the state of the bit and undetected eavesdropping is impossible. Single polarized photons can be used as the quantum bits, such that a quantum system would in some ways mirror the classical communication scheme. The quantum key distribution system would include components that create, transmit and detect single polarized photons. The focus of this work is on the development of an efficient single-photon source. This source is comprised of a single quantum dot inside of a photonic crystal microcavity. To better understand the physics behind the device, a computational model is developed. The model uses Finite-Difference Time-Domain methods to analyze the electromagnetic field distribution in photonic crystal microcavities. It uses an 8-band k · p perturbation theory to compute the energy band structure of the epitaxially grown quantum dots. We discuss a method that combines the results of these two calculations for determining the spontaneous emission lifetime of a quantum dot in bulk material or in a microcavity. The computational models developed in this thesis are used to identify and characterize microcavities for potential use in a single-photon source. The computational tools developed are also used to investigate novel photonic crystal microcavities that incorporate 1D distributed Bragg reflectors for vertical confinement. It is found that the spontaneous emission enhancement in the quasi-3D cavities can be significantly greater than in traditional suspended slab

  19. Very High Performance Organic Photonic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-15

    thought complexity from left (simplest) to right (most complex). Monomeric compounds ( eft ), possible in the world of inorganic semiconductors. Many...60 ±10 4 7 Sht"it M. M.pe) J et 7 r. B 45 lF,xi S R Eft -Ats. hin I 1,,y,)o I jim-.1). Planar OPD TIo Ilion-f~i, , o... App. PM, Leiw 81. 268-270 (Z...of SnPc deposited on ITO, taken in the 0-20 geometry using Cu Kr S.R radiation. (b) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and tapping moole SR. Forrest

  20. Materials for optoelectronic devices, OEICs and photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloetterer, H.; Quillec, M.; Greene, P.D.; Bertolotti, M.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the contributors in this volume is to give a current overview on the basic properties of nonlinear optical materials for optoelectronics and integrated optics. They provide a cross-linkage between different materials (III-V, II-VI, Si-Ge, etc.), various sample dimensions (from bulk crystals to quantum dots), and a range of techniques from growth (LPE to MOMBE) and for processing from surface passivation to ion beams. Major growth techniques and materials are discussed, including the sophisticated technologies required to exploit the exciting properties of low dimensional semiconductors. These proceedings will prove an invaluable guide to the current state of optoelectronic materials development, as well as indicating the growth techniques that will be in use around the year 2000

  1. Physics at high energy photon photon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    I review the physic prospects for high energy photon photon colliders, emphasizing results presented at the LBL Gamma Gamma Collider Workshop. Advantages and difficulties are reported for studies of QCD, the electroweak gauge sector, supersymmetry, and electroweak symmetry breaking

  2. Resonance formation in photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidal, G.

    1988-08-01

    Recent experimental progress on resonance formation in photon-photon collisions is reviewed with particular emphasis on the pseudoscalar and tensor nonents and on the γγ* production of spin-one resonances. 37 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Quartz substrate infrared photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri, Khosrow; Rejeb, Jalel; Vitchev, Vladimir N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of a planar photonic crystal (p2c) made of a square array of dielectric rods embedded in air, operating in the infrared spectrum. A quartz substrate is employed instead of the commonly used silicon or column III-V substrate. Our square structure has a normalized cylinder radius-to-pitch ratio of r/a = 0.248 and dielectric material contrast ɛr of 4.5. We choose a Z-cut synthetic quartz for its cut (geometry), and etching properties. Then a particular Z-axis etching process is employed in order to ensure the sharp-edged verticality of the rods and fast etching speed. We also present the computer simulations that allowed the establishment of the photonic band gaps (PBG) of our photonic crystal, as well as the actual measurements. An experimental measurement have been carried out and compared with different simulations. It was found that experimental results are in good agreement with different simulation results. Finally, a frequency selective device for optical communication based on the introduction of impurity sites in the photonic crystal is presented. With our proposed structure Optical System on a Chip (OsoC) with micro-cavity based active devices such as lasers, diodes, modulators, couplers, frequency selective emitters, add-drop filters, detectors, mux/demuxes and polarizers connected by passive waveguide links can be realized.

  4. Hadron production in photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandita, P.N.; Singh, Y.

    1976-01-01

    We analyze deep-inelastic photon-photon collisions via the two-photon mechanism in electron-positron (-electron) colliding beams in a form especially suitable for experimental analysis. It is shown that by a helicity analysis similar to that used in electroproduction experiments, we can separate five of the eight structure functions describing the process γ* + γ* → hadrons. The helicity cross sections for this process and for the process with one real photon (inelastic electron-photon scattering) are related to structure functions, and are evaluated using quark light-cone algebra. There are anomalous contributions to the structure functions for the inelastic electron-photon scattering which arise both in parton as well as generalized vector-meson-dominance models. This suggests a connection between these two types of models for photon-photon scattering. Further, we use vector-meson dominance to construct a sum rule for sigma/sub gamma//sub gamma/ /sub arrow-right/ from which it is estimated that roughly 20% of the cross section should be built up from higher-mass vector states. Using a spectral representation for the total transverse cross section, and the ''aligned-jet'' vector-dominance model we achieve a connection, via a ''correspondence principle,'' with the parton model for the hadron multiplicities in photon-photon collisions. We also comment on inclusive pion multiplicities and the approach to scaling for photon-photon processes in the light-cone algebra

  5. On-chip photonic-phononic emitter-receiver apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jonathan Albert; Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.; Rakich, Peter Thomas; Wang, Zheng; Shin, Heedeuk; Siddiqui, Aleem; Starbuck, Andrew Lea

    2017-07-04

    A radio-frequency photonic devices employs photon-phonon coupling for information transfer. The device includes a membrane in which a two-dimensionally periodic phononic crystal (PnC) structure is patterned. The device also includes at least a first optical waveguide embedded in the membrane. At least a first line-defect region interrupts the PnC structure. The first optical waveguide is embedded within the line-defect region.

  6. FY 2004 Infrared Photonics Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Keller, Paul E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Martin, Peter M.; Johnson, Bradley R.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Martinez, James E.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Schultz, John F.

    2004-10-01

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at PNNL is focused on developing miniaturized integrated optics for the MWIR and LWIR by exploiting the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass. PNNL has developed thin film deposition capabilities, direct-laser writing techniques, IR photonic device demonstration, holographic optical element design and fabrication, photonic device modeling, and advanced optical metrology - all specific to chalcogenide glass. Chalcogenide infrared photonics provides a pathway to Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) transmitter miniaturization. QCLs provide a viable infrared laser source for a new class of laser transmitters capable of meeting the performance requirements for a variety of national security sensing applications. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors that are particularly useful for nuclear nonproliferation missions.

  7. FY 2006 Infrared Photonics Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Ho, Nicolas; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Schultz, John F.

    2006-12-28

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniaturized integrated optics and optical fiber processing methods for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications by exploiting the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass. PNNL has developed thin-film deposition capabilities, direct laser writing techniques, infrared photonic device demonstration, holographic optical element design and fabrication, photonic device modeling, and advanced optical metrology—all specific to chalcogenide glass. Chalcogenide infrared photonics provides a pathway to quantum cascade laser (QCL) transmitter miniaturization. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors that are particularly useful for nuclear nonproliferation missions.

  8. Characterizing multi-photon quantum interference with practical light sources and threshold single-photon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Álvaro; Wang, Wenyuan; Xu, Feihu; Curty, Marcos

    2018-04-01

    The experimental characterization of multi-photon quantum interference effects in optical networks is essential in many applications of photonic quantum technologies, which include quantum computing and quantum communication as two prominent examples. However, such characterization often requires technologies which are beyond our current experimental capabilities, and today's methods suffer from errors due to the use of imperfect sources and photodetectors. In this paper, we introduce a simple experimental technique to characterize multi-photon quantum interference by means of practical laser sources and threshold single-photon detectors. Our technique is based on well-known methods in quantum cryptography which use decoy settings to tightly estimate the statistics provided by perfect devices. As an illustration of its practicality, we use this technique to obtain a tight estimation of both the generalized Hong‑Ou‑Mandel dip in a beamsplitter with six input photons and the three-photon coincidence probability at the output of a tritter.

  9. Quantum Dot Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnischtzke, Laura A.

    We report on several experiments using single excitons confined to single semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). Electric and magnetic fields have previously been used as experimental knobs to understand and control individual excitons in single quantum dots. We realize new ways of electric field control by changing materials and device geometry in the first two experiments with strain-based InAs QDs. A standard Schottky diode heterostructure is demonstrated with graphene as the Schottky gate material, and its performance is bench-marked against a diode with a standard gate material, semi-transparent nickel-chromium (NiCr). This change of materials increases the photon collection rate by eliminating absorption in the metallic NiCr layer. A second set of experiments investigates the electric field response of QDs as a possible metrology source. A linear voltage potential drop in a plane near the QDs is used to describe how the spatially varying voltage profile is also imparted on the QDs. We demonstrate a procedure to map this voltage profile as a preliminary route towards a full quantum sensor array. Lastly, InAs QDs are explored as potential spin-photon interfaces. We describe how a magnetic field is used to realize a reversible exchange of information between light and matter, including a discussion of the polarization-dependence of the photoluminesence, and how that can be linked to the spin of a resident electron or hole. We present evidence of this in two wavelength regimes for InAs quantum dots, and discuss how an external magnetic field informs the spin physics of these 2-level systems. This thesis concludes with the discovery of a new class of quantum dots. As-yet unidentified defect states in single layer tungsten diselenide (WSe 2 ) are shown to host quantum light emission. We explore the spatial extent of electron confinement and tentatively identify a radiative lifetime of 1 ns for these single photon emitters.

  10. New Generation of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goltsman G.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of recent results for new generation of infrared and optical superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs that has already demonstrated a performance that makes them devices-of-choice for many applications. SNSPDs provide high efficiency for detecting individual photons while keeping dark counts and timing jitter minimal. Besides superior detection performance over a broad optical bandwidth, SNSPDs are also compatible with an integrated optical platform as a crucial requirement for applications in emerging quantum photonic technologies. By embedding SNSPDs in nanophotonic circuits we realize waveguide integrated single photon detectors which unite all desirable detector properties in a single device.

  11. Photonics a short course

    CERN Document Server

    Degiorgio, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    This extended and revised edition will serve as a concise, self-contained, up-to-date introduction to Photonics for undergraduate students. It can also be used as a primer by researchers and professionals who start working in the field. Blending theory with technical descriptions, the book covers a wide range of topics, including the general mechanism of laser action, continuous and pulsed laser operation, optical propagation in isotropic and anisotropic media, operating principles and structure of passive optical components, electro-optic and acousto-optic modulation, solid-state lasers, semiconductor lasers and LEDs, nonlinear optical phenomena, and optical fiber components and devices. The book concludes with an overview of applications, including optical communications, telemetry and sensing, industrial and biomedical applications, solid-state lighting, displays, and photovoltaics. This second edition includes a set of problems at the end of all but the last chapter. These problems deal with numerical c...

  12. Photon enhanced thermionic emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

    2014-10-07

    Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

  13. Photonics a short course

    CERN Document Server

    Degiorgio, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    This book will serve as a concise, self-contained, up-to-date introduction to Photonics, to be used as a textbook for undergraduate students or as a reference book for researchers and professionals. Blending theory with technical descriptions, the book covers a wide range of topics, including the general mechanism of laser action, continuous and pulsed laser operation, optical propagation in isotropic and anisotropic media, operating principles and structure of passive optical components, electro-optical and acousto-optical modulation, solid-state lasers, semiconductor lasers and LEDs, nonlinear optics, and optical fiber components and devices.. The book concludes with an overview of applications, including optical communications, telemetry and sensing, industrial and biomedical applications, solid-state lighting, displays, and photovoltaics.

  14. The advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galayda, J.N.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV third-generation synchrotron radiation storage ring and full-energy positron injector. Construction project funding began in 1989, and ground breaking took place on 5 May 1990. Construction of all accelerator facilities was completed in January 1995 and storage ring commissioning is underway. First observation of x-rays from a bending magnet source took place on 26 March 1995. Nearly all performance specifications of the injector have been reached, and first observations indicate that the reliability, dynamic aperture, emittance, and orbit stability in the storage ring are satisfactory. Observation of radiation from the first of 20 insertion device beamlines is scheduled for October 1995. Start of regular operations is expected to take place well before the APS Project target date of December 1996

  15. Plasmonic-photonic crystal coupled nanolaser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Callard, Ségolène; Jamois, Cécile; Chevalier, Céline; Feng, Di; Belarouci, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a hybrid photonic-plasmonic nanolaser that combines the light harvesting features of a dielectric photonic crystal cavity with the extraordinary confining properties of an optical nano-antenna. For this purpose, we developed a novel fabrication method based on multi-step electron-beam lithography. We show that it enables the robust and reproducible production of hybrid structures, using a fully top-down approach to accurately position the antenna. Coherent coupling of the photonic and plasmonic modes is highlighted and opens up a broad range of new hybrid nanophotonic devices. (paper)

  16. Silicon photonics for telecommunications and biomedicine

    CERN Document Server

    Fathpour, Sasan

    2011-01-01

    Given silicon's versatile material properties, use of low-cost silicon photonics continues to move beyond light-speed data transmission through fiber-optic cables and computer chips. Its application has also evolved from the device to the integrated-system level. A timely overview of this impressive growth, Silicon Photonics for Telecommunications and Biomedicine summarizes state-of-the-art developments in a wide range of areas, including optical communications, wireless technologies, and biomedical applications of silicon photonics. With contributions from world experts, this reference guides

  17. Quantum optics. All-optical routing of single photons by a one-atom switch controlled by a single photon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomroni, Itay; Rosenblum, Serge; Lovsky, Yulia; Bechler, Orel; Guendelman, Gabriel; Dayan, Barak

    2014-08-22

    The prospect of quantum networks, in which quantum information is carried by single photons in photonic circuits, has long been the driving force behind the effort to achieve all-optical routing of single photons. We realized a single-photon-activated switch capable of routing a photon from any of its two inputs to any of its two outputs. Our device is based on a single atom coupled to a fiber-coupled, chip-based microresonator. A single reflected control photon toggles the switch from high reflection (R ~ 65%) to high transmission (T ~ 90%), with an average of ~1.5 control photons per switching event (~3, including linear losses). No additional control fields are required. The control and target photons are both in-fiber and practically identical, making this scheme compatible with scalable architectures for quantum information processing. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Induced high-order resonance linewidth shrinking with multiple coupled resonators in silicon-organic hybrid slotted two-dimensional photonic crystals for reduced optical switching power in bistable devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thu Trang; Ngo, Quang Minh; Vu, Dinh Lam; Le, Khai Q.; Nguyen, Truong Khang; Nguyen, Hieu P. T.

    2018-01-01

    Shrinking the linewidth of resonances induced by multiple coupled resonators is comprehensively analyzed using the coupled-mode theory (CMT) in time. Two types of coupled resonators under investigation are coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) and side-coupled resonators with waveguide (SCREW). We examine the main parameters influencing on the spectral response such as the number of resonators (n) and the phase shift (φ) between two adjacent resonators. For the CROWs geometry consisting of n coupled resonators, we observe the quality (Q) factor of the right- and left-most resonant lineshapes increases n times larger than that of a single resonator. For the SCREW geometry, relying on the phase shift, sharp, and asymmetric resonant lineshape of the high Q factor a narrow linewidth of the spectral response could be achieved. We employ the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to design and simulate two proposed resonators for practical applications. The proposed coupled resonators in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) slotted two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystals (PhCs) filled and covered with a low refractive index organic material. Slotted PhC waveguides and cavities are designed to enhance the electromagnetic intensity and to confine the light into small cross-sectional area with low refractive index so that efficient optical devices could be achieved. A good agreement between the theoretical CMT analysis and the FDTD simulation is shown as an evidence for our accurate investigation. All-optical switches based on the CROWs in the SOI slotted 2-D PhC waveguide that are filled and covered by a nonlinear organic cladding to overcome the limitations of its well-known intrinsic properties are also presented. From the calculations, we introduce a dependency of the normalized linewidth of the right-most resonance and its switching power of the all-optical switches on number of resonator, n. This result might provide a guideline for all-optical signal processing on

  19. Photonic time crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Xu, Jin; Wang, Chengen; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Yuting; Zeng, Jing; Song, Runxia

    2017-12-07

    When space (time) translation symmetry is spontaneously broken, the space crystal (time crystal) forms; when permittivity and permeability periodically vary with space (time), the photonic crystal (photonic time crystal) forms. We proposed the concept of photonic time crystal and rewritten the Maxwell's equations. Utilizing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, we simulated electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal, the simulation results show that more intensive scatter fields can obtained in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal.

  20. Optical microscope using an interferometric source of two-color, two-beam entangled photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dress, William B.; Kisner, Roger A.; Richards, Roger K.

    2004-07-13

    Systems and methods are described for an optical microscope using an interferometric source of multi-color, multi-beam entangled photons. A method includes: downconverting a beam of coherent energy to provide a beam of multi-color entangled photons; converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; transforming at least a portion of the converged multi-color entangled photon beam by interaction with a sample to generate an entangled photon specimen beam; and combining the entangled photon specimen beam with an entangled photon reference beam within a single beamsplitter. An apparatus includes: a multi-refringent device providing a beam of multi-color entangled photons; a condenser device optically coupled to the multi-refringent device, the condenser device converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; a beam probe director and specimen assembly optically coupled to the condenser device; and a beam splitter optically coupled to the beam probe director and specimen assembly, the beam splitter combining an entangled photon specimen beam from the beam probe director and specimen assembly with an entangled photon reference beam.

  1. Hybrid Integration of Solid-State Quantum Emitters on a Silicon Photonic Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Je-Hyung; Aghaeimeibodi, Shahriar; Richardson, Christopher J K; Leavitt, Richard P; Englund, Dirk; Waks, Edo

    2017-12-13

    Scalable quantum photonic systems require efficient single photon sources coupled to integrated photonic devices. Solid-state quantum emitters can generate single photons with high efficiency, while silicon photonic circuits can manipulate them in an integrated device structure. Combining these two material platforms could, therefore, significantly increase the complexity of integrated quantum photonic devices. Here, we demonstrate hybrid integration of solid-state quantum emitters to a silicon photonic device. We develop a pick-and-place technique that can position epitaxially grown InAs/InP quantum dots emitting at telecom wavelengths on a silicon photonic chip deterministically with nanoscale precision. We employ an adiabatic tapering approach to transfer the emission from the quantum dots to the waveguide with high efficiency. We also incorporate an on-chip silicon-photonic beamsplitter to perform a Hanbury-Brown and Twiss measurement. Our approach could enable integration of precharacterized III-V quantum photonic devices into large-scale photonic structures to enable complex devices composed of many emitters and photons.

  2. Photon-Photon Collisions -- Past and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2005-01-01

    I give a brief review of the history of photon-photon physics and a survey of its potential at future electron-positron colliders. Exclusive hadron production processes in photon-photon and electron-photon collisions provide important tests of QCD at the amplitude level, particularly as measures of hadron distribution amplitudes. There are also important high energy γγ and eγ tests of quantum chromodynamics, including the production of jets in photon-photon collisions, deeply virtual Compton scattering on a photon target, and leading-twist single-spin asymmetries for a photon polarized normal to a production plane. Since photons couple directly to all fundamental fields carrying the electromagnetic current including leptons, quarks, W's and supersymmetric particles, high energy γγ collisions will provide a comprehensive laboratory for Higgs production and exploring virtually every aspect of the Standard Model and its extensions. High energy back-scattered laser beams will thus greatly extend the range of physics of the International Linear Collider

  3. Organic membrane photonic integrated circuits (OMPICs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, Toru; Hiratani, Takuo; Inoue, Daisuke; Gu, Zhichen; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Urakami, Tatsuhiro; Arai, Shigehisa

    2017-08-07

    We propose the concept of organic membrane photonic integrated circuits (OMPICs), which incorporate various functions needed for optical signal processing into a flexible organic membrane. We describe the structure of several devices used within the proposed OMPICs (e.g., transmission lines, I/O couplers, phase shifters, photodetectors, modulators), and theoretically investigate their characteristics. We then present a method of fabricating the photonic devices monolithically in an organic membrane and demonstrate the operation of transmission lines and I/O couplers, the most basic elements of OMPICs.

  4. Photon-photon collisions and photon structure functions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Patt, J

    2000-01-01

    The present knowledge of the structure of the photon based on measurements of photon structure functions is discussed. This review covers recent results on QED structure functions and on the hadronic structure function F/sub 2//sup gamma /. (13 refs).

  5. Photon and photon reactions: elementary theoretical introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diu, B.

    The electromagnetic field and associated quanta, the photons, are simply and briefly studied. The conventional electromagnetism laws are recalled. Fundamental concepts such as gauge invariance, the electromagnetic current conservation, and photon behavior against the internal symmetries of strong interactions are simply introduced. Results and notations are applied to analysis of reactions where photons intervene in initial or final states (photoproduction) within the limits of amplitude properties in the conventional space-time. The helicity and invariant amplitude formalisms are compared [fr

  6. System Engineering of Photonic Systems for Space Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Pryor, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    The application of photonics in space systems requires tight integration with the spacecraft systems to ensure accurate operation. This requires some detailed and specific system engineering to properly incorporate the photonics into the spacecraft architecture and to guide the spacecraft architecture in supporting the photonics devices. Recent research in product focused, elegant system engineering has led to a system approach which provides a robust approach to this integration. Focusing on the mission application and the integration of the spacecraft system physics incorporation of the photonics can be efficiently and effectively accomplished. This requires a clear understanding of the driving physics properties of the photonics device to ensure proper integration with no unintended consequences. The driving physics considerations in terms of optical performance will be identified for their use in system integration. Keywords: System Engineering, Optical Transfer Function, Optical Physics, Photonics, Image Jitter, Launch Vehicle, System Integration, Organizational Interaction

  7. Electrospinning for nano- to mesoscale photonic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Jack L.; Andriolo, Jessica M.; Murphy, John P.; Ross, Brandon M.

    2017-08-01

    The fabrication of photonic and electronic structures and devices has directed the manufacturing industry for the last 50 years. Currently, the majority of small-scale photonic devices are created by traditional microfabrication techniques that create features by processes such as lithography and electron or ion beam direct writing. Microfabrication techniques are often expensive and slow. In contrast, the use of electrospinning (ES) in the fabrication of micro- and nano-scale devices for the manipulation of photons and electrons provides a relatively simple and economic viable alternative. ES involves the delivery of a polymer solution to a capillary held at a high voltage relative to the fiber deposition surface. Electrostatic force developed between the collection plate and the polymer promotes fiber deposition onto the collection plate. Issues with ES fabrication exist primarily due to an instability region that exists between the capillary and collection plate and is characterized by chaotic motion of the depositing polymer fiber. Material limitations to ES also exist; not all polymers of interest are amenable to the ES process due to process dependencies on molecular weight and chain entanglement or incompatibility with other polymers and overall process compatibility. Passive and active electronic and photonic fibers fabricated through the ES have great potential for use in light generation and collection in optical and electronic structures/devices. ES produces fiber devices that can be combined with inorganic, metallic, biological, or organic materials for novel device design. Synergistic material selection and post-processing techniques are also utilized for broad-ranging applications of organic nanofibers that span from biological to electronic, photovoltaic, or photonic. As the ability to electrospin optically and/or electronically active materials in a controlled manner continues to improve, the complexity and diversity of devices fabricated from this

  8. Quantum optics with single quantum dot devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwiller, Valery; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    A single radiative transition in a single-quantum emitter results in the emission of a single photon. Single quantum dots are single-quantum emitters with all the requirements to generate single photons at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. It is also possible to generate more than single photons with single quantum dots. In this paper we show that single quantum dots can be used to generate non-classical states of light, from single photons to photon triplets. Advanced solid state structures can be fabricated with single quantum dots as their active region. We also show results obtained on devices based on single quantum dots

  9. Flexible and tunable silicon photonic circuits on plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2012-09-01

    Flexible microelectronics has shown tremendous promise in a broad spectrum of applications, especially those that cannot be addressed by conventional microelectronics in rigid materials and constructions. These unconventional yet important applications range from flexible consumer electronics to conformal sensor arrays and biomedical devices. A recent paradigm shift in implementing flexible electronics is to physically transfer highly integrated devices made in high-quality, crystalline semiconductors on to plastic substrates. Here we demonstrate a flexible form of silicon photonics using the transfer-and-bond fabrication method. Photonic circuits including interferometers and resonators have been transferred onto flexible plastic substrates with preserved functionalities and performance. By mechanically deforming, the optical characteristics of the devices can be tuned reversibly over a remarkably large range. The demonstration of the new flexible photonic systems based on the silicon-on-plastic (SOP) platform could open the door to many future applications, including tunable photonics, optomechanical sensors and biomechanical and bio-photonic probes.

  10. Bio-Photons of Various Cellular Cultures and Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Patrick; Knoesel, Ernst; Garzon, Maria; Lofland, Samuel; Pfieffer, Erik

    2008-04-01

    Since it is non-invasive, there has been increased research in the field of bio-optics. Many biological systems display an unusual phenomenon, delayed luminescence, produced by what is known as bio-photons. We present an apparatus and procedure for the detection of these ultra-weak photonic emissions using a single photon detection device. The results of bread yeast, saccramyces, and algae will be presented and compared to other reports in the literature.

  11. Bio-Photonic Detection of Various Cellular Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Patrick; Garzon, Maria; Pfeiffer, Erik; Lofland, Samuel; Knoesel, Ernst

    2008-03-01

    Since it is non-invasive, there has been increased research in the field of bio-optics. Many biological systems display an unusual phenomenon, delayed luminescence, produced by what is known as bio-photons. We present an apparatus and procedure for the detection of these ultra-weak photonic emissions using a single photon detection device. The results of bread yeast, saccramyces, and algae will be presented and compared to other reports in the literature

  12. Quantum secret sharing protocol using modulated doubly entangled photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuan, Wang; Yong, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a quantum secret sharing protocol utilizing polarization modulated doubly entangled photon pairs. The measurement devices are constructed. By modulating the polarizations of entangled photons, the boss could encode secret information on the initial state and share the photons with different members to realize the secret sharing process. This protocol shows the security against intercept-resend attack and dishonest member cheating. The generalized quantum secret sharing protocol is also discussed. (general)

  13. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... due to photonic crystal dispersion. The observations are explained by the enhancement of net gain by light slow down. Another application based on active photonic crystal waveguides is micro lasers. Measurements on quantum dot micro laser cavities with different mirror configurations and photonic...

  14. Mid-infrared integrated photonics on silicon: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hongtao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of silicon photonics over the past two decades has established silicon as a preferred substrate platform for photonic integration. While most silicon-based photonic components have so far been realized in the near-infrared (near-IR telecommunication bands, the mid-infrared (mid-IR, 2–20-μm wavelength band presents a significant growth opportunity for integrated photonics. In this review, we offer our perspective on the burgeoning field of mid-IR integrated photonics on silicon. A comprehensive survey on the state-of-the-art of key photonic devices such as waveguides, light sources, modulators, and detectors is presented. Furthermore, on-chip spectroscopic chemical sensing is quantitatively analyzed as an example of mid-IR photonic system integration based on these basic building blocks, and the constituent component choices are discussed and contrasted in the context of system performance and integration technologies.

  15. Ordered photonic microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kevin Ming

    2001-09-01

    This thesis examines novel photonic materials systems possessing order in the atomic, microscopic, and macroscopic dimensional regimes. In the atomic order regime, a structure-property investigation is done for Er2O3 in which the first report of room temperature photoluminescence (PL) is provided. Thin films of the rare earth oxide were deposited via reactive sputtering of Er metal in an Ar/O2 ambient, and subsequently annealed to promote grain growth. Heat treatment consisting of a 650°C followed by 1000°C anneal produces maximum crystallinity as measured by glancing angle x-ray diffraction. These films show characteristic PL at λ = 1.54 μm. In the microscopic order regime, omnidirectional reflectors and thin film microcavities are demonstrated using sol-gel and solid-state materials. A first demonstration of omnidirectional reflectivity in sol-gel structures was accomplished using a dielectric stack consisting of 12 spin-on SiO 2/TiO2 quarterwave sol-gel films. Similarly, solid-state dielectric stacks consisting of 6 Si/SiO2 sputtered films were used to demonstrate the same principle. Microcavities were formed using solgel structures, producing a low quality factor Q = 35 due to limitations in film thickness control and lossy interfaces from stress-induced cracks. The high index contrast Si/SiO2 microcavities enabled Q ~ 1000 using 17 total layers following hydrogenation of dangling bonds within the amorphous Si films. Combining fabrication processes for the solid-state microcavity and Er2O3 films, a device was fabricated to demonstrate photoluminescence enhancement of an Er2O3 film embedded in a microcavity. The structure consisted of 3-bilayer mirrors on either side of an SiO2/Er2O3/SiO2 cavity. The Q ~ 300 was near the theoretical value for such a structure. At room temperature, PL of Er2O3 was enhanced by a factor of 1000 in the microcavity compared to a single thin film. In the macroscopic order regime, self-assembly of micron- sized SiO 2 and

  16. Photon imaging using post-processed CMOS chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melai, J.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents our work on an integrated photon detector made by post-processing of CMOS sensor arrays. The aim of the post-processing is to combine all elements of the detector into a single monolithic device. These elements include a photocathode to convert photon radiation into electronic

  17. Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, Mathieu; Cadeddu, Davide; Teissier, Jean

    2016-01-01

    We present an exploration of the spectroscopy of a single quantum dot in a photonic wire. The device presents a high photon extraction efficiency, and strong hybrid coupling to mechanical modes. We use resonance fluorescence to probe the emitter's properties with the highest sensitivity, allowing...

  18. Modeling and Development of Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal outlines a research project as the central component of a Ph.D. program focused on the device physics of superconducting nanowire single photon...

  19. Jet and hadron production in photon-photon collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Soldner-Rembold, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    Di-jet and inclusive charged hadron production cross-sections measured in photon-photon collisions by OPAL are compared to NLO pQCD calculations. Jet shapes measured in photon-photon scattering by OPAL, in deep-inelastic ep scattering by H1 and in photon-proton scattering by ZEUS are shown to be consistent in similar kinematic ranges. New results from TOPAZ on prompt photon production in photon-photon interactions are presented.

  20. Photonic crystal pioneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anscombe, Nadya

    2011-08-01

    Over the past ten years, Crystal Fiber, now part of NKT Photonics, has been busy commercializing photonic crystal fibre. Nadya Anscombe finds out about the evolution of the technology and its applications.

  1. Photonic Design for Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosten, E.; Callahan, D.; Horowitz, K.; Pala, R.; Atwater, H.

    2014-08-28

    We describe photonic design approaches for silicon photovoltaics including i) trapezoidal broadband light trapping structures ii) broadband light trapping with photonic crystal superlattices iii) III-V/Si nanowire arrays designed for broadband light trapping.

  2. Photonic crystal light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Shawn-Yu [Albuquerque, NM; Bur, James A [Corrales, NM

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  3. Photon structure function - theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1984-12-01

    The theoretical status of the photon structure function is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the hadronic mixing problem and the ability of perturbative QCD to make definitive predictions for the photon structure function. 11 references

  4. Resonant Tunneling in Photonic Double Quantum Well Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Joel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here, we study the resonant photonic states of photonic double quantum well (PDQW heterostructures composed of two different photonic crystals. The heterostructure is denoted as B/A/B/A/B, where photonic crystals A and B act as photonic wells and barriers, respectively. The resulting band structure causes photons to become confined within the wells, where they occupy discrete quantized states. We have obtained an expression for the transmission coefficient of the PDQW heterostructure using the transfer matrix method and have found that resonant states exist within the photonic wells. These resonant states occur in split pairs, due to a coupling between degenerate states shared by each of the photonic wells. It is observed that when the resonance energy lies at a bound photonic state and the two photonic quantum wells are far away from each other, resonant states appear in the transmission spectrum of the PDQW as single peaks. However, when the wells are brought closer together, coupling between bound photonic states causes an energy-splitting effect, and the transmitted states each have two peaks. Essentially, this means that the system can be switched between single and double transparent states. We have also observed that the total number of resonant states can be controlled by varying the width of the photonic wells, and the quality factor of transmitted peaks can be drastically improved by increasing the thickness of the outer photonic barriers. It is anticipated that the resonant states described here can be used to develop new types of photonic-switching devices, optical filters, and other optoelectronic devices.

  5. Nonclassical light sources for silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoni, Daniele; Galli, Matteo

    2017-09-01

    Quantum photonics has recently attracted a lot of attention for its disruptive potential in emerging technologies like quantum cryptography, quantum communication and quantum computing. Driven by the impressive development in nanofabrication technologies and nanoscale engineering, silicon photonics has rapidly become the platform of choice for on-chip integration of high performing photonic devices, now extending their functionalities towards quantum-based applications. Focusing on quantum Information Technology (qIT) as a key application area, we review recent progress in integrated silicon-based sources of nonclassical states of light. We assess the state of the art in this growing field and highlight the challenges that need to be overcome to make quantum photonics a reliable and widespread technology.

  6. On-chip photonic particle sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Robin; Ma, Danhao; Agarwal, Anu; Anthony, Brian

    2018-02-01

    We propose an on-chip photonic particle sensor design that can perform particle sizing and counting for various environmental applications. The sensor is based on micro photonic ring resonators that are able to detect the presence of the free space particles through the interaction with their evanescent electric field tail. The sensor can characterize a wide range of the particle size ranging from a few nano meters to micron ( 1 micron). The photonic platform offers high sensitivity, compactness, fast response of the device. Further, FDTD simulations are performed to analyze different particle-light interactions. Such a compact and portable platform, packaged with integrated photonic circuit provides a useful sensing modality in space shuttle and environmental applications.

  7. Single Photon Sources in Silicon Carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brett Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Single photon sources in semiconductors are highly sought after as they constitute the building blocks of a diverse range of emerging technologies such as integrated quantum information processing, quantum metrology and quantum photonics. In this presentation, we show the first observation of single photon emission from deep level defects in silicon carbide (SiC). The single photon emission is photo-stable at room temperature and surprisingly bright. This represents an exciting alternative to diamond color centers since SiC possesses well-established growth and device engineering protocols. The defect is assigned to the carbon vacancy-antisite pair which gives rise to the AB photoluminescence lines. We discuss its photo-physical properties and their fabrication via electron irradiation. Preliminary measurements on 3C SiC nano-structures will also be discussed. (author)

  8. Photon wave function

    OpenAIRE

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo

    2005-01-01

    Photon wave function is a controversial concept. Controversies stem from the fact that photon wave functions can not have all the properties of the Schroedinger wave functions of nonrelativistic wave mechanics. Insistence on those properties that, owing to peculiarities of photon dynamics, cannot be rendered, led some physicists to the extreme opinion that the photon wave function does not exist. I reject such a fundamentalist point of view in favor of a more pragmatic approach. In my view, t...

  9. Nonlinear Gain Saturation in Active Slow Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated.......We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated....

  10. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon

    2007-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  11. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  12. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  13. On-chip, photon-number-resolving, telecommunication-band detectors for scalable photonic information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana E.; Calkins, Brice; Tomlin, Nathan A.; Fox, Anna E.; Linares, Antia Lamas; Mirin, Richard P.; Nam, Sae Woo [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado, 80305 (United States); Thomas-Peter, Nicholas; Metcalf, Benjamin J.; Spring, Justin B.; Langford, Nathan K.; Walmsley, Ian A. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Gates, James C.; Smith, Peter G. R. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Highfield SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Integration is currently the only feasible route toward scalable photonic quantum processing devices that are sufficiently complex to be genuinely useful in computing, metrology, and simulation. Embedded on-chip detection will be critical to such devices. We demonstrate an integrated photon-number-resolving detector, operating in the telecom band at 1550 nm, employing an evanescently coupled design that allows it to be placed at arbitrary locations within a planar circuit. Up to five photons are resolved in the guided optical mode via absorption from the evanescent field into a tungsten transition-edge sensor. The detection efficiency is 7.2{+-}0.5 %. The polarization sensitivity of the detector is also demonstrated. Detailed modeling of device designs shows a clear and feasible route to reaching high detection efficiencies.

  14. Multi-periodic nanostructures for photon control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluge, Christian; Adam, Jost; Barié, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    We propose multi-periodic nanostructures yielded by superposition of multiple binary gratings for wide control over photon emission in thin-film devices. We present wavelength- and angle-resolved photoluminescence measurements of multi-periodically nanostructured organic light-emitting layers...

  15. Integrated microwave photonics for phase modulated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marpaung, D.A.I.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.

    2012-01-01

    For the last 25 years, microwave photonic (MWP) systems and links have relied almost exclusively on discrete optoelectronic devices, standard optical fibers and fiber-based components. With this concept, various functionalities like RF signal generation, distribution, processing and analysis have

  16. Efficient suppression of thermally induced nonreciprocity in fibre optic Sagnac interferometers using novel double-layer winding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chomát, Miroslav

    1993-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 13 (1993), s. 2289-2291 ISSN 0003-6935 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IA26715 Keywords : optical fibres * optical waveguides * nonelectric sensing devices Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.907, year: 1993

  17. FY 2005 Infrared Photonics Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Ho, Nicolas; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Johnson, Bradley R.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Bradley M.; Martinez, James E.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Schultz, John F.

    2005-12-01

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications by exploiting the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass. PNNL has developed thin-film deposition capabilities, direct laser writing techniques, infrared photonic device demonstration, holographic optical element design and fabrication, photonic device modeling, and advanced optical metrology—all specific to chalcogenide glass. Chalcogenide infrared photonics provides a pathway to quantum cascade laser (QCL) transmitter miniaturization. QCLs provide a viable infrared laser source for a new class of laser transmitters capable of meeting the performance requirements for a variety of national security sensing applications. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors that are particularly useful for nuclear nonproliferation missions. During FY 2005, PNNL’s Infrared Photonics research team made measurable progress exploiting the extraordinary optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to develop miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. We investigated sulfur purification methods that will eventually lead to routine production of optical quality chalcogenide glass. We also discovered a glass degradation phenomenon and our investigation uncovered the underlying surface chemistry mechanism and developed mitigation actions. Key research was performed to understand and control the photomodification properties. This research was then used to demonstrate several essential infrared photonic devices, including LWIR single-mode waveguide devices and

  18. Organic printed photonics: From microring lasers to integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Zou, Chang-Ling; Zhao, Yan; Dong, Chun-Hua; Wei, Cong; Wang, Hanlin; Liu, Yunqi; Guo, Guang-Can; Yao, Jiannian; Zhao, Yong Sheng

    2015-09-01

    A photonic integrated circuit (PIC) is the optical analogy of an electronic loop in which photons are signal carriers with high transport speed and parallel processing capability. Besides the most frequently demonstrated silicon-based circuits, PICs require a variety of materials for light generation, processing, modulation, and detection. With their diversity and flexibility, organic molecular materials provide an alternative platform for photonics; however, the versatile fabrication of organic integrated circuits with the desired photonic performance remains a big challenge. The rapid development of flexible electronics has shown that a solution printing technique has considerable potential for the large-scale fabrication and integration of microsized/nanosized devices. We propose the idea of soft photonics and demonstrate the function-directed fabrication of high-quality organic photonic devices and circuits. We prepared size-tunable and reproducible polymer microring resonators on a wafer-scale transparent and flexible chip using a solution printing technique. The printed optical resonator showed a quality (Q) factor higher than 4 × 10(5), which is comparable to that of silicon-based resonators. The high material compatibility of this printed photonic chip enabled us to realize low-threshold microlasers by doping organic functional molecules into a typical photonic device. On an identical chip, this construction strategy allowed us to design a complex assembly of one-dimensional waveguide and resonator components for light signal filtering and optical storage toward the large-scale on-chip integration of microscopic photonic units. Thus, we have developed a scheme for soft photonic integration that may motivate further studies on organic photonic materials and devices.

  19. Silicon Microspheres Photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpenguzel, A.

    2008-01-01

    Electrophotonic integrated circuits (EPICs), or alternatively, optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEICs) are the natural evolution of the microelectronic integrated circuit (IC) with the addition of photonic capabilities. Traditionally, the IC industry has been based on group IV silicon, whereas the photonics industry on group III-V semiconductors. However, silicon based photonic microdevices have been making strands in siliconizing photonics. Silicon microspheres with their high quality factor whispering gallery modes (WGMs), are ideal candidates for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) applications in the standard near-infrared communication bands. In this work, we will discuss the possibility of using silicon microspheres for photonics applications in the near-infrared

  20. Photon correlation holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Dinesh N; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Ezawa, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Yoko; Takeda, Mitsuo

    2011-01-17

    Unconventional holography called photon correlation holography is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Using photon correlation, i.e. intensity correlation or fourth order correlation of optical field, a 3-D image of the object recorded in a hologram is reconstructed stochastically with illumination through a random phase screen. Two different schemes for realizing photon correlation holography are examined by numerical simulations, and the experiment was performed for one of the reconstruction schemes suitable for the experimental proof of the principle. The technique of photon correlation holography provides a new insight into how the information is embedded in the spatial as well as temporal correlation of photons in the stochastic pseudo thermal light.

  1. Photonic crystals: role of architecture and disorder on spectral properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rupesh; Audhkhasi, Romil; Thyagarajan, Krishna; Banerjee, Varsha

    2018-03-01

    Many of the present-day optical devices use photonic crystals. These are multilayers of dielectric media that control the reflection and transmission of light falling on them. In this paper, we study the optical properties of periodic, fractal, and aperiodic photonic crystals and compare them based on their attributes. Our calculations of the band reflectivity and degree of robustness reveal novel features, e.g., fractal photonic crystals are found to reflect the maximum amount of incident light. On the other hand, aperiodic photonic crystals have the largest immunity to disorder. We believe that such properties will be useful in a variety of applications in the field of optical communication.

  2. Electron and Photon ID

    CERN Document Server

    Hryn'ova, Tetiana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The identification of prompt photons and the rejection of background coming mostly from photons from hadron decays relies on the high granularity of the ATLAS calorimeter. The electron identification used in ATLAS for run 2 is based on a likelihood discrimination to separate isolated electron candidates from candidates originating from photon conversions, hadron misidentification and heavy flavor decays. In addition, isolation variables are used as further handles to separate signal and background. Several methods are used to measure with data the efficiency of the photon identification requirements, to cover a broad energy spectrum. At low energy, photons from radiative Z decays are used. In the medium energy range, similarities between electrons and photon showers are exploited using Z->ee decays. At high energy, inclusive photon samples are used. The measurement of the efficiencies of the electron identification and isolation cuts are performed with the data using tag and probe techniques with large statis...

  3. Fluctuations in quantum devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Haken

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Logical gates can be formalized by Boolean algebra whose elementary operations can be realized by devices that employ the interactions of macroscopic numbers of elementary excitations such as electrons, holes, photons etc. With increasing miniaturization to the nano scale and below, quantum fluctuations become important and can no longer be ignored. Based on Heisenberg equations of motion for the creation and annihilation operators of elementary excitations, I determine the noise sources of composite quantum systems.

  4. Single photon detection with self-quenching multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A photoelectronic device and an avalanche self-quenching process for a photoelectronic device are described. The photoelectronic device comprises a nanoscale semiconductor multiplication region and a nanoscale doped semiconductor quenching structure including a depletion region and an undepletion region. The photoelectronic device can act as a single photon detector or a single carrier multiplier. The avalanche self-quenching process allows electrical field reduction in the multiplication region by movement of the multiplication carriers, thus quenching the avalanche.

  5. Inclusive hard processes in photon-photon and photon-proton interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Glasman, Claudia

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of jet, prompt photon, high-pT hadron and heavy quark production in photon-induced processes provide tests of QCD and are sensitive to the photon parton densities. A review of the latest experimental results in photon-photon and photon-proton interactions is presented. Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations for these measurements are discussed.

  6. Photon-number-resolving SSPDs with system detection efficiency over 50% at telecom range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, P.; Divochiy, A.; Vakhtomin, Yu.; Moshkova, M.; Morozov, P.; Seleznev, V.; Smirnov, K.

    2018-02-01

    We used technology of making high-efficiency superconducting single-photon detectors as a basis for improvement of photon-number-resolving devices. By adding optical cavity and using an improved NbN superconducting film, we enhanced previously reported system detection efficiency at telecom range for such detectors. Our results show that implementation of optical cavity helps to develop four-section device with quantum efficiency over 50% at 1.55 µm. Performed experimental studies of detecting multi-photon optical pulses showed irregularities over defining multi-photon through single-photon quantum efficiency.

  7. Using Quasiparticle Poisoning To Detect Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echternach, Pierre; Day, Peter

    2006-01-01

    According to a proposal, a phenomenon associated with excitation of quasiparticles in certain superconducting quantum devices would be exploited as a means of detecting photons with exquisite sensitivity. The phenomenon could also be exploited to perform medium-resolution spectroscopy. The proposal was inspired by the observation that Coulomb blockade devices upon which some quantum logic gates are based are extremely sensitive to quasiparticles excited above the superconducting gaps in their leads. The presence of quasiparticles in the leads can be easily detected via the charge states. If quasiparticles could be generated in the leads by absorption of photons, then the devices could be used as very sensitive detectors of electromagnetic radiation over the spectral range from x-rays to submillimeter waves. The devices in question are single-Cooper-pair boxes (SCBs), which are mesoscopic superconducting devices developed for quantum computing. An SCB consists of a small superconducting island connected to a reservoir via a small tunnel junction and connected to a voltage source through a gate capacitor. An SCB is an artificial two-level quantum system, the Hamiltonian of which can be controlled by the gate voltage. One measures the expected value of the charge of the eigenvectors of this quantum system by use of a radio-frequency single-electron transistor. A plot of this expected value of charge as a function of gate voltage resembles a staircase that, in the ideal case, consists of steps of height 2 e (where e is the charge of one electron). Experiments have shown that depending on the parameters of the device, quasiparticles in the form of "broken" Cooper pairs present in the reservoir can tunnel to the island, giving rise to steps of 1 e. This effect is sometimes called "poisoning." Simulations have shown that an extremely small average number of quasiparticles can generate a 1-e periodic signal. In a device according to the proposal, this poisoning would be

  8. Construction of Nanowire Heterojunctions: Photonic Function-Oriented Nanoarchitectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong Jun; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Yao, Jiannian

    2016-02-10

    Nanophotonics has received broad research interest because it may provide an alternative opportunity to overcome the fundamental limitations of electronic circuits. So far, diverse photonic functions, such as light generation, modulation, and detection, have been realized based on various nano-materials. The exact structural features of these material systems, including geometric characteristics, surface morphology, and material composition, play a key role in determining the photonic functions. Therefore, rational designs and constructions of materials on both morphological and componential levels, namely nanoarchitectonics, are indispensable for any photonic device with specific functionalities. Recently, a series of nanowire heterojunctions (NWHJs), which are usually made from two or more kinds of material compositions, were constructed for novel photonic applications based on various interactions between different materials at the junctions, for instance, energy transfer, exciton-plasmon coupling, or photon-plasmon coupling. A summary of these works is necessary to get a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between photonic functions and architectonics of NWHJs, which will be instructive for designing novel photonic devices towards integrated circuits. Here, photonic function oriented nanoarchitectonics based on recent breakthroughs in nanophotonic devices are discussed, with emphasis on the design mechanisms, fabrication strategies, and excellent performances. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Monolithically Integrated Ge-on-Si Active Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monolithically integrated, active photonic devices on Si are key components in Si-based large-scale electronic-photonic integration for future generations of high-performance, low-power computation and communication systems. Ge has become an interesting candidate for active photonic devices in Si photonics due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS processing. In this paper, we present a review of the recent progress in Ge-on-Si active photonics materials and devices for photon detection, modulation, and generation. We first discuss the band engineering of Ge using tensile strain, n-type doping, Sn alloying, and separate confinement of Γ vs. L electrons in quantum well (QW structures to transform the material towards a direct band gap semiconductor for enhancing optoelectronic properties. We then give a brief overview of epitaxial Ge-on-Si materials growth, followed by a summary of recent investigations towards low-temperature, direct growth of high crystallinity Ge and GeSn alloys on dielectric layers for 3D photonic integration. Finally, we review the most recent studies on waveguide-integrated Ge-on-Si photodetectors (PDs, electroabsorption modulators (EAMs, and laser diodes (LDs, and suggest possible future research directions for large-scale monolithic electronic-photonic integrated circuits on a Si platform.

  10. Photonics for aerospace sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, John; Adler, Eric D.; Filipov, Andree N.; Harrison, Lorna J.; van der Gracht, Joseph; Smith, Dale J.; Tayag, Tristan J.; Viveiros, Edward A.

    1992-11-01

    The maturation in the state-of-the-art of optical components is enabling increased applications for the technology. Most notable is the ever-expanding market for fiber optic data and communications links, familiar in both commercial and military markets. The inherent properties of optics and photonics, however, have suggested that components and processors may be designed that offer advantages over more commonly considered digital approaches for a variety of airborne sensor and signal processing applications. Various academic, industrial, and governmental research groups have been actively investigating and exploiting these properties of high bandwidth, large degree of parallelism in computation (e.g., processing in parallel over a two-dimensional field), and interconnectivity, and have succeeded in advancing the technology to the stage of systems demonstration. Such advantages as computational throughput and low operating power consumption are highly attractive for many computationally intensive problems. This review covers the key devices necessary for optical signal and image processors, some of the system application demonstration programs currently in progress, and active research directions for the implementation of next-generation architectures.

  11. The photonic nanowire: an emerging platform for highly efficient single-photon sources for quantum information applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Munsch, Mathieu; Malik, Nitin S.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient coupling between a localized quantum emitter and a well defined optical channel represents a powerful route to realize single-photon sources and spin-photon interfaces. The tailored fiber-like photonic nanowire embedding a single quantum dot has recently demonstrated an appealing...... potential. However, the device requires a delicate, sharp needle-like taper with performance sensitive to minute geometrical details. To overcome this limitation we demonstrate the photonic trumpet, exploiting an opposite tapering strategy. The trumpet features a strongly Gaussian far-field emission...

  12. Controllable photon and phonon localization in optomechanical Lieb lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Liang-Liang; Lü, Xin-You; Gao, Jin-Hua; Wu, Ying

    2017-07-24

    The Lieb lattice featuring flat band is not only important in strongly-correlated many-body physics, but also can be utilized to inspire new quantum devices. Here we propose an optomechanical Lieb lattice, where the flat-band physics of photon-phonon polaritons is demonstrated. The tunability of the band structure of the optomechanical arrays allows one to obtain an approximate photon or phonon flat band as well as the transition between them. This ultimately leads to the result that the controllable photon or phonon localization could be realized by the path interference effects. This study offers an alternative approach to explore the exotic photon and phonon many-body effects, which has potential applications in the future hybrid-photon-phonon quantum network and engineering new type solid-state quantum devices.

  13. Programmable Quantum Photonic Processor Using Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    8 Figure 6: (a) Proposed on-demand single photon source based on dynamic cavity storage . (b) Example of a gate implementation...electronic architectures tuned to implement artificial neural networks that improve upon both computational speed and energy efficiency. 3.6 All...states are in the dual- rail logic representation. Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. 6 Figure 3: Schematic of two-photon

  14. Integrated photonics using colloidal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vinod M.; Husaini, Saima; Okoye, Nicky; Valappil, Nikesh V.

    2009-11-01

    Integrated photonic devices were realized using colloidal quantum dot composites such as flexible microcavity laser, microdisk emitters and integrated active-passive waveguides. The microcavity laser structure was realized using spin coating and consisted of an all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector with a poly-vinyl carbazole cavity layer embedded with InGaP/ZnS colloidal quantum dots. These microcavities can be peeled off the substrate yielding a flexible structure that can conform to any shape and whose emission spectra can be mechanically tuned. Planar photonic devices consisting of vertically coupled microring resonators, microdisk emitters, active-passive integrated waveguide structures and coupled active microdisk resonators were realized using soft lithography, photo-lithography, and electron beam lithography, respectively. The gain medium in all these devices was a composite consisting of quantum dots embedded in SU8 matrix. Finally, the effect of the host matrix on the optical properties of the quantum dots using results of steady-state and time-resolved luminescence measurements was determined. In addition to their specific functionalities, these novel device demonstrations and their development present a low-cost alternative to the traditional photonic device fabrication techniques.

  15. Introduction to photonics and holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosmann, M.

    1982-01-01

    These new terms cover a group of advanced technologies based on the specific properties of the ineraction between light and matter that have been discovered since the development of lasers. Electronics uses electricity to process information: photonics performs the same functions, but uses light instead of electricity. Photonics can be said to cover all the methods, processes or systems which serve of study, measure and transform or transmit by means of light. The photon devices which have resulted from fundamental and applied research in this field over the last ten years or so cover a comparable range of application areas to that of electronics - mechanical engineering, medicine, avionics, telecommunications, biology, metrology, quality control, hydraulics, computers, botanical science, textiles, remote sensing, pneumatics, aerospace, etc. The list is too long to give in its entirety, but for our present purposes there are four types of significant products: lasers and their accessories, optical fibres and their accessories, data acquisition, processing and display systems and photovoltaic and solar systems. (orig.)

  16. Fabrication of photonic crystals on several kinds of semiconductor materials by using focused-ion beam method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xingsheng; Chen Hongda; Xiong Zhigang; Jin Aizi; Gu Changzhi; Cheng Bingying; Zhang Daozhong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduced the fabrication of photonic crystals on several kinds of semiconductor materials by using focused-ion beam machine, it shows that the method of focused-ion beam can fabricate two-dimensional photonic crystal and photonic crystal device efficiently, and the quality of the fabricated photonic crystal is high. Using the focused-ion beam method, we fabricate photonic crystal wavelength division multiplexer, and its characteristics are analyzed

  17. Frequency Control of Single Quantum Emitters in Integrated Photonic Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidgall, Emma R; Chakravarthi, Srivatsa; Gould, Michael; Christen, Ian R; Hestroffer, Karine; Hatami, Fariba; Fu, Kai-Mei C

    2018-02-14

    Generating entangled graph states of qubits requires high entanglement rates with efficient detection of multiple indistinguishable photons from separate qubits. Integrating defect-based qubits into photonic devices results in an enhanced photon collection efficiency, however, typically at the cost of a reduced defect emission energy homogeneity. Here, we demonstrate that the reduction in defect homogeneity in an integrated device can be partially offset by electric field tuning. Using photonic device-coupled implanted nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in a GaP-on-diamond platform, we demonstrate large field-dependent tuning ranges and partial stabilization of defect emission energies. These results address some of the challenges of chip-scale entanglement generation.

  18. Frequency Control of Single Quantum Emitters in Integrated Photonic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidgall, Emma R.; Chakravarthi, Srivatsa; Gould, Michael; Christen, Ian R.; Hestroffer, Karine; Hatami, Fariba; Fu, Kai-Mei C.

    2018-02-01

    Generating entangled graph states of qubits requires high entanglement rates, with efficient detection of multiple indistinguishable photons from separate qubits. Integrating defect-based qubits into photonic devices results in an enhanced photon collection efficiency, however, typically at the cost of a reduced defect emission energy homogeneity. Here, we demonstrate that the reduction in defect homogeneity in an integrated device can be partially offset by electric field tuning. Using photonic device-coupled implanted nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in a GaP-on-diamond platform, we demonstrate large field-dependent tuning ranges and partial stabilization of defect emission energies. These results address some of the challenges of chip-scale entanglement generation.

  19. Dirac directional emission in anisotropic zero refractive index photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin-Tao; Zhong, Yao-Nan; Zhou, You; Zhong, Zhi-Chao; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2015-08-14

    A certain class of photonic crystals with conical dispersion is known to behave as isotropic zero-refractive-index medium. However, the discrete building blocks in such photonic crystals are limited to construct multidirectional devices, even for high-symmetric photonic crystals. Here, we show multidirectional emission from low-symmetric photonic crystals with semi-Dirac dispersion at the zone center. We demonstrate that such low-symmetric photonic crystal can be considered as an effective anisotropic zero-refractive-index medium, as long as there is only one propagation mode near Dirac frequency. Four kinds of Dirac multidirectional emitters are achieved with the channel numbers of five, seven, eleven, and thirteen, respectively. Spatial power combination for such kind of Dirac directional emitter is also verified even when multiple sources are randomly placed in the anisotropic zero-refractive-index photonic crystal.

  20. Transverse angular momentum in topological photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Min; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Fu-Li; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2018-01-01

    Engineering local angular momentum of structured light fields in real space enables applications in many fields, in particular, the realization of unidirectional robust transport in topological photonic crystals with a non-trivial Berry vortex in momentum space. Here, we show transverse angular momentum modes in silicon topological photonic crystals when considering transverse electric polarization. Excited by a chiral external source with either transverse spin angular momentum or transverse phase vortex, robust light flow propagating along opposite directions is observed in several kinds of sharp-turn interfaces between two topologically-distinct silicon photonic crystals. A transverse orbital angular momentum mode with alternating phase vortex exists at the boundary of two such photonic crystals. In addition, unidirectional transport is robust to the working frequency even when the ring size or location of the pseudo-spin source varies in a certain range, leading to the superiority of the broadband photonic device. These findings enable one to make use of transverse angular momentum, a kind of degree of freedom, to achieve unidirectional robust transport in the telecom region and other potential applications in integrated photonic circuits, such as on-chip robust delay lines.

  1. Optofluidic and photothermal control of InGaAsP photonic crystal nanocavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dundar, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    A photonic crystal (PhC), which is an artificial material with a periodic modulation of the refractive index, provides an ultimate miniaturization of photonic devices since it can influence the flow of light on the optical wavelength scale. A particular useful device is the PhC cavity. It can be

  2. Photonic crystal waveguides in PECVD glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haoling; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Têtu, Amélie

    Silicon oxynitride (SiON) on silicon has found wide use as a robust and versatileplatform for integrated, optical devices. With plasma-enhanced chemical vapourdeposition (PECVD) the refractive index can be varied all the way from 1.5 (pure silica,SiO2) to 2.0 (pure silicon nitride, Si3N4). We have...... fabricated glasses with refractive indexup to approximately 1.75, with which value it is possible to fabricate photonic crystalwaveguides. These structures have the advantage of being transparent in the whole of thevisible region, which makes them different from photonic crystals made...

  3. Superconducting detectors for semiconductor quantum photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reithmaier, Guenther M.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we present the first successful on-chip detection of quantum light, thereby demonstrating the monolithic integration of superconducting single photon detectors with individually addressable semiconductor quantum dots in a prototypical quantum photonic circuit. Therefore, we optimized both the deposition of high quality superconducting NbN thin films on GaAs substrates and the fabrication of superconducting detectors and successfully integrated these novel devices with GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides loaded with self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots.

  4. Quantum information processing with atoms and photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroe, C.

    2003-01-01

    Quantum information processors exploit the quantum features of superposition and entanglement for applications not possible in classical devices, offering the potential for significant improvements in the communication and processing of information. Experimental realization of large-scale quantum information processors remains a long term vision, as the required nearly pure quantum behaviour is observed only in exotic hardware such as individual laser-cooled atoms and isolated photons. But recent theoretical and experimental advances suggest that cold atoms and individual photons may lead the way towards bigger and better quantum information processors, effectively building mesoscopic versions of Schroedinger's cat' from the bottom up. (author)

  5. Single-photon imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Seitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...

  6. Heavy quark pair production in polarized photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jikia, G.; Tkabladze, A.

    2000-04-01

    We present the cross sections of the heavy quark-antiquark pair production in polarized photon photon collision for the general case of photon polarizations. The numerical results for top-antitop production cross sections together with production asymmetries are obtained for linearly polarized photon-photon collisions, including QCD radiative corrections. (orig.)

  7. Integrated Microwave Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, David; Roeloffzen, Chris; Heideman, René; Leinse, Arne; Sales Maicas, Salvador; Capmany Francoy, José

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics (MWP) is an emerging field in which radio frequency (RF) signals are generated, distributed, processed and analyzed using the strength of photonic techniques. It is a technology that enables various functionalities which are not feasible to achieve only in the microwave domain. A particular aspect that recently gains significant interests is the use of photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology in the MWP field for enhanced functionalities and robustness as well as the r...

  8. Two-photon physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1981-10-01

    A new experimental frontier has recently been opened to the study of two photon processes. The first results of many aspects of these reactions are being presented at this conference. In contrast, the theoretical development of research ito two photon processes has a much longer history. This talk reviews the many different theoretical ideas which provide a detailed framework for our understanding of two photon processes

  9. Review on Dark Photon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curciarello Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available e+e− collider experiments at the intensity frontier are naturally suited to probe the existence of a force beyond the Standard Model between WIMPs, the most viable dark matter candidates. The mediator of this new force, known as dark photon, should be a new vector gauge boson very weakly coupled to the Standard Model photon. No significant signal has been observed so far. I will report on current limits set on the coupling factor ε2 between the photon and the dark photon by e+e− collider experiments.

  10. Towards THz integrated photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    The demonstration of an integrated terahertz transceiver featuring a quantum cascade laser and a Schottky diode mixer promises new applications for compact and convenient terahertz photonic instrumentation.

  11. Tale of two photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A very profitable spinoff from electron- positron collisions is two-photon physics. Rather than the electron and positron interacting directly via an exchanged photon, two virtual (transient) photons, one from each particle, get tangled up. With new electron-positron colliders appearing on the scene, a topical meeting on two-photon physics - 'From DAPHNE to LEP 200 and beyond' - held from 2-4 February in Paris, in the premises of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, was particularly timely. Some 60 physicists, both experimentalists and theorists, participated, with some thirty speakers

  12. Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratoryprovides this nation's (in fact, this hemisphere's) brightest storage...

  13. Single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buvat, Irene

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this lecture is to present the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging technique. Content: 1 - Introduction: anatomic, functional and molecular imaging; Principle and role of functional or molecular imaging; 2 - Radiotracers: chemical and physical constraints, main emitters, radioisotopes production, emitters type and imaging techniques; 3 - Single photon emission computed tomography: gamma cameras and their components, gamma camera specifications, planar single photon imaging characteristics, gamma camera and tomography; 4 - Quantification in single photon emission tomography: attenuation, scattering, un-stationary spatial resolution, partial volume effect, movements, others; 5 - Synthesis and conclusion

  14. Photon virtual bound state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, J.; Ohtaka, K.

    2004-01-01

    We study virtual bound states in photonics, which are a vectorial extension of electron virtual bound states. The condition for these states is derived. It is found that the Mie resonant state which satisfies the condition that the size parameter is less than the angular momentum should be interpreted as a photon virtual bound state. In order to confirm the validity of the concept, we compare the photonic density of states, the width of which represents the lifetime of the photon virtual bound states, with numerical results

  15. SiPM as photon counter for Cherenkov detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, B.J.; Orth, H.; Schwarz, C.; Wilms, A.; Peters, K.

    2009-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are very new type of photon counting devices that show great promise to be used as detection device in combination with scintillators/ Cherenkov radiators. SiPM is essentially an avalanche photo-diode operated in limited Geiger mode. They have been considered as potential readout devices for DIRC counter of the PANDA detector which is one of the large experiment at FAIR- the new international facility to be built at GSI, Darmstadt. In addition, the potential use of SiPM includes medical diagnosis, fluorescence measurement and high energy physics experiments. The SiPM module is a photon counting device capable of low light level detection. It is essentially an opto-semiconductor device with excellent photon counting capability and possesses great advantages over the conventional PMTs because of low voltage operation and insensitivity to magnetic fields. In many of the high energy physics experiments, the photon sensors are required to operate in high magnetic fields precluding the use of conventional PMTs. This problem can be over come with the use of SiPMs. With this motivation in mind, we have developed a SiPM test facility and have tested several commercially available SiPM for their performance study and comparison with other photon counting devices

  16. View from... Group IV Photonics: Industry meets academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pile, David

    2012-12-01

    Silicon photonics and devices based on group IV elements are overcoming the tough economic downturns that have rocked industry over the past 12 years. Cross fertilization between academia and industry may lead to new devices that are both innovative and profitable.

  17. Photon-phonon interaction in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, T

    2010-01-01

    Photon-phonon interaction on the analogy of electron-phonon interaction is considered in one-dimensional photonic crystal. When lattice vibration is artificially introduced to the photonic crystal, a governing equation of electromagnetic field is derived. A simple model is numerically analysed and the following novel phenomena are found out. The lattice vibration generates the light of frequency which added the integral multiple of the vibration frequency to that of the incident wave and also amplifies the incident wave resonantly. On a resonance, the amplification factor increases very rapidly with the number of layers increases. Resonance frequencies change with the phases of lattice vibration. The amplification phenomenon is analytically discussed for low frequency of the lattice vibration.

  18. Fabrication of Optical Fiber Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Miguel V.

    In this paper we present the main research activities of the Laboratorio de Fibras Opticas del Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales de la Universidad de Valencia. We show some of the main results obtained for devices based on tapered fibers, fiber Bragg gratings, acousto-optic effects and photonic crystal fibers.

  19. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductor Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Marcher

    1999-01-01

    In this work we present an experimental technique for investigating ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor optical amplifiers at room temperature. These dynamics, influenced by carrier heating, spectral hole-burning and two-photon absorption, are very important for device applications in inf...

  20. Semiconductor quantum optics with tailored photonic nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laucht, Arne

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes detailed investigations of the effects of photonic nanostructures on the light emission properties of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots. Nanoscale optical cavities and waveguides are employed to enhance the interaction between light and matter, i.e. photons and excitons, up to the point where optical non-linearities appear at the quantum (single photon) level. Such non-linearities are an essential component for the realization of hardware for photon based quantum computing since they can be used for the creation and detection of non-classical states of light and may open the way to new genres of quantum optoelectronic devices such as optical modulators and optical transistors. For single semiconductor quantum dots in photonic crystal nanocavities we investigate the coupling between excitonic transitions and the highly localized mode of the optical cavity. We explore the non-resonant coupling mechanisms which allow excitons to couple to the cavity mode, even when they are not spectrally in resonance. This effect is not observed for atomic cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments and its origin is traced to phonon-assisted scattering for small detunings (ΔE ∝5 meV). For quantum dots in high-Q cavities we observe the coherent coupling between exciton and cavity mode in the strong coupling regime of light-matter interaction, probe the influence of pure dephasing on the coherent interaction at high excitation levels and high lattice temperatures, and examine the coupling of two spatially separated quantum dots via the exchange of real and virtual photons mediated by the cavity mode. Furthermore, we study the spontaneous emission properties of quantum dots in photonic crystal waveguide structures, estimate the fraction of all photons emitted into the propagating waveguide mode, and demonstrate the on-chip generation of single photon emission into the waveguide. The results obtained during the course of this thesis contribute significantly to

  1. Semiconductor quantum optics with tailored photonic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laucht, Arne

    2011-06-15

    This thesis describes detailed investigations of the effects of photonic nanostructures on the light emission properties of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots. Nanoscale optical cavities and waveguides are employed to enhance the interaction between light and matter, i.e. photons and excitons, up to the point where optical non-linearities appear at the quantum (single photon) level. Such non-linearities are an essential component for the realization of hardware for photon based quantum computing since they can be used for the creation and detection of non-classical states of light and may open the way to new genres of quantum optoelectronic devices such as optical modulators and optical transistors. For single semiconductor quantum dots in photonic crystal nanocavities we investigate the coupling between excitonic transitions and the highly localized mode of the optical cavity. We explore the non-resonant coupling mechanisms which allow excitons to couple to the cavity mode, even when they are not spectrally in resonance. This effect is not observed for atomic cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments and its origin is traced to phonon-assisted scattering for small detunings ({delta}E<{proportional_to}5 meV) and a multi-exciton-based, Auger-like process for larger detunings ({delta}E >{proportional_to}5 meV). For quantum dots in high-Q cavities we observe the coherent coupling between exciton and cavity mode in the strong coupling regime of light-matter interaction, probe the influence of pure dephasing on the coherent interaction at high excitation levels and high lattice temperatures, and examine the coupling of two spatially separated quantum dots via the exchange of real and virtual photons mediated by the cavity mode. Furthermore, we study the spontaneous emission properties of quantum dots in photonic crystal waveguide structures, estimate the fraction of all photons emitted into the propagating waveguide mode, and demonstrate the on-chip generation of

  2. Topology optimization for nano-photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Topology optimization is a computational tool that can be used for the systematic design of photonic crystals, waveguides, resonators, filters and plasmonics. The method was originally developed for mechanical design problems but has within the last six years been applied to a range of photonics...... applications. Topology optimization may be based on finite element and finite difference type modeling methods in both frequency and time domain. The basic idea is that the material density of each element or grid point is a design variable, hence the geometry is parameterized in a pixel-like fashion....... The optimization problem is efficiently solved using mathematical programming-based optimization methods and analytical gradient calculations. The paper reviews the basic procedures behind topology optimization, a large number of applications ranging from photonic crystal design to surface plasmonic devices...

  3. New developments in photon and materials research

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the most recent updates in the field of photon and optical materials research. It is devoted to various interdisciplinary subjects such as fundamental photon physics, bio and medical photon physics, ultrafast non-linear optics, quasiparticle excitation and spectroscopy, coherent mid-infrared (IR) light sources, functional optoelectronic materials and optical fibres, and quantum nano-structured devices for various important technological applications. It contains 19 authoritative peer-reviewed chapters regarding experimental and theoretical research in these fields, contributed by young scientists and engineers (assistant or associate professor level) along with well-established experts. The response of materials to electromagnetic fields, namely light-matter interaction, has been of special concern in fundamental optical sciences. The ability to fabricate and/or engineer new materials and structures is giving rise to revolutionary changes in the field, which also includes soft condensed mat...

  4. One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical calculations indicate that it should be possible for one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystals (see figure) to exhibit giant dispersions known as the superprism effect. Previously, three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal superprisms have demonstrated strong wavelength dispersion - about 500 times that of conventional prisms and diffraction gratings. Unlike diffraction gratings, superprisms do not exhibit zero-order transmission or higher-order diffraction, thereby eliminating cross-talk problems. However, the fabrication of these 3D photonic crystals requires complex electron-beam substrate patterning and multilayer thin-film sputtering processes. The proposed 1D superprism is much simpler in structural complexity and, therefore, easier to design and fabricate. Like their 3D counterparts, the 1D superprisms can exhibit giant dispersions over small spectral bands that can be tailored by judicious structure design and tuned by varying incident beam direction. Potential applications include miniature gas-sensing devices.

  5. Photon Factory activity report, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Photon Factory made great strides in 1987. The low emittance operation of the PF ring was achieved in March, and resulted favorably in the increase of brilliance from 2 to 20 times for all the beam lines with high beam stability. At the same time, the installation of inserted devices was under way for all available straight sections of the ring. A 54-pole wiggler-undulator has been commissioned at BL-16. The devices to be inserted in the near future are a multipole wiggler for BL-13, an undulator for BL-19, and an undulator for circular polarized radiation at BL-28. The construction of beam lines continued, and four new beam lines, BL-6, BL-9, BL-16 and BL-17, are now in operation, BL-13 and BL-19 are under construction, and BL-3, BL-5, BL-18, BL-20 and BL-28 are in the design stage. Since its inauguration with four beam lines in 1982, the Photon Factory has grown rapidly, and approaches the goal of operating the PF ring with positrons in full use of its 24 beam ports and the straight sections for inserted devices. The total operation time was limited to 3,000 hours by the budget for fiscal year 1987, and about 80 % of the operation hours were devoted to the experiments of users. The nearly perfect operation of the 400 m long linac has continued in 1987, and has supplied both electrons and positrons to the TRISTAN collision experiment. The light source of a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring was normally operated. (Kako, I.)

  6. ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nayak, T

    2013-01-01

    Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < η < 3.9.

  7. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Sporring, Jon; Fogh Olsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    . To address this problem, we introduce a photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way, we preserve important illumination features, while...

  8. Integrated microwave photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marpaung, D.A.I.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Heideman, Rene; Leinse, Arne; Sales, S.; Capmany, J.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics (MWP) is an emerging field in which radio frequency (RF) signals are generated, distributed, processed and analyzed using the strength of photonic techniques. It is a technology that enables various functionalities which are not feasible to achieve only in the microwave domain. A

  9. Two Photon Distribution Amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2008-01-01

    The factorization of the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region is demonstrated at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. The leading order two photon (generalized) distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic ln Q 2 behaviour and obey new inhomogeneous evolution equations

  10. Agile Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    75, pp. 3253-3256, Oct. 1995. [24] F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Particle levitation and guidance in hollow-core photonic crystal...B. Mizaikoff, “Midinfrared sensors meet nanotechnology: Trace gas sensing with quantum cascade lasers inside photonic band-gap hollow waveguides

  11. Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the development of a detector for single photons, particles of light. New techniques are being developed that require high performance single photon detection, such as quantum cryptography, single molecule detection, optical radar, ballistic imaging, circuit testing and

  12. Photonics in wireless transceivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogani, A.; Ghelfi, P.

    2013-01-01

    During the last few years, the cross-fertilization between photonics and radio systems has been helping to overcome some major limitations of the classical radio technologies, setting new paradigms, and promising improved performance and new applications with strong benefits for public communications and safety. In particular, photonics-based wireless systems, albeit still at research level, are moving toward a new generation of multifunctional systems able to manage the wireless communication with several different frequencies and protocols, even simultaneously while also realizing surveillance operations. Photonics matches the new requirements of flexibility for software-defined architectures, thanks to its ultra-wide bandwidths and ease of tunability, and guarantees low footprint and weight, thanks to integrated photonic technologies. Moreover, photonics also allows increased resolution and sensitivity by means of the inherent low phase noise of lasers. (author)

  13. Nonlinear Photonics 2014: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmediev, N; Kartashov, Yaroslav

    2015-01-12

    International Conference "Nonlinear Photonics-2014" took place in Barcelona, Spain on July 27-31, 2014. It was a part of the "Advanced Photonics Congress" which is becoming a traditional notable event in the world of photonics. The current focus issue of Optics Express contains contributions from the participants of the Conference and the Congress. The articles in this focus issue by no means represent the total number of the congress contributions (around 400). However, it demonstrates wide range of topics covered at the event. The next conference of this series is to be held in 2016 in Australia, which is the home of many researchers working in the field of photonics in general and nonlinear photonics in particular.

  14. Almost real photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, H.

    1977-01-01

    High energy photon-proton scattering is expected to bring an important information on strong and electromagnetic interaction, and is discussed in this paper. When the ''mass'' of the photon is less than that of the lightest hadron, it is said ''the photon is almost real''. The photon energy is sufficiently high to check the energy dependence of the gamma-proton total cross section, even in the first stage of TRISTAN. The tagging system consists of four multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC) and a lead glass Cerenkov counter. The energy of scattered electrons is determined with the Cerenkov counter. The equivalent-photon approximation is a useful method to obtain the counting rates. The estimation of the counting rate was made under the expected value of the total cross section. The estimated counting rate is strong enough for the experiment of the gamma-proton total cross section measurement. (Kato, T.)

  15. Triplet-triplet annihilation photon-upconversion: towards solar energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Victor; Dzebo, Damir; Abrahamsson, Maria; Albinsson, Bo; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper

    2014-06-14

    Solar power production and solar energy storage are important research areas for development of technologies that can facilitate a transition to a future society independent of fossil fuel based energy sources. Devices for direct conversion of solar photons suffer from poor efficiencies due to spectrum losses, which are caused by energy mismatch between the optical absorption of the devices and the broadband irradiation provided by the sun. In this context, photon-upconversion technologies are becoming increasingly interesting since they might offer an efficient way of converting low energy solar energy photons into higher energy photons, ideal for solar power production and solar energy storage. This perspective discusses recent progress in triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) photon-upconversion systems and devices for solar energy applications. Furthermore, challenges with evaluation of the efficiency of TTA-photon-upconversion systems are discussed and a general approach for evaluation and comparison of existing systems is suggested.

  16. Experimental Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-Type Six-Photon Quantum Nonlocality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Huang, Yun-Feng; Wang, Zhao; Liu, Bi-Heng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-12-31

    Quantum nonlocality gives us deeper insight into quantum physics. In addition, quantum nonlocality has been further recognized as an essential resource for device-independent quantum information processing in recent years. Most experiments of nonlocality are performed using a photonic system. However, until now, photonic experiments of nonlocality have involved at most four photons. Here, for the first time, we experimentally demonstrate the six-photon quantum nonlocality in an all-versus-nothing manner based on a high-fidelity (88.4%) six-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Our experiment pushes multiphoton nonlocality studies forward to the six-photon region and might provide a larger photonic system for device-independent quantum information protocols.

  17. Excitonic and photonic processes in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This book is expected to present state-of-the-art understanding of a selection of excitonic and photonic processes in useful materials from semiconductors to insulators to metal/insulator nanocomposites, both inorganic and organic.  Among the featured applications are components of solar cells, detectors, light-emitting devices, scintillators, and materials with novel optical properties.  Excitonic properties are particularly important in organic photovoltaics and light emitting devices, as also in questions of the ultimate resolution and efficiency of new-generation scintillators for medical diagnostics,  border security, and nuclear nonproliferation.  Novel photonic and optoelectronic applications benefit from new material combinations and structures to be discussed.

  18. Control system for Siam photon source

    CERN Document Server

    Apiwatwaja, R; Isoyama, G; Ishii, T; Pairsuwan, W

    2003-01-01

    A new computer control system has been developed for Siam photon source, which is the first synchrotron light source in Thailand, personal computers and PLC's have been employed which are connected together through Ethernet. Man Machine Interface Stations (MMIS) at the front end act as a graphical user interface within Windows environment. The monitoring and controlling of individual devices is handled through several pairs of digital control station and the device interface located in each part of the synchrotron complex. The installation of the control system has been completed. The commissioning test of the control system is underway and the reliability of the system is on the positive side. Details of commissioning tests as well as characteristics of this newly built control system for the Siam photon source are described in this report.

  19. High-order passive photonic temporal integrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mohammad H; Wang, Chao; Yao, Jianping; Azaña, José

    2010-04-15

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, an ultrafast photonic high-order (second-order) complex-field temporal integrator. The demonstrated device uses a single apodized uniform-period fiber Bragg grating (FBG), and it is based on a general FBG design approach for implementing optimized arbitrary-order photonic passive temporal integrators. Using this same design approach, we also fabricate and test a first-order passive temporal integrator offering an energetic-efficiency improvement of more than 1 order of magnitude as compared with previously reported passive first-order temporal integrators. Accurate and efficient first- and second-order temporal integrations of ultrafast complex-field optical signals (with temporal features as fast as approximately 2.5ps) are successfully demonstrated using the fabricated FBG devices.

  20. Photonic crystal and photonic quasicrystal patterned in PDMS surfaces and their effect on LED radiation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suslik, Lubos [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26, Zilina (Slovakia); Pudis, Dusan, E-mail: pudis@fyzika.uniza.sk [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26, Zilina (Slovakia); Goraus, Matej [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26, Zilina (Slovakia); Nolte, Rainer [Fakultät für Maschinenbau FG Lichttechnik Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau (Germany); Kovac, Jaroslav [Inst. of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19, Bratislava (Slovakia); Durisova, Jana; Gaso, Peter [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26, Zilina (Slovakia); Hronec, Pavol [Inst. of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19, Bratislava (Slovakia); Schaaf, Peter [Chair Materials for Electronics, Institute of Materials Engineering and Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, TU Ilmenau, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 5, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Photonic quasicrystal patterned in the surface of polydimethylsiloxane membrane (left) and radiation pattern of light emitting diode with patterned membrane applied in the surface (right). - Highlights: • We presented fabrication technique of PDMS membranes with patterned surface by photonic crystal (PhC) and photonic quasi-crystal (PQC). • Presented technique is effective for preparation PhC and PQC PDMS membranes easily implementing in the LED chip. • From the goniophotometer measurements, the membranes document effective angular emission due to the diffraction on patterned surfaces. • 12 fold symmetry PQC structure shows homogeneous radiation pattern, while the 2 fold symmetry of square PhC shows evident diffraction lobes. - Abstract: We present results of fabrication and implementation of thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes with patterned surface for the light emitting diode (LED). PDMS membranes were patterned by using the interference lithography in combination with embossing technique. Two-dimensional photonic crystal and photonic quasicrystal structures with different period were patterned in the surface of thin PDMS membranes with depth up to 550 nm. Patterned PDMS membranes placed on the LED chip effectively diffracted light and increased angular emission of LED radiation pattern. We presented effective technique for fabrication of patterned PDMS membranes, which could modify the emission properties of optoelectronic devices and can be applied directly on surface LEDs and small optical devices.

  1. Single photons on demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grangier, P.; Abram, I.

    2004-01-01

    Quantum cryptography and information processing are set to benefit from developments in novel light sources that can emit photons one by one. Quantum mechanics has gained a reputation for making counter-intuitive predictions. But we rarely get the chance to witness these effects directly because, being humans, we are simply too big. Take light, for example. The light sources that are familiar to us, such as those used in lighting and imaging or in CD and DVD players, are so huge that they emit billions and billions of photons. But what if there was a light source that emitted just one photon at a time? Over the past few years, new types of light source that are able to emit photons one by one have been emerging from laboratories around the world. Pulses of light composed of a single photon correspond to power flows in the femtowatt range - a million billion times less than that of a table lamp. The driving force behind the development of these single-photon sources is a range of novel applications that take advantage of the quantum nature of light. Quantum states of superposed and entangled photons could lead the way to guaranteed-secure communication, to information processing with unprecedented speed and efficiency, and to new schemes for quantum teleportation. (U.K.)

  2. Optical fabrication of large area photonic microstructures by spliced lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wentao; Song, Meng; Zhang, Xuehua; Yin, Li; Li, Hong; Li, Lin

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a convenient approach to fabricate large area photorefractive photonic microstructures by a spliced lens device. Large area two-dimensional photonic microstructures are optically induced inside an iron-doped lithium niobate crystal. The experimental setups of our method are relatively compact and stable without complex alignment devices. It can be operated in almost any optical laboratories. We analyze the induced triangular lattice microstructures by plane wave guiding, far-field diffraction pattern imaging and Brillouin-zone spectroscopy. By designing the spliced lens appropriately, the method can be easily extended to fabricate other complex large area photonic microstructures, such as quasicrystal microstructures. Induced photonic microstructures can be fixed or erased and re-recorded in the photorefractive crystal.

  3. Enhanced Gain in Photonic Crystal Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Semenova, Elizaveta; Hansen, Per Lunnemann

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate enhanced gain in the slow-light regime of quantum well photonic crystal amplifiers. A strong gain enhancement is observed with the increase of the group refractive index, due to light slow-down. The slow light enhancement is shown in a amplified spontaneous emission....... These results are promising for short and efficient semiconductor optical amplifiers. This effect will also benefit other devices, such as mode locked lasers....

  4. APS [Advanced Photon Source] interests in PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncton, D.E.; Shenoy, G.K.; Mills, D.M.

    1987-11-01

    As one of the very few high-energy electron storage rings in the world, potentially available for synchrotron radiation studies, PEP represents an opportunity to accomplish certain preconstruction R and D tasks relevant to the successful construction and operation of dedicated user facilities such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne. Three topical areas are discussed: Accelerator R and D, Insertion Devices (ID) R and D, and Beam Line Instrumentation R and D

  5. Fibre optic communication key devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. Devices treated include semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters and other passives, detectors, all-optical switches, but relevant properties of optical fibres and network aspects are included as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, technologies used for their realization, typical performance characteristics and limitations, but development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. This new edition of a successful book was expanded and updated extensively. The new edition covers among others lasers for optical communication, optical switches, hybrid integration, monolithic integration and silicon photonics. The main focus is on Indium phosphide-based structures but silicon photonics is included as well. The book covers relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, status of curren...

  6. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  7. Single photon ECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Toshio; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tada, Akira; Bunko, Hisashi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi

    1982-01-01

    The detectability of lesions located deep in a body or overlapped with a physiologically increased activity improve with the help of single photon ECT. In some cases, the ECT is superior to the conventional gamma camera images and X-ray CT scans in the evaluation of the location and size of lesion. The single photon ECT of the brain compares favorably with the contrast enhansed X-ray CT scans. The most important adaptation of the single photon ECT are the detection of recurrent brain tumors after craniotomy and the evaluation of ischemic heart diseases. (author)

  8. Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Sanchez Bjarklev, Araceli

    Photonic crystal fibres represent one of the most active research areas today in the field of optics. The diversity of applications that may be addressed by these fibres and their fundamental appeal, by opening up the possibility of guiding light in a radically new way compared to conventional...... optical fibres, have spun an interest from almost all areas of optics and photonics. The aim of this book is to provide an understanding of the different types of photonic crystal fibres and to outline some of the many new and exciting applications that these fibres offer. The book is intended for both...

  9. Fundamentals of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Saleh, Bahaa E A

    2007-01-01

    Now in a new full-color edition, Fundamentals of Photonics, Second Edition is a self-contained and up-to-date introductory-level textbook that thoroughly surveys this rapidly expanding area of engineering and applied physics. Featuring a logical blend of theory and applications, coverage includes detailed accounts of the primary theories of light, including ray optics, wave optics, electromagnetic optics, and photon optics, as well as the interaction of photons and atoms, and semiconductor optics. Presented at increasing levels of complexity, preliminary sections build toward more advan

  10. Extended-Range Ultrarefractive 1D Photonic Crystal Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    A proposal has been made to exploit the special wavelength-dispersive characteristics of devices of the type described in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms (NPO-30232) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 4 (April 2005), page 10a. A photonic crystal is an optical component that has a periodic structure comprising two dielectric materials with high dielectric contrast (e.g., a semiconductor and air), with geometrical feature sizes comparable to or smaller than light wavelengths of interest. Experimental superprisms have been realized as photonic crystals having three-dimensional (3D) structures comprising regions of amorphous Si alternating with regions of SiO2, fabricated in a complex process that included sputtering. A photonic crystal of the type to be exploited according to the present proposal is said to be one-dimensional (1D) because its contrasting dielectric materials would be stacked in parallel planar layers; in other words, there would be spatial periodicity in one dimension only. The processes of designing and fabricating 1D photonic crystal superprisms would be simpler and, hence, would cost less than do those for 3D photonic crystal superprisms. As in 3D structures, 1D photonic crystals may be used in applications such as wavelength-division multiplexing. In the extended-range configuration, it is also suitable for spectrometry applications. As an engineered structure or artificially engineered material, a photonic crystal can exhibit optical properties not commonly found in natural substances. Prior research had revealed several classes of photonic crystal structures for which the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is forbidden in certain frequency ranges, denoted photonic bandgaps. It had also been found that in narrow frequency bands just outside the photonic bandgaps, the angular wavelength dispersion of electromagnetic waves propagating in photonic crystal superprisms is much stronger than is the angular wavelength dispersion obtained

  11. Tomography of photon-added and photon-subtracted states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazrafkan, MR; Man'ko, [No Value

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce symplectic and optical tomograms of photon-added and photon-subtracted quantum states. Explicit relations for the tomograms of photon-added and photon-subtracted squeezed coherent states and squeezed number states are obtained. Generating functions for the

  12. Optical switching in nonlinear photonic crystals lightly doped with nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Lipson, R H [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2008-01-14

    A possible switching mechanism has been investigated for nonlinear photonic crystals doped with an ensemble of non-interacting three-level nanoparticles. In this scheme, an intense pump laser field is used to change the refractive index of the nonlinear photonic crystal while a weaker probe field monitors an absorption transition in the nanoparticles. In the absence of the strong laser field the system transmits the probe field when the resonance energy of the nanoparticles lies near the edge of the photonic band gap due to strong coupling between the photonic crystal and the nanoparticles. However, upon application of an intense pump laser field the system becomes absorbing due to a band edge frequency shift that arises due to a nonlinear Kerr effect which changes the refractive index of the crystal. It is anticipated that the optical switching mechanism described in this work can be used to make new types of photonic devices.

  13. Entanglement and quantum superposition induced by a single photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xin-You; Zhu, Gui-Lei; Zheng, Li-Li; Wu, Ying

    2018-03-01

    We predict the occurrence of single-photon-induced entanglement and quantum superposition in a hybrid quantum model, introducing an optomechanical coupling into the Rabi model. Originally, it comes from the photon-dependent quantum property of the ground state featured by the proposed hybrid model. It is associated with a single-photon-induced quantum phase transition, and is immune to the A2 term of the spin-field interaction. Moreover, the obtained quantum superposition state is actually a squeezed cat state, which can significantly enhance precision in quantum metrology. This work offers an approach to manipulate entanglement and quantum superposition with a single photon, which might have potential applications in the engineering of new single-photon quantum devices, and also fundamentally broaden the regime of cavity QED.

  14. On-chip generation of heralded photon-number states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergyris, Panagiotis; Meany, Thomas; Lunghi, Tommaso; Sauder, Gregory; Downes, James; Steel, M. J.; Withford, Michael J.; Alibart, Olivier; Tanzilli, Sébastien

    2016-10-01

    Beyond the use of genuine monolithic integrated optical platforms, we report here a hybrid strategy enabling on-chip generation of configurable heralded two-photon states. More specifically, we combine two different fabrication techniques, i.e., non-linear waveguides on lithium niobate for efficient photon-pair generation and femtosecond-laser-direct-written waveguides on glass for photon manipulation. Through real-time device manipulation capabilities, a variety of path-coded heralded two-photon states can be produced, ranging from product to entangled states. Those states are engineered with high levels of purity, assessed by fidelities of 99.5 ± 8% and 95.0 ± 8%, respectively, obtained via quantum interferometric measurements. Our strategy therefore stands as a milestone for further exploiting entanglement-based protocols, relying on engineered quantum states, and enabled by scalable and compatible photonic circuits.

  15. Characterization of a new computer-ready photon counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andor, Gyorgy

    1998-08-01

    The photon-counting system seems to be the best solution for extremely low optical power measurements. The Hamamatsu HC135 photon counting module has a built-in high-voltage power supply amplifier, discriminator, micro-controller with an RS232 serial output. It requires only a +5V supply voltage and an IBM PC or compatible computer to run. The system is supplied with an application software. This talk is about the testing of the device.

  16. Ballistic and snake photon imaging for locating optical endomicroscopy fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, M. G.; Choudhary, T. R.; Craven, T. H.; Mills, B.; Bradley, M.; Henderson, R. K.; Dhaliwal, K.; Thomson, R. R.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate determination of the location of the distal-end of a fibre-optic device deep in tissue through the imaging of ballistic and snake photons using a time resolved single-photon detector array. The fibre was imaged with centimetre resolution, within clinically relevant settings and models. This technique can overcome the limitations imposed by tissue scattering in optically determining the in vivo location of fibre-optic medical instruments. PMID:28966848

  17. Cross section and linear polarization of tagged photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, J.; Caplan, H.S.; Skopik, D.M.; DelBianco, W.; Maximon, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Formulae for bremsstrahlung cross sections and polarizations are usually presented in coordinate systems not very suitable for application by experimental physicists to devices such as photon-tagging monochromators. In this paper the transformations between the different coordinate systems are presented, along with examples of the calculated cross sections and polarizations in a form convenient from the experimental standpoint. These examples also give the predicted characteristics of the photon tagger currently under construction at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory. (16 refs., 19 figs., tab.)

  18. Hadronic photon-photon interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, R.; Siegen Univ.; Ranft, J.

    1996-01-01

    Photon-photon collisions are investigated in the framework of the two-component Dual Parton Model. The model contains contributions from direct, resolved soft and resolved hard interactions. All free parameters of the model are determined in fits to hadron-hadron and photon-hadron cross section data. The model is shown to agree well to hadron production data from hadron-hadron and photon-hadron collisions. The multiparticle production in hadron-hadron, photon-hadron and photon-photon collisions as predicted by the model is compared. Strong differences are only found as function of the transverse momentum variable. (author)

  19. Photonic Crystals: Physics and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sibilia, Concita; Marciniak, Marian; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work is give an overview of the activity in the field of Photonic Crystal developed in the frame of COST P11 action . The main objective of the COST P11 action was to unify and coordinate national efforts aimed at studying linear and nonlinear optical interactions with Photonic Crystals (PCs), without neglecting an important aspect related to the material research as idea and methods of realizations of 3D PC, together with the development and implementation of measurement techniques for the experimental evaluation of their potential applications in different area, as for example telecommunication with novel optical fibers, lasers, nonlinear multi-functionality, display devices , opto-electronics, sensors. The book contain contributions from authors who gave their lecture at the Cost P11 Training School. Training School was held at the Warsaw University (2007) and National Institute of Telecommunications (May 23), Warsaw. It was attended by 23 students. The focus of the School was on the work of...

  20. Photon Factory activity report, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Since the foundation of Photon Factory a decade age, it has played an important role as a unique synchrotron X-ray radiation source in Japan. Installation of various insertion devices, storage of intense positron beam and reduction of beam emittance were the substantial achievements in the last several years. The exploitation of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring as a synchrotron radiation source has paved the way for a new potential of development. All these activities have brought about the increase of beamlines and the expansion of scientific fronts. Third International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation held in Tsukuba was one of the most highlighted events for the facility. In coming years, it is intended to open new research fields using the promising single bunch beam and circularly polarized wiggler radiation. The TRISTAN Main Ring also will be applied to synchrotron radiation research. The Photon Factory in a national synchrotron radiation research facility affiliated to the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, and it consists of a 2.5 GeV electron linac, a 2.5 GeV storage ring as a synchrotron light source, beam lines and experimental stations. The operation, improvement and development in respective departments are reported. (Kako, I.)

  1. The performance of photon counting imaging with a Geiger mode silicon avalanche photodiode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Hui-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Ji, Zhong-Jie; Chen, Qian

    2013-01-01

    In principle, photon counting imaging can detect a photon. With the development of low-level-light image intensifier techniques and low-level-light detection devices, photon counting imaging can now detect photon images under extremely low illumination. Based on a Geiger mode silicon avalanche photodiode single photon counter, an experimental system for photon counting imaging was built through two-dimensional scanning of a SPAD (single photon avalanche diode) detector. The feasibility of the imaging platform was validated experimentally. Two images with different characteristics, namely, the USAF 1951 resolution test panel and the image of Lena, were chosen to evaluate the imaging performance of the experimental system. The results were compared and analysed. The imaging properties under various illumination and scanning steps were studied. The lowest illumination limit of the SPAD photon counting imaging was determined. (letter)

  2. Microwave background constraints on mixing of photons with hidden photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirizzi, Alessandro; Redondo, Javier; Sigl, Guenter

    2008-12-01

    Various extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of hidden photons kinetically mixing with the ordinary photon. This mixing leads to oscillations between photons and hidden photons, analogous to the observed oscillations between different neutrino flavors. In this context, we derive new bounds on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameters using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. Requiring the distortions of the CMB induced by the photon-hidden photon mixing to be smaller than experimental upper limits, this leads to a bound on the mixing angle χ 0 -7 - 10 -5 for hidden photon masses between 10 -14 eV and 10 -7 eV. This low-mass and low-mixing region of the hidden photon parameter space was previously unconstrained. (orig.)

  3. Microwave background constraints on mixing of photons with hidden photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirizzi, Alessandro [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-12-15

    Various extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of hidden photons kinetically mixing with the ordinary photon. This mixing leads to oscillations between photons and hidden photons, analogous to the observed oscillations between different neutrino flavors. In this context, we derive new bounds on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameters using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. Requiring the distortions of the CMB induced by the photon-hidden photon mixing to be smaller than experimental upper limits, this leads to a bound on the mixing angle {chi}{sub 0}

  4. Recent Advances of VCSEL Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Fumio

    2006-12-01

    A vertical-cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) was invented 30 years ago. A lot of unique features can be expected, such as low-power consumption, wafer-level testing, small packaging capability, and so on. The market of VCSELs has been growing up rapidly in recent years, and they are now key devices in local area networks using multimode optical fibers. Also, long wavelength VCSELs are currently attracting much interest for use in single-mode fiber metropolitan area and wide area network applications. In addition, a VCSEL-based disruptive technology enables various consumer applications such as a laser mouse and laser printers. In this paper, the recent advance of VCSEL photonics will be reviewed, which include the wavelength extension of single-mode VCSELs and their wavelength integration/control. Also, this paper explores the potential and challenges for new functions of VCSELs toward optical signal processing.

  5. Advances in photonic reservoir computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Sande Guy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir’s complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.

  6. Advances in photonic reservoir computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sande, Guy; Brunner, Daniel; Soriano, Miguel C.

    2017-05-01

    We review a novel paradigm that has emerged in analogue neuromorphic optical computing. The goal is to implement a reservoir computer in optics, where information is encoded in the intensity and phase of the optical field. Reservoir computing is a bio-inspired approach especially suited for processing time-dependent information. The reservoir's complex and high-dimensional transient response to the input signal is capable of universal computation. The reservoir does not need to be trained, which makes it very well suited for optics. As such, much of the promise of photonic reservoirs lies in their minimal hardware requirements, a tremendous advantage over other hardware-intensive neural network models. We review the two main approaches to optical reservoir computing: networks implemented with multiple discrete optical nodes and the continuous system of a single nonlinear device coupled to delayed feedback.

  7. Hybrid photonic-crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos; Travers, John C.; Abdolvand, Amir

    2017-01-01

    This article offers an extensive survey of results obtained using hybrid photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs) which constitute one of the most active research fields in contemporary fiber optics. The ability to integrate novel and functional materials in solid- and hollow-core PCFs through various...... is reviewed from scientific and technological perspectives, focusing on how different fluids, solids, and gases can significantly extend the functionality of PCFs. The first part of this review discusses the efforts to develop tunable linear and nonlinear fiber-optic devices using PCFs infiltrated...... with various liquids, glasses, semiconductors, and metals. The second part concentrates on recent and state-of-the-art advances in the field of gas-filled hollow-core PCFs. Extreme ultrafast gas-based nonlinear optics toward light generation in the extreme wavelength regions of vacuum ultraviolet, pulse...

  8. On-chip photonic synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zengguang; Ríos, Carlos; Pernice, Wolfram H P; Wright, C David; Bhaskaran, Harish

    2017-09-01

    The search for new "neuromorphic computing" architectures that mimic the brain's approach to simultaneous processing and storage of information is intense. Because, in real brains, neuronal synapses outnumber neurons by many orders of magnitude, the realization of hardware devices mimicking the functionality of a synapse is a first and essential step in such a search. We report the development of such a hardware synapse, implemented entirely in the optical domain via a photonic integrated-circuit approach. Using purely optical means brings the benefits of ultrafast operation speed, virtually unlimited bandwidth, and no electrical interconnect power losses. Our synapse uses phase-change materials combined with integrated silicon nitride waveguides. Crucially, we can randomly set the synaptic weight simply by varying the number of optical pulses sent down the waveguide, delivering an incredibly simple yet powerful approach that heralds systems with a continuously variable synaptic plasticity resembling the true analog nature of biological synapses.

  9. An overview of current developments in position-sensitive hybrid photon detectors and photo-multiplier tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Gys, Thierry

    1999-01-01

    Current developments in position-sensitive hybrid photon detectors and photo-multiplier tubes have stimulated increased interest from a variety of fields such as astronomy, biomedical imaging and high- energy physics. These devices are sensitive to single photons over a photon energy spectrum defined by the transmission of the optical entrance window and the photo-cathode type. Their spatial resolution ranges from a few millimeters for pad hybrid photon detectors and multi-anode photo-multiplier tubes down to a few tens of microns for pixel hybrid photon detectors and electron-bombarded charge-coupled devices. Basic technological and design aspects are assessed in this paper. (21 refs).

  10. Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudon, Julien; Munsch, Matthieu; Bleuse, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Besides microcavities and photonic crystals, photonic nanowires have recently emerged as a novel resource for solidstate quantum optics. We will review recent studies which demonstrate an excellent control over the spontaneous emission of InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in single-mode Ga...... quantum optoelectronic devices. Quite amazingly, this approach has for instance permitted (unlike microcavity-based approaches) to combine for the first time a record-high efficiency (72%) and a negligible g(2) in a QD single photon source....

  11. Graphene-Based Josephson-Junction Single-Photon Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Evan D.; Efetov, Dmitri K.; Lee, Gil-Ho; Heuck, Mikkel; Crossno, Jesse; Ohki, Thomas A.; Kim, Philip; Englund, Dirk; Fong, Kin Chung

    2017-08-01

    We propose to use graphene-based Josephson junctions (GJJs) to detect single photons in a wide electromagnetic spectrum from visible to radio frequencies. Our approach takes advantage of the exceptionally low electronic heat capacity of monolayer graphene and its constricted thermal conductance to its phonon degrees of freedom. Such a system could provide high-sensitivity photon detection required for research areas including quantum information processing and radio astronomy. As an example, we present our device concepts for GJJ single-photon detectors in both the microwave and infrared regimes. The dark count rate and intrinsic quantum efficiency are computed based on parameters from a measured GJJ, demonstrating feasibility within existing technologies.

  12. Microwave photonics shines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Rachel

    2011-12-01

    The combination of microwave photonics and optics has advanced many applications in defence, wireless communications, imaging and network infrastructure. Rachel Won talks to Jianping Yao from the University of Ottawa in Canada about the importance of this growing field.

  13. Photon induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecking, B.A.

    1982-04-01

    Various aspects of medium energy nuclear reactions induced by real photons are reviewed. Special emphasis is put on high accuracy experiments that will become possible with the next generation of electron accelerators. (orig.)

  14. Photons and magnetization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pile, P.; Němec, P.; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2013), s. 500 ISSN 1749-4885 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * photonics * magneto-optics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 29.958, year: 2013

  15. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altug, Hatice; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    We recently proposed two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal nanocavity arrays as a route to achieve a slow-group velocity of light in all crystal directions, thereby enabling numerous applications...

  16. Photonic Crystal Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristiansen, Rene E

    2005-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Crystal Fibre A/S as follows: Crystal Fibre will conduct research and development of large mode area, dual clad multi-core Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber...

  17. Photonic Quantum Information Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, P.

    2012-01-01

    The advantage of the photon's mobility makes optical quantum system ideally suited for delegated quantum computation. I will present results for the realization for a measurement-based quantum network in a client-server environment, where quantum information is securely communicated and computed. Related to measurement-based quantum computing I will discuss a recent experiment showing that quantum discord can be used as resource for the remote state preparation, which might shine new light on the requirements for quantum-enhanced information processing. Finally, I will briefly review recent photonic quantum simulation experiments of four frustrated Heisenberg-interactions spins and present an outlook of feasible simulation experiments with more complex interactions or random walk structures. As outlook I will discuss the current status of new quantum technology for improving the scalability of photonic quantum systems by using superconducting single-photon detectors and tailored light-matter interactions. (author)

  18. Possible nonvanishing mass of photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, Hiromichi; Namiki, Mikio; Yamanaka, Yoshiya; Yokoyama, Kan-ichi.

    1985-05-01

    From phenomenological and field-theoretical considerations on photon mass, we first show that photon is not limitted to being massless at the present stage. Next we illustrate a possibility of formulating a local field theory for massive photons coupled with nonconserved currents, while we cannot do for massless photons. (author)

  19. The photon collider at TESLA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Badelek, B.; Bloechinger, C.; Blümlein, J.; Boos, E.; Brinkman, R.; Burkhardt, H.; Bussey, P.; Carimalo, C.; Chýla, Jiří; Ciftci, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 30 (2004), s. 5097-5186 ISSN 0217-751X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : photon collider * linear collider * gamma-gamma * photon-photon * photon electron * Compton scattering Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.054, year: 2004

  20. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.