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Sample records for nonradiological waste resulting

  1. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Nonradiological Waste Management Information for 1993 and record to date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, A.M.; Taylor, K.A.

    1994-08-01

    This document provides detailed data and graphics on airborne and liquid effluent releases, fuel oil and coal consumption, water usage, and hazardous and mixed waste generated for calendar year 1993. This report summarizes industrial waste data records compiled since 1971 for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The data presented are from the INEL Nonradiological Waste Management Information System.

  2. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory nonradiological waste management information for 1994 and record to date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, D.L.; Lisee, D.J.; Taylor, K.A.

    1995-08-01

    This document provides detailed data and graphics on airborne and liquid effluent releases, fuel oil and coal consumption, water usage, and hazardous and mixed waste generated for calendar year 1994. This report summarizes industrial waste data records compiled since 1971 for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The data presented are from the INEL Nonradiological Waste Management Information System.

  3. Description and critical environmental evaluation of the REE refining plant LAMP near Kuantan/Malaysia. Radiological and non-radiological environmental consequences of the plant's operation and its wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Gerhard

    2013-01-25

    The description of the critical environmental evaluation of the REE refining plant LAMP near Kuantan/Malaysia covers the radiological and non-radiological consequences of the plant operation and its waste. The Australian company Lynas plans to import ore concentrate from Australia to Malaysia and to process the concentrate in the plant LAMP in Kuantan, Malaysia. The authors have analyzed the emissions of radon over the stack, the emissions of sulfuric acid and dust over the stack, the hazards and their control in the production processes and the wastes from the production process with respect to the radiological and non-radiological toxicity.

  4. Nonradiological Environmental Report Maamora Site, Morocco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althouse, P E; Blake, R G; Bandong, B B; Belghit, H; Dehbi, N

    2003-07-17

    Under the Sister Laboratory Arrangement between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Moroccan National Center for Nuclear Energy Sciences and Techniques (CNESTEN), environmental sampling and analysis were performed to assess the background concentrations of nonradiological constituents in various environmental media at the Maamora Forest CNESTEN Laboratory Site. Samples were collected from surface soil, surface water and groundwater wells, short-lived vegetation (mainly native grass), and long-lived vegetation (cork oak). Samples were collected inside the property fence line, in the buffer zone surrounding the site, and off site at water locations. The soil and vegetation samples were analyzed for metals and pesticides and screened for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); the water samples were analyzed for metals, general minerals, and pesticides and screened for PCBs.

  5. Active Neutron Interrogation of Non-Radiological Materials with NMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Mark E [ORNL; Mihalczo, John T [ORNL

    2012-02-01

    The Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), although primarily designed for analyzing special nuclear material, is capable of identifying nonradiological materials with a wide range of measurement techniques. This report demonstrates four different measurement methods, complementary to fast-neutron imaging, which can be used for material identification: DT transmission, DT scattering, californium transmission, and active time-tagged gamma spectroscopy. Each of the four techniques was used to evaluate how these methods can be used to identify four materials: aluminum, polyethylene, graphite, and G-10 epoxy. While such measurements have been performed individually in the past, in this project, all four measurements were performed on the same set of materials. The results of these measurements agree well with predicted results. In particular, the results of the active gamma spectroscopy measurements demonstrate the technique's applicability in a future version of NMIS which will incorporate passive and active gamma-ray spectroscopy. This system, designated as a fieldable NMIS (FNMIS), is under development by the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Verification.

  6. 1994 Environmental monitoring drinking water and nonradiological effluent programs annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.D.; Brock, T.A.; Meachum, T.R.

    1995-10-01

    EG&G Idaho, Inc., initiated monitoring programs for drinking water in 1988 and for nonradiological parameters and pollutants in liquid effluents in 1985. These programs were initiated for the facilities operated by EG&G Idaho for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. On October 1, 1994, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) replaced EG&G Idaho as the prime contractor at the INEL and assumed responsibility for these programs. Section I discusses the general site characteristics, the analytical laboratories, and sampling methodology general to both programs. Section 2, the Drinking Water Program, tracks the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters required by State and Federal regulations. This section describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at 17 LITCO-operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters detected and the regulatory limits exceeded during calendar year 1994. In addition, groundwater quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for LITCO production wells. Section 3 discusses the nonradiological liquid effluent monitoring results for 27 liquid effluent streams. These streams are presented with emphasis on calendar year 1994 activities. All parameter measurements and concentrations were below the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act toxic characteristics limits.

  7. HARVESTING EMSP RESEARCH RESULTS FOR WASTE CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, Donna Post; Nielson, R. Bruce; Phillips, Ann Marie; Lebow, Scott

    2003-02-27

    The extent of environmental contamination created by the nuclear weapons legacy combined with expensive, ineffective waste cleanup strategies at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites prompted Congress to pass the FY96 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act, which directed the DOE to: ''provide sufficient attention and resources to longer-term basic science research, which needs to be done to ultimately reduce cleanup costs'', ''develop a program that takes advantage of laboratory and university expertise, and'' ''seek new and innovative cleanup methods to replace current conventional approaches which are often costly and ineffective.'' In response, the DOE initiated the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP)-a targeted, long-term research program intended to produce solutions to DOE's most pressing environmental problems. EMSP funds basic research to lower cleanup cost and reduce risk to workers, the public, and the environment; direct the nation's scientific infrastructure towards cleanup of contaminated waste sites; and bridge the gap between fundamental research and technology development activities. EMSP research projects are competitively awarded based on the project's scientific, merit coupled with relevance to addressing DOE site needs. This paper describes selected EMSP research projects with long, mid, and short-term deployment potential and discusses the impacts, focus, and results of the research. Results of EMSP research are intended to accelerate cleanup schedules, reduce cost or risk for current baselines, provide alternatives for contingency planning, or provide solutions to problems where no solutions exist.

  8. Assessment of alternatives for management of ORNL retrievable transuranic waste. Nuclear Waste Program: transuranic waste (Activity No. AR 05 15 15 0; ONL-WT04)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Since 1970, solid waste with TRU or U-233 contamination in excess of 10 ..mu..Ci per kilogram of waste has been stored in a retrievable fashion at ORNL, such as in ss drums, concrete casks, and ss-lined wells. This report describes the results of a study performed to identify and evaluate alternatives for management of this waste and of the additional waste projected to be stored through 1995. The study was limited to consideration of the following basic strategies: Strategy 1: Leave waste in place as is; Strategy 2: Improve waste confinement; and Strategy 3: Retrieve waste and process for shipment to a Federal repository. Seven alternatives were identified and evaluated, one each for Strategies 1 and 2 and five for Strategy 3. Each alternative was evaluated from the standpoint of technical feasibility, cost, radiological risk and impact, regulatory factors and nonradiological environmental impact.

  9. ORNL necessary and sufficient standards for environment, safety, and health. Final report of the Identification Team for other industrial, radiological, and non-radiological hazard facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) set of standards is for Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These facility classifications are based on a laboratory-wide approach to classify facilities by hazard category. An analysis of the hazards associated with the facilities at ORNL was conducted in 1993. To identify standards appropriate for these Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities, the activities conducted in these facilities were assessed, and the hazards associated with the activities were identified. A preliminary hazards list was distributed to all ORNL organizations. The hazards identified in prior hazard analyses are contained in the list, and a category of other was provided in each general hazard area. A workshop to assist organizations in properly completing the list was held. Completed hazard screening lists were compiled for each ORNL division, and a master list was compiled for all Other Industrial, Radiological Hazard, and Non-Radiological facilities and activities. The master list was compared against the results of prior hazard analyses by research and development and environment, safety, and health personnel to ensure completeness. This list, which served as a basis for identifying applicable environment, safety, and health standards, appears in Appendix A.

  10. Valorization technics by means of vermiculture for fatty wastes resulting from wastes water purification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignoles, C. (Service Assainissement, 31 - Toulouse (France))

    Fats, scums and other floating organic wastes extracted from waste water purification plants have always caused important problems of treatment to specialists. Municipal and technical services of Toulouse have elaborated an original valorization process. Results are simultaneously spectacular for environment and economically reasonable. One may think that this natural method is bound to experience interesting developments in the future.

  11. Nonradiological liquid effluent monitoring program. 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.A.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.; Meachum, T.R.

    1993-08-01

    A monitoring program for nonradioactive parameters and pollutants in liquid effluents was initiated in October 1985 for facilities operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Program design and implementation are discussed in this report. Design and methodologies for sampling, analysis, and data management are also discussed. Monitoring results for 28 liquid effluent streams from (October 1991 through December 1992) are presented with emphasis on calendar year 1992 activities. All parameter measurements and concentrations were below the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act toxic characteristics limits.

  12. Health effects of SRS non-radiological air emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.

    1997-06-16

    This report examines the potential health effects of non radiological emissions to the air resulting from operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The scope of this study was limited to the 55 air contaminants for which the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has quantified risk by determining unit risk factors (excess cancer risks) and/or reference concentrations (deleterious non cancer risks). Potential health impacts have been assessed in relation to the maximally exposed individual. This is a hypothetical person who resides for a lifetime at the SRS boundary. The most recent (1994) quality assured SRS emissions data available were used. Estimated maximum site boundary concentrations of the air contaminants were calculated using air dispersion modeling and 24-hour and annual averaging times. For the emissions studied, the excess cancer risk was found to be less than the generally accepted risk level of 1 in 100,000 and, in most cases, was less than 1 in 1,000,000. Deleterious non cancer effects were also found to be very unlikely.

  13. EU-CIS joint study project 2. Intervention criteria in CIS, risk assessments and non-radiological factors in decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Demin, V.F. [Russian Reserch Centre `Kurchatov Inst.`, Moscow (Russian Federation); Konstantinov, Y.O. [Research Inst. of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Likhtarev, I.A. [Ukrainian Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Rolevich, I.V. [Chernobyl State Commiettee, Minsk (Belarus); Schneider, T. [Centre d`etudes sur l`Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, CEPN, Paris (France)

    1996-05-01

    An extensive radiation risk estimation methodology has recently been developed in Russia and used for estimates of risk in exposed populations in the republics of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. Results based on demographic data for the three republics are presented and compared with risk estimates from the EU risk model ASQRAD. The intervention criteria in the CIS republics have been evolving since the Chernobyl accident. The development of criteria in each of the three republics has been analysed and the CIS-Criteria have been compared to international guidance on intervention. After a nuclear or radiological emergency both radiological and non-radiological protection factors will influence the level of protective actions being introduced. The role of non-radiological protection factors in the overall optimization of health protection is addressed. It is argued that optimization of the overall health protection is not a question of developing radiation radiation protection philosophy to fully include socio-psychological factors. It is rather a question of including these factors - in parallel with the radiological protection factors - in cooperation between radiation protection experts and psychological specialists under the responsibility of the decision maker. (au) 19 tabs., 10 ills., 45 refs.

  14. Field test results for radioactive waste drum characterization with Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, R.T. [Bio-Imaging Research, Inc., Lincolnshire, IL (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This paper summarizes the design, fabrication, factory testing, evaluation and demonstration of waste inspection tomography (WIT). WIT consists of a self-sufficient, mobile semi-trailer for Non-Destructive Evaluation and Non-Destructive Assay (NDE/NDA) characterization of nuclear waste drums using X-ray and gamma-ray tomographic techniques. The 23-month WIT Phase I initial test results include 2 MeV Digital Radiography (DR), Computed Tomography (CT), Anger camera imaging, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, Collimated Gamma Scanning (CGS), and Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) using a 1.4 mCi source of {sup 166}Ho. These techniques were initially demonstrated on a 55-gallon phantom drum with three simulated waste matrices of combustibles, heterogeneous metals, and cement using check sources of gamma active isotopes. Waste matrix identification, isotopic identification, and attenuation-corrected gamma activity determination were all demonstrated nondestructively and noninvasively. Preliminary field tests results with nuclear waste drums are summarized. WIT has inspected drums with 0 to 20 grams plutonium 239. The minimum measured was 0.131 gram plutonium 239 in cement. 8 figs.

  15. Thermal plasma treatment of cell-phone waste : preliminary result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruj, B. [Central Mechanical Engineering Research Inst., Durgapur (India). Thermal Engineering Group; Chang, J.S.; Li, O.L. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Pietsch, G. [RWTH Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The cell phone is an indispensable service facilitator, however, the disposal and recycling of cell phones is a major problem. While the potential life span of a mobile phone, excluding batteries, is over 10 years, most of the users upgrade their phones approximately four times during this period. Cell phone waste is significantly more hazardous than many other municipal wastes as it contains thousands of components made of toxic chemicals and metals like lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, polyvinyl chlorides (PVC), brominated flame retardants, beryllium, antimony and phthalates. Cell phones also use many expensive rare metals. Since cell phones are made up of plastics, metals, ceramics, and trace other substances, primitive recycling or disposal of cell phone waste to landfills and incinerators creates irreversible environmental damage by polluting water and soil, and contaminating air. In order to minimize releases into the environment and threat to human health, the disposal of cell phones needs to be managed in an environmentally friendly way. This paper discussed a safer method of reducing the generation of syngas and hydrocarbons and metal recovery through the treatment of cell phone wastes by a thermal plasma. The presentation discussed the experiment, with particular reference to sample preparation; experimental set-up; and results four samples with different experimental conditions. It was concluded that the plasma treatment of cell phone waste in reduced condition generates gaseous components such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons which are combustible. Therefore, this system is an energy recovery system that contributes to resource conservation and reduction of climate change gases. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Physical investigation of the composition of household waste in the Netherlands. RESULTS 1993

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen AAJ; Otte PF; LAE

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation on the composition of (residual) household waste of the Netherlands, collected from eleven neighbourhoods. The waste from these areas offers a rather accurate picture of the waste collected nationwide. The report gives detailed information about 14 main components, numerous subcomponents, the percentage of packaging materials and batteries in household waste. The main components in (residual) household waste are: Bio-waste and undefined res...

  17. Results of Hazardous and Mixed Waste Excavation from the Chemical Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S. G.; Schofield, D. P.; Kwiecinski, D.; Edgmon, C. L.; Methvin, R.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the results of the excavation of a 1.9-acre hazardous and mixed waste landfill operated for 23 years at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Excavation of the landfill was completed in 2 1/2 years without a single serious accident or injury. Approximately 50,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organics, metals, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and radioactive constituents was removed. In addition, over 400 cubic yards of buried debris was removed, including bulk debris, unknown chemicals, compressed gas cylinders, thermal and chemical batteries, explosive and ordnance debris, pyrophoric materials and biohazardous waste. Removal of these wastes included negotiation of multiple regulations and guidances encompassed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and risk assessment methodology. RCRA concepts that were addressed include the area of contamination, permit modification, emergency treatment provision, and listed waste designation. These regulatory decisions enabled the project to overcome logistical and programmatic needs such as increased operational area, the ability to implement process improvements while maintaining a record of decisions and approvals.

  18. Radioactive Waste Management Information for 1992 and record-to-date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litteer, D.L.; Randall, V.C.; Sims, A.M.; Taylor, K.A.

    1993-07-01

    This document provides detailed data and graphics on air borne and liquid effluent releases, fuel oil and coal consumption, water usage, and hazardous and mixed waste generated for calendar year 1992. This report summarizes industrial waste data records compiled since 1971 for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The data presented are from the INEL Nonradiological Waste Management Information System.

  19. Physical investigation of the composition of household waste in the Netherlands. RESULTS 1993

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen AAJ; Otte PF; LAE

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation on the composition of (residual) household waste of the Netherlands, collected from eleven neighbourhoods. The waste from these areas offers a rather accurate picture of the waste collected nationwide. The report gives detailed information about

  20. Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, Jeffrey, D.; Jansen, John, R.; Janke, David, H.; Plowman, Catherine, M.

    2003-02-26

    Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results.

  1. The Results of Experimental Investigation Recycling Meat and Plant Waste in the Periodic Operation Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonas Misevičius

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste is unwanted materials that are mainly the result of human activities and one of the sources of environmental pollution. An increase in the world’s population causes a growth in the amounts of waste in the modern world. Every year, the increasing quantities of waste are the major problems these days; therefore, calls for taking effective measures to tackle this problem could be effective tools. The article presents the results of experimental studies on using meat waste and their mixes with herbal waste. The conducted experiments observed the concentrations of methane, hydrogen sulphide and oxygen under periodic mesophilic conditions in the bioreactor. Research has shown that the use of herbal supplements with meat waste produces better results than using only meat waste. The digestion of meat wastes points to an average amount of biogas which is 0.5 m3/m3d, that of meat and herbal waste mixture (19:1 – 0.51 m3/m3d, meat and herbal waste mixture (9:1 – 0.56 m3/m3d. The content of biogas methane was 0.074 m3/m3d, 0.083 m3/m3d, 0.101 m3/m3d respectively.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Disaster waste characteristics and radiation distribution as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Hata, Toshimitsu

    2012-04-03

    The compounded impacts of the catastrophes that resulted from the Great East Japan Earthquake have emphasized the need to develop strategies to respond to multiple types and sources of contamination. In Japan, earthquake and tsunami-generated waste were found to have elevated levels of metals/metalloids (e.g., mercury, arsenic, and lead) with separation and sorting more difficult for tsunami-generated waste as opposed to earthquake-generated waste. Radiation contamination superimposed on these disaster wastes has made it particularly difficult to manage the ultimate disposal resulting in delays in waste management. Work is needed to develop policies a priori for handling wastes from combined catastrophes such as those recently observed in Japan.

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding waste management options in Romania: results from a school questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin KOLBE

    2014-12-01

    The analysis revealed that knowledge is highly developed in Romania regarding the potential of recycling, while the concepts of waste management technologies are far less known about and understood. Landfill is seen as a problem for human health and the environment. However, recycling behaviour is low - partly as a result of limited possibilities. In general, the treatment hierarchy that is recommended in the "European waste hierarchy" is only partly reflected in students’ attitudes towards waste management options.

  4. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY2010 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef; McCloy, John S.; Sundaram, S. K.; Vienna, John D.

    2010-08-01

    In FY2009, PNNL performed scoping studies to qualify two waste form candidates, tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and halide minerals, for the electrochemical waste stream for further investigation. Both candidates showed promise with acceptable PCT release rates and effective incorporation of the 10% fission product waste stream. Both candidates received reprisal for FY2010 and were further investigated. At the beginning of FY2010, an in-depth literature review kicked off the tellurite glasses study. The review was aimed at ascertaining the state-of-the-art for chemical durability testing and mixed chloride incorporation for tellurite glasses. The literature review led the authors to 4 unique binary and 1 unique ternary systems for further investigation which include TeO2 plus the following: PbO, Al2O3-B2O3, WO3, P2O5, and ZnO. Each system was studied with and without a mixed chloride simulated electrochemical waste stream and the literature review provided the starting points for the baseline compositions as well as starting points for melting temperature, compatible crucible types, etc. The most promising glasses in each system were scaled up in production and were analyzed with the Product Consistency Test, a chemical durability test. Baseline and PCT glasses were analyzed to determine their state, i.e., amorphous, crystalline, phase separated, had undissolved material within the bulk, etc. Conclusions were made as well as the proposed direction for FY2011 plans. Sodalite was successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method. The vast majority of the dried sol-gel consisted of sodalite with small amounts of alumino-silicates and unreacted salt. Upon firing the powders made by sol-gel, the primary phase observed was sodalite with the addition of varying amounts of nepheline, carnegieite, lithium silicate, and lanthanide oxide. The amount of sodalite, nepheline, and carnegieite as well as the bulk density of the fired pellets varied with firing temperature, sol

  5. Radiological protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations resulting from a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2013-01-01

    In environmental remediation after nuclear accidents, radioactive wastes have to be appropriately managed in existing exposure situations with contamination resulting from the emission of radionuclides by such accidents. In this paper, a framework of radiation protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations for application to the practical and reasonable waste management in contaminated areas, referring to related ICRP recommendations was proposed. In the proposed concept, intermediate reference levels for waste management are adopted gradually according to the progress of the reduction in the existing ambient dose in the environment on the basis of the principles of justification and optimisation by taking into account the practicability of the management of radioactive waste and environmental remediation. It is essential to include the participation of relevant stakeholders living in existing exposure situations in the selection of reference levels for the existing ambient dose and waste management.

  6. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY11-FY12 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mccloy, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lepry, William C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rodriguez, Carmen P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Windisch, Charles F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westman, Matthew P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rieck, Bennett T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lang, Jesse B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olszta, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pierce, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-17

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, is currently investigating alternative waste forms for wastes generated from nuclear fuel processing. One such waste results from an electrochemical separations process, called the “Echem” process. The Echem process utilizes a molten KCl-LiCl salt to dissolve the fuel. This process results in a spent salt containing alkali, alkaline earth, lanthanide halides and small quantities of actinide halides, where the primary halide is chloride with a minor iodide fraction. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is concurrently investigating two candidate waste forms for the Echem spent-salt: high-halide minerals (i.e., sodalite and cancrinite) and tellurite (TeO2)-based glasses. Both of these candidates showed promise in fiscal year (FY) 2009 and FY2010 with a simplified nonradioactive simulant of the Echem waste. Further testing was performed on these waste forms in FY2011 and FY2012 to assess the possibility of their use in a sustainable fuel cycle. This report summarizes the combined results from FY2011 and FY2012 efforts.

  7. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY11-FY12 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Mccloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lepry, William C.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Windisch, Charles F.; Matyas, Josef; Westman, Matthew P.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Lang, Jesse B.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Pierce, David A.

    2014-03-26

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, is currently investigating alternative waste forms for wastes generated from nuclear fuel processing. One such waste results from an electrochemical separations process, called the “Echem” process. The Echem process utilizes a molten KCl-LiCl salt to dissolve the fuel. This process results in a spent salt containing alkali, alkaline earth, lanthanide halides and small quantities of actinide halides, where the primary halide is chloride with a minor iodide fraction. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is concurrently investigating two candidate waste forms for the Echem spent-salt: high-halide minerals (i.e., sodalite and cancrinite) and tellurite (TeO2)-based glasses. Both of these candidates showed promise in fiscal year (FY) 2009 and FY2010 with a simplified nonradioactive simulant of the Echem waste. Further testing was performed on these waste forms in FY2011 and FY2012 to assess the possibility of their use in a sustainable fuel cycle. This report summarizes the combined results from FY2011 and FY2012 efforts.

  8. Generation and management of solid waste resulting from tourist activities of the Porto de Galinhas - P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Guimarães Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The significant solid waste generation, coupled with the lack of proper management of the waste generated, has been one of the issues of concern and conducting research on the part of scholars in the field. Tourism as an activity that positively impacts and negativity a given location, has emerged as an activity that can generate a lot of waste, especially in periods of high season, considering the increase of people moving to the tourist destinations. Accordingly, this study aims to analyze the generation and management of solid waste resulting from tourism in Porto de Galinhas, PE. We performed an exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study, conducted in the form of a case study in Porto de Galinhas, PE. The data collection was done interviews together social actors, as well as non-participant observation during data collection. The results showed that tourism activities in Porto de Galinhas result in a high amount of solid waste, and these are directed to inappropriate places. Although fate presents a combination of recyclable materials, RECYCLE, reuses this not a significant amount, given the proportion of waste generated.

  9. RESULTS OF THE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE CLASSIFIED TRANSURANIC WASTES DISPOSED AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. COCHRAN; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    Most transuranic (TRU) wastes are destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). However, the TRU wastes from the cleanup of US nuclear weapons accidents are classified for national security reasons and cannot be disposed in WIPP. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sought an alternative disposal method for these ''special case'' TRU wastes and from 1984 to 1987, four Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes were used to place these special case TRU wastes a minimum of 21 m (70 ft) below the land surface and a minimum of 200 m (650 ft) above the water table. The GCD boreholes are located in arid alluvium at the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS). Because of state regulatory concerns, the GCD boreholes have not been used for waste disposal since 1989. DOE requires that TRU waste disposal facilities meet the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) requirements for disposal of TRU wastes, which are contained in 40 CFR 191. This EPA standard sets a number of requirements, including probabilistic limits on the cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment for 10,000 years. The DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has contracted with Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) to conduct a performance assessment (PA) to determine if the TRU waste emplaced in the GCD boreholes complies with the EPA's requirements. Sandia has completed the PA using all available information and an iterative PA methodology. This paper overviews the PA of the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes [1]. As such, there are few cited references in this paper and the reader is referred to [1] and [2] for references. The results of the PA are that disposal of TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes easily complies with the EPA's 40 CFR 191 safety standards for disposal of TRU wastes. The PA is undergoing a DOE Headquarters (DOE/HQ) peer review, and the final PA will be released in FY2001 or FY2002.

  10. Hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calley, M.B.; Jones, J.L. Jr.

    1994-09-19

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment describes the WERF, the area surrounding WERF, associated buildings and structures at WERF, and the processes performed at WERF. All radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials stored, used, or produced at WERF were identified and screened. Even though the screening process indicated that the hazardous materials could be screened from further analysis because the inventory of radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials were below the screening thresholds specified by DOE and DOE-ID guidance for DOE Order 5500.3A, the nonradiological hazardous materials were analyzed further because it was felt that the nonradiological hazardous material screening thresholds were too high.

  11. Improving radiation awareness and feeling of personal security of non-radiological medical staff by implementing a traffic light system in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmaier, C.; Mayor, A.; Zuber, N.; Weishaupt, D. [Stadtspital Triemli, Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiology; Fodor, P. [Stadtspital Triemli, Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine

    2016-03-15

    Non-radiological medical professionals often need to remain in the scanning room during computed tomography (CT) examinations to supervise patients in critical condition. Independent of protective devices, their position significantly influences the radiation dose they receive. The purpose of this study was to assess if a traffic light system indicating areas of different radiation exposure improves non-radiological medical staff's radiation awareness and feeling of personal security. Phantom measurements were performed to define areas of different dose rates and colored stickers were applied on the floor according to a traffic light system: green = lowest, orange = intermediate, and red = highest possible radiation exposure. Non-radiological medical professionals with different years of working experience evaluated the system using a structured questionnaire. Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman's correlation test were applied for statistical analysis. Fifty-six subjects (30 physicians, 26 nursing staff) took part in this prospective study. Overall rating of the system was very good, and almost all professionals tried to stand in the green stickers during the scan. The system significantly increased radiation awareness and feeling of personal protection particularly in staff with ? 5 years of working experience (p < 0.05). The majority of non-radiological medical professionals stated that staying in the green stickers and patient care would be compatible. Knowledge of radiation protection was poor in all groups, especially among entry-level employees (p < 0.05). A traffic light system in the CT scanning room indicating areas with lowest, in-termediate, and highest possible radiation exposure is much appreciated. It increases radiation awareness, improves the sense of personal radiation protection, and may support endeavors to lower occupational radiation exposure, although the best radiation protection always is to re-main outside the CT room during the scan.

  12. Environmental and other evaluations of alternatives for long-term management of stored INEL transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    This study identifies, develops, and evaluates, in a preliminary manner, alternatives for long-term management of TRU waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the INEL. The evaluations concern waste currently at the RWMC and waste expected to be received by the beginning of the year 1985. The effects of waste that might be received after that date are addressed in an appendix. The technology required for managing the waste, the environmental effects, the risks to the public, the radiological and nonradiological hazards to workers, and the estimated costs are discussed.

  13. Using slaughterhouse waste in a biochemical-based biorefinery - results from pilot scale tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwede, Sebastian; Thorin, Eva; Lindmark, Johan; Klintenberg, Patrik; Jääskeläinen, Ari; Suhonen, Anssi; Laatikainen, Reino; Hakalehto, Elias

    2016-09-02

    A novel biorefinery concept was piloted using protein-rich slaughterhouse waste, chicken manure and straw as feedstocks. The basic idea was to provide a proof of concept for the production of platform chemicals and biofuels from organic waste materials at non-septic conditions. The desired biochemical routes were 2,3-butanediol and acetone-butanol fermentation. The results showed that hydrolysis resulted only in low amounts of easily degradable carbohydrates. However, amino acids released from the protein-rich slaughterhouse waste were utilized and fermented by the bacteria in the process. Product formation was directed towards acidogenic compounds rather than solventogenic products due to increasing pH-value affected by ammonia release during amino acid fermentation. Hence, the process was not effective for 2,3-butanediol production, whereas butyrate, propionate, γ-aminobutyrate and valerate were predominantly produced. This offered fast means for converting tedious protein-rich waste mixtures into utilizable chemical goods. Furthermore, the residual liquid from the bioreactor showed significantly higher biogas production potential than the corresponding substrates. The combination of the biorefinery approach to produce chemicals and biofuels with anaerobic digestion of the residues to recover energy in form of methane and nutrients that can be utilized for animal feed production could be a feasible concept for organic waste utilization.

  14. Preliminary characterization of risks in the nuclear waste management system based on information in the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Rhoads, R.E.; Van Luick, A.E.; Fecht, B.A.; Nilson, S.A.; Sevigny, N.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Armstrong, G.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hill, D.H.; Rowe, M.; Stern, E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This document presents preliminary information on the radiological and nonradiological risks in the nuclear waste management system. The objective of the study was to (1) review the literature containing information on risks in the nuclear waste management system and (2) use this information to develop preliminary estimates of the potential magnitude of these risks. Information was collected on a broad range of risk categories to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in communicating information about the risks in the waste management systems. The study examined all of the portions of the nuclear waste management system currently expected to be developed by the DOE. The scope of this document includes the potential repository, the integral MRS facility, and the transportation system that supports the potential repository and the MRS facility. Relevant literature was reviewed for several potential repository sites and geologic media. A wide range of ``risk categories`` are addressed in this report: (1) public and occupational risks from accidents that could release radiological materials, (2) public and occupational radiation exposure resulting from routine operations, (3) public and occupational risks from accidents involving hazards other than radioactive materials, and (4) public and occupational risks from exposure to nonradioactive hazardous materials during routine operations. The report is intended to provide a broad spectrum of risk-related information about the waste management system. This information is intended to be helpful for planning future studies.

  15. Waste compatibility safety issues and final results for tank 241-SY-102 grab samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-08-14

    Three grab samples (2SY-96-1, 2SY-96-2, and 2SY-96-3) were taken from Riser 1A of Tank 241-SY 102 on January 14, 1997, and received by 222-S Laboratory on January 14, 1997. These samples were analyzed in accordance with Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farm Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) in support of the Waste Compatibility Program. No notifications were required based on sample results. Acetone analysis was not performed in accordance with Cancellation of Acetone Analysis for Tank 241-SY-102 Grab Samples.

  16. 60-Day waste compatibility safety issues and final results for AY-102 grab samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-01-31

    Four grab samples (2AY-96-15, 2AY-96-16, 2AY-96-17, and 2AY-96-18) were taken from Riser 15D of Tank 241-AY-102 on October 8, 1996, and received by 222-S Laboratory on October 8, 1996. These samples were analyzed in accordance with Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) in support of the Waste Compatibility Program. No notifications were required based on sample results.

  17. Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, M.L.; Cooper, A.T.; Castleton, K.J.

    1995-11-01

    Pacific Northwest`s Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values.

  18. Arsenic Speciation in Wastes Resulting From Pressure Oxidation, Roasting and Smelting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paktunc, D. (CCM)

    2010-11-01

    Arsenic commonly occurs in elevated concentrations in some gold and base-metal deposits. Mining and metallurgical processing of gold and base-metal ores results in solid wastes, effluents, and air emissions containing high concentrations of arsenic. Such wastes form an important source of anthropogenic arsenic in the environment. The nature and occurrence of arsenic in solid wastes are complex and highly variable. A combination of microanalytical tools and techniques including XAFS were used to determine the form and speciation of arsenic in wastes resulting from pressure oxidation, roasting and smelting, and impacted soil. As K-edge and Fe K-edge XAFS analyses of the pressure oxidation residues indicate that arsenic in tetrahedral coordination is corner-linked to 5 to 6 FeO{sub 6} octahedra that are edge- and perhaps face-sharing. During roasting of refractory gold ores, oxidation of As to As{sub 2}O{sub 5} species may be incomplete, which is detrimental to not only gold recovery but also the tailings management options. As K-edge XANES spectra indicate that more than one-third of the arsenic released from a copper smelter stack is composed of As{sup 3+} species. Most likely arsenic species in the smelter-impacted soil include arsenolite, goethite with adsorbed As{sup 5+}, monomethylarsonic acidm, and tetramethylarsonium iodide.

  19. Environmental impact assessment and socio political issues of nuclear waste management; Ydinjaetehuollon ympaeristoevaikutusten arviointi ja sosiopoliittiset kysymykset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmaajaervi, I.; Tolsa, H. [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland). Urban Planning; Vuori, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy; Litmanen, T. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1997-09-01

    The study is a part of the Publicly Administrated Nuclear Waste Management Research Programme (JYT2) which was carried out in 1994-1996. The principal goal of the research programme has been to provide the authorities with information and research results relevant for the safety of nuclear waste management in order to support the various activities of the authorities. The main emphasis of the research programme focuses on the disposal of spent fuel. In addition to nuclear waste research in the field of natural sciences and technology, the research program- me has focused mostly on societal issues associated with nuclear waste disposal facilities and on the non-radiological environmental effects in the environs of the disposal site. Some of the local effects are already revealed in the research phase, before any final decisions are made as to the selection of the disposal site. The study has focused primarily on local and regional issues. The statutory requirement to conduct environ- mental impact assessment (EIA) chiefly concerns those who are responsible for waste management, but the authorities also need to acquire systematic information in the field to support developing requirements for the content and scope of EIA procedure and preparedness to check the assessments made. This is a report of the first parts of the study in 1994-1995. The report deals with the subject matter generally based on earlier studies in Finland and other countries. The results of the study will be reported later. 101 refs.

  20. Microwave remediation of electronic circuitry waste and the resulting gaseous emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Rebecca L.

    The global community has become increasingly dependent on computer and electronic technology. As a result, society is faced with an increasing amount of obsolete equipment and electronic circuitry waste. Electronic waste is generally disposed of in landfills. While convenient, this action causes a substantial loss of finite resources and poses an environmental threat as the circuit board components breakdown and are exposed to the elements. Hazardous compounds such as lead, mercury and cadmium may leach from the circuitry and find their way into the groundwater supply. For this dissertation, a microwave waste remediation system was developed. The system was designed to remove the organic components from a wide variety of electronic circuitry. Upon additional heating of the resulting ash material in an industrial microwave, a glass and metal product can be recovered. Analysis of the metal reveals the presence of precious metals (gold, silver) that can be sold to provide a return on investment. a glass and metal product can be recovered. Analysis of the metal reveals the presence of precious metals (gold, silver) that can be sold to provide a return on investment. Gaseous organic compounds that were generated as a result of organic removal were treated in a microwave off gas system that effectively reduced the concentration of the products emitted by several orders of magnitude, and in some cases completely destroying the waste gas. Upon further heating in an industrial microwave, a glass and metal product were recovered. In order to better understand the effects of processing parameters on the efficiency of the off-gas system, a parametric study was developed. The study tested the microwave system at 3 flow rates (10, 30, and 50 ft 3/min) and three temperatures (400, 700 and 1000°C. In order to test the effects of microwave energy, the experiments were repeated using a conventional furnace. While microwave energy is widely used, the mechanisms of interaction with

  1. Waste Preparation and Transport Chemistry: Results of the FY 2001 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.D.

    2002-03-25

    of researchers from AEA Technology, Florida International University (FIU), Fluor Hanford, Mississippi State University (MSU), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to evaluate various aspects of the waste preparation and transport chemistry. The majority of this effort was focused on saltcake dissolution and saltwell pumping. The results of the AEA Technology, FIU, and MSU studies of saltcake dissolution and slurry transfers for Hanford are discussed in detail in a companion report prepared by T. D. Welch in 2001 (ORNIJTM-2001097). Staff members at Fluor Hanford have continued to conduct saltcake dissolution tests on actual tank waste (documented in reports prepared by D. L. Herting in 2000 and 2001). It should be noted that full-scale saltcake dissolution at Hanford is scheduled to begin in FY 2002. While the Hanford effort is focused on the transfer of waste from one tank to another, the objective of the SRTC study is the formation of aluminosilicates at elevated temperatures, which are present in the waste evaporator.

  2. RESULTS OF THE FY09 ENHANCED DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-06-23

    High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this task is to develop data, assess property models, and refine or develop the necessary models to support increased WL of HLW at SRS. It is a continuation of the studies initiated in FY07, but is under the specific guidance of a Task Change Request (TCR)/Work Authorization received from DOE headquarters (Project Number RV071301). Using the data generated in FY07, FY08 and historical data, two test matrices (60 glasses total) were developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in order to generate data in broader compositional regions. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), viscosity, liquidus temperature (TL) measurement and durability as defined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study are summarized below: (1) In general, the current durability model predicts the durabilities of higher waste loading glasses quite well. A few of the glasses exhibited poorer durability than predicted. (2) Some of the glasses exhibited anomalous behavior with respect to durability (normalized leachate for boron (NL [B])). The quenched samples of FY09EM21-02, -07 and -21 contained no nepheline or other wasteform affecting crystals, but have unacceptable NL [B] values (> 10 g/L). The ccc sample of FY09EM21-07 has a NL [B] value that is more than one half the value of the quenched sample. These glasses also have lower concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}. (3) Five of the ccc samples (EM-13, -14, -15, -29 and

  3. DEWATERING TREATMENT SCALE-UP TESTING RESULTS OF HANFORD TANK WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI AR

    2008-01-23

    This report documents CH2M HILL Hanford Group Inc. (CH2M HILL) 2007 dryer testing results in Richland, WA at the AMEC Nuclear Ltd., GeoMelt Division (AMEC) Horn Rapids Test Site. It provides a discussion of scope and results to qualify the dryer system as a viable unit-operation in the continuing evaluation of the bulk vitrification process. A 10,000 liter (L) dryer/mixer was tested for supplemental treatment of Hanford tank low-activity wastes, drying and mixing a simulated non-radioactive salt solution with glass forming minerals. Testing validated the full scale equipment for producing dried product similar to smaller scale tests, and qualified the dryer system for a subsequent integrated dryer/vitrification test using the same simulant and glass formers. The dryer system is planned for installation at the Hanford tank farms to dry/mix radioactive waste for final treatment evaluation of the supplemental bulk vitrification process.

  4. WATER RESISTANCE OF WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia COŞEREANU; Dumitru LICA; Ioan CURTU; Mariana-Domnica STANCIU

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present innovative wood-plastic composites made from waste materials such as ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) and wood shavings resulted in the furniture manufacturing process. From previous investigations (with regard to physical integrity and compactness of the panels), only mixtures ranging from a ratio of 100% ABS: 0% shavings to 80% ABS: 20% shavings were selected for water resistance testing. Swelling in thickness and water absorption for...

  5. BCLDP site environmental report for calendar year 1997 on radiological and nonradiological parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, J.

    1998-09-30

    Battelle Memorial Institute currently maintains its retired nuclear research facilities in a surveillance and maintenance (S and M) mode and continues decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities. The activities are referred to as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations reference in this report are performed in support of S and M and D and D activities. The majority of this report is devoted to discussion of the West Jefferson facility, because the source term at this facility is larger than the source term at Battelle`s King Avenue site. The contamination found at the King Avenue site consists of small amounts of residual radioactive material in solid form, which has become embedded or captured in nearby surfaces such as walls, floors, ceilings, drains, laboratory equipment, and soils. By the end of calendar year (CY) 1997, most remediation activities were completed at the King Avenue site. The contamination found at the West Jefferson site is the result of research and development activities with irradiated materials. During CY 1997, multiple tests at the West Jefferson Nuclear Sciences Area found no isotopes present above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for air releases or for liquid discharges to Big Darby Creek. Data obtained from downstream sampling locations were statistically indistinguishable from background levels.

  6. Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions: Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.

  7. Researches on nuclear wastes: results and outlooks; Recherches sur les dechets nucleaires: resultats et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of a sustainable development, the CEA is engaged in the design, evaluation and development of new fuels and in the research process on radioactive wastes management. This paper gathers the CEA actions in the domain giving general information on the radioactive wastes nature and management, the wastes sorting to reduce the toxicity, the wastes conditioning and the packages long-dated behavior and the wastes storage and disposal. (A.L.B.)

  8. Quarry waste management and recovery: first results connected to Carrara marble ravaneti (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Chiappino, Claudia; Rossetti, Piergiorgio

    2017-04-01

    Quarry waste (QW) represents a huge economic and environmental issue, due to loss of resources and to economic and environmental costs connected to waste management and landfilling activities. In many cases, valuable Raw Materials (RM) and Secondary Raw Materials (SRM) can be supplied by enhancing the QW recovery. In Italy large amounts of QW have been and still are dumped: such materials, if their quality (chemical, mineralogical, physical characteristics) and quantity are adequate, and if the impacts connected to their management are positive, can represent a valuable resource for SRM exploitation. Several dimension stone quarries have been and are interested by researches as for QW exploitation. Some researches show positive results, which are the basis for QW recovery (both from waste streams and from quarry dumps exploitation): a noticeable example is represented by Carrara marble waste. The Carrara quarry basin is characterized by ca. one hundred quarries for colored and white marble exploitation. The waste production can be summarized in: 80 Mm3 waste present in old quarry dumps (Ravaneti) and 3 Mm3/y of waste stream from quarrying activities. At present only 0.5 Mm3/y of QW is exploited for SRM production, causing a huge loss of resource. This has been the background for a preliminary research, on Carrara marble Ravaneti characterization, which was carried out thanks to the close cooperation between University of Torino, Società Apuana Marmi srl, and SET srl. In 2015, two QW dumping areas, Calocara and Lorano, were selected as representative for sampling activities. Three main sample categories were individuated based on granulometry (0.5-4 mm, 0-25 mm, 0-150 mm) to be characterized (size distribution, density, Atterberg limits, Los Angeles test, freezing and heat tests, flat and shape indexes, geochemistry, mineralogy). The results obtained are promising: the physical characterization shows an attitude for Carrara QW to be recovered as crushed materials

  9. E-waste and the digital transition: Results from a survey of U.S. Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saphores, Jean-Daniel; Milovantseva, Natalia

    2011-08-01

    Until now, only rough estimates were available for the number of televisions (TVs) added to the growing stockpile of obsolete TVs by the June 2009 federally mandated digital transition. This event caused millions of Americans either to replace functioning analog TVs with digital units and purchase cable or satellite service, or to purchase subsidized analog-to-digital converter boxes. In this context, this paper makes two contributions based on results of a survey of 3,156 U.S. households conducted between the end of December 2009 and January 2010. First, we estimate the number of analog TVs that were retired as a result of the digital transition and we analyze the socioeconomic characteristics of the households affected. Second, we quantify the volume of nine metals (antimony, cadmium, chromium, copper, gold, lead, palladium, silver, and zinc) contained in these retired TVs. Our results are important to understand the e-waste consequences of the digital transition and to inform U.S. e-waste policy.

  10. WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of waste materials resulted in the furniture manufacturing process as components for wood-plastic composites. The composites are produced from industrial byproducts, such as shavings and ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, without coupling agent. The two components are derived from industrial processes of furniture manufacturing: the first one consists of wood residues resulted from planing machine as planer shavings, and the second one from ABS edge banding operation. A wide array of mixtures varying from 100% ABS to 50% ABS: 50% shavings were used to produce eight variants of boards. Density was determined for each board and the method for the determination of ABS particle size distribution by oscillating screen method using sieve apertures up to 4mm was also applied, in order to establish the particle fractions and the distribution of their sizes. Based on ABS properties, several technologies of manufacturing wood-plastic composites from the waste materials were tested and one of them was selected. The results of the first stage analysis, when the physical integrity and the compactness of the panels’ structures were tested, have shown that a maximum proportion of 30% of wood shavings is accepted in the mixture. On the other hand, the low density of the boards and their porous structure recommend further investigations for thermal and sound insulation applications

  11. Removing Phosphate from Hanford High-Phosphate Tank Wastes: FY 2010 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Qafoku, Odeta; Felmy, Andrew R.; Carter, Jennifer C.; MacFarlan, Paul J.

    2010-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for environmental remediation at the Hanford Site in Washington State, a former nuclear weapons production site. Retrieving, processing, immobilizing, and disposing of the 2.2 × 105 m3 of radioactive wastes stored in the Hanford underground storage tanks dominates the overall environmental remediation effort at Hanford. The cornerstone of the tank waste remediation effort is the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). As currently designed, the capability of the WTP to treat and immobilize the Hanford tank wastes in the expected lifetime of the plant is questionable. For this reason, DOE has been pursuing supplemental treatment options for selected wastes. If implemented, these supplemental treatments will route certain waste components to processing and disposition pathways outside of WTP and thus will accelerate the overall Hanford tank waste remediation mission.

  12. Result Summary for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Performance Assessment Model Version 4.113

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, G. J.

    2012-04-15

    Preliminary results for Version 4.113 of the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site performance assessment model are summarized. Version 4.113 includes the Fiscal Year 2011 inventory estimate.

  13. Results of Toxicity Studies Conducted on Outfall X-08 and Its Contributing Waste Streams, November 1999 - June 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-06-28

    This interim report summarizes the results of toxicity tests, Toxicity Identification Evaluations, and chemical analyses that have been conducted on SRS's NPDES Outfall X-08 and its contributing waste streams between November 1999 and June 2000.

  14. Characteristics of wastes from electric and electronic equipment in Greece: results of a field survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, Avraam; Perkoulidis, George; Papadopoulos, Agis; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Tsatsarelis, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    The lifespan of electric and electronic equipment is becoming shorter and the amount of related waste is increasing. This study aimed to contribute to the knowledge about qualitative and quantitative characteristics of such wastes in Greece. Specifically, results are presented from a field survey, which took place in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece, during the year 2002. The survey was conducted with suitable questionnaires in department stores and in households of various municipalities. Household appliances were grouped as follows: (A) large (refrigerator, freezer, washing machine, clothes dryer, electric cooker, microwave oven, electric heater), (B) small (vacuum cleaner, electric iron, hair dryer), (C) information technology and telecommunication equipment (PC, laptop, printer, phone) and (D) consumer equipment (radio, TV, video, DVD, console). The analysis indicated that the lifespan of all new goods is gradually reducing (apart from refrigerators, for which the lifespan was surprisingly found to be increasing) and provided linearized functions for predicting the lifespan, according to the year of manufacture, for certain large appliances.

  15. Field Lysimeter Investigations - test results: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program: Test results for fiscal years 1994-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rodgers, R.D.; Hilton, L.D.; Neilson, R.M. Jr. [and others

    1996-06-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is (1) studying the degradation effects in EPICOR-II organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (2) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified EPICOR-II resins, (3) obtaining performance information on solidified EPICOR-II ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (4) determining the condition of EPICOR-II liners. Results of the final 2 (10 total) years of data acquisition from operation of the field testing are presented and discussed. During the continuing field testing, both portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste forms are being tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The experimental equipment is described and results of waste form characterization using tests recommended by the NRC`s {open_quotes}Technical Position on Waste Form{close_quotes} are presented. The study is designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over a 20-year period. At the end of the tenth year, the experiment was closed down. Examination of soil and waste forms is planned to be conducted next and will be reported later.

  16. WATER RESISTANCE OF WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present innovative wood-plastic composites made from waste materials such as ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and wood shavings resulted in the furniture manufacturing process. From previous investigations (with regard to physical integrity and compactness of the panels, only mixtures ranging from a ratio of 100% ABS: 0% shavings to 80% ABS: 20% shavings were selected for water resistance testing. Swelling in thickness and water absorption for 2h and 24h were determined for the proposed wood-plastic composites. The results have shown that only a participation of up to 10% of wood shavings in the tested panels conducted to a good performance

  17. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayberry, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frazier, G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  18. MATRIX 1 RESULTS OF THE FY07 ENHANCED DOE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-09-23

    High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). It has been proposed that a team of glass formulation and processing experts at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) at Catholic University of America develop a systematic approach to increase HLW throughput (by increasing WL with minimal or positive impacts on melt rate). Programmatically, this task is aimed at proof-of-principle testing and the development of tools to improve waste loading and melt rate, which will lead to higher waste throughput. The following four specific tasks have been proposed to meet this programmatic objective: (1) Integration and Oversight, (2) Crystal Accumulation Modeling (led by PNNL)/Higher Waste Loading Glasses (led by SRNL), (3) Melt Rate Evaluation and Modeling, and (4) Melter Scale Demonstrations. The details of these tasks can be found in the associated task plan WSRC-STI-2007-00483. The current study is focused on Task 2 (crystal accumulation modeling and higher waste loading glasses) and involves glass formulation and physical property testing by both PNNL and SRNL (as defined in the PNNL and SRNL test plans). The intent of this report is to document the chemical composition and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results and statistical analysis of PNNL's Test Matrix 1 glasses. Note that this document is only a compilation of the data collected by SRNL for PNNL's glasses in support of this task and no conclusions will be drawn.

  19. Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2014, Waste Tanks 26, 27, 28 and 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Vandekamp, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-29

    Ultrasonic nondestructive examinations (NDE) were performed on waste storage tanks 26, 27, 28 and 33 at the Savannah River Site as a part of the “In-Service Inspection (ISI) Program for High Level Waste Tanks.” No reportable conditions were identified during these inspections. The results indicate that the implemented corrosion control program continues to effectively mitigate corrosion in the SRS waste tanks. Ultrasonic inspection (UT) is used to detect general wall thinning, pitting and interface attack, as well as vertically oriented cracks through inspection of an 8.5 inch wide strip extending over the accessible height of the primary tank wall and accessible knuckle regions. Welds were also inspected in tanks 27, 28 and 33 with no reportable indications. In a Type III/IIIA primary tank, a complete vertical strip includes scans of five plates (including knuckles) so five “plate/strips” would be completed at each vertical strip location. In FY 2014, a combined total of 79 plate/strips were examined for thickness mapping and crack detection, equating to over 45,000 square inches of area inspected on the primary tank wall. Of the 79 plate/strips examined in FY 2014 all but three have average thicknesses that remain at or above the construction minimum thickness which is nominal thickness minus 0.010 inches. There were no service induced reportable thicknesses or cracking encountered. A total of 2 pits were documented in 2014 with the deepest being 0.032 inches deep. One pit was detected in Tank 27 and one in Tank 33. No pitting was identified in Tanks 26 or 28. The maximum depth of any pit encountered in FY 2014 is 5% of nominal thickness, which is less than the minimum reportable criteria of 25% through-wall for pitting. In Tank 26 two vertical strips were inspected, as required by the ISI Program, due to tank conditions being outside normal chemistry controls for more than 3 months. Tank 28 had an area of localized thinning on the exterior wall of the

  20. A study of inter-particle bonds in dry bauxite waste resulting in atmospheric aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Thompson, Bentley

    1988-02-01

    Bauxite and Alumina production are one of the main activities of several third world countries such as Jamaica, Brazil, India, Guinea, eastern European countries such as Hungary and Rumania and advanced countries such as Australia, West Germany, Japan and the United States. The mining operations lead to dust pollution, but the refining of bauxite to alumina yield large amounts of highly caustic sludge waste, called "Red Mud". Millions of tons of the waste produced in every country are stored in containment dams or natural valleys. This leads to ground water pollution, destruction of plant and bird life and is hazardous to human settlement in earthquake prone regions like Jamaica. As a result several companies have been looking into dry mud stacking which involves thickening the mud in the refining plants and sprying it on the slopes to sun dry it. Typically it involves a drying field of about two hundred acres, which could act as a potential source of caustic dust. In Jamaica one company has started disposing of the mud in this way. The aerosol formation from such areas depends mainly on the integrity of the top dry layers. Presently this is done by studying the approximate parameters such as the friability of the mud. However, following the recent advances in powder technology it has been possible for us to develop an instrument to study the average interparticle forces between the red mud particles. The instrument is based on the principle of a tensometer and a split cell is used to load specimens. A load cell is used to measure the force and a chart recorder is used for plotting separation and the force. The present study reports elemental composition of the dust and its health hazards. It also reports the physical measurement of the average interparticle force as a function of their separation in the Jamaican mud. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the strength of the material is studied to see the effect of sun-drying of the waste. The five-fold increase

  1. Chemical compatibility screening results of plastic packaging to mixed waste simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1995-12-01

    We have developed a chemical compatibility program for evaluating transportation packaging components for transporting mixed waste forms. We have performed the first phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant mixed wastes on packaging materials. This effort involved the screening of 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to {approximately}3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14 day exposures to the waste simulants of 60 C. The seal materials or rubbers were tested using VTR (vapor transport rate) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criteria of {approximately}1 g/m{sup 2}/hr for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. It was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only VITON passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. It is anticipated that those materials with the lowest VTRs will be evaluated in the comprehensive phase of the program. For specific gravity testing of liner materials the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE were found to offer the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  2. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY/CY2011 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Windisch, Charles F.; Lepry, William C.; Matyas, Josef; Westman, Matthew P.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Lang, Jesse B.; Pierce, David A.

    2011-12-01

    This report summarizes the 2011 fiscal+calendar year efforts for developing waste forms for a spent salt generated in reprocessing nuclear fuel with an electrochemical separations process. The two waste forms are tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and sol-gel-derived high-halide mineral analogs to stable minerals found in nature.

  3. The extent of food waste generation across EU-27: different calculation methods and the reliability of their results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräutigam, Klaus-Rainer; Jörissen, Juliane; Priefer, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    The reduction of food waste is seen as an important societal issue with considerable ethical, ecological and economic implications. The European Commission aims at cutting down food waste to one-half by 2020. However, implementing effective prevention measures requires knowledge of the reasons and the scale of food waste generation along the food supply chain. The available data basis for Europe is very heterogeneous and doubts about its reliability are legitimate. This mini-review gives an overview of available data on food waste generation in EU-27 and discusses their reliability against the results of own model calculations. These calculations are based on a methodology developed on behalf of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and provide data on food waste generation for each of the EU-27 member states, broken down to the individual stages of the food chain and differentiated by product groups. The analysis shows that the results differ significantly, depending on the data sources chosen and the assumptions made. Further research is much needed in order to improve the data stock, which builds the basis for the monitoring and management of food waste.

  4. Removal of strontium and transuranics from Hanford waste via hydrothermal processing -- FY 1994/95 test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, R.J.; Schmidt, A.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Hart, T.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Gano, S.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Lehmann, R.W.; Momont, J.A. [Zimpro Environmental, Inc. (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating and developing organic destruction technologies that may be incorporated into the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) to treat Hanford tank waste. Organic (and ferrocyanide) destruction removes the compounds responsible for waste safety issues, and conditions the supernatant for low-level waste disposal by removing compounds that may be responsible for promoting strontium and transuranic (TRU) components solubility. Destruction or defunctionalization of complexing organics in tank wastes eliminates organic species that can reduce the efficiency of radionuclide (E.g., {sup 90}Sr) separation processes, such as ion exchange, solvent extraction, and precipitation. The technologies being evaluated and tested for organic destruction are low-temperature hydrothermal processing (HTP) and wet air oxidation (WAO). Four activities are described: Batch HTP/WAO testing with Actual Tank Waste (Section 3.0), Batch HTP Testing with Simulant (Section 4.0), Batch WAO testing with Simulant (Section 5.0), and Continuous Bench-scale WAO Testing with Simulant (Section 6.0). For each of these activities, the objectives, test approach, results, status, and direction of future investigations are discussed. The background and history of the HTP/WAO technology is summarized below. Conclusions and Recommendations are provided in Section 2.0. A continuous HTP off-gas safety evaluation conducted in FY 1994 is included as Appendix A.

  5. Summary Of Cold Crucible Vitrification Tests Results With Savannah River Site High Level Waste Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovsky, Sergey; Marra, James; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2014-01-13

    The cold crucible inductive melting (CCIM) technology successfully applied for vitrification of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) at SIA Radon, Russia, was tested to be implemented for vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) stored at Savannah River Site, USA. Mixtures of Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and 4 (SB4) waste surrogates and borosilicate frits as slurries were vitrified in bench- (236 mm inner diameter) and full-scale (418 mm inner diameter) cold crucibles. Various process conditions were tested and major process variables were determined. Melts were poured into 10L canisters and cooled to room temperature in air or in heat-insulated boxes by a regime similar to Canister Centerline Cooling (CCC) used at DWPF. The products with waste loading from ~40 to ~65 wt.% were investigated in details. The products contained 40 to 55 wt.% waste oxides were predominantly amorphous; at higher waste loadings (WL) spinel structure phases and nepheline were present. Normalized release values for Li, B, Na, and Si determined by PCT procedure remain lower than those from EA glass at waste loadings of up to 60 wt.%.

  6. Summary Of Cold Crucible Vitrification Tests Results With Savannah River Site High Level Waste Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovsky, Sergey; Marra, James; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2014-01-13

    The cold crucible inductive melting (CCIM) technology successfully applied for vitrification of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) at SIA Radon, Russia, was tested to be implemented for vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) stored at Savannah River Site, USA. Mixtures of Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and 4 (SB4) waste surrogates and borosilicate frits as slurries were vitrified in bench- (236 mm inner diameter) and full-scale (418 mm inner diameter) cold crucibles. Various process conditions were tested and major process variables were determined. Melts were poured into 10L canisters and cooled to room temperature in air or in heat-insulated boxes by a regime similar to Canister Centerline Cooling (CCC) used at DWPF. The products with waste loading from ~40 to ~65 wt.% were investigated in details. The products contained 40 to 55 wt.% waste oxides were predominantly amorphous; at higher waste loadings (WL) spinel structure phases and nepheline were present. Normalized release values for Li, B, Na, and Si determined by PCT procedure remain lower than those from EA glass at waste loadings of up to 60 wt.%.

  7. Results of Retrieval Studies with Waste from Tank 241-C-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' ROURKE, J.F.

    2000-02-08

    Laboratory studies were performed on samples of waste from Tank 241-C-104. Physical property data was gathered to develop engineering plans for retrieval operations. Chemical composition data was collected to verify the ability to meet contract feed specifications.

  8. Test Results and Comparison of Triaxial Strength Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Clean Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Stuart A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This memorandum documents laboratory thermomechanical triaxial strength testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) clean salt. The limited study completed independent, adjunct laboratory tests in the United States to assist in validating similar testing results being provided by the German facilities. The testing protocol consisted of completing confined triaxial, constant strain rate strength tests of intact WIPP clean salt at temperatures of 25°C and 100°C and at multiple confining pressures. The stratigraphy at WIPP also includes salt that has been labeled “argillaceous.” The much larger test matrix conducted in Germany included both the so-called clean and argillaceous salts. When combined, the total database of laboratory results will be used to develop input parameters for models, assess adequacy of existing models, and predict material behavior. These laboratory studies are also consistent with the goals of the international salt repository research program. The goal of this study was to complete a subset of a test matrix on clean salt from the WIPP undertaken by German research groups. The work was performed at RESPEC in Rapid City, South Dakota. A rigorous Quality Assurance protocol was applied, such that corroboration provides the potential of qualifying all of the test data gathered by German research groups.

  9. Prevention of ARD through stabilization of waste rock with alkaline by-products : results from a meso-scale experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backstrom, M.; Allard, B. [Orebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology Environment Research Centre; Sartz, L.; Karlsson, S. [Orebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology Environment Research Centre; Bergskraft Bergslagen, Kopparberg (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Mine waste can be mixed with alkaline materials to neutralize and increase the immobilization of trace elements. An impermeable layer can also be created if the alkaline additions react with the waste to form hardpans. Alkaline injection processes have been used in the western United States, where approximately 2 to 3.5 million tonnes of mine tailings have been limed with calcite, calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}), and calcium oxide (CaO). In this study, stabilization experiments were conducted to simulate conditions where weathered mine waste was mixed with various alkaline materials. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal conditions for preventing the oxidation of mine waste isolating surfaces. The alkaline materials included fly ash, lime mud, green liquor dregs, and lime kiln dust. The mine waste and alkaline materials were layered in barrels. Expanded clay aggregates were used to minimize the risk of clogging. Results of the experiments showed that the pH in the alkaline-treated systems increased between 1.3 and 27 pH units when compared with untreated reference samples. The increased pH resulted in a decrease in trace element concentrations of approximately 96 percent. The samples containing fly ash performed better than other systems. 4 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  10. Investigation into River Sediments Toxicity as a Result of Inappropriate Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia R. Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediments of the São Francisco River basin (Brazil were investigated to determine the environmental consequences of incorrect disposal of wastes generated by a zinc industry. Surface sediments were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and chemically analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF. Total organic carbon (TOC, acid volatile sulfides (AVSs, and simultaneously extracted metals (SEMs were also determined. AVS/SEM procedure was employed to assess the bioavailability of the metals in sediments. XRD analyses indicated that the main phases in the sediments were kaolinite and quartz. The total concentration of Zn and Pb, near the old industrial discharge point, indicated high levels of contamination according to the sediment quality guidelines (SQGs. According to the AVS/SEM criteria, despite the high levels of zinc and lead in the sediments, the toxicity resulting from these metals is unlikely in most of the samples. However, in one of the samples, collected near the old industrial discharge point, the toxicity is uncertain—according to the USEPA criteria.

  11. Drug waste minimisation and cost-containment in Medical Oncology: Two-year results of a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansutti Mauro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-containment strategies are required to face the challenge of rising drug expenditures in Oncology. Drug wastage leads to economic loss, but little is known about the size of the problem in this field. Methods Starting January 2005 we introduced a day-to-day monitoring of drug wastage and an accurate assessment of its costs. An internal protocol for waste minimisation was developed, consisting of four corrective measures: 1. A rational, per pathology distribution of chemotherapy sessions over the week. 2. The use of multi-dose vials. 3. A reasonable rounding of drug dosages. 4. The selection of the most convenient vial size, depending on drug unit pricing. Results Baseline analysis focused on 29 drugs over one year. Considering their unit price and waste amount, a major impact on expense was found to be attributable to six drugs: cetuximab, docetaxel, gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, pemetrexed and trastuzumab. The economic loss due to their waste equaled 4.8% of the annual drug expenditure. After the study protocol was started, the expense due to unused drugs showed a meaningful 45% reduction throughout 2006. Conclusion Our experience confirms the economic relevance of waste minimisation and may represent a feasible model in addressing this issue. A centralised unit of drug processing, the availability of a computerised physician order entry system and an active involvement of the staff play a key role in allowing waste reduction and a consequent, substantial cost-saving.

  12. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1, Methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste. Although numerous caveats must be placed on the results, the general findings were as follows: Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  13. Demands placed on waste package performance testing and modeling by some general results on reliability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesnut, D.A.

    1991-09-01

    Waste packages for a US nuclear waste repository are required to provide reasonable assurance of maintaining substantially complete containment of radionuclides for 300 to 1000 years after closure. The waiting time to failure for complex failure processes affecting engineered or manufactured systems is often found to be an exponentially-distributed random variable. Assuming that this simple distribution can be used to describe the behavior of a hypothetical single barrier waste package, calculations presented in this paper show that the mean time to failure (the only parameter needed to completely specify an exponential distribution) would have to be more than 10{sub 7} years in order to provide reasonable assurance of meeting this requirement. With two independent barriers, each would need to have a mean time to failure of only 10{sup 5} years to provide the same reliability. Other examples illustrate how multiple barriers can provide a strategy for not only achieving but demonstrating regulatory compliance.

  14. Results from NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] Series 2 bare fuel dissolution tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-09-01

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Two bare spent fuel specimens plus the empty cladding hulls were tested in NNWSI J-13 well water in unsealed fused silica vessels under ambient hot cell air conditions (25{degree}C) in the currently reported tests. One of the specimens was prepared from a rod irradiated in the H. B. Robinson Unit 2 reactor and the other from a rod irradiated in the Turkey Point Unit 3 reactor. Results indicate that most radionuclides of interest fall into three groups for release modeling. The first group principally includes the actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm), all of which reached solubility-limited concentrations that were orders of magnitude below those necessary to meet the NRC 10 CFR 60.113 release limits for any realistic water flux predicted for the Yucca Mountain repository site. The second group is nuclides of soluble elements such as Cs, Tc, and I, for which release rates do not appear to be solubility-limited and may depend on the dissolution rate of fuel. In later test cycles, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 129}I were continuously released at rates between about 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} of inventory per year. The third group is radionuclides that may be transported in the vapor phase, of which {sup 14}C is of primary concern. Detailed test results are presented and discussed. 17 refs., 15 figs., 21 tabs.

  15. Performance assessment of the direct disposal in unsaturated tuff or spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste owned by USDOE: Volume 2, Methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1995-03-01

    This assessment studied the performance of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a hypothetical repository in unsaturated tuff. The results of this 10-month study are intended to help guide the Office of Environment Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on how to prepare its wastes for eventual permanent disposal. The waste forms comprised spent fuel and high-level waste currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Hanford reservations. About 700 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of the waste under study is stored at INEL, including graphite spent nuclear fuel, highly enriched uranium spent fuel, low enriched uranium spent fuel, and calcined high-level waste. About 2100 MTHM of weapons production fuel, currently stored on the Hanford reservation, was also included. The behavior of the waste was analyzed by waste form and also as a group of waste forms in the hypothetical tuff repository. When the waste forms were studied together, the repository was assumed also to contain about 9200 MTHM high-level waste in borosilicate glass from three DOE sites. The addition of the borosilicate glass, which has already been proposed as a final waste form, brought the total to about 12,000 MTHM.

  16. Response of soil microorganisms to radioactive oil waste: results from a leaching experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Galitskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil wastes produced in large amounts in the processes of oil extraction, refining, and transportation are of great environmental concern because of their mutagenicity, toxicity, high fire hazardousness, and other properties. About 40% of these wastes contain radionuclides; however, the effects of oil products and radionuclides on soil microorganisms are frequently studied separately. The toxicity and effects on various microbial parameters of raw waste (H containing 575 g of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH kg−1 waste, 4.4 kBq kg−1 of 226Ra, 2.8 kBq kg−1 of 232Th, and 1.3 kBq kg−1 of $^{40}$K and its treated variant (R (1.6 g kg−1 of TPH, 7.9 kBq kg−1 of 226Ra, 3.9 kBq kg−1 of 232Th, and 183 kBq kg−1 of 40K were estimated in a leaching column experiment to separate the effects of hydrocarbons from those of radioactive elements. The disposal of H waste samples on the soil surface led to an increase of the TPH content in soil: it became 3.5, 2.8, and 2.2 times higher in the upper (0–20 cm, middle (20–40 cm, and lower (40–60 cm layers respectively. Activity concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th increased in soil sampled from both H- and R-columns in comparison to their concentrations in control soil. The activity concentrations of these two elements in samples taken from the upper and middle layers were much higher for the R-column compared to the H-column, despite the fact that the amount of waste added to the columns was equalized with respect to the activity concentrations of radionuclides. The H waste containing both TPH and radionuclides affected the functioning of the soil microbial community, and the effect was more pronounced in the upper layer of the column. Metabolic quotient and cellulase activity were the most sensitive microbial parameters as their levels were changed 5–1.4 times in comparison to control ones. Changes of soil functional characteristics caused by the treated waste containing mainly radionuclides

  17. Response of soil microorganisms to radioactive oil waste: results from a leaching experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitskaya, P.; Biktasheva, L.; Saveliev, A.; Ratering, S.; Schnell, S.; Selivanovskaya, S.

    2015-06-01

    Oil wastes produced in large amounts in the processes of oil extraction, refining, and transportation are of great environmental concern because of their mutagenicity, toxicity, high fire hazardousness, and hydrophobicity. About 40% of these wastes contain radionuclides; however, the effects of oil products and radionuclides on soil microorganisms are frequently studied separately. The effects on various microbial parameters of raw waste containing 575 g of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) kg-1 waste, 4.4 of 226Ra, 2.8 of 232Th, and 1.3 kBq kg-1 of 40K and its treated variant (1.6 g kg-1 of TPH, 7.9 of 226Ra, 3.9 of 232Th, and 183 kBq kg-1 of 40K) were examined in a leaching column experiment to separate the effects of hydrocarbons from those of radioactive elements. The raw waste sample (H) was collected from tanks during cleaning and maintenance, and a treated waste sample (R) was obtained from equipment for oil waste treatment. Thermal steam treatment is used in the production yard to reduce the oil content. The disposal of H waste samples on the soil surface led to an increase in the TPH content in soil: it became 3.5, 2.8, and 2.2 times higher in the upper (0-20 cm), middle (20-40 cm), and lower (40-60cm) layers, respectively. Activity concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th increased in soil sampled from both H- and R- columns in comparison to their concentrations in control soil. The activity concentrations of these two elements in samples taken from the upper and middle layers were much higher for the R-column compared to the H-column, despite the fact that the amount of waste added to the columns was equalized with respect to the activity concentrations of radionuclides. The H waste containing both TPH and radionuclides affected the functioning of the soil microbial community, and the effect was more pronounced in the upper layer of the column. Metabolic quotient and cellulase activity were the most sensitive microbial parameters as their levels were changed 5

  18. Biofilters to treat the pesticides wastes from spraying applications: results after 4 years of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, O; De Vleeschouwer, C; Cors, F; Weickmans, B; Huyghebaert, B; Planchon, V; Pussemier, L; Culot, M

    2006-01-01

    Biofilters were developed in order to eliminate or reduce the quantity of pesticides from rinsing and cleaning waters of sprayers. Biofilters consist in 1, 2 or 3 plastic containers of 1 m3 placed in a vertical pile and containing a substrate elaborated from a homogenised mixture of local soil, chopped straw and compost able to absorb and degrade the pesticides. Biofilters are installed near the area for cleaning and rinsing the sprayer and the waste waters are pumped into the system. Since 2002, a pilot study is carried out in Belgium in order to evaluate the efficacy of these systems. Twenty pilot systems were installed since 2002 until 2004 in several farms, agricultural technical centres or schools and in a municipal maintenance service. The efficacy of the biofilters was studied for several chemical classes of herbicides (sulfonylurea, aryloxyalcanoic acids, chloroacetanilides), insecticides (pyrethroids, carbamates) and fungicides (dicarboximides, phenylamides, triazoles and strobilurines). The balance of the inputs and the outputs of the pesticides was determined by monitoring the elutes. The degradation kinetic of pesticides into the substrate was evaluated by analysing the pesticides into the substrate. The microbiological activity of the substrate was also evaluated by measuring respiration and some indirect parameters like dry matter content, Kjeldahl nitrogen content, organic carbon content and biological oxygen demand (BOD). Results obtained until now after four years of experiments have showed an overall good efficacy (retention) of pesticides by the biofilter and a high degradation rate for the majority of pesticides. Biofilters permit to reduce highly the quantity of pesticides from rinsing and cleaning waters of sprayers and contribute significantly to the reduction of the contamination of surface water. Biofilters are now registered by the Ministry of Agriculture and Environment of the Walloon Region in Belgium and are recommended to pesticides

  19. Groundwater monitoring at three Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive waste impoundments: results after one year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C. W.; Stansfield, R. G.

    1986-10-01

    To determine if the migration of potential contaminants from three inactive waste impoundments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory poses a threat to groundwater quality, at least one upgradient groundwater monitoring well and threee downgradient monitoring wells were installed at each impoundment in early 1985. These three unlined impoundments, formerly used to collect and, in some instances, treat wastewater are: the 3513 impoundment; the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) impoundment; and the Homogeneous Reactor Experimnt No. 2 impoundment. Groundwater samples were collected quarterly for one year. Analyses were conducted for the groundwater protection parameters promulgated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The groundwater samples were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls, copper, nickel, zinc, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and tritium. The contaminants found most often to affect groundwater quality at all three waste impoundments were radionuclides. For example, mean concentrations of gross beta and gross alpha activity exceeded drinking water limits at all three sites. The gross beta limit was exceeded at the 3513 and OHF impoundments by either /sup 90/Sr or tritium levels. At the 3513 impoundment, there was substantial evidence that the downgradient groundwater has been contaminated by chromium and lead and possibly by halogenated organic compounds. At the OHF impoundment, the mean level of tritium measured in the upgradient well (about 91,000 Bq/L as compared with 80,000 Bq/L in the downgradient wells) indicated that the groundwater quality has been affected by the radioactive wastes buried in the low-level radioactive waste burial ground solid waste storage area-5 upgradient of the impoundment. Testing for groundwater contamination, disclosed statistically significant contamination at all three sites.

  20. SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2011-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the

  1. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  2. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  3. Wet Oxidation Pretreatment of Tobacco Stalks and Orange Waste for Bioethanol Production. Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Carlos; Fernandez, Teresa; Garcia, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Wet oxidation (WO) was used as a pretreatment method prior to enzymatic hydrolysis of tobacco stalks and orange waste. The pretreatment, performed at 195 degrees C and an oxygen pressure of 1.2 MPa, for 15 min, in the presence of Na2CO3, increased the cellulose content of the materials and gave...... cellulose recoveries of approximately 90%. The pretreatment enhanced the susceptibility of cellulose to enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest enzymatic convertibility, that of 64.9%, was achieved for pretreated tobacco stalks. The ethanolic fermentation of the WO filtrates, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae......, was inhibited compared to the fermentation of a reference glucose solution. Inhibition was more intense for the filtrate of tobacco stalks than for that of orange waste. The inhibition degree of the volumetric productivity of ethanol was higher (79.1-86.8%) than that of the ethanol yield (7.1-9.5%)....

  4. Performance test results of noninvasive characterization of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act surrogate waste by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Streier, G.G.

    1997-03-01

    During FY-96, a performance test was carried out with funding from the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the noninvasive elemental assay capabilities of commercial companies for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals present in 8-gal drums containing surrogate waste. Commercial companies were required to be experienced in the use of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) techniques and to have a prototype assay system with which to conduct the test assays. Potential participants were identified through responses to a call for proposals advertised in the Commerce Business Daily and through personal contacts. Six companies were originally identified. Two of these six were willing and able to participate in the performance test, as described in the test plan, with some subsidizing from the DOE MWFA. The tests were conducted with surrogate sludge waste because (1) a large volume of this type of waste awaits final disposition and (2) sludge tends to be somewhat homogeneous. The surrogate concentrations of the above RCRA metals ranged from {approximately} 300 ppm to {approximately} 20,000 ppm. The lower limit was chosen as an estimate of the expected sensitivity of detection required by noninvasive, pretreatment elemental assay systems to be of value for operational and compliance purposes and to still be achievable with state-of-the-art methods of analysis. The upper limit of {approximately} 20,000 ppm was chosen because it is the opinion of the author that assay above this concentration level is within current state-of-the-art methods for most RCRA constituents. This report is organized into three parts: Part 1, Test Plan to Evaluate the Technical Status of Noninvasive Elemental Assay Techniques for Hazardous Waste; Part 2, Participants` Results; and Part 3, Evaluation of and Comments on Participants` Results.

  5. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support enhanced Hanford waste glass models: Results for the January, March, and April 2015 LAW glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, W. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Best, D. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-03

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for several simulated low activity waste (LAW) glasses (designated as the January, March, and April 2015 LAW glasses) fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions.

  6. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support Enhanced Hanford Waste Glass Models. Results for the Augusta and October 2014 LAW Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Best, D. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-07

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for several simulated low activity waste (LAW) glasses (designated as the August and October 2014 LAW glasses) fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions.

  7. Safety assessment for the transportation of NECSA's LILW to the Vaalputs waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maphoto, K.P.; Raubenheimer, E.; Swart, H. [Nuclear Liabilities Management, NECSA, P O Box 582, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    The transport safety assessment was carried out with a view to assess the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the radioactive materials. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with the envisaged transport scenarios for the road transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of LILW along the R563 route, N14 and eventually to the Vaalputs National Waste Disposal Facility. Various parameters are needed by the RADTRAN code in calculating the human health impact and risk. These include: numbers of population densities following the routes undertaken, number of stops made, and the speed at which the transport will be traversing at towards the final destination. The human health impact with regard to the dose to the public, LCF and risk associated with transportation of Necsa's LILW to the Vaalputs Waste Disposal Facility by road have been calculated using RADTRAN 5 code. The results for both accident and incident free scenarios have shown that the overall risks are insignificant and can be associated with any non-radiological transportation. (authors)

  8. Mechanisms of gas retention and release: Experimental results for Hanford single-shell waste tanks 241-A-101, 241-S-106, and 241-U-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rassat, S.D.; Caley, S.M.; Bredt, P.R.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Rinehart, D.E.; Forbes, S.V.

    1998-09-01

    The 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site contain millions of gallons of radioactive waste resulting from the purification of nuclear materials and related processes. Through various mechanisms, flammable gas mixtures of hydrogen, ammonia, methane, and nitrous oxide are generated and retained in significant quantities within the waste in many ({approximately}25) of these tanks. The potential for large releases of retained gas from these wastes creates a flammability hazard. It is a critical component of the effort to understand the flammability hazard and a primary goal of this laboratory investigation to establish an understanding of the mechanisms of gas retention and release in these wastes. The results of bubble retention experimental studies using waste samples from several waste tanks and a variety of waste types support resolution of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue. Gas bubble retention information gained in the pursuit of safe storage will, in turn, benefit future waste operations including salt-well pumping, waste transfers, and sluicing/retrieval.

  9. Wet Oxidation Pretreatment of Tobacco Stalks and Orange Waste for Bioethanol Production. Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Carlos; Fernandez, Teresa; Garcia, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Wet oxidation (WO) was used as a pretreatment method prior to enzymatic hydrolysis of tobacco stalks and orange waste. The pretreatment, performed at 195 degrees C and an oxygen pressure of 1.2 MPa, for 15 min, in the presence of Na2CO3, increased the cellulose content of the materials and gave...... cellulose recoveries of approximately 90%. The pretreatment enhanced the susceptibility of cellulose to enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest enzymatic convertibility, that of 64.9%, was achieved for pretreated tobacco stalks. The ethanolic fermentation of the WO filtrates, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae...

  10. Contribution of image analysis to the definition of explosibility of fine particles resulting from waste recycling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gente, V.; La Marca, F.

    2007-09-01

    In waste recycling processes, the development of comminution technologies is one of the main actions to improve the quality of recycled products. This involves a rise in fine particles production, which could have some effects on explosibility properties of materials. This paper reports the results of experiments done to examine the explosibility of the fine particles resulting from waste recycling process. Tests have been conducted for the products derived from milling processes operated in different operative conditions. In particular, the comminution tests have been executed varying the milling temperature by refrigerant agents. The materials utilized in explosibility tests were different typologies of plastics coming from waste products (PET, ABS and PP), characterized by size lower than 1 mm. The results of explosibility tests, carried out by mean of a Hartmann Apparatus, have been compared with the data derived from image analysis procedure aimed to measure the morphological characteristics of particles. For each typology of material, the propensity to explode appears to be correlated not only to particle size, but also to morphological properties, linked to the operative condition of the milling process.

  11. Estimation of waste water treatment plant methane emissions: methodology and results from a short campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Yver-Kwok

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes different methods to estimate methane emissions at different scales. These methods are applied to a waste water treatment plant (WWTP located in Valence, France. We show that Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR measurements as well as Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS can be used to measure emissions from the process to the regional scale. To estimate the total emissions, we investigate a tracer release method (using C2H2 and the Radon tracer method (using 222Rn. For process-scale emissions, both tracer release and chamber techniques were used. We show that the tracer release method is suitable to quantify facility- and some process-scale emissions, while the Radon tracer method encompasses not only the treatment station but also a large area around. Thus the Radon tracer method is more representative of the regional emissions around the city. Uncertainties for each method are described. Applying the methods to CH4 emissions, we find that the main source of emissions of the plant was not identified with certainty during this short campaign, although the primary source of emissions is likely to be from solid sludge. Overall, the waste water treatment plant represents a small part (3% of the methane emissions of the city of Valence and its surroundings,which is in agreement with the national inventories.

  12. Analytical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Results for Debris Recovered from Nitrate Salt Waste Drum S855793

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Patrick Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chamberlin, Rebecca M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worley, Christopher Gordon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garduno, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lujan, Elmer J. W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Borrego, Andres Patricio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Castro, Alonso [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Colletti, Lisa Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fulwyler, James Brent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Holland, Charlotte S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Keller, Russell C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Klundt, Dylan James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martin, Frances Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montoya, Dennis Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porterfield, Donivan R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schake, Ann Rene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schappert, Michael Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Soderberg, Constance B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Spencer, Khalil J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stanley, Floyd E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thomas, Mariam R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Townsend, Lisa Ellen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Xu, Ning [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-16

    Solid debris was recovered from the previously-emptied nitrate salt waste drum S855793. The bulk sample was nondestructively assayed for radionuclides in its as-received condition. Three monoliths were selected for further characterization. Two of the monoliths, designated Specimen 1 and 3, consisted primarily of sodium nitrate and lead nitrate, with smaller amounts of lead nitrate oxalate and lead oxide by powder x-ray diffraction. The third monolith, Specimen 2, had a complex composition; lead carbonate was identified as the predominant component, and smaller amounts of nitrate, nitrite and carbonate salts of lead, magnesium and sodium were also identified. Microfocused x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) mapping showed that lead was ubiquitous throughout the cross-sections of Specimens 1 and 2, while heteroelements such as potassium, calcium, chromium, iron, and nickel were found in localized deposits. MXRF examination and destructive analysis of fragments of Specimen 3 showed elevated concentrations of iron, which were broadly distributed through the sample. With the exception of its high iron content and low carbon content, the chemical composition of Specimen 3 was within the ranges of values previously observed in four other nitrate salt samples recovered from emptied waste drums.

  13. Vitrification of Hanford wastes in a joule-heated ceramic melter and evaluation of resultant canisterized product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, C.C.; Buelt, J.L.; Slate, S.C.; Katayama, Y.B.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1979-08-01

    Experience gained in the week-long vitrification test and characterization of the glass produced in the run support the following conclusions: The Hanford waste simulated in this test can be readily vitrified in a joule-heated ceramic melter. Physical properties of the molten glass were entirely compatible with melter operation. The average feed rate of 106 kg/h is high enough to make the ceramic melter a feasible piece of equipment for vitrifying Hanford wastes. The glass produced in this trial had good chemical durability, 6(10)/sup -5/ g/cm/sup 2/-d. When one of the canisters was purposely dropped onto a steel pad, the damage was limited to deformation of the steel can in the impact area, cracking of a weld, and fracturing of glass in the immediate vicinity of the impact area. No glass was released from the canister as a result of the drop test. The results of this vitrification test support the technical feasibility of vitrifying Hanford wastes by means of a joule-heated ceramic melter. Surface area for large glass castings is equivalent to the mass median particle diameters between 4.27 cm (1.75 in.) and 8.91 cm (3.51 in.) even when allowed to cool rapidly by standing in ambient air. Large canisters (up to 0.91 m in dia) can be cast without large voids while standing in air if the fill rate is over 100 kg/h. 34 figures, 10 tables.

  14. Results from Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Series 3 spent fuel dissolution tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-06-01

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Specimens prepared from pressurized water reactor fuel rod segments were tested in sealed stainless steel vessels in Nevada Test Site J-13 well water at 85{degree}C and 25{degree}C. The test matrix included three specimens of bare-fuel particles plus cladding hulls, two fuel rod segments with artificially defected cladding and water-tight end fittings, and an undefected fuel rod section with watertight end fittings. Periodic solution samples were taken during test cycles with the sample volumes replenished with fresh J-13 water. Test cycles were periodically terminated and the specimens restarted in fresh J-13 water. The specimens were run for three cycles for a total test duration of 15 months. 22 refs., 32 figs., 26 tabs.

  15. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  16. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  17. Actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): FY94 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, C.F. [ed.

    1995-08-01

    This document contains six reports on actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These reports, completed in FY94, are relevant to the estimation of the potential dissolved actinide concentrations in WIPP brines under repository breach scenarios. Estimates of potential dissolved actinide concentrations are necessary for WIPP performance assessment calculations. The specific topics covered within this document are: the complexation of oxalate with Th(IV) and U(VI); the stability of Pu(VI) in one WIPP-specific brine environment both with and without carbonate present; the solubility of Nd(III) in a WIPP Salado brine surrogate as a function of hydrogen ion concentration; the steady-state dissolved plutonium concentrations in a synthetic WIPP Culebra brine surrogate; the development of a model for Nd(III) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions; and the development of a model for Np(V) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium Perchlorate, sodium carbonate, and sodium chloride media.

  18. Some results of long-term investigation population exposed as a result of release of radioactive wastes into the Techa River in Southern Urals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degteva, M.O.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Vorobiova, M.I. [Ural research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes results of a long-term investigation of a population exposed to radioactive waste release in 1949-1956 into the Techa River in the Southern Urals. Systematic measurements of radionuclide concentration in the river waters, sediments, and floodplain soils and measurements of exposure gamma dose rates as well as studies of the radionuclide composition in the contaminated areas began in the summer of 1951. As a result of the contamination, 124,000 residents were exposed to radiation and 28,100 received significant doses in terms of health effect potential. Covered results include the following: estimation of external radiation doses; content of strontium-90 in humans and estimation of radionuclide ingestion rates; age-dependent model of strontium metabolism in the human body; evaluation of doses of internal irradiation; distribution of exposed population according to accumulated doses. 11 refs; 15 figs.

  19. Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards.

  20. The new revision of NPP Krsko decommissioning, radioactive waste and spent fuel management program: analyses and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeleznik, Nadja; Kralj, Metka [ARAO, Parmova 53, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lokner, Vladimir; Levanat, Ivica; Rapic, Andrea [APO, Savska 41, Zagreb (Croatia); Mele, Irena [IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    The preparation of the new revision of the Decommissioning and Spent Fuel (SF) and Low and Intermediate level Waste (LILW) Disposal Program for the NPP Krsko (Program) started in September 2008 after the acceptance of the Term of Reference for the work by Intergovernmental Committee responsible for implementation of the Agreement between the governments of Slovenia and Croatia on the status and other legal issues related to investment, exploitation, and decommissioning of the Nuclear power plant Krsko. The responsible organizations, APO and ARAO together with NEK prepared all new technical and financial data and relevant inputs for the new revision in which several scenarios based on the accepted boundary conditions were investigated. The strategy of immediate dismantling was analyzed for planned and extended NPP life time together with linked radioactive waste and spent fuel management to calculate yearly annuity to be paid by the owners into the decommissioning funds in Slovenia and Croatia. The new Program incorporated among others new data on the LILW repository including the costs for siting, construction and operation of silos at the location Vrbina in Krsko municipality, the site specific Preliminary Decommissioning Plan for NPP Krsko which included besides dismantling and decontamination approaches also site specific activated and contaminated radioactive waste, and results from the referenced scenario for spent fuel disposal but at very early stage. Important inputs for calculations presented also new amounts of compensations to the local communities for different nuclear facilities which were taken from the supplemented Slovenian regulation and updated fiscal parameters (inflation, interest, discount factors) used in the financial model based on the current development in economical environment. From the obtained data the nominal and discounted costs for the whole nuclear program related to NPP Krsko which is jointly owned by Slovenia and Croatia have

  1. SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2011-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the

  2. Results of detailed ground geophysical surveys for locating and differentiating waste structures in waste management area 'A' at Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsons, D.K.; Street, P.J.; Lodha, G.S

    1999-07-01

    Waste Management Area 'A' (WMA 'A'), located in the outer area of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) was in use as a waste burial site from 1946 to 1955. Waste management structures include debris-filled trenches, concrete bunkers and miscellaneous contaminated solid materials, and ditches and pits used for liquid dispersal. In order to update historical records, it was proposed to conduct detailed ground geophysical surveys to define the locations of waste management structures in WMA 'A', assist in planning of the drilling and sampling program to provide ground truth for the geophysics investigation and to predict the nature and locations of unknown/undefined shallow structures. A detailed ground geophysical survey grid was established with a total of 127 grid lines, oriented NNE and spaced one metre apart. The geophysical surveys were carried out during August and September, 1996. The combination of geophysical tools used included the Geonics EM61 metal detector, the GSM-19 magnetometer/gradiometer and a RAMAC high frequency ground penetrating radar system. The geophysical surveys were successful in identifying waste management structures and in characterizing to some extent, the composition of the waste. The geophysical surveys are able to determine the presence of most of the known waste management structures, especially in the western and central portions of the grid which contain the majority of the metallic waste. The eastern portion of the grid has a completely different geophysical character. While historical records show that trenches were dug, they are far less evident in the geophysical record. There is clear evidence for a trench running between lines 30E and 63E at 70 m. There are indications from the radar survey of other trench-like structures in the eastern portion. EM61 data clearly show that there is far less metallic debris in the eastern portion. The geophysical surveys were also successful in identifying

  3. Co-composting of solid and liquid olive mill wastes: management aspects and the horticultural value of the resulting composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviani, I; Laor, Y; Medina, Sh; Krassnovsky, A; Raviv, M

    2010-09-01

    Successful co-composting of solid and liquid olive mill wastes (OMW) and obtaining a product of horticultural value may increase the viability of this recycling approach. Two composting cycles were performed, in which olive mill solid wastes (OMSW) were used to form five mixtures, wetted either with fresh water or with olive mill wastewater (OMWW). Up to approximately 0.3m(3) of OMWW could be applied to each m(3) of the raw materials without negatively affecting the chemical, physical and horticultural properties of the resulted composts. A growing media composed of perlite amended with 25-33% OMW-composts showed higher suppressiveness against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis as compared to equivalent perlite:peat moss mixtures. The yields of tomato plants grown in peat moss amended with 20% (v:v) of OMW-composts were not significantly different than plants grown in unamended peat. The viability of co-composting as a treatment approach for OMWW is discussed in the context of management aspects and the horticultural value of the final product.

  4. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, M.A.; Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1993-03-01

    A total of 6.05 x 10{sup 7} gal of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) ion exchange system during CY 1992. This averaged to 115 gpm throughout the year. When necessary, a wastewater sidestream of 50--80 gpm was treated through the use of a natural zeolite treatment system. An additional 8.00 x 10{sup 6} gal (average of 15 gpm throughout the year) were treated by the zeolite system. Therefore, the average total flow treated at the PWTP for CY 1992 was 130 gpm. In mid-June, the zeolite system was repiped to allow it the capability to treat the ion exchange system`s discharge due to rising Cs problems in the wastewater. While being used to treat the ion exchange system`s discharge, it cannot treat a sidestream of wastewater. During the year, the regeneration of the cation exchange resins resulted in the generation of 7.83 x 10{sup 3} gal of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) concentrate and 1.15 x 10{sup 4} gal of LLLW evaporator feed. The head-end softening process (precipitation/clarification) generated 604 drums (4.40 x 10{sup 3} ft{sup 3}) of solid low-level waste sludge. The zeolite treatment system generated approximately 8.40 x 10{sup 2} ft{sup 3} of spent zeolite resin, which was turned over to the Solid Waste Operations Department for disposal. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at the PWTP. Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 show a comparison of operations at the PWTP in 1992 with previous years. Figure 5 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1987. A total of 1.55 x 10{sup 8} gal of liquid waste (average of 294 gpm throughout the year) was treated at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). Of this amount, 1.40 x 10{sup 7} gal were treated by the precipitation/clarification process for removal of heavy metals. Twenty-five boxes (1.60 x 10{sup 3} ft{sup 3}) of solid sludge generated by the precipitation/clarification process were removed from the filter press room.

  5. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, M.A.; Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1993-03-01

    A total of 6.05 x 10[sup 7] gal of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) ion exchange system during CY 1992. This averaged to 115 gpm throughout the year. When necessary, a wastewater sidestream of 50--80 gpm was treated through the use of a natural zeolite treatment system. An additional 8.00 x 10[sup 6] gal (average of 15 gpm throughout the year) were treated by the zeolite system. Therefore, the average total flow treated at the PWTP for CY 1992 was 130 gpm. In mid-June, the zeolite system was repiped to allow it the capability to treat the ion exchange system's discharge due to rising Cs problems in the wastewater. While being used to treat the ion exchange system's discharge, it cannot treat a sidestream of wastewater. During the year, the regeneration of the cation exchange resins resulted in the generation of 7.83 x 10[sup 3] gal of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) concentrate and 1.15 x 10[sup 4] gal of LLLW evaporator feed. The head-end softening process (precipitation/clarification) generated 604 drums (4.40 x 10[sup 3] ft[sup 3]) of solid low-level waste sludge. The zeolite treatment system generated approximately 8.40 x 10[sup 2] ft[sup 3] of spent zeolite resin, which was turned over to the Solid Waste Operations Department for disposal. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at the PWTP. Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 show a comparison of operations at the PWTP in 1992 with previous years. Figure 5 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1987. A total of 1.55 x 10[sup 8] gal of liquid waste (average of 294 gpm throughout the year) was treated at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). Of this amount, 1.40 x 10[sup 7] gal were treated by the precipitation/clarification process for removal of heavy metals. Twenty-five boxes (1.60 x 10[sup 3] ft[sup 3]) of solid sludge generated by the precipitation/clarification process were removed from the filter

  6. Extraction, scrub, and strip test results for the salt waste processing facility caustic side solvent extraction solvent example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-01

    An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent and salt simulant to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Parsons to help determine if the solvent is qualified for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 12.9, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges.

  7. Dumping of radioactive waste and investigation of contamination in the Kara Sea. Results from 3 years of investigations (1992-1994) in the Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, P. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Foeyn, L. [Norsk Inst. for Vannforskning, Oslo (Norway); Nikitin, A.I. [SPA ``Typhoon``, Roshydromet (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    The report summarises the results obtained from the joint Russian-Norwegian investigation concerning the consequences of dumping of radioactive waste in the Kara Sea. Three expeditions were undertaken to the Kara Sea and the present dumping sites for radioactive waste. Samples of water, sediments and biota were collected and analysed. An impact and risk assessment was performed, based on the information provided through the joint cooperation. Enhanced levels and artificially produced radionuclides in the sediments collected in the very close vicinity of almost all localised dumped objects, demonstrate that leakage occur. No contribution from dumped radioactive waste was observed in the open Kara Sea. Due to the potential for leakage from the dumped waste in the future and the presence of other potential sources in the area, a regular monitoring programme is highly recommended. 65 refs., 42 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. Potential for criticality in Hanford tanks resulting from retrieval of tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whyatt, G.A.; Sterne, R.J.; Mattigod, S.V. [and others

    1996-09-01

    This report assesses the potential during retrieval operations for segregation and concentration of fissile material to result in a criticality. The sluicing retrieval of C-106 sludge to AY-102 and the operation of mixer pumps in SY-102 are examined in some detail. These two tanks (C-106, SY-102) were selected because of the near term plans for retrieval of these tanks and their high plutonium inventories relative to other tanks. Although all underground storage tanks are subcritical by a wide margin if assumed to be uniform in composition, the possibility retrieval operations could preferentially segregate the plutonium and locally concentrate it sufficiently to result in criticality was a concern. This report examines the potential for this segregation to occur.

  9. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis Results Obtained in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, J.E.; Berglund, J.W.; Davis, F.J.; Economy, K.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; MacKinnon, R.J.; Miller, J.; O' Brien, D.G.; Ramsey, J.L.; Schreiber, J.D.; Shinta, A.; Smith, L.N.; Stockman, C.; Stoelzel, D.M.; Vaughn, P.

    1998-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) is located in southeastern New Mexico and is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic (deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. A detailed performance assessment (PA) for the WIPP was carried out in 1996 and supports an application by the DOE to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the certification of the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. The 1996 WIPP PA uses a computational structure that maintains a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, with stochastic uncertainty arising from the many possible disruptions that could occur over the 10,000 yr regulatory period that applies to the WIPP and subjective uncertainty arising from the imprecision with which many of the quantities required in the PA are known. Important parts of this structure are (1) the use of Latin hypercube sampling to incorporate the effects of subjective uncertainty, (2) the use of Monte Carlo (i.e., random) sampling to incorporate the effects of stochastic uncertainty, and (3) the efficient use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that can be performed to support the analysis. The use of Latin hypercube sampling generates a mapping from imprecisely known analysis inputs to analysis outcomes of interest that provides both a display of the uncertainty in analysis outcomes (i.e., uncertainty analysis) and a basis for investigating the effects of individual inputs on these outcomes (i.e., sensitivity analysis). The sensitivity analysis procedures used in the PA include examination of scatterplots, stepwise regression analysis, and partial correlation analysis. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results obtained as part of the 1996 WIPP PA are presented and discussed. Specific topics considered include two phase flow in the vicinity of the repository, radionuclide release from the repository, fluid flow and radionuclide

  10. Distribution of Rare Earth Metals in Technogenic Wastes of Energy Enterprises (Results of the Laboratory Studies)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandr Ivanovich Khanchuk; Aleksandr Alekseevich Yudakov; Mikhail Azaryevich Medkov; Leonid Nikolayevich Alekseyko; Andrey Vasilyevich Taskin; Sergey Igorevich Ivannikov

    2016-01-01

    The results of the research interaction between ash and slag samples from Vladivostok TPP’s landfills saturated with underburning and ammonium hydrodifluoride were given. It was found out that the reactions of the main components of a concentrate with NH4HF2 are flowing with creation of complex ammonium fluoro-metalate. It is shown that the distribution of REM (rare earth metals) between foam and heavier products is going during the flotation process of carbon-containing ash and slag samples ...

  11. Co-digestion of molasses or kitchen waste with high-rate activated sludge results in a diverse microbial community with stable methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vrieze, Jo; Plovie, Kristof; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2015-04-01

    Kitchen waste and molasses are organic waste streams with high organic content, and therefore are interesting substrates for renewable energy production by means of anaerobic digestion. Both substrates, however, often cause inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process, when treated separately, hence, co-digestion with other substrates is required to ensure stable methane production. In this research, A-sludge (sludge harvested from a high rate activated sludge system) was used to stabilize co-digestion with kitchen waste or molasses. Lab-scale digesters were fed with A-sludge and kitchen waste or molasses for a total period of 105 days. Increased methane production values revealed a stabilizing effect of concentrated A-sludge on kitchen waste digestion. Co-digestion of molasses with A-sludge also resulted in a higher methane production. Volumetric methane production rates up to 1.53 L L(-1) d(-1) for kitchen waste and 1.01 L L(-1) d(-1) for molasses were obtained by co-digestion with A-sludge. The stabilizing effect of A-sludge was attributed to its capacity to supplement various nutrients. Microbial community results demonstrated that both reactor conditions and substrate composition determined the nature of the bacterial community, although there was no direct influence of micro-organisms in the substrate itself, while the methanogenic community profile remained constant as long as optimal conditions were maintained.

  12. Results of development and industrial implementation of the sorption technology for liquid radioactive waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergienko, V. I.; Avramenko, V. A.; Gluschenko, V. Yu.; Zheleznov, V. V.; Marinin, D. V.; Chernukh, V. D. [Institute of Chemistry FEB RAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    1999-07-01

    Reviews of the last year's results of laboratory investigations, bench scale and industrial testing of sorption technology for treatment of LRW is presented. The main attention was devote to removal of a long live radioactive impurities radionuclides of cesium-134/137, strontium-90, cobalt-60 and manganese-54 from water solutions. Advanced inorganic sorbents of new generation were used to develop one stage sorption technology for LRW treatment. Some properties of new sorbents in static and dynamic conditions are discussed. During 1996 - 1999 years with the help of the created installations on ship repairing enterprises and Naval bases at the Far East of Russia has been treated more than 500 cubic meters of different LRW. (author)

  13. Distribution of Rare Earth Metals in Technogenic Wastes of Energy Enterprises (Results of the Laboratory Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Ivanovich Khanchuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the research interaction between ash and slag samples from Vladivostok TPP’s landfills saturated with underburning and ammonium hydrodifluoride were given. It was found out that the reactions of the main components of a concentrate with NH4HF2 are flowing with creation of complex ammonium fluoro-metalate. It is shown that the distribution of REM (rare earth metals between foam and heavier products is going during the flotation process of carbon-containing ash and slag samples without significant concentrating. It is shown that the water leaching of fluoridated product lets transfer silicone, aluminum and iron salts into solution and concentrate rare earth elements in insoluble residue in the form of complex salts of NaLnF4 general formula. We propose a schematic diagram of hydrodifluoride recycling of carbon-containing sample, which provides concentrating of REM with incomplete separation of macro-components.

  14. MATRIX 2 RESULTS OF THE FY07 ENHANCED DOE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-10-23

    High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this study was to generate supplemental validation data that could be used to determine the applicability of the current liquidus temperature (TL) model to expanded DWPF glass composition regions of interest based on higher WLs. Two specific flowsheets were used in this study to provide such insight: (1) Higher WL glasses (45 and 50%) based on future sludge batches that have (and have not) undergone the Al-dissolution process. (2) Coupled operations supported by the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), which increase the TiO{sub 2} concentration in glass to greater than 2 wt%. Glasses were also selected to address technical issues associated with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility, nepheline formation, and homogeneity issues for coupled operations. A test matrix of 28 glass compositions was developed to provide insight into these issues. The glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), TL measurement and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study are summarized below: (1) TiO{sub 2} concentrations up to {approx} 3.5 wt% were retained in DWPF type glasses, where retention is defined as the absence of crystalline TiO{sub 2} (i.e., unreacted or undissolved) in the as-fabricated glasses. Although this TiO{sub 2} content does not bound the projected SWPF high output flowsheet (up to 6 wt% TiO{sub 2} may be required in glass), these data demonstrate the potential for increasing the TiO{sub 2} limit in glass above the current limit of 2 wt

  15. MATRIX 2 RESULTS OF THE FY07 ENHANCED DOE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-10-23

    High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this study was to generate supplemental validation data that could be used to determine the applicability of the current liquidus temperature (TL) model to expanded DWPF glass composition regions of interest based on higher WLs. Two specific flowsheets were used in this study to provide such insight: (1) Higher WL glasses (45 and 50%) based on future sludge batches that have (and have not) undergone the Al-dissolution process. (2) Coupled operations supported by the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), which increase the TiO{sub 2} concentration in glass to greater than 2 wt%. Glasses were also selected to address technical issues associated with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility, nepheline formation, and homogeneity issues for coupled operations. A test matrix of 28 glass compositions was developed to provide insight into these issues. The glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), TL measurement and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study are summarized below: (1) TiO{sub 2} concentrations up to {approx} 3.5 wt% were retained in DWPF type glasses, where retention is defined as the absence of crystalline TiO{sub 2} (i.e., unreacted or undissolved) in the as-fabricated glasses. Although this TiO{sub 2} content does not bound the projected SWPF high output flowsheet (up to 6 wt% TiO{sub 2} may be required in glass), these data demonstrate the potential for increasing the TiO{sub 2} limit in glass above the current limit of 2 wt

  16. Arsenic Speciation in Old Mine Waste Site in Korea - Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, N.; Choi, I.; Yoon, C.; Yoon, H.

    2004-05-01

    The ulsan mine, which is known as an important producer of iron, tungsten and arsenic ores in southeastern Korea, is located in Gyeongsangnam Province. This mine is of calcareous skarn deposit represented by ore pipe consisting mainly of magnetite with minor scheelite, sulphides, sulphosalts, arsenides and sulpharsenides (Choi et.al. 1993). A total of 13 groundwater samples and a surface-water sample at an adjacent creek, Dalcheon, were collected in January 2004. Most samples showed neutral pH ranges and normal ORP and temperature conditions. But one sample showed basic and extremely reducing condition, and another one was with relatively high temperature. Results of chemical analysis indicate that total arsenic concentrations of all samples are exceeding the WHO guideline for drinking water quality (10 ug/L), and 64% of those are over the Korean Drinking Water Guideline (KDWG) of 50 ug/L. Especially, arsenic concentrations in two samples exceed 1000 ug/L. Concentrations of some elements like Al, Fe, Mn, SO4 are over the KDWG in several samples, too. Consequence of arsenic speciation using IC-ICP-MS, arsenic exists as three species; arsenite, arsenate, and monomethylarsonate (MMA). Arsenite detected in three groundwater samples. Two of these were from wells in the tailing dam, and the other was the one with basic pH and extremely reducing condition. Arsenic in a surface-water sample mainly exists as MMA form that has lower toxicity than inorganic species. This indicates that microbial activity is the important factor to explain risks in the studied environment. Except for these samples, arsenic exists as arsenate form. Samples were prepared in two ways; 1) acidified water samples with phosphoric acid to the pH less than 2 and filtered through 0.45 um filter papers, and 2) filtered water samples first and then acidified. Comparison of the analysis from the two sample sets indicates that significant mass of arsenic appears to be with clay and the pH condition of the

  17. Hydrogeology and results of injection tests at waste-injection test sites in Pinellas County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, John J.

    1982-01-01

    Potential benefits or hazards to freshwater resources could result from subsurface injection of treated wastewater. Recognizing this, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pinellas County and the city of St. Petersburg, undertook an evaluation of the hydrogeology and injection of wastewater at proposed test sites on the Pinellas peninsula. The injection sites are underlain by sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Cretaceous to Pleistocene. Lower Eocene carbonate rocks were penetrated to a maximum depth of 3,504 feet and were found to have relatively low water yields. The most permeable part of the investigated section was in rocks of middle Eocene age within the Floridan aquifer. At the injection sites, the Floridan aquifer was subdivided into four permeable zones and three semiconfining beds. The test injection zone is within the Avon Park Limestone, the most productive of the identified permeable zones, with a transmissivity of about 1,000,000 feet squared per day. Two semiconfining beds are above the injection zone in the Suwannee Limestone and Ocala Limestone and have vertical hydraulic conductivities estimated to range from about 0.1 to 1 foot per day where these beds do not contain clay. Limited fresh ground-water supplies exist in the Floridan aquifer within the Pinellas peninsula. At all test sites, chloride concentration in the injection zone ranged from 19,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter. Injection tests ranging in duration from 3 to 91.1 days were run at three different sites. Pressure buildup occurred in permeable zones above and below the injection zone during these tests. Calculated pressure buildup in observation wells close to and at some distance from the test wells was typically less than 1 pound per square inch. Injection and formation water will probably move slowly through the semiconfining bed overlying the injection zone, and long-term injection tests will be needed to determine the effectiveness of these beds to retard flow. The

  18. Efficiency of energy recovery from municipal solid waste and the resultant effect on the greenhouse gas balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, Oliver

    2009-11-01

    Global warming is a focus of political interest and life-cycle assessment of waste management systems reveals that energy recovery from municipal solid waste is a key issue. This paper demonstrates how the greenhouse gas effects of waste treatment processes can be described in a simplified manner by considering energy efficiency indicators. For evaluation to be consistent, it is necessary to use reasonable system boundaries and to take the generation of electricity and the use of heat into account. The new European R1 efficiency criterion will lead to the development and implementation of optimized processes/systems with increased energy efficiency which, in turn, will exert an influence on the greenhouse gas effects of waste management in Europe. Promising technologies are: the increase of steam parameters, reduction of in-plant energy consumption, and the combined use of heat and power. Plants in Brescia and Amsterdam are current examples of good performance with highly efficient electricity generation. Other examples of particularly high heat recovery rates are the energy-from-waste (EfW) plants in Malmö and Gothenburg. To achieve the full potential of greenhouse gas reduction in waste management, it is necessary to avoid landfilling combustible wastes, for example, by means of landfill taxes and by putting incentives in place for increasing the efficiency of EfW systems.

  19. Impact of Waste Materials Resulting from the Refining of Crude Oil on Some Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pari asadi alasvand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil and ground water pollution with organic matter and toxic materials is an ordinary environmental problem. In this case, oil compounds are among the most important environmental pollutants. Tehran oil refinery is one of the largest and oldest refineries in Iran located south of Tehran city. Since the beginning of its activity in 1968, its waste materials (solid, semisolid and liquid have been disposed in large lagoons next to the refinery site. During this long period, considerable changes in soil properties have occurred, which are of great research interests for soil and environmental scientists. Materials and Methods: The studied area (about 60 ha was located in the south of Tehran (latitude: 35°30.299' to 35°30.814' N and longitude: 51°25.682' to 51°26.296' E. Six pedons, including four Technosols developed on the oil refinery waste materials (pedons no. 1, 3, 4 and 6 and two reference pedons (pedons no. 2 and 5 were fully described and sampled. Particle size distribution (PSD of gypsiferous samples was determined by the specific method for gypsiferous soils (Hesse, 1976. PSD of non-gypsiferous samples were determined according to the standard hydrometer method (Gee and Bauder, 1986, but the oil-polluted samples were analyzed according to the standard ultrasound method (Sawhny, 1996. Organic carbon content was determined by Walkley and Black (1934. pH and EC were measured in soil saturation extracts using EC and pH meter (Jenway. Gypsum and CaCO3 contents were determined using acetone (Sparks, 1996, and calcimetery methods, respectively. Mineralogical analysis was done by Decarreau (1990. Micromorphological descriptions were carried out using the terminology of Stoops (2003. Diagnostic horizons were identified and finally the studied pedons were classified according to the Keys to Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 2014 and the World Reference Base (FAO, 2014. Results and Discussion: Horizons of both polluted and

  20. Westinghouse Hanford Company effluent discharges and solid waste management report for calendar year 1989: 200/600 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.J.; P' Pool, R.K.; Thomas, S.P.

    1990-05-01

    This report presents calendar year 1989 radiological and nonradiological effluent discharge data from facilities in the 200 Areas and the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. Both summary and detailed effluent data are presented. In addition, radioactive and nonradioactive solid waste storage and disposal data for calendar year 1989 are furnished. Where appropriate, comparisons to previous years are made. The intent of the report is to demonstrate compliance of Westinghouse Hanford Company-operated facilities with administrative control values for radioactive constituents and applicable guidelines and standards (including Federal permit limits) for nonradioactive constituents. 11 refs., 20 tabs.

  1. Results of hydrologic research at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara J.

    1989-01-01

    Ten years of hydrologic research have been conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at a commercial low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois. Research included studies of microclimate, evapotranspiration, and tritium release by plants; runoff and land modification; water movement through a trench cover; water and tritium movement in the unsaturated zone; gases in the unsaturated zone; water and tritium movement in the saturated zone; and water chemistry. Implications specific to each research topic and those based on overlapping research topics are summarized as to their potential effect on the selection, characterization, design, operation, and decommissioning processes of future low-level radioactive-waste disposal sites. Unconsolidated deposits at the site are diverse in lithologic character and are spatially and stratigraphically complex. Thickness of these Quaternary deposits ranges from 3 to 27 meters and averages 17 meters. The unconsolidated deposits overlay 140 meters of Pennsylvanian shale, mudstone, siltstone, and coal. Approximately 90,500 cubic meters of waste were buried from August 1967 through August 1978, in 21 trenches that were constructed in glacial materials by using a cut-and-fill process. Trenches generally were constructed below grade and ranged from 11 to 180 meters long, 2.4 to 21 meters wide, and 2.4 to about 7.9 meters deep. Research on microclimate and evapotranspiration at the site was conducted from July 1982 through June 1984. Continuous measurements were made of precipitation, incoming and reflected solar (shortwave) radiation, incoming and emitted terrestrial (longwave) radiation, horizontal windspeed and direction, wet- and dry-bulb air temperature, barometric pressure, soil-heat fluxes, and soil temperature. Soil-moisture content, for this research phase, was measured approximately biweekly. Evapotranspiration rates were estimated by using three techniques--energy budget, aerodynamic profile, and water

  2. Scoring methods and results for qualitative evaluation of public health impacts from the Hanford high-level waste tanks. Integrated Risk Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, J.W.; Gelston, G.M.; Farris, W.T.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this analysis is to qualitatively rank the Hanford Site high-level waste (HLW) tanks according to their potential public health impacts through various (groundwater, surface water, and atmospheric) exposure pathways. Data from all 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 23 of the 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program were analyzed for chemical and radiological carcinogenic as well as chemical noncarcinogenic health impacts. The preliminary aggregate score (PAS) ranking system was used to generate information from various release scenarios. Results based on the PAS ranking values should be considered relative health impacts rather than absolute risk values.

  3. Results concerning a clean co-combustion technology of waste biomass with fossil fuel, in a pilot fluidised bed combustion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionel, Ioana; Trif-Tordai, Gavril; Ungureanu, Corneliu; Popescu, Francisc; Lontis, Nicolae [Politehnica Univ. Timisoara (Romania). Faculty for Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The research focuses on a facility, the experimental results, interpretation and future plans concerning a new developed technology of using waste renewable energy by applying the cocombustion of waste biomass with coal, in a fluidised bed system. The experimental facility is working entirely in accordance to the allowed limits for the exhaust flue gas concentration, with special concern for typical pollutants. The experiments conclude that the technology is cleaner, has as main advantage the possibility to reduce both the SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} exhaust in comparison to standard fossil fuel combustion, under comparable circumstances. The combustion is occurring in a stable fluidised bed. (orig.)

  4. 60-day waste compatibility safety issue and final results for 244-TX DCRT, grab samples TX-95-1, TX-95-2, and TX-95-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Three grab samples (TX-95-1, TX-95-2, and TX-95-3) were taken from tank 241- TX-244 riser 8 on November 7, 1995 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on that same day. Samples TX-95-1 and TX-95-2 were designated as supernate liquids, and sample TX-95-3 was designated as a supernate/sludge. These samples were analyzed to support the waste compatibility safety program. Accuracy and precision criteria were met for all analyses. No notifications were required based on sample results. This document provides the analysis to support the waste compatibility safety program.

  5. Radon emission from uranium mining waste rock dumps and resulting radon immission; Radonemissionsverhalten von Halden des Uranbergbaus und daraus resultierende Radonemissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regner, J.; Hinz, W.; Schmidt, P. [Wismut GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Since more than 20 years, Wismut GmbH has been investigating the radon situation at uranium mining waste rock dumps. In the present paper the results of 19 complex studies at uranium mining dumps in the Erzgebirge (Ore Mountains) are reported. Although the mean specific activity of Ra-226 of the waste rock material was on a rather low level of about 0.5 Bq/g, the mean radon concentration in free atmosphere at the public exposure sites in the immediate vicinity of the dumps reached a value of about 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} for a half-year exposition and of about 600 Bq/m{sup 3} for a one-year exposition. Certain geometries and structures of waste rock dumps and the occurrence of convective airflows in the dumps are main reasons for the high radon emission despite of the relatively low specific Ra-226 activity. A case study for two buildings directly on the top of a waste rock dump in the town Johanngeorgenstadt is presented. The hypothetical interpolation of the results for Ra-226-activity to a value below the threshold value of 0.2 Bq/g leads to the assumption that problematic radon situations may also occur outside the areas of legacies of uranium mining. Considering the aspects mentioned, a clearance level for NORM of 1 Bq/g is questionable.

  6. Research results for the energy efficient fermentation of a liquid phase from biological waste. Suspension of biological wastes in the fixed-bed fermenter; Forschungsergebnisse zur energieeffizienten Vergaerung einer aus Bioabfall gewonnenen Fluessigphase. Bioabfallsuspension im Festbettfermenter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenger, Dorothee [TIG Group GmbH, Wermelskirchen (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    After four years of implementation, the TIG Group GmbH (Husum, Federal Republic of Germany) presents first results of the research and development project for the energy-efficient bio-waste recycling. The project is funded by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) in cooperation with the Entsorgungs-Gesellschaft Westmuensterland mbH (Gescher, Federal Republic of Germany) and the University of Duisburg-Essen.

  7. Nutritional value content, biomass production and growth performance of Daphnia magna cultured with different animal wastes resulted from probiotic bacteria fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endar Herawati, Vivi; Nugroho, R. A.; Pinandoyo; Hutabarat, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    Media culture is an important factor for the growth and quality of Daphnia magna nutrient value. This study has purpose to find the increasing of nutritional content, biomass production and growth performance of D. magna using different animal wastes fermented by probiotic bacteria. This study conducted using completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments and 3 replicates. Those media used different animal manures such as chicken manure, goat manure and quail manure mixed by rejected bread and tofu waste fermented by probiotic bacteria then cultured for 24 days. The results showed that the media which used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D.magna about 2111788.9 ind/L for population; 342 grams biomass production and 68.85% protein content. The highest fatty acid profile is 6.37% of linoleic and the highest essential amino acid is 22.8% of lysine. Generally, the content of ammonia, DO, temperature, and pH during the study were in the good range of D. magna’s life. This research has conclusion that media used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D. magna.

  8. Surveillance strategies for detecting chronic wasting disease in free-ranging deer and elk: results of a CWD surveillance workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Joly, Damien O.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wright, Scott D.; Otis, David L.; Werge, Rob W.; Miller, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a fatal brain disease of North American deer and elk, has recently emerged as an important wildlife management issue. Interest and concern over the spread of this disease and its potential impact on free-ranging cervid populations has increased with discovery of the disease in numerous states and provinces. Current studies suggest that CWD may adversely affect of these highly visible, socially desirable, and economically valuable species. Despite the lack of evidence that CWD affects humans or livestock, a significant concern has been the perceived risk to humans and livestock. Uncertainty about whether CWD poses a health risk to hunters and their families who consume venison has resulted in testing of free-ranging cervids for CWD. In response to many of these concerns, wildlife management agencies across the nation have undertaken surveillance programs to detect CWD in their cervid populations. The nation-wide costs for an extensive CWD surveillance program have been estimated at several million dollars. This document provides guidance on the development and conduct of scientifically sound surveillance programs to detect CWD in free-ranging deer and elk populations. These guidelines will not apply equally to all jurisdictions. In many cases local circumstances, resources, area(s) of concern, disease risk, animal and landscape ecology, political, social, and many other factors will influence the objectives, design, and conduct of CWD surveillance programs. Part I of this report discusses the importance of management goals, strategies, and disease risks in developing a surveillance program. Part II describes surveillance methods, steps in designing a sampling strategy to detect CWD, alternative collection methods, and statistical considerations. Part III describes costs (personnel, time, and money) associated with implementation of these plans that will influence program design. Part IV outlines research that is needed to further

  9. Change of carcinogenic chrysotile fibers in the asbestos cement (eternit) to harmless waste by artificial carbonatization: Petrological and technological results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radvanec, Martin; Tuček, Ľubomír; Derco, Ján; Čechovská, Katarína [State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Mlynská dolina 1, SK-817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Németh, Zoltán, E-mail: zoltan.nemeth@geology.sk [State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Mlynská dolina 1, SK-817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Carcinogenic chrysotile fibers in asbestos cement (eternit) are liquidated. ► Thermally modified eternit grist (at 650 °C, 1 h) reacts with CO{sub 2} + water. ► Carbonates hydromagnesite and magnesite are the newly formed products of artificial carbonatization. ► Neutralizing of extreme pH values (around 12) at large eternit dumps. ► An alternative methodology for permanent liquidation of a part of CO{sub 2} emissions. -- Abstract: Asbestos cement materials, mainly the eternit roof ceiling, being widely applied in the past, represent a serious environmental load. The solar radiation, rain and frost cause the deliberation of cement from the eternit roofing and consequently the wind contaminates the surrounding area by the asbestos (chrysotile) fibers. In combination with other carcinogens (e.g. smoking), or at reduced immunity of a man, they may cause serious respiratory diseases and lung cancer. The article presents the procedure and experimental results of artificial carbonatization, applied in the asbestos cement (eternit). The wet crushed and pulverized asbestos cement was thermally modified at 650 °C and then the chrysotile fibers easily and completely reacted with the mixture of CO{sub 2} and water, producing new Mg-rich carbonates – hydromagnesite and magnesite: 2Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 3thermally} {sub modified} {sub chrysotile}+5CO{sub 2}+nH{sub 2}O→Mg{sub 5}(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}(OH){sub 2}⋅4H{sub 2}O{sub hydromagnesite}+MgCO{sub 3magnesite}+4SiO{sub 2} · nH{sub 2}O{sub in} a{sub morphous} {sub phase};n=3÷9 Applying this methodology, the asbestos-bearing waste can be stabilized and environmentally friendly permanently deposited. Finding a way of neutralizing of extreme pH values (around 12) at large eternit dumps represents also an asset of presented research. Simultaneously, the artificial carbonatization of chrysotile asbestos, applying CO{sub 2}, offers an alternative way for permanent liquidation of a part of

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) monitors a comprehensive set of parameters in order to detect any potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future quantitative environmental impact evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, soil, and biotics are measured for background radiation. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include meteorological, air quality, soil properties, and the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the site with emphasis on the salt storage pile, whereas baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in a preoperational state, no waste has been received; therefore, certain elements required by Order DOE 5400.1 are not presented in this report. 15 figs. 19 tabs.

  11. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support enhanced Hanford waste glass models. Results for the third set of high alumina outer layer matrix glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for 14 simulated high level waste glasses fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 96.9 to 100.8 wt %, indicating recovery of all components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %. The PCT results were normalized to both the targeted and measured compositions of the study glasses. Several of the glasses exhibited increases in normalized concentrations (NCi) after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Five of the glasses, after the CCC heat treatment, had NCB values that exceeded that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass. These results can be combined with additional characterization, including X-ray diffraction, to determine the cause of the higher release rates.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report, for calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 General Environmental Protection Program, requires DOE facilities, that conduct environmental protection programs, to annually prepare a Site Environmental Report (SER). The purpose of the SER is to provide an abstract of environmental assessments conducted in order to characterize site environmental management performance, to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit. The content of this SER is not restricted to a synopsis of the required data, in addition, information pertaining to new and continued monitoring and compliance activities during the 1995 calendar year are also included. Data contained in this report are derived from those monitoring programs directed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP). The EMP provides inclusive guidelines implemented to detect potential impacts to the environment and to establish baseline measurements for future environmental evaluations. Surface water, groundwater. air, soil, and biotic matrices are monitored for an array of radiological and nonradiological factors. The baseline radiological surveillance program encompasses a broader geographic area that includes nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Most elements of nonradiological assessments are conducted within the geographic vicinity of the WIPP site.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE facility that conducts significant environmental protection programs to prepare an Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER). The purpose of the ASER is to summarize environmental data in order to characterize site environmental management performance, to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts. This ASER not only documents the required data, it also documents new and continued monitoring and compliance activities during the 1994 calendar year. Data contained in this report are derived from those monitoring programs directed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) (DOE/WIPP 94-024). The EMP defines a comprehensive set of parameters that must be monitored to detect potential impacts to the environment and to establish baseline measurements for future environmental evaluations. Surface water, groundwater, air, soil, and biotics are monitored for radiological and nonradiological activity levels. The baseline radiological surveillance program covers the broader geographic area that encompasses nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Nonradiological studies focus on the area immediately surrounding the WIPP site.

  14. TANK INSPECTION NDE RESULTS FOR FISCAL YEAR 2007INCLUDING WASTE TANKS 35, 36, 37, 38 AND 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J

    2007-09-27

    Ultrasonic (UT) nondestructive examinations (NDE) were performed on waste storage tanks 35, 36, 37, 38 and 15 at the Savannah River Site as a part of the 'In-Service Inspection (ISI) Program for High Level Waste Tanks.' 1 The inspections were performed from the annular space of the waste storage tanks. The inspections included thickness mapping and crack detection scans on specified areas of the tanks covering all present and historic interface levels and selected welds with particular emphasis on the vapor space regions. Including the tanks in this report, all of the 27 Type III tanks at SRS have been inspected in accordance with the ISI plan. Of the four Type III tanks examined this year, all had areas of reportable thickness in either the Primary or Secondary tank. All of these areas on the primary tank are attributed to fabrication artifacts. None of the four Type III tanks examined this year showed evidence of service induced thinning on the primary wall. All four tanks had secondary wall and/or floor plates where the remaining thickness measured below the 10% wall loss criteria. Tank 15, a Type II, non-stress relieved, waste tank was also inspected this fiscal year as part of the ISI program. The same examination techniques were used on Tank 15 as on the Type III tanks. Tank 15 has been out of service due to leakage from stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Inspections were performed to validate known corrosion models and determine if crack growth occurred since the previous examination five years ago. Several cracks were found to have increased in length perpendicular to the weld seam. In the areas of the 27 Type III tanks inspected to date, ten tanks have reportable thickness in the primary wall and 17 have reportable thickness in the secondary tank walls or floor. All of the reportable thickness areas in the primary walls are from fabrication artifacts. Incipient pitting has been detected in five of the 27 Type III primary tanks. No cracking was

  15. Food Waste Generation at Household Level: Results of a Survey among Employees of Two European Research Centers in Italy and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Jörissen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a broad consensus in literature that private households are significant contributors to the total amount of food waste in the EU. Thus, any strategy to meaningfully combat food wastage must put the end consumer in the center of prevention activities. This requires deeper insights into people’s motivations to discard still edible food and knowledge about potential barriers to reduce wasting. This paper reports on results of an online survey among two European research centers in Italy (JRC/Ispra and Germany (KIT/Karlsruhe. The focus of the survey was on households’ behaviors (shopping, eating, and food preparation habits and its influence on the generation of food waste. Furthermore, reasons for the disposal of food as well as measures and technologies most needed to prevent wastage were discussed. The results of the survey are analyzed, especially with regard to two questions: (1 Are there considerable differences between Ispra and Karlsruhe? (2 Are there considerable similarities or inconsistencies with the results of previous studies?

  16. Soil moisture monitoring results at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, FY-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, D.L.

    1993-11-01

    In FY-1993, two tasks were performed for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Low Level Waste Performance Assessment to estimate net infiltration from rain and snow at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) and provide soil moisture data for hydrologic model calibration. The first task was to calibrate the neutron probe to convert neutron count data to soil moisture contents. A calibration equation was developed and applied to four years of neutron probe monitoring data (November 1986 to November 1990) at W02 and W06 to provide soil moisture estimates for that period. The second task was to monitor the soils at two neutron probe access tubes (W02 and W06) located in the SDA of the RWMC with a neutron probe to estimate soil moisture contents. FY-1993 monitoring indicated net infiltration varied widely across the SDA. Less than 1.2 in. of water drained into the underlying basalts near W02 in 1993. In contrast, an estimated 10.9 in. of water moved through the surficial sediments and into the underlying basalts at neutron probe access tube W06. Net infiltration estimates from the November 1986 to November 1990 neutron probe monitoring data are critical to predictive contaminant transport modeling and should be calculated and compared to the FY-1993 net infiltration estimates. In addition, plans are underway to expand the current neutron probe monitoring system in the SDA to address the variability in net infiltration across the SDA.

  17. Results From an International Simulation Study on Couples Thermal, Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes Near Geological Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Rutqvist; D. Barr; J.T. Birkholzer; M. Chijimatsu; O. Kolditz; Q. Liu; Y. Oda; W. Wang; C. Zhang

    2006-08-02

    As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near waste emplacement drifts of geological nuclear waste repositories. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower postclosure temperatures, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses is currently being resolved. In particular, good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglected complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level.

  18. Annual report, spring 2015. Alternative chemical cleaning methods for high level waste tanks-corrosion test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-06

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel when interacted with the chemical cleaning solution composed of 0.18 M nitric acid and 0.5 wt. % oxalic acid. This solution has been proposed as a dissolution solution that would be used to remove the remaining hard heel portion of the sludge in the waste tanks. This solution was combined with the HM and PUREX simulated sludge with dilution ratios that represent the bulk oxalic cleaning process (20:1 ratio, acid solution to simulant) and the cumulative volume associated with multiple acid strikes (50:1 ratio). The testing was conducted over 28 days at 50°C and deployed two methods to invest the corrosion conditions; passive weight loss coupon and an active electrochemical probe were used to collect data on the corrosion rate and material performance. In addition to investigating the chemical cleaning solutions, electrochemical corrosion testing was performed on acidic and basic solutions containing sodium permanganate at room temperature to explore the corrosion impacts if these solutions were to be implemented to retrieve remaining actinides that are currently in the sludge of the tank.

  19. Rice Husk Ash to Stabilize Heavy Metals Contained in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash: First Results by Applying New Pre-treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Benassi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new technology was recently developed for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash stabilization, based on the employment of all waste and byproduct materials. In particular, the proposed method is based on the use of amorphous silica contained in rice husk ash (RHA, an agricultural byproduct material (COSMOS-RICE project. The obtained final inert can be applied in several applications to produce “green composites”. In this work, for the first time, a process for pre-treatment of rice husk, before its use in the stabilization of heavy metals, based on the employment of Instant Pressure Drop technology (DIC was tested. The aim of this work is to verify the influence of the pre-treatment on the efficiency on heavy metals stabilization in the COSMOS-RICE technology. DIC technique is based on a thermomechanical effect induced by an abrupt transition from high steam pressure to a vacuum, to produce changes in the material. Two different DIC pre-treatments were selected and thermal annealing at different temperatures were performed on rice husk. The resulting RHAs were employed to obtain COSMOS-RICE samples, and the stabilization procedure was tested on the MSWI fly ash. In the frame of this work, some thermal treatments were also realized in O2-limiting conditions, to test the effect of charcoal obtained from RHA on the stabilization procedure. The results of this work show that the application of DIC technology into existing treatment cycles of some waste materials should be investigated in more details to offer the possibility to stabilize and reuse waste.

  20. Waste reduction process improvements in the analysis of plutonium by x-ray fluorescence: results from multiple data sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, Christopher G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Soderberg, Constance B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Townsend, Lisa E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    To minimize waste, improve process safety, and minimize costs, modifications were implemented to a method for quantifying gallium in plutonium metal using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence. These changes included reducing sample sizes, reducing ion exchange process volumes, using cheaper reagent grade acids, eliminating the use of HF acid, and using more robust containment film for sample analysis. Relative precision and accuracy achieved from analyzing multiple aliquots from a single parent sample were {approx}0.2% and {approx}0.1% respectively. The same precision was obtained from analyzing a total of four parent materials, and the average relative accuracy from all the samples was 0.4%, which is within programmatic uncertainty requirements.

  1. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  2. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  3. Reflecting socio-technical combinations in radioactive waste management. Results from the InSOTEC European research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate [Oeko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt (Germany); Bergmans, Anne [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium); Martell, Meritxell [Merience Strategic Thinking, Olerdola (Spain); Schroeder, Jantine [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium); SCK - CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    InSOTEC is a three-year collaborative social sciences research project funded under the European Atomic Energy Community's 7th Framework Programme FP7. The project aims to generate a better understanding of the complex interplay between the technical and the social in the context of geological disposal of radioactive waste. In doing so, InSOTEC has moved beyond the social and technical division that is frequently being found in this context by - investigating the consideration of social sciences and the recognition of socio-technical combinations in research programs on geological disposal, - analyzing the socio-technical entanglement in selected contexts like siting, reversibility and retrievability, demonstrating safety and technology transfer on the basis of case studies, and - exploring the integration of diverse stakeholders in technology oriented networks. The analyses reveal that activities in the context of geological disposal, whether related to research, planning, siting etc., rather support the divide of social and technical aspects than fostering the consideration of their entanglement. Reasons identified for this are manifold. The wish to reduce complexity by focusing stakeholder involvement on social questions and fixing the technical part ''when acceptance is reached'' is only one of them. However, the analyses also show that over the long timescales of repository planning and implementation, robust management strategies must provide the flexibility to adapt to both technical and social developments and demands. Understanding the socio-technical interplay and creating structures for its consideration provides the basis for dealing with this challenge. This presentation will focus on the main findings of the InSOTEC project with regard to the consideration of socio-technical combinations in practice. These insights are currently under development and will be finalized at the end of the project in June 2014. We will reflect on

  4. Removal of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole from synthetic municipal waste water in microcosm downflow constructed wetlands: Start-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrotek, Monika; Sochacki, Adam; Felis, Ewa; Miksch, Korneliusz

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the start-up removal of pharmaceutical compounds diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole in microcosm downflow constructed wetlands and their effect on the performance of the studied constructed wetlands, and also to assess the effect of plants on the removal of these compounds. The experimental system that was used in this 86-day experiment consisted of 24 columns filled up to 70 cm with predominantly sandy material. Four types of columns were used (six replicates) depending on the presence of plants (Phalaris arundinacea L. var. picta L.) and the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in the influent. The influent was synthetic municipal waste water to which a mixture of 5 mg/L of diclofenac and 5 mg/L of sulfamethoxazole was added. The observed removal of diclofenac was moderate (approx. 50%) and the removal of sulfamethoxazole was relatively low (24-30%). It was found that the removal of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole was not affected by the vegetation. The presence of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole in the influent had significant effect on the effluent concentration of N-NO3 and the water loss in the columns, which in both cases were lower than in the control columns. The scope for further research was discussed.

  5. Correct insurance of waste treatment plants. Problems and requirements resulting from the coming into force of the waste disposal ordinance of 1 June 2005; Richtiger Versicherungsschutz fuer Abfallbehandlungsanlagen. Probleme und Erfordernisse im Hinblick auf das Inkrafttreten der Abfallablagerungsverordnung zum 01.06.2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sittner, E. [Risikomanagment und Versicherungsberatung, Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    In the first part of his contribution (No. 1, 2005), the author presented aspects of insurance of waste disposal and utilisation systems. This sequel updates the information and points out problems and requirements resulting from the coming into force of the waste disposal ordinance of 1 June 2005. (orig.)

  6. Results of departmental plans for waste disposal and department-level detailed information; Bilan des plans departementaux d`elimination des dechets et informations detaillees par departement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-07-01

    Municipal and assimilated waste disposal departmental plans have been implemented in every French geographical department in order to generate a framework where collectivities can develop a waste management system. A comprehensive survey have been carried out on these programs, concerning burial site closures, waste sorting development, waste processing methodologies, equipment, investments, etc. It is shown that theses plans have induced a profound redevelopment of municipal waste management, generally with a multi- and complementary-process approach, but common industrial wastes are shown to be not very precisely integrated in the schemes. A waste up-grading ratio reaching 89 percent is appearing as the mean objective in these plans. The evolution of the number of waste disposal (burial, incineration, sorting...) centers is analyzed and the related investments are evaluated

  7. Ground-water flow near two radioactive-waste-disposal areas at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, Cattaraugus County, New York; results of flow simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, M.P.; Bugliosi, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Two adjacent burial areas were excavated in a clay-rich till at a radioactive waste disposal site near West Valley in Cattaraugus County, N.Y.: (1) which contains mainly low-level radioactive wastes generated onsite by a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, has been in operation since 1966; and (2) which contains commercial low-level radioactive wastes, was operated during 1963-75. Groundwater below the upper 3 meters of till generally moves downward through a 20- to 30-meter thick sequence of tills underlain by lacustrine and kame-delta deposits of fine sand and silt. Groundwater in the weathered, upper 3 meters of till can move laterally for several meters before either moving downward into the kame-delta deposits or discharging to the land surface. A two-dimensional finite-element model that simulates two vertical sections was used to evaluate hydrologic factors that control groundwater flow in the till. Conditions observed during March 1983 were reproduced accurately in steady-state simulations that used four isotropic units of differing hydraulic conductivity to represent two fractured and weathered till units near land surfaces, an intermediate group of isolated till zones that contain significant amounts of fine sand and silt, and a sequence of till units at depths that have been consolidated by overburden pressure. Recharge rates used in the best-fit simulation ranged from 1.4 cm/yr along smooth, sloping or compacted surfaces to 3.8 cm/yr near swampy areas. Values of hydraulic conductivity and infiltration used in the calibrated best-fit model were nearly identical to values used in a previous model analysis of the nearby commercial-waste burial area. Results of the model simulations of a burial pit assumed to be filled with water indicate that water near the bottom of the burial pit would migrate laterally in the shallow, weathered till for 5 to 6 meters before moving downward into the unweathered till, and water near the top of the pit would move laterally

  8. The Water Reuse project: Sustainable waste water re-use technologies for irrigated land in NIS and southern European states; project overview and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Elsen, E.; Doerr, S.; Ritsema, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    In irrigated areas in the New Independent States (NIS) and southern European States, inefficient use of conventional water resources occurs through incomplete wetting of soils, which causes accelerated runoff and preferential flow, and also through excessive evaporation associated with unhindered capillary rise. Furthermore, a largely unexploited potential exists to save conventional irrigation water by supplementation with organic-rich waste water, which, if used appropriately, can also lead to improvements to soil physical properties and soil nutrient and organic matter content. This project aims to (a) reduce irrigation water losses by developing, evaluating and promoting techniques that improve the wetting properties of soils, and (b) investigate the use of organic-rich waste water as a non-conventional water resource in irrigation and, in addition, as a tool in improving soil physical properties and soil nutrient and organic matter content. Key activities include (i) identifying, for the NIS and southern European partner countries, the soil type/land use combinations, for which the above approaches are expected to be most effective and their implementation most feasible, using physical and socio-economic research methods, and (ii) examining the water saving potential, physical, biological and chemical effects on soils of the above approaches, and also their impact on performance. Expected outputs include techniques for sustainable improvements in soil wettability management as a novel approach in water saving, detailed evaluation of the prospects and effects of using supplemental organic-rich waste waters in irrigation, an advanced process-based numerical hydrological model, fully adapted to quantify and upscale resulting water savings and nutrient and potential contaminant fluxes for irrigated areas, and identification of suitable areas in the NIS and Mediterranean (in soil, land use, legislative and socio-economic terms) for implementation.

  9. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...

  10. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  11. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume I. Waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume I of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report presents the waste characterization information obtained from sampling and characterizing various aged transuranic waste retrieved from storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The data contained in this report include the results of gas sampling and gas generation, radiographic examinations, waste visual examination results, and waste compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). A separate report, Volume II, contains data from the gas generation studies.

  12. Hazard Ranking System evaluation of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 1, Evaluation methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.; Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the individual site Hazard Ranking System (HRS) evaluations conducted as part of the preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI) activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that describe the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program addressing the cleanup of inactive waste sites. These orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The methodology includes six parts: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the HRS methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 34 refs., 43 figs., 47 tabs.

  13. Prediction of dissolved actinide concentrations in concentrated electrolyte solutions: a conceptual model and model results for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, C.F.; Moore, R.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bynum, R.V. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-10-25

    The conceptual model for WIPP dissolved concentrations is a description of the complex natural and artificial chemical conditions expected to influence dissolved actinide concentrations in the repository. By a set of physical and chemical assumptions regarding chemical kinetics, sorption substrates, and waste-brine interactions, the system was simplified to be amenable to mathematical description. The analysis indicated that an equilibrium thermodynamic model for describing actinide solubilities in brines would be tractable and scientifically supportable. This paper summarizes the conceptualization and modeling approach and the computational results as used in the WIPP application for certification of compliance with relevant regulations for nuclear waste repositories. The WIPP site contains complex natural brines ranging from sea water to 10x more concentrated than sea water. Data bases for predicting solubility of Am(III) (as well as Pu(III) and Nd(III)), Th(IV), and Np(V) in these brines under potential repository conditions have been developed, focusing on chemical interactions with Na, K, Mg, Cl, SO{sub 4}, and CO{sub 3} ions, and the organic acid anions acetate, citrate, EDTA, and oxalate. The laboratory and modeling effort augmented the Harvie et al. parameterization of the Pitzer activity coefficient model so that it could be applied to the actinides and oxidation states important to the WIPP system.

  14. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  15. Medical waste: a minimal hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, J H

    1991-11-01

    Medical waste is a subset of municipal waste, and regulated medical waste comprises less than 1% of the total municipal waste volume in the United States. As part of the overall waste stream, medical waste does contribute in a relative way to the aesthetic damage of the environment. Likewise, some small portion of the total release of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials is derived from medical wastes. These comments can be made about any generated waste, regulated or unregulated. Healthcare professionals, including infection control personnel, microbiologists, public health officials, and others, have unsuccessfully argued that there is no evidence that past methods of treatment and disposal of regulated medical waste constitute any public health hazard. Historically, discovery of environmental contamination by toxic chemical disposal has followed assurances that the material was being disposed of in a safe manner. Therefore, a cynical public and its elected officials have demanded proof that the treatment and disposal of medical waste (i.e., infectious waste) do not constitute a public health hazard. Existent studies on municipal waste provide that proof. In order to argue that the results of these municipal waste studies are demonstrative of the minimal potential infectious environmental impact and lack of public health hazard associated with medical waste, we must accept the following: that the pathogens are the same whether they come from the hospital or the community, and that the municipal waste studied contained waste materials we now define as regulated medical waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Business unusual - Waste Act implementation: solid waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The preamble to the Waste Act (2008) is very clear that, as a result of this legislation, waste management in South Africa will never be the same again. This should send a clear message that ‘business as usual’ will no longer be sufficient....

  17. Investigations of subterranean microorganisms and their importance for performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. Results and conclusions achieved during the period 1995 to 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology

    1997-11-01

    In 1987, microbiology became a part of the Swedish scientific program for the safe disposal of high level nuclear waste (HLW). The goal of the microbiology sub-program is to understand how subterranean microorganisms will interact with the performance of a future HLW repository. The Swedish research program on subterranean microbiology has mainly been performed at two sites in granitic rock aquifers at depths ranging from 70 m down to 1240 m; the Stripa research mine in the middle of Sweden and the Aespoe hard rock laboratory (HRL) situated on the south eastern coast of Sweden. Some work has also been performed in co-operation with other national or international research groups in Sweden, Canada and at the natural analogue sites in Oklo in Gabon and Maqarin in Jordan. The most recent report in the SKB technical report series on microbiology and performance assessment, SKB-TR--95-10, gave the state of the art regarding microorganisms and their importance for performance assessment. That report is recommended as a source of knowledge about basic microbiology, microbial ecology of subterranean environments and the nuclear waste disposal concept in a microbiological perspective. The present report summarises results and conclusions achieved during the period 1995 to 1997 and is a continuation of SKB TR 95-10. The report is structured as summary which explains and analyses the obtained results and conclusions in a performance assessment perspective. The scientific basis for the summary is an enclosed series of eleven papers of which eight have gone through an international peer review process for publication in international scientific journals and reports and papers published earlier. 413 refs, 56 figs, 39 tabs.

  18. The biomonitoring and bioremediation of toxic water resulting from municipal waste storage of Somârd, Sibiu county

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents information from the specialty literature and laboratory experimental results on biomonitoring, phytoextraction, biodegradation, and biotransformation of toxic water pollutants at the biotechnology laboratory of the Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering. The study was conducted in laboratory micro tanks with contaminated water from the municipal landfill water storage pit with toxic bund of Somârd/Medias, Sibiu County, in order to research and develo...

  19. Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour Regarding Waste Management in a Grammar and a Comprehensive School in England--Results from a School Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Karin Dorina

    2015-01-01

    Well-organised waste management is an essential part of sustainable development. The saving of resources and energy is everyone's concern and environmental education is vital to guarantee a sustainable lifestyle in the long run. To find out what similarities and differences in views regarding waste management exist between grammar school pupils…

  20. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal - results of experiences in three large waste water treatment plants. Biologische Phosphatelimination - Betriebserfahrungen an drei Grossanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, P. (Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen, FG Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany)); Telgmann, U. (Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen, FG Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany)); Memmen, K. (Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen, FG Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany))

    1994-09-01

    Within a scientific project especially the operation of four real-size sewage treatment plants with different processes of enhanced biological phosphorus removal is investigated under the aspect of efficiency, stability, practicability and costs of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Three plants and first results are explained and compared as well with one another as with data, which are generally regarded as favourable conditions for the enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Between the plants there are significant differences in the degree of P-elimination mainly due to different characteristics of the wastewater. An important influence on P-effluent concentrations may be exacted by P-resolution in the final clarifier. (orig.)

  1. Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis. Volume 2, Data presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; McDaniel, E.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, C.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Piepel, G.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients: Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) -- were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice. This report presents the mixture-experimental results and leach data.

  2. Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis. Volume 1, Narrative and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; McDaniel, E.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, C.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Piepel, G.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients-Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice.

  3. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-106 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 5/4/94 and 5/5/94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Sharma, A.K.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-106 (referred to as Tank BY-106). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds NH{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, NO, HCN, and H{sub 2}O. Sampling for sulfur oxides was not requested. Organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Twenty-three organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, the authors looked for the 41 standard TO-14 analytes. Of these, only a few were observed above the 2-ppbv detection limit. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1. The 10 analytes account for approximately 64% of the total organic components in Tank BY-106. Tank BY-106 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List.

  4. CBs levels in deer tissue samples following an accidental release from a special waste treatment center : 2003 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, A.; Zhang, W.; Gabos, S.; Schopflocher, D.; Robb, J. [Alberta Health and Wellness, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Health Surveillance; Ikonomou, M. [Inst. of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    High levels of dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) were observed in deer and mouse tissues examined after an accidental release of PCDD/F contaminants in the Swan Hills area of Alberta. This paper provided details of follow-up sampling conducted to assess changes in CB concentrations of whitetail deer and mule deer in the region. Field collection was carried out in December 2002 and February 2003. Representative muscle, liver and fat samples were taken from each deer. Four aliquots from each sample were collected by carbon-fibre fractionation. All possible 209 CB congeners were measured with minimum isomeric interference. Fractions were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Concentrations of identified compounds were calculated using mean relative response factors determined from calibration standard runs. Results showed that 55 of 209 CB congeners were not detected in the fat samples. The mean level of CB homologues in the 2003 study was 39 ng/g for the lipid basis in the muscle, 92 ng/g in the liver, and 20.5 ng/g in the fat. Di-ortho CBs constituted 72 per cent to 74 per cent of CBs for the samples. Concentration levels of SCBs were lower than studies conducted in previous years. It was concluded that overall levels of SCBs and SCBs TEQ in the liver and muscle samples in 2003 significantly declined when compared with levels observed in 1997, 1999, and 2001. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. ZERO WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhyaya, Luv

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to develop a clear vision on better waste management system. The thesis introduced the sustainable waste management along with innovation. The aim of the research was to find out the types of waste being introduced to environment, their consequence on human beings and surroundings, best policies, principles and practices to minimize the effect of the waste to lowest. The study was based on literature. The thesis includes the introduction of types of waste, clarifi...

  6. Analytical results and effective dose estimation of the operational Environmental Monitoring Program for the radioactive waste repository in Abadia de Goias from 1998 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Edison, E-mail: edison@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear- Br 060 km 174, 5-Abadia de Goias- Goias, CEP 75345-000 (Brazil); Tauhata, Luiz, E-mail: tauhata@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil); Eugenia dos Santos, Eliane, E-mail: esantos@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear- Br 060 km 174, 5-Abadia de Goias- Goias, CEP 75345-000 (Brazil); Silveira Correa, Rosangela da, E-mail: rcorrea@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear- Br 060 km 174, 5-Abadia de Goias- Goias, CEP 75345-000 (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program for the Radioactive waste repository of Abadia de Goias, which was originated from the accident of Goiania, conducted by the Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-CO) of the National Commission on Nuclear Energy (CNEN), from 1998 to 2008. The results are related to the determination of {sup 137}Cs activity per unit of mass or volume of samples from surface water, ground water, depth sediments of the river, soil and vegetation, and also the air-kerma rate estimation for gamma exposure in the monitored site. In the phase of operational Environmental Monitoring Program, the values of the geometric mean and standard deviation obtained for {sup 137}Cs activity per unit of mass or volume in the analyzed samples were (0.08 {+-} 1.16) Bq.L{sup -1} for surface and underground water, (0.22 {+-} 2.79) Bq.kg{sup -1} for soil, and (0.19 {+-} 2.72) Bq.kg{sup -1} for sediment, and (0.19 {+-} 2.30) Bq.kg{sup -1} for vegetation. These results were similar to the values of the pre-operational Environmental Monitoring Program. With these data, estimations for effective dose were evaluated for public individuals in the neighborhood of the waste repository, considering the main possible way of exposure of this population group. The annual effective dose obtained from the analysis of these results were lower than 0.3 mSv.y{sup -1}, which is the limit established by CNEN for environmental impact in the public individuals indicating that the facility is operating safely, without any radiological impact to the surrounding environment. - Research highlights: {yields} A stolen capsule of Cesium 137 was opened in the city of Goiania, generating some 6000 tons of debris which were stored in the Repository area built for this purpose. {yields} The activity of cesium 137 of the surface water, underground water, depth sediments of river, soil, vegetation, and air, inside and surround the Repository area. {yields

  7. Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.

    2009-01-29

    Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is making plans to dispose of 54 million gallons of radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The high-level wastes and low-activity wastes will be vitrified and placed in permanent disposal sites. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents, and these need to be processed and disposed of also. The Department of Energy Office of Waste Processing sponsored a meeting to develop a roadmap to outline the steps necessary to design the secondary waste forms. Representatives from DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, the Oregon Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, technical experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, and private consultants convened in Richland, Washington, during the week of July 21-23, 2008, to participate in a workshop to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with the treatment and disposal of the secondary wastes and to develop a roadmap for addressing those risks and uncertainties. This report describes the results of the roadmap meeting in Richland. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. The secondary waste roadmap workshop focused on the waste streams that contained the largest fractions of the 129I and 99Tc that the Integrated Disposal Facility risk assessment analyses were showing to have the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater. Thus, the roadmapping effort was to focus on the scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids with 99Tc to be sent to the Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and solidification and the silver mordenite and carbon beds with the captured 129I to be packaged and sent to the IDF. At the highest level, the secondary waste roadmap includes elements addressing regulatory and

  8. Operational waste volume projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreski, G.M.

    1996-09-20

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June 1996.

  9. Nuclear waste and hazardous waste in the public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruetli, Pius; Seidl, Roman; Stauffacher, Michael [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Environmental Decisions

    2015-07-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste has gained attention of the public for decades. Accordingly, nuclear waste has been a prominent issue in natural, engineer and social science for many years. Although bearing risks for todays and future generations hazardous waste in contrast is much less an issue of public concern. In 2011, we conducted a postal survey among Swiss Germans (N = 3.082) to learn more about, how nuclear waste is perceived against hazardous waste. We created a questionnaire with two versions, nuclear waste and hazardous waste, respectively. Each version included an identical part with well-known explanatory factors for risk perception on each of the waste types separately and additional questions directly comparing the two waste types. Results show that basically both waste types are perceived similarly in terms of risk/benefit, emotion, trust, knowledge and responsibility. However, in the direct comparison of the two waste types a complete different pattern can be observed: Respondents perceive nuclear waste as more long-living, more dangerous, less controllable and it, furthermore, creates more negative emotions. On the other hand, respondents feel more responsible for hazardous waste and indicate to have more knowledge about this waste type. Moreover, nuclear waste is perceived as more carefully managed. We conclude that mechanisms driving risk perception are similar for both waste types but an overarching negative image of nuclear waste prevails. We propose that hazardous waste should be given more attention in the public as well as in science which may have implications on further management strategies of hazardous waste.

  10. Removal of strontium and transuranics from Hanford tank waste via addition of metal cations and chemical oxidant: FY 1995 test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, R.J.; Zacher, A.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Elliott, K.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Gano, S.R.

    1995-09-01

    Chelating organics and some of their degradation products in the Hanford tank waste, such as EDTA, HEDTA, and NTA act to solubilize strontium and transuranics (TRU) in the tank waste supernatant. Displacement of strontium and TRU will facilitate the removal of these radionuclides via precipitation/filtration, ion exchange, or solvent extraction so that low-level waste feed specifications can be met. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has investigated two methods for releasing organic-complexed strontium and TRU components to allow for effective pretreatment of tank waste supernatant: metal cation addition (to promote displacement and flocculation) and chemical oxidant (pennanganate) addition (to promote chelator destruction/defunctionalization and possibly flocculation). These methods, which can be conducted at near-ambient. temperatures and pressures, could be deployed as intank processes.

  11. E-waste management

    CERN Document Server

    Hieronymi, Klaus; Williams, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The landscape of electronic waste, e-waste, management is changing dramatically. Besides a rapidly increasing world population, globalization is driving the demand for products, resulting in rising prices for many materials. Absolute scarcity looms for some special resources such as indium. Used electronic products and recyclable materials are increasingly crisscrossing the globe. This is creating both - opportunities and challenges for e-waste management. This focuses on the current and future trends, technologies and regulations for reusable and recyclable e-waste worldwide.

  12. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  13. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  14. Sequential Extraction Results and Mineralogy of Mine Waste and Stream Sediments Associated With Metal Mines in Vermont, Maine, and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, N.M.; Seal, R.R.; Sanzolone, R.F.; Lamothe, P.J.; Brown, Z.A.; Adams, M.

    2007-01-01

    We report results from sequential extraction experiments and the quantitative mineralogy for samples of stream sediments and mine wastes collected from metal mines. Samples were from the Elizabeth, Ely Copper, and Pike Hill Copper mines in Vermont, the Callahan Mine in Maine, and the Martha Mine in New Zealand. The extraction technique targeted the following operationally defined fractions and solid-phase forms: (1) soluble, adsorbed, and exchangeable fractions; (2) carbonates; (3) organic material; (4) amorphous iron- and aluminum-hydroxides and crystalline manganese-oxides; (5) crystalline iron-oxides; (6) sulfides and selenides; and (7) residual material. For most elements, the sum of an element from all extractions steps correlated well with the original unleached concentration. Also, the quantitative mineralogy of the original material compared to that of the residues from two extraction steps gave insight into the effectiveness of reagents at dissolving targeted phases. The data are presented here with minimal interpretation or discussion and further analyses and interpretation will be presented elsewhere.

  15. CLAB Transuranic Waste Spreadsheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyba, J.D.

    2000-08-11

    The Building 772-F Far-Field Transuranic (TRU) Waste Counting System is used to measure the radionuclide content of waste packages produced at the Central Laboratory Facilities (CLAB). Data from the instrument are entered into one of two Excel spreadsheets. The waste stream associated with the waste package determines which spreadsheet is actually used. The spreadsheets calculate the necessary information required for completion of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Form (OSR 29-90) and the Radioactive Solid Waste Burial Ground Record (OSR 7-375 or OSR 7-375A). In addition, the spreadsheets calculate the associated Low Level Waste (LLW) stream information that potentially could be useful if the waste container is ever downgraded from TRU to LLW. The spreadsheets also have the capability to sum activities from source material added to a waste container after assay. A validation data set for each spreadsheet along with the appropriate results are also presented in this report for spreadsheet verification prior to each use.

  16. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorp, Frits; Grogan, Helen; McCombie, Charles

    The aim of radioactive and non-radioactive waste management is to protect man and the environment from unacceptable risks. Protection criteria for both should therefore be based on similar considerations. From overall protection criteria, performance criteria for subsystems in waste management can be derived, for example for waste disposal. International developments in this field are summarized. A brief overview of radioactive waste sorts and disposal concepts is given. Currently being implemented are trench disposal and engineered near-surface facilities for low-level wastes. For low-and intermediate-level waste underground facilities are under construction. For high-level waste site selection and investigation is being carried out in several countries. In all countries with nuclear programmes, the predicted performance of waste disposal systems is being assessed in scenario and consequence analyses. The influences of variability and uncertainty of parameter values are increasingly being treated by probabilistic methods. Results of selected performance assessments show that radioactive waste disposal sites can be found and suitable repositories can be designed so that defined radioprotection limits are not exceeded.

  17. Politics of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments. (DP)

  18. Characterization of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    This paper presents a methodology and the results of compositional analysis of food waste from Danish families living in single-family houses. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from 211 single-family houses in the suburb of Copenhagen. The main fractions contributing...... to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste....

  19. Characterization of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    This paper presents a methodology and the results of compositional analysis of food waste from Danish families living in single-family houses. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from 211 single-family houses in the suburb of Copenhagen. The main fractions contributing...... to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste....

  20. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Development of optimal strategies in executive management of special waste resulting from dredging of oil products reservoirs using SWOT and QSPM method in National Iranian Oil Product Distribution Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Abbasi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mismanagement of special wastes can bring about destructive environmental effects. Therefore, development of strategic solutions in this sector requires a special attention. SWOT analysis was benefited from in this research as an instrument for planning special waste management system. In order to achieve an acceptable point in special waste management resulting from dredging of reservoirs, internal and external factors in the company were investigated. Then, optimal strategies were developed and eventually in order to specify the relative attractiveness of the determined strategies, Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM matrix was employed. Based on Internal Factor Evaluation and External Factor Evaluation matrices, it was found that the strong points were more than the weak points, while the available opportunities are less than the threats. Out of the developed strategies, construction of a suitable site to maintain the oily sludges according to environmental requirements are among the top priorities of the strategies.

  2. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil;

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...... fly ash waste deposits from polluting the ground water....

  3. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...... fly ash waste deposits from polluting the ground water....

  4. Ecological Data in Support of the Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement. Part 2: Results of Spring 2007 Field Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2007-05-31

    This review provides an evaluation of potential impacts of actions that have been proposed under various alternatives to support the closure of the high level waste tanks on the Hanford Site. This review provides a summary of data collected in the field during the spring of 2007 at all of the proposed project sites within 200 East and 200 West Areas, and at sites not previously surveyed. The primary purpose of this review is to provide biological data that can be incorporated into or used to support the Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement.

  5. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information......Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...

  6. The waste-to-energy framework for integrated multi-waste utilization: Waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhabhandhu, Ampaitepin; Tezuka, Tetsuo [Energy Economics Laboratory, Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Energy generation by wastes is considered one method of waste management that has the benefit of energy recovery. From the waste-to-energy point of view, waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics have been considered good candidates for feedstocks for energy conversion due to their high heating values. Compared to the independent management of these three wastes, the idea of co-processing them in integration is expected to gain more benefit. The economies of scale and the synergy of co-processing these wastes results in higher quality and higher yield of the end products. In this study, we use cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the integrated management scenario of collecting the three wastes and converting them to energy. We report the total heat of combustion of pyrolytic oil at the maximum and minimum conversion rates, and conduct a sensitivity analysis in which the parameters of an increase of the electricity cost for operating the process and increase of the feedstock transportation cost are tested. We evaluate the effects of economy of scale in the case of integrated waste management. We compare four cases of waste-to-energy conversion with the business as usual (BAU) scenario, and our results show that the integrated co-processing of waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics is the most profitable from the viewpoints of energy yield and economics. (author)

  7. Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency.

  8. Soil-to-plant transfer of elements is not linear: Results for five elements relevant to radioactive waste in five boreal forest species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuovinen, Tiina S.; Roivainen, Paeivi, E-mail: paivi.roivainen@uef.fi; Makkonen, Sari; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2011-12-01

    Element-specific concentration ratios (CRs) assuming that plant uptake of elements is linear are commonly used in radioecological modelling to describe the soil-to-plant transfer of elements. The goal of this study was to investigate the validity of the linearity assumption in boreal forest plants, for which only limited relevant data are available. The soil-to-plant transfer of three essential (Mo, Ni, Zn) and two non-essential (Pb, U) elements relevant to the safety of radioactive waste disposal was studied. Three understory species (blueberry, narrow buckler fern and May lily) and two tree species (Norway spruce and rowan) were included. Examining CRs as a function of soil concentration showed that CR was not constant but decreased with increasing soil concentrations for all elements and plant species. A non-linear equation fitted fairly well with the empirical data; the R{sup 2}-values for this equation were constantly higher than those for the linear fit. The difference between the two fits was most evident at low soil concentrations where the use of constant CRs underestimated transfer from soil to plants. Site-specific factors affected the transfer of Mo and Ni. The results suggested that systematic variation with soil concentrations explains a part of the large variation of empirically determined CRs, and the accuracy of modelling the soil-to-plant transfer might be improved by using non-linear methods. Non-linearity of soil-to-plant transfer has been previously reported for a few different species, elements and environments. The present study systematically tested the linearity assumption for five elements (both essential and non-essential) and in five boreal forest species representing different growth traits and phylogenies. The data supported non-linearity in all cases.

  9. Impact of iron and steel industry and waste incinerators on human exposure to dioxins, PCBs, and heavy metals: results of a cross-sectional study in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, Sébastien; Mairesse, Hélène; Heilier, Jean-François; Focant, Jean-François; Eppe, Gauthier; De Pauw, Edwin; Bernard, Alfred

    2007-02-01

    We evaluated the impact of two iron and steel plants and two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) in Wallonia (Belgium) on the exposure of residents to dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and heavy metals. In total, 142 volunteers living around these facilities were recruited and compared with 63 referents from a rural area with no industrial source of pollution. Information about smoking habits, dietary habits, anthropometric characteristics, residential history, and health status was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. The volunteers provided blood under fasting conditions in order to evaluate the body burden of dioxins (17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans [PCDD/Fs] congeners) and PCBs. Samples of blood and urine were also taken for the determination of cadmium, mercury, and lead. After adjustment for covariates, concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and lead in urine or blood were not increased in subjects living in the vicinity of MSWIs or sinter plants by comparison with referents. Residents around the sinter plants and the MSWI located in the industrial area had concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in serum similar to that of referents. By contrast, subjects living in the vicinity of the MSWI in the rural area showed significantly higher serum levels of dioxins (geometric mean, 38 vs. 24 pg TEQ/g fat) and coplanar PCBs (geometric mean, 10.8 vs. 7.0 pg TEQ/g fat). Although age-adjusted dioxin levels in referents did not vary with local animal fat consumption, concentrations of dioxins in subjects living around the incinerators correlated positively with their intake of local animal fat, with almost a doubling in subjects with the highest fat intake. These results indicate that dioxins and coplanar PCBs emitted by MSWIs can indeed accumulate in the body of residents who regularly consume animal products of local origin.

  10. Supplementary feeding with fortified spreads results in higher recovery rates than with a corn/soy blend in moderately wasted children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moderate childhood wasting is defined as having a weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) or = -3. These children are typically given fortified corn/soy blended flour (CSB), but this intervention has shown limited effectiveness. Fortified spreads (FS) can be used as supplementary foods instead; ...

  11. Radioactive contamination at dumping sites for nuclear waste in the Kara Sea. Results from the Russian-Norwegian 1993 expedition to the Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, P.; Rudjord, A.L. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Salbu, B. [Norges Landbrukshoegskole, Vollebekk (Norway)] [and others

    1994-11-01

    During the 1993 Joint Russian-Norwegian Expedition to the Kara Sea, three dumping sites for nuclear waste were investigated: The Tsivolky Bay, the Stepovogo bay and an area in the open Kara Sea (The Novaya Zemlya Trough). Dumped waste was localized and inspected in the Tsivolky Bay and in the Stepovogo Bay using side scanning sonar and underwater camera. In the Stepovogo Bay, the dumped nuclear submarine no. 601, containing spent nuclear fuel was localized. Samples of waters, sediments and biota were collected at nine stations and later analyzed for several radionuclides (gammaemitters, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am). The analyses of the samples al the following conclusions to be drawn: (1) Elevated levels of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr and presence of {sup 60}Co were observed in the inner part of the Stepovogo Bay, and in one sample collected close to the hull of the dumped nuclear submarine in the Stepovogo Bay. {sup 60}Co was also observed in the Tsivolky Bay. This radioactive contamination most likely originates from the dumped radioactive material. It may be due to leaching from the waste. (2) The enhanced levels of contamination caused by dumped nuclear waste are still low and restricted to small areas. Thus, radiation doses from the existing contamination would be negligible. Radioactive contamination outside these areas is similar to the activity levels in the open Kara Sea. 46 refs.

  12. Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

  13. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Daniel E. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  14. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...

  15. Waste management and enzymatic treatment of Municipal Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner

    content), 2) low ash and xenobiotic content, 3) high gas yield, 4) volume (produced), 5) dependable distribution and 6) low competition with other end-user technologies. MSW is a complex substrate comprising both degradable and non-degradable material being metal, plastic, glass, building waste etc...... simulating Danish household waste in composition and weight, 2) evaluating the performance of best enzyme candidates on original waste with and without additional additives, 3) measuring the biogas potential of liquefied waste and comparing the results with the biogas potential of untreated waste...

  16. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  17. MWIP: Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 4, Wastewater treatment sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Stevenson, R.J.; Richmond, A.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bickford, D.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The category of sludges, filter cakes, and other waste processing residuals represent the largest volume of low-level mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Treatment of these wastes to minimize the mobility of contaminants, and to eliminate the presence of free water, is required under the Federal Facility Compliance Act agreements between DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency. In the text, we summarize the currently available data for several of the high priority mixed-waste sludge inventories within DOE. Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 Sludge and Rocky Flats Plant By-Pass Sludge are transuranic (TRU)-contaminated sludges that were isolated with the use of silica-based filter aids. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant West End Treatment Facility Sludge is predominantly calcium carbonate and biomass. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site Pond Waste is a large-volume waste stream, containing clay, silt, and other debris in addition to precipitated metal hydroxides. We formulate ``simulants`` for the waste streams described above, using cerium oxide as a surrogate for the uranium or plutonium present in the authentic material. Use of nonradiological surrogates greatly simplifies material handling requirements for initial treatability studies. The use of synthetic mixtures for initial treatability testing will facilitate compositional variation for use in conjunction with statistical design experiments; this approach may help to identify any ``operating window`` limitations. The initial treatability testing demonstrations utilizing these ``simulants`` will be based upon vitrification, although the materials are also amenable to testing grout-based and other stabilization procedures. After the feasibility of treatment and the initial evaluation of treatment performance has been demonstrated, performance must be verified using authentic samples of the candidate waste stream.

  18. The new site selection process in Germany. Results of the ''Commission Disposal of High Radioactive Waste''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brammer, Klaus-Juergen; Weber, Stefan [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    After the open exploration of the salt dome Gorleben was suspended for political reasons and in favour of a new selection process in Germany the German Bundestag passed the site selection law mid-2013. It provides a three-phase process, which shall lead to the designation of a site with ''best possible safety'' in particular for highly radioactive waste in the year 2031. Early July 2016 the ''Commission Disposal of High Radioactive Waste'' submitted now its final report. Thus it is up to the legislator to legally implement the commission's recommendations and to clear the path for the start of phase 1 of the selection process.

  19. Soft sediment deformation in the shallow submarine slope off Nice (France) as a result of a variably charged Pliocene aquifer and mass wasting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Achim J.; Stegmann, Sylvia; Garziglia, Sebastien; Henry, Pierre; Dennielou, Bernard; Haas, Simon; Weber, Kai-Christian

    2016-10-01

    Along the Ligurian slope near Nice, southeastern France, a combination of natural and man-made factors govern slope stability, and contributed to a devastating tsunamigenic landslide near Nice airport in 1979. Based on a total of 72 gravity and Kullenberg cores we characterise the architecture and facies of the subbottom sediment. A total of six sedimentary facies types were observed, three of which represent the Pliocene-Holocene background sediment in the wider Nice area while another three are associated with the 1979 landslide and tsunami. The three primary facies types are soft silty clay/clayey silt, somewhat indurated silt/sand interbeds, and Pliocene conglomerates underlying the former. The three other facies are poorly sorted mass wasting deposits up to pebble size, silt representing the finer fraction of the mobilised mass, and a tsunami-related bed into which plant debris and artefacts got amalgamated. Accompanying geotechnical results attest that significant strength variations exist when comparing measurements from the narrow shelf, shelf break and shallow slope as well as the 1979 slide scar. Factors such as groundwater charging in the more permeable horizons further lower the effective stress and, in places, approach lithostatic. Above such permeable silt/sand beds, deformation of soft clay is observed, suggesting that leaching of ions from the clay mineral surfaces and frayed edges also facilitates weakening and creep, micro-slumping and folding. Elevated water supply as well as hydraulic fracturing of the clayey sediment is further attested by pipes of cm-diameter and several decimeters length, which entrained very soupy mud. In the shallowmost deposits in and landward of the slide scar, we also observe remnants from the catastrophic deposition associated with the 2-3 m high tsunami wave triggered in 1979, as attested by amalgamated sea grass and artefacts. Based on our observations and measurements on core-scale and earlier models based on in situ

  20. Supplementary feeding with fortified spreads results in higher recovery rates than with a corn/soy blend in moderately wasted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilsky, Danielle K; Maleta, Kenneth; Castleman, Tony; Manary, Mark J

    2009-04-01

    Moderate childhood wasting is defined as having a weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) or = -3. These children are typically given fortified corn/soy blended flour (CSB), but this intervention has shown limited effectiveness. Fortified spreads (FS) can be used as supplementary foods instead; they are energy-dense, lipid-based pastes with added powdered micronutrients. In this randomized clinical effectiveness trial, the recovery rates were compared among children with moderate wasting who received either milk/peanut FS, soy/peanut FS, or CSB. Children received isoenergetic quantities of food, 314 kJ x kg(-1) x d(-1), for up to 8 wk with biweekly follow-up. The primary outcome was recovery, defined as having a WHZ > -2. Time-event analysis was used to compare the recovery rate. A total of 1362 children were enrolled in the study. Children receiving soy/peanut FS had a similar recovery rate to those receiving milk/peanut FS and children in either FS group were more likely to recover than those receiving CSB (80% in both FS groups vs. 72% in the CSB group; P foods to CSB for moderately wasted Malawian children.

  1. Formulation and Analysis of Compliant Grouted Waste Forms for SHINE Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, Thad A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Youker, Amanda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Optional grouted waste forms were formulated for waste streams generated during the production of 99Mo to be compliant with low-level radioactive waste regulations. The amounts and dose rates of the various waste form materials that would be generated annually were estimated and used to determine the effects of various waste processing options, such as the of number irradiation cycles between uranium recovery operations, different combinations of waste streams, and removal of Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams for separate disposition (which is not evaluated in this report). These calculations indicate that Class C-compliant grouted waste forms can be produced for all waste streams. More frequent uranium recovery results in the generation of more chemical waste, but this is balanced by the fact that waste forms for those waste streams can accommodate higher waste loadings, such that similar amounts of grouted waste forms are required regardless of the recovery schedule. Similar amounts of grouted waste form are likewise needed for the individual and combined waste streams. Removing Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams lowers the waste form dose significantly at times beyond about 1 year after irradiation, which may benefit handling and transport. Although these calculations should be revised after experimentally optimizing the grout formulations and waste loadings, they provide initial guidance for process development.

  2. Food waste or wasted food

    OpenAIRE

    van Graas, Maaike Helene

    2014-01-01

    In the industrialized world large amounts of food are daily disposed of. A significant share of this waste could be avoided if different choices were made by individual households. Each day, every household makes decisions to maximize their happiness while balancing restricted amounts of time and money. Thinking of the food waste issue in terms of the consumer choice problem where households can control the amount of wasted food, we can model how households can make the best decisions. I...

  3. ZeroWaste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2014-01-01

    The ZeroWaste research group at the Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU Byg) was established two years ago and covers the broad range of expertise, required for turning waste materials into attractive, new materials. Members of the group have, prior to that......, developed methods for removal of heavy metals and phosphorous from waste incineration, sewage sludge and other bio ashes, providing the basis of to make these ash types an attractive, new material for the building sector. Initial results for upgrading and using different types of ashes are presented...

  4. Vermicomposting of food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norzila Othman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of food waste recycling concept can be an interesting option to reduce the use of landfill. This strategy is more environmental friendly, cheap and fast if proper management to treat the food waste is applied. Nowadays, the concept of recycling is not well practice among the community. In this study, vermicomposting is introduced as an alternative of the food waste recycling. Vermicomposting consists of the use of earthworms to break down the food waste. In this vermicomposting treatment, the nightcrawler earthworm are used to treat the food waste. The food will be collected from UTHM cafe. The experiment consist of peat soil as a base, earthworms and the food waste. The pH number and moisture content of each container were controlled at 7.0 to 7.2 and 60 to 80 % to maintain the favorable environment condition for the earthworms. The weight of the sample will be measured in three days time after exposure to the earthworm. The vermicomposting study was taken about two weeks time. After the treatment, the soil sample are tested for nitrogen (N, Phosphorus (P, and Potassium (K concentration. Based on the result obtained, it shows that vermicomposting will reduce the weight of treatment sample and the concentration of N, P, and K for the soil is greater than the chemical fertilizer. Therefore, vermicomposting is a promising  alternative treatment of food waste as it is more ecofriendly.

  5. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  6. HIGH-TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION OF RDF WASTE AND MELTING OF FLY ASH OBTAINED FROM THE INCINERATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Lázár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this paper is to describe innovative solutions of thermal processing of selected components of municipal waste (so-called RDF waste using low-ionized depended plasma arc generated by a progressive and promising technology, which is plasma reactor. Its application can transform hazardous waste into inert waste while significantly reducing the volume of waste. Results given in this paper indicate experimentally achieved outputs with thermal disposal of RDF waste and ash from municipal waste

  7. Factors affecting the rural domestic waste generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Darban Astane

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to evaluate the quantity and quality of rural domestic waste generation and to identify the factors affecting it in rural areas of Khodabandeh county in Zanjan Province, Iran. Waste samplings consisted of 318 rural households in 11 villages. In order to evaluate the quality and quantity of the rural domestic waste, waste production was classified into 12 groups and 2 main groups of organic waste and solid waste. Moreover, kriging interpolation technique in ARC-GIS software was used to evaluate the spatial distribution of the generated domestic waste and ultimately multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the factors affecting the generation of domestic waste. The results of this study showed that the average waste generated by each person was 0.588 kilograms per day. with the share of organic waste generated by each person being 0.409 kilograms per day and the share of solid waste generated by each person being 0.179 kilograms per day. The results from spatial distribution of waste generation showed a certain pattern in three groups and a higher rate of waste generation in the northern and northwestern parts, especially in the subdistrict. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the households’ income, assets, age, and personal attitude are respectively the most important variables affecting waste generation. The housholds’ attitude and indigenous knowledge on efficient use of materials are also the key factors which can help reducing waste generation.

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant annual site environmental report for calendar year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) defined a comprehensive set of parameters which are monitored to detect potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future environmental evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, air, soil, and biotics are monitored for radioactivity levels. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include air, water quality, soil properties, meteorological measurements and determination of the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the WIPP site with emphasis on the salt storage pile. The baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in its preoperational phase (i.e., no waste has been received) certain operational requirements of DOE Orders 5400.1, 5400.5, and the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T) are not relevant. Therefore, this report does not discuss items such as radionuclide emissions and effluents and subsequent doses to the public.

  9. Performance assessment on grouted double-shell tank waste at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.H; McNair, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Allison, J.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The low-level fraction of liquid waste stored in double-shell tanks at Hanford will be solidified in a cementitious matrix (grout) and disposed in subsurface vaults. This paper discusses activities related to the preparation of a site-specific performance assessment as required by DOE Order 5820.2A. A draft performance assessment has been prepared for the planned grout disposal system at Hanford using site-specific data. The assessment estimates the incremental increase in the dose to future populations who, after loss of institutional control at the site, use groundwater downgradient of the disposal site. Increases in nonradiological species in water from a hypothetical well are also estimated. Two-dimensional transport models were used to estimate contaminant concentrations in groundwater. Based on diffusional release from the waste package, the projected radiological dose to an individual on a hypothetical farm using water from a well at the disposal facility boundary is estimated at less than one percent of the 25 mrem/yr standard in Order 5820.2. Technetium accounted for about 95% of the dose. Nitrate was the principle chemical contaminant at 0.3% to 0.5% of apportioned drinking water standards. Sensitivity studies on various parameters are in progress. This performance assessment will be updated as additional data become available.

  10. Results from an International Simulation Study on Coupled Thermal,Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes near Geological NuclearWaste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Barr, D.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liu, Q.-S; Oda, Y.; Wang, W.; Zhang, C.-Y.

    2007-10-23

    As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near waste emplacement drifts of geological nuclear waste repositories. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower postclosure temperatures, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses is currently being resolved. In particular, good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglected complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level.

  11. A pilot-scale steam autoclave system for treating municipal solid waste for recovery of renewable organic content: Operational results and energy usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtman, Kevin M; Bozzi, David V; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Offeman, Richard D; Orts, William J

    2016-05-01

    A pilot-scale (1800 kg per batch capacity) autoclave used in this study reduces municipal solid waste to a debris contaminated pulp product that is efficiently separated into its renewable organic content and non-renewable organic content fractions using a rotary trommel screen. The renewable organic content can be recovered at nearly 90% efficiency and the trommel rejects are also much easier to sort for recovery. This study provides the evaluation of autoclave operation, including mass and energy balances for the purpose of integration into organic diversion systems. Several methods of cooking municipal solid waste were explored from indirect oil heating only, a combination of oil and direct steam during the same cooking cycle, and steam only. Gross energy requirements averaged 1290 kJ kg(-1) material in vessel, including the weight of free water and steam added during heating. On average, steam recovery can recoup 43% of the water added and 30% of the energy, supplying on average 40% of steam requirements for the next cook. Steam recycle from one vessel to the next can reduce gross energy requirements to an average of 790 kJ kg(-1). © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Mine Waste Disposal and Managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young-Wook; Min, Jeong-Sik; Kwon, Kwang-Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    This research project deals with: Analysis and characterization of mine waste piles or tailings impoundment abandoned in mining areas; Survey of mining environmental pollution from mine waste impounds; Modelling of pollutants in groundwater around tailings impoundment; Demonstration of acid rock drainage from coal mine waste rock piles and experiment of seeding on waste rock surface; Development of a liner using tailings. Most of mine wastes are deposited on natural ground without artificial liners and capping for preventing contamination of groundwater around mine waste piles or containments. In case of some mine waste piles or containments, pollutants have been released to the environment, and several constituents in drainage exceed the limit of discharge from landfill site. Metals found in drainage exist in exchangeable fraction in waste rock and tailings. This means that if when it rains to mine waste containments, mine wastes can be pollutant to the environment by release of acidity and metals. As a result of simulation for hydraulic potentials and groundwater flow paths within the tailings, the simulated travel paths correlated well with the observed contaminant distribution. The plum disperse, both longitudinal and transverse dimensions, with time. Therefore liner system is a very important component in tailings containment system. As experimental results of liner development using tailings, tailings mixed with some portion of resin or cement may be used for liner because tailings with some additives have a very low hydraulic conductivity. (author). 39 refs.

  13. Chickamauga Reservoir 1992 fisheries monitoring cove rotenone results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerley, B.L.

    1993-06-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit for Sequoyah Nuclear Plant (SQN) to conduct and report annually a nonradiological operational monitoring program to evaluate potential effects of SQN on Chickamauga Reservoir. This monitoring program was initially designed to identify potential changes in water quality and biological communities in Chickamauga Reservoir resulting from operation of SQU. Chickamauga Reservoir cove rotenone sampling has also been conducted as part of the preoperational monitoring program for Watts Bar Nuclear Plant (WBN) to evaluate the combined effects of operating two nuclear facilities on one reservoir once WBU becomes operational. The purpose of this report is to present results of cove rotenone sampling conducted on Chickamauga Reservoir in 1992.

  14. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste from...

  15. Tracking the sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in birds: Foraging in waste management facilities results in higher DecaBDE exposure in males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentes, Marie-Line, E-mail: gentes.marie_line@courrier.uqam.ca [Centre de recherche en toxicologie de l’environnement (TOXEN), Département des sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, P.O. Box 8888, Station Centre-ville, Montreal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8 (Canada); Mazerolle, Marc J., E-mail: Marc.Mazerolle@uqat.ca [Centre for Forest Research, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445 boulevard de l’Université, Rouyn-Noranda, QC, Canada J9X 5E9 (Canada); Giroux, Jean-François, E-mail: giroux.jean-francois@uqam.ca [Groupe de recherche en écologie comportementale et animale, Département des sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, P.O. Box 8888, Station Centre-ville, Montreal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8 (Canada); Patenaude-Monette, Martin [Groupe de recherche en écologie comportementale et animale, Département des sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, P.O. Box 8888, Station Centre-ville, Montreal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8 (Canada); and others

    2015-04-15

    Differences in feeding ecology are now recognized as major determinants of inter-individual variations in contaminant profiles of free-ranging animals, but exceedingly little attention has been devoted to the role of habitat use. Marked inter-individual variations and high levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (e.g., DecaBDE) have previously been documented in ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) breeding in a colony near Montreal (QC, Canada). However, the environmental sources of these compounds, and thus the reasons causing these large inter-individual variations remain unidentified. In the present study, we used GPS-based telemetry (±5 to 10 m precision) to track ring-billed gulls from this colony to reconstruct their movements at the landscape level. We related habitat use of individual gulls (n=76) to plasma concentrations (ng/g ww) and relative contributions (percentages) to Σ{sub 38}PBDEs of major congeners in the internationally restricted PentaBDE and current-use DecaBDE mixtures. Male gulls that visited waste management facilities (WMFs; i.e., landfills, wastewater treatment plants and related facilities; 25% of all GPS-tracked males) exhibited greater DecaBDE (concentrations and percentages) and lower PentaBDE (percentages) relative to those that did not. In contrast, no such relationships were found in females. Moreover, in males, DecaBDE (concentrations and percentages) increased with percentages of time spent in WMFs (i.e., ~5% of total foraging time), while PentaBDE (percentages) decreased. No relationships between percentages of time spent in other habitats (i.e., urban areas, agriculture fields, and St. Lawrence River) were found in either sex. These findings suggest that animals breeding in the vicinity of WMFs as well as mobile species that only use these sites for short stopovers to forage, could be at risk of enhanced DecaBDE exposure. - Highlights: • The study was conducted on breeding gulls with high levels of flame

  16. Treatment of mechanically sorted organic waste by bioreactor landfill: Experimental results and preliminary comparative impact assessment with biostabilization and conventional landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Sisani, Luciano; Rotondi, Luca

    2016-09-01

    Treatment and disposal of the mechanically sorted organic fraction (MSOF) of municipal solid waste using a full-scale hybrid bioreactor landfill was experimentally analyzed. A preliminary life cycle assessment was used to compare the hybrid bioreactor landfill with the conventional scheme based on aerobic biostabilization plus landfill. The main findings showed that hybrid bioreactor landfill was able to achieve a dynamic respiration index (DRI)55% v/v started within 140days from MSOF disposal, allowing prompt energy recovery and higher collection efficiency. With the exception of fresh water eutrophication with the bioreactor scenario there was a reduction of the impact categories by about 30% compared to the conventional scheme. Such environmental improvement was mainly a consequence of the reduction of direct and indirect emissions from conventional aerobic biostabilization and of the lower amount of gaseous loses from the bioreactor landfill. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. FY 2000 Report on the results of development of technology to establish economic chemical recycling system for waste polyester resin; 2000 nendo hai polyester jushi no keizaitekina chemical recycle system kakuritsu no gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY 2000 efforts for establishing a chemical recycling system for waste PET bottles, including construction of 100t/y demonstration plant, development of economic decomposition and re-synthesis process, and demonstration of a low-cost recovery and recycling system with the cooperation of surrounding municipalities. The program for development of an economic treatment process for waste polyester resin achieves reduction in decomposition and re-synthesis time. The program for re-synthesized resin quality produces buttons of the recycled resin and evaluates their properties, to demonstrate that they satisfy the quality standards. The program for demonstration of the recovery system with the cooperation of surrounding municipalities recovers 4t/month of waste PET bottles by 9 municipalities, and estimates/evaluates final economic efficiency of the total recycling system, including plant operating cost and recycled resin selling cost. The program for development of applicable areas for the recycled resin produces various products on a trial basis with the cooperation of chemical makers, and opens the exhibitions. (NEDO)

  18. The Integrated Fuzzy AHP and Goal Programing Model Based on LCA Results for Industrial Waste Management by Using the Nearest Weighted Approximation of FN: Aluminum Industry in Arak, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Zare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide recycled aluminum generation is increasing quickly thanks to the environmental considerations and continuous growing of use demands. Aluminum dross recycling, as the secondary aluminum process, has been always considered as a problematic issue in the world. The aim of this work is to propose a methodical and easy procedure for the proposed system selection as the MCDM problem. Here, an evaluation method, integrated FAHP, is presented to evaluate aluminum waste management systems. Therefore, we drive weights of each pair comparison matrix by the use of the goal programming (GP model. The functional unit includes aluminum dross and aluminum scrap, which is defined as 1000 kilograms. The model is confirmed in the case of aluminum waste management in Arak. For the proposed integrated fuzzy AHP model, five alternatives are investigated. The results showed that, according to the selected attributes, the best waste management alternative is the one involving the primary aluminum ingot 99.5% including 200 kg and the secondary aluminum 98% (scrap including 800 kg, and beneficiation activities are implemented, duplicate aluminum dross is recycled in the plant, and finally it is landfilled.

  19. Sustainable Waste Management for Green Highway Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husin Nur Illiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green highway initiative is the transportation corridors based on sustainable concept of roadway. It incorporates both transportation functionality and ecological requirements. Green highway also provides more sustainable construction technique that maximizes the lifespan of highway. Waste management is one of the sustainable criterias in the elements of green highway. Construction of highway consumes enormous amounts of waste in term of materials and energy. These wastes need to be reduce to sustain the environment. This paper aims to identify the types of waste produced from highway construction. Additionally, this study also determine the waste minimization strategy and waste management practiced.. This study main focus are construction and demolition waste only. The methodology process begin with data collection by using questionnaire survey. 22 concession companies listed under Lembaga Lebuhraya Malaysia acted as a respondent. The questionnaires were distributed to all technical department staffs. The data received was analyzed using IBM SPSS. The results shows the most production of waste is wood, soil, tree root and concrete. The least production of waste is metal. For waste minimization, the best waste minimization is reuse for all type of waste except for tree root and stump. Whereas, the best waste management is providing strategic plan. The least practice for waste management is recording the quantity of waste.

  20. Classification of waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.P.; Sauer, M.; Rojahn, T. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk GmbH, Kahl am Main (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A barrel gamma scanning unit has been in use at the VAK for the classification of radioactive waste materials since 1998. The unit provides the facility operator with the data required for classification of waste barrels. Once these data have been entered into the AVK data processing system, the radiological status of raw waste as well as pre-treated and processed waste can be tracked from the point of origin to the point at which the waste is delivered to a final storage. Since the barrel gamma scanning unit was commissioned in 1998, approximately 900 barrels have been measured and the relevant data required for classification collected and analyzed. Based on the positive results of experience in the use of the mobile barrel gamma scanning unit, the VAK now offers the classification of barrels as a service to external users. Depending upon waste quantity accumulation, this measurement unit offers facility operators a reliable and time-saving and cost-effective means of identifying and documenting the radioactivity inventory of barrels scheduled for final storage. (orig.)

  1. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus

    waste. Although, food waste composition carries relative information, no attempt was made to analysis food waste composition as compositional data. Thus the relationship between food waste fractions has been analysed by mean of Pearson correlation test and log-ratio analysis. The food waste data...... amount of discarded edible food waste by 2020 within the European Union (EU) Member States. Reliable data on food waste and a better understanding of the food waste generation patterns are crucial for planning the avoidable food waste reduction and an environmental sound treatment of unavoidable food...... household per week), (b) percentage composition of food waste based on the total food waste, and (c) percentage composition of food waste based on the total residual household waste. The Pearson correlation test showed different results when different datasets are used, whereas the log-ratio analysis showed...

  2. Importance of waste composition for Life Cycle Assessment of waste management solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisinella, Valentina; Götze, Ramona; Conradsen, Knut

    2017-01-01

    The composition of waste materials has fundamental influence on environmental emissions associated with waste treatment, recycling and disposal, and may play an important role also for the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of waste management solutions. However, very few assessments include effects...... of the waste composition and waste LCAs often rely on poorly justified data from secondary sources. This study systematically quantifiesy the influence and uncertainty on LCA results associated with selection of waste composition data. Three archetypal waste management scenarios were modelled with the waste...... LCA model EASETECH based on detailed waste composition data from the literature. The influence from waste composition data on the LCA results was quantified with a step-wise Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) approach involving contribution, sensitivity, uncertainty and discernibility analyses...

  3. Wasted waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczynowicz, J

    1996-11-01

    This article presents the increasing mismanagement of water as a result of increasing delivery of water volume, water pollution, and water wasting. One example of water mismanagement is irrigation, through which 67% of water is withdrawn from the hydrological cycle. In addition, reports from European communities reveal that pesticides from agriculture worsen the existing underground pollution. Furthermore, a 25% drop in land productivity was observed in Africa due to erosion, salinization, water logging, and desertification. Also, 23% of withdrawn water goes to industries, which are the major polluters. Since 1900 about 250,000 tons of cadmium have been produced worldwide, which eventually enter and harm the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, high mercury levels were observed in Malaysia's Kelang River in the late 1980s, and river pollution in Thailand and Malaysia is recorded to be 30-100 times higher than accepted levels. Aside from that, the human race must also understand that there is a connection between water scarcity and water quality. When there is water pollution, it is expected that many people will suffer diarrheal diseases and intestinal parasite infections, which will further increase the mortality rate to 3.3 million per year. Realizing the severity of the problem, it is suggested that the human race must learn to recycle water like stormwater to prevent scarcity with drinking water.

  4. Distilling Complex Model Results into Simple Models for use in Assessing Compliance with Performance Standards for Low Level Waste Disposal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur S. Rood

    2007-02-01

    Assessing the long term performance of waste disposal facility requires numerical simulation of saturated and unsaturated groundwater flow and contaminant transport. Complex numerical models have been developed to try to realistically simulate subsurface flow and transport processes. These models provide important information about system behavior and identify important processes, but may not be practical for demonstrating compliance with performance standards because of excessively long computer simulation times and input requirements. Two approaches to distilling the behavior of a complex model into simpler formulations that are practical for demonstrating compliance with performance objectives are examined in this paper. The first approach uses the information obtained from the complex model to develop a simple model that mimics the complex model behavior for stated performance objectives. The simple model may need to include essential processes that are important to assessing performance, such as time-variable infiltration and waste emplacement rates, subsurface heterogeneity, sorption, decay, and radioactive ingrowth. The approach was applied to a Low-Level Waste disposal site at the Idaho National Laboratory where a complex three dimensional vadose zone model was developed first to understand system behavior and important processes. The complex model was distilled down to a relatively simple one-dimensional vadose zone model and three-dimensional aquifer transport model. Comparisons between the simple model and complex model of vadose zone fluxes and groundwater concentrations showed relatively good agreement between the models for both fission and activation products (129I, 36Cl, 99Tc) and actinides (238U, 239Pu, 237Np). Application of the simple model allowed for Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis and simulations of numerous disposal and release scenarios. The second approach investigated was the response surface model. In the response surface model approach

  5. Avoiding food waste by Romanian consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Violeta; van Herpen, Erica; Tudoran, Ana Alina

    2013-01-01

    to investigate the role of food choices and other food-related activities in producing food waste. A survey of 244 Romanian consumers examined the influence of intentions not to waste food, planning and shopping routines, as well as moral attitudes and lack of concern towards wasting food, a subjective norm......Food waste is generated in immense amounts across the food life cycle, imposing serious environmental, social and economic consequences. Although consumers are the single biggest contributor to this volume, little is known about the drivers of food waste in households. This exploratory study aims...... of disapproval towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control on consumers’ self-reported food waste. Results show that consumers’ planning and shopping routines are important predictors of food waste. Planning and shopping routines are determined by moral attitudes towards food waste and perceived...

  6. Storing Waste in Ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, W L; Sickafus, K

    2004-07-20

    result of waste processing. A number of ceramic waste forms have been developed that minimize t

  7. LCA Modeling of Waste Management Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Simion, F.; Tonini, Davide

    2011-01-01

    and shows that recycling is superior to incineration with energy recovery, which again is better than landfilling. Cleary (2010) reviewed 20 waste management scenarios assessed in 11 studies published in the period 2002–2008 and concluded that, due to lack of transparency regarding boundary conditions...... and exchange with the energy systems, a comparison of results was hampered on a system level. In addition, differences in waste composition may affect the LCA results. This chapter provides results of LCA modeling of 40 waste management scenarios handling the same municipal waste (MSW) and using different...... management systems. The study focuses on Europe in terms of waste composition and exchange with the energy system. The waste management systems modeled are described with respect to waste composition, waste management technologies, mass flows and energy exchange in the systems. Results are first presented...

  8. Mineralogy and clinoptilolite K/Ar results from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA: A potential high-level radioactive waste repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WoldeGabriel, G.; Broxton, D.E.; Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1993-11-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. An important aspect of this evaluation is to understand the geologic history of the site including the diagenetic processes that are largely responsible for the present-day chemical and physical properties of the altered tuffs. This study evaluates the use of K/Ar geochronology in determining the alteration history of the zeolitized portions of Miocene tuffs at Yucca Mountain. Clinoptilolite is not generally regarded as suitable for dating because of its open structure and large ion-exchange capacity. However, it is the most abundant zeolite at Yucca Mountain and was selected for this study to assess the feasibility of dating the zeolitization process and/or subsequent processes that may have affected the zeolites. In this study we examine the ability of this mineral to retain all or part of its K and radiogenic Ar during diagenesis and evaluate the usefulness of the clinoptilolite K/Ar dates for determining the history of alteration.

  9. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.

  10. ICDF Complex Operations Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.M. Heileson

    2006-12-01

    This Waste Management Plan functions as a management and planning tool for managing waste streams generated as a result of operations at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex. The waste management activities described in this plan support the selected remedy presented in the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision for the operation of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex. This plan identifies the types of waste that are anticipated during operations at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex. In addition, this plan presents management strategies and disposition for these anticipated waste streams.

  11. Low temperature waste form process intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    This study successfully demonstrated process intensification of low temperature waste form production. Modifications were made to the dry blend composition to enable a 50% increase in waste concentration, thus allowing for a significant reduction in disposal volume and associated costs. Properties measurements showed that the advanced waste form can be produced using existing equipment and processes. Performance of the waste form was equivalent or better than the current baseline, with approximately double the amount of waste incorporation. The results demonstrate the feasibility of significantly accelerating low level waste immobilization missions across the DOE complex and at environmental remediation sites worldwide.

  12. Landfills - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  13. Zeolites synthesized from pulping white paper waste used in the treatment of acid drainage of mining: preliminary results; Uso de zeolitas obtidas de residuo do processo de polpamento de papel branco para tratamento de drenagem acida de mineracao: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, C.R.; Riella, H.G. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil); Angioletto, E.; Rocha, M.R.; Alexandre, N.Z.; Galatto, S.L., E-mail: resmini1@yahoo.com.br [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UESC), SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The coal region in the south of Brazil facing serious environmental problem due of surface and groundwater by sulfur and heavy metals, mainly Fe, Mn and Zn. With zeolites synthesized from pulping white paper waste, a study was developed to verify the possibility of treating acid drainage from mining. Was considered the reduction of metal ions present in water and the change pH values. The zeolites were characterized using XRD, XRF and SEM. Acid drainage from coal mining was characterized using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The results showed a reduced content of metal ions and pH increased. (author)

  14. Economic analysis of e-waste market under imperfect information

    OpenAIRE

    Dato, Prudence

    2015-01-01

    Despite international regulations that prohibit the trans-boundary movement of electronic and electric waste (e-waste), non-reusable e-waste is often illegally mixed with reusable e-waste and results in being sent to developing countries. As developing countries are not well prepared to properly manage e-waste, this illegal trade has important negative externalities, and creates ‘environmental injustice’. The two main information problems on the e-waste market are imperfect monitoring and imp...

  15. Fiscal 1996 report on the results of the R and D of technology of high-level treatment/effective use of domestic/industrial wastes, etc. (for public); 1996 nendo Shin Energy Sangyo gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku seikatsu sangyo haikibutsu shori yuko riyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (kokaiyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing environmental loads of waste and effectively using resource by waste recycling, a study was conducted of high-level treatment/effective use technology for domestic/industrial wastes, etc. The paper reported the results of fiscal 1996. In the EcoCement producing technology using the synthetic urban type waste, EcoCement with stable quality was obtained using sewage sludge and industrial waste as raw materials. In the specified freon decomposition disposal technology, an experiment was carried out on durability, etc. of the processing unit. In the high speed/reduced smell biological garbage disposal technology, technology of fermenting disposal, etc. were established, and at the same time technology of making garbage compost was developed. In the technology to manufacture environment friendly type plastic containers, etc., a degradation behavior was grasped of degradable plastics in the compost. In the spread type waste plastic/thermal recycle technology, studied were a system to collect waste and a system to make waste solid fuel. Technology to recycle coolant freon was studied. 14 refs., 261 figs., 137 tabs.

  16. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, C. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease the waste

  17. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, C. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease

  18. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  19. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  20. Preliminary assessment of blending Hanford tank wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Kurath, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    A parametric study of blending Hanford tank wastes identified possible benefits from blending wastes prior to immobilization as a high level or low level waste form. Track Radioactive Components data were used as the basis for the single-shell tank (SST) waste composition, while analytical data were used for the double-shell tank (DST) composition. Limiting components were determined using the existing feed criteria for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). Results have shown that blending can significantly increase waste loading and that the baseline quantities of immobilized waste projected for the sludge-wash pretreatment case may have been drastically underestimated, because critical components were not considered. Alternatively, the results suggest further review of the grout feed specifications and the solubility of minor components in HWVP borosilicate glass. Future immobilized waste estimates might be decreased substantially upon a thorough review of the appropriate feed specifications.

  1. Secondary Waste Form Down-Selection Data Package—Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Strachan, Denis M.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Pires, Richard P.

    2011-09-12

    The Hanford Site in southeast Washington State has 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes stored in 177 underground tanks (ORP 2010). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), through its contractors, is constructing the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to convert the radioactive and hazardous wastes into stable glass waste forms for disposal. Within the WTP, the pretreatment facility will receive the retrieved waste from the tank farms and separate it into two treated process streams. These waste streams will be vitrified, and the resulting waste canisters will be sent to offsite (high-level waste [HLW]) and onsite (immobilized low-activity waste [ILAW]) repositories. As part of the pretreatment and ILAW processing, liquid secondary wastes will be generated that will be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) on the Hanford Site for further treatment. These liquid secondary wastes will be converted to stable solid waste forms that will be disposed of in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from WTP, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has initiated secondary waste form testing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In anticipation of a down-selection process for a waste form for the Solidification Treatment Unit to be added to the ETF, PNNL is developing data packages to support that down-selection. The objective of the data packages is to identify, evaluate, and summarize the existing information on the four waste forms being considered for stabilizing and solidifying the liquid secondary wastes. At the Hanford Site, the FBSR process is being evaluated as a supplemental technology for treating and immobilizing Hanford LAW radioactive tank waste and for treating secondary wastes from the WTP pretreatment and LAW vitrification processes.

  2. Joint Russian-Norwegian expedition to the dumping sites for radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in the Stepovogo fjord of the Kara sea, August - September 2012: investigations performed and main results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Aleksandr; Shershakov, Viacheslav; Valetova, Nailja; Petrenko, Galina; Katrich, Ivan; Fedorova, Anastasia [Research and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 249038, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Kazennov, Alexey [National Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Lind, Bjorn; Gwynn, Justin; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway); Heldal, Hilde Elise [Institute of Marine Research, Bergen (Norway); Blinova, Oxana; Osvath, Iolanda; Levy, Isabelle; Bartocci, Jean; Khanh Pham, Mai; Sam, Adam; Nies, Hartmut [IAEA-MEL (Monaco); Grishin, Denis [Krylov State Research Centre, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Salbu, Brit; Ole- Christian, Lind; Teien, Hans-Cristian [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway); Sidhu, Rajdeep Singh; Straalberg, Elisabeth [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway); Logoyda, Igor [State Scientific Centre ' Yuzhmorgeologiya' , Gelendzhik (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Stepovogo fjord, located on the Eastern coast of Novaya Zemlya, is one of the most important former Soviet Union dumping sites for radioactive waste in the Kara Sea. In addition to some 2000 dumped containers with conventional radioactive wastes, the nuclear submarine K-27 was dumped in Stepovogo fjord with two reactors loaded with spent nuclear fuel (SNF).Joint Russian and Norwegian surveys of the marine environment in Stepovogo fjord were first conducted in 1993 and 1994. In accordance with the working plan of the Joint Russian-Norwegian Expert Group on the Investigation of Radioactive Contamination in the Northern Areas, a follow up expedition into the radioecological status of Stepovogo fjord was carried out in August and September of 2012 onboard the R.V. 'Ivan Petrov' of the Roshydromet Northern Department. Investigations carried out in Stepovogo fjord during the expedition included: Sonar surveys, ROV inspections and in situ gamma measurements of the dumped nuclear submarine K-27 and dumped containers with radioactive waste Sampling of seawater, bottom sediments and marine biota. Results of the analysis of marine environmental samples performed by Russia, Norway and the IAEA, are presented and discussed in the paper. Preliminary measurements on surface sediments and water samples showed that the level of {sup 137}Cs contamination was generally low. However, slightly enhanced levels of {sup 137}Cs were detected in bottom seawater and sediment collected in the area with dumped containers. Measurements taken around the dumped nuclear submarine K-27 did not indicate any leakage of radioactive substances from the submarine. A similar picture for the level of radioactive contamination in Stepovogo fjord was observed in the first joint Russian-Norwegian expedition in 1993-94. (authors)

  3. Solid medical waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udofia, Emilia Asuquo; Gulis, Gabriel; Fobil, Julius

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solid medical waste (SMW) in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar......-demographic characteristics, medication related practices, the belief that one is at risk of diseases associated with SMW, SMW disposal practices and reported harm associated with SMW at home and in the community. RESULTS: Eighty percent and 89% of respondents discarded unwanted medicines and sharps in household refuse bins...

  4. Effectiveness of waste management in Mataram City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayanti, B. H.; Hirsan, F. P.; Kurniawan, A.

    2017-06-01

    Mataram city as National Activity Center (NAC) led to increased of activity that occurs in this region. This condition impacted the increasing of population and the amount of waste. The amount of waste in Mataram City currently reaches 1,444 m3/day and that has been transported by the Sanitation Department as much as 1,033.82 m3 or 71.59%. This research aims to analyze the effectiveness of community-based waste or waste management. The method that was used is quantitative descriptive analysis of waste heaps and analysis of waste management. The results of the analysis of waste heaps is that in the next 10 years (2026) the amount of waste will reach 2,019 m3/day. By using the analysis of waste management, if there are 25 units machines today and 48 waste management groups are effectively utilized, then 948 m3 amount of waste could be processed in a day or as much as 65.65% of the waste is managed by the community. So that, in order to get over this waste problems, collaboration between government and the community in Mataram City is needed.

  5. Waste to energy – key element for sustainable waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Paul H., E-mail: paul.h.brunner@tuwien.ac.at; Rechberger, Helmut

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • First paper on the importance of incineration from a urban metabolism point of view. • Proves that incineration is necessary for sustainable waste management. • Historical and technical overview of 100 years development of MSW incineration. - Abstract: Human activities inevitably result in wastes. The higher the material turnover, and the more complex and divers the materials produced, the more challenging it is for waste management to reach the goals of “protection of men and environment” and “resource conservation”. Waste incineration, introduced originally for volume reduction and hygienic reasons, went through a long and intense development. Together with prevention and recycling measures, waste to energy (WTE) facilities contribute significantly to reaching the goals of waste management. Sophisticated air pollution control (APC) devices ensure that emissions are environmentally safe. Incinerators are crucial and unique for the complete destruction of hazardous organic materials, to reduce risks due to pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, and for concentrating valuable as well as toxic metals in certain fractions. Bottom ash and APC residues have become new sources of secondary metals, hence incineration has become a materials recycling facility, too. WTE plants are supporting decisions about waste and environmental management: They can routinely and cost effectively supply information about chemical waste composition as well as about the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon in MSW and off-gas.

  6. Irrigation Without Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Kevin P.

    1975-01-01

    A new means of irrigation, called the drip or trickle system, has been proven more efficient and less wasteful than the current system of flood irrigation. As a result of this drip system, fertilizer-use efficiency is improved and crop yield, though never decreased, is sometimes increased in some crops. (MA)

  7. Main results of the 2012 joint Norwegian-Russian expedition to the dumping sites of the nuclear submarine K-27 and solid radioactive waste in Stepovogo Fjord, Novaya Zemlya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynn, Justin P; Nikitin, Aleksander; Shershakov, Viacheslav; Heldal, Hilde Elise; Lind, Bjørn; Teien, Hans-Christian; Lind, Ole Christian; Sidhu, Rajdeep Singh; Bakke, Gunnar; Kazennov, Alexey; Grishin, Denis; Fedorova, Anastasia; Blinova, Oxana; Sværen, Ingrid; Lee Liebig, Penny; Salbu, Brit; Wendell, Cato Christian; Strålberg, Elisabeth; Valetova, Nailja; Petrenko, Galina; Katrich, Ivan; Logoyda, Igor; Osvath, Iolanda; Levy, Isabelle; Bartocci, Jean; Pham, Mai Khanh; Sam, Adam; Nies, Hartmut; Rudjord, Anne Liv

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the main results of the 2012 joint Norwegian-Russian expedition to investigate the radioecological situation of the Stepovogo Fjord on the eastern coast of Novaya Zemlya, where the nuclear submarine K-27 and solid radioactive waste was dumped. Based on in situ gamma measurements and the analysis of seawater and sediment samples taken around the submarine, there was no indication of any leakage from the reactor units of K-27. With regard to the radioecological status of Stepovogo Fjord, activity concentrations of all radionuclides in seawater, sediment and biota in 2012 were in general lower than reported from the previous investigations in the 1990s. However in 2012, the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and, to a lesser extent, those of (90)Sr remained elevated in bottom water from the inner part of Stepovogo Fjord compared with surface water and the outer part of Stepovogo Fjord. Deviations from expected (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu activity ratios and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in some sediment samples from the inner part of Stepovogo Fjord observed in this study and earlier studies may indicate the possibility of leakages from dumped waste from different nuclear sources. Although the current environmental levels of radionuclides in Stepovogo Fjord are not of immediate cause for concern, further monitoring of the situation is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12 tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food...... waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434 ± 18 kg per household per year, of which 183...... ± 10 kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80 ± 6 kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103 ± 9 kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results...

  9. Solid state anaerobic co-digestion of yard waste and food waste for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dan; Li, Yebo

    2013-01-01

    Food and yard wastes are available year round at low cost and have the potential to complement each other for SS-AD. The goal of this study was to determine optimal feedstock/effluent (F/E) and food waste/yard waste mixing ratios for optimal biogas production. Co-digestion of yard and food waste was carried out at F/E ratios of 1, 2, and 3. For each F/E ratio, food waste percentages of 0%, 10%, and 20%, based on dry volatile solids, were evaluated. Results showed increased methane yields and volumetric productivities as the percentage of food waste was increased to 10% and 20% of the substrate at F/E ratios of 2 and 1, respectively. This study showed that co-digestion of food waste with yard waste at specific ratios can improve digester operating characteristics and end performance metrics over SS-AD of yard waste alone.

  10. The reduction of packaging waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Hogan, J.J.; McCollom, M.L.; Meyer, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.

  11. Effluent Management Facility Evaporator Bottom-Waste Streams Formulation and Waste Form Qualification Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saslow, Sarah A.; Um, Wooyong; Russell, Renee L.

    2017-08-02

    This report describes the results from grout formulation and cementitious waste form qualification testing performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS). These results are part of a screening test that investigates three grout formulations proposed for wide-range treatment of different waste stream compositions expected for the Hanford Effluent Management Facility (EMF) evaporator bottom waste. This work supports the technical development need for alternative disposition paths for the EMF evaporator bottom wastes and future direct feed low-activity waste (DFLAW) operations at the Hanford Site. High-priority activities included simulant production, grout formulation, and cementitious waste form qualification testing. The work contained within this report relates to waste form development and testing, and does not directly support the 2017 Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). However, this work contains valuable information for use in PA maintenance past FY 2017 and future waste form development efforts. The provided results and data should be used by (1) cementitious waste form scientists to further the understanding of cementitious leach behavior of contaminants of concern (COCs), (2) decision makers interested in off-site waste form disposal, and (3) the U.S. Department of Energy, their Hanford Site contractors and stakeholders as they assess the IDF PA program at the Hanford Site. The results reported help fill existing data gaps, support final selection of a cementitious waste form for the EMF evaporator bottom waste, and improve the technical defensibility of long-term waste form risk estimates.

  12. Waste to Energy: A Green Paradigm in Solid Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Danish Anis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current annual generation of municipal solid waste in India is estimated to be around 42 million tones which will rise rapidly with population growth, urbanization and improving living standards of people. The municipal solid waste (MSW generation ranges from 0.25 to 0.66 kg/person/day with an average of 0.45 kg/person/day. In addition, large quantities of solid and liquid wastes are generated by industries. Most of the wastes generated find their way into land and water bodies. Without proper treatment, these wastes emit gases like Methane (CH4, Carbon Dioxide (CO2 etc, resulting in bad odor, emission of green house gases and increase in air and water pollution. This problem can be significantly mitigated through adoption of environment-friendly waste-to-energy technologies for the treatment and processing of wastes before disposal. It will not only reduce the quantity of wastes but also generate substantial quantity of energy. India at present is the world’s fifth biggest energy consumer and is predicted to surpass Japan and Russia to take the third place by 2030. Indian economy has shown a robust growth of around 8% in recent years and is trying to sustain this growth in order to reach goals of poverty alleviation. To achieve the required level of growth, India will need to at least triple its primary energy supply and quintuple its electrical capacity. This will force India, which already imports a majority of its oil, to look beyond its borders for energy resources. In India waste-to-energy has a potential of generating 1700 MW per person and this is scheduled to increase when more types of waste would be encompassed. At present hardly 50 MW power is being generated through waste-to-energy options. Waste combustion provides integrated solutions to the problems of the modern era by: recovering otherwise lost energy and thereby reducing our use of precious natural resources; by cutting down our emissions of greenhouse gases; and by both

  13. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C.; Vigsoe, D. (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  14. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste.......In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...

  15. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...... separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste....

  16. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  17. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa, E-mail: norasalwa@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Waste Technology Development Centre, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Wafa, Syed Asraf [Radioisotop Technology and Innovation, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Wo, Yii Mei [Radiochemistry and Environment, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mahat, Sarimah [Material Technology Group, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as ‘problematic’ waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  18. Characterization of hospital waste in Lahore, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sobia Munir; Syeda Adila Batool; Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry

    2014-01-01

    Background It is a common practice in developing countries that medical/infectious waste openly dumped with municipal solid waste.This paper presented a generation and characterization study of hospital waste.Determination of the waste composition is a basic step for selecting the most efficient treatment method of hospital waste.Methods Stratified random sampling was used to collect the samples of general as well as medical wastes for seven days.Medical waste was sorted into 10 categories whereas general waste was classified into 11 categories.Incineration was observed thoroughly for observing flaws in the incineration process.Data was analyzed by using SPSS software version 16.0.Results The studied hospital produced an average 297 kilograms of medical waste daily and it comprises plastics (71.0%),glass (13.9%),papers etc.(3.8%),cotton/dressings (5.7%),masks/gloves/sheets (0.3%) diapers (0.4%),wasted machines used in operation theaters (2.0%) and blades (0.1%).Laboratories,cancer ward,nursery ward,OPD and emergency ward are the largest infectious waste producing departments in the hospital.The hospital produced an average 3 511 kilograms of general waste daily in which organics constitute (44.3%),diapers etc.(42.8%),demolition materials (3.7%),plastic waste mixing medical plastic waste (2.5%),miscellaneous (2.14%),cloth/clothes (1.6%),cardboard (1.3%),papers (0.8%),cotton dressings (0.28%),glass (0.27%) and iron materials (0.18%).Other alarming facts are:medical waste is recycled in study area,after incineration of hospital waste,ash simply dumped in the premises of the hospital without any liner system.Conclusions The studied hospital produces 10% of infectious waste and 90% of general waste.The largest components of the infectious waste are plastic and glass.Organics and diapers are major components of the general waste coming from different sites of the hospital.Lack of training,inadequate knowledge regarding to the

  19. LEGISLATIVE ASPECTS CONCERNING THE LEATHER WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIMOFTE Claudia Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper underlines the current legislation and compliance issues leather waste in different waste groups according to relevant legislation and shows that, although seemingly harmless waste of skin sometimes contain dangerous compounds. As presented risks to human health were some restricted substances in leather. Since 2001 Romania had preoccupation in national legislation on waste management, but some categories, such as leather waste are not framed to this category. Also, another goal is implementing the EU management/storage strategy of industrial waste. Unfortunately, Romania imports huge quantities of used clothing and shoes. Transport, storage and use of them are poor, and many of these are subsequently stored waste by the fact that it is even sometimes improperly discarded. The paper also shows the statistics on waste management in the Bihor County by activity of national economy and by activity of industry at level of CANE REV.2 Section. Analyzing the postings on Internet regarding the sale and purchase of leather wastes in Romania, it was found that there are the following 'categories' of wastes: leather goods, leather from coats, leather from footwear industry, suede, leather, leather resulting from the production of upholstery. It was found that most car buyers use waste leather upholstery. It is recommended that production companies to highlight more transparent their inventory textile and leather waste on types for those interested (including online can access/capitalize them.

  20. Social Factors Influencing Household Solid Waste Minimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Ali Nor Eeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the world’s population, coupled with increasing urbanization, and rising standards of living, have all contributed to the increase in solid waste generation. Solid waste disposal is becoming a difficult problem for many countries. Thus, efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable solid waste management. Solid waste minimization is one of the ways of reducing the quantity of wastes for disposal. This study examines the perception of households towards solid waste minimization. 100 respondents were randomly selected from Section 7 housing area in Shah Alam city, Malaysia. Descriptive statistical technique was used in analysing the data. Findings from the study showed that respondent’s knowledge on waste minimization was above average. However, their level of knowledge as revealed further by the results is not in tandem with their attitude on waste minimization, which suggests that their attitude towards waste minimization is low. People who showed higher knowledge do not necessarily show concern or perform in solid waste minimisation. Therefore, local authorities must develop appropriate policy strategies to change the attitude and behaviour towards waste minimisation if they are to reach their statutory targets.

  1. Waste management study: Process development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the present Toxic Waste Control Operations at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, evaluates the technologies most applicable to the treatment of toxic and hazardous wastes and presents conceptual designs of processes for the installation of a new decontamination and waste treatment facility (DWTF) for future treatment of these wastes.

  2. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 2: Preliminary Design Concept for the Repository and Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This volume describes the major design features of the Monitored Geologic Repository. This document is not intended to provide an exhaustive, detailed description of the repository design. Rather, this document summarizes the major systems and primary elements of the design that are radiologically significant, and references the specific technical documents and design analyses wherein the details can be found. Not all portions of the design are at the same level of completeness. Highest priority has been given to assigning resources to advance the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation and for which there is no NRC licensing precedent. Those features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation, but for which there is an NRC precedent, receive second priority. Systems and features that have no impact on radiological safety or waste isolation receive the lowest priority. This prioritization process, referred to as binning, is discussed in more detail in Section 2.3. Not every subject discussed in this volume is given equal treatment with regard to the level of detail provided. For example, less detail is provided for the surface facility design than for the subsurface and waste package designs. This different level of detail is intentional. Greater detail is provided for those functions, structures, systems, and components that play key roles with regard to protecting radiological health and safety and that are not common to existing nuclear facilities already licensed by NRC. A number of radiological subjects are not addressed in the VA, (e.g., environmental qualification of equipment). Environmental qualification of equipment and other radiological safety considerations will be addressed in the LA. Non-radiological safety considerations such as silica dust control and other occupational safety considerations are considered equally important but are not addressed in

  3. Solid Waste from the Operation and Decommissioning of Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn Ann [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Arcy, Daniel [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Isha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Yufei [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-01-05

    This baseline report examines the solid waste generated by the U.S. electric power industry, including both waste streams resulting from electricity generation and wastes resulting from the decommissioning of power plants. Coal and nuclear plants produce large volumes of waste during electricity generation, and this report describes the policies and procedures for handling these materials. Natural gas and oil-fired power plants face similar waste challenges. Renewables considered in this baseline report include hydropower, wind and solar.

  4. First results from dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the population from Madeira Island, Portugal. Part 1. Biomonitoring in blood of the general population living near to a solid waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel; Sampaio, C. [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Lisbon (Portugal); J. Mauricio Melim [Public Health Regional Dept., Funchal (Portugal); Aguiar, P. [National School of Public Health, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    The present study is one of a series of papers describing selected results of the ongoing projects, designed to ultimately evaluate the potential impact on public health of the updated solid waste incinerator. Addressing dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, specific aims of this study were: (i) to determine whether living in the vicinity of the Meia Serra incinerator increases the dioxin body burden of the general population; (ii) to investigate other potential determinants of dioxin exposure in this population for prevention priorities; (iii) to provide data on the extent and pattern of exposure of the general population to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds by determining respective toxicity levels and congeners profile in blood samples.

  5. Process for remediation of plastic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Vilas G [Westmont, IL; Thiyagarajan, Pappannan [Germantown, MD

    2012-04-10

    A single step process for degrading plastic waste by converting the plastic waste into carbonaceous products via thermal decomposition of the plastic waste by placing the plastic waste into a reactor, heating the plastic waste under an inert or air atmosphere until the temperature of 700.degree. C. is achieved, allowing the reactor to cool down, and recovering the resulting decomposition products therefrom. The decomposition products that this process yields are carbonaceous materials, and more specifically egg-shaped and spherical-shaped solid carbons. Additionally, in the presence of a transition metal compound, this thermal decomposition process produces multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

  6. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  7. Pyrolysis result of polyethylene waste as fuel for solid oxide fuel cell with samarium doped-ceria (SDC)-carbonate as electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, R. J. E.; Rahmawati, F.; Prameswari, A. P.; Saktian, R.

    2017-02-01

    In this research, the result of pyrolysis on polyethylene was used as fuel for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The pyrolysis result is a liquid which consists of hydrocarbon chains. According to GC-MS analysis, the hydrocarbons mainly consist of C7 to C20 hydrocarbon chain. Then, the liquid was applied to a single cell of NSDC-L | NSDC | NSDC-L. NSDC is a composite SDC (samarium doped-ceria) with sodium carbonate. Meanwhile, NSDC-L is a composite of NSDC with LiNiCuO (LNC). NSDC and LNC were analyzed by X-ray diffraction to understand their crystal structure. The result shows that presence of carbonate did not change the crystal structure of SDC. SEM EDX analysis for fuel cell before and after being loaded with polyethylene oil to get information of element diffusion to the electrolyte. Meanwhile, the conductivity properties were investigated through impedance measurement. The presence of carbonate even increases the electrical conductivity. The single cell test with the pyrolysis result of polyethylene at 300 – 600 °C, found that the highest power density is at 600 °C with the maximum power density of 0.14 mW/cm2 and open circuit voltage of 0.4 Volt. Elemental analysis at three point spots of single cell NDSC-L |NSDC|NSDC-L found that a migration of ions was occurred during fuel operation at 300 – 600 °C.

  8. Results of Water and Sediment Toxicity Tests and Chemical Analyses Conducted at the Central Shops Burning Rubble Pit Waste Unit, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-06-02

    The Central Shops Burning Rubble Pit Operable Unit consists of two inactive rubble pits (631-1G and 631-3G) that have been capped, and one active burning rubble pit (631-2G), where wooden pallets and other non-hazardous debris are periodically burned. The inactive rubble pits may have received hazardous materials, such as asbestos, batteries, and paint cans, as well as non-hazardous materials, such as ash, paper, and glass. In an effort to determine if long term surface water flows of potentially contaminated water from the 631-1G, 631-3G, and 631-2G areas have resulted in an accumulation of chemical constituents at toxic levels in the vicinity of the settling basin and wetlands area, chemical analyses for significant ecological preliminary constituents of concern (pCOCs) were performed on aqueous and sediment samples. In addition, aquatic and sediment toxicity tests were performed in accordance with U.S. EPA methods (U.S. EPA 1989, 1994). Based on the results of the chemical analyses, unfiltered water samples collected from a wetland and settling basins located adjacent to the CSBRP Operable Unit exceed Toxicity Reference Values (TRVs) for aluminum, barium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, and vanadium at one or more of the four locations that were sampled. The water contained very high concentrations of clay particles that were present as suspended solids. A substantial portion of the metals were present as filterable particulates, bound to the clay particles, and were therefore not biologically available. Based on dissolved metal concentrations, the wetland and settling basin exceeded TRVs for aluminum and barium. However, the background reference location also exceeded the TRV for barium, which suggests that this value may be too low, based on local geochemistry. The detection limits for both total and dissolved mercury were higher than the TRV, so it was not possible to determine if the TRV for mercury was exceeded. Dissolved metal levels of chromium, copper

  9. Waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2017-01-17

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  10. Hazardous Waste Generators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The HazWaste database contains generator (companies and/or individuals) site and mailing address information, waste generation, the amount of waste generated etc. of...

  11. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc.......) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  12. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  13. Deployed Force Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Granath J., Baky A., Thhyselius L., (2004). Municipal Solid Waste Management from a Systems Perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production , forthcoming...Municipal Solid Waste Management from a Systems Perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production , forthcoming article In this paper different waste

  14. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Volume 1: Report of Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G M; Daniels, J I; Wegrecki, A M

    2005-11-07

    Human health and ecological risk assessments are required as part of the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal process for waste treatment units. This risk assessment is prepared in support of the RCRA permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The human health risk assessment is based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency approved emissions factors and on California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment and air dispersion models. The risk assessment identifies receptors of concern and evaluates carcinogenic risk, and acute and chronic noncarcinogenic hazard. The carcinogenic risk to a 30-year resident at the maximum offsite receptor location is 0.0000006 or 0.6 in one million. The carcinogenic risk to a 25-year worker at the maximum bystander on-site receptor location is also 0.0000006 or 0.6 in one million. Any risk of less than 1 in a million is below the level of regulatory concern. The acute noncarcinogenic hazard for the 30-year resident is 0.02 and the chronic noncarcinogenic hazard is 0.01. The acute noncarcinogenic hazard for the 25-year worker is 0.3 and the chronic noncarcinogenic hazard is 0.2. The point of comparison for acute and chronic noncarcinogenic hazard is 1.0, an estimate less than 1.0 is below the level of regulatory concern. The estimates of health effects are based on health conservative assumptions and represent an upper bound of the possible exposures to the receptors. For the ecological risk assessment, four receptor species were evaluated for potential detrimental effects; none were found to be adversely affected because for each species the predicted ecological hazard quotients are always less than one. Based on these results, emissions from the operations of the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility should not be considered to be of concern for human health or

  15. Waste to energy--key element for sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Paul H; Rechberger, Helmut

    2015-03-01

    Human activities inevitably result in wastes. The higher the material turnover, and the more complex and divers the materials produced, the more challenging it is for waste management to reach the goals of "protection of men and environment" and "resource conservation". Waste incineration, introduced originally for volume reduction and hygienic reasons, went through a long and intense development. Together with prevention and recycling measures, waste to energy (WTE) facilities contribute significantly to reaching the goals of waste management. Sophisticated air pollution control (APC) devices ensure that emissions are environmentally safe. Incinerators are crucial and unique for the complete destruction of hazardous organic materials, to reduce risks due to pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, and for concentrating valuable as well as toxic metals in certain fractions. Bottom ash and APC residues have become new sources of secondary metals, hence incineration has become a materials recycling facility, too. WTE plants are supporting decisions about waste and environmental management: They can routinely and cost effectively supply information about chemical waste composition as well as about the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon in MSW and off-gas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Organic Separation Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-09-22

    Separable organics have been defined as “those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer” (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations, could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be “no visible layer” of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.

  17. Waste Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Felicia Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-02

    This report discusses ways to classify waste as outlined by LANL. Waste Generators must make a waste determination and characterize regulated waste by appropriate analytical testing or use of acceptable knowledge (AK). Use of AK for characterization requires several source documents. Waste characterization documentation must be accurate, sufficient, and current (i.e., updated); relevant and traceable to the waste stream’s generation, characterization, and management; and not merely a list of information sources.

  18. 40 CFR 268.31 - Waste specific prohibitions-Dioxin-containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-Dioxin... specific prohibitions—Dioxin-containing wastes. (a) Effective November 8, 1988, the dioxin-containing... F026-F028 dioxin-containing waste is contaminated soil and debris resulting from a response action...

  19. Information base for waste repository design. Volume 3. Waste/rock interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplick, C.M.; Pentz, D.L.; Oston, S.G.; Talbot, R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the important effects resulting from interaction between radioactive waste and the rock in a nuclear waste repository. The state of the art in predicting waste/rock interactions is summarized. Where possible, independent numerical calculations have been performed. Recommendations are made pointing out areas which require additional research.

  20. Are perfluoroalkyl acids in waste water treatment plant effluents the result of primary emissions from the technosphere or of environmental recirculation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, Marko; Berger, Urs

    2015-06-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have been suggested to be one of the major pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from the technosphere to the aquatic environment. The origin of PFAAs in WWTP influents is either from current primary emissions or a result of recirculation of PFAAs that have been residing and transported in the environment for several years or decades. Environmental recirculation can then occur when PFAAs from the environment enter the wastewater stream in, e.g., tap water. In this study 13 PFAAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide were analyzed in tap water as well as WWTP influent, effluent and sludge from three Swedish cities: Bromma (in the metropolitan area of Stockholm), Bollebygd and Umeå. A mass balance of the WWTPs was assembled for each PFAA. Positive mass balances were observed for PFHxA and PFOA in all WWTPs, indicating the presence of precursor compounds in the technosphere. With regard to environmental recirculation, tap water was an important source of PFAAs to the Bromma WWTP influent, contributing >40% for each quantified sulfonic acid and up to 30% for the carboxylic acids. The PFAAs in tap water from Bollebygd and Umeå did not contribute significantly to the PFAA load in the WWTP influents. Our results show that in order to estimate current primary emissions from the technosphere, it may be necessary to correct the PFAA emission rates in WWTP effluents for PFAAs present in tap water, especially in the case of elevated levels in tap water.

  1. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  2. Preliminary assessment of clinoptilolite K/Ar results from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA: A potential high-level radioactive waste repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WoldeGabriel, G.; Broxton, D.E.; Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-12-31

    At Yucca Mountain, evidence for at least three distinct temporal groups of clinoptilolites can be delineated from the preliminary K/Ar dates (2 - 3 Ma; 4 - 5 Ma; 7 - 11 Ma). The older K/Ar dates that are similar to published illite/smectite ages (9-12 Ma) may be crystallization ages, whereas the younger dates probably represent continued diagenetic reactions of older clinoptilolites with percolating fluids. The K/Ar dates increase with depth, suggesting minimal argon loss in the deeper samples. internal consistency of the clinoptilolite K/Ar results at different levels within the drill holes suggest that dating of K-rich zeolites may provide useful information for assessing the zeolitization at Yucca Mountain. Variations in the K/Ar dates are probably related to Ar loss during dissolution of older clinoptilolites and to contamination by finely crystalline feldspars. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Preliminary assessment of clinoptilolite K/Ar results from Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A potential high-level radioactive waste repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WoldeGabriel, G.; Bish, D.L.; Broxton, D.E.; Chipera, S.J.

    1992-03-01

    At Yucca Mountain, evidence for at least three distinct temporal groups of clinoptilolites can be delineated from the preliminary K/Ar dates (2--3 Ma; 4--5 Ma; 7--11 Ma). The older K/Ar dates that are similar to published illite/smectite ages (9--12 Ma) may be crystallization ages, whereas the younger dates probably represent continued diagenetic reactions of older clinoptilolites with percolating fluids. The K/Ar dates increase with depth, suggesting minimal argon loss in the deeper samples. Internal consistency of the clinoptilolite K/Ar results at different levels within the drill holes suggest that dating of K-rich zeolites may provide useful information for assessing the zeolitization at Yucca Mountain. Variations in the K/Ar dates are probably related to Ar loss during dissolution of older clinoptilolites and to contamination by finely crystalline feldspars.

  4. Liquid Secondary Waste Grout Formulation and Waste Form Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, B. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle M. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-23

    This report describes the results from liquid secondary waste (LSW) grout formulation and waste form qualification tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate new formulations for preparing a grout waste form with high-sulfate secondary waste simulants and the release of key constituents from these grout monoliths. Specific objectives of the LSW grout formulation and waste form qualification tests described in this report focused on five activities: 1.preparing new formulations for the LSW grout waste form with high-sulfate LSW simulants and solid characterization of the cured LSW grout waste form 2.conducting the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1313 leach test (EPA 2012) on the grout prepared with the new formulations, which solidify sulfate-rich Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) off-gas condensate secondary waste simulant, using deionized water (DIW) 3.conducting the EPA Method 1315 leach tests (EPA 2013) on the grout monoliths made with the new dry blend formulations and three LSW simulants (242-A evaporator condensate, Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) leachate, and WTP off-gas condensate) using two leachants, DIW and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water (VZPW) 4.estimating the 99Tc desorption Kd (distribution coefficient) values for 99Tc transport in oxidizing conditions to support the IDF performance assessment (PA) 5.estimating the solubility of 99Tc(IV)-bearing solid phases for 99Tc transport in reducing conditions to support the IDF PA.

  5. Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Schmitt

    2006-12-13

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages.

  6. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  7. Questioning nuclear waste substitution: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan

    2007-03-01

    This article looks at the ethical quandaries, and their social and political context, which emerge as a result of international nuclear waste substitution. In particular it addresses the dilemmas inherent within the proposed return of nuclear waste owned by Japanese nuclear companies and currently stored in the United Kingdom. The UK company responsible for this waste, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), wish to substitute this high volume intermediate-level Japanese-owned radioactive waste for a much lower volume of much more highly radioactive waste. Special focus is given to ethical problems that they, and the UK government, have not wished to address as they move forward with waste substitution. The conclusion is that waste substitution can only be considered an ethical practice if a set of moderating conditions are observed by all parties. These conditions are listed and, as of yet, they are not being observed.

  8. Economic Floating Waste Detectionfor Surface Cleaning Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumroengrit Jakkrit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Removing waste out of water surface is a routine task and can be operated by using autonomous surface cleaning robots. This paper presents amethodoflaser-based floating waste detection for surface robot guidance when waste positions are unknown beforehand. Basing on concept of refraction and reflection of laser ray, the proposed laser-based technique is proven to be applicable on floating waste detection. The economic waste detector is constructed and mounted on the robot. Five DOF equations of motion are formulated for calculation of waste position incorporating distance measured by the laser and also the robot motion caused by external wind force as well as water surface tension. Experiments were conducted on a pond with calm water and results show that the presented economic waste detection successfully identify and locate position of plastic bottles floating on water surface within the range of 5 meters.

  9. Low Temperature Waste Immobilization Testing Vol. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Smith, D. E.; Gallegos, Autumn B.; Telander, Monty R.; Pitman, Stan G.

    2006-09-14

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is evaluating low-temperature technologies to immobilize mixed radioactive and hazardous waste. Three waste forms—alkali-aluminosilicate hydroceramic cement, “Ceramicrete” phosphate-bonded ceramic, and “DuraLith” alkali-aluminosilicate geopolymer—were selected through a competitive solicitation for fabrication and characterization of waste-form properties. The three contractors prepared their respective waste forms using simulants of a Hanford secondary waste and Idaho sodium bearing waste provided by PNNL and characterized their waste forms with respect to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and compressive strength. The contractors sent specimens to PNNL, and PNNL then conducted durability (American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society [ANSI/ANS] 16.1 Leachability Index [LI] and modified Product Consistency Test [PCT]) and compressive strength testing (both irradiated and as-received samples). This report presents the results of these characterization tests.

  10. Discussion on the methodology for determining food waste in household waste composition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, S; Schneider, F

    2011-01-01

    Food waste has become an increasingly discussed topic in recent years. However, there is little authoritative data on food waste quantities and composition and systematic and comparable data are missing. Household waste composition analyses, which are often carried out routinely at regular or irregular intervals, provide an opportunity for obtaining data about food waste at both local and regional levels. The results of prior waste composition studies are not really comparable due to the different classifications, definitions and methods used; in addition, these are mostly insufficiently described and not reproducible by a third party. The aim of this paper is to discuss a methodology for determining the proportion of food waste in household waste composition studies, by analysing specific problems and possible solutions. For that purpose, findings from the literature are analysed and the approach and results of a composition analysis of residual waste of a stratified sample (urban, rural area) are presented. The study suggests that in order to avoid a significant loss of information, waste should not be sieved before sorting and packed food waste should be classified into the relevant food waste category together with its packaging. The case study showed that the overall influence of the proportion of food packaging included in the food waste category, which amounted to only 8%, did not significantly influence the results and can therefore be disregarded. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Frequent Questions About Universal Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frequent questions such as Who is affected by the universal waste regulations? What is “mercury-containing equipment”? How are waste batteries managed under universal waste? How are waste pesticides managed under universal waste?

  12. Environmentally conscious management of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Prades Costa, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Rapid technological change, low initial cost, and the fast obsolescence of the electrical and electronic equipments have resulted in a fast‐growing surplus of electronic waste around the globe. Electronic waste, e‐waste, e‐scrap, or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) describes loosely discarded, surplus, obsolete, broken, electrical or electronic devices. The processing of electronic waste in developing countries causes serious health and pollution problems because electronic...

  13. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  14. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FROM WASTE PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Тахира Далиевна Сидикова

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the physical and chemical processes occurring during the thermal treatment of ceramic masses on the basis of compositions of natural raw materials and waste processing facilities. The study of structures of ceramic samples species has shown different types of crystalline phases.The results have shown that the waste of Kaytashsky tungsten-molybdenum ores (KVMR) may be used as the main raw material to develop new compositions for ceramic materials. The optimal compositions of ce...

  15. When being wasteful appears better than feeling wasteful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ro'i Zultan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ``Waste not want not'' expresses our culture's aversion to waste. ``I could have gotten the same thing for less'' is a sentiment that can diminish pleasure in a transaction. We study people's willingness to ``pay'' to avoid this spoiler. In one scenario, participants imagined they were looking for a rental apartment, and had bought a subscription to an apartment listing. If a cheaper subscription had been declined, respondents preferred not to discover post hoc that it would have sufficed. Specifically, they preferred ending their quest for the ideal apartment after seeing more, rather than fewer, apartments, so that the length of the search exceeds that available within the cheaper subscription. Other scenarios produced similar results. We conclude that people may sometimes prefer to BE wasteful in order to avoid FEELING wasteful.

  16. Attributes to facilitate e-waste recycling behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senawi Nur Hidayah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the set of attributes to facilitate electronic waste (e-waste behaviour among the community. E-waste disposal is increasing from year to year in parallel with increasing of global population. The short lifespan of electronics and poor e-waste recycling behaviour is among the main contributors to the steadily increasing of e-waste generated. Current recycling rate among the nation is lacking behind, which is only 10.5%. A questionnaire survey has been conducted among the students in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to evaluate the current e-waste recycling practice. The results showed that majority of the respondents did not recycle their e-waste on campus. Aggressive efforts is needed to realize the country’s target of 20% recycling rate in year 2020, one of the effective paths is to minimize e-waste generation via active e-waste recycling behaviour among the community. Extensive literatures have been reviewed to classify the attributes to facilitate effective e-waste recycling among the community. Total of five attributes that identified in this study which are Convenience of E- waste Recycling Infrastruture and Services, E-waste Recycling Information, Incentives For E-waste Recycling, Reminder to Recycle E-waste And E-waste Recycling Infrastructure and Services. The set of attributes identified in this study may serve as guideline for the management in designing program to foster e-waste recycling behaviour among the community.

  17. Waste reduction plan for The Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.M.

    1990-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose Research and Development (R D) facility. These R D activities generate numerous small waste streams. Waste minimization is defined as any action that minimizes the volume or toxicity of waste by avoiding its generation or recycling. This is accomplished by material substitution, changes to processes, or recycling wastes for reuse. Waste reduction is defined as waste minimization plus treatment which results in volume or toxicity reduction. The ORNL Waste Reduction Program will include both waste minimization and waste reduction efforts. Federal regulations, DOE policies and guidelines, increased costs and liabilities associated with the management of wastes, limited disposal options and facility capacities, and public consciousness have been motivating factors for implementing comprehensive waste reduction programs. DOE Order 5820.2A, Section 3.c.2.4 requires DOE facilities to establish an auditable waste reduction program for all LLW generators. In addition, it further states that any new facilities, or changes to existing facilities, incorporate waste minimization into design considerations. A more recent DOE Order, 3400.1, Section 4.b, requires the preparation of a waste reduction program plan which must be reviewed annually and updated every three years. Implementation of a waste minimization program for hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes is sited in DOE Order 5400.3, Section 7.d.5. This document has been prepared to address these requirements. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Evaluation of hearings. Results from reviews of the nuclear waste issue in the Swedish site candidate municipalities; Utvaerdering av utfraagningar. Resultat fraan genomlysningar av kaernavfallsfraagan i de svenska foerstudiekommunerna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this report was to present an evaluation of the public hearings that took place in February of 2001 in the Swedish municipalities of Oesthammar, Tierp, and Aelvkarleby in Norduppland, Hultsfred and Oskarshamn in Smaaland, and Nykoeping in Soedermanland. These municipalities had participated in feasibility studies conducted by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB). A company report on the results of these studies had been published shortly before the hearings (FUD-K). The regulatory authorities, i.e. the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI), organized the hearings for additional information and aid in their ongoing evaluation of the SKB report. Representatives of the municipalities participated in the planning of the events, and a large meeting in Tierp in January 2001, that also involved the authorities, consultants and interested parties, agreed on the aims and practical arrangements. The authorities furthermore ordered a report for a summary and evaluation of the events, and the results are presented here. The aim of, and the preparations for, the hearings were based on a theoretical model developed within the RISCOM project, i.e. the RISCOM-model of transparency, which postulates three basic elements, i.e. technical/scientific issues, normative issues and authenticity. These elements combine to achieve an optimal clarification on the interaction between scientific and value-laden components in decision-making. An assumption is that the quality of decisions would improve given that transparency can be increased. The hearings were designed to 'stretch' the implementer by means of asking essential questions and to clarify what was achieved and known so far in the process, as well as to clarify what matters required further attention. The content covered technical, legal and social aspects on issues of nuclear waste management and the choices involved in the process

  19. Attenuation of heavy metal leaching from hazardous wastes by co-disposal of wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Wookeun; Shin, Eung Bai [Hanyang Univ., Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kil Chul; Kim, Jae Hyung [National Institute of Environmental Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The potential hazard of landfill wastes was previously evaluated by examining the extraction procedures for individual waste, although various wastes were co-disposed of in actual landfills. This paper investigates the reduction of extraction-procedure toxicity by co-disposing various combinations of two wastes. When two wastes are mixed homogeneously, the extraction of heavy metals from the waste mixture is critically affected by the extract pH. Thus, co-disposal wastes will have a resultant pH between the pH values of its constituent. The lower the resultant pH, the lower the concentrations of heavy metals in the extract. When these wastes are extracted sequentially, the latter extracted waste has a stronger influence on the final concentration of heavy metals in the extract. Small-scale lysimeter experiments confirm that when heavy-metal-bearing leachates Generated from hazardous-waste lysimeters are passed through a nonhazardous-waste lysimeter filled with compost, briquette ash, or refuse-incineration ashes, the heavy-metal concentration in the final leachates decreases significantly. Thus, the heavy-metal leaching could be attenuated if a less extraction-procedure-toxic waste were placed at the bottom of a landfill. 3 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. The UK waste input-output table: Linking waste generation to the UK economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Reynolds, Christian

    2016-10-01

    In order to achieve a circular economy, there must be a greater understanding of the links between economic activity and waste generation. This study introduces the first version of the UK waste input-output table that could be used to quantify both direct and indirect waste arisings across the supply chain. The proposed waste input-output table features 21 industrial sectors and 34 waste types and is for the 2010 time-period. Using the waste input-output table, the study results quantitatively confirm that sectors with a long supply chain (i.e. manufacturing and services sectors) have higher indirect waste generation rates compared with industrial primary sectors (e.g. mining and quarrying) and sectors with a shorter supply chain (e.g. construction). Results also reveal that the construction, mining and quarrying sectors have the highest waste generation rates, 742 and 694 tonne per £1m of final demand, respectively. Owing to the aggregated format of the first version of the waste input-output, the model does not address the relationship between waste generation and recycling activities. Therefore, an updated version of the waste input-output table is expected be developed considering this issue. Consequently, the expanded model would lead to a better understanding of waste and resource flows in the supply chain.

  1. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  2. Press travel Marcoule. Researches on radioactive wastes: '' efficient tools for significant results''; Voyage de presse Marcoule. Recherches sur les dechets nucleaires: ''des outils performants pour des resultats significatifs''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-01

    In the framework of a sustainable development of the energy, the use of the nuclear energy needs to study the sanitary impact of nuclear utilities. Associated to the CNRS, the CEA is working since many years on the radioactive wastes. The competence and the equipment necessary for the research programs management on radioactive wastes conditioning and storage are going to be put at Marcoule site. This paper presents the Marcoule facilities and the corresponding research programs. Especially studies on the forced separation process are analyzed, as the wastes conditioning, the long-dated evolution and the Atalante installation. (A.L.B.)

  3. Stock flow diagram analysis on solid waste management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkipli, Faridah; Nopiah, Zulkifli Mohd; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad; Kie, Cheng Jack

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness on solid waste management is a major importance to societies. Numerous generation of solid waste from our daily activities has risked for our communities. These due to rapid population grow and advance in economic development. Moreover, the complexity of solid waste management is inherently involved large scale, diverse and element of uncertainties that must assist stakeholders with deviating objectives. In this paper, we proposed a system dynamics simulation by developing a stock flow diagram to illustrate the solid waste generation process and waste recycle process. The analysis highlights the impact on increasing the number of population toward the amount of solid waste generated and the amount of recycled waste. The results show an increment in the number of population as well as the amount of recycled waste will decrease the amount of waste generated. It is positively represent the achievement of government aim to minimize the amount of waste to be disposed by year 2020.

  4. IGNEOUS INTRUSION IMPACTS ON WASTE PACKAGES AND WASTE FORMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2004-04-19

    -chemical environment and seepage water alteration by reaction with intruded basalt. The scope of this model only includes impacts to the components stated above, and does not include impacts to other engineered barrier system (EBS) components such as the waste package pallet. The results of this model report will be used in TSPA for several parameters including (1) temperature of magma (used for the temperature of the waste form after an intrusion) (2) temperature increase in Zone 2 due to intrusion to evaluate impact to Zone 2 waste packages; (3) effects of exsolved gases reaching Zone 2 to evaluate impact to Zone 2 waste packages; and (4) pH and ionic strength of water reacted with basalt to be used in conjunction with ''Dissolved Concentration Limits of Radioactive Elements'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS: 163152]) to determine solubility of spent fuel within the basalt. Ionic strength will also be used in conjunction with ''Waste Form and In-Drift Colloids-Associated Radionuclide Concentrations: Abstraction and Summary'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS: 166845]) for stability of colloids.

  5. Absorption properties of waste matrix materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, J.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly discusses the need for studies of the limiting critical concentration of radioactive waste matrix materials. Calculated limiting critical concentration values for some common waste materials are listed. However, for systems containing large quantities of waste materials, differences up to 10% in calculated k{sub eff} values are obtained by changing cross section data sets. Therefore, experimental results are needed to compare with calculation results for resolving these differences and establishing realistic biases.

  6. Log live high activity radioactive wastes / Researches and results law of the 30 December 1991. Separation and transmutation of long lived radionuclides; Les dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue / recherches et resultats Loi du 30 decembre 1991. Separation et transmutation des radionucleides a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    The law of the 30 December 1991 on the high activity long lived radioactive wastes reached the end. This synthesis final document presents the scientific and technological results, obtained still the end of 2005, on the separation and the transmutation of long lived radionuclides of high activity long lived radioactive wastes. It is organized in five chapters: a presentation of the context and the historical aspects, the researches, the objectives and the strategy of the axis 1, the researches results on the advanced separation, the researches results on the transmutation, the scenario of separation-transmutation and their environmental, technical and economical impacts. (A.L.B.)

  7. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...

  8. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-01-06

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source special nuclear and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this document. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. This document has been revised to meet the interim status waste analysis plan requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173 303-300(5). When the final status permit is issued, permit conditions will be incorporated and this document will be revised accordingly.

  9. Radium/Barium Waste Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Allen K.; Ellefson, Mark D.; McDonald, Kent M.

    2015-06-25

    The treatment, shipping, and disposal of a highly radioactive radium/barium waste stream have presented a complex set of challenges requiring several years of effort. The project illustrates the difficulty and high cost of managing even small quantities of highly radioactive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-regulated waste. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research activities produced a Type B quantity of radium chloride low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in a number of small vials in a facility hot cell. The resulting waste management project involved a mock-up RCRA stabilization treatment, a failed in-cell treatment, a second, alternative RCRA treatment approach, coordinated regulatory variances and authorizations, alternative transportation authorizations, additional disposal facility approvals, and a final radiological stabilization process.

  10. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  11. Landfill gas generation and emission at danish waste disposal sites receiving waste with a low organic waste content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    two models are multi-phase models, which defines waste fractions into traditional MSW and low-organic waste categories, respectively. Both the LandGEM and the IPCC model estimated significantly larger methane (CH4) generation in comparison to the Afvalzorg model. The Afvalzorg model could better show...... the influence of not only the total disposed waste amount, but also various waste categories, and was found more suitable to estimate LFG generation from landfills receiving low-organic waste. Four major waste categories currently being disposed at Danish landfills (mixed bulky, shredder, dewatered sludge...... results. The LFG generation from four Danish landfills was estimated by the Afvalzorg model using the experimentally based BMP and k values and compared to whole landfill emission rates measured by applying a tracer gas dispersion method. The results showed that the revised modelled LFG generation rates...

  12. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  13. Hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hembra, R.L

    1989-01-01

    This report has found that while most states have accomplished few or no cleanups of sites contaminated by hazardous waste, some have enacted tough cleanup laws, committed relatively large resources to the cleanup effort, and achieved considerable results. At the 17 cleanup sites analyzed, state cleanup plans were generally stringent. However, no federal standards have been set for over half of the contaminants found at these sites. For 11 sites, the states set cleanup levels without doing formal risk assessments. Also, most states reviewed did not consider the full range of alternatives EPA requires. Most states have not shown that they can effectively clean up large, hazardous waste sites. This report recommends that EPA turn sites targeted for cleanup over to the states only if there are adequate controls and oversight.

  14. 78 FR 53793 - Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... XW012/04 radioactive tons of low- Consignee(s).'' No other 11005699 waste). level waste). changes to the existing license which authorizes the export of non-conforming waste and/or waste resulting from processing...

  15. Biomedical Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sikovska, Biljana; Dimova, Cena; Sumanov, Gorgi; Vankovski, Vlado

    2016-01-01

    Medical waste is all waste material generated at health care facilities, such as hospitals, clinics, physician’s offices, dental practices, blood banks, and veterinary hospitals/clinics, as well as medical research facilities and laboratories. Poor management of health care waste potentially exposes health care workers, waste handlers, patients and the community at large to infection, toxic effects and injuries, and risks polluting the environment. It is essential that all medical waste ma...

  16. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  17. Electrochemical/Pyrometallurgical Waste Stream Processing and Waste Form Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Frank; Hwan Seo Park; Yung Zun Cho; William Ebert; Brian Riley

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes treatment and waste form options being evaluated for waste streams resulting from the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical (pyro ) processing of used oxide nuclear fuel. The technologies that are described are South Korean (Republic of Korea – ROK) and United States of America (US) ‘centric’ in the approach to treating pyroprocessing wastes and are based on the decade long collaborations between US and ROK researchers. Some of the general and advanced technologies described in this report will be demonstrated during the Integrated Recycle Test (IRT) to be conducted as a part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Study (JFCS) collaboration between US Department of Energy (DOE) and ROK national laboratories. The JFCS means to specifically address and evaluated the technological, economic, and safe guard issues associated with the treatment of used nuclear fuel by pyroprocessing. The IRT will involve the processing of commercial, used oxide fuel to recover uranium and transuranics. The recovered transuranics will then be fabricated into metallic fuel and irradiated to transmutate, or burn the transuranic elements to shorter lived radionuclides. In addition, the various process streams will be evaluated and tested for fission product removal, electrolytic salt recycle, minimization of actinide loss to waste streams and waste form fabrication and characterization. This report specifically addresses the production and testing of those waste forms to demonstrate their compatibility with treatment options and suitability for disposal.

  18. Does industrial waste taxation contribute to reduction of landfilled waste? Dynamic panel analysis considering industrial waste category in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasao, Toshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Waste taxes, such as landfill and incineration taxes, have emerged as a popular option in developed countries to promote the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle). However, few studies have examined the effectiveness of waste taxes. In addition, quite a few studies have considered both dynamic relationships among dependent variables and unobserved individual heterogeneity among the jurisdictions. If dependent variables are persistent, omitted variables cause a bias, or common characteristics exist across the jurisdictions that have introduced waste taxes, the standard fixed effects model may lead to biased estimation results and misunderstood causal relationships. In addition, most existing studies have examined waste in terms of total amounts rather than by categories. Even if significant reductions in total waste amounts are not observed, some reduction within each category may, nevertheless, become evident. Therefore, this study analyzes the effects of industrial waste taxation on quantities of waste in landfill in Japan by applying the bias-corrected least-squares dummy variable (LSDVC) estimators; the general method of moments (difference GMM); and the system GMM. In addition, the study investigates effect differences attributable to industrial waste categories and taxation types. This paper shows that industrial waste taxes in Japan have minimal, significant effects on the reduction of final disposal amounts thus far, considering dynamic relationships and waste categories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydroxylamine Nitrate Decomposition under Non-radiological Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Joanna [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DePaoli, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mattus, Catherine H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Phelps, Clarice E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roach, Benjamin D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) is used to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III) in the separation of plutonium from uranium. HAN becomes unstable under certain conditions and has been known to explode, causing injury to humans including death. Hence, it is necessary to deactivate HAN once the reduction of plutonium is finished. This report reviews what is known about the chemistry of HAN and various methods to achieve a safe decomposition. However, there are areas where more information is needed to make a decision about the handling of HAN in reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Experiments have demonstrated a number of non-radiolytic ways to safely decompose HAN, including heating in HNO3, photolytic oxidation in the presence of H2O2, and the addition of a metal such as Fe(III) that will oxidize the HAN.

  20. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Volume 1: Report of Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegtos, G M; Daniels, J I; Wegrecki, A M

    2007-03-16

    Human health and ecological risk assessments are required as part of the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal process for waste treatment units. This risk assessment is prepared in support of the RCRA permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF) at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The human health risk assessment is based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency- (U.S. EPA) approved emissions factors and on California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA), California Air Resources Board (CARB) and U.S. EPA assessment and air dispersion models. This risk assessment identifies the receptors of concern and evaluates theoretical carcinogenic risk, and theoretical acute and chronic non-carcinogenic hazard, following those guidelines. The carcinogenic risk to a 30-year resident at the maximum off-site receptor location is 0.0000006 or 0.6 in 1 million. The carcinogenic risk to a 25-year worker at the maximum bystander on-site receptor location is also 0.0000006 or 0.6 in 1 million. Any risk of less than 1 in a million is below the level of regulatory concern. The acute non-carcinogenic hazard for the 30-year resident is 0.01, and the chronic non-carcinogenic hazard is 0.01. The acute non-carcinogenic hazard for the 25-year worker is 0.3, and the chronic non-carcinogenic hazard is 0.2. The point of comparison for acute and chronic non-carcinogenic hazard is 1.0; an estimate less than 1.0 is below the level of regulatory concern. The estimates of health effects are based on health conservative assumptions and represent an upper bound of the possible exposures to the receptors. Based on these results, emissions from the operations of the EWTF should not be of concern for human health. For the ecological risk assessment (ERA), 10 receptor species (including plants), representing members of the trophic levels in the habitat of Site 300, were evaluated for the possibility of potential detrimental

  1. Characterization of urban solid waste in Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2008-12-01

    The characterization of urban solid waste generation is fundamental for adequate decision making in the management strategy of urban solid waste in a city. The objective of this study is to characterize the waste generated in the households of Chihuahua city, and to compare the results obtained in areas of the city with three different socioeconomic levels. In order to identify the different socioeconomic trends in waste generation and characterization, 560 samples of solid waste were collected during 1 week from 80 households in Chihuahua and were hand sorted and classified into 15 weighted fractions. The average waste generation in Chihuahua calculated in this study was 0.676 kg per capita per day in April 2006. The main fractions were: organic (48%), paper (16%) and plastic (12%). Results show an increased waste generation associated with the socioeconomic level. The characterization in amount and composition of urban waste is the first step needed for the successful implementation of an integral waste management system.

  2. Architects' perspectives on construction waste reduction by design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmani, M; Glass, J; Price, A D F

    2008-01-01

    The construction, demolition and excavation waste arising in England was estimated at 91 million tonnes in 2003. The current thinking on construction waste minimisation is heavily focussed on several issues relating to physical construction waste and recycling guides. Indeed, much had been published on ways to improve on-site waste management and recycling activities but very few attempts made to address the effect of design practices on waste generation. However, there is a consensus in the literature that the architect has a decisive role to play in helping to reduce waste by focussing on designing out waste. This paper examines previous studies on architects' approach towards construction waste minimisation; and by means of a postal questionnaire, investigates: the origins of waste; waste minimisation design practices in the UK; and responsibilities and barriers within the UK architectural profession. The findings reveal that waste management is not a priority in the design process. Additionally, the architects seemed to take the view that waste is mainly produced during site operations and rarely generated during the design stages; however, about one-third of construction waste could essentially arise from design decisions. Results also indicate that a number of constraints, namely: lack of interest from clients; attitudes towards waste minimisation; and training all act as disincentives to a proactive and sustainable implementation of waste reduction strategies during the design process.

  3. Waste management fiscal year 1998 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Waste Management Program is pleased to issue the Fiscal Year 1998 Progress Report presenting program highlights and major accomplishments of the last year. This year-end update describes the current initiatives in waste management and the progress DOE has made toward their goals and objectives, including the results of the waste management annual performance commitments. One of the most important program efforts continues to be opening the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, for the deep geologic disposal of transuranic waste. A major success was achieved this year by the West Valley Demonstration Project in New York, which in June completed the project`s production phase of high-level waste processing ahead of schedule and under budget. Another significant accomplishment this year was the award of two privatization contracts for major waste management operations, one at Oak ridge for transuranic waste treatment, and one at Hanford for the Tank Waste Remediation System privatization project. DOE is proud of the progress that has been made, and will continue to pursue program activities that allow it to safely and expeditiously dispose of radioactive and hazardous wastes across the complex, while reducing worker, public, and environmental risks.

  4. Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, L D; Houk, V S; Hughes, T J

    1998-06-01

    In excess of several million pounds of genotoxic and/or carcinogenic industrial wastes are released into the U.S. environment each year. Chemical characterization of these waste materials can rarely provide an adequate assessment of their genotoxicity and potential hazard. Bioassays do not require prior information about chemical composition and can effectively assess the genotoxicity of complex waste materials. The most commonly used genotoxicity assay has been the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Results with this system have shown that the genotoxic potency of industrial wastes can vary over 10 orders of magnitude, from virtually nondetectable to highly potent. Industries employing similar industrial processes generally release wastes of similar potency. Extremely high potency wastes include those from furazolidone and nitrofurfural production. Pulp and paper mills, steel foundries, and organic chemical manufacturing facilities also discharge wastes of noteworthy potency. Treatment and remediation of some wastes, such as pulp and paper mill effluents, have been shown to reduce or eliminate genotoxicity. However, in other cases, treatment and remediation have been shown to enhance genotoxicity, such as for fungal treatment of oils. Analyses of samples collected from areas known to receive industrial wastes and effluents have shown that genotoxins can accumulate in the receiving environment and have adverse effects on indigenous biota. The evaluation of hazardous wastes and effluents by genotoxicity assays may provide data useful not only for hazard identification but for comparative risk assessment.

  5. Waste reduction at a propellant manufacturing site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, L.A. [Science Applications International Corp., Hackensack, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    It is the US Army policy to reduce the volume and toxicity of hazardous waste generated by its operations and activities. The Army established a goal to reduce 1985 waste generation levels by 50% by the year 1992, with additional reductions proposed through 1999 per Army guidance. To assist in accomplishing this goal, the Production Base Modernization Activity under a program sponsored by the US Army Materiel Command contracted Science Applications International Corporation to conduct a waste minimization audit at Radford Army Ammunition Plant. This study addressed hazardous wastes as well as non-hazardous oily wastes. The investigation was conducted in three phases to document how hazardous and oily wastes are produced and to recommend waste reduction alternatives. Radford Army Ammunition Plant (RAAP) produces in-process materials such as nitric and sulfuric acids, and propellant components including nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin. In addition, to propellants, the explosives trinitrotoluene and diethylene glycol dinitrate can be produced. The manufacture of military propellants generates the majority of waste at the facility. This paper will present the results of the RAAP Hazmin study, focusing on the major waste generating processes involved with propellant manufacture, Hazmin options suggested to minimize waste generation, and lessons learned.

  6. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste.

  7. Smaller plates, less food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    With roughly one-third of food produced for human consumption lost or wasted globally (about 1.3 billion tons per year), the impact on the environment cannot be anymore neglected. Actions at all points in the production chain are now urgent, including reductions in food waste at home, by retailer...... the hypothesis that dishware size plays an important role in the amount of food wasted among Danish adults in a self-service eating setting. This finding has PHN implications: slight changes in the foodscape can contribute to sustainable food consumption goals....... was to investigate whether the size of the dishware would non-reflectively influence the amount of foods taken from an “ad-libitum” buffet and the resulting amount of waste. Sample consisted of Danish business leaders that took part in a congress in Copenhagen, Denmark. Two buffet tables were set up on two separate....... All food waste was collected in designated trash bags (different colour in each floor) and weighted in bulk by students. Smaller plates appear to have decreased food waste by 26% compared to the standard sized plates at a single serving in a self-service eating setting. This pilot study supports...

  8. UTILIZATION OF PINEAPPLE WASTE AS CARBON SOURCE

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Moch Busairi

    2012-01-01

    The liquid pineapple waste contains mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. It therefore can potentially be used as carbon source for organic acid fermentation.  The objective of this work is to evaluate the use of pineapple waste as substrate for lactic acid fermentation under variables of aerobic, anaerobic condition and pH controlling. Initial results showed that the liquid pineapple waste can be used as carbon source for lactic acid fermentation using Lactobacillus del...

  9. FY 1999 report on the results of the development of the technology to establish an economical chemical recycling system for waste polyester resin; 1999 nendo seika hokokusho. Hai poriesuteru jushi no keizaiteki na kemikaru risaikuru system kakuritsu no gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing a chemical recycling system for PET bottles (saturated polyester resin) of which the recovery amount is expected to increase in future, the R and D were made for establishment of a chemical recycling system, and the FY 1999 results were summarized. In the R and D of an economical treatment process by waste polyester resin decomposition/synthesis system, the information was obtained that the acid value of the decomposition liquid is suitable as the control index for determining the finish of the decomposition process, and the acid value of the synthesis liquid is suitable as the control index for determining the finish of the re-synthesis process. In the demonstrative study of physical properties/quality stabilization of the re-synthesized resin, conditions for operation with no very big dispersion in physical properties of re-synthesized resin such as viscosity and acid value were obtained. In the demonstrative study of a recovery/recycling system of low cost PET bottles, the area for recovery was expanded to Shirahama town and Yuasa town in addition to Tanabe town that recovered bottles in the previous fiscal year, and the recovery amount totaled 3 t/mo. As to the development of the application of the recycled resin, the recycled resin which has the quality at least equal to virgin resin in cutting processability was obtained, and products such as septic tank were trial-manufactured. (NEDO)

  10. Performance of evaporators in high level radioactive chemical waste service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C.F.

    1997-12-01

    Chemical processing of nuclear fuels and targets at Savannah River Site resulted in generation of millions of gallons of liquid wastes. The wastes were further processed to reduce volume and allow for extended temporary storage of a more concentrated material. Waste evaporators have been a central point for waste reduction for many years. Currently, the transfer and processing of the concentrated wastes for permanent storage requires dilution and results in generation of significant quantities of additional liquid wastes. A new round of volume reduction is required to fit existing storage capacity and to allow for removal of older vessels from service. Evaporator design, performance and repairs are discussed in this report.

  11. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste......Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...

  12. Determining the amount of waste plastics in the feed of Austrian waste-to-energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzböck, Therese; Van Eygen, Emile; Rechberger, Helmut; Fellner, Johann

    2017-02-01

    Although thermal recovery of waste plastics is widely practiced in many European countries, reliable information on the amount of waste plastics in the feed of waste-to-energy plants is rare. In most cases the amount of plastics present in commingled waste, such as municipal solid waste, commercial, or industrial waste, is estimated based on a few waste sorting campaigns, which are of limited significance with regard to the characterisation of plastic flows. In the present study, an alternative approach, the so-called Balance Method, is used to determine the total amount of plastics thermally recovered in Austria's waste incineration facilities in 2014. The results indicate that the plastics content in the waste feed may vary considerably among different plants but also over time. Monthly averages determined range between 8 and 26 wt% of waste plastics. The study reveals an average waste plastics content in the feed of Austria's waste-to-energy plants of 16.5 wt%, which is considerably above findings from sorting campaigns conducted in Austria. In total, about 385 kt of waste plastics were thermally recovered in all Austrian waste-to-energy plants in 2014, which equals to 45 kg plastics cap(-1). In addition, the amount of plastics co-combusted in industrial plants yields a total thermal utilisation rate of 70 kg cap(-1) a(-1) for Austria. This is significantly above published rates, for example, in Germany reported rates for 2013 are in the range of only 40 kg of waste plastics combusted per capita.

  13. Global capacity, potentials and trends of solid waste research and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Michael A; Ronald, Mersky; Feng, Huan

    2017-09-01

    In this study, United States, China, India, United Kingdom, Nigeria, Egypt, Brazil, Italy, Germany, Taiwan, Australia, Canada and Mexico were selected to represent the global community. This enabled an overview of solid waste management worldwide and between developed and developing countries. These are countries that feature most in the International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management (ICSW) over the past 20 years. A total of 1452 articles directly on solid waste management and technology were reviewed and credited to their original country of research. Results show significant solid waste research potentials globally, with the United States leading by 373 articles, followed by India with 230 articles. The rest of the countries are ranked in the order of: UK > Taiwan > Brazil > Nigeria > Italy > Japan > China > Canada > Germany >Mexico > Egypt > Australia. Global capacity in solid waste management options is in the order of: Waste characterisation-management > waste biotech/composting > waste to landfill > waste recovery/reduction > waste in construction > waste recycling > waste treatment-reuse-storage > waste to energy > waste dumping > waste education/public participation/policy. It is observed that the solid waste research potential is not a measure of solid waste management capacity. The results show more significant research impacts on solid waste management in developed countries than in developing countries where economy, technology and society factors are not strong. This article is targeted to motivate similar study in each country, using solid waste research articles from other streamed databases to measure research impacts on solid waste management.

  14. Food Waste Avoidance Actions in Food Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...

  15. T Plant first cycle waste scavenging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludlow, J.O.; Poucher, F.W.

    1954-12-23

    A scavenging process for the TBP Plant wastes has recently been installed and is expected to result in a considerable reduction in the waste tankage required for storage of TBP Plant Wastes. A similar process has been developed for scavenging the first cycle waste from the BiPO{sub 4} Plants. A study of future requirements and availability of tank storage space indicates that in order to avoid an overall plant critical tank shortage, or the necessity of construction of new tanks, a T-Plant waste scavenging program should provide cribbing facilities by February, 1955. Since tank storage space is critical ad the cost of such storage is a sizable factor in the overall plant operating costs, an investigation of the feasibility of the installation of this waste scavenging process in T-Plant has been undertaken.

  16. DOE mixed waste treatment capacity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.A.; Wehrman, R.R.; Young, J.R.; Shaver, S.R.

    1994-06-01

    This initial DOE-wide analysis compares the reported national capacity for treatment of mixed wastes with the calculated need for treatment capacity based on both a full treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes to the Land Disposal Restrictions and on treatment of transuranic wastes to the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The status of treatment capacity is reported based on a fifty-element matrix of radiation-handling requirements and functional treatment technology categories. The report defines the classifications for the assessment, describes the models used for the calculations, provides results from the analysis, and includes appendices of the waste treatment facilities data and the waste stream data used in the analysis.

  17. Sustainable treatment of municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Augusto; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the first LCA results from running existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology on some of the waste water treatment technologies. Keywords: Sustainability, LCA, micropollutants, waste water treatment technologies.......The main goal of the EU FP6 NEPTUNE program is to develop new and improve existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling technologies for municipal waste water, in accordance with the concepts behind the EU Water Framework Directive. As part of this work, the project.......e. heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors) in the waste water. As a novel approach, the potential ecotoxicity and human toxicity impacts from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impacts from pathogens will be included. In total, more that 20 different waste water and sludge...

  18. Clay Improvement with Burned Olive Waste Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkan Mutman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation.

  19. Utilization of pineapple waste for wine making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alian, A.

    1976-01-01

    Wines were produced from pineapple canning waste, viz. pulp, boiled waste and unboiled waste. The constituents for preparing the liquor and results of physical, chemical and organoleptic analyses of clarified wines are shown in tables. The balance of alcohol, sugar and acid for the 3 batches was within the normal range for wines (alcohol 11.4 to 13.5% Brix readings 8 to 11, total acids 0.505 to 0.519 g/100 ml); volatile acids and aldehydes were higher in wines made from waste, esters higher in wines made from pulp. The amounts of volatile acids, esters and aldehydes indicated the absence of bacterial interferene in the fermentation. Organoleptic evaluation on a 10 point scale after 2 months' ageing gave weighted averages of 6.41 (good), 8.55 (very good) and 6.77 (good) for wines from pulp, boiled waste and unboiled waste respectively.

  20. Solid Wastes Management of Yasuj Hospitals, Iran 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Raygan Shirazi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Unhygienic methods of colleting, storage, transportation and disposal of the hospital wastes results in serious hazards that can endanger the health and environment. These materials are classified as dangerous, and have to be collected and disposed based on special rules. Materials & Methods: In the present study we aimed to evaluate the quality of management of hospital wastes and to estimate the waste constituents in Yasuj hospitals. Density, constituents, methods of collecting, transportation and disposal of hospital wastes were evaluated in 3 consecutive days of every months of the year 2006. Results: Study showed that the daily production of solid wastes was 5.5 Kg per hospital bed and infected solid wastes were estimated to be 1.5 Kg per hospital bed. The total solid waste production was 1350 Kg per day which included 27.2 percent as infected solid wastes. Solid waste density was 160.7 Kg per cubic meter and its constituents were food wastes (19.753%, rubber (47.02%, paper (12.05%, glass (5.211%, metals (3.41% and bandages, gases, clothes, etc (12.556%. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the solid waste management of the studied hospitals is not satisfying and more attention must be paid to the critical issues, such as plans for reducing solid wastes, isolating infected solid wastes at the production site and using safe and updated methods of disposal of solid wastes.

  1. Waste Management in Industrial Construction: Investigating Contributions from Industrial Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa A. R. U. Freitas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for effective construction waste management is growing in importance, due to the increasing generation of construction waste and to its adverse impacts on the environment. However, despite the numerous studies on construction waste management, recovery of construction waste through Industrial Symbiosis and the adoption of other inter-firm practices, comprised within Industrial Ecology field of study, have not been fully explored. The present research aims to investigate Industrial Ecology contributions to waste management in industrial construction. The waste management strategies adopted in two industrial construction projects in Brazil are analyzed. The main waste streams generated are identified, recycling and landfilling diversion rates are presented and waste recovery through Industrial Symbiosis is discussed. A SWOT analysis was carried out. Results demonstrate that 9% of the waste produced in one of the projects was recovered through Industrial Symbiosis, while in the other project, waste recovery through Industrial Symbiosis achieved the rate of 30%. These data reveal Industrial Symbiosis’ potential to reduce landfilling of industrial construction wastes, contributing to waste recovery in construction. In addition, results show that industrial construction projects can benefit from the following synergies common in Industrial Ecology place-based approaches: centralized waste management service, shared waste management infrastructure and administrative simplification.

  2. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  3. Introduction to Waste Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management as introduced in Chapter 1.1 builds in many ways on engineering. Waste engineering here means the skills and ability to understand quantitatively how a waste management system works in such a detail that waste management can be planned, facilities can be designed and sited......) regional plans for waste management, including (3) the selection of main management technologies and siting of facilities, (4) the design of individual technological units and, for example, (5) the operation of recycling schemes within a municipality. This chapter gives an introduction to waste engineering...

  4. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... and has just been landfilled. However, in recent years more focus has been put on C&D waste and data are starting to appear. One reason is that it has been recognized that C&D waste may include many materials that are contaminated either as part of their original design or through their use and therefore...

  5. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-09-30

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner.

  6. Characterization of medical waste from hospitals in Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Mosaferi, Mohammad

    2009-02-15

    Medical waste has not received enough attention in recent decades in Iran, as is the case in most economically developing countries. Medical waste is still handled and disposed of together with domestic waste, creating great health risks to health-care stuff, municipal workers, the public, and the environment. A fundamental prerequisite for the successful implementation of any medical waste management plan is the availability of sufficient and accurate information about the quantities and composition of the waste generated. The objectives of this study were to determine the quantity, generation rate, quality, and composition of medial waste generated in the major city northwest of Iran in Tabriz. Among the 25 active hospitals in the city, 10 hospitals of different size, specializations, and categories (i.e., governmental, educational, university, private, non-governmental organization (NGO), and military) were selected to participate in the survey. Each hospital was analyzed for a week to capture the daily variations of quantity and quality. The results indicated that the average (weighted mean) of total medical waste, hazardous-infectious waste, and general waste generation rates in Tabriz city is 3.48, 1.039 and, 2.439 kg/bed-day, respectively. In the hospital waste studied, 70.11% consisted of general waste, 29.44% of hazardous-infectious waste, and 0.45% of sharps waste (total hazardous-infectious waste 29.89%). Of the maximum average daily medical waste, hazardous-infectious waste, and general waste were associated with N.G.O and private hospitals, respectively. The average composition of hazardous-infectious waste was determined to be 35.72% plastics, 20.84% textiles, 16.70% liquids, 11.36% paper/cardboard, 7.17% glass, 1.35% sharps, and 6.86% others. The average composition of general waste was determined to be 46.87% food waste, 16.40% plastics, 13.33% paper/cardboard, 7.65% liquids, 6.05% textiles, 2.60% glass, 0.92% metals, and 6.18% others. The average

  7. Intelligent Information System for Waste Management; Jaetehuollon aelykaes tietojaerjestelmae iWaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, T. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland)

    2003-07-01

    'iWaste' is a project for developing and testing intelligent computational methods for more comprehensive waste management. Important issues are automated reporting, optimisation of waste collection, forecasting of waste formation, data handling of waste disposal sites and simulation and modelling of regional waste management. The main objective of the project is to identify and analyse known sources of information and to link them to the existing information processing systems in the field of waste management. Additionally, the goal is to identify and test functional elements that could be developed further to software products and services. The results of the project can be categorized into three sectors. Firstly, the guidelines for a comprehensive information system in waste management will be created. This includes the requirement specifications of different parties, definitions for the data exchange interfaces and an architectural plan for software products capable of co-operative processing. Secondly, the central parts of the intelligent information system will be piloted using the research database collected in the early stage of the project. The main topics investigated are data quality, the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), automated reporting, optimisation of waste collection and forecasting of waste formation. Additionally, the pilot information system can be utilized in derivative projects to speed up the starting phases of them. This makes it possible to create persistent development of waste management information systems both academically and commercially. (orig.)

  8. Co-Combustion of Animal Waste in a Commercial Waste-to-Energy BFB Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Moradian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Co-combustion of animal waste, in waste-to-energy boilers, is considered a method to produce both heat and power and to dispose of possibly infected animal wastes. This research conducted full-scale combustion tests to identify the impact of changed fuel composition on a fluidized-bed boiler. The impact was characterized by analyzing the deposit formation rate, deposit composition, ash composition, and emissions. Two combustion tests, denoted the reference case and animal waste case, were performed based on different fuel mixes. In the reference case, a normal solid waste fuel mix was combusted in the boiler, containing sorted industry and household waste. In the animal waste case, 20 wt% animal waste was added to the reference fuel mix. The collected samples, comprising sampling probe deposits, fuel mixes, bed ash, return sand, boiler ash, cyclone ash and filter ash, were analyzed using chemical fractionation, SEM-EDX and XRD. The results indicate decreased deposit formation due to animal waste co-combustion. SEM-EDX and chemical fractionation identified higher concentrations of P, Ca, S, and Cl in the bed materials in the animal waste case. Moreover, the risk of bed agglomeration was lower in the animal waste case and also a decreased rate of NOx and SO2 emissions were observed.

  9. Determinants of consumer food waste behaviour: Two routes to food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancu, Violeta; Haugaard, Pernille; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one quarter of the food supplied for human consumption is wasted across the food supply chain. In the high income countries, the food waste generated at the household level represents about half of the total food waste, making this level one of the biggest contributors to food waste. Yet, there is still little evidence regarding the determinants of consumers' food waste behaviour. The present study examines the effect of psycho-social factors, food-related routines, household perceived capabilities and socio-demographic characteristics on self-reported food waste. Survey data gathered among 1062 Danish respondents measured consumers' intentions not to waste food, planning, shopping and reuse of leftovers routines, perceived capability to deal with household food-related activities, injunctive and moral norms, attitudes towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control. Results show that perceived behavioural control and routines related to shopping and reuse of leftovers are the main drivers of food waste, while planning routines contribute indirectly. In turn, the routines are related to consumers' perceived capabilities to deal with household related activities. With regard to intentional processes, injunctive norms and attitudes towards food waste have an impact while moral norms and perceived behavioural control make no significant contribution. Implications of the study for initiatives aimed at changing consumers' food waste behaviour are discussed.

  10. Physico-chemical properties and energy potential of wood wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties and energy potential of wood wastes from ... Journal Home > Vol 36, No 2 (2017) > ... The results are indications that the wood wastes are suitable as feedstock for renewable energy generation with little or no ...

  11. Domestic waste disposal practice and perceptions of private sector waste management in urban Accra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Waste poses a threat to public health and the environment if it is not stored, collected, and disposed of properly. The perception of waste as an unwanted material with no intrinsic value has dominated attitudes towards disposal. This study investigates the domestic waste practices, waste disposal, and perceptions about waste and health in an urban community. Methods The study utilised a mixed-method approach. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire and in-depth interview were used to collect data. A total of 364 household heads were interviewed in the survey and six key informants were interviewed with the in-depth interviews. Results The results of the study revealed that 93.1% of households disposed of food debris as waste and 77.8% disposed of plastic materials as waste. The study also showed that 61.0% of the households disposed of their waste at community bins or had waste picked up at their homes by private contractors. The remaining 39.0% disposed of their waste in gutters, streets, holes and nearby bushes. Of those who paid for the services of private contractors, 62.9% were not satisfied with the services because of their cost and irregular collection. About 83% of the respondents were aware that improper waste management contributes to disease causation; most of the respondents thought that improper waste management could lead to malaria and diarrhoea. There was a general perception that children should be responsible for transporting waste from the households to dumping sites. Conclusion Proper education of the public, the provision of more communal trash bins, and the collection of waste by private contractors could help prevent exposing the public in municipalities to diseases. PMID:25005728

  12. Food waste minimization from a life-cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad Saraiva Schott, A; Andersson, T

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates potentials and environmental impacts related to household food waste minimization, based on a case study in Southern Sweden. In the study, the amount of avoidable and unavoidable food waste currently being disposed of by households was assessed through waste composition analyses and the different types of avoidable food waste were classified. Currently, both avoidable and unavoidable food waste is either incinerated or treated through anaerobic digestion. A hypothetical scenario with no generation of avoidable food waste and either anaerobic digestion or incineration of unavoidable food waste was compared to the current situation using the life-cycle assessment method, limited to analysis of global warming potential (GWP). The results from the waste composition analyses indicate that an average of 35% of household food waste is avoidable. Minimization of this waste could result in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of 800-1400 kg/tonne of avoidable food waste. Thus, a minimization strategy would result in increased avoidance of GWP compared to the current situation. The study clearly shows that although modern alternatives for food waste treatment can result in avoidance of GWP through nutrient and energy recovery, food waste prevention yields far greater benefits for GWP compared to both incineration and anaerobic digestion.

  13. Detection of muscle wasting in patients with chronic heart failure using C-terminal agrin fragment: results from the Studies Investigating Co-morbidities Aggravating Heart Failure (SICA-HF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeck, Lisa; Ebner, Nicole; Valentova, Miroslava; Bekfani, Tarek; Elsner, Sebastian; Dahinden, Pius; Hettwer, Stefan; Scherbakov, Nadja; Schefold, Jörg C; Sandek, Anja; Springer, Jochen; Doehner, Wolfram; Anker, Stefan D; von Haehling, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting affects 20% of patients with chronic heart failure and has serious implications for their activities of daily living. Assessment of muscle wasting is technically challenging. C-terminal agrin-fragment (CAF), a breakdown product of the synaptically located protein agrin, has shown early promise as biomarker of muscle wasting. We sought to investigate the diagnostic properties of CAF in muscle wasting among patients with heart failure. We assessed serum CAF levels in 196 patients who participated in the Studies Investigating Co-morbidities Aggravating Heart Failure (SICA-HF). Muscle wasting was identified using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in 38 patients (19.4%). Patients with muscle wasting demonstrated higher CAF values than those without (125.1 ± 59.5 pmol/L vs. 103.8 ± 42.9 pmol/L, P = 0.01). Using receiver operating characteristics (ROC), we calculated the optimal CAF value to identify patients with muscle wasting as >87.5 pmol/L, which had a sensitivity of 78.9% and a specificity of 43.7%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.56-0.70). Using simple regression, we found that serum CAF was associated with handgrip (R = - 0.17, P = 0.03) and quadriceps strength (R = - 0.31, P < 0.0001), peak oxygen consumption (R = - 0.5, P < 0.0001), 6-min walk distance (R = - 0.32, P < 0.0001), and gait speed (R = - 0.2, P = 0.001), as well as with parameters of kidney and liver function, iron metabolism and storage. CAF shows good sensitivity for the detection of skeletal muscle wasting in patients with heart failure. Its assessment may be useful to identify patients who should undergo additional testing, such as detailed body composition analysis. As no other biomarker is currently available, further investigation is warranted. © 2015 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.

  14. Process for the biological purification of waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1992-01-01

    Process for the biological purification of waste water by the activated sludge method, the waste water being mixed with recirculated sludge and being subjected to an anaerobic treatment, before the waste water thus treated is alternately subjected to anoxic and aerobic treatments and the waste...... water thus treated is led into a clarification zone for settling sludge, which sludge is recirculated in order to be mixed with the crude waste water. As a result, a simultaneous reduction of the content both of nitrogen and phosphorus of the waste water is achieved....

  15. Compositional data analysis of household waste recycling centres in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Martín-Fernández, J. A.; Boldrin, Alessio

    of these projects on the recycling rates does not exist. Thus, compositional data analysis technique was applied to analyze consistently waste data. Based on the waste composition obtained from a recycling center in Denmark, we analyzed the composition of waste treatment and disposal options. Zero and non......-zero pattern was used to describe historical changes in the definition and components of waste fractions. Variation array was applied to determine the relationship between waste treatment and disposal options. As a result, compositional data analysis technique enables to analyze waste data regardless...

  16. Part 1: The role of waste data in building knowledge: the South African waste information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda; Scott, Dianne; Difford, Mark; Trois, Cristina

    2012-11-01

    An empirical study was undertaken with 31 organisations submitting data to the South African Waste Information System (SAWIS) in order to explore the relationship between data and resultant waste knowledge generated through a process of learning. The results show that of the three constructs of knowledge (experience, data/information, and theory), experience has the greatest influence on building waste knowledge, nearly twice that of data/information and three times that of theory. Together the three constructs account for 54.1% of the variance in knowledge. Respondents from municipalities and private waste organisations reflect two distinct sub-groups in the data set. While the theoretical model remains the same for the two sub-groups, the way in which knowledge is constructed, and the variance in knowledge explained by the model, differs for the two. A mixed methods research design, combining quantitative statistical analysis and rich qualitative data, contributes to a comprehensive interpretation of the role of waste data in building knowledge in South Africa. While waste data has a minor influence on building knowledge, respondents acknowledge that waste data does have a positive impact on the way their organisations manage waste. However, it is not the data, but rather the resultant waste knowledge and raised level of awareness that causes the operational response. Experience is obtained predominantly through learning from others. Respondents in municipalities, emphasised learning from consultants, landfill site contractors, and colleagues in city-twinning programmes, while respondents in private waste companies, emphasised learning from experienced, senior colleagues.

  17. Status of agriculture waste?; Quel statut pour les dechets agricoles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlais, A.

    2001-07-01

    Like every activity, agriculture generates waste. But, it is not specially regulated unlike industrial or domestic waste. The national behind French legislation is based on the nature, rather than the origin of waste, but it is not always adapted to agricultural waste. Various modes of disposal of waste exist to deal with agriculture waste, as it can meet the criteria of existing categories of waste. But in practice, these modes are not always available either for material or financial reasons. Agricultural waste spread on land from others types of waste. Existing legislation does not cover the valorization of agricultural waste (in particular regarding the protection of soil). In the context of sustainable agriculture, it is necessary to determine the legal status of agricultural waste consistently with existing legislation of waste. It should result in creating a new category of waste with the view to maintaining spread as the mode of valorization of waste. The responsibilities must be shared by all those concerned, they must not rest only with farmers. (author)

  18. Assessing the management of healthcare waste in Hawassa city, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel Deneke Haylamicheal; Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie; Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw; Hanibale Atsbeha Zegeye

    2011-08-01

    Inadequate management of healthcare waste is a serious concern in many developing countries due to the risks posed to human health and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate healthcare waste management in Hawassa city, Ethiopia. The study was conducted in nine healthcare facilities (HCFs) including hospitals (four), health centres (two) and higher clinics (three) in two phases, first to assess the waste management aspect and second to determine daily waste generation rate. The result showed that the median quantity of waste generated at the facilities was 3.46 kg bed(-1) day(-1) (range: 1.48-8.19 kg bed(-1) day(-1)). The quantity of waste per day generated at a HCF increased as occupancy increased (p waste generated at government HCFs was more than at private HCFs (p waste (20-63.1%) generated at the different HCFs was much higher than the WHO recommendation (10-25%). There was no waste segregation in most HCFs and only one used a complete color coding system. Solid waste and wastewater were stored, transported, treated and disposed inappropriately at all HCFs. Needle-stick injuries were prevalent in 25-100% of waste handlers employed at these HCFs. Additionally, low levels of training and awareness of waste legislation was prevalent amongst staff. The study showed that management of healthcare waste at HCFs to be poor. Waste management practices need to be improved through improved legislation and enforcement, and training of staff in the healthcare facilities in Hawassa.

  19. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility, Permit Number NEV HW0101, Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Patrick [NSTec

    2014-02-14

    This report summarizes the EPA identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

  20. Prediction of radionuclide inventory for the low-and intermediated-level radioactive waste disposal facility the radioactive waste classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Il; Jeong, Noh Gyeom; Moon, Young Pyo; Jeong, Mi Seon; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    To meet nuclear regulatory requirements, more than 95% individual radionuclides in the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste inventory have to be identified. In this study, the radionuclide inventory has been estimated by taking the long-term radioactive waste generation, the development plan of disposal facility, and the new radioactive waste classification into account. The state of radioactive waste cumulated from 2014 was analyzed for various radioactive sources and future prospects for predicting the long-term radioactive waste generation. The predicted radionuclide inventory results are expected to contribute to secure the development of waste disposal facility and to deploy the safety case for its long-term safety assessment.

  1. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G., E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  2. Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

    2011-09-01

    The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions' Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems. A series of these tests have used a five-part simulant composed of particles of different size and density and designed to be equal or more challenging than AY-102 waste. This five-part simulant, however, has not been compared with the broad range of Hanford waste, and thus there is an additional uncertainty that this simulant may not be as challenging as the most difficult Hanford waste. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the current five-part simulant compares to all of the Hanford sludge waste, and to suggest alternate simulants that could be tested to reduce the uncertainty in applying the current testing results to potentially more challenging wastes.

  3. Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

    2012-07-10

    The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions' Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems. A series of these tests have used a five-part simulant composed of particles of different size and density and designed to be equal or more challenging than AY-102 waste. This five-part simulant, however, has not been compared with the broad range of Hanford waste, and thus there is an additional uncertainty that this simulant may not be as challenging as the most difficult Hanford waste. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the current five-part simulant compares to all of the Hanford sludge waste, and to suggest alternate simulants that could be tested to reduce the uncertainty in applying the current testing results to potentially more challenging wastes.

  4. Spray calcination of nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine; operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of all commercial fuel reprocessor high-level liquid wastes and mixed high and intermediate-level wastes have been demonstrated. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Thus waste generated during plant startup and shutdown can be blended with normal waste and calcined. Spray calcination of ILLW has also been demonstrated. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant scale equipment. The 6 mm (0.25 inch) orifice and ceramic tip offer freedom from plugging and erosion thus nozzle replacement should be required only after several months operation. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h (20 gal/h) has been demonstrated in pilot scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. Since such a small amount of radionuclides escape the calciner the volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. The noncondensable off-gas volume is also low, less than 0.5 m/sup 3//min (15 scfm) for a liquid feedrate of 75 l/hr (20 gal/hr). Calcine holdup in the calciner is less than 1 kg, thus the liquid feedrate is directly relatable to calcine flowrate. The calcine produced is very fine and reactive. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated wall spray calciner has been demonstrated while processing actual high-level waste. During these operations radionuclide volatilization from the calciner was acceptably low. 8 figures. (DLC)

  5. Biodegradability of degradable plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamuthu, P; Faizura, Putri Nadzrul

    2005-04-01

    Plastic waste constitutes the third largest waste volume in Malaysian municipal solid waste (MSW), next to putrescible waste and paper. The plastic component in MSW from Kuala Lumpur averages 24% (by weight), whereas the national mean is about 15%. The 144 waste dumps in the country receive about 95% of the MSW, including plastic waste. The useful life of the landfills is fast diminishing as the plastic waste stays un-degraded for more than 50 years. In this study the compostability of polyethylene and pro-oxidant additive-based environmentally degradable plastics (EDP) was investigated. Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) samples exposed hydrolytically or oxidatively at 60 degrees C showed that the abiotic degradation path was oxidative rather than hydrolytic. There was a weight loss of 8% and the plastic has been oxidized as shown by the additional carbonyl group exhibited in the Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) Spectrum. Oxidation rate seemed to be influenced by the amount of pro-oxidant additive, the chemical structure and morphology of the plastic samples, and the surface area. Composting studies during a 45-day experiment showed that the percentage elongation (reduction) was 20% for McD samples [high-density polyethylene, (HDPE) with 3% additive] and LL samples (LLDPE with 7% additive) and 18% reduction for totally degradable plastic (TDP) samples (HDPE with 3% additive). Lastly, microbial experiments using Pseudomonas aeroginosa on carbon-free media with degradable plastic samples as the sole carbon source, showed confirmatory results. A positive bacterial growth and a weight loss of 2.2% for degraded polyethylene samples were evident to show that the degradable plastic is biodegradable.

  6. Solid waste handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  7. Biohazardous waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.

    2004-01-01

    This plan describes the process for managing non-medical biohazardous waste at Sandia National Laboratories California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of biohazardous waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to non-medical biohazardous waste.

  8. Medical waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.

    2004-12-01

    This plan describes the process for managing research generated medical waste at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of medical waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to medical waste.

  9. Closed Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, J. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Collins, E. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Crum, J. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, S. M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, T. G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gombert, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jubin, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maio, V. C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Matyas, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nenoff, T. M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Riley, B. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sevigny, G. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Soelberg, N. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strachan, D. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thallapally, P. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, J. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the existing waste management approaches for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in comparison to the objectives of implementing an advanced fuel cycle in the U.S. under current legal, regulatory, and logistical constructs. The study begins with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Integrated Waste Management Strategy (IWMS) (Gombert et al. 2008) as a general strategy and associated Waste Treatment Baseline Study (WTBS) (Gombert et al. 2007). The tenets of the IWMS are equally valid to the current waste management study. However, the flowsheet details have changed significantly from those considered under GNEP. In addition, significant additional waste management technology development has occurred since the GNEP waste management studies were performed. This study updates the information found in the WTBS, summarizes the results of more recent technology development efforts, and describes waste management approaches as they apply to a representative full recycle reprocessing flowsheet. Many of the waste management technologies discussed also apply to other potential flowsheets that involve reprocessing. These applications are occasionally discussed where the data are more readily available. The report summarizes the waste arising from aqueous reprocessing of a typical light-water reactor (LWR) fuel to separate actinides for use in fabricating metal sodium fast reactor (SFR) fuel and from electrochemical reprocessing of the metal SFR fuel to separate actinides for recycle back into the SFR in the form of metal fuel. The primary streams considered and the recommended waste forms include; Tritium in low-water cement in high integrity containers (HICs); Iodine-129: As a reference case, a glass composite material (GCM) formed by the encapsulation of the silver Mordenite (AgZ) getter material in a low-temperature glass is assumed. A number of alternatives with distinct advantages are also considered including a fused silica waste form

  10. Integrated solid waste management in megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abdoli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and industrialization, population growth and economic growth in developing countries make management of municipal solid waste more complex comparing with developed countries. Furthermore, the conventional municipal solid waste management approach often is reductionists, not tailored to handle complexity. Therefore, the need to a comprehensive and multi-disciplinary approach regarding the municipal solid waste management problems is increasing. The concept of integrated solid waste management is accepted for this aim all over the world. This paper analyzes the current situation as well as opportunities and challenges regarding municipal solid waste management in Isfahan according to the integrated solid waste management framework in six aspects: environmental, political/legal, institutional, socio-cultural, financial/economic, technical and performance aspects. Based on the results obtained in this analysis, the main suggestions for future integrated solid waste management of Isfahan are as i promoting financial sustainability by taking the solid waste fee and reducing the expenses through the promoting source collection of recyclable materials, ii improving compost quality and also marketing the compost products simultaneously, iii promoting the private sector involvements throughout the municipal solid waste management system.

  11. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  12. Comparison between students and residents on determinants of willingness to separate waste and waste separation behaviour in Zhengzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaoping; Han, Yuping; Zhang, Xiaohong; Hu, Wei; Huang, Liangji; Duan, Wenpei; Li, Siyi; Liu, Xiaolu; Wang, Qian

    2017-09-01

    A better understanding of willingness to separate waste and waste separation behaviour can aid the design and improvement of waste management policies. Based on the intercept questionnaire survey data of undergraduate students and residents in Zhengzhou City of China, this article compared factors affecting the willingness and behaviour of students and residents to participate in waste separation using two binary logistic regression models. Improvement opportunities for waste separation were also discussed. Binary logistic regression results indicate that knowledge of and attitude to waste separation and acceptance of waste education significantly affect the willingness of undergraduate students to separate waste, and demographic factors, such as gender, age, education level, and income, significantly affect the willingness of residents to do so. Presence of waste-specific bins and attitude to waste separation are drivers of waste separation behaviour for both students and residents. Improved education about waste separation and facilities are effective to stimulate waste separation, and charging on unsorted waste may be an effective way to improve it in Zhengzhou.

  13. Reductive capacity measurement of waste forms for secondary radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Yang, Jung-Seok; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2015-12-01

    The reductive capacities of dry ingredients and final solid waste forms were measured using both the Cr(VI) and Ce(IV) methods and the results were compared. Blast furnace slag (BFS), sodium sulfide, SnF2, and SnCl2 used as dry ingredients to make various waste forms showed significantly higher reductive capacities compared to other ingredients regardless of which method was used. Although the BFS exhibits appreciable reductive capacity, it requires greater amounts of time to fully react. In almost all cases, the Ce(IV) method yielded larger reductive capacity values than those from the Cr(VI) method and can be used as an upper bound for the reductive capacity of the dry ingredients and waste forms, because the Ce(IV) method subjects the solids to a strong acid (low pH) condition that dissolves much more of the solids. Because the Cr(VI) method relies on a neutral pH condition, the Cr(VI) method can be used to estimate primarily the waste form surface-related and readily dissolvable reductive capacity. However, the Cr(VI) method does not measure the total reductive capacity of the waste form, the long-term reductive capacity afforded by very slowly dissolving solids, or the reductive capacity present in the interior pores and internal locations of the solids.

  14. Phase Stability Determinations of DWPF Waste Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, S.L.

    1999-10-22

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. To fulfill this requirement, glass samples were heat treated at various times and temperatures. These results will provide guidance to the repository program about conditions to be avoided during shipping, handling and storage of DWPF canistered waste forms.

  15. Improving waste management through a process of learning: the South African waste information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda; Scott, Dianne

    2011-05-01

    Piloting of the South African Waste Information System (SAWIS) provided an opportunity to research whether the collection of data for a national waste information system could, through a process of learning, change the way that waste is managed in the country, such that there is a noticeable improvement. The interviews with officials from municipalities and private waste companies, conducted as part of the piloting of the SAWIS, highlighted that certain organizations, typically private waste companies have been successful in collecting waste data. Through a process of learning, these organizations have utilized this waste data to inform and manage their operations. The drivers of such data collection efforts were seen to be financial (business) sustainability and environmental reporting obligations, particularly where the company had an international parent company. However, participants highlighted a number of constraints, particularly within public (municipal) waste facilities which hindered both the collection of waste data and the utilization of this data to effect change in the way waste is managed. These constraints included a lack of equipment and institutional capacity in the collection of data. The utilization of this data in effecting change was further hindered by governance challenges such as politics, bureaucracy and procurement, evident in a developing country context such as South Africa. The results show that while knowledge is a necessary condition for resultant action, a theoretical framework of learning does not account for all observed factors, particularly external influences.

  16. LCA Modeling of Waste Management Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Simion, F.; Tonini, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Lifecycle assessment (LCA) modeling provides a quantitative statement about resource issues and environmental issues in waste management useful in evaluating alternative management systems and in mapping where major loads and savings take place within existing systems. Chapter 3.1 describes...... the concepts behind LCA modeling and Chapter 3.2 gives an overview of existing models and shows examples of their application. A recent comprehensive review of publicly available LCA studies (WRAP, 2006) concluded that, on a material basis, LCA modeling in general confirms the validity of the waste hierarchy...... and exchange with the energy systems, a comparison of results was hampered on a system level. In addition, differences in waste composition may affect the LCA results. This chapter provides results of LCA modeling of 40 waste management scenarios handling the same municipal waste (MSW) and using different...

  17. Advanced waste form and Melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kim, Dong -Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maio, Vincent [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these “troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (also with high Al2O3 concentrations). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group. An extended duration CCIM melter test was conducted on an AZ-101 waste simulant using the CCIM platform at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The melter was continually operated for approximately 80 hours demonstrating that the AZ-101 high waste loading glass composition could be readily processed using the CCIM technology. The resulting glass was close to the targeted composition and exhibited excellent durability in both

  18. Municipal solid waste characterization and quantification as a measure towards effective waste management in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miezah, Kodwo; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Kádár, Zsófia; Fei-Baffoe, Bernard; Mensah, Moses Y

    2015-12-01

    Reliable national data on waste generation and composition that will inform effective planning on waste management in Ghana is absent. To help obtain this data on a regional basis, selected households in each region were recruited to obtain data on rate of waste generation, physical composition of waste, sorting and separation efficiency and per capita of waste. Results show that rate of waste generation in Ghana was 0.47 kg/person/day, which translates into about 12,710 tons of waste per day per the current population of 27,043,093. Nationally, biodegradable waste (organics and papers) was 0.318 kg/person/day and non-biodegradable or recyclables (metals, glass, textiles, leather and rubbers) was 0.096 kg/person/day. Inert and miscellaneous waste was 0.055 kg/person/day. The average household waste generation rate among the metropolitan cities, except Tamale, was high, 0.72 kg/person/day. Metropolises generated higher waste (average 0.63 kg/person/day) than the municipalities (0.40 kg/person/day) and the least in the districts (0.28 kg/person/day) which are less developed. The waste generation rate also varied across geographical locations, the coastal and forest zones generated higher waste than the northern savanna zone. Waste composition was 61% organics, 14% plastics, 6% inert, 5% miscellaneous, 5% paper, 3% metals, 3% glass, 1% leather and rubber, and 1% textiles. However, organics and plastics, the two major fractions of the household waste varied considerably across the geographical areas. In the coastal zone, the organic waste fraction was highest but decreased through the forest zone towards the northern savanna. However, through the same zones towards the north, plastic waste rather increased in percentage fraction. Households did separate their waste effectively averaging 80%. However, in terms of separating into the bin marked biodegradables, 84% effectiveness was obtained whiles 76% effectiveness for sorting into the bin labeled other waste was

  19. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  20. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  1. Look into Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undy, Harry, Ed.

    This booklet is designed to help British teachers introduce concepts of waste to secondary school students. The document focuses on various types of waste and pollution--air, land, water, and industrial--and suggests activities to help students understand and combat waste of natural and human resources. It is presented in 11 chapters. Six chapters…

  2. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  3. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  4. Nuclear wastes; Dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  5. Waste vs Resource Management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent global waste statistics show that in the order of 70% of all municipal waste generated worldwide is disposed at landfill, 11% is treated in thermal and Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities and the rest (19%) is recycled or treated by mechanical...

  6. Electronic waste disassembly with industrial waste heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengjun; Wang, Jianbo; Chen, Haiyian; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Zhang, Mingxin; Zang, Hongbin; Hu, Jiukun

    2013-01-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are resource-rich but hazardous, demanding innovative strategies for post-consumer collection, recycling, and mining for economically precious constituents. A novel technology for disassembling electronic components from WPCBs is proposed, using hot air to melt solders and to separate the components and base boards. An automatic heated-air disassembling equipment was designed to operate at a heating source temperature at a maximum of 260 °C and an inlet pressure of 0.5 MPa. A total of 13 individual WPCBs were subjected to disassembling tests at different preheat temperatures in increments of 20 °C between 80 and 160 °C, heating source temperatures ranging from 220 to 300 °C in increments of 20 °C, and incubation periods of 1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 min. For each experimental treatment, the disassembly efficiency was calculated as the ratio of electronic components released from the board to the total number of its original components. The optimal preheat temperature, heating source temperature, and incubation period to disassemble intact components were 120 °C, 260 °C, and 2 min, respectively. The disassembly rate of small surface mount components (side length ≤ 3 mm) was 40-50% lower than that of other surface mount components and pin through hole components. On the basis of these results, a reproducible and sustainable industrial ecological protocol using steam produced by industrial exhaust heat coupled to electronic-waste recycling is proposed, providing an efficient, promising, and green method for both electronic component recovery and industrial exhaust heat reutilization.

  7. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-06-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434±18kg per household per year, of which 183±10kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80±6kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103±9kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results also indicated that avoidable food waste occurred in 97% of the households, suggesting that most Danish households could avoid or at least reduce how much they generate. Moreover, avoidable and unavoidable food waste was more likely to be found in houses containing more than one person than in households with only one occupant.

  8. Waste Acceptance Testing of Secondary Waste Forms: Cast Stone, Ceramicrete and DuraLith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Chung, Chul-Woo; Lindberg, Michael J.; Parker, Kent E.

    2011-08-12

    To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from WTP, Washington River Protection Solutions has initiated secondary-waste-form testing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In anticipation of a down-selection process for a waste form for the Solidification Treatment Unit to be added to the ETF, PNNL is conducting tests on four candidate waste forms to evaluate their ability to meet potential waste acceptance criteria for immobilized secondary wastes that would be placed in the IDF. All three waste forms demonstrated compressive strengths above the minimum 3.45 MPa (500 psi) set as a target for cement-based waste forms. Further, none of the waste forms showed any significant degradation in compressive strength after undergoing thermal cycling (30 cycles in a 10 day period) between -40 C and 60 C or water immersion for 90 days. The three leach test methods are intended to measure the diffusion rates of contaminants from the waste forms. Results are reported in terms of diffusion coefficients and a leachability index (LI) calculated based on the diffusion coefficients. A smaller diffusion coefficient and a larger LI are desired. The NRC, in its Waste Form Technical Position (NRC 1991), provides recommendations and guidance regarding methods to demonstrate waste stability for land disposal of radioactive waste. Included is a recommendation to conduct leach tests using the ANS 16.1 method. The resulting leachability index (LI) should be greater than 6.0. For Hanford secondary wastes, the LI > 6.0 criterion applies to sodium leached from the waste form. For technetium and iodine, higher targets of LI > 9 for Tc and LI > 11 for iodine have been set based on early waste-disposal risk and performance assessment analyses. The results of these three leach tests conducted for a total time between 11days (ASTM C1308) to 90 days (ANS 16.1) showed: (1) Technetium diffusivity: ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315 tests indicated that

  9. Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Radioactive waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site), formerly known as the Rocky Flats Plant, has generated radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste (waste with both radioactive and hazardous constituents) since it began operations in 1952. Such wastes were the byproducts of the Site`s original mission to produce nuclear weapons components. Since 1989, when weapons component production ceased, waste has been generated as a result of the Site`s new mission of environmental restoration and deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of buildings. It is anticipated that the existing onsite waste storage capacity, which meets the criteria for low-level waste (LL), low-level mixed waste (LLM), transuranic (TRU) waste, and TRU mixed waste (TRUM) would be completely filled in early 1997. At that time, either waste generating activities must cease, waste must be shipped offsite, or new waste storage capacity must be developed.

  10. Effects of biodrying process on municipal solid waste properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambone, F; Scaglia, B; Scotti, S; Adani, F

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of biodrying process on municipal solid waste (MSW) properties was studied. The results obtained indicated that after 14d, biodrying reduced the water content of waste, allowing the production of biodried waste with a net heating value (NHV) of 16,779±2,074kJ kg(-1) wet weight, i.e. 41% higher than that of untreated waste. The low moisture content of the biodried material reduced, also, the potential impacts of the waste, i.e. potential self-ignition and potential odors production. Low waste impacts suggest to landfill the biodried material obtaining energy via biogas production by waste re-moistening, i.e. bioreactor. Nevertheless, results of this work indicate that biodrying process because of the partial degradation of the organic fraction contained in the waste (losses of 290g kg(-1) VS), reduced of about 28% the total producible biogas.

  11. 2005 dossier. ANDRA's researches on the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. Results and perspectives; Dossier 2005. Les recherches de l'Andra sur le stockage geologique des dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue. Resultats et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations (argilites and granites). Content: 1 - Research on deep disposal of radioactive waste: general interest task: Legislative framework, ANDRA scientific objectives, Inspections and assessments; 2 - Designing a safe and reversible disposal system: Repository safety, Reversibility: an essential requirement; 3 - Clay Research on a repository in a clay formation, A long research programme, Dossier 2005 Argile; 4 - Meuse/Haute-Marne site clay: Expected properties of the rock formation, Choice of argillite, Meuse/Haute-Marne site, Conclusions from 10 years of research at the Meuse/Haute-Marne site; 5 - Repository installations: Safe and reversible architecture, Disposal of B waste, Disposal of C waste, Possible disposal of spent fuel (CU); 6 - The disposal facility in operation: From waste packages reception to their disposal in cells, Stages of the progressive closure of engineered structures; 7 - Reversible management: Freedom of choice for future generations, Various closure stages; 8 - Long-term evolution of the repository: Apprehending the repository complexity Main evolutions expected, Slow and limited release of radioactive substances; 9 - Repository safety and impact on man: Several evolution scenarios, Normal evolution, Altered evolution; 10 - Granite Research on a repository in a granite formation: A global approach, Scientific co-operations, Dossier 2005 Granite; 11 - Characteristics of French granite formations: What properties are required for a repository?, Different types of granite formations; 12 - Repository installations: Repository design adapted to granite fractures, Clay seals to prevent water flows, Waste disposal packages ensuring long-term leak-tightness, Physical and chemical environment favourable for waste packages, Architecture

  12. Updated Liquid Secondary Waste Grout Formulation and Preliminary Waste Form Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saslow, Sarah A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Asmussen, Robert M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sahajpal, Rahul [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report describes the results from liquid secondary waste grout (LSWG) formulation and cementitious waste form qualification tests performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS). New formulations for preparing a cementitious waste form from a high-sulfate liquid secondary waste stream simulant, developed for Effluent Management Facility (EMF) process condensates merged with low activity waste (LAW) caustic scrubber, and the release of key constituents (e.g. 99Tc and 129I) from these monoliths were evaluated. This work supports a technology development program to address the technology needs for Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) liquid secondary waste (LSW) solidification and supports future Direct Feed Low-Activity Waste (DFLAW) operations. High-priority activities included simulant development, LSWG formulation, and waste form qualification. The work contained within this report relates to waste form development and testing and does not directly support the 2017 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). However, this work contains valuable information for use in PA maintenance past FY17, and for future waste form development efforts. The provided data should be used by (i) cementitious waste form scientists to further understanding of cementitious dissolution behavior, (ii) IDF PA modelers who use quantified constituent leachability, effective diffusivity, and partitioning coefficients to advance PA modeling efforts, and (iii) the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contractors and decision makers as they assess the IDF PA program. The results obtained help fill existing data gaps, support final selection of a LSWG waste form, and improve the technical defensibility of long-term waste form performance estimates.

  13. Electrochemical treatment of liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Under this task, electrochemical treatment processes are being evaluated and developed for the destruction of organic compounds and nitrates/nitrites and the removal of other hazardous species from liquid wastes stored throughout the DOE complex. This technology targets the (1) destruction of nitrates, nitrites and organic compounds; (2) removal of radionuclides; and (3) removal of RCRA metals. The development program consists of five major tasks: (1) evaluation of electrochemical reactors for the destruction and removal of hazardous waste components, (2) development and validation of engineering process models, (3) radioactive laboratory-scale tests, (4) demonstration of the technology in an engineering-scale reactor, and (5) analysis and evaluation of test data. The development program team is comprised of individuals from national laboratories, academic institutions, and private industry. Possible benefits of this technology include: (1) improved radionuclide separation as a result of the removal of organic complexants, (2) reduction in the concentrations of hazardous and radioactive species in the waste (e.g., removal of nitrate, mercury, chromium, cadmium, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 106}Ru), (3) reduction in the size of the off-gas handling equipment for the vitrification of low-level waste (LLW) by reducing the source of NO{sub x} emissions, (4) recovery of chemicals of value (e.g. sodium hydroxide), and (5) reduction in the volume of waste requiring disposal.

  14. 40 CFR 265.1084 - Waste determination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the exit concentration limit (Ct) for a treated hazardous waste. (i) The point of waste origination... limit (Ct) shall be 500 ppmw. (iii) If more than one hazardous waste stream is identified in paragraph... this section. The exit concentration limit (Ct) shall be calculated by using the results determined...

  15. Treatability study of absorbent polymer waste form for mixed waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, S. D.; Lehto, M. A.; Stewart, N. A.; Croft, A. D.; Kern, P. W.

    2000-02-10

    A treatability study was performed to develop and characterize an absorbent polymer waste form for application to low level (LLW) and mixed low level (MLLW) aqueous wastes at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). In this study absorbent polymers proved effective at immobilizing aqueous liquid wastes in order to meet Land Disposal Restrictions for subsurface waste disposal. Treatment of aqueous waste with absorbent polymers provides an alternative to liquid waste solidification via high-shear mixing with clays and cements. Significant advantages of absorbent polymer use over clays and cements include ease of operations and waste volume minimization. Absorbent polymers do not require high-shear mixing as do clays and cements. Granulated absorbent polymer is poured into aqueous solutions and forms a gel which passes the paint filter test as a non-liquid. Pouring versus mixing of a solidification agent not only eliminates the need for a mixing station, but also lessens exposure to personnel and the potential for spread of contamination from treatment of radioactive wastes. Waste minimization is achieved as significantly less mass addition and volume increase is required of and results from absorbent polymer use than that of clays and cements. Operational ease and waste minimization translate into overall cost savings for LLW and MLLW treatment.

  16. CRYSTALLINE CERAMIC WASTE FORMS: REFERENCE FORMULATION REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.; Marra, J.

    2012-05-15

    The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be successfully produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to explain the design of ceramic host systems culminating in a reference ceramic formulation for use in subsequent studies on process optimization and melt property data assessment in support of FY13 melter demonstration testing. The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. In addition to the combined CS/LN/TM High Mo waste stream, variants without Mo and without Mo and Zr were also evaluated. Based on the results of fabricating and characterizing several simulated ceramic waste forms, two reference ceramic waste form compositions are recommended in this report. The first composition targets the CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with and without Mo. The second composition targets

  17. Regulating the Dutch waste market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, E.

    2004-11-05

    This thesis analyses whether the risen costs of waste collection and treatment can be diminished by changing policy instruments. The thesis shows that user fees are very effective in reducing the total waste quantity, while they also result in better separation behavior. Furthermore, the use of contracting out to private or public firms reduces total collection costs. Third, a social cost benefit analysis, in which environmental effects are included, shows that landfilling is much cheaper than incineration. Finally, the use of international competition might reduce treatment costs. In total the thesis concludes that a cost saving of nearly 40% of current costs is possible when all four changes are implemented Waste market, collection, treatment, landfilling, incineration, contracting out, cost-benefit analysis, model.

  18. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FROM WASTE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тахира Далиевна Сидикова

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the physical and chemical processes occurring during the thermal treatment of ceramic masses on the basis of compositions of natural raw materials and waste processing facilities. The study of structures of ceramic samples species has shown different types of crystalline phases.The results have shown that the waste of Kaytashsky tungsten-molybdenum ores (KVMR may be used as the main raw material to develop new compositions for ceramic materials. The optimal compositions of ceramic tiles for the masses and technological parameters of obtaining sintered materials based on the compositions of kaolin fireclay KVMR have been developed.It has been found that the use of the waste of Kaytashskoy tungsten-molybdenum ore (KVMR in the composition of the ceramic material will expand the raw material base of ceramic production, reduce the roasting temperature and the cost of ceramic materials and products.

  19. Smaller plates, less food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    and producers. Northern European consumers are among the most environmentally concerned consumers, however, their concerns do not always translate in more sustainable food-related behaviours. Furthermore, food choices are not always rational and could be non-reflective. Hence, the objective of this pilot study......With roughly one-third of food produced for human consumption lost or wasted globally (about 1.3 billion tons per year), the impact on the environment cannot be anymore neglected. Actions at all points in the production chain are now urgent, including reductions in food waste at home, by retailers...... was to investigate whether the size of the dishware would non-reflectively influence the amount of foods taken from an “ad-libitum” buffet and the resulting amount of waste. Sample consisted of Danish business leaders that took part in a congress in Copenhagen, Denmark. Two buffet tables were set up on two separate...

  20. Analytical Results for 35 Mine-Waste Tailings Cores and Six Bed-Sediment Samples, and An Estimate of the Volume of Contaminated Material at Buckeye Meadow on Upper Basin Creek, Northern Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, David L.; Church, Stan E.; Finney, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    Metal-mining related wastes in the Boulder River basin study area in northern Jefferson County, Montana have been implicated in their detrimental effects on water quality with regard to acid-generation and toxic-metal solubilization. Flotation-mill tailings in the meadow below the Buckeye mine, hereafter referred to as the Buckeye mill-tailings site, have been identified as significant contributors to water quality degradation of Basin Creek, Montana. Basin Creek is one of three tributaries to the Boulder River in the study area; bed sediments and waters draining from the Buckeye mine have also been implicated. Geochemical analysis of 35 tailings cores and six bed-sediment samples was undertaken to determine the concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb,and Zn present in these materials. These elements are environmentally significant, in that they can be toxic to fish and/or the invertebrate organisms that constitute their food. A suite of one-inch cores of dispersed flotation-mill tailings and underlying premining material was taken from a large, flat area north of Basin Creek near the site of the Buckeye mine. Thirty-five core samples were taken and divided into 204 subsamples. The samples were analyzed by ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) using a mixed-acid digestion. Results of the core analyses show that the elements listed above are present at moderate to very high concentrations (arsenic to 63,000 ppm, silver to 290 ppm, cadmium to 370 ppm, copper to 4,800 ppm, lead to 93,000 ppm, and zinc to 23,000 ppm). Volume calculations indicate that an estimated 8,400 metric tons of contaminated material are present at the site. Six bed-sediment samples were also subjected to the mixed-acid total digestion, and a warm (50°C) 2M HCl-1% H2O2 leach and analyzed by ICP-AES. Results indicate that bed sediments of Basin Creek are only slightly impacted by past mining above the Buckeye-Enterprise complex, moderately impacted at the upper (eastern

  1. PLASMA GASIFICATION OF WASTE PLASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Mączka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of obtaining liquid fuels and fuel gas in the process of plasma processing of organic materials, including waste plastics. The concept of plasma pyrolysis of plastics was presented and on its basis a prototype installation was developed. The article describes a general rule of operating the installation and its elements in the process and basic operation parameters determined during its start-up. Initial results of processing plastics and the directions further investigations are also discussed. The effect of the research is to be the design of effective technology of obtaining fuels from gasification/pyrolysis of organic waste and biomass.

  2. Mixed waste management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  3. Waste Management Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, J.S. [ed.

    1967-08-31

    This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.

  4. End-of-waste criteria for waste paper: Technical proposals

    OpenAIRE

    VILLANUEVA KRZYZANIAK Alejandro; Eder, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This report presents proposals of end-of-waste (EoW) criteria for waste paper, defining the technical requirements that waste paper has to fulfil in order to cease to be waste in the EU. The report includes the background data and assessments used to support the proposals, including a comprehensive techno-economic analysis of waste paper recycling, and analyses of the potential economic, environmental and legal impacts when waste paper ceases to be waste. This report is a contribution to ...

  5. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  6. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter...

  7. Introduction to Waste Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    and systems can be operated in a way that is environmentally sound, technical feasible, economically efficient and socially acceptable. This applies to all scales of relevance: (1) national surveys of energy use and material flows determining the frame for politically setting goals in waste management, (2......Solid waste management as introduced in Chapter 1.1 builds in many ways on engineering. Waste engineering here means the skills and ability to understand quantitatively how a waste management system works in such a detail that waste management can be planned, facilities can be designed and sited......) regional plans for waste management, including (3) the selection of main management technologies and siting of facilities, (4) the design of individual technological units and, for example, (5) the operation of recycling schemes within a municipality. This chapter gives an introduction to waste engineering...

  8. Hospital waste management in developing countries: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mustafa; Wang, Wenping; Chaudhry, Nawaz; Geng, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Health care activities can generate different kinds of hazardous wastes. Mismanagement of these wastes can result in environmental and occupational health risks. Developing countries are resource-constrained when it comes to safe management of hospital wastes. This study summarizes the main issues faced in hospital waste management in developing countries. A review of the existing literature suggests that regulations and legislations focusing on hospital waste management are recent accomplishments in many of these countries. Implementation of these rules varies from one hospital to another. Moreover, wide variations exist in waste generation rates within as well as across these countries. This is mainly attributable to a lack of an agreement on the definitions and the methodology among the researchers to measure such wastes. Furthermore, hospitals in these countries suffer from poor waste segregation, collection, storage, transportation and disposal practices, which can lead to occupational and environmental risks. Knowledge and awareness regarding proper waste management remain low in the absence of training for hospital staff. Moreover, hospital sanitary workers, and scavengers, operate without the provision of safety equipment or immunization. Unsegregated waste is illegally recycled, leading to further safety risks. Overall, hospital waste management in developing countries faces several challenges. Sustainable waste management practices can go a long way in reducing the harmful effects of hospital wastes.

  9. Bioprocessing of a stored mixed liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Finney, R. [Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development and results of a demonstration for a continuous bioprocess for mixed waste treatment. A key element of the process is an unique microbial strain which tolerates high levels of aromatic solvents and surfactants. This microorganism is the biocatalysis of the continuous flow system designed for the processing of stored liquid scintillation wastes. During the past year a process demonstration has been conducted on commercial formulation of liquid scintillation cocktails (LSC). Based on data obtained from this demonstration, the Ohio EPA granted the Mound Applied Technologies Lab a treatability permit allowing the limited processing of actual mixed waste. Since August 1994, the system has been successfully processing stored, {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} LSC waste. The initial LSC waste fed into the system contained 11% pseudocumene and detectable quantities of plutonium. Another treated waste stream contained pseudocumene and tritium. Data from this initial work shows that the hazardous organic solvent, and pseudocumene have been removed due to processing, leaving the aqueous low level radioactive waste. Results to date have shown that living cells are not affected by the dissolved plutonium and that 95% of the plutonium was sorbed to the biomass. This paper discusses the bioprocess, rates of processing, effluent, and the implications of bioprocessing for mixed waste management.

  10. Biodegradation and flushing of MBT wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, A.A., E-mail: aasiddiqui.cv@amu.ac.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Richards, D.J.; Powrie, W. [Waste Management Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Stabilization was achieved for MBT wastes of different degrees of pretreatment. • About 92% reduction in the gas generation compared with raw MSW. • Pretreatment resulted in reduced TOC, nitrogen and heavy metals in leachate. • A large proportion of carbon and nitrogen remained in the waste material. - Abstract: Mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) processes are increasingly being adopted as a means of diverting biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill, for example to comply with the EU Landfill Directive. However, there is considerable uncertainty concerning the residual pollution potential of such wastes. This paper presents the results of laboratory experiments on two different MBT waste residues, carried out to investigate the remaining potential for the generation of greenhouse gases and the flushing of contaminants from these materials when landfilled. The potential for gas generation was found to be between 8% and 20% of that for raw MSW. Pretreatment of the waste reduced the potential for the release of organic carbon, ammoniacal nitrogen, and heavy metal contents into the leachate; and reduced the residual carbon remaining in the waste after final degradation from ∼320 g/kg dry matter for raw MSW to between 183 and 195 g/kg dry matter for the MBT wastes.

  11. Glass Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined CS+LN+TM Fission Products Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2010-09-23

    In this study, glass ceramics were explored as an alternative waste form for glass, the current baseline, to be used for immobilizing alkaline/alkaline earth + lanthanide (CS+LN) or CS+LN+transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by a uranium extraction (UREX+) aqueous separations type process. Results from past work on a glass waste form for the combined CS+LN waste streams showed that as waste loading increased, large fractions of crystalline phases precipitated upon slow cooling.[1] The crystalline phases had no noticeable impact on the waste form performance by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT). These results point towards the development of a glass ceramic waste form for treating CS+LN or CS+LN+TM combined waste streams. Three main benefits for exploring glass ceramics are: (1) Glass ceramics offer increased solubility of troublesome components in crystalline phases as compared to glass, leading to increased waste loading; (2) The crystalline network formed in the glass ceramic results in higher heat tolerance than glass; and (3) These glass ceramics are designed to be processed by the same melter technology as the current baseline glass waste form. It will only require adding controlled canister cooling for crystallization into a glass ceramic waste form. Highly annealed waste form (essentially crack free) with up to 50X lower surface area than a typical High-Level Waste (HLW) glass canister. Lower surface area translates directly into increased durability. This was the first full year of exploring glass ceramics for the Option 1 and 2 combined waste stream options. This work has shown that dramatic increases in waste loading are achievable by designing a glass ceramic waste form as an alternative to glass. Table S1 shows the upper limits for heat, waste loading (based on solubility), and the decay time needed before treatment can occur for glass and glass ceramic waste forms. The improvements are significant for both combined waste

  12. Radioactive Waste Streams: Waste Classification for Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-13

    acidity with caustic soda or sodium nitrate to condition it for storage in the carbon-steel tanks. (The neutralization reaction formed a...waste ranges between from 47 to 147 curies/cubic-meter based on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant inventory. The vitrified high-level waste processed by...Facility St T Assembly MTHM 1. Arkansas Nuclear One AK P 1,517 666.7 46. Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant NC P 3,814 964.5 I 552 241.4 47. Cooper

  13. Rhenium volatilization in waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Kai; Pierce, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hrma, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.hrma@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Kruger, Albert A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Re did not volatilize from a HLW feed until 1000 °C. • Re began to volatilize from LAW feeds at ∼600 °C. • The vigorous foaming and generation of gases from salts enhanced Re evaporation in LAW feeds. • The HLW glass with less foaming and salts is a promising medium for Tc immobilization. - Abstract: We investigated volatilization of rhenium (Re), sulfur, cesium, and iodine during the course of conversion of high-level waste melter feed to glass and compared the results for Re volatilization with those in low-activity waste borosilicate glasses. Whereas Re did not volatilize from high-level waste feed heated at 5 K min{sup −1} until 1000 °C, it began to volatilize from low-activity waste borosilicate glass feeds at ∼600 °C, a temperature ∼200 °C below the onset temperature of evaporation from pure KReO{sub 4}. Below 800 °C, perrhenate evaporation in low-activity waste melter feeds was enhanced by vigorous foaming and generation of gases from molten salts as they reacted with the glass-forming constituents. At high temperatures, when the glass-forming phase was consolidated, perrhenates were transported to the top surface of glass melt in bubbles, typically together with sulfates and halides. Based on the results of this study (to be considered preliminary at this stage), the high-level waste glass with less foaming and salts appears a promising medium for technetium immobilization.

  14. Commercial high-level-waste management: options and economics. A comparative analysis of the ceramic and glass waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKisson, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Guon, J.; Recht, H.L.

    1983-02-25

    Results of an estimate of the waste management costs of the commercial high-level waste from a 3000 metric ton per year reprocessing plant show that the judicious use of the ceramic waste form can save about $2 billion during a 20-year operating campaign relative to the use of the glass waste form. This assumes PWR fuel is processed and the waste is encapsulated in 0.305-m-diam canisters with ultimate emplacement in a BWIP-type horizontal-borehole repository. The estimated total cost (capital and operating) of the management in the ceramic form is $2.0 billion, and that of the glass form is $4.0 billion. Waste loading and waste form density are the driving factors in that the low-waste loading (25%) and relatively low density (3.1 g/cm/sup 3/) characteristic of the glass form require several times as many canisters to handle a given waste throughput than is needed for the ceramic waste form whose waste loading capability exceeds 60% and whose waste density is nominally 5.2 g/cm/sup 3/) characteristic of the glass form requires several times as many canisters to handle a given waste throughput than is needed for the ceramic waste form whose waste loading capability exceeds 60% and whose waste density is nominally 5.2 g/cm/sup 3/. The minimum-cost ceramic waste form has a 60 wt. % waste loading of commercial high-level waste and requires 25 years storage before emplacement in basalt with delayed backfill. Because of the process flexibility allowed by the availability of the high-waste loading of the ceramic form, the intermediate-level liquid waste stream can be mixed with the high-level liquid waste stream and economically processed and emplaced. The cost is greater by $0.3 billion than that of the best high-level liquid waste handling process sequence ($2.3 billion vs $2.0 billion), but this difference is less than the cost of the separate disposal of the intermediate-level liquid waste.

  15. Small-scale demonstration of high-level radioactive waste processing and solidification using actual SRP waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeson, J K; Galloway, R M; Wilhite, E L; Woolsey, G B; B, Ferguson R

    1980-01-01

    A small-scale demonstration of the high-level radioactive waste solidification process by vitrification in borosilicate glass is being conducted using 5-6 liter batches of actual waste. Equipment performance and processing characteristics of the various unit operations in the process are reported and, where appropriate, are compared to large-scale results obtained with synthetic waste.

  16. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINTERHALDER, J.A.

    1999-09-29

    nonhazardous waste determination was based solely on acceptable knowledge. Relevant administrative documents and operating methods in effect at the time of waste generation were reviewed, generator waste profiles and certifications were examined, and personnel interviews were conducted. The acceptable knowledge information and supporting data were further evaluated based on the results of nondestructive examination, visual examination, and container headspace gas analysis. In all cases, the physical examination processes supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination, and in effect served to validate and finalize that determination. Sections 2.0 through 5.0 of this Report describe in more detail the actions taken and conclusions reached with respect to this nonhazardous waste determination, The hazardous waste determination process described in this Report fully satisfies the requirements of 40 CFR 261, and the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA-June 16, 1999) signed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the New Mexico Environment Department pertaining to the exchange of waste stream information.

  17. Development and testing of the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) system for Fernald wastes. Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, S.S.; Matlack, K.S.; Mohr, R.K.; Brandys, M. Hojaji, H.; Bennett, S.; Ruller, J.; Pegg, I.L. [GTS Duratek, Columbia, MD (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This report presents results of a treatability study for the evaluation of the MAWS process for wastes stored at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site. Wastes included in the study were FEMP Pit 5 sludges, soil-wash fractions, and ion exchange media from a water treatment system supporting a soil washing system. MAWS offers potential for treating a variety of waste streams to produce a more leach resistant waste form at a lower cost than, say, cement stabilization.

  18. Very low level waste disposal in France. A key tool for the management for decommissioning wastes in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duetzer, Michel [Andra - Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactives, Chatenay-Malabry (France). Direction Industrielle

    2015-07-01

    At the end of the 90{sup th}, France had to deal with the emerging issue of the management of wastes resulting from decommissioning operations of nuclear facilities. A specific regulation was issued and Andra, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, developed a dedicated near surface disposal facility to accommodate very low level radioactive wastes. After more than 10 years of operation, this facility demonstrated it can provide efficient and flexible solutions for the management of decomissioning wastes.

  19. Increasing value and reducing waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, An-Wen; Song, Fujian; Vickers, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    for only half of all studies and are plagued by selective reporting of methods and results. Furthermore, information provided in study protocols and reports varies in quality and is often incomplete. When full information about studies is inaccessible, billions of dollars in investment are wasted, bias...

  20. Harvesting biogas from wastewater sludge and food waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, K. H.; Cheah, W. L.; Tan, C. F.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    Wastewater sludge and food waste are good source of biogas. Anaerobic treatment of slude and food waste able to produce biogas which is a potential renewable energy source. This study looks into the potential biogas generation and the effects of temperature on biogas generation. A lab scale reactor was used to simulate the biogas generation. The results show that wastewater sludge able to produced upto 44.82 ml biogas/kg of sludge. When mixed with food waste at a ratio of 30:70 (food waste), the biogas generated were 219.07 ml/kg of waste. Anaerobic of food waste alone produced biogas amount to 59.75 ml/kg of food waste. Anaerobic treatment also reduces the volume of waste. The effect of temperature shows that higher temperature produces more biogas than lower temperature.

  1. Research on Selective Shredding of Wasted Printed Circuit Boards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹亦俊; 文学峰; 赵跃民

    2002-01-01

    Electronic scrap, especially wasted printed circuit boards (PCBs), is regarded as an environmental challenge. At present, the physical separation is thought to be the environmental friendly and economical method of treating and reutilizing electronic waste. An effective liberation of metals from non-metallic components is a crucial step towards mechanical separation and recycling of wasted PCBs. In this paper, the selective shredding theory and mechanics characteristics of wasted PCBs were analyzed, and the shredded experiments of wasted PCBs by hammer mill were investigated. The result shows that the selective shredding exists in the wasted PCBs shredded process by hammer mill. The shredding velocity of non-metallic components is far greater than that of metals in the wasted PCBs shredding, which makes the metals concentrate in the coarser fraction. And the impact force of hammer mill is superior to metal liberation from non-metallic components, a satisfied metal liberation degree can be achieved in the wasted PCBs shredding by hammer mill.

  2. Chemical composition and methane potential of commercial food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Victoria M; De la Cruz, Florentino B; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-10-01

    There is increasing interest in anaerobic digestion in the U.S. However, there is little information on the characterization of commercial food waste sources as well as the effect of waste particle size on methane yield. The objective of this research was to characterize four commercial food waste sources: (1) university dining hall waste, (2) waste resulting from prepared foods and leftover produce at a grocery store, (3) food waste from a hotel and convention center, and (4) food preparation waste from a restaurant. Each sample was tested in triplicate 8L batch anaerobic digesters after shredding and after shredding plus grinding. Average methane yields for the university dining, grocery store, hotel, and restaurant wastes were 363, 427, 492, and 403mL/dry g, respectively. Starch exhibited the most complete consumption and particle size did not significantly affect methane yields for any of the tested substrates. Lipids represented 59-70% of the methane potential of the fresh substrates.

  3. BASIS OF RATIONAL MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN RURAL FARMSTEADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Bauman-Kaszubska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important problems of waste management in rural areas against the background of formal and legal requirements. It also includes quantitative and qualitative characteristics of waste generated in rural homesteads. Quantitative characterization was based on literature data and the results of the author’s own research, within which an indicator of the accumulation of waste in selected regions of Mazowieckie and Świętokrzyskie was determined. Accurate knowledge of the characteristics of the waste and its variation is the basis for planning and development of waste management. The collected data show clear evidence of a significant increase in both the rate of volume and weight, which depends on many factors, eg. the type of building, season etc. In addition, the basic principles of proper model of waste management, selective waste collection guidelines and principles of best practice of waste management in rural areas were presented.

  4. Treatment of Bone Waste Using Thermal Plasma Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KI Ho Beom; KIM Woo Hyung; KIM Bong Soo; K00 Hyung Joon; LI Mingwei; CHAE Jae Ou

    2007-01-01

    Daily meat consumption produces a lot of bone waste, and dumped bone waste without treatment would result in environmental hazards. Conventional treatment methods of waste bones have some disadvantages. Herein, an investigation of bone waste treated using thermal plasma technology is presented. A high-temperature plasma torch operated at 25.2 kW was used to treat bone waste for seven minutes. The bone waste was finally changed into vitric matter and lost 2/3 of its weight after the treatment. The process was highly efficient, economical, convenient, and fuel-free. This method could be used as an alternative for disposal of bone waste, small infectious animals, hazardous hospital waste, etc.

  5. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Volume 1: Report of Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G; Daniels, J; Wegrecki, A

    2006-04-24

    This document contains the human health and ecological risk assessment for the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF). Volume 1 is the text of the risk assessment, and Volume 2 (provided on a compact disc) is the supporting modeling data. The EWTF is operated by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Site 300, which is located in the foothills between the cities of Livermore and Tracy, approximately 17 miles east of Livermore and 8 miles southwest of Tracy. Figure 1 is a map of the San Francisco Bay Area, showing the location of Site 300 and other points of reference. One of the principal activities of Site 300 is to test what are known as ''high explosives'' for nuclear weapons. These are the highly energetic materials that provide the force to drive fissionable material to criticality. LLNL scientists develop and test the explosives and the integrated non-nuclear components in support of the United States nuclear stockpile stewardship program as well as in support of conventional weapons and the aircraft, mining, oil exploration, and construction industries. Many Site 300 facilities are used in support of high explosives research. Some facilities are used in the chemical formulation of explosives; others are locations where explosive charges are mechanically pressed; others are locations where the materials are inspected radiographically for such defects as cracks and voids. Finally, some facilities are locations where the machined charges are assembled before they are sent to the on-site test firing facilities, and additional facilities are locations where materials are stored. Wastes generated from high-explosives research are treated by open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD). OB and OD treatments are necessary because they are the safest methods for treating explosives wastes generated at these facilities, and they eliminate the requirement for

  6. Toward zero waste to landfill: an effective method for recycling zeolite waste from refinery industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homchuen, K.; Anuwattana, R.; Limphitakphong, N.; Chavalparit, O.

    2017-07-01

    One-third of landfill waste of refinery plant in Thailand was spent chloride zeolite, which wastes a huge of land, cost and time for handling. Toward zero waste to landfill, this study was aimed at determining an effective method for recycling zeolite waste by comparing the chemical process with the electrochemical process. To investigate the optimum conditions of both processes, concentration of chemical solution and reaction time were carried out for the former, while the latter varied in term of current density, initial pH of water, and reaction time. The results stated that regenerating zeolite waste from refinery industry in Thailand should be done through the chemical process with alkaline solution because it provided the best chloride adsorption efficiency with cost the least. A successful recycling will be beneficial not only in reducing the amount of landfill waste but also in reducing material and disposal costs and consumption of natural resources as well.

  7. Agricultural waste derived fuel from oil meal and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Ko, Chun-Han

    2017-05-27

    Oil meal is a by-product of the oil industry (peanut meal, sesame meal, and camellia meal). Oil is extracted from seeds, and the leftover meal is then pelletized, and this process generates a large amount of waste oil meal in Taiwan. In this study, peanut meal, sesame meal, and camellia meal derived fuels were prepared from the waste oil meal with waste cooking oil. The combustion behaviors of the oil meal derived fuels were also investigated. The characteristics of the derived fuel made from oil meal with waste cooking oil showed that the ash content is less than 10% and its calorific value reached 5000 kcal/kg. Additionally, the activation energy of the oil meal and waste cooking oil was analyzed by the Kissinger method. The results show that the fuel prepared in this work from the oil meal mixed with waste cooking oil is suitable for use as an alternative fuel and also avoids food safety issues.

  8. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2010-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2009 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2009 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per LWO-LWE-2008-00423, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2009, were completed. All Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2009 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 1, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.4. UT inspections were performed on Tank 29 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00559, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2009, Waste Tank 29. Post chemical cleaning UT measurements were made in Tank 6 and the results are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00560, Tank Inspection NDE Results Tank 6, Including Summary of Waste Removal Support Activities in Tanks 5 and 6. A total of 6669 photographs were made and 1276 visual and video inspections were performed during 2009. Twenty-Two new leaksites were identified in 2009. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.4. Fifteen leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Five leaksites at Tank 6 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Two new leaksites were identified at Tank 19 during waste removal activities. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tanks 5 and 12 during waste removal activities. Also, a very small amount of additional leakage from a previously identified leaksite at Tank 14 was observed.

  9. 1993 baseline solid waste management system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armacost, L.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1994-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has prepared this report under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company. The report provides an integrated description of the system planned for managing Hanford`s solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic waste, and transuranic mixed waste. The primary purpose of this document is to illustrate a collective view of the key functions planned at the Hanford Site to handle existing waste inventories, as well as solid wastes that will be generated in the future. By viewing this system as a whole rather than as individual projects, key facility interactions and requirements are identified and a better understanding of the overall system may be gained. The system is described so as to form a basis for modeling the system at various levels of detail. Model results provide insight into issues such as facility capacity requirements, alternative system operating strategies, and impacts of system changes (ie., startup dates). This description of the planned Hanford solid waste processing system: defines a baseline system configuration; identifies the entering waste streams to be managed within the system; identifies basic system functions and waste flows; and highlights system constraints. This system description will evolve and be revised as issues are resolved, planning decisions are made, additional data are collected, and assumptions are tested and changed. Out of necessity, this document will also be revised and updated so that a documented system description, which reflects current system planning, is always available for use by engineers and managers. It does not provide any results generated from the many alternatives that will be modeled in the course of analyzing solid waste disposal options; such results will be provided in separate documents.

  10. New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. E. Archibald

    1999-08-01

    This report addresses the issues of conducting debris treatment in the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF) decontamination area and the methods currently being used to decontaminate material at the NWCF.

  11. Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidarakos, E; Havas, G; Ntzamilis, P

    2006-01-01

    A one-year survey was conducted in the greater region of Crete (located at the lower region of the Aegean Sea) for the purpose of identifying waste composition (including chemical and physical characterization), as well as any seasonal variation. The investigation was carried out repeatedly at seven landfills and one transfer station in Crete, in four phases. Each sampling phase corresponded to a season (autumn, winter, spring, summer). ASTM D5231-92(2003) standard method and RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance were used. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the following categories: plastics, paper, metals, aluminium, leather-wood-textiles-rubbers, organic wastes, non-combustibles and miscellaneous. Further analysis included proximate and ultimate analysis of combustible materials. Metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury were also investigated. The results show that there has been a significant decrease of organic wastes during the last decade due to the increase of packaging materials, as a result of a change in consumption patterns. Three main waste categories were determined: organic wastes, paper and plastics, which combined represent 76% of the total waste in Crete. Furthermore, a high fraction of glass and a seasonal variation of aluminium indicate a strong correlation of waste composition with certain human activities, such as tourism. There is also a variation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in the region of Crete (2003-2004) and MSW composition suggested in the National Solid Waste Planning (2000) [National Solid Waste Planning, 2000. Completion and particularization of Common Ministerial Act 113944//1944/1997: National Solid Waste Planning, June 2000]. The results of this survey are to be utilized by the regional solid waste authorities in order to establish an integrated waste treatment site, capable of fulfilling the regional waste management demands.

  12. Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-26

    The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

  13. Tank waste remediation system operational scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.E.

    1995-05-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium and cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner (DOE 1993). This operational scenario is a description of the facilities that are necessary to remediate the Hanford Site tank wastes. The TWRS Program is developing technologies, conducting engineering analyses, and preparing for design and construction of facilities necessary to remediate the Hanford Site tank wastes. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared to evaluate proposed actions of the TWRS. This operational scenario is only one of many plausible scenarios that would result from the completion of TWRS technology development, engineering analyses, design and construction activities and the TWRS EIS. This operational scenario will be updated as the development of the TWRS proceeds and will be used as a benchmark by which to evaluate alternative scenarios.

  14. Conversion of tannery waste to uesful products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhara, H.S.; Maggin, B.; Phipps, H.

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical performance and cost effectiveness of a low temperature pyrolysis process which uses dry leather tanning wastes to provide energy and chrome tanning liquor for reuse in tanneries. Presently, leather waste is disposed of in landfills, resulting not only in a considerable loss of potential energy (estimated to be 633 TJ annually), but an even more significant loss of chromium (estimated to be 8.2 Gg annually). The pyrolysis process is shown to be technically feasible, economically viable, and can alleviate a leather waste management problem that is becoming increasingly more difficult to handle because of more stringent environmental chrome waste disposal requirements. Tanneries can save an estimated $7 million to $8 million annually by employing this pyrolysis process to conserve energy and chrome in dry tanning wastes. (Refs. 10).

  15. WASTE MANAGEMENT AT SRS - MAKING IT HAPPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heenan, T. F.; Kelly, S.

    2002-02-25

    The past five years have witnessed a remarkable transition in the pace and scope of waste management activities at SRS. At the start of the new M&O contract in 1996, little was being done with the waste generated at the site apart from storing it in readiness for future treatment and disposal. Large volumes of legacy waste, particularly TRU and Low Level Waste, had accumulated over many years of operation of the site's nuclear facilities, and the backlog was increasing. WSRC proposed the use of the talents of the ''best in class'' partners for the new contract which, together with a more commercial approach, was expected to deliver more results without a concomitant increase in cost. This paper charts the successes in the Solid Waste arena and analyzes the basis for success.

  16. Waste management in NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y.; Maeda, A.; Sugikawa, S.; Takeshita, I. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Dept. of Safety Research Technical Support, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    In the NUCEF, the researches on criticality safety have been performed at two critical experiment facilities, STACY and TRACY in addition to the researches on fuel cycle such as advanced reprocessing and partitioning in alpha-gamma concrete cells and glove boxes. Many kinds of radioactive wastes have been generated through the research activities. Furthermore, the waste treatment itself may produce some secondary wastes. In addition, the separation and purification of plutonium of several tens-kg from MOX powder are scheduled in order to supply plutonium nitrate solution fuel for critical experiments at STACY. A large amount of wastes containing plutonium and americium will be generated from the plutonium fuel treatment. From the viewpoint of safety, the proper waste management is one of important works in NUCEF. Many efforts, therefore, have been made for the development of advanced waste treatment techniques to improve the waste management in NUCEF. Especially the reduction of alpha-contaminated wastes is a major interest. For example, the separation of americium is planned from the liquid waste evolved alter plutonium purification by application of tannin gel as an adsorbent of actinide elements. The waste management and the relating technological development in NUCEF are briefly described in this paper. (authors)

  17. Life cycle assessments of energy from solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnveden, Goeran; Johansson, Jessica; Lind, Per; Moberg, Aasa [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology/Natural Resoruces Management Inst.]|[Defence Research Establishment, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Defence Analysis

    2000-09-01

    The overall aim of the present study is to evaluate different strategies for treatment of solid waste based on a life-cycle perspective. Important goals are to identify advantages and disadvantages of different methods for treatment of solid waste, and to identify critical factors in the systems, including the background systems, which may significantly influence the results. Included in the study are landfilling, incineration, recycling, digestion and composting. The waste fractions considered are the combustible and recyclable or compostable fractions of municipal solid waste. The methodology used is Life Cycle Assessment. The results can be used for policy decisions as well as strategic decisions on waste management systems.

  18. Waste container weighing data processing to create reliable information of household waste generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Pirjo; Kaila, Juha

    2015-05-01

    Household mixed waste container weighing data was processed by knowledge discovery and data mining techniques to create reliable information of household waste generation. The final data set included 27,865 weight measurements covering the whole year 2013 and it was selected from a database of Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Finland. The data set contains mixed household waste arising in 6m(3) containers and it was processed identifying missing values and inconsistently low and high values as errors. The share of missing values and errors in the data set was 0.6%. This provides evidence that the waste weighing data gives reliable information of mixed waste generation at collection point level. Characteristic of mixed household waste arising at the waste collection point level is a wide variation between pickups. The seasonal variation pattern as a result of collective similarities in behaviour of households was clearly detected by smoothed medians of waste weight time series. The evaluation of the collection time series against the defined distribution range of pickup weights on the waste collection point level shows that 65% of the pickups were from collection points with optimally dimensioned container capacity and the collection points with over- and under-dimensioned container capacities were noted in 9.5% and 3.4% of all pickups, respectively. Occasional extra waste in containers occurred in 21.2% of the pickups indicating the irregular behaviour of individual households. The results of this analysis show that processing waste weighing data using knowledge discovery and data mining techniques provides trustworthy information of household waste generation and its variations.

  19. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, S; Beigl, P

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The causes of the municipal solid waste and the greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungtaek; Kim, Jonghoon; Chong, Wai K O

    2016-10-01

    The United States generated approximately 730kg of waste per capita in 2013, which is the highest amount of waste among OECD countries. The waste has adverse effects to human health and the environment. One of the most serious adverse effects is greenhouse gas emissions, especially methane (CH4), which causes global warming. However, the United States' amount of waste generation is not decreasing, and the recycling rate is only 26%, which is lower than other OECD countries. In order to decrease waste generation and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying the causality of the waste generation and greenhouse gas emissions from waste sector should be made a priority. The research objective is to verify whether the Environmental Kuznets Curve relationship is supported for waste generation and GDP across the U.S. Moreover, it also confirmed that total waste generation and recycling of waste influences carbon dioxide emissions from the waste sector. Based on the results, critical insight and suggestions were offered to policymakers, which is the potential way to lower the solid waste and greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector. This research used annually based U.S. data from 1990 to 2012, and these data were collected from various data sources. To verify the causal relationship, the Granger causality test was applied. The results showed that there is no causality between GDP and waste generation, but total waste and recycling generate significantly increasing and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector, respectively. This implies that waste generation will not decrease even if GDP increases. And, if waste generation decreases or the recycling rate increases, greenhouse gas emission will decrease. Based on these results, increasing the recycling rate is first suggested. The second suggestion is to break the causal relationship between MSW and greenhouse gas emission from the waste sector. The third is that the U.S. government should benchmark a

  1. Laboratory Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Surrogate Waste Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, S.; Bronowski, D.; Pfeifle, T.; Herrick, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below the ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. WIPP Performance Assessment modeling of the underground material response requires a full and accurate understanding of coupled mechanical, hydrological, and geochemical processes and how they evolve with time. This study was part of a broader test program focused on room closure, specifically the compaction behavior of waste and the constitutive relations to model this behavior. The goal of this study was to develop an improved waste constitutive model. The model parameters are developed based on a well designed set of test data. The constitutive model will then be used to realistically model evolution of the underground and to better understand the impacts on repository performance. The present study results are focused on laboratory testing of surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes correspond to a conservative estimate of the degraded containers and TRU waste materials after the 10,000 year regulatory period. Testing consists of hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial tests performed on surrogate waste recipes that were previously developed by Hansen et al. (1997). These recipes can be divided into materials that simulate 50% and 100% degraded waste by weight. The percent degradation indicates the anticipated amount of iron corrosion, as well as the decomposition of cellulosics, plastics, and rubbers. Axial, lateral, and volumetric strain and axial and lateral stress measurements were made. Two unique testing techniques were developed during the course of the experimental program. The first involves the use of dilatometry to measure sample volumetric strain under a hydrostatic condition. Bulk

  2. Management of the radioactive waste of European Spallation Source within the Swedish waste disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ene, Daniela [European Spallation Source AB, ESS-AB (Sweden); Forsstroem, H. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, SKB (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    waste with the maximum total activity limits of SKB existing and planned disposal facilities. It resulted from this analysis that the ESS waste will take up a substantial part, about 15 %, of the planned disposal volume for the Swedish radioactive waste management system. It was found also that the compilation of completely new waste type descriptions for qualification of the ESS waste for disposal will be necessary. Particular attention was devoted to 'problematic waste' as Beryllium reflector, C-14 from graphite used as core zone of the beam-dump or waste arising from the purification systems of both Helium and water cooling circuits. (authors)

  3. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula, E-mail: a.bortoleto@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke [Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We merge attitude-behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste

  4. Waste statistics 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-07

    The 2004 reporting to the ISAG comprises 394 plants owned by 256 enterprises. In 2003, reports covered 403 plants owned by 273 enterprises. Waste generation in 2004 is compared to targets for 2008 in the government's Waste Strategy 2005-2008. The following summarises waste generation in 2004: 1) In 2004, total reported waste arisings amounted to 13,359,000 tonnes, which is 745,000 tonnes, or 6 per cent, more than in 2003. 2) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants are excluded from statistics, waste arisings in 2004 were 12,179,000 tonnes, which is a 9 per cent increase from 2003. 3) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants and waste from the building and construction sector are excluded from statistics, total waste generation in 2004 amounted to 7,684,000 tonnes, which is 328,000 tonnes, or 4 per cent, more than in 2002. In other words, there has been an increase in total waste arisings, if residues and waste from building and construction are excluded. Waste from the building and construction sector is more sensitive to economic change than most other waste. 4) The total rate of recycling was 65 per cent. The 2008 target for recycling is 65 per cent. The rate of recycling in 2003 was also 65 per cent. 5) The total amount of waste led to incineration amounted to 26 per cent, plus an additional 1 per cent left in temporary storage to be incinerated at a later time. The 2008 target for incineration is 26 per cent. These are the same percentage figures as applied to incineration and storage in 2003. 6) The total amount of waste led to landfills amounted to 8 per cent, which is one percentage point better than the overall landfill target of a maximum of 9 per cent landfilling in 2008. Also in 2003, 8 per cent of the waste was landfilled. 7) The targets for treatment of waste from individual sectors are still not being met: too little waste from households and the service sector is being recycled, and too much waste from industry is being

  5. Assessing the addition of mineral processing waste to green waste-derived compost: an agronomic, environmental and economic appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D L; Chesworth, S; Khalid, M; Iqbal, Z

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of mixing two large volume wastes, namely mineral processing waste and source-segregated green waste compost, on the growth performance of plants targeted towards high (horticulture/agriculture) and low (amenity/restoration) value markets. The secondary aims were to evaluate the influence of mineral waste type on plant growth performance and to undertake a simple economic analysis of the use of mineral-compost mixtures in land restoration. Our results showed that in comparison to organic wastes, mineral wastes contained a low available nutrient content which reduces compost quality. This is supported by growth trials with tomato, wheat and grass which showed that, irrespective of mineral source, plants performed poorly in compost blended with mineral waste in comparison to those grown in green waste or peat-based compost alone. In terms of consumer confidence, unlike other wastes (e.g. biosolids and construction/demolition waste) the mineral quarry wastes can be expected to be free of potentially toxic elements, however, the production costs of compost-mineral waste mixtures and subsequent transport costs may limit its widespread use. In addition, handling of the material can be difficult under wet conditions and effective blending may require the purchase of specialist equipment. From our results, we conclude that mineral fines may prove useful for low quality, low value landscaping activities close to the source of production but are unsuited to high value markets.

  6. Ceramics in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T D; Mendel, J E [eds.

    1979-05-01

    Seventy-three papers are included, arranged under the following section headings: national programs for the disposal of radioactive wastes, waste from stability and characterization, glass processing, ceramic processing, ceramic and glass processing, leaching of waste materials, properties of nuclear waste forms, and immobilization of special radioactive wastes. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers. (DLC)

  7. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  8. Waste/By-Product Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    By‐ product Hydrogen Fuel Flexibility Biogas : generated from organic waste �Wastewater treatment plants can provide multiple MW of renewable... Waste /By product Hydrogen Waste H2 sources include: � Waste bio‐mass: biogas to high temp fuel cells to produce H2 – there are over two dozen sites...13 Waste /By product Hydrogen ‐ Biogas

  9. Biological effects of drilling wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranford, P. J. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2000-07-01

    An argument is made for the point of view that economic realities require that a sustainable fishery must co-exist with the offshore petroleum industry, and therefore to sustain the fishery comprehensive studies are needed to identify and minimize the impact of operational drilling wastes on fishery resources. Moreover, laboratory and field studies indicate that operational drilling platforms impact on fisheries at great distances, therefore studies should not be limited to the immediate vicinity of drilling sites. Studies on long-term exposure of resident organisms to low level contaminants and the chronic lethal and sublethal biological effects of production drilling wastes must be conducted under environmentally relevant conditions to ensure the validity of the results. Studies at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography on sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) shows them to be highly sensitive to impacts from drilling wastes. Results of these studies, integrated with toxicity data and information on the distribution and transport of drilling wastes have been used by regulatory agencies and industrial interests to develop scientifically sound and justifiable regulations. They also led to the development of practical, sensitive and cost-effective technologies that use resident resource species to detect environmental impacts at offshore production sites. 1 fig.

  10. Site investigation on medical waste management practices in northern Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Fayez; Abu Qdais, Hani; Rabi, Atallah

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the medical waste management practices used by hospitals in northern Jordan. A comprehensive inspection survey was conducted for all 21 hospitals located in the study area. Field visits were conducted to provide information on the different medical waste management aspects. The results reported here focus on the level of medical waste segregation, treatment and disposal options practiced in the study area hospitals. The total number of beds in the hospitals was 2296, and the anticipated quantity of medical waste generated by these hospitals was about 1400 kg/day. The most frequently used treatment practice for solid medical waste was incineration. Of these hospitals, only 48% had incinerators, and none of these incinerators met the Ministry of Health (MoH) regulations. As for the liquid medical waste, the survey results indicated that 57% of surveyed hospitals were discharging it into the municipal sewer system, while the remaining hospitals were collecting their liquid waste in septic tanks. The results indicated that the medical waste generation rate ranges from approximately 0.5 to 2.2 kg/bed day, which is comprised of 90% of infectious waste and 10% sharps. The results also showed that segregation of various medical waste types in the hospitals has not been conducted properly. The study revealed the need for training and capacity building programs of all employees involved in the medical waste management.

  11. Radioactive wastes conditioning; Le conditionnement des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Latge, C.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, C.; Moisy, P.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Advocat, T.; Andrieux, C.; Bardez, I.; Bart, F.; Boen, R.; Bourniol, P.; Brunel, G.; Chartier, D.; Cau dit Coumes, C.; Delaye, J.M.; Deschanels, X.; Faure, S.; Ferry, C.; Fillet, C.; Fournel, B.; Frizon, F.; Galle, C.; Gin, S.; Girold, C.; Grandjean, A.; Hudry, D.; Joussot-Dubien, C.; Lambertin, D.; Ledieu, A.; Lemont, F.; Moulin, N.; Peuget, S.; Pinet, O.; Piron, J.P.; Ranc, G.; Ribet, I.; Sarrade, S.; Tribet, M.; Pradel, P.; Bonnin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Forestier, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P

    2008-07-01

    Very early in its history, nuclear industry has taken care of the future of its wastes. Cementation processes for medium-level activity wastes, vitrification processes for minor actinide solutions and fission products are now proven technologies. The conditioning of wastes is just one ink in the full chain of the waste management process. However, this link is of prime importance because the future of the waste depends on the way it is conditioned. Reciprocally, the storage and disposal largely rely on the confidence given to the behaviour of waste packages with time. The leading role of France in the domain of radioactive wastes conditioning is a strong and valorisable asset at the international industrial plan, but also in terms of social acceptance by showing to the public that technical solutions exist. This monograph takes stock of the conditioning of nuclear wastes and describes the researches in progress, the stakes and the recent results obtained by the CEA (French atomic energy commission). Content: 1 - introduction: waste volumes and fluxes, management strategy, conditioning; 2 - decontamination processes and treatment processes for effluents and technological wastes; 3 - glasses, a long-lasting conditioning of wastes: glass package making, vitrification, glass formulation, structure and properties, long-term behaviour of glasses, cold crucible vitrification; 4 - present day conditioning of low- and medium-activity wastes: cements, bitumens, conditioning of metal structure wastes; 5 - search for alternate matrices and processes for the processing-conditioning of wastes: plasma-based processes for the incineration/vitrification of wastes, the Shiva process, alternate confinement materials, confinement of wastes from pyro-chemical processes; 6 - can the spent fuel be considered as a confinement matrix?: initial characteristics of spent fuels, evolution in dry storage environment, modeling of the spent fuel long-term behaviour, spent fuel containers in long

  12. Demolition, construction and excavation wastes in Copenhagen. Los residuos de demolicion, construccion y excavacion en Copenhague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, N.J.; Lauridsen, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    Demolition Waste, Construction Waste and Excavation Waste will in a modern society represent a major part of the total amount of the industrial wastes. Implementation of the Regulation for Industrial Waste in Copenhagen has resulted insignificant changes in the transportation and processing of this type of waste was typically disposed of as mixed waste on landfill sites and open dumps. Today most of this waste is sorted at the source (see figure 1) and recycled namely as secondary raw materials. This change in the disposal of construction waste etc, is due to two main factors: implementation of the regulation of commercial wastes and a significant raise in the (governmental) waste tax on specially landfilling activities. (Author)

  13. Food waste volume and origin: Case studies in the Finnish food service sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Heikkilä, Lotta; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Reinikainen, Anu

    2015-12-01

    We carried out a project to map the volume and composition of food waste in the Finnish food service sector. The amount, type and origin of avoidable food waste were investigated in 51 food service outlets, including schools, day-care centres, workplace canteens, petrol stations, restaurants and diners. Food service outlet personnel kept diaries and weighed the food produced and wasted during a one-week or one-day period. For weighing and sorting, the food waste was divided into two categories: originally edible (OE) food waste was separated from originally inedible (OIE) waste, such as vegetable peelings, bones and coffee grounds. In addition, food waste (OE) was divided into three categories in accordance with its origins: kitchen waste, service waste and customer leftovers. According to the results, about 20% of all food handled and prepared in the sector was wasted. The findings also suggest that the main drivers of wasted food are buffet services and overproduction.

  14. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  15. Waste not, want not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Sadly, modern society has developed very wasteful habits over the last few decades: consumer products, food and energy are perphaps waste items that are most obvious. Attempting to show how we can counteract wasteful habits, this article (a) makes reference to Helen Czerski in her efforts to stop her cycle from rusting away; and (b) shows how a relatively simple task can give new life to a domestic toaster.

  16. Biodegradation and Recycling of Urban Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Gautam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rapid urbanization and population growth are largely responsible for very high increasing rate of solid waste in the urban areas, its proper management and recycling is major problems of Municipal Corporation. The proposed study attempted to proper management, physicochemical analysis of Urban Solid Waste (USW and its conversion to enriched compost by ecofriendly process. Approach: For this study, we used turned windrows method for composting of USW, microbial inoculums added uniformly and temperature, pH, moisture maintained throughout the composting process. The chemical composition of compost obtained at the end of the composting process compare to the United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA standards. Results: A study in Jabalpur had shown the 47% of Urban Solid Waste (USW were degradable and 53% non-degradable. The initial compositions of urban waste were indicates an organic carbon status of 38% with the C: N ratio of 950. The additives used in solid urban waste composting such as cow dung and green manure recorded organic carbon content of 25.60 and 34.60 and C:N ratio of 30.11 and 11.23. Conclusion: The results of the study clearly indicate that the recycling of solid urban waste can transform garbage or municipal solid waste to enriched composts. This is practical significance if adopted by urban farmers as a result of soil health and in turn the productivity of soil can be maintained for further agriculture.

  17. ALKALINE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF SECONDARY WASTE FROM WASTE INCINERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Mierzwiński

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper regards the possibility of using geopolymer matrix to immobilize heavy metals present in ash and slag from combustion of waste. In the related research one used the fly ash from coal combustion in one Polish CHP plant and the waste from Polish incineration plants. It was studied if the above-named waste materials are useful in the process of alkali-activation. Therefore, three sets of geopolymer mixtures were prepared containing 60, 50 and 30% of ash and slag from the combustion of waste and fly ash combustion of sewage skudge. The remaining content was fly ash from coal combustion. The alkali-activation was conducted by means of 14M solution of NaOH and sodium water glass. The samples, whose dimensions were in accordance with the PN-EN 206-1 norm, were subjected to 75°C for 24h. According to the results, the geopolymer matrix is able to immobilize heavy metals and retain compressive strength resembling that of concrete.

  18. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW depend largely on the waste's initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW. After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW, the following findings were obtained: (1 HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC than LKWC MSW, but the field capacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2 the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3 compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4 the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5 the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  19. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN AHWAZ CITY; WITH EMPHASIS ON HOSPITAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Omrani

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative analyses of hospital and municipal solid waste are necessary for selecting the best and most appropriate method of health care collection, storage, transportation and disposal of this kind of wastes. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of hospital and municipal wastes have been studied in Ahwaz city during spring 1996. The amount of solid wastes in five regions of the city was 560,000 Kg perday (0.648 Kg per capita. Also, the rate of waste production in 6 hospitals of Ahwaz was 2.54 Kg per bed. The average density of hospital and municipal solid wastes were 443 and 284.5 Kg/m3 respectively. Physical contents of municipal and hospital solid wastes were also investigated. The results were as follows Plastic & rubber (%7.7 , %16.57 ; wood and paper (%11.3, %14.35; textiles (%5.32, %13.76 ; metals (%4.7 , %9.48 ; glass (%4.26 , %4.12. Also degradable materials in hospital and municipal wastes were %29.38 and %64.24 of total sample waste, respectively.

  20. Hazardous waste incinerators under waste uncertainty: balancing and throughput maximization via heat recuperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiliyannis, Christos Aristeides

    2013-09-01

    Hazardous waste incinerators (HWIs) differ substantially from thermal power facilities, since instead of maximizing energy production with the minimum amount of fuel, they aim at maximizing throughput. Variations in quantity or composition of received waste loads may significantly diminish HWI throughput (the decisive profit factor), from its nominal design value. A novel formulation of combustion balance is presented, based on linear operators, which isolates the wastefeed vector from the invariant combustion stoichiometry kernel. Explicit expressions for the throughput are obtained, in terms of incinerator temperature, fluegas heat recuperation ratio and design parameters, for an arbitrary number of wastes, based on fundamental principles (mass and enthalpy balances). The impact of waste variations, of recuperation ratio and of furnace temperature is explicitly determined. It is shown that in the presence of waste uncertainty, the throughput may be a decreasing or increasing function of incinerator temperature and recuperation ratio, depending on the sign of a dimensionless parameter related only to the uncertain wastes. The dimensionless parameter is proposed as a sharp a' priori waste 'fingerprint', determining the necessary increase or decrease of manipulated variables (recuperation ratio, excess air, auxiliary fuel feed rate, auxiliary air flow) in order to balance the HWI and maximize throughput under uncertainty in received wastes. A 10-step procedure is proposed for direct application subject to process capacity constraints. The results may be useful for efficient HWI operation and for preparing hazardous waste blends.

  1. A rating system for determination of hazardous wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talinli, Ilhan; Yamantürk, Rana; Aydin, Egemen; Başakçilardan-Kabakçi, Sibel

    2005-11-11

    Although hazardous waste lists and their classification methodologies are nearly the same in most of the countries, there are some gaps and subjectiveness in determining the waste as hazardous waste. A rating system for the determination of waste as a hazardous waste is presented in this study which aims to overcome the problems resulted from the existing methodologies. Overall rating value (ORV) calculates and quantifies the waste as regular, non-regular or hazardous waste in an "hourglass" scale. "ORV" as a cumulative-linear formulation in proposed model consists of components such as ecological effects of the waste (Ee) in terms of four main hazard criteria: ignitability, reactivity, corrosivity and toxicity; combined potential risk (CPR) including carcinogenic effect, toxic, infectious and persistence characteristics; existing lists and their methodology (L) and decision factor (D) to separate regular and non-regular waste. Physical form (f) and quantity (Q) of the waste are considered as factors of these components. Seventeen waste samples from different sources are evaluated to demonstrate the simulation of the proposed model by using "hourglass" scale. The major benefit of the presented rating system is to ease the works of decision makers in managing the wastes.

  2. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Radioactive Burnable and Metal Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y. K.; Cho, J. H. [SunKwang Atomic Energy Safety Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A large quantity of radioactive waste was generated during the decommissioning projects. For the purpose of the volume reduction and clearance for decommissioning wastes from decommissioning projects, the incineration and high melting technology has been selected for the decommissioning wastes treatment. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Incinerator burns waste at high temperature. Incineration of a mixture of chemically hazardous and radioactive materials, known as 'mixed waste,' has two principal goals: to reduce the volume and total chemical toxicity of the waste. Incineration itself does not destroy the metals or reduce the radioactivity of the waste. A proven melting technology is currently used for low-level waste (LLW) at several facilities worldwide. These facilities use melting as a means of processing LLW for unrestricted release of the metal or for recycling within the nuclear sector. About 16.4 tons of decommissioning combustible waste has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incineration. The incineration facility operated quite smoothly through the analysis major critical parameters of off-gas.

  3. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, R.T. [Bio-Imaging Research, Inc., Lincolnshire, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU.

  4. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  5. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  6. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...

  7. Hanford tank waste operation simulator operational waste volume projection verification and validation procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARMSEN, R.W.

    1999-10-28

    The Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator is tested to determine if it can replace the FORTRAN-based Operational Waste Volume Projection computer simulation that has traditionally served to project double-shell tank utilization. Three Test Cases are used to compare the results of the two simulators; one incorporates the cleanup schedule of the Tri Party Agreement.

  8. EVALUATION OF RISKS AND WASTE CHARACTERIZATION REQUIREMENTS FOR THE TRANSURANIC WASTE EMPLACED IN WIPP DURING 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Channell, J.K.; Walker, B.A.

    2000-05-01

    Specifically this report: 1. Compares requirements of the WAP that are pertinent from a technical viewpoint with the WIPP pre-Permit waste characterization program, 2. Presents the results of a risk analysis of the currently emplaced wastes. Expected and bounding risks from routine operations and possible accidents are evaluated; and 3. Provides conclusions and recommendations.

  9. Results for the Independent Sampling and Analysis of Used Oil Drums at the Impact Services Facility in Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), via the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, perform independent sampling and analysis of used oils contained within eight 55 gallon drums stored at the former IMPACT Services facility, located at the East Tennessee Technology Park in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These drums were originally delivered by LATA Sharp Remediation Services (LSRS) to IMPACT Services on January 11, 2011 as part of the Bldg. K-33 demolition project, and the drums plus contents should have been processed as non-hazardous non-radiological waste by IMPACT Services. LSRS received a certificate of destruction on August 29, 2012 (LSRS 2012a). However, IMPACT Services declared bankruptcy and abandoned the site later in 2012, and eight of the original eleven K-33 drums are currently stored at the facility. The content of these drums is the subject of this investigation. The original drum contents were sampled by LSRS in 2010 and analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), using both compositing and grab sampling techniques. The objective of this 2013 sample and analysis effort was to duplicate, to the extent possible, the 2010 sampling and analysis event to support final disposition decisions. Part of that decision process includes either verifying or refuting the assertion that oils that are currently stored in drums at the IMPACT Services facility originated from Bldg. K-33 equipment.

  10. Technical Evaluations of Proposed Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Characterization Requirements at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, G.; Channell, J. K.

    2002-02-26

    Characterization, packaging, transport, handling and disposal of remotely handled transuranic (RH TRU) waste at WIPP will be different than similar operations with contact handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste. This paper presents results of technical evaluations associated with the planned disposal of remotely handled transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  11. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  12. Performance assessment requirements for the identification and tracking of transuranic waste intended for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, C.A. [Department of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Weston, W.W. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    To demonstrate compliance with environmental radiation protection standards for management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes, a performance assessment (PA) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was made of waste-waste and waste-repository interactions and impacts on disposal system performance. An estimate of waste components and accumulated quantities was derived from a roll-up of the generator/storage sites` TRU waste inventories. Waste components of significance, and some of negligible effect, were fixed input parameters in the model. The results identified several waste components that require identification and tracking of quantities to ensure that repository limits are not exceeded. The rationale used to establish waste component limits based on input estimates is discussed. The distinction between repository limits and waste container limits is explained. Controls used to ensure that no limits are exceeded are identified. For waste components with no explicit repository based limits, other applicable limits are contained in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The 10 radionuclides targeted for identification and tracking on either a waste container or a waste stream basis include Am-241, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-242, U-233, U-234, U-238, Sr-90, and Cs-137. The accumulative activities of these radionuclides are to be inventoried at the time of emplacement in the WIPP. Changes in inventory curie content as a function of radionuclide decay and ingrowth over time will be calculated and tracked. Due to the large margin of compliance demonstrated by PA with the 10,000 year release limits specified, the quality assurance objective for radioassay of the 10 radionuclides need to be no more restrictive than those already identified for addressing the requirements imposed by transportation and WIPP disposal operations in Section 9 of the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan. 6 refs.

  13. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor river. The expected arsenic content in treated waste water after using HDS procedure is also presented.

  14. Reduction in waste load from a meat processing plant: Beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-10-31

    ;Contents: Introduction (Randolph Packing Company, Meat Plant Wastewaters, Slaughterhouses, Packing Houses, Sources of Wastewater, Secondary Manufacturing Processes, An Example of Water Conservation and Waste Control, Water Conservation Program); Plant Review and Survey (Survey for Product Losses and Wastes, Water Use and Waste Load, Wastewater Discharge Limitations and Costs); Waste Centers, Changes, Costs and Results (In-Plant Control Measures, Water Conservation, Recovery Products, By-Products and Reducing Waste Load, Blood Conservation, Paunch Handling and Processing, Summary of Process Changes, Pretreatment, Advantages and Disadvantages of Pretreatment, Pretreatment Systems).

  15. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  16. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, Ilona de; Amani, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    behaviors. We identify actions that governments, societal stakeholders and retailers can undertake to reduce consumer-related food waste, highlighting that synergistic actions between all parties are most promising. Further research should focus on exploring specific food waste contexts and interactions...... are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer perceptions and behaviors. The present paper presents the results of a literature review and expert...

  17. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-28

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  18. Estimation of centerline temperature of the waste form for the rare earth waste generated from pyrochemical process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Hoon; Eun, Hee-Chul; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Lee, Ki-Rak; Han, Seung-Youb; Jeon, Min-Ku; Park, Hwan-Seo; Ahn, Do-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of centerline temperature of nuclear glass waste form for each waste stream is very essential in the period of storage because the centerline temperature being over its glass transition temperature results in the increase of leaching rate of radioactive nuclides due to the devitrification of glass waste form. Here, to verify the effects of waste form diameter and transuranic element content in the rare earth waste on the centerline temperature of the waste form, the surrogate rare earth glass waste generated from pyrochemical process was immobilized with SiO2sbnd Al2O3sbnd B2O3 glass frit system, and thermal properties of the rare earth glass waste form were determined by thermomechanical analysis and thermal conductivity analysis. The estimation of centerline temperature was carried out using the experimental thermal data and steady-state conduction equation in a long and solid cylinder type waste form. It was revealed that thermal stability of waste form in case of 0.3 m diameter was not affected by the TRU content even in the case of 80% TRU recovery ratio in the electrowinning process, meaning that the waste form of 0.3 m diameter is thermally stable due to the low centerline temperature relative to its glass transition temperature of the rare earth glass waste form.

  19. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2012-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2011 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2011 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2011-00026, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2011, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2011 met the requirements of C-ESR-G-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 25, 26 and 34 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2011-00495, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2011, Waste Tanks 25, 26, 34 and 41. A total of 5813 photographs were made and 835 visual and video inspections were performed during 2011. A potential leaksite was discovered at Tank 4 during routine annual inspections performed in 2011. The new crack, which is above the allowable fill level, resulted in no release to the environment or tank annulus. The location of the crack is documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.6.

  20. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-12-01

    Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals' engagement in future policies.

  1. Lyophilization for Water Recovery From Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This abstract describes the development of a solid waste treatment system designed for a near term human exploration mission. The technology being developed is an energy- efficient lyophilization technique that recovers water from spacecraft solid waste. In the lyophilization process water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, resulting in the separation of the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. This technology is ideally suited to applications where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO, is not. Water contained within solid wastes accounts for approximately 3% of the total water balance. If 100% closure of the water loop is desired the water contained within this waste would need to be recovered. To facilitate operation in microgravity thermoelectric heat pumps have be used in place of traditional fluid cycle heat pumps. A mathematical model of a thermoelectric lyophilizer has been developed and used to generate energy use and processing rate parameters. The results of laboratory investigations and discussions with ALS program management have been used to iteratively arrive at a prototype design. This design address operational limitations which were identified in the laboratory studies and handling and health concerns raised by ALS program management. The current prototype design is capable of integration into the ISS Waste Collection System.

  2. Lyophilization for Water Recovery From Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This abstract describes the development of a solid waste treatment system designed for a near term human exploration mission. The technology being developed is an energy- efficient lyophilization technique that recovers water from spacecraft solid waste. In the lyophilization process water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, resulting in the separation of the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. This technology is ideally suited to applications where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO, is not. Water contained within solid wastes accounts for approximately 3% of the total water balance. If 100% closure of the water loop is desired the water contained within this waste would need to be recovered. To facilitate operation in microgravity thermoelectric heat pumps have be used in place of traditional fluid cycle heat pumps. A mathematical model of a thermoelectric lyophilizer has been developed and used to generate energy use and processing rate parameters. The results of laboratory investigations and discussions with ALS program management have been used to iteratively arrive at a prototype design. This design address operational limitations which were identified in the laboratory studies and handling and health concerns raised by ALS program management. The current prototype design is capable of integration into the ISS Waste Collection System.

  3. Vitrified waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, D.A.; Kimmitt, R.R.

    1998-02-01

    A {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of all ICPP calcine, including the existing and future HLW calcine resulting from calcining liquid Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW). Currently, the SBW is stored in the tank farm at the ICPP. Vitrification of these wastes is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the calcined waste and casting the vitrified mass into stainless steel canisters that will be ready to be moved out of the Idaho for disposal by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) until they are sent to a HLW national repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from 2013 through 2032; all HLW will be treated and in storage by the end of 2032.

  4. Solid Waste Management Practices of Select State Universities in CALABARZON, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado C. Gequinto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The enactment of the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act prompted higher education institutions including state universities and colleges (SUCs to incorporate ecological waste management in the school system. Thus, this paper aimed to assess the extent of implementation of solid waste management practices in select SUCs in CALABARZON in terms of waste reuse, waste reduction, waste collection, waste recycling, waste treatment, and final waste disposal. Respondents of the study included university administrators, faculty members, non-teaching staff, students and concessionaries for a total of 341. A survey questionnaire was used to gather data from Batangas State University (BatState-U, Cavite State University (CavSU, Laguna State Polytechnic University (LSPU and Southern Luzon State University (SLSU. Result revealed that solid waste management practices are implemented to a great extent. Among the practices, waste collection got the highest composite mean particularly on the promotion of 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle in the collection of waste. On the other hand, waste recycling and waste treatment obtained the lowest composite mean. In terms of waste recycling, establishing partnership with local or private business for recyclable recovery program was to moderate extent. Waste treatment particularly neutralization of acid bases was also of moderate extent. The study recommended strengthening of publicprivate partnership (PPP on the recycling and treatment of wastes.

  5. Productive efficiency of public and private solid waste logistics and its implications for waste management policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ichinose

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures the productive efficiency of municipal solid waste (MSW logistics by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA to cross-sectional data of prefectures in Japan. Either through public operations or by outsourcing to private waste collection operators, prefectural governments possess the fundamental authority over waste processing operations in Japan. Therefore, we estimate a multi-input multi-output production efficiency at the prefectural level via DEA, employing several different model settings. Our data classify the MSW into household solid waste (HSW and business solid waste (BSW collected by both private and public operators as separate outputs, while the numbers of trucks and workers used by private and public operators are used as inputs. The results consistently show that geographical characteristics, such as the number of inhabited remote islands, are relatively more dominant factors for determining inefficiency. While the implication that a minimum efficient scale is not achieved in these small islands is in line with the literature suggesting that waste logistics has increasing returns at the municipal level, our results indicate that waste collection efficiency in Japan is well described by CRS technology at the prefectural level. The results also show that prefectures with higher private-sector participation, measured in terms of HSW collection, are more efficient, whereas a higher private–labor ratio negatively affects efficiency. We also provide evidence that prefectures with inefficient MSW logistics have a higher tendency of suffering from the illegal dumping of industrial waste.

  6. A Regulatory Analysis and Reassessment of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Listed Hazardous Waste Numbers for Applicability to the INTEC Liquid Waste System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, K.L.; Venneman, T.E.

    1998-12-01

    This report concludes that there are four listed hazardous waste numbers (F001, F002, F005, and U134) applicable to the waste in the Process Equipment Waste Evaporator (PEWE) liquid waste system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The chemical constituents associated with these listed hazardous waste numbers, including those listed only for ignitability are identified. The RCRA Part A permit application hazardous waste numbers identify chemical constituents that may be treated or stored by the PEWE liquid waste system either as a result of a particular characteristic (40 CFR, Subpart C) or as a result of a specific process (40 CFR 261, Subpart D). The RCRA Part A permit application for the PEWE liquid waste system identifies the universe of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hazardous waste numbers [23 characteristic (hazardous waste codes) numbers and 105 listed numbers (four F-listed hazardous waste numbers, 20 P-listed hazardous waste numbers, and 81 U-listed hazardous waste numbers)] deemed acceptable for storage and treatment. This evaluation, however, identifies only listed wastes (and their chemical constituents) that have actually entered the PEWE liquid waste system and would, therefore, be assigned to the PEWE liquids and treatment residuals.

  7. Property-close source separation of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment--a Swedish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, Anna; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Aspegren, Henrik

    2011-03-01

    Through an agreement with EEE producers, Swedish municipalities are responsible for collection of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). In most Swedish municipalities, collection of these waste fractions is concentrated to waste recycling centres where households can source-separate and deposit hazardous waste and WEEE free of charge. However, the centres are often located on the outskirts of city centres and cars are needed in order to use the facilities in most cases. A full-scale experiment was performed in a residential area in southern Sweden to evaluate effects of a system for property-close source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE. Afte